The prose works of Daniel Gregory Mason

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Title:
The prose works of Daniel Gregory Mason a contribution to music education
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viii, 335 leaves : ; 28 cm.
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English
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Kushner, Leslie C. Dack, 1952-
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Subjects / Keywords:
Composers -- Biography -- United States   ( lcsh )
Music -- Instruction and study -- United States   ( lcsh )
Music appreciation   ( lcsh )
Educational Leadership thesis Ph. D
Dissertations, Academic -- Educational Leadership -- UF
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bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Thesis:
Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Florida, 1988.
Bibliography:
Bibliography: leaves 324-333.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Leslie C. Dack Kushner.
General Note:
Typescript.
General Note:
Vita.

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University of Florida
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All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
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aleph - 023350243
oclc - 19087320
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THE PROSE WORKS OF DANIEL GREGORY MASON:
A CONTRIBUTION TO MUSIC EDUCATION












BY

LESLIE C. DACK KUSHNER




















A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS
FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

1988























This dissertation is dedicated to the memory of my

grandmother Lillian Wuebbold, who taught me to read music;

my high school band director Idral L. Bowen, who encouraged

my musical interests; and my guardian Jean H. Toth, who

supported and nurtured everything I have done.













ACKNOWLEDGMENTS


I would like to acknowledge the cooperation and

expression of interest on the part of my supervisory

committee: Dr. Forrest Parkay, Dr. Camille Smith, Dr. S.

Philip Kniseley, Dr. Albert Smith, and Professor John S.

Kitts. A special acknowledgment is noted to Dr. David Z.

Kushner for his encouragement and mental support during my

tenure at the University of Florida. It was only through

Dr. Kushner's encouragement that I pursued a degree in

curriculum and instruction, with subject specialization in

music history and literature.

In addition, acknowledgment is due to Ms. Robena Eng

Cornwell, Associate University Librarian, University of

Florida, for her invaluable cooperation and assistance in

securing needed reference materials; Ms. Nancy Williams,

Assistant Chair, Cataloging, Library, University of

Florida, for adjusting my schedule to enable me to complete

my dissertation on time; and a number of friends and

colleagues whose rallying cry was "You will finish!" Among

those who helped me to fulfill this prophecy was Roland

Dack.

Furthermore, recognition must go to my extended

family, Willie Thomas of Jazz Anyone?, my sister Valerie








Dack and brother Scott Dack, my guardian Charles Toth, and

all the other family members who helped see this project

through to its completion. Thank you!














TABLE OF CONTENTS


Page

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS........................................ il

ABSTRACT ................................................vii

CHAPTERS

ONE INTRODUCTION....... ............................1

Statement of the Problem........................ 2
Research Questions..............................2
Need for the Study............................... 3
Delimitations..................................5
Limitations.............. ......... ......... ....7
Definitions............................ ....... 8
Method of the Study.............................9
Analysis of Data...............................10
Organization of the Study......................12

TWO REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE....................... 14

Daniel Gregory Mason's Books...................15
A Representative Sampling of Writings by
Other Composers on the Topic of Music and
Musicians ...................................19
An Overview of Books Written in English on
Music and Musicians Circa 1900-1950...........26
A Survey of the Reviews of Mason's Books........41
Justification for the Present Research.........43

THREE MASON, THE MAN AND HIS MANNER OF PROSE
PRESENTATION...... ............................45

Overall Format of Mason's Prose Works..........55
Classification One: The Appreciation and/or
History of Music.............................64
Classification Two: Books of an Analytical
Nature.......................................72
Classification Three: Books with a Majority
of Music-Critical Essays.....................75
Classification Four: Educational or
Instructional...............................80









Mason's Literary Style.........................85
Mason's Treatment of Technical Analyses of
Music .......................................114
Notes..........................................127

FOUR MASON'S VIEWS AND OPINIONS ON MUSIC AND
MUSICIANS............... .............. .... ...128

Other Composers...............................128
Forms and Genres Included to Educate the
Lay Reader..................................196
General Topics of Importance to the Author....207
Major Causes..................................217
Prominent Biases..............................231
Views of Others on Mason's Prose...............261

FIVE MASON'S CONTRIBUTION TO MUSIC EDUCATION.......280

Thoughts to Ponder............................282
Pioneering Efforts.............................287
Foreshadowing................................290

SIX SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, AND IMPLICATIONS........303

Research Question One: What Was the Overall
Format Employed in Mason's Prose Works?.....304
Research Question Two: What Was the Major
Content of Mason's Prose Works?.............306
Research Question Three: What Was the
Extent of Mason's Involvement with
Education as Conveyed Through His
Prose Works?................................308
Implications.................................308

APPENDICES

A A SELECTIVE LIST OF WORKS .....................311

B FORMAT OF BOOKS...............................314

C SYNOPSES OF BOOKS.............................317

REFERENCES.... .... ......................... ...........324

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH.. ..................................333














Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirement for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy

THE PROSE WORKS OF DANIEL GREGORY MASON:
A CONTRIBUTION TO MUSIC EDUCATION

BY

LESLIE C. DACK KUSHNER

April, 1988

Chair: Dr. Forrest W. Parkay
Cochair: Dr. Camille M. Smith
Major Department: Educational Leadership

The major purpose of the study was to conduct an

analysis of the content of the bound, printed prose of

Daniel Gregory Mason through the use of the historical

research method. The vast majority of the author's 19

published books were concerned with music education in its

broadest sense. The focus of the study was directed toward

those books.

To assure the validity of the conclusions three

research questions were posed: (a) What was the overall

format employed in Mason's bound, printed prose? (b) What

was the major content of Mason's bound, printed prose? (c)

What was Mason's involvement with music education as

conveyed through the content of his bound, printed prose?

Based on the findings, it was concluded that the

purpose of Mason's books was primarily to educate the lay








public to an understanding and appreciation of music. His

formats consisted largely of music-critical essays and

general analyses of musical compositions. His content

placed an emphasis on the composers of the romantic era.

His writing style showed a predilection toward personal

bias on the part of the author in discussions on various

topics. Based on the results, his involvement in music

education was paramount in his musical thinking. It was

concluded overall that Mason was a pioneer in the

development of the curriculum of music appreciation courses

in the United States.

The researcher recommended that Mason's prose works be

read and studied by music educators and music students. It

was also recommended that information contained in these

works be included in the music curricula of higher

education, particularly in courses dealing with American

music, music education, and music appreciation.

It was suggested that further research be undertaken

in the study of Mason's personal scrapbooks and letters

housed in the Mason Collection of the Butler Library,

Columbia University, New York. Another suggested area for

further research was found to be in the study of Mason's

use of theoretical analysis in his books, and also, in his

relationship to other music educators of his day.














CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION


In his day, Mason (1873-1953) was a voice of authority

on the American musical scene. Daniel Gregory Mason, scion

of the renowned Mason family (his grandfather was Lowell

Mason, father of music education in the United States) was

a distinguished composer and chairman of the Columbia

University Department of Music. His published prose works

number some 19 books, 2 of which are in the form of

booklets, and well over a 100 magazine and newspaper

articles (Klein, 1957). Musically active only 50 years

ago, it seemed strange to this writer that a man of such

distinction on the musical front now marshall but a few

lines in the standard musical reference works. Similarly,

little is written on Mason in the present musical

literature. Unlike Richard Wagner, for example, whose

literary works have provided clues to the understanding of

the man, his music, and his philosophy, which, in turn,

have generated voluminous literary comments and spurred

many an argument, Mason's books have become increasingly

less familiar to contemporary readers. The result of this

has been a decline in knowledge about his views on music

and musicians. It was this decline which prompted the









writer to establish the focus of the present

investigation. By reviewing Mason's prose works, the

researcher attempted to ascertain how their content

contributed to their ultimate fate.



Statement of the Problem

Mason's literary works were once widely read: "There

was a time when Daniel Gregory Mason was known as the most

widely read author in America of books about music and

composers" (Tuthill, 1948, p. 13). There is little

information or analyses of his books in today's courses of

study in the history of American music. Consequently, the

general public and students at all levels have no viable

means of evaluating these works. The purpose of this study

was to conduct an analysis of the content of the bound,

printed prose of Daniel Gregory Mason through the use of

the historical research method. The present writer

attempted through the study to answer the specific research

questions posed in the following section.



Research Questions
Prior to this study there had not existed an analysis

of the bound, printed prose of Daniel Gregory Mason. Three

research questions were formulated to address this

problem. The three questions are

1. What was the overall format employed in Mason's

bound, printed prose?









2. What was the major content of Mason's bound,

printed prose?

3. What was the extent of Mason's involvement with

music education as conveyed through the content of

his bound, printed prose?

Mason's original manuscripts, personal annotated

copies of his books, private journals, and reviews and

letters contained in his numerous scrapbooks (Butler

Library, Columbia University) were consulted, when

possible, in answering the above research questions. A

summary of implications as to how this study and its

conclusions could be implemented in music curricula of

higher education was included. Also, implications in the

areas of such courses as American music, music history, and

nationalism in music were investigated.



Need for the Study

In 1968, Harold C. Shonberg, writing in The New York

Times, "Once So In, Now So Out--Or Remember Daniel Gregory

Mason?", recalled his account of listening to the

composer's String Quartet on Negro Themes:


I had never heard the work. Like all of Mason's
music, it is completely out of the repertory.
Yet Mason was one of the bigger men of his period
in America (1873-1953), though he lived to see
himself an anachronism. To the music students of
the 1930's he was known not as a composer but as
the writer of highly regarded books (books that
are not so highly regarded today). (p. 23)









If Schonberg accurately stated the case in his review,

then why are Daniel Gregory Mason's books not regarded

highly today? Tufts College leaders acknowledged Mason's

literary prominence in an honorary degree of Doctor of

Letters in June, 1929. The author also belonged to the

National Institute of Arts and Letters (Klein, 1957). The

reasons for Mason's decline as a composer have been

formulated in two doctoral dissertations (Kapec, 1982;

Lewis, 1959) dissecting several of his instrumental

works. Sister Mary Klein (1957), in her dissertation, "The

Contribution of Daniel Gregory Mason to American Music,"

organized Mason's prose and categorized his music, giving

some important insights into his compositional style, but

failing to answer any questions as to why Mason's books

would not be held in high regard today. Hence, the need

for this study. The promotion of research in American

music has spiraled since the bicentennial celebrations in

America, funded by many private and public institutions

which have felt the need for investigating our American

tradition. The present study continued that same need of

the general public and dedicated music and humanities

students "to fulfill basic inquiries into American musical

heritage" (Kapec, 1982, p. 4).

Thus, one of the greatest needs for this study was to

analyze the content of Mason's bound prose and to

illuminate the idiosyncrasies which caused it to fade from









the musical forefront. In so doing, the student of music

or humanities would then have a basis for comparison in

evaluating today's standard books on music history,

American music and musicians, and/or other 20th-century

authors on musical topics. With this study, it would be

possible for curriculum planners to include Mason's musical

views in other music courses, such as those pertaining to

the symphony or nationalism, and primarily in the study of

musical criticism.

Although the researcher in the present study would not

be able to ultimately prove or disprove, through the use of

research questions, why the bound, printed prose of Daniel

Gregory Mason lost favor in the eyes of the readers of

music books today, the writer achieved, however, a greater

understanding of Mason's contribution to America as an

author and music educator.



Delimitations

Since the study was based on three research questions,

it was essential to delimit the focus of the study to the

19 bound, printed, prose works of Daniel Gregory Mason.

Besides the elimination of over 100 newspaper and journal

articles, it was necessary to delimit the reviews and

personal material of Mason and his books to a

representative sampling. The aforementioned material could

warrant a separate study in itself. Also, the exclusion









alleviated the possibility of other nonmusical prejudices

contaminating the validity of the present research and its

conclusions. In addition to the delimitations above, the

present writer made the decisions enumerated below:

1. Of the 19 books that Mason wrote, 2 were in the

form of pamphlets or booklets, these were given

limited coverage, being a rather insignificant

contribution to the total output.

2. The editions used were the ones available to the

researcher and are cited in the reference

section. Most of Mason's books are out of print

today. Mason's own copies were consulted in the

Mason collection in the Butler Library of Columbia

University, New York, for references to his

personal annotations in the margins (Klein, 1957),

only to see if he consistently agreed with what was

originally printed.

3. Mason's two books of an analytical nature, The

Chamber Music of Brahms (1933) and The Quartets of

Beethoven (1947), were considered from a subject-

content vantage point with the assumption that

Mason's measure-by-measure analysis was correct.

To look at these books from an analytical-

theoretical approach could possibly generate

another future research study. This information

was not relevant to the current study.









4. Other nonmusical factors may have been conducive to

the demise of the popularity of the prose works;

the present study, however, considered primarily

the musical contents of the previously mentioned

books.

Through the use of these delimitations, the three

research questions employed in this investigation were

substantiated in a more logical process.



Limitations

The following limitations applied in this study:

1. Changing attitudes of the general public toward the

prose of Daniel Gregory Mason could not be

evaluated scientifically because no identifiable

method exists in which to judge the psychological

tendencies of the readers of the early 20th

century. The representative sampling of book

reviews ranging from the years 1900-1968 reflect in

kind a certain temperament which existed

historically.

2. The researcher, likewise, could not attempt to

verify the extent of the influence of those

nonmusical forces, such as boycotts by ethnic or

other groups, prevailing political preferences, or

social strife inherent to every epoch.









3. Conclusions drawn as a result of the research

questions should not be generalized to works of

Mason outside the realm of this study. Any

resemblance to his musical compositions would be

highly theoretical and perhaps due in part to

Mason's aesthetic beliefs. For reference to his

compositional predilections, see Kapec (1982),

Klein (1957), and Lewis (1959).

The parameters employed in reaching the conclusions of

the present research were determined by the above

limitations.



