A study of the comparative effectiveness of two methods of presenting to parents information relative to speech and lang...

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A study of the comparative effectiveness of two methods of presenting to parents information relative to speech and language development in the preschool child
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vi, 147, 1 leaves. : mounted illus. ; 28 cm.
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Battin, Rosabell Ray, 1929-
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English language -- Study and teaching   ( lcsh )
Speech -- Study and teaching   ( lcsh )
Television in education   ( lcsh )
Speech thesis Ph. D   ( lcsh )
Dissertations, Academic -- Speech -- UF   ( lcsh )
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Thesis (M.A.) -- University of Florida.
Bibliography:
Bibliography: leaves 135-146.
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Manuscript copy.
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Vita.

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A Study of the Comparative Effectiveness of Two

Methods of Presenting to Parents Information

Relative to Speech and Language Development

In the Preschool Child









By
ROSABELL RAY BATTIN









A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE COUNCIL OF
THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE
DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY


UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
August, 1959













ACKNOIWLDGiXENTS


The writer would like to express her deep appreciation
and gratitude to Professor H. P. Constans, Chairman of the
Department of Speech, for his interest, helpful suggestions,
and criticisms in the preparation of this study and for the
time and effort he extended as chairman of her committee.
She would also like to express her appreciation to Dr. E. P.
Home, Dr. L. L. Zimmerman, Dr. L. L. Hale, Dr. J. C. Dixon,
and Dr. R. E. Tow for serving as members of her supervisory
committee. Appreciation is extended also to Dr* C. K. Thomas,
who graciously agreed to serve on the committee during
Doctor Tew's absence, and to Dr. R. J. Anderson for checking
the statistical findings.
Special thanks go to Dr. T. C. Battin, Mr. R. E.
Barthold, and the staff of KUHT for the use of their tele-
vision facilities and their assistance in producing the tele-
vision program. The writer is grateful to Dr. R. K. Evans
and to Professor Sol Tannenbaum for helping with the procedure
and statistics, to the ministers and educational directors of
the churches for assisting in securing subjects, and to the
mothers who gave freely of their time to serve as subjects
for the study.














TABLE OF CONTENTS


ACKIOWLEDGENTS *

LI3T OF TAMIES .

Chapter


* 9 9 9 9 9
* 9 9 9 9 9,


I, INTHnnUCTION .

Background Material
Purpose of the Study

II, PROCEDURE .

Experimental Design
Designing the Televisioa Program and Lecture
Arranging for the Program and Lecture
Preliminary Interview
Designing the Teat
Selection of Subjects
Airing the Program
Presenting the Lecture
Pre-testing and Post-testing
Treatment of Test Data

III. ANALYSIS OF THE DATA .

Introduction
Group Variables
Pre-teating and Post-testing Resulta

IV. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS .

Summary
Conelusions
Possible Applications


Pag

Ut










TABLE OF CONTENTS -- Continue


APPENDIX I 90

I. Questionnaire for TV Stations 90
II. Television script 92
III. Visual Aida Used with Locturo I ll
IV. Sohodule used by Interviewer. 117
V. Proe-tet and Part I of Post-test 119
VI. Part II Post-test Leeture Group 129
VII. Part II Post-est TV Group 131
VIII. Letter to Television Group 133
IX. Letter to Leture Group .. 134
BIBLIOGRAPHRY 135
BIOnRAPHICAL SK TCH .. 17













11 T OF TABLES


Table Page
1. Parental Age and Education 49
2. Mothers Employent 50
3. Fatherst' hployment 51
4. Number of Children 52
5. Group I with Group II Before 53
6. Variances Group I and II Before *. 54
7. Group I with Group II After 55
8. Variances Group I and II After 56
9. Comparison of Before and After Soores 57
10. Comparison by Evaluative Dimension Before 58
11. Comparison by Evaluative Dimension After 60
12. Question 1 62
13. Question 2 63


15. Question 6 ....... 65
15. Question 6 .......... 66
16. Question 7 66
17. question 8 66
18. Question 9 .. 68
19. Question lO .. 69
20. Question .. .. 69










LIST OF TABLES Continud

21. Question 12 .. .. 71
22. Question 3 .. 71


24. Question f ....... 72

25. Response to uestiona 3 and 16 75
26. Question ) .......... 77
27* question 4 786
287 Questlon 16 79
28. Queotlon 16 ........ .,?











CHAPTER I


INTF.ODUCTION

Background Material
In the 1951 White House Conferenee Report on
Children and Youth it was estimated that there was a
five per sent incidence of speech disorders occurring
between the ages of five and twenty-one years. The
percentages by type of defect indicated approximately
three per cent had functional articulatory defects,
seven-tenthe of one per cent were classified as stut-
tering and the remaining one and three-tenths per cent
were non-functional defects.1
There is evidence in 1957 to show that through-
out the nation the incidence of speech disorders among
the general population has reached a higher percentage.
Milisen has sumarised the numerous reports on the
incidence of speech disorders among the general
population. In this summary he placed the median
incidence at fifteen per cent of the public school

Aaerican Speech and Hearing Association Comaittee
on the Mid-Century White House Conference, "Speech Dis-
orders and Speech Correction," Journal of Spoeeh and HeariTn
Disorders XVII (June, 1952), 130.











children from kindergarten to the fourth grade who may
have seriously defective speech. He found that four to
five per sent of the children in grade four and above had
speech difficulties severe enough to require remedial
work,2

The majority of speech problems encountered in
the public schools are functional and can be traced
back to their onset which is in the early developmental
stages of speech and language. Van Riper states:
The skills involved in speech begin to be acquired
as soon as the child is born and are seldom perfectly
mastered, even during a lifetime. Mueh of the speech
learning during the first six months is relatively
independent of the stimulation given by the child's
parents. Lven in the crying and wailing of infants
the short, sharp inhalation and prolonged exhalation
so fundamental to true speech are being practiced.
Lip, Jaw, and tongue movements involved in the pro-
duction of all the speech sounds in all the human
languages are repeatedly performed. The early aware-
ness of these movements and their accompanying sounds
provides the foundations for speeeh readiness. Through-
out the first years of life, there are many ways
in which parents can help or hinder the development
of speech. Their knowledge or ignorance determines
whether the child shall learn to talk because of
parents' efforts or in spite of them. Their appli-
cation of principles so obvious that we wonder why
they should ever be violated, will determine whether
the child's speech will be an asset or a handicap.
Time after time the speech correctionist tries to
trace the cause of a stutter or an articulatory
defeat, only to lose it in the vague parental