Definitions

The following definitions were used for the purpose of

this study:

Bound, printed prose: The published books and

pamphlets of Daniel Gregory Mason. Other terms used to

connote the same material are books, prose, and prose

works.

Historical (analysis or method): As defined by Oliver

Strunk (1974), refers to the method one uses in collecting,

criticizing, arranging, and interpreting raw material. It

includes the study of primary/secondary literature and

research documents. Criteria for the analysis are listed

with the research questions in the analysis of data

section.









Humanities or music curricula: Those courses offered

to students which include music and/or the humanities.

Literary-critical approach: The examination of

literature for grammatical structure, style, and symbolic

meaning.

Music-critical approach: The examination of Mason's

books for their musical content and concepts.

Musical style: Specific characteristics of musical

compositions.

Primary sources: Mason's personal annotated copies of

his books, private journals, and reviews and letters.

Readers of books on music: An audience which may

encompass students, lay public, and musicians.

Secondary sources: Articles, books, reviews, and

studies related to Mason's prose works.



Method of the Study

The principle method of study employed was one of

historical analysis of primary/secondary literature and

research documents (see definitions, p. 8). An analysis of

the content of the author's 19 books was used to determine

answers to the research questions posed in this study.

Sister Klein's (1957) dissertation, "The Contribution of

Daniel Gregory Mason to American Music," was an invaluable

source in providing an overview of the author's works,

which helped in generating this study. In addition, she









organized the Mason Collection in the Butler Library of

Columbia University.

A recent trip to Columbia University in New York City

revealed the highlights of a primary source in Mason's

personal annotated copies of his books, private journals,

and reviews and letters. The investigation and analysis of

Mason's books was concluded in the spring of 1986 in the

University of Florida Libraries with a perusal of The New

York Times Book Reviews, c. 1900-1956, on microfiche.



Analysis of Data
Prior to this research there had not existed a study

of Daniel Gregory Mason's prose. Therefore, it was

necessary for the present writer to determine a method of

analysis. Literary criticism today is often defined

through a rhetorician's viewpoint, with analysis of the

words and sentence structures. Since one of the primary

reasons for this study was to examine the overall subject-

content of Mason's works, and not grammatical structures or

symbolic meanings, another method of analysis needed to be

ascertained. A music-critical approach needed to be

applied to the subject-matter contained in the author's

books, not a literary-critical one, for literary criticism

would take us out of the realm of this study. According to

Hamm in Current Thought in Musicology (1976), music

criticism has remained in a class of its own as far as the









academicians are concerned in the world of musicology. At

the time of this writing, there was no set analysis for

music critical works. Virgil Thomson once said, "Nobody is

ever patently right about music" (cited in Barzun, 1951,

p. i). And so it was that Eric Blom once wrote,


It has always seemed to me, that analysis
plus history add up to an aesthetic total from
which something of positive value is to be gained
musical criticism can teach the
public, let us hope, with as little jargon as
possible--not merely to hear, but to listen.
(1958, pp. vii-viii)


Thus, it was with these thoughts in mind that the

contents of Mason's bound, printed prose were examined.

The criteria below were considered in an effort to answer

the research questions.

Question One: What was the overall format employed in

Mason's bound, printed prose?

1. Topics included

2. Ordering and prioritizing of subject-matter

3. Level of complexity in presentation of musical

material

4. Classification of books into four general

categories (to be discussed in Chapter Two).

Question Two: What was the major content of Mason's

bound, printed prose?

1. Views on composers and their music









2. Views on various musical forms and genres

3. General views on miscellaneous topics.

Question Three: What was the extent of Mason's

involvement with music education as conveyed through the

content of his bound, printed prose?

1. Appropriateness of subject-matter for music

educators

2. Intended readership.

A trip to Columbia University in New York City,

revealed the highlights of primary sources, viz. Mason's

personal annotated copies of his books, private journals,

reviews, and letters. The investigation and analysis of

Mason's books and other pertinent sources were concluded in

the University of Florida Libraries with a perusal of The

New York Times Book Reviews, c. 1900-1956, on microfiche.

The search, collation, and analysis of material were

conducted from January, 1983, through December, 1986.



Organization of the Study

The author has organized the research report in the

following manner:

In Chapter Two, a review of the literature used in

this investigation is provided.

In Chapter Three, information on the background of

Daniel Gregory Mason and a discussion of the overall format

employed in his books are offered.





13


In Chapter Four, the author explores the content of

Mason's books, highlighting the major pronouncements of a

composer reviewing other contemporaries and predecessors.

In Chapter Five, Mason's involvement with music

education, as conveyed through the content of his prose, is

examined.

In Chapter Six, the researcher concludes with a

summation of the findings, presents the implications for

music curricula, and offers recommendations for further

study.














CHAPTER TWO
REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE


The present chapter has been divided into four

subsections in order to review the literature in a

systematic manner and to provide the reader with an easier

access to the references cited. The four subsections have

been divided into (a) Daniel Gregory Mason's books; (b) a

representative sampling of writings by other composers on

the topic of music and musicians; (c) an overview of books

written in English on music and musicians, c. 1900-1905;

and (d) a survey of the reviews of Mason's books. In the

first section, the researcher classifies the author's

writings into four general categories: (a) the

appreciation and/or history of music, (b) the books of an

analytical nature, (c) those containing essays of a music-

critical stance, and (d) those with primarily an

educational or instructional viewpoint. His book, Music in

My Time and Other Reminiscences (1938), was largely

autobiographical and provided the researcher with much

insight into Mason, the man.


With the exception of this volume, all of Mason's
works were written with the purpose of educating
the layman unacquainted with music in its various
and essential aspects [they] show that
Mason was convinced of the public's need for









culture, which he hoped could be gained by a
growing familiarity with great composers and
their masterpieces. (Klein, 1957, p. 33)


In section two, a sampling of books written by

composers on music and musicians is examined to determine

how Mason's content compares with others with firsthand

knowledge in the field. These books were used in hopes of

finding clues as to Mason's present-day decline in

popularity.

In the third section, an overview of books, written in

English, on music and musicians during the time of Mason's

heyday (1900-1950), is presented. Its exploration provides

the basis with which to compare the author's books to the

mainstream of literary, musical style during the first part

of this century.

In section four, a survey of book reviews is made in

order to glean insights into why Mason's prose are in

decline today. These reviews also provide insight into how

the books were received by the general public during the

author's lifetime.



Daniel Gregory Mason's Books
Mason wrote 19 books on music between the years 1900-

1948. For a time, he edited the magazine, Masters in

Music. He was a chief-editor of a 14-volume series titled

The Art of Music: A Comprehensive Library of Information

for Music Lovers and Musicians (1915-1917) and also edited









a book of one of his friends, Some Letters of William

Vaughn Moody (Mason, 1913). In 1952, the author tried in

vain to have some letters of another friend published, viz.

Adolfo Betti of the Flonzaley Quartet.

Mason's first book, published in 1902, was a direct

result of an arm injury which he described in his

autobiography as a combination of severe pianist's and

writer's cramp caused by an overall neurasthenic

weakness. It halted any ambition of his as a pianist and

paved his way as an author, an interesting plight since

Mason's true desire was to be recognized as a composer.

There was mention of his attempts at composition as early

as the age of 7, and at 12 he wrote to his oldest brother,

Ned (Edward Palmer), saying, "I go for something higher

than this world,--for music,--the highest of all arts, more

than an art,--a sublime purpose" (from Music in My Time,

cited in Klein, 1957, p. 15). His autobiography was mostly

concerned with his travails as a composer; limited coverage

was given to his books and minimum mention was made of his

success as an educator.

In the true temperament of the author, an extremely

organized man (Klein, 1957) Mason, himself, categorized

(somewhat) his books and suggested in what order the first

four on great composers be read: Beethoven and His

Forerunners (1904), Romantic Composers (1906), From Grieg

to Brahms (1902), and Contemporary Composers (1918a). His









second category consisted of five books written to form a

series on the appreciation of music, the first volume,

entitled The Appreciation of Music (1907), was written with

Thomas Whitney Surette. Musical examples illustrating the

text were published as a supplement. Volumes two through

five consisted of Great Modern Composers (1916) in

conjunction with his wife, Mary L. Mason; Short Studies of

Great Masterpieces (1918b); Music As a Humanity and Other

Essays (1921); and A Guide to Music for Beginners and

Others (1909a), which was also published by Baker and

Taylor as A Child's Guide to Music (1909) and A Student's

Guide to Music (1910).

For the purpose of this research, the composer/

educator/author's prose has been separated into more

detailed categories. In many cases, the subject-contents

of his books overlapped in categories, i.e., one book may

have been appropriate to two or three areas. An example of

this was found in The Orchestral Instruments and What They

Do (1909b). It could be listed under music appreciation;

in a broader sense, listed as a book of an analytical

nature; or as a book primarily of instructional value. In

situations such as the above, the present writer chose to

classify the books in question according to their greatest

merit. Thus, the aforementioned book was classified as one

of educational or instructional value, being one of the

first books written and illustrated on explaining the roles








of the various orchestral instruments for the lay musical

reader.

The first category, the appreciation and/or history of

music, encompassed the majority of the author's books. In

this group the reader will find From Grieg to Brahms

(1902), Beethoven and His Forerunners (1904), Romantic

Composers (1906), Contemporary Composers (1918a), and From

Song to Symphony: A Manual of Music Appreciation (1924);

with T. W. Surette, The Appreciation of Music (1907); and

with Mary L. Mason, Great Modern Composers (1916).

The second category, books of an analytical nature,

consisted of three: Short Studies of Great Masterpieces

(1918b), The Chamber Music of Brahms (1933), and The

Quartets of Beethoven (1947). The latter two books were

much more technical than the first and although they were

intended for the music lover, as well as students of music,

Mason realized his own dilemma on the quartets, in

particular, in a letter of November, 1947, he stated, "I

have demanded an almost professional knowledge of my

readers and more detailed work than most people have time

or inclination for" (cited in Klein, 1957, p. 44).

Category three included those books containing a

majority of music-critical essays, for most of Mason's

bound prose featured an article or two. His overall format

will be discussed in Chapter Three. The works listed in

this group included Music As a Humanity and Other Essays









(1921), Artistic Ideals (1927), The Dilemma of American

Music and Other Essays (1921), Artistic Ideals (1927), The

Dilemma of American Music and Other Essays (1928), and Tune

In, America (1931).

The fourth classification, educational or

instructional, contained A Guide to Music for Beginners and

Others (1909a); The Orchestral Instruments and What They Do

(1909b); and the booklets, A Neglected Sense in Piano

Playing (1912) and Ears to Hear (1925).

All four categories will be examined in length in the

subsequent chapters. The analyses will be used to answer
the three research questions on which this study was based.


A Representative Sampling of Writings by Other
Composers on the Topic of Music and Musicians

The books classified in this subsection were used by

the examiner as a cross-section of the composer's literary

writing styles. The sources cited represented a variety of

nationalities--American, French, German, Italian, and

Spanish. The time-span of the composers chosen, 1800 to

the present, was selected because it was likely that Mason

would have been most familiar with them. The content of

the books was observed for clues to determine if Mason was

influenced by other composers' view points.

Hector Berlioz (1803-1869) in Evenings With the

Orchestra (1956), provided a historical source, having been









written in the midst of his contemporary subjects, which

Mason would later attend to in his writings. Berlioz's

articles spanned 22 years, 1833-1855, and he addressed

several of the same questions that Mason posed:

1. How is art to be supported in the modern world?

2. How do music patrons and performers live and behave

in a commercial world?

3. How do great composers deal with the social and

political aspects of everyday life as they impinge

on the creative process?

This French composer, like George Bernard Shaw a half

century later, realized "that the music critic talks mostly

to the deaf and must be readable by the nearly blind"

(Berlioz, 1918, p. xii). Perhaps, Daniel Gregory Mason's

books were too elite for his readers. The Critical

Writings of Hector Berlioz (1918) showed the composer's

humor and anecdotal style in his writings on the

shortcomings of his countrymen. The book was divided into

three sections, not unlike Mason's divisions. In one

section, Berlioz critiqued other composers' works; in

another section, he inquired into abstract musical

concepts, such as pitch; and, in the third section, he

offered witty anecdotes. Jacques Barzun, in his preface to

the first source cited, observed that Berlioz's

"personality is intensely present on every page" (p. ix)









and that the "writings show qualities of his music"

(p. xiv). Kapec (1982) in his dissertation, "The Three

Symphonies of Daniel Gregory Mason: Style-Critical and

Theoretical Analyses," a forerunner to this research,

observed the latter quote in his study.

Aaron Copland's (b. 1900- ) What to Listen for in

Music (1939) was adapted from a series of lectures

presented at the New School for Social Research in New York

during the winters of 1936 and 1937. The discourse was

intended for the layman and music student, not the

professional musician. Herein lies a problem of listening,

as Copland stated in his preface,

To a composer, listening to music is a perfectly
natural and simple process. That's what it
should be for others. If there is any explaining
to be done, the composer naturally thinks that,
since he knows what goes into a musical
composition, none has a better right to say what
the listener ought to get from it. (p. vi)


Mason may have fallen into this trap. Copland further

stated,


Perhaps the composer is wrong [maybe, the
detached educator could be more objective,
however] the composer has something vital
at stake. In helping others to hear music more
intelligently, he is working toward the spread of
a musical culture, which in the end will affect
the understanding of his own creations. (p. vi)


Copland continued his education of the listener by

discussing the elements of music, textures, structures, and









forms. He also included a chapter on "The Creative Process

in Music" and on "From Composer to Interpreter to

Listener." This book was important to the study because

Mason too addressed those subjects and several of his books

followed a similar format, e.g., The Appreciation of Music

(1907). It is possible that Copland had read Mason's

earlier books, which would have attested to the similarity

of format and given credence to Mason's previous

popularity.