2Robert Mllisen, "The Incidence of Speech Disorders,"
Handbook of Sneech Pathology, ed. Lee Edward Travis
(










memories of childhood.3

Since speech is a learned process, we might
L'ollow the assumption put forth by Van Riper that a
speech difficulty rests not only with the child but with
the parent who serves as the child's teacher for this
aiportant function. Ainsworth qualifies this assumption
in the following manner:

As far as the child himself is concerned, speech
develops from his ability to cry lustily, then to
enlarge the variety of noises, or sounds, which he
makes, and finally to select and apply these sounds in
organized patterns (words) which have an established
meaning for other human beings with whom he is in
contact. Out it is the parents who supply these
patterns and who interpret them for the child. The
ways in which they do these things determine, to a
gret eItent, the eventual adequacy of the child's
speeeh-.
In further support of what the parent role consists,
Wood found in a study on the relationship between parental
maladjustment and functional articulatory defects in

children that
When the mothers themselves were clinically treated
for purposes of alleviating their own problems and
securing better adjustment for themselves, their
children improved more rapidly under a program of
speech correction than did the children of those
who were not treated.

3Charles Van Riper, Speech Correction. PrinciLle;
and Practles (E:nglewood lif a, New Jerseys Prentice- all,
Inc., 1954), p. 92.

4Wendell Johnson (ed.), Speech Prpblems of Children
(New eork: Grune and Stratton, 195l ) p. 1.8











Finally we ay say on the basis of this study
that functional articulatory defeats of children are
definitely and significantly associated with alad-
Justent and undesirable traits on the par of the
parent, tnd that such factors are usually maternally
centered.F
Molyneaux conducted a study in which she compared
the environment of children classified by their teachers
as having advanced speech development with that of children
classified as having retarded speech development. She
had two groups of thirty children; each group ranged fro
four and a half to six years of ag. One group was
advanced in articulation and language ability and the
other group was retarded in articulation and language
ability. These groups were matched for age, sex, and
I. Q. and they did not include bilingual, physically
handicapped, poorly coordinated or mentally retarded
children. The parents of both groups were given a ques-
tionnaire using the personal interview technique. Her
study indicated that:
The importance of parental attitudes and behavior
in the creation of the child's early environment
cannot be overemphasized. The two groups of parents
included in the investigation were remarkably similar
in some respects, but they differed significantly
in regard to (1) their attitudes toward the importance
of language training in the preschool years of child-

flenneth Wood, "Parental 'aladjustaent and Func-
tional Articulatory Defects in Children," JournM atpeeh
sad Hearinx Disorders, II (December, 1946) 2720











hood as demonstrated in their actual efforts to foster
linguistic skills, (2) their realization of the is-
portance of parent-child companionship and cooperative
activities (3) the consistency and wisdom of their
child training techniques, and (4) their estimate
of their child's capacity for mature behavior."
The desire of the parents of the advanced group
to encourage language activities in the home and
their actual efforts to aid their children in de-
veloping verbal proficiency appeared to pay definite
dividends in the level of linguistic skill attained
by those children. It is interesting to note that
in addition to exhibiting greater verbal proficiency
in their actual social contacts with others, the
children of the advanced group also appeared to
exhibit more extensive use of verbal expression in
their solitary play activities.. The use of
language thus appeared to ke a pleasurable activity
even in social situations,'
The importance of parent-child relationships in
the development of articulate speech has received additional
emphasis in an unpublished study directed by Mower. The
relationships of a number of mothers and their infants
over a period of many months with special reference to
the role of vocalisation of mother and infant were observed.
Mover states:

One of the first things discovered was that
most others and particularly those, who, by
other criteria, seemed to be the "good" mothers -
kept their infants "bathed in sound" most of their
king hours. While caring for their infants or

6Dorothy M. Molyneaux, environmentall Factors
Differentiating Children of Advanced Speech Development
from those with Retarded Speech." (Unpublished Ph.D.
dissertation, Stanford University, 1949), p. 209.

7ljid*. p. 215.











just spending leisure time with them, these mother
vocalized aLnost continuously; and even when other
duties took them to adjoining rooms, they would com-
monly sing or call to the baby intermittently. .
It seems probable that much of the motivation for
the babbling and cooing that infants normally engage
in stems from the fact that the human voice, by
virtue of the circumstances just described, has
taken on pleasurable (secondary reinforcing) prop-
erties. Although baby's voice does not sound exactly
like mother's voice, the similarity will usually
be sufficient to cause a carryover of some of the
pleasurable qualities of one to the other and we
may surmise that the production of mother-like sounds,
in the form of babbling is a first and highly suc-
cessful step in the child's progression toward fully
articulate speech.5
Lewis also stresses the importance of the role
which the mother plays. Referring to it as "interchange
between mother and child" he points out that:
Most mothers are happily able to watch their
children grow in a normal way-some children more
quickly than others. All that is needed is a
mother's natural interest in her child, so that
she is constantly speaking to him and getting
his rudimentary cooing and gurgling in reply,?
The value of the role played by parents, especially
during the beginning of the child's speech readiness, is
likewise emphasized by Stinehfield and Young who believe that:
Children develop speech most normally when given
encouragement and direction at the age when the
speech readiness first begins to be apparent, with

80. V. Nowrer, "Speech Development in the Tonng
Child: 1. The Autism Theory of Speech Development and Some
Clinical Application, on a.l of oeh and zBl Dis-
orders, XVII (September, 9 27-26.
9N. M. Lewis, ow Children Learn to Segak (London,
George 8. arrap and Co. Ltd., 1957), 7.










the attempt to name objects or to designate then
in words. This is close upon the end of the first
year in the average child, but say appear as early
as the ninth month in precocious children, and is
likely to continue active to about the eighteenth
moath. With the ooming of the second birthday, or
around the twenty-fourth month, the most favorable
period for speech development may have passed so
that speech subsequently develops much more slowly
and with less facility than when it is begun earlier.10
Van Riper asur up the beliefs that have been
expressed by writers in the fields of linguistics, psy-
chology, and speech pathology regarding the important
role that parents play in helping their children achieve
normal speech and language in these words
The large majority of speech disorders date from
early infancy. The child has somehow failed to gain
the proper articulation, veal or fluency skills
which anoral children master without too mech diffi-
culty. Our culture demands a high standard of speech
very early in lift but few parents know how to teach
a child to talk.J'
As more and more emphasis has been placed upon the
effee of environment and parent-child relationship on
the development of speech and language in the child,
specialists in the field of speech correction have become
aware of the need to educate parents of preschool children

10Sara Stinehfield and d&na Hill ouIng, Children
itailag r DfIve I (Stanford, Californis

lVean Riper, Speech Correction, p. 92.











concerning normal speech and language development.
Anderson states:
There is little doubt that the home is the greatest
single influence in shaping a child's speech into
the pattern it will eventually assume when he becomes
an adult. The speech models involved in the home
environment all combine to be a powerful force in
determining whether the child's speech develops
normally, whether the process is interfered with,
or whether serious problems later manifest themselves.
While perhaps the pre-school years are the most
critical ones in the establishment of speech and
language habits the process continues as long as
the child remains at home. The problem then, is
first one of prevention and later one of cure. The
parents' first concern, therefore is to establish
the favorable conditions that will insure normal or
superior speech development in their children. The
second concern is to discover and apply the proper
remedies at the right time in the event speech dis-
turbances do appear.. Parents want to do the
right thing for their children; what they need is
proper guidance for avoiding and modifying the
negative factors that may bring on speech problems
later and for fostering conditions that will make
for normal speech development or will bglp alleviate
the speech problems once it has begun.2
Previous to 1950, few books written for parents
emphasized a positive means of facilitating normal speech
and language growth. Rather, the material was set forth
to aid those parents whose children had a speech problem.
In 1950, Van Riper wrote a book specifically directed
to the parents of young children in which he discusses

1 2Virgil Anderson, lrovit the Chld,' Seeh
(New York: Oxford University Preoss, 19), p. ix.










the normal development of speech in the preschool child.13
While some parents may read material such as that
found in Van Riper's book, the great majority of parents
of preschool children won't even know it exists. Because
there is a need to oducato parents relative to their
position or role in the development of speech and language
in their children, it is desirable to develop a more
effective method of disseminating such material. Among
the many ways that a wider dissemination of this material
might be brought about we are concerned with: (1) pre-
sentation of classroom lectures for parents of preschool
children, and (2) presentation by television of a lecture
series.. The major difficulty encountered with the first
method would be that of motivating the parents to some to
centrally located points where the lecture course could
be held. In the second method, parents who had television
sets could view the lectures without leaving the comfort
of their living room.
Present day statistics indicate that in the United
Stee s, an average of four hours and fifty-seven minutes
per day are spent in televiewing.l4 Statistics also

13Charles Van Riper, Teachil our Child to Talk
(New Yorks Harper and Brothers, 1950).
14Loo Beoar t The Ag of Telovialo (New Yorkt
rederick Ugar Publishing Co., 1956)a, p. 4.









10
indicate there are over forty-two million receivers in homes
throughout the nation.15 These figures offer some basis
for assuming that parents might be more readily contacted
through television. The potential of this medium for
adult education has been recognized by the educators
and cultural leaders who have been instrumental in estab-
lishing thirty-four educational television stations now
in operation n in twenty-five states and which could be
used as outlets for presenting a series on speech and
language development. If television were to prove a
satisfactory and effective method for presenting infor-
mation on speech and language development, a series
could be recorded on film or video tape and made available
through the facilities of the National Educational Radio
and Television Center to communities in which there was
a commerelal television station. Some interested person,
presumably a speech correctionist, could then make
arrangements to have such a filmed series publicized
and telecast through local television facilities.
However, there are several factors to be taken
into consideration before a decision can be reached as
to which method of parent education should be employed.

5Televisioa Faetbook. XIVII (Fall-Winter, 1905), 31.









11

Before such a project is undertaken the following questions
should be answered, (1) do parents desire this type of
information, (2) would they be willing to attend and
follow such a lecture series, (3) which method of presen-
tation, television or classroom lecture, would be the
better means of disseminating this type of information to
parents, and (4) is either method effective?
There are other factors that must be considered
when looking at the overall picture of these two methods
of presentation. In the classroom situation it is
always possible for the parent to interrupt the instructor
to ask a question. Since the classroom instructor is
not burdened by the pressure of time, such as that imposed
upon the television instructor, it in possible for those
in the classroom situation to receive answers to their
questions. They also have personal contact with the
instructor. However, because of the seating arrangement
usual in the classroom situation, a number of the parents
milht not be able to see charts and demonstrations easily
and clearly.
On the other hand, the television presentation
offers each parent a "front-row seat" for each lecture,
Because of the technical aspects of television, the
parent is able to clearly see each chart and demonstration.