Lockspeiser's translation of Debussy on Music: The

Critical Writings of the Great French Composer Claude

Debussy (Debussy, 1977) provided the researcher with a

primary reason in studying the prose of a composer.

Writings have provided insights into the person at the time

the person lived.


If the style is the man, so is the achievement. .
Research over many years has convinced me
[Lockspeiser] that the art of Debussy is not
merely a reflection of one aspect or another of
his period. It is the period. (p. xvi)


Much of Mason's music and prose works were direct results

of his period and location. Many composers were seeking an

American style in the first part of the 20th century. They

questioned the same things Mason questioned in his

articles. As in Lockspeiser's translation (Debussy, 1977)

of Debussy's (1862-1918) critical writings, the same could









be implied of America's Copland, Thomson, Mason, and

Ives. Works, such as Debussy's Monsieur Croche, The

Dilettante Hater (1928), furnished the reader with a

perception of the man's sarcastic wit, as the composer

spoke through the character of Monsieur Croche in various

Paris journals, 1901-1914 (see Kushner, 1983).

Hanslick's The Beautiful in Music, translated in 1957

from "Vom Musikalisch-Schonen" (1854), is an excellent

source depicting the academic writing of the romantic

era. Hanslick's writing style was used as a comparison

with Mason's. Since much of the latter's music was

classical in nature (Kapec, 1982), possibly the author's

books were overlooked due to his antiquated prose style.

A contemporary of Mason's, Charles Ives (1874-1954),

commented on the author in his volume, Essays Before a

Sonata (1920), concerning the topic of ragtime:


Mr. Daniel Gregory Mason, whose wholesome
influence, by the way, is doing as much perhaps
for music in America, as American music is,
amusingly says: "If indeed the land of Lincoln
and Emerson has degenerated until nothing remains
of it but a jerk and rattle; then we, at least,
are free to repudiate this false patriotism of my
country right or wrong, to insist that better
than bad music is no music, and to let our
beloved art subside finally under the clangor of
the subway gongs and automobile horns, dead, but
not dishonored." (p. 113)

This was an interesting quote from Ives, whose music often









had a clangorous effect on the listener. Mason made little

mention of Ives in his prose works; a point which will be

discussed further in a subsequent chapter.

The text, A Guide to Musical Styles, From Madrigal to

Modern Music (Moore, 1962) was an invaluable source in its

approach to musical styles. It furnished the present

writer with a reference of comparison for the composer's

style interpretations of the musical examples included in

his books. Moore's (1893-1969) guide aided in answering

research question one.

Outspoken Essays on Music (1969), by Camille Saint-

Sa@ns (1835-1921), was of particular interest to this study

through its diverging views on Mason's teacher, Vincent

D'Indy (1851-1931). Saint-Saens politely refuted D'Indy's

book on composition, which Mason quoted in several chapters

of his prose works. Another aspect to consider in the

source cited was Mason's view of Saint-Saens, as a composer

and a man, when confronted with the actual opinions of the

person in print.

Virgil Thomson was a music critic for The New York

Herald Tribune for years. In his book, Music Reviewed

1940-1954 (1967), no mention was made of Daniel Gregory

Mason and only one line was given to his grandfather,

Lowell. Thomson championed many of the same causes that

Mason heralded through the years, e.g., orchestral

repertoire, American music, and the general state of the









arts, yet his reviews neglect Mason's contribution.

Thomson's omission was one of the factors in the need for

this present research.

Other sources which influenced the present study in

the area of musical literary styles, similar

subject-matter, formats, or other guiding principles, but

were not sufficiently significant for individual inclusion,

are listed here: Bonavia's Musicians on Music (1956),

Cage's Silence: Lectures and Writings (1966), de Falla's On

Music and Musicians (1979), Kolodin's The Continuity of

Music: A History of Influence (1969) and The Critical

Composer, The Musical Writings of Berlioz, Wagner,

Schumann, Tchaikovsky and Others (1969), Schumann's On

Music and Musicians (1946), and White's Understanding and

Enjoying Music (1968).

The references previously cited in the section on

writings by other composers on the topic of music and

musicians supported the present research in the following

ways:

1. The sources provided an aesthetic, analytical, and

philosophical basis on which to critique Mason's

books and evaluate the data.

2. Particular references provided support for the

research questions in this study.









An Overview of Books Written in English on
Music and Musicians Circa 1900-1950

The following section comprises an explanation of

various references published in English on music and

musicians during the productivity of Mason's literary

endeavors, 1900-1950. An addenda is included of

miscellaneous references which advanced one aspect or other

in the current research. Through a review of the format,

literary style, and subject-matter contained within the

various sources, the investigator was able to compare

Mason's prose works with those of other authors during the

same time span. This comparison was used to ascertain

clues as to why Mason's ideas fell from the musical fore.

Musical Discourse from The New York Times (1928) by

the critic, Richard Aldrich, featured an interesting array

of articles and letters of composers that Aldrich had

collected. The text was filled with amusing anecdotes and

seldom discussed information, like the number of children

in the Schumann family. The style of writing did not flow

as easily as Mason's, but was more typical of the flowery

writing of the romantic era.

Jacques Barzun's Pleasures of Music; A Reader's Choice

of Great Writing About Music and Musicians From Cellini to

Bernard Shaw (1951) provided the reader with a sensitive

selection of translations from the Renaissance through the

20th century. Barzun chose many different facets of the









musical life, setting aside those writings pertaining to

instruction or theory. He depicted an inside view of

composers' lives, Debussy describing conductors, music at

meals, or the "wrangle of voices debating the duty of the

artist to society and to utopia" (p. 3). He said it was

absurd to pretend that in reading about musical matters

that one can only have pleasure if one had a complete

mastery of detail. One can read novels of air battles

without knowing how to fly or having any idea of the

caliber or power of the projectiles one would be dodging.

One does not expect to be shot while reading war novels,

nor should one expect to hear lullabies while reading about

music. "The world's great literature, regardless of

subject, is taken in through the imagination" (p. 2).

Barzun concluded that a good writer was one that made music

come alive on the page to even the lay reader, pleasure can

come from the words. This book was helpful in establishing

a model for which to examine Mason's prose.

"A serious study of American music is arrestingly

important at this time. Music has become one of our

leading industries, ." stated Douglas Moore in the

introduction to Gilbert Chase's text, America's Music

(1955/1966, p. ix). An excellent reference on the status

of American music in the first few decades of this century,

Chase's book provided ample coverage compared to other

sources of Daniel Gregory Mason as a composer, classifying








him in the chapter on "The Boston Classicists." Chase

furnished the reader with a brief biographical sketch and

listed several of his compositions. He mentioned two of

his books dealing with the contemporary scene in America,

Tune In, America (1931) and The Dilemma of American Music

(1928). Chase called the readers' attention several times

to a remark made by Mason, in Tune In, America, of an anti-

semitic nature. He may have caused grave misconceptions of

the author's intent by not providing the reader with any

further explanation which, by the time of this edition's

publishing, had been rendered in subsequent works by

Mason. America's Music illuminated the need for the study

of Mason's prose works.

Another text by Chase, The American Composer Speaks: A

Historical Anthology 1770-1965, although published in 1966,

was included in this section because of its topical

focus. Chase offered the reader a collection of essays by

various American composers speaking on Americanism.

Included in his book was a whole chapter devoted to Mason's

article, in abridged form, on "The Dilemma of American

Music" (Mason, 1928). Also, in his introduction, he

advanced the present study in support of research question

two by comparing one of Mason's tenets (on American music)

with those of Copland, Harris, and Thomson.

Dart in The Interpretation of Music (1954), which was

written for the serious music student or one with advanced









technical knowledge, presented guidelines for evaluating

musical performances to determine if they were presented in

the manner which the composer intended. He recommended

studying original scores and treatises written during the

respective time periods. His study began with the most

recent music, where performance practices are better known,

and proceeded in reverse order to the lesser known

interpretations of the Middle Ages. Dart's analysis of

performance practices served as a basis in reviewing

Mason's pronouncements on style interpretations.

The Music of Tomorrow, And Other Studies (1907/1970)

by Lawrence Gilman was of interest to this reviewer because

its format was very similar to that of Mason's. Oilman

opened each chapter with a quote by a philosopher, poet, or

writer. Mason's penchant for literature was often revealed

in his prose, and many chapters began with a quote. The

music critic, Gilman, also had a chapter on one of Mason's

favorite topics, "A Discussion with Vincent D'Indy."

Max Graf traced the development of the practice of

music criticism in his text, Composer and Critic (1946).

He discussed 200 years of criticism by some of the most

authoritative sources and highlighted the discourse with

the views of various composers.

In the text, Contingencies and Other Essays (1947),

Cecil Gray reflected the attitude of the times in his

articles selected from various journals, such as the Music









Review and Music and Letters. Several of the articles

dealt with the effect of war on music and the future of

art. Gray conveyed a rather opinionated stance in his

writing and presented his thoughts in a typical dry British

manner, "Mozart, perhaps the only real classicist in all

music" (p. 68). The reader of Gray had to be fairly well-

learned to appreciate this book. Much was assumed of the

reader, i.e., references were made to literary works and

other musical works of composers and many foreign language

phrases were interspersed.

Robin Grey's Studies in Music by Various Authors,

Reprinted from The Musician (1901/1976) was published

before Mason's first book. Its format was also similar to

Mason's in furnishing the reader with biographical

information of the composers along with discussions of

their works.

Hadow's Collected Essays (1928/1968) read very much

like the subject of the present study. He quoted one of

Mason's favorite music writers, Parry, on a topic which the

educator/composer concurred, music of the savages. In

addition, Hadow discussed some of Mason's heralded

subjects: "Some Tendencies in Modern Music," "Music and

Education," and "The Place of Music in Life."

An important source of what was written, 1920-1940s,

may be found in Haggin's Music in the Nation (1949). Many

of the articles were based on the topic of the purpose of









music criticism. Haggin included additional book reviews

as a last chapter. In one such review, Mason was mentioned

indirectly through a review of a book by Raymond Burrows

and Bessie Carroll Redmond, entitled Symphony Themes:


And frequency of performance justifies inclusions
of works by Copland and Harris, but is not likely
to create any need of the themes of symphonies by
Edward Burlingame Hill, Daniel Gregory Mason,
Henry Hadley and Robert Russell Bennett.
(p. 132)


In Music for Everyone; An Approach for the Listener

Today, Kars (1913/1950) discussed the spiritual insights of

Haydn, Bach, and Mozart as if the author was present in

their time. His information was limited to personal

opinions without any specific documentation.

The British critic, Ernest Newman, did not mention

Daniel Gregory Mason in any of his articles from his book,

From the World of Music; Essays from the London Sunday

Times (1957). Included is an article discussing the work

of an artistic rival of Mason's, Ernest Bloch. Further

mention of the apparent rivalry will be disclosed in

Chapter Four. In another essay, "A Physiology of

Criticism" (December 16, 1928), Newman's philosophy on

musical criticism was presented. His view enlightened the

investigator as to an approach of evaluating the raison

d'etre of musical criticism.








Pratt's The History of Music; A Handbook and Guide for

Students (1907) was originally used in his classes in

1897. The book was important to this study for its list of

bibliographic sources, included at the end of each chapter,

which reflected notions of the time of Pratt. The author

encompassed a brief section on music in the United

States. He mentioned Lowell Mason and listed some

composers and heads of music departments at the chapter's

end. Daniel Gregory Mason of New York was cited as one

being "conspicuous among those who have written upon

historical or critical topics born in the same year

as Oscar Sonneck" (p. 651). Several of Pratt's tenets may

have influenced Mason, in particular, his view of music and

the savage.

Sigmund Spaeth's The Art of Enjoying Music (1933) was

an excellent example of an early text on music

appreciation. Spaeth's format divided the study of music

into form and genre. A line or two affirmed Mason's piano

music as a contribution to American music, along with

mention of works by Powell, Foote, Beach, and Carpenter.

Spaeth later opinioned, "Among other modern American

composers are Daniel Gregory Mason, the most solid and

scholarly of them all" (p. 325). On the other hand, in

Fifty Years of Music (1959), Spaeth had no mention of

Mason. However, Spaeth's 5th edition of The International

Who Is Who in Music (1951), edited by J. T. H. Mize,









enlisted an entire column to the author-composer. Such a

dichotomy aided in the justification of the present

research.

Oliver Strunk compiled a representative selection of

writings by composers, music critics, theorists, and other

notables involved in the study of music and criticism in

his text, Source Readings in Music History (1950). The

translations provided examples that otherwise would not

have been available to the researcher from the times of the

ancient Greeks through the romantic era. Strunk's text was

useful in forming a basis for aesthetic and music literary

analysis.

In Of Men and Music (1937), Taylor stated his belief

in music for enjoyment and that he thought many would-be

music lovers were frightened away by the solemnity of music

devotees. Consequently, his approach to writing was

directed to less sophisticated listeners than Mason's

intended audience. Several of his topics projected

similarities to Mason's tenets, e.g., in "Music and the

Flag" (p. 123), his views on jazz.

The format of Tovey's The Mainstream of Music and

Other Essays (1949) was presented much like Mason's in

providing the reader with biographical information of the

composers, as well as musical examples. It is inferred

through the writing style that the reader must know









something of music to appreciate the nuances of Tovey's

formal British manner.

Worner's The History of Music (1973) was translated

from the German text Geschichte der Musik (1954). The

author employed several different approaches, stylistic,

national, and biographical sketches to organize his text.

His outline of music history was helpful in evaluating the

research questions of this study. Mason is mentioned as

writing a sonata for violin and piano. He was once again

connected in the same breath with Carpenter and Foote.