It is obvious that the parent viewer can't interrupt the
television presentation to ask questions. However, parents
could mail in questions to be answered on the next program
or they could telephone their questions in to an assistant
who in turn would pass the questions on to the instructor
in the studio who could answer them during the television
lecture. This procedure of relaying questions to the
instructor has been used by KUHT, University of Houston
Educational Television Station.
In any event, it is necessary to experiment with
both methods of presentation to determine which is accepted
as the more effective means of presenting information on
speech and language growth in the preschool child.
By the very nature of the television medium, that
of its potential coverage and method of communication by
sight and sound, it would appear reasonable to assume
that here is a means by which specialists in the field of
speech correction could give parents direction and guidance
in the speech and language development of the child. To
determine whether educators in the field of speech corree-
tion have utilised television for this purpose, a
questionnaire (refer Appendix I) was sent to the thirty-four
educational stations now telecasting, and to the office of
the National Bducational Television and Radio Center in









13
Ann Arbor, Michigan. The questionnaire was divided into

two parts.
The first part concerned itself with whether or
not the station had presented a telecourse in the field
of speech correction. If so, how many programs were pre-
sented, how long did the telecourse run, the year of
presentation, and the number and classification of students.
It also asked whether the course included material on speech
and language development in the preschool child; if so, how
many lectures were devoted to this type material. A question
was included on whether or not any survey was made relative

to the effectiveness of the telecourse method of presenting
the material as opposed to presenting the same material

in the regular classroom situation.
The second part of the questionnaire concerned
itself with whether or not a series of programs in the

field of speech correction had been presented. If the
answer was yes, they were asked the number of programs
in the series, the type of audience for which it was
designed, the length of the series, year of presentation,

and estimated number of viewers. The questionnaire
inquired whether the series included material on speech
and language development in the preschool child, and, if so,

the number of programs devoted to this type of material.









14
The station was also asked for the results of any survey
conducted relative to the effectiveness of such a series
and a description of the experimental design.
The thirty-four educational stations and the National
Educational Television and Radio Center returned the
questionnaires. Thirty-two reported no telecourse in the
area of speech correction while two reported that they had
presented such a course. One of the stations was WHA-TV,
Madison, Wisconsin. In 1957, they presented a one semester
course entitled: "Speech 25, Introduction to Speech Correo-
tion," consisting of forty half-hour programs. The course
was viewed mainly by college students; however, some of the
general public also viewed the course. Forty students were
enrolled and a research study was made in conjunction with
their viewing of the course. The regularly enrolled
students were divided into two groups, one remained in the
studio with the instructor while the other watched in a
separate classroom over television. Written tests were
presented to both groups at the end of the course to deter-
mine comparative learning scores. To test comparative
effectiveness of primarily visual versus aural styles of
exposition, six units of the course were presented by means
of specially made kinescopes and the identical units taught
verbally. A true-false written examination and a filmed
examination were then given.









15

The primary findings from the research project
were (1) the method of testing affects the apparent
efficiency of the method of teaching and (2) comparison
of the two conditions of instruction revealed no signifi-
cant difference in learning between the studio group and
the monitor group regardless of the type of examination.
The instructor felt that the use of television
had improved the quality of instruction because demon-
stration of clinical techniques of diagnosis and therapy
in speech correction could be handled more efficiently by
television techniques than in the usual live class
situation.16
WQD, Pittsburgh reported that they had presented
a thirty-two program, two semester telecourse on speech
improvement designed for primary grade children. No
research has been carried out in conjunction with the series.
Eight of the thirty-four stations reported that
they had presented a short series of programs on speech
correction. Of this group, five stated that their programs
were aimed at the public in general, two reported that the
programs were primarily designed for parents, and one
directed the series toward teachers ano students. None of

16A detailed report of research findings in connection
with this series is to be published as hsear t
ro. 11 by the University of Wisconsin Television bortory.









16
the eight stations reported having made a survey or study
as to the effectiveness of the series.
KOAC-AM-TV, Corvallis, Oregon is presenting a con-

tinuing series on speech and language development designed
for parents and children. The series has been running
approximately six months and there are an estimated 100,000
television sets in the viewing area. WVS, Milwaukee,
presented a four program series on speech correction in 1958
with one of the programs devoted to speech and language
development in the preschool child, while the Alabama
Educational Television Network originating from Auburn
presented a twelve program series in 1957 with approximately
three programs devoted to speech and language development
in the preschool child. Neither station was able to
estimate the number of viewers. KCTS, Seattle, Washington
reported four programs devoted to speech and language
development in their series which was designed for teachers
and students. The remaining four stations had presented
a series on speech correction which did not include infor-
mation on speech and language development.
The Educational Television and Radio Center reported
that they had no films in the speech correction and speech
science area.
Over the past ten years, there have been television
programs broadcast over local and national commercial









17
stations demonstrating how various speech and hearing clinics
diagnose and treat speech problems. In 1953 and again in
1956, Western Reserve University and an affiliate, the
Cleveland Speech and Hearing Center, offered over a local,
commercial station a telecourse entitled, "Your Child Learns
to Speak."17 This series was presented as a university course
for which students could receive three hours of credit under
the academic listing of "Introduction to Speech Correction."
The purpose of the course was listed as:
(1) to present a qualified university course for
beginning students in speech and hearing therapy,
(2) to discuss the training procedures and the pro-
fessional needs of children with speech and/or hearing
problems, and (3) to initiate an interest and
awareness in parents so that ame speech or hearing
problems might be prevented.l
No attempt was made to evaluate the effectiveness of
presenting this material over television.
When attempting to evaluate television for educational
purposes, one is immediately aware of the tremendous educa-
tional potential which this medium has to offer. Newsom, in
his summary report of the Televisions Institute held in 1952,

17ancy Wood, T ur Child Learns to Seak: Telecourse
e Study and Guide (leveland: Western Reerve Unversity,

1raney Wood, "Televised Speech and Hearing Therapy,"
Journal of Exceptional Children XXII (January, 1956), 152.









18
listed the assets of television as: (1) large audience
can be influenced, (2) television goes right into the home,

(3) people and properties can be utilized better, (4) simul-
taneity adds effectiveness and (5) television can teach. In
explaining this fifth item, he states:
Participants in the institute believe that there
is now convincing evidence from numerous experiments
that television can be utilized successfully as a
teaching medium. Whether it be the experience with
the telecourses at Western Reserve University, or the
experiments at Syracuse University, or at the Special
Devices Center of the United States Navy, at Fort
Washington, Long Island, all agree that television
is an effective educational medium. Evidence indicates
that television is as effective as traditional class-
teaching in the amount learned and retained.I7
In order to test the effectiveness of television as
a teaching tool, research projects were set up and conducted
by students working for advanced degrees. However, Kumata,
in reviewing the research that has been conducted in thia
area states that it lacks quantity and quality.
Actual performance has far outstripped evaluation
in instructional television programming. This lag,
taken by itself, is not disheartening. Indeed, it
bespeaks a faith and enthusiasm in instructional
television even though concrete evidence on many points
may as yet be lacking. It is the relationship of evalgg-
tion to practice which should merit serious attention,2.