The following sources also contributed to the

procedure and methodology found in this study: Classics:

Major and Minor, With Some Other Musical Ruminations (Blom,

1958/1972); Oxford History of Music (Buck, 1929/1938);

Essays and Lectures (Colles, 1945/1970); Music and

Criticism: A Symposium (French, 1948); Our American Music:

Three Hundred Years of It (Howard, 1968); Essays on Music

(Rolland, 1948); Our Musical Heritage, A Short History of

Music (Sachs, 1948); Be Your Own Music Critic (Simon,

1941); The Well Tempered Listener (Taylor, 1940); and A

Musician Talks (Tovey, 1941).

In addition, the ensuing miscellaneous references
published after the 1950s were parenthetical to the

evaluation and analysis of Daniel Gregory Mason's prose

works.









Bacon (1960), in Words on Music, spoke on reasons for

music criticism, which provided the examiner with a major

premise in the need for this study. Further coverage will

be given to Bacon in Chapter Five. Crawford, in his text

American Studies and American Musicology: A Point of View

and a Case in Point (1975), described the afternoon

sessions of the 1974 winter meetings of the Music

Librarians' Association (MLA) in Champaign-Urbana which

were devoted to American music. Mason was not covered

among the topics.

The reference, A History of Musical Style (1966), was

written by Richard Crocker as a text for college music

majors. It provided the student with basic analysis and

style techniques of the various musical periods. None of

Mason's works were discussed.

One article, in particular, was of interest to this

study in the text, Current Thought in Musicology (Grubbs,

1976), for it included Daniel Gregory Mason. Charles Hamm

in his article, "The Ecstatic and the Didactic: A Pattern

in American Music" (1971, cited in Grubbs, 1976), espoused

his theory on the differences that occur in men and styles

that lived during the same time period. One example given

was that of Charles Ives and Daniel Gregory Mason. Hamm

said that music is didactic for one and ecstatic for

another. An ecstatic composer may use didactic music, but

rarely was the opposite true. Ives and Mason were born a









year apart in the same general region. Both hailed from

musical families. One studied at Yale, the other at

Harvard. Hamm quoted from Mason's Artistic Ideals (1927)

to show that he was didactic (cited in Grubbs, 1976,

p. 56). Likewise, by giving examples of Ives' musical

philosophy which was "peppered" throughout his book, Essays

Before a Sonata (1920), Hamm set up a case for Ives as

being ecstatic. Hamm pointed out that for the didactics,

music was foremost for the purpose of instruction, or at

least approached in an academic manner. Music for an

ecstatic was primarily sensual and was undertaken with that

purpose in mind. Other examples of opposites in American

music included Lowell Mason/Louis Gottschalk and Milton

Babbitt/John Cage. Hamm presented a solid case for his

theory and gave the reader something to ponder. The

article was an aid in the present study in that a different

perspective for examining Mason's prose works was supplied.

Dent (1979), in Selected Essays, included chapters on

"The Problems of Modern Music" and on "The Historical

Approach to Music." In the former essay, the chaos of the

musical world and what England was to do about it was

discussed. Dent portrayed a British view of the topic

which created a basis for comparison with Mason's tenets.

The latter essay yielded much insight in the justification

of this present study from the standpoint of the importance

of musicology.









Haydon's Introduction to Musicology (1941) is one of

the most comprehensive texts for the study of music history

and criticism. The author provided a standard for

approaching the topics of musical analysis, criticism, and

history through the context of different theoretical

concepts utilized in history. He contributed to this

research in providing the present writer with operational

definitions and pedagogical implications important to

curriculum and instruction.

Wiley Hitchcock (1974), in his text Music in the

United States, gave limited coverage of Mason, only a line

or two. A whole chapter was devoted to Ives and much more

coverage was given to Lowell and William Mason. The lack

of coverage assisted the researcher in determining the need

for the present study.

Three dissertations have been written on one aspect or

another of Daniel Gregory Mason's productive life. The

most recent dissertation, "The Three Symphonies of Daniel

Gregory Mason: Style-Critical and Theoretical Analyses"

(Kapec, 1982) was important to the current study as a model

and as a guideline in ascertaining the importance of the

inclusion of Mason in today's music curriculum. Although

his symphonies were under scrutiny, Kapec advanced the need

for a more detailed study of the composer's prose.

Sister Klein (1957) wrote the first dissertation, "The

Contributions of Daniel Gregory Mason to American Music."









Her contribution was a primary source in the formulation of

this study. She provided an overview of Mason as author,

educator, lecturer, and composer. She researched a

thorough history of Mason's genealogy and catalogued his

compositions and books. Klein presented thumb-nail

sketches of the contents of his prose and organized his

collection in boxes in the Butler Library of Columbia

University, New York. Klein came close to the objectives

of this study, but she did not amplify her ideas by

providing sufficient analyses of Mason's bound, prose

works. As previously stated, her major concern was in

establishing an overview of his contributions, not an

analysis. Her dissertation was cited as a forerunner to

the present study.

The second dissertation was written by Ralph Lewis in

1959, 2 years after Klein's work. Lewis's "Life and Music

of Daniel Gregory Mason" interspersed details of the man's

life and philosophies with analyses of several of his

compositions, including his Lincoln Symphony. Much of his

information on Mason's life was taken from the author's

autobiographical book. The majority of his research,

theoretical in nature, fell outside the realm of the

present study.

Meyer, in his book, Explaining Music: Essays and

Explorations (1973), contributed to this study through his

chapter, "On the Nature and Limits of Critical Analysis."









This essay helped establish operational definitions used in

the methodology of the present research.

Essays on Music in the Western World by Oliver Strunk

(1974) is a collection of essays that were written

primarily between 1920 and 1950. Presented in the text was

Strunk's view of musicology and problems inherent in

researching music. The historical method was classified as

one of collection, criticizing, arranging, and interpreting

raw material. All of which were factors necessary in the

formulation of this study. Strunk ventured further by

stating, "Musical scholarship in this country is inevitably

and peculiarly dependent on secondary sources" (p. 10).

Lewis Lochwood quoted in the preface the thoughts of Lord

Acton in a lecture given at the University of Cambridge in

1885, which proved to be important to this investigation.

He said,


For our purpose, the main thing to learn is not
the art of accumulating material, but the
sublimer art of investigating it. It is by
solidity of criticism more than by the plenitude
of erudition, that the study of history
strengthens, and extends the mind. (Strunk,
1974, p. ix)

Besides the sources cited above, the references below

assisted in the formulation and evaluation of the data

contained herein: Music in the United States (Edwards &

Marrocco, 1968); The Art of Music: A Short History of

Musical Styles and Ideas (Cannon, Johnson, & Waite, 1960);








Art as Experience (Dewey, 1934); Democracy and Education

(Dewey, 1961); Music Criticism: An Annotated Guide to the

Literature (Diamond, 1979); A History of Western Music

(Grout, 1980); Twentieth Century Views of Music History

(Hayes, 1972); One Hundred Years of Music in America (Lang,

1961); The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians

(1980); Principles of Literary Criticism (Richards, 1925);

and Essays on Music in the Western World (Strunk, 1974).

The sources previously stated contributed to the

present study as follows:

1. The sources cited provided operational definitions

and guidelines needed in gathering evidence and data in the

postulation of the three research questions.

2. The three dissertations already in existence on

Mason served as basis to further the study of the author's

prose. In addition, these determined the boundaries of

this research so as not to create duplication.

3. After reviewing the literature there was revealed

a notable lack of Mason's contributions in the curriculum

of American music, verifying the need of the study.

4. Numerous references furnished aesthetic,

analytical, and philosophical foundations on which to

critique the Mason books and evaluate the data.

5. The textbooks and sources provided a review of the

state of the art in assessing music criticism.








A Survey of the Reviews of Mason's Books

Provided in the following section is a perusal of the

book reviews that were listed in Book Review Digest

(1907/1948); Cumulative Book Review Digest (1905); and The

New York Times Book Review Index, 1896-1970 (1973). In

Mason's scrapbooks, found in his collection in the Butler

Library of Columbia University, New York, book reviews were

examined from many areas. These are not included here in

order to help eliminate the possibility of bias on the part

of the researcher. They will be compared with the other

reviews discovered and utilized in the context of this

study. Mason's scrapbooks and his personal letters, which

this writer scanned, did not actually provide obvious clues

as to the demise of his popularity; however, these did

provide insight into the nature of the man. An examination

of his personal collection should be considered an area of

further study.

The majority of reviews scrutinized in this section

were selected from The New York Times. This seemed a

logical choice in newspapers due to its reputation and

Mason's proximity, Columbia University. Located were five

reviews by Richard Aldrich between the years 1905 and 1934

in The New York Times. Aldrich reviewed the books,

Beethoven and His Forerunners (Mason, 1904); The Chamber

Music of Brahms (Mason, 1933); Romantic Composers (Mason,

1906); and Tune In, America (Mason, 1931). His fifth









review was of a book to which Mason merely contributed the

introduction. For the most part, Aldrich's criticism was

positive. The critic's merits out-weighed his demerits.

The contents of the aforementioned reviews, as well as the

following ones, will be divulged in greater detail in

Chapter Four.

Other commentaries on Mason's books obtained from The

New York Times included one by Axton Clark (1929) on "The

Dilemma of American Music and Other Essays." Taubman

(1939) wrote a review of Mason's autobiographical book,

Music in My Time and Other Reminiscences (1938) entitled
"Good Friends and Good Music." Three other reviews

appeared in the Times by anonymous writers, "From Grieg to

Brahms: Studies of Some Modern Composers and Their Art"

(1903); "A Child's Guide to Music" (1909); and "The

Orchestral Instruments and What They Do" (1909).

The Book Review Digest (1907-1948) contained reviews
of Romantic Composers (Mason, 1906); The Orchestral

Instruments and What They Do (Mason, 1909a); The

Appreciation of Music, Vol. II (Mason, 1916); Short Studies

of Great Masterpieces (Mason, 1918b); Artistic Ideals

(Mason, 1927); Dilemma of American Music and Other Essays

(Mason, 1929); Tune In, America (Mason, 1931); The Chamber

Music of Brahms (Mason, 1933); Music in My Time and Other

Reminiscences (Mason, 1938); and The Quartets of Beethoven

(Mason, 1947). Some of the locations of the reviews arose









from such sources as the Boston Transcript, Christian

Century, Christian Science Monitor, The Dial, London Times,

The Nation, The New York Evening Post, The New York Herald

Tribune, and Outlook.

The Cumulative Book Review Digest (1905) only listed

one book, Beethoven and His Forerunners (Mason, 1904). It

was of interest due to the opposing views in the critiques

listed, the contents of which will be discussed in Chapter

Four.



Justification for the Present Research

Although it has been said that Mason's literary

contributions to American music were more popular than his

symphonies (Kapec, 1982), there has been no attempt at an

analysis of his bound, printed prose. The purpose of this

study was to conduct an analysis of the content of the

bound, printed prose of Daniel Gregory Mason through the

use of historical method in providing answers to the

previously stated research questions.

Prior studies in this area pertained more to Mason's

music than to his prose works; with the exception of

Kapec's study (1982), which used hypotheses, the

researchers relied on conclusions based on subjective

interpretations. Through the use of research questions, a

more objective approach was attempted. A justification for

this research existed in the need for greater objectivity








and a verifiable methodology in evaluating Mason's prose

works. The historical analysis was used by the researcher

in this present study in an attempt to provide the needed

objectivity.

In addition, there exists a need in providing

supplemental curriculum material in courses concerning

American music, music history, nationalism in music, and

humanities studies. Through this research, it would be

possible to provide an authoritative evaluation of Mason's

books which then could be included in the above-cited

areas. The methodology for answering the three research

questions was one of historical analysis of primary/

secondary literature and research documents which were

clarified in Chapter One.













CHAPTER THREE
MASON, THE MAN AND HIS MANNER
OF PROSE PRESENTATION


According to Mason's autobiographical book, Music in

My Time and Other Reminiscences (1938), he wished to be

recognized primarily as a composer, instead of as an

educator or author.1 Mason's contributions to the

compositional area were prolific, if not profound (see

Appendix A). Of his numerous musical offerings, some of

which include, 3 symphonies, a sonata for clarinet and

piano, 4 organ works, 20 piano solos, 1 work for symphonic

band, 38 chamber works, 3 song cycles with orchestral

accompaniment, and 97 songs, few are performed today.

Daniel Gregory Mason was born in Brookline,

Massachusetts, November 20, 1873, to Henry (1831-1890) and

Helen Augusta Palmer (b. 1836) Mason. The Mason heritage

showed a strong musical inclination. Henry's father and

consequently, Daniel Gregory's grandfather, was Lowell

Mason, father of music education in the schools in

America. In 1854, Henry, along with Emmons Hamlin, founded

the Mason and Hamlin Organ Company at Boston. The firm

flourished at first in the manufacture of reed organs, but

later expanded to include the manufacture of pianos. The

firm was then incorporated as the Mason and Hamlin Company.









Several banks and other financial institutions would later

employ Henry as one of its directors. Helen and Henry were

married after a brief courtship. With lives entwined by

mutual family histories, until June 1857, their meetings

had been almost accidental. Engaged on July 15, 1857, they

were married Christmas Eve of the same year. Helen bore

Henry four sons: Edward Palmer (Ned), Alan Gregory, Henry

Lowell (Henry), and Daniel Gregory. Edward succeeded Henry

in the family business in 1890 upon his father's death.

On Helen's side of the family one could find her

grandfather, the Honorable Thomas Palmer, a judge of the

Circuit Court of Rhode Island; an uncle that was a

prominent minister and hymnologist; another uncle that was

a deacon for an orthodox church; and a cousin who was a

renowned professor at Harvard (Klein, 1957). Little else

is known of her background, but enough information is

yielded to deduce that the Palmers, like the Masons were

from a pious, yet cultured, and intelligent off-spring.

This background could not but help to influence the musical

and intellectual development of Daniel Gregory Mason.