19Carroll Newsom, "Use of Television in Education,*
A Television Policy for Education: Proceedins of the Tele-
vision Prorams Institute (Washington: American Council on
Education, 1952), pp. 1O4-141.
20. Kumata, An Inveto of Intartto al Televfson
Research, (Ann Arbors Educational Television and Radio Center,
T195T P. 1.











Research projects which utilise television are

difficult to construct because of the restrictions imposed
by the medium. Some television research has been discredited
because the individual setting up the problem attempted to
evaluate instructional programs which had already been aired.
This resulted in trying to fit the questions to a set program
rather than preparing the experimental design prior to the
presentation of the program. A second difficulty is finding
adequate criteria for measuring program effectiveness. A
third problem is the inability to establish adequate controls.
In the fourth place, if an attempt is made to establish better
controls the studies are forced into closed-circuit and a
captive audience situation. Finally, there is difficulty
in getting representative audience sazpllng.
One of the important questions raised in connection

with this research has been, how do students taught by means
of television compare with those taught in the regular class-
room situation? Most of the investigators have found that
students taught by television have done as well as students
taught in the regular classroom situation, and on occasions,
the television students have achieved higher academic stand-
ing. In an attempt to evaluate television and regular









20

classroom lectures, Evans, Roney, and McAdams21 studied
the effectiveness of television instruction in two college

level courses offered over KURT-TV, at the University of
Houston. An elementary psychology course and an elementary

biology course were chosen for the investigation. In the

psychology course, comparisons were made between ninety-
six students in an on the campus lecture section, seven-
teen students enrolled in a section for the television

lecture followed by correspondence work, and thirty
students enrolled in a television, supplemented by campus-

discussion section. In the biology course, two groups of
seventy-eight students matched for college class, grade
and sex were used in television and non-television sections.
The authors report that their findings show no significant
difference among test scores for the groups in the psy-

chology sections nor for the television and non-television
sections taking biology.

Rock, Duva, and Murray22 presented a series of

21[, ana, H. B. Roney, and W. J. cdams, "An
Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Instruction and Audience
reaction to Frograuming in an i4ucational Television Station,'
Journal of Applied Psychology, XX111 (1955), 277-279.
22R. T. Roek, Jr., J. 8. Duva, and J. E. Murray,
Training by ieeaviion The omparativ L' e ivna o
nstruction by Tleviion Tevison ecordin and
vetionl Glasro Prod D report 47t-02-2,
ort Wasington, L. I., N. .. Special Devices Center,
NAV&luS P-650-2, no date.










eight one-hour telecasts concerned with different phases
of an Army division's operation in an encounter. The
subjects were 3000 army reservists, representing almost
all branches of the army, and ranging in rank from private
to colonel. The reservists were selected from reserve
headquarters in ten different cities, and viewed the series
in their respective locations. Professional actors were
used in each of the eight programs. Learning was measured
by multiple-choice type questions and a pro-test and post-
test was given for every program except the first. A
number of the pre-test questions were used to measure
retention from one to six weeks after the presentation
of a single program. Questionnaires designed to check
reactions toward television instruction were presented
at the end of the final session, and a rating scale for
reactions to the entire series was also presented.
The findings revealed that all subjects made
higher scores following the telecast. This gain held
true for all groups when they were eategorised according
to rank. Four-fifths of the persons in the groups
reported that the series was interesting or very inter-
eating and a majority of the group judged the series as
good or excellent. Three-fourths of the men stated

that they preferred being taught by television rather
than by any other method.









22
The investigators, after analyzing the programs,
stated that narration by itself or combined with other
forms of teaching was extremely effective. They felt
that drama used as the sole means of presenting material
was the least effective.
Shimberg23 evaluated the effect of teaching the
American Red Cross home nursing course by television.
He used three experimental groups; the first received all
instruction by television, the second received a weekly
practice session in addition to the television instruction,
and the third received its instruction in a regular class-
room situation without television. The television groups
viewed thirteen half-hour programs twice a week while the
regular classroom group attended seven two-hour lectures
with demonstrations and supervised practice. The tele-
vision groups met in Houston while the classroom group
met in Oklahoma City. Comparisons were made between the
groups on a battery of pre-tests and post-tests. There were
seventy-seven in the television only group, forty-three
in the television and practice group, and two hundred
and seventeen in the classroom group.

23Benjamin Shimberg, Effectivenegs of TelejTsion
in Teaching Home Nursing, ('rinceton New Jersey: Eduea-
tional Testing Service, Research Bulletin RB-54-19,
August, 1954) (duplicated).









23
The findings suggest that television instruction
was as effective as the classroom instruction for teach-

ing home nursing. It must be noted here, however, that
the groups were not well matched for locale, number, or

length and number of lecture periods and there was no
mention of an attempt at control of such factors as age,
intelligence, and socio-economic level.

Tannenbaum reports two comparative studies on
instruction through television.24,25 The first was a
study presenting material in periodontics to practicing
dentists in six states. The procedure was as follows:
One group viewed three one-hour lecture-demonstrations
presented over closed-circuit television with a fourth
summary hour which was used to answer questions raised
during the previous lectures. Eaeh person in this group
was provided with a supplementary manual. A second group
heard only the sound portion over a telephone hookup plus
viewing film-strip visual aide. A third group studied
only the manual. A fourth group watched a kinescope re-
cording approximately one month after the live series.

2P. H. Tannenbaum, Instruction through Television:
A Comparative Study (Urbana, Illinois: Institute of Comnni-
cation Research, University of Illinois, June, 1956)
(mimeographed).
25p. I. Tannenbaum, anstruction throh T lervion
An Experimental Study (Urbana, Illinois: Insttute o Cmuni-
oation Research, University of Illinois, 1956) (mimeographed).









24

A fifth group, used as a control, consisted of dentists
who neither saw the television series nor the manual.
The live television group comprised of two
hundred and four dentists, one hundred and sixty of which
received a thirty-five multiple choice examination after
seeing the first three programs while the remaining
forty-six were tested after viewing the summary hour.
There were ten dentists in the telephone group, twelve
in the manual only group, forty in the kinescope group,
and one hundred and thirty-eight dentists in the control
group. No pre-testing was done. In analysing the test,
it was found that eight of the thirty-five questions were
not covered either in the manual or the telecasts and
nine of the questions were covered only in the telecast.
All of the experimental groups did better on the
test than the control group. Using the 't' test, the
mean differences were reported significant with the exception
of the comparison between the control group and the manual

only group.
The second study was made of three hundred and
fifty-six students in a basic physiology course at the
University of Illinois Medical School. The students were
divided into two groups which were equated on the basis
of their mid-term grades. The first group of one hundred









25
and eighty-nine students received regular classroom
instruction in a lecture hall in the presence of tele-
vision cameras; the second group of one hundred and

sixty-seven students received their instruction through
closed-circuit television. Three fifty-minute lectures
on the human respiratory system were given on consecutive
days. An unannounced nineteen-item multiple choice test

covering the material presented in the three lectures was
given to all students.

The test results were studied using analysis of
the variance to test whether differences could be found
between the lecture and television groups as a whole,

whether sub-groups (first and second year medical students,
dentistry, and graduate students) differed among them-
selves, and whether there was any interaction between any
of the sub-groups and the method of instruction. Com-
parisons of the mean scores showed a difference at the
seven per cent level of confidence in favor of the tele-
vision group. A preference scale was presented to the
television group.

On the basis of this scale, a comparison was made
between the test scores of those who were favorable to
television instruction, those who were neutral to tele-
vision instruction, and those who were unfavorable to










instruction by television. The results indicated that
those who were favorable or neutral to instruction by
television did significantly better on the examination
than those who did not favor this form of instruction.
An experiment in assa media and learning was
conducted by Villiams26 at the University of Toronto.
One hundred and eight undergraduates of the University
were used. They were divided into four groups containing
an equal number of high, average, and low students. Each
group was arbitrarily assigned to a classroom lecture,
a lecture by television, a lecture by radio, or to read
a mimeographed copy of "Think through Language" a subject
unfamiliar to all the students. The lecturer simultane-
ously presented his material to the lecture group, the
television group, and the radio group. During this
time, the fourth group read the talk. Key words in the
reading material were capitalized in an attempt to cor-
pensate for lack of sound and/or sight and to help show
the emphasis given in the lecture. A post-test, containing
nineteen multiple choice questions and one essay type
question to be answered in two hundred to three hundred
words,was presented immediately following the lecture.

26D. C. Williams, "Mass Media and Learning--An
Experiment," Mplorations. 111 (1954), 75-82.










The results showed that learning by television
was superior to radio. Thesa findings were significant
beyond the one per cent level of confidence. Radio was
superior to reading at the five per cent level of
confidence. There was no significant difference between
the lecture group and the group which read the material.
The same findings held true when the test scores were
evaluated in terms of the students' academic ability
with the exception of the lecture group which was last
in amount learned among the high and low groups but
equal to television for the average group. However,
it must be noted that the lecture group met in a studio
type setting with accompanying distractions of lights,
equipment and personnel for broadcasting.

A comparison between psychology classes taught
under four different reception conditions was made by
Husband27 at Iowa State College. The four conditions
studied were (1) television at home; (2) studio class;

(3) kinescope class; and (4) two campus classes. In
the first condition, all lessons were viewed over tele-
vision at home with the students coming to the campus
for examinations. In the second condition, ten students

27R. H. husband, "Television Versus Classroon for
Learning General Psychology," American Psychologist, IX
(1954), 181-183.











at a time made up a studio class for the television
presentation, while the rest viewed the lessons on a

monitor. The kinescope class was obtained in a later
quarter with campus students viewing kinescope recordings
of the class as well as engaging in twenty minutes of

informal discussion following each lesson. The two
campus classes received regular classroom instruction.
The instructor was the same for all groups and the
material covered was the same. Iach television session

was thirty minutes long while the classroom lecture
lasted fifty minutes. All participants were regularly
enrolled college students except the television home
group. Only the number of participants for the television
at home condition was given. Fifty-four out of fifty-

six persons enrolled finished the course by passing all
the tests. Of those completing the course, fifty were

women and four were men. The age range was from eighteen

through sixty-five with a median of thirty-seven. The
median age for the high school graduates was twenty years

of age. Thirty-one of the group had no college credit,
twelve had some, eleven had one to two years of college,
and three had two years or more.
Using high point average for the course a
means of comparison, the author found that the group









29
receiving television instruction at home had a higher
grade point average than the group receiving television
instruction in the studio and the two regular classroom
groups. The highest grade average was achieved by the
group receiving instruction from a kinescope recording.
There was no test of significance mentioned in the article.
While experiments studying the comparative effec-
tiveness of television presentation and regular classroom
presentation have been conducted for elementary, secondary,
and college classes, no known research of this nature has
been conducted in the area of speech pathology and
audiology. However, a number of audience surveys in
connection with telecourses and adult education type
programs have been reported. Halpern28 conducted two
surveys, one in May and the other in June, 1953, of
Cleveland residents with respect to the telecourse
offered by Western Reserve University. Three hundred
and three telephone calls to a random sample of Cleveland
residents were made on the first survey while the second
consisted of seventy-one intensive interviews of tele-
course viewers.

286. O. Halpern, The Western Reserve University
Telecourse Audtieqe (Cleveland: Western Reserve University,
1953) (mimeographed).