Daniel's early childhood was a story of full and happy

times, playing in orchards, barns, and a lily-pond on his

family's property outside of Boston. His playmates were

neighborhood children since Daniel was 10 years younger

than the next of his three older brothers. Mason describes

himself as always being physically timid. He was a









sensitive child, shy of crowds, but ready to participate in

all forms of childhood games.

Not much is mentioned of his mother, but reading

"between the lines" one can detect the deep love and

admiration Daniel felt for her. His relationship with his

father showed a New England reserve,


with my father I was always a little timid.
Despite a fund of essential kindness his
temperament was nervous, even irritable. Yet I
admired him too, for his personal distinction,
for his way of looking over the tops of his eye-
glasses, for something chivalrous in his love of
truth which I only half understood, and for his
piano-playing. (Mason, 1938, p. 7).


The Mason home was filled with music. Parties

centered around quartets and quintets, with his father

often playing the piano accompaniments. Henry's brother,

William, a former student of Mosoheles and Liszt, was a

professional musician concertizing all over Europe and

North America. No wonder Daniel Gregory attempted

composition at the early age of 7--his world revolved

around music,


It was because I heard music daily from piano,
organ, glee-club, or music-box--it was because my
family entertained musicians and discussed their
problems--it was because I cried on the floor
over double sharps instead of broken shins--it
was for all these environmental reasons that
music became for me so early the most vivid thing
in the world. (Mason, 1938, p. 15)








History of Mason's early education is lacking. The

family moved to Boston after his 12th birthday and he

attended the Boston schools. One year was spent at

Phillips Exeter Academy, a prepatory school. Through the

years he studied piano with Nellie Coolidge, Clayton Johns,

and Arthur Whiting. Like his brothers, and family before

him, Mason was a Harvard man, attending the university from

1891 to June, 1895. During his time at Harvard he met

several people that would create lasting impressions,

influencing his thought, challenging his ideas, and opening

his doors to the realms of literature, poetry, and

philosophy. One, his roommate Pierre la Rose, introduced

him to the poet, William Vaughn Moody. Mason toured Europe

with Moody the summer after his graduation. They remained

life-long friends and Mason edited a book on William Vaughn

Moody's letters after his death. Philip Henry Savage was

another Harvard-days, poet friend. Mason's friendship with

Edward Burlingame Hill spanned 60 years, in spite of their

marked differences. Hill eventually became established as

a prominent professor in the Department of Music at

Harvard. Other friends of Mason included John Powell,

E. A. Robinson, and Ridgely Torrence.

Mason's literary style was enhanced by the tutelage of

men such as Charles Eliot Norton, William James, Josiah

Royce, and George Santayana.








After graduation and his European tour, Mason settled

briefly in New York, near his Uncle William. Dr. William

Mason introduced the young man to many distinguished

musicians, including I. J. Paderewski and Ossip

Gabrilowitsch. Paderewski encouraged Mason's early

attempts at composition and Gabrilowitsch became a staunch

supporter of Daniel, in later years premiering several of

his works. Mason in a letter of August 19, 1953, to Robert

W. Mols, claimed that Ossip was "the greatest permanent

influence in my whole musical life" (Klein, 1957, p. 16).

Mason's New York experience was cut short with a

decline in the family's financial foundation. He had to

abandon his study of piano with Arthur Whiting due to ill

health which he described as "general neurasthenic

weakness" combined with severe pianist's and writer's cramp

(Mason, 1938, p. 81). This cramp reduced his piano playing

to zero and his writing almost as far. Mason retreated to

Cambridge and taught English at Harvard.

The author referred to the next 6 years, 1896-1902, as

a long dark tunnel of his life. A time of struggle, when

he turned to the books of Thoreau, Emerson, Stevenson, and

Royce as a solace in the loss of his music. He even rented

a room that later he found out was a room Emerson had

rented during a similar time of discouragement. It was

during this time that Mason was asked to write a








20,000-word life of Thoreau for the Beacon Biographies with

a commission of a $150. Mason's literary side was

"represented for me by Thoreau, for whom I had as ardent a

hero-worship as for Brahms" (Mason, 1938, p. 8). It was

Thoreau's own words which haunted the young man. Mason

chose to work his "gold mine" instead of turning out

cartloads of "silver ore," rejecting the opportunity to

become a man of letters.

Mason had decided to work his way back into music.

Piano was impossible, and composition was down the road.

If he could not write music, he could at least write about

music, and this he did. From Grieg to Brahms, his first

book, was published in 1902. It was taken from a series of

articles that had been published earlier in the Outlook.

The book received favorable reviews.

With the success of his book, and return of his

health, Mason spent the year 1902-1903 at Princeton. He

began editing the magazine, Masters in Music. In 1904, he

married Mary Lord Taintor. Not much information is

provided on the marriage circumstances. Mary brought four

children with her and at one time had been married to

Daniel Gregory's older brother, Edward. Mary was a great

source of strength to her husband, providing constant

encouragement of his artistic endeavors. The children were

sent to boarding schools for the most part. Mary Mason









wrote the biographies in their book of 1916, Great Modern

Composers. Daniel Gregory was as devoted to her as she to

him. He attributed what success he achieved to her

influence. In his dedication to her in his autobiography,

he recalled, "the gentle laughter, one of your divinest

gifts, that helped me not to take myself too

serious. My thanks and my love" (Mason, 1938,

n.p.). It was also in 1904 that Mason began to lecture for

the board of education in New York. He received $15 for

each lecture. In addition, he wrote magazine articles, a

task almost as disagreeable as the lecturing. Trying to

make money from music, he attempted writing light opera.

Unsuccessful, he failed to make the endeavor a profitable

one.

Mason began lecturing at Columbia University in the

year 1905. He became an assistant professor in 1910, an

associate professor in 1916, and a full professor in

1925. He became a Macdowell Professor of Music in 1929,

serving as head of the music department until 1942,2 at

which time he retired as Professor Emeritus. He continued

to teach in the Columbia University extension program for

almost 6 years.

After Harvard Mason studied composition with Chadwick

and Goetschius. In 1901 during a second trip to Europe,

Mason met Vincent D'Indy. He was influenced by his

devotion to art, and in 1913 the aspiring composer had an









opportunity to study with this great master. The trip, a

result of Mary's coaxing, was financed by Edward J.

de Coppet. Mason dedicated his first symphony to the

benefactor.

Mason made several other trips to Europe in the course

of his life time, for Europe was still considered in his

generation the pinnacle of art and culture. Two half-year

sabbaticals were spent in Italy, 1921 and 1928. Another

sabbatical was spent at his New Canaan, Connecticut, home

in 1935, a place in which he had established a residence in

1931. Other trips abroad during the summers were in the

years 1925, 1927, 1930, and 1932. It was during these

times that Mason worked freely at composing and writing.

Several anecdotal essays from these trips were included in

his books, i.e., "Three Restaurants," "Holidays," and a few

serious essays on Vincent D'Indy. The Chamber Music of

Brahms was a result of a commission from the Oberlaender

Trust in 1932 to "develop friendly understanding between

America and the German culture" (Mason, 1933/1950, p. v).

Many of the author's summers between the years 1909-

1919 were spent at the Onota Farm in Pittsfield,

Massachusetts, in one of the farm houses owned by Getrude

Watson, a close friend and patroness of chamber music.

Much of the composer's chamber music was performed in

public by the Flonzaley, Kneisel, Roth, Gordon, and Musical

Arts quartets.









Mason, the man, was described in an interview with a

long-time friend, Chalmers Clifton, as quiet but extremely

sensitive.


The externals of life--the noises of the city; a
neighbor's radio, phonograph, or typewriter; the
shouts of children at play--irritated him. He
was not by nature happy. Yet he had a sense of
humor and could laugh at himself. (cited in
Klein, 1957, p. 18).


Another close friend, Edward Burlingame Hill, too,

made mention in a letter, the author's ability to

appreciate a joke and respond in kind (cited in Klein,

1957). The manner of Mason's methodicalness was evident in

his record-keeping and the extent of his archives housed in

the Butler Library of Columbia University. His numerous

scrapbooks detailing all walks of his life, the massive

amount of correspondence, and the notes in the margins of

his manuscript copies attest to his quest for order and

balance. William Mitchell told Sister Klein of Mason's

habit of writing tasks on slips of paper and putting them

in his vest pockets. When the task had been completed,

Mason transferred them to another pocket, designated done

(cited in Klein, 1957).

Mason was a humanist in thought and deed. Literature,

poetry, education, sociology, art, science, philosophy, and

religion (although he professed no specific religion) were









reflected topics, both in his personal library and in his

notations. These influences were evidenced in his prose

works and shall be discussed at greater length in this

research. Much of the man's life was spent in an endless

struggle to earn a livelihood, torn between the drive to

compose and the drive to survive. His writings illuminated

some of the inner turmoil a composer and author must endure

in public opinions and professional criticisms. After a

criticism of a string quartet performed by the Kneisel

Quartet in November of 1914, Mason pondered over Philip

Hale's impression and so commented,


I fear I am a good deal thinner-skinned, or less
well provided with the courage of my convictions,
than Chadwick. [Mason is commenting on a letter
from Chadwick.] All through my life this
indifference or positive enmity of certain
sections of the press has been a heavy drag on my
creative energy, a dead weight that had to be
lifted with strength needed for all the intrinsic
problems of the work itself. The hardest part
was the discouragement not only to oneself but to
one's interpreters--to the performers or
conductors who had devoted their best powers to
the ungrateful task of producing new and untried
work for an amiable but more or less indifferent
public, and who got these licks for their pains
from those supposed to be expert judges. (Mason,
1938, p. 176)

It was Mason's numerous friends, that sustained his

spirit during the times of wrestling turmoils. Further

mention of his views on an artist's life and public opinion

will be discussed through his book Artistic Ideals

(1927/1955) and in Chapter Four of the present writing.









In 1950, Daniel Gregory and Mary moved to Greenwich,

Connecticut. His last book, The Quartets of Beethoven, was

published in 1947. His last compositions were dated

1949. Some revision of previous works are noted in the

years 1949 and 1950. Much time was spent in the first 2

years at Greenwich editing the letters of his friend,

Adolfo Betti, of the Flonzaley Quartet. Mason tried,

unsuccessfully, to have these published. After several

years of failing health, Daniel Gregory Mason died at home,

December 4, 1953.

It is hoped that further insight into Mason, the man,
will be gleaned from the investigation of his manner of

prose presentation and focus of content in this chapter and

the ensuing ones.



Overall Format in Mason's Prose Works

Mason wrote a total number of 19 books of which 2 were

basically pamphlets (see Appendix B). As of 1956, 9 books

were already out of print. The number has risen today to

practically all. The publishers Mason used included Alfred

A. Knopf; American Library Association; Baker and Taylor

Co.; Edwards Brothers, Inc.; G. Schirmer, Inc.; The H.W.

Gray Co., Inc.; The Macmillan Co.; The Outlook Co.; Oliver

Ditson Co.; Oxford University Press; and W. W. Norton and

Co., Inc. In addition, today may find the American Music

Society issuing republications of From Grieg to Brahms and








Romantic Composers. Seven of the 19 books are dedicated.

Mason's (1902) first book, From Grieg to Brahms is

dedicated to his uncle, William Mason. A Guide to Music

for Beginners and Others (Mason, 1909) is dedicated to his

wife's youngest children, at that time aged 15 and 13,

Ellen and Billy. Other dedications included Artistic

Ideals (Mason, 1927)--Van Wyck Brooks; Tune In, America

(Mason, 1931)--Howard Hanson; The Chamber Music of Brahms

(Mason, 1933)--G. Oberlaender; Music in My Time and Other

Reminiscences (Mason, 1938)--Mary L. Mason; and The

Quartets of Beethoven (Mason, 1947)--Adolfo Betti.

The pagination of Mason's books ranged from 35 in the

pamphlet, Ears to Hear (Mason, 1925), to 409 in Music in My

Time and Other Reminiscences (Mason, 1938). His average

pagination is 228; however, six publications have under 200

pages and four have over 300 pages (see Appendix B). His

first two books included nine chapters, with the first book

having a bibliography. A Neglected Sense in Piano Playing

(Mason, 1912) had section headings instead of chapters,

being only 53 pages in length. Music As a Humanity (Mason,

1921) contains 17 essays divided into three sections.
Orchestral Instruments and What They Do (Mason, 1909b)

included an appendix and an index. Tune In, America

(Mason, 1931) had an index as does Music in My Time and

Other Reminiscences (Mason, 1938) and The Chamber Music of

Brahms (Mason, 1933). The Quartets of Beethoven (Mason,








1947) is the only other book of Mason's to contain a

bibliography and an index. From Song to Symphony (Mason,

1924) featured an index and a helpful teacher's tool, i.e.,

questions for review, which were found at the end of each

chapter. Mason also listed his sources of reference, a

list of music mentioned in the chapter with publishers, and

a list of illustrative records and rolls for future

listening endeavors. Artistic Ideals (Mason, 1927)

contained a reference section for quotations that Mason had

used, organized by chapter. Of course, this list only

included those quotes which he could recall authorship,

admitting that he often scribbled quotes on pieces of paper

as he was reading without tracing down each thought. Most

of Mason's published prose included musical examples,

pictures of composers or other musical facsimiles of

interest to the reader, or some type of analytical chart.

There were only four books without or with very little

additional illustrative material, From Grieg to Brahms

(Mason, 1902), only one picture as frontspiece; A Neglected

Sense in Piano Playing (Mason, 1912); Artistic Ideals

(Mason, 1927); and The Dilemma of American Music (Mason,

1928). However, in the bibliographical notes of From Grieg

to Brahms, Mason suggested additional books on composers

for future study.

The average number of chapters per book was 13.3, with

Contemporary Composers (Mason, 1918a) and Artistic Ideals





58


(Mason, 1927) having 6, and The Chamber Music of Brahms

(Mason, 1933) and Music in My Time and Other Reminiscences

(Mason, 1938) having 25 and 24, respectively.