30

On the basis of the two surveys the following
conclusions were drawn. (1) Approximately 6,000 adults
representing one and two-tenths per cent of the tele-
vision families and twenty per cent of those who viewed
at nine a.m. viewed each day. (2) The telecourse viewers
were predominately female with an average of plus one
year of college. Those males who viewed had an average of
two and a half years of college. (3) Those who continued
viewing had more education and had been away from school
for a shorter period of time and had less distractions
at home during the television time. (4) Viewers tend to
prefer those courses which aid in everyday living.
Lynch29 interviewed even hundred and sixty-four

viewers in the metropolitan Detroit area. He was
investigating the siae, composition, and viewing habits of
the audience for the University of Michigan Television
Hour. He found that one-half of the television set owners
in the Detroit area viewed the program. Two-thirds of
this group reported seeing the program within the six
month period previous to the study and one-fourth viewed

29james 1. Lynch, *A Study of the Sime and
Composition of the Viewing Audience of an Educational
Television Program in the Detroit Metropolitan Area."
(Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Department of Speech,
University of Michigan, 1955).









31
the program one to four times a month. The audience
included all ages. College educated people were more
likely to view, however, a considerable number of high
school and grade school background people also viewed
the program. Viewing was relatively high at all income
levels. The viewers were not limited to any particular
occupational level.
A number of the studies reported stressed that a
straight lecture approach was most satisfactory for tele-
vision presentation. This was substantiated by Vernon30
who conducted a study on perception and understanding of
instructional television programs. He found that important
statements and generalisations were less likely to be
remembered if they occurred near the end of the program.
He also found that the more discussion there was in the
program, the less accurate was recall. He concluded that
if learning is to occur at an optimum rate, one commentator
presenting facts and statements in a straightforward
manner is best. Evans supports this, at least in part,
when he states; "an informal lecture combined with skillful
use of the blackboard may be a preferred method of

30M. D. Vernon, "Perception and Understanding of
Instructional Television Programmes," British Journal of
Pe7rholear, LII (1953), 116-126.










television presentation.w31
A sunmary of the findings of the research of
television as a teaching method has been presented by
Wischner and Scheier. They state:
A major conclusion warranted by all of the research
findings is: TV an ea.ch, Within the range of subject
matters and student groups investigated, TV groups
generally learn as well am regular instruction group.
In some instances TV groups achieve significantly
better than their controls. With respect to retention
measures, TV groups do as well as regularly instructed
groups.. .. Present research indicates that tele-
vision is neither uech better nor worse for straight-
forward lecture and blackboard presentation.'2
These research findings must be viewed cautiously
sines proper experimental controls were not always operating
and environmental and sampling biases were noted. It is
important to be aware of tha shortcomings of the research
that has been conducted; however, this must not overshadow
what has been shown relative to the educational properties
of television. From this research, we find indications that
television can be used effectively for adult education. The
method of presentation which has proved most effective is
the straight lecture with accompanying charts and demon-
strations.

31Richard I. Evans, "The Planning and Implementation
of a Psychological Series on a Non-commercial Educational
Television Station," The American Psychologist, X (October,
1955), 603.
320. J. Wischner and V. H. Scheear, "Some Thoughts
on Television as an Educational Tool," The Anerican
Psyahologist, X (October, 1955), 61).









33
The Purpose of the Study
This study seeks to determine which of two methods,
a television presentation or a regular classroom lecture,
is the more effective means of presenting basic informa-
tion relative to speech and language development in the
preschool child. The specific aims of the study are to
determine:
1. What if any changes occur in the response of a
group of mothers of preschool children to a series of
statements pertaining to the normal speech and language
development in the first year of life after receiving
information on this development?
2. Is there a difference in the evaluative judge-
ments made toward a group of statements pertaining to
speech and language growth in the first year of life by
a group of mothers who received information about this
subject by means of a didactic lecture presented over
television as compared with a similar group of mothers
who received the same material in a classroom lecture?

3. Did the mothers who viewed the television
program feel that a series on this subject would be of
value to them?
4. Did the mothers who attended the lecture feel
a series on this subject would be of value to them?









34
5. Did the mothers who viewed the television

program feel that a lecture series would be of equal or
greater value to them?
6. Did the mothers who attended the lecture feel
a television series would be of equal or greater value
to them?













CHAPTER II

PROCEDURE

Experimental Design

The first salient step in any type of research is

to delineate the problem so that maximum control can be

utilized and a clearly outlined project can be studied.

Therefore, the author consulted Dr. Richard Evans and
2
Professor Solomon Tannenbaum with regard to the number

of programs to be used in a television and classroom lecture

series. They advised that controls over time, environ-

mental influence, and other informational sources would

be lost if time elapsed between the presentation of the

material and the testing situation. Because of such

inherent factors it was strongly advised that only one

television lecture and one classroom lecture be used in

the experiment. Thus, the experimental design consisted

of selecting a stratified audience of one hundred mothers

1Dr. Evans is professor of psyoholojy, Univerlsty
of Houston, Department of Psychology. He has conducted
several audience research project for the National
Educational Television and Radio Center.

Mr. Tannenbaum is professor of soioloocy,
University of Houston, Department of Sociology and An-
thropology.









36
of preschool children to come to a pre-determined place
on a given date. One half of this group televiewed a
lecture on speech and language development occurring in
the first year of life (0 days to one year). The other

half of this group received the same lecture material,
presented by the same instructor who utilized the same
visual aid materials, in a regular classroom situation.
Identical test instruments were used to pre- and post-test

each group relative to the material presented.

Designing the Television Program and Lecture
It was necessary to do extensive library research

in order to prepare a lecture on the subject of language
and speech growth from aere days to one year, which could
be used both on television and in the classroom situation.
The material for the two lectures was taken from original
research and books by specialists in the fields of lin-
guistics, pediatrics, child psychology, and speech pathology.
An attempt was made to evaluate this material so that the
most recent and factual material could be presented. Thus,
a thirty-minute lecture was prepared in television script
form (Appendix IX). The material was designed to be pre-
sented in the didactic manner, utilizing charts, drawings

and a recording, in order to obtain emphasis and to aid
retention. The script was written in such a way that it











could be used as the classroom lecture. The accompanying
charts and drawings could also be used in the classroom
situation. The recording was used with appropriate visuals
during the lecture on television. However, the recording
was omitted from the lecture presentation. Instead, the
lecturer read the selection which had been recorded.