The intended reader varied little; for the most part,

Mason's books were meant for the intelligent lay reader

with the exception of his autobiography, "all of Mason's

works were written with the purpose of educating the layman

unacquainted with music in its various and essential

aspects" (Klein, 1957, p. 33). Mason's own words were

viewed in a selection by the present writer from his

prefaces to elaborate upon his positions on his purposes of

writing and his intended reader. As one shall see the two

often overlapped. On occasion, even Mason acknowledged his

presentation may have been too technical for the lay

reader, e.g., The Quartets of Beethoven (Mason, 1947). He

stated in From Grieg to Brahms a reason for including

mention of technical matters,


As all music, no matter what its complexity on
the technical side, is in essence an expression
of personal feeling, and as the qualities of a
man's personality show themselves not only in his
works, but in his acts, his words, his face, his
handwriting and carriage even, it has seemed
natural and fruitful, in these studies, to seek
acquaintance with the musicians through
acquaintance with the men. (Mason, 1902, p. vii)


Of his first essay, "The Appreciation of Music," the author

wrote,








in order to give the reader a perspective sense,
a birds-eye view of the great army of artists in
which the supreme masters are but leaders of
battalions and regiments. [I have tried to
describe some of the fundamental principles of
art and to briefly sketch the general movement of
musical history.] Without this sense it is
impossible truly to place or justly to estimate
any individual .
The first essay considers music as a medium
for men, the last ["The Meaning of Music"]
considers life as a medium for music. (Mason,
1904, p. ix)


Examples from his other books follow.

Beethoven and His Forerunners (Mason, 1904)

This text did not have a preface; Mason probably

intended the same readership as his first book. Sister

Klein commented that his philosophical treatment presented

the material subjectively and that the book was "better

suited to a college student than to the average pupil"

(1957, p. 36).

Romantic Composers (Mason, 1906)

Mason mentioned the reasons for the books in the

series. Again, he said that he had in mind illuminating

the musical peculiarities of each composer through

references to personal character and temperament. He

provided the reader with contemporaries' descriptions of

appearance, mannerisms, letters, and table-talk. Mason

hoped the "general reader" could get a much better idea of

the composers' thought by including the personal references









(p. vi). He stated that the studies were "intended simply

as guides to the music they discuss" (p. viii).

The Appreciation of Music (Vol. I in The Appreciation
of Music series)

Mason had a bifold purpose in his intended readers

with this book. His first aim was at the general reader

who wished to be an intelligent listener, and his second

consideration (possibly foremost, due to financial

overtones) was for school and college students: "A

practical guide to those listeners who wish to listen

intelligently without going into technicalities" (p. iii).

The book was written for "the needs of schools and colleges

as well as general readers ." (p. iv).

A Guide to Music For Beginners and Others (Mason, 1909a)
(Vol. V in The Appreciation of Music series)

"The book is intended to help you listen in a

thoughtful and active way by showing thousands of little

differences in music pieces that may be missed" (p. 15).

Great Modern Composers (1916) (Vol. II in
The Appreciation of Music series)

"It is the authors' hope that this book may help

advance the production and reception of good music by

Americans" (p. viii).

Music As a Humanity and Other Essays (1921) (Vol. IV
in The Appreciation of Music series)

These essays were printed in various magazines. Some

have slight changes from original versions but the author

preserved many first impressions for controversial









discussion or "whatever value the papers may have will be

largely historical" (p. iii).

From Song to Symphony (Mason, 1924)

Daniel Gregory Mason opened this book with a cause he

heralded throughout his writing career. His premise on

"herd spirit" will be examined more closely in Chapter

Four.


It is hoped that this book may so present the
chief types of musical art as to assist readers
to distinguish for themselves its great
masterpieces, to understand their aims and
methods, and to respond to their appeal. Only as
we Americans learn to react individually to art,
resisting the herd opinions that are so easy and
so false, can we become discriminating enough to
acclaim the good and reject the bad. In the
coming decades we are to wield much power in
music, and it is important that we should make
ourselves intelligent judges of what is new as
well as seasoned lovers of the old but ever
youthful beauty we call "classic."
Again, it is only through such independence
that we can hope to raise our taste above
provincialism and give it freedom and reach--let
it breathe the air of the world. .We shall
know that in art the only frontiers are those
that separate mediocrity from excellence.
(Mason, 1924, preface, n.p.)


Artistic Ideals (Mason, 1927)

This book was taken from a series of lectures and

later published as articles. Mason stated that every

artist finds himself in an alien world, asked to do the

cheap and obvious, finding truth and beauty ignored "like a

sailor in a storm," the artist must learn to keep an eye on

the stars--one's ideals, fixed as the stars (p. 1). "The




62


first art of every artist is to choose the right

ideals. All artists have been strangers and

vagabonds in the world, and by that free masonry all are

predestined fellows" (p. 2). An artist should "make daily

companions of his earlier fellows--men who have triumphed

over his obstacles, endured his loneliness, withstood his

temptations, cherished his ideals" (p. 2). Here, Mason

addressed a smaller audience, the artist, or as he had

probably hoped, the intelligent layman or general reader

interested in artistic raison d'etre. From all indications

of studying Mason, the man, the philosophy espoused in the

preface for the young artist is one that the author had

resolved during his "dark tunnel" years (1896-1902) while

struggling with his own compositional desires (Chapter

Three).

The Dilemma of American Music (Mason, 1928)


It is hoped that these essays are worth
reprinting for whatever light they throw on
certain questions, chiefly of our contemporary
musical situation, which, important as they are,
are also highly puzzling, and not likely to be
soon settled. They are addressed to that
large body of intelligent listeners--neither
"high-brows" nor "low-brows," but plain men and
women,--who must contribute their active
cooperation to our American musical art if it is
really to live. (p. v)


Tune In, America (Mason, 1931)

Mason, in his last book derived from reprinted

articles, asked the public to review its position on the








arts. He stated the purpose of the book as being one to

study contemporary influences on musical independence. He

wanted the audience to think about the effects of

mechanical inventions and the affects of school and college

choruses, orchestras, and bands on musical national

tastes. He asked that we use the past to "throw light" on

the musical future.

The Chamber Music of Brahms (Mason, 1933)

The Chamber Music of Brahms was one of two strictly

analytical books that Mason wrote. The format divided

Brahms' life into four parts. Mason's discussion of

Brahms' 24 pieces in this genre was intended for chamber

music lovers, as well as music students, especially young

composers; however, much of the material is too technical

for the nonmusic student. The professional musician of the

time would have benefited from the study, for the book was

one of the first on the subject and Mason handled the topic

quite fairly in spite of his great admiration for Brahms.

"Brahms music is by no means faultless, it is far from

perfect--it is too human for that" (p. 269).

The Quartets of Beethoven (Mason, 1947)

The Quartets of Beethoven was Mason's last book and it

was analytical in nature. Once again, his purpose was to

address the music listener, but it was more in the realm of

the college music student or professional musician. The

author commented on this dilemma in a letter to E. Bentley








Hamilton, in November, 1947, "I realize more and more that

I have demanded an almost professional knowledge of my

readers and more detailed work than most people have time

or inclination for" (cited in Klein, 1957, p. 44).

Appendix C has been included to provide the present

reader with a brief, capsulated commentary on each of

Daniel Gregory Mason's 19 printed prose works. Sister

Klein's (1957) dissertation also included short synopses

for additional reference.



Classification One: The Appreciation
and/or History of Music
As mentioned in Chapter Two (p. 14), this category

would encompass the majority of the author's books. Of the

seven books, two were co-authored. The Appreciation of

Music (Mason & Surette, 1907) was written with Thomas

Whitney Surette. A supplement with musical examples

illustrated the text. Great Modern Composers (Mason &

Mason, 1916) was written in collaboration with his wife,

Mary L. Mason, who contributed the biographical sketches of

the composers contained therein.

From Song to Symphony: A Manual of Music Appreciation

(Mason, 1924) was the second year of "A Study Course in

Music Understanding" which was adopted as a 4-year series

by The National Federation of Music Clubs. The purpose of

the series was important to this study for two reasons:








(a) its contribution to music education in this country and

(b) its acknowledgement of Daniel Gregory Mason as a

leading contributor in the advancement of musical

studies. From a publisher's note to "A Study Course in

Music Understanding," the intent of the series was

explained as


the first sequential course of study in the
essentials of music culture to be published in a
series of correlated books. Its editors have
been chosen as musicians of experience in
authorship who know how to present musical facts
and history with clarity, charm and
authority. In the broad sense of the term
the entire course leads to the appreciation of
music, for each book and each chapter contribute
a necessary element to its true understanding.
The aim of the course in a word is--the
cultivation of discriminating listeners.
(original book jacket)


The remaining four books in this category included

From Grieg to Brahms (Mason, 1902), Beethoven and His

Forerunners (Mason, 1904), Romantic Composers (Mason,

1906), and Contemporary Composers (Mason, 1918a). The span

of years in the publication of this category bridged 22

years, 1902-1924.

The topics of these seven books encompassed individual

chapters on 21 major composers: Bach, Beethoven, Berlioz,

Brahms, Chopin, Debussy, Dvorak, D'Indy, Elgar, Franck,

Grieg, Haydn, Liszt, Mendelssohn, Mozart, Palestrina,

Saint-Sagns, Schubert, Schumann, Strauss, and

Tschaikovsky. In addition, Mason's musical examples gave








reference to some 14 other composers, viz. Attwood,

C. P. E. Bach, Bull, Couperin, Gluck, Handel, Lassus,

Monteverdi, Peri, Rameau, Scarlatti, Scriabin, Verdi, and

Wagner. The author discussed various and sundry topics in

26 essays which ranged from the educational enlightenment

of musical genre to the aesthetic questions of the "Meaning

of Music."

Mason remained fairly consistent in his overall format

of these seven books. Beginning with his first book, From

Grieg to Brahms (Mason, 1902), the author's approach

comprised an introductory chapter, essay-like in nature, in

this case, "The Appreciation of Music." He then included

six other chapters on composers, opening with biographical

or descriptive information, followed by general

characteristics of the composers' major contributions, and

concluding with a bibliographical note which referred the

reader to the composer's published works. Mason's 1902

edition ended with an epilogue on "The Meaning of Music."

The 1927 edition included a ninth chapter: "Postscript:

After Twenty-Five Years." This was an interesting chapter

because, when the first edition came out, three of the six

composers were still living. Mason was able to depict the

climate of the times in the aftermath of their deaths. He

pointed out that his original surmises of their places in

art remained virtually identical to his tentative estimates

of 1902, "some of the composers, notably Grieg and




67


Saint-Sagns, seem rather less important now than they did

then" (p. 230). The teacher in Daniel Gregory included a

bibliographical note in which he listed what he deemed as

titles of some of the most useful books and magazine

articles on the six composers treated in his book. This,

in itself, is an important aspect historically, for now the

reader can see how the definitive list of authors provided

by Mason have changed in the last 50 years.

In Beethoven and His Forerunners (Mason, 1904) the

author varied slightly from the first format. He opened

with an introductory essay on "The Periods of Musical

History," followed by the music of Palestrina in a chapter

entitled "Palestrina and the Music of Mysticism." Chapter

Three provided the reader with insight into "The Modern

Spirit." This chapter provided Mason, an opportunity to

espouse his ideas on idealism and his interpretation of how

throughout time idealism influenced the arts. Chapter Four

again varied from book one's format in that Mason discussed

"The Principles of Pure Music." This chapter was used as a

means of separating vocal music from instrumental or pure

music. Mason, once again, historically detailed the

development of instrumental forms as an introduction to the

following chapter on "Haydn." Here, in Chapter Five, the

author utilized the format of the first book, providing the

reader with biographical information on Haydn, which then

lead the reader into a discussion of Haydn's motivic








treatment, as well as the composer's contributions in

unifying the elements of music. Mason saw Haydn's

treatment as, indeed, marking the "beginning of secular

music as a mature art" (p. 209). Chapter Six brought the

forerunner to "Mozart," with, again, the above-mentioned

format. The remaining three chapters were spent on

Beethoven. These chapters entwined biographical

information with musical matters, using musical examples to

prove stylistic points and assert Beethovenian

characteristics. Overall, the three chapters followed the

musical productiveness of the typically characterized three

periods of Beethoven's life. Mason concluded with a series

of questions posed to the reader, and thus "Beethoven, and

all his forerunners too, still live and speak to us in the

music of today" (p. 352).

The format of Romantic Composers (Mason, 1906) was

much in line with that of book one. (Mason did not pose as

many of his own postulates as in book two.) He opened with

the introductory essay, "Romanticism in Music" and then

preceded to write of six composers and their works. His

approach to the discussion of composers in this book was

easily read. Mason mixed biographical information with

musical traits illustrated through examples of several

major works. This provided the reader with an ample

introduction to the composers' style. Mason concluded the

book with a chapter on Liszt, instead of an essay.








The Appreciation of Music (Mason & Surette, 1907)

written in collaboration with Thomas Whitney Surette, and

its supplementary volume of musical illustrations, was in

its 15th edition by 1924. A new format was introduced in

the process of this text. The 14 chapters were divided

into three to eight subsections. Most of the chapters (8

out of 19) dealt with musical form, for example, "Elements

of Musical Form," "Folk-Songs," "The Suite," "The Rondo,"

"The Variation Form--The Minuet," "The Slow Movement," and

two chapters on "Sonata-Form." In one chapter, Mason

discussed "The Polyphonic Music of Bach," providing two

examples for analysis, along with a subsection on "general

qualities of Bach's work." At the end of each chapter

there was a suggested list of collateral readings. Another

chapter was devoted to "The Dance and Its Development."

Twenty-four examples in all were given for analysis ranging

from the Baroque, Bach, Handel, and Couperin, to the

Classical, Haydn and Mozart, to the culminating figure of

Beethoven. Not only did Beethoven's works render eight

musical examples, four chapters were devoted to the study

of the man, his work, and his contribution to the musical

world. The authors enlisted a summary at the conclusion of

four chapters as a benefit to the reader. In the last

chapter, they summarized the purpose of the book by saying

that "study and analysis" were merely means of transposing

the listener from a "drowsy reverie, relieved by nervous








thrills, [to] an active, Joyful, vigorous co-operation with

composers, through which alone he can truly appreciate

their art" (p. 222). An event which can only occur "by

learning how to listen" (p. 222). Mason's style of

combining biographical information of composers' lives with

examples of their musical output remained intact in this

text. In addition to notated musical examples, Mason and

Surette included tabular views of the structural analyses

of several of the works, e.g., "Mozart: Symphony in G-

Minor, The First Movement" (p. 136).

Great Modern Composers (Mason & Mason, 1916) was

originally published as Vol. II to the above text. Mason

began this writing where he left off in the last book. The

publication consisted of 15 chapters. The first chapter

again opened with an essay, this one titled "Romanticism

and Realism in Music." In Chapters Two through Fifteen

Mason examined the music, lives, and stylistic traits of

the composers from Schubert to Debussy much like the

treatment of the composers in The Appreciation of Music

(Mason & Surette, 1907). This time, the biographical

sketches were written by Daniel Gregory's wife, Mary L.

Mason.

Once more, Contemporary Composers (Mason, 1918a)

closely followed the format of book one. Of the six

chapters, two were essays. Mason began with "Democracy and

Music" and concluded with "Music in America." The chapters





71


on contemporary musicians consisted of four living

composers, Strauss, Elgar, Debussy, and Mason's teacher,

D'Indy. Through use of musical examples Mason tried to

identify the composers' stylistic traits. The author

listed D'Indy's major works, limited Debussy's compositions

to orchestral scores, and provided rounded illustrations of

the style of Elgar and Strauss. Biographical information

was provided to promote the musical tendencies which Mason

chose to highlight, e.g.,


Elgar is an introspective musician, not an
externally observant tone-painter like
Strauss. The A-Flat Symphony is a work
intensely felt by the composer, a work that,
coming from his heart, finds its way to the
hearts of others. .For in everything Elgar
writes there is the preoccupation with inner
feeling which we find in such a composer as
Schumann, but from which most of our
contemporaries have turned away. (p. 115)

(In Chapter Four a discussion of this aspect of Mason's

style will be observed in greater detail.)

The final book in this category, From Song to Symphony

(Mason, 1924), consisted of eight chapters. The author

chose the format, much like that of The Appreciation of

Music (Mason & Surette, 1907), classifying music through

genre. Beginning with the smaller forms of "the Folksong"

to "The Art Song" to "Opera and Oratorio," Mason expanded

the realm to instrumental music, which included "Piano

Music" (two chapters), "Chamber Music," and two chapters on








"Orchestral Music" (classical and modern eras). Since this

book was written as a manual of music appreciation, Mason

included many musical examples ranging from the Renaissance

to the 20th century. The end of each chapter contained

"Questions for Review," "References" for further study, and

"Illustrative Records and Rolls." An easily read book, the

author presented portraits of the major composers discussed

as a further aid to the musical layman. By this time the

reader can detect the author's technique of combining

musical analysis with composers' biographical

information. This technique enabled Mason to approach a

composition theoretically without intimidating the layman

with too much dry analysis. As will be seen in the next

classifications, Mason found a format favorable to his

audience.



Classification Two: Books of an Analytical Nature

This division consisted of three books, spanning 29

years. Although a Mason style emerged, these books will be

seen to differ greatly from Mason's total output. Short

Studies of Great Masterpieces (Mason, 1918b) is much in the

above vein; however, in The Chamber Music of Brahms (Mason,

1933) and The Quartets of Beethoven (Mason, 1947), the

author adopted a much more serious musical tone.

Mason classified Short Studies of Great Masterpieces

(Mason, 1918b) as Volume III in his music appreciation







series. Unlike the first category chosen for the purpose

of this study, this book did not feature any introductory

or concluding essays. Mason selected 11 composers from

seven countries and discussed 12 varying works. Each

composer had one work analyzed with the exception of

Brahms, who had two. Each chapter was prefaced with the

complete title of the work and listed the location and date

of the first performance. Piano arrangements, either two

or four hands, were suggested for following Mason's almost

measure by measure analysis; occasionally, the author

recommended a miniature orchestral score. The composers,

works, and languages selected were as follows:


1. D'Indy: "Istar" (French)

2. Elgar: "Enigma" Variations (English)

3. Brahms: Symphony No. 3 and Academic Festival
Overture (German)

4. Rimsky-Korsakoff: "Scheherazade" (Russian)

5. Stanford: "Irish" Symphony (Irish)

6. Frank: Symphony in D Minor (French)

7. Strauss: "Don Juan" (German)

8. Tschalkowsky: "Path4tique" (Russian)

9. Bizet: "L'Arl4sienne" (French)

10. Saint-Sagns: Symphony No. 3 (French)

11. Dvo4rk: Symphony No. 5 (Bohemian).








The analysis often included instrumentation, important

dynamic levels, thematic materials, rhythmic peculiarities,

unusual harmonic progressions or key relationships, or any

other nomenclature which would identify the intended piece

for the music lover. Mason encouraged playing of the

thematic material, if possible, and often wrote in

suggestions for the music student reading the book. A lay

reader with basic knowledge of music could understand the

text, for Mason, the educator, described the musical

occurrences as if they were story lines for a radio show.

Mason's manner of prose presentation is heightened by

the nature of his two analytical books, The Chamber Music

of Brahms (Mason, 1933) and The Quartets of Beethoven

(Mason, 1947). The former is one of the first books

written to analyze all of Brahms' chamber music, 24

pieces. The author divided Brahms' music into four

periods: young, young manhood, mastership, and last

years. Although the source was intended for music lovers,

nonmusicians would have trouble understanding much of the

discussion. Mason's approach is much more theoretical, for

example, a comment on the Bb Quartet finale:


Its sixteenth-note anacruses, very important in
unifying it, are managed deftly so that their
climactic order impresses us from the start: the
first begins on low D, the second on high D, the
third on high G. The cadence of the first four-
measure phrase is also striking--a sudden evasion
of the key of B flat at the last moment, to land








in the much brighter, more ethereal key of D
major. (p. 125)


In a similar manner, Mason's last tome, The Quartets

of Beethoven (Mason, 1947), provided the reader with an

analytical study of his 16 quartets and the "Grosse

Fugue." The book was divided into the three periods of

development generally assumed for Beethoven's musical

output: the first period ("apprenticeship"), 1770-1803;

the second period ("mastery"), 1803-1813; and the third

period (the last quartets), 1813-1827. There are no essays

in the format of these three analytical books. A music

student or musician would find the latter two helpful in

that they contain descriptive analyses that are detailed,

yet well-written, which makes for interesting and

informative reading.



Classification Three: Books with a Majority
of Music-Critical Essays

Mason wrote four books that would fall into this

realm, spanning 10 years: Music As a Humanity and Other

Essays (Mason, 1921); Artistic Ideals (Mason, 1927); The

Dilemma of American Music and Other Essays (Mason, 1928);

and Tune In, America (Mason, 1931). The content of these

books, for the most part, was taken from previously printed

articles or lectures. Many times the lectures were printed

as articles and then reprinted in book form. Some of the








journals and magazines in which Mason was published

included Arts and Decoration, Atlantic Monthly, Columbia

University Quarterly, Harvard Musical Review, Music and

Letters, Music Quarterly, New Music Review, New Republic,

and Outlook.

The topics considered in Music As a Humanity and Other

Essays (Mason, 1921) were divided into three sections and

included a total of 17 essays:

1. Of Universities and the Public Taste

a. Music As a Humanity

b. The College Man and Music

c. Harvard the Pioneer

d. The Quantitative Standard

e. Domesticating Music

f. An International Language

2. Of Festivals and Patrons

a. The Bershire Festivals, 1918-1920

b. Music Patronage as an Art

c. An Ideal Patron

d. A Practical Suggestion

e. A Society for Publication

3. Of Aesthetics and Psychology

a. Vernon Lee on Musical Aesthetics

b. Bertrand Russell on Music and Mathematics

c. Vincent D'Indy on Composition

d. A Note on Tonal Chiaroscuro









e. Psychoanalysis and the American Composer

f. Dissonance and Evil.

The title of the book was derived from the first

essay. In the author's preface, he acknowledged that some

of the articles which were reprinted with slight, if any

changes, may have only historical value, such as his

initial impressions of the three chamber music festivals at

Pittsfield, or his idea of how money should be spent at

Juilliard, in "A Practical Suggestion." Several essays

showed a political side of his thinking, as in "An

International Language." On the other hand, "A Note on

Tonal Chiaroscuro" came about from a conversation with

Leopold Stokowaki. Other than the three sections listed

for this book, there was no other method or reason stated

for the topics chosen.

Artistic Ideals (Mason, 1927) consisted of six

chapters based on a series of lectures that the educator

had given in 1925, for the Norman Walte Harris Foundation,

at Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois. The essays

stemmed from passages "culled from the author's reading

during many years, in the hope of sharing their stimulus

with other artists and lovers of art" (p. ix). Mason

identified the sources from which many thoughts had been

noted in an appendix, "References to the Quotations." It

is highly probable that this book was closer to Mason's

heart than any other, for he mentioned in his autobiography









that it was his favorite book, and the subject-matter of

the book was focused on ideals that are "directions" which

one chooses for one's life. The topics of the chapters are

aspects that the composer, Mason, declared important to

creative production: independence, spontaneity,

workmanship, originality, universality, and fellowship.

The third book in this category, The Dilemma of

American Music (Mason, 1928) enlisted 18 essays of which

the first was the title of the book. All but the last were

previously published as magazine articles, with the

exception being "Three Restaurants" which dealt with the

author's vacations. "Creative Leisure" originally was

delivered as an address at Columbia University. Five

chapters were included on Beethoven and one on D'Indy. The

first eight considered issues Mason saw on the forefront of

music In 1928, occurring mostly in America. Four other

essays were on the topic of rhythm. The chapters were

1. Dilemma of American Music

2. Music and the Plain Man

3. Our Orchestra and Our Money's Worth

4. Depreciation of Music

5. Sensationalism and Indifference

6. Stravinsky as a Symptom

7. Two Critics of Ultra-Modern

8. D'Indy in America

9. Reflections on Rhythm









10. Tyranny of Bar-Line

11. A Note on English Rhythm

12. Creative Leisure

13. Beethoven (5 ch.)

14. Epilogue--Three Restaurants.

The last book of this section, Tune In, America

(Mason, 1931), may have been the author's most

controversial book, a point which is discussed further in

Chapter Four of the present study. The format of the book

consisted of 14 chapters with an appendix completing

Chapter Two. Mason wrote about the American musical scene

with regard to what works orchestras were playing from

1900-1930, how conductors and audiences responded, and how

performers performed and composers composed. Topics

included were

1. Background 1900-25

2. American Music 1925-30

3. Conductors and Programs

4. Audiences

5. Vicious Virtuoso

6. "On the Air"

7. America Singing

8. America Playing

9. A Laboratory for Composers

10. An Object Lesson from England

11. Some Emancipations









12. And a Moral

13. Aesthetics for America

14. What Shall We Do About It?

15. Appendix.



Classification Four: Educational or Instructional

The two books, A Guide to Music for Beginners and

Others (Mason, 1909a) and The Orchestral Instruments and

What They Do (Mason, 1909b), and the two booklets, A

Neglected Sense in Piano Playing (Mason, 1912) and Ears to

Hear (Mason, 1925), spanned 16 years. Although all of

Mason's books, with the exception of his autobiography,

were written with the purpose of educating the layman

unfamiliar with the various aspects of music, these four

stand out as instructional tools.

Of the books, A Guide to Music for Beginners and

Others (Mason, 1909a) is one of the first, true music

appreciation texts. It was also issued under the titles, A

Child's Guide to Music and A Student's Guide to Music. The

latter title would be more appropriate as a child would

have difficulty understanding some of the concepts and

analogies. The text is divided into 20 chapters as follow:


1. The Listener's Part in Music

2. What Music is Made Of

3. Meter and Rhythm








4. Phrases and Phrase-Balance

5. The Key Family and Its Seven Members

6. How Melodies Are Built into Pieces

7. The Feelings Aroused By Music

8. Music That Tells Stories

9. The Inside of a Piano

10. At a Piano Recital: Bach's Fugues and Suites

11. At a Piano Recital: Beethoven's Sonatas

12. At a Piano Recital: Chopin, Schumann, and Liszt

13. The Orchestra

14. At a Symphony Concert: The Symphonies of
Beethoven

15. At a Symphony Concert: Modern Symphonies

16. At a Symphony Concert: Programme Music

17. At a Song Recital

18. At the Opera

19. At the Opera (continued)

20. Conclusion.


Several of today's college music appreciation texts

employ the same topics of Mason's first eight chapters,

e.g., Roger Kamien's (1984) Music: An Appreciation and

Kenneth Levy's (1983) Music: A Listener's Introduction.

The Orchestral Instruments and What They Do (Mason,

1909b) was Mason's contribution to assisting the concert-

goer in the recognition of the various instrumental

families, both by sight and by sound. The written








descriptions of the instruments were supplemented by

photographs of performers playing. The educator also

discussed the various peculiarities to diverse registers

and included excerpts from standard works with the hopes

that the concert-goers' attentiveness would be heightened

by the nuances of tonal effects.

The format of the book followed a logical process of

taking the orchestra as a whole, Chapter One, and then

breaking it down into its various families. Each chapter

contained several sections, providing a discussion of the

individual instruments. For example, in Chapter Two, The

Stringed Instruments, sections V-VIII, Mason examined the

violin, viola, violoncello, and the double-bass. Chapter

Three was devoted to the Woodwinds; Chapter Four, the Brass

Instruments; Chapter Five, the Percussion Instruments;

Chapter Six, Orchestral Combinations; and Chapter Seven,

Scores and Score-Reading. In addition, an appendix

consisting of the ranges of the orchestral instruments in

relation to the piano keyboard was provided as an easy

reference for querying minds.

The booklet, A Neglected Sense in Piano Playing

(1912), consisted of 53 pages with 11 section headings.

Mason believed the foundation of accurate piano-playing was

based on feel, and that the sense of touch, naturally so

delicate, through training, could become highly

discriminating thus capable of guiding the hands and








fingers "through the labrinyths of the keyboard with only

slight and casual aid from ears and eyes" (p. 11). Mason's

premise of tactile sense was developed from an idea by the

founder of the Flonzaley Quartet, Mr. Edward J.

de Coppet. The titles of the section headings explain the

intent of each aspect of the booklet: Painful Uncertainty

of Amateur Playing, Desirability of Tactile Guidance, The

Tactile Sense Latent in All Pianists, How It May Be

Developed, The Order of Practice, Space--Measurement By the

Hand, Recognition of Keys by Touch, Space--Measurement By

the Arm, Application of the Tactile Sense in General

Practice, Concentration--Exercises on the Soundless

Clavier, and Secondary Advantages of Tactile Guidance.

When applicable the author provided musical exercises, his

own and also those of Schumann and Brahms.

The second booklet, Ears to Hear (Mason, 1925), was

written for the American Library Association's Reading With

a Purpose series. The intent of the pamphlet was to

provide readers with a concise, easily read guide to books

on musical topics. Some of the authors Mason included were

Karl Gehrkens, Sir Hubert Parry, and Sir William Henry

Hadow.

Of the four categories presented one could see the

development of two overall formats, one with essays and one

without essays. The format with essays comprised the

majority of the author's works, 12 books, leaving six prose









works without essays and one autobiography. Regardless of

whether or not the books contained essays, other features

were made apparent in the categorizing of material, such as

composers' biographical information; musical examples;

bibliographic suggestions; tips to the student; suggested

scores, both piano and orchestral; illustrations of the

composers; analytical charts; and sometimes discography

recommendations. As mentioned earlier, many of the essays

in the books were previously printed in other musical

publications, so it was not surprising to the present

researcher that the majority of the author's/educator's

books fell into the format of books with essays.

Perhaps Daniel Gregory Mason's frugal vein was due to

his conservative New England background, or that he was

"habitually very methodical and systematic" (Klein, 1957,

p. 18). This was evidenced in several letters in the

author's files, one from Macmillan Company, November 11,

1948, asking Mason if he wanted to go to another firm, in

which case they would destroy the present plates and return

the publishing rights to him. Mason did this for Beethoven

and His Forerunners (1904) and The Chamber Music of Brahms

(1933). As late as August 26, 1952, Mason was still

concerned with his publications. In a letter to Presser,

the author asked why sales had dropped for From Song to

Symphony (Mason, 1924), and that in 1952 no sales had been

reported? He hinted the reason might be due to the cost









increase from $1.50 to $2.00. He inquired as to a

solution, and noted that the copyright came up for renewal

in 1952. Presser replied that cost was up and that his

royalty was raised from 150 to 200. Mason kept detailed

and accurate records of all of his publications. He even

kept a record of publishers' copies that had been sent to

friends and colleagues with the inscriptions duly noted.



Mason's Literary Style

After studying the 19 prose works and observing the

overall format one could ascertain certain consistent

traits. The traits were identified as

1. French and British spellings of words instead of
American usage

2. a penchant for foreign language phrases

3. abundance of literary references or "name-dropping"

4. an extensive vocabulary

5. interesting turns of phrase

6. sense of humor

7. use of definitions for musical terms possibly
unfamiliar to lay reader

8. treatment of technical analysis of music as
provided in the texts.


Each division shall be explored with an array of examples

from Mason's prose to show a sufficient amount of evidence

to enable the categorizing of the incidents as an

identifiable trait of his literary style.








French and British Spellings

Having been Harvard-trained and under the influence of

much European cultural heritage, it was not a surprise to

find the usage of foreign spellings of certain words in

Mason's prose. It is explainable also when one considers

that America was only beginning to come of its own as a

cultural entity, and that often times much of what was

considered "good" had to be based on European models.

After all, Europe had a long cultural history and America

was simply the melting pot, borrowing a little of this and

a little of that. Many American roots were based in

European traditions. It would not be unusual for the time

period for publishers, wishing to cater to public tastes,

to include foreign spellings as an indication of "high-

brow" or academic predilections.

In Great Modern Composers (Mason & Mason, 1916) the

term program music is referred to as "programme music" on

pp. 4, 11, and 13. This from a quote on Tschalkowsky, "the

union of the two arts (poetry and music) appeared to

Tschalkowsky in the light of a mesalliance for the one he

represented (p. 171). In From Song to Symphony (Mason,

1924) one finds the reverse, instead of the usual notation

of Tschalkowsky's Pathetique, Mason called it the Pathetic

Symphony (p. 24). Or, "This method of scoring produces an

unprecedented brilliancy and eclat." (p. 219). The Russian

composer Scriabin became Scriabine, and Borodin, Borodine,








in the manner of the French. "And so on, ad libitum and ad

infinitum" (p. 142).

Romantic Composers (Mason, 1906) included many

examples of foreign word usage instead of the English

equivalent, as evidenced below:


"the 'courtier,' Liszt" (p. 30)

"Schumann's music, a 'fait accompli'" (p. 105)

"Chopin's B-minor Sonata, its 'innigkeit'" (p. 238)

"undeniable 'malaise'" (p. 293)

"Shakspere" (p. 297)

"sarcastic 'animus'" (p. 319)

"rhodomontade" (p. 339)


Examples from other books include

"denouement" (Mason & Surette, 1916, pp. 90, 113)

"quarreled" (Mason & Surette, 1916, p. 162)

"hors d'oeuvre" (Mason, 1921, p. 43)

"caterie" (Mason, 1921, p. 46)

"ad nauseam" (Mason, 1921, p. 57)

"A outrance" (Mason, 1921, p. 61)

"bravely borne" (Mason, 1921, p. 67)

"en masse" (Mason, 1928, pp. 22, 26)

organisee" (Mason, 1928, p. 30)

"denouement" (Mason, 1928, p. 36)

"enfant terrible" (Mason, 1928, pp. 69, 131)









"innigkeit" (Mason, 1928, p. 135)

"ad nauseum" (Mason, 1928, p. 255)

"entente cordiale" (Mason, 1928, p. 303)

"mutual rapprochement" (Mason, 1918a, pp. 31, 35)

"per contra" (Mason, 1918a, p. 115)

"6clairissement" (Mason, 1918a, p. 201)

"A outrance" (Mason & Surette, 1907, p. 61)

"milieu" (Mason & Surette, 1907, p. 69)

"denouement" (Mason & Surette, 1907, p. 90)

"noblesse" (Mason & Surette, 1907, p. 137).


Foreign Language Phrases

Mason's penchant for foreign phrases was manifested

throughout his prose. A comment of his on Powell's

selection of the title, Rhapsodie NHgre, from The Dilemma

of American Music (Mason, 1928), showed the author's

awareness, in a subtle manner, of a predilection to foreign

influence; "French titles have appealed to American

composers ever since the days of Gottschalk" (pp. 12-13).

Mason's usage, as evidenced in his books, include


raison d'etre (Mason & Mason, 1916, p. 218)
toute musique qui provoque l'emotion sans aucun
intermediary conscient (Mason, 1906, p. 41)

En courant sur son lit de pierres, elle se creuse de
plis profonds, se h4risse de creates saillantes, et ces
plis et ces creates se croisent obliquemont en miroitant
(Mason, 1906, p. 43)

coquetterie des apartments (Mason, 1906, p. 224)









Je vois prie de vous asseoir (Mason, 1906, p. 250)

pat6 de fois gras (Mason, 1906, p. 335)

pari passu (Mason, 1906, p. 5)

Nous n'irons plus au bois (Mason, 1921, p. 37)

quid pro quo (Mason, 1921, p. 62)

par les sublimes iddes de Beethoven, dant une heure
avant de mourir 11 analysait lucidement les beaut6s, 11
s'est 4teint presque subitement et sans peine, sous la
caresse bienfaisante et le sourire angelique de san
douce compagne; et cette mort, si simple et serene,
semblait etre l'inevitable epilogue d'une vie comme la
sienne, entirement d4pens4e dans la pour suite du Bien
et dans l'amour du Beau (Mason, 1921, pp. 67-68)

spirit de corps (Mason, 1921, p. 77)

Molto espressivo e sostenuto (Mason, 1918a, p. 130) [to
a music student or musician may not need translation, a
lay-reader may think otherwise]

Il n'est vraiment, en art, que le coeur pour engendrer
de la beauty (Mason, 1918a, p. 175)

raison d'etre (Mason & Surette, 1907, p. 86)

tres beau, tre beau (Mason, 1927, p. 39)

mutatis mutandis (Mason, 1931, p. 84)

reduction ad absurdum (Mason, 1931, p. 88)

esprit de corps (Mason, 1931, p. 109)

la musisque et le people (Mason, 1931, p. 150)

11 faut clouter A la musique comme un'brute (Mason,
1931, p. 173)
il n'est que le coeur pour engendrer de la beauty"
(Mason, 1931, p. 176)

paquet des nerfs (Mason, 1902, p. 52)

Je n'aime pas (Mason, 1902, p. 127)









parti pris (Mason, 1902, p. 248)

sine qua non (Mason, 1904, p. 135)

terra incognita (Mason, 1904, p. 213)

souffrante et sensible (Mason, 1904, p. 257)

esprit lucide, raisonable, merchant toujours droit aux
choses necessaires (Mason, 1904, p. 257).


Literary References or Name-Dropping

It would be an understatement to say that Mason was

just well-read. As attested to earlier in this chapter,

literature was a way of life for Daniel Gregory. He

surrounded himself with the words of philosophers,

theorists, sociologists, psychologists, artists, and

scientists. Much of his own philosophy was derived from

his readings and was reflected in his writings. In the

forward of Artistic Ideals, he stated:


The essays have been based on passages culled
from the author's reading during many years, in
the hope of sharing their stimulus with other
artists and lovers of art. Some of the
brief sentences, copied down many years ago or at
second hand, cannot now be traced. (Mason, 1927,
forward)


References to longer quotations were listed in the back of

the book. The author began Artistic Ideals (Mason, 1927)

with three quotes, one by Chesterton on action, one by

Emerson on repose, and one by George Sand on direction.

Mason then prefaced each chapter with a quote by one of the









following: Schopenhauer, Emerson, Gautier, Thoreau,

Bertrand Russell, and Wordsworth.

Other examples to literary references are as follows:


As the lover of poetry may comprehend a song of
Burns before he is ready for a tragedy of
Shakespeare. (Mason, 1924, p. 2)

A little learning is a dangerous thing, drink
deep, or taste not the Pierian spring. (a
couplet by Pope cited in Mason, 1924, p. 140)

If Schumann and his fellows are the sentimental
novelists of music, the Thackerays and the George
Eliots, here are the naturalists. (Mason, 1906,
p. 23)

We forget that music is neither a symbol which
can convey an abstract thought, nor a brute cry
which can express an instinctive feeling.
(Vernon Lee cited in Mason, 1906, p. 56)

Byron, Heine, and the other romantic composers of
the day he reads. (on Schumann, Mason, 1906,
p. 108)

The grace notes are no more meant to be
heard individually than the spots of paint in a
Monet are meant to be seen individually. (on
Chapin, Mason, 1906, p. 213)


Three quotes open the essay "Music As a Humanity" and

form the basis of the content of his essay which pleas for

the need of a cultivation of one's feelings through the

arts. In addition Mason related these illustrations with

the following literary figures:


The value may be made clear by comparison
with that of detective stories and the character
novels of Meredith or Hardy. (Mason, 1921, p. 8)









The parallelism between the romantic period
beginning with Beethoven and the poetic period of
Wordsworth, Shelley and Keats. (Mason, 1921,
p. 10)

For what Mathew Arnold called sweetness and
light--that Harvard was the first American
college to introduce into the curriculum the
study of music. (Mason, 1921, p. 18)

[On rhythm, one must be able to follow as one can
follow,] the great Sherlock Holmes through one of
Dr. Conan Doyle's stories. (Mason, 1921, p. 19)

In such education Harvard--the Harvard of Norton,
of James, of Santayana--is still the pioneer.
(Mason, 1921, p. 21)

[One might] on first seeing a picture by Millet,
pay more attention to the wooden shoes. (Mason,
1921, p. 34)

Turgenev and Tolstoi in their novels. (Mason,
1921, p. 34)

Probably for every ten Americans who have gained
a sense of sympathy with Germany through Goethe's
or Heine's poetry there are a dozen who love
Beethoven's music. (Mason, 1921, p. 35)

What Emerson said of charity is even truer of
patronage. (Mason, 1921, p. 59)

In Thoreau's phrase, have been, "in at the
life." (Mason, 1921, p. 71)

If I knew that a man was coming to my house,
[says Thoreau in Walden,] with the conscious
design of doing me good, I should run for my
life. (Mason, 1921, p. 76; Mason quotes on how
American composers feel today)
Wagner need not be a combination in one organism
of Schopenhauer, Rubens, Goethe, and heaven knows
how many other men. (Mason 1921, p. 87)

The lesson taught by the greatest moralists, from
Marcus Aurelius down to Bertrand Russell.
(Mason, 1921, p. 124)




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