The art director of .:UHT-TV was consulted on the
proper ratio, type of material, sise of lettering and
coloring to be used on the charts and drawings. Following
the discussion with the art director, it was decided to
pay an artist to design and build the charts and drawings
to assure meeting the specifications of the television
station and still have them meet requirements for class-

room presentation (Appendix III).
A recording of a mother talking to her child was
cut by a professional actress using material from Van
Riper's Teaching Tour Child to Talk.3

Arranging for the Program and Lecture
Initially, it was planned to use the facilities of
KUHT-TV, the University of Houston Educational Television
Station, to present the lecture over closed circuit, with
the television group viewing in an auditorium equipped with

Van Riper, Teaching lour Child to Talk, pp. 32-34.











monitors. However, because of the heavy air schedule, as
well as the closed circuit teaching schedule, of the Radio,
Television and Film Center of the University, and the
heavy scheduling of the auditorium by the University, a

definite time could not be established which would be

convenient for the mothers of young children. Therefore,
the KUHT program director re-arranged programs in order to
provide the author thirty minutes of open circuit time at
seven o'clock on the evening of April 29th, 1958. Thus,
the program was scheduled as an actual on the air tele-
cast. However, to facilitate control, the experimental
groups were required to come to the campus at a designated
time. The television group was placed in two classrooms

equipped with three monitors each and set up to handle
twenty-five individuals each. A small amphitheater type
classroom in the Science Hall at the University of Houston
was reserved for the classroom lecture.

Once the air time was established, arrangements
were made with the program director for the director,
cameraman, floor manager, audio engineer, video engineer,
and crew for setting lights, set, and props. A meeting
was arranged with the art director of KURT to plan back-
ground and props.

Preliminary Interview
Before designing the test to be administered to









39
the subjects before and immediately following both lectures,
a preliminary interview of twenty-five mothers of preschool
children living in a middle-class neighborhood was run.
sing a schedule form of interview, the examiner attempted

to determine existing attitudes, knowledge regarding the
subject, and degree and intensity of attitudes. Hirht
open-end questions were used on the schedule (Appendix IV).
The examiner assumed the role of seeking information for
the development of a television series, thus placing the
interviewee in an authoritarian position. Twenty-four of
the mothers interviewed were housewives while one was a
schoolteacher in the elementary grades. The fatherst
occupations ranged from sales to professional work with
forty-eight per cent classified as professional, forty
per cent as managerial or self-employed, and twelve per
cent as salesmen. Thirty-six per cent of the mothers had
completed high school but had no additional schooling.
Sixty-four per cent of the mothers had from one to four
years of college while seventy-six per cent of the fathers
had from one to four years of college. Twenty per cent of
the fathers had acquired additional training beyond the
A. B. degree, one having received the M. D. degree.

Designing the Test
The information received from the preliminary
interview served as a guide in designing the test to be









40

administered just preceding and immediately following the
presentation of the lecture material. An attempt was made

to design an instrument that would test more than the ability
to parrot back information received. Therefore, it was
decided to adapt the evaluative dimension from Osgood's
Semantic Differential to a series of statements pertain-

ing to speech and language growth during the first year

of life in order to receive an indication of direction and
intensity of change. Thirty statements were judged against
three pairs of adjectives with intervals of seven points.

The test was pre-tested using five sets of alternative--
meaningful-meaningless, believing-skeptical, true-false,
good-bad, and important-unimportant--with five mothers
to check ease of administration and clarity of statements.
On the basis of the mothers' response to the scales

and the time required in completing the five judgments for

each of the thirty statements, two of the sets of alterna-
tives were eliminated from the final test form. The remain-
ing scales were true-false, meanlngful-meaningless, and
believing-skeptical. These sets of alternatives were con-

sidered to be measuring the same thing since factor analysis5

Charles E. Osgood, George J. Suci, and Percy H.
Tannenbaum, The Measurement of Meaning (Urbana: University of
Illinois Press, 1957).
5bid. pp. 53-61.









41
had shown them to be highly loaded in the evaluative
dimension.. ach question appeared three times, each time

with a different pair of adjectives. In an attempt to

avoid a "halo" effect, the question order was chosen at
random. The pair of adjectives was in turn randomly
assigned to each question. In order to offset any patterned

response by the subject, the poles for the adjectives were

varied (Appendix V).

A second part to the post-test was designed. It
included questions pertaining directly to the attitudes
regarding the program and lecture (Appendixes VI and VII).

Selection of Subjects
In order to obtain subjects for the experiment,
the ministers of churches falling within a five mile radius

of the University of Houston campus were contacted. The
purpose of the study and the need for mothers of preschool
children to participate in the research was carefully

explained. Permission was requested to contact the
educational directors of the churches to enlist their aid
in obtaining subjects. Twenty-one churches representing
eleven denominations and one synogogue were visited. The
ministers and rabbi were particularly enthusiastic regard-
ing the program. In every instance, permission was given

to talk with the educational director. Baeh director in









42
turn received a careful explanation of the purpose of the
experiment and the need for subjects. The directors were

asked to provide a list of mothers of preschool children

in their church. Several suggested, and all agreed, that
a notice be placed in the church bulletin to the effect
that KUHT of the University of Houston needed a group of
mothers of preschool children to view a pilot program and

participate in a classroom lecture on child development.
If interested the mothers were to contact the church office.
At the same time, the educational directors made a similar
announcement at the various church organizational meetings.
The directors presented their lists of interested mothers
to the writer. Three hundred and sixty-seven names were
received.

The names of the mothers were taken in the order
presented and numbered from one to three hundred and sixty-

seven. Those names receiving an even number were sent a
letter requesting them to appear on the Campus at 6o15 p.a.

to help evaluate a pilot program for a new television
series on child development (Appendix VIII). A similar

letter was sent to the names receiving the odd numbers
requesting them to come to the Campus at 6:45 p.m. to

help evaluate a pilot lecture for a new classroom lecture
series on child development (Appendix II). Return
addressed cards were enclosed with the letters.









43
The cards provided space for the name, address,
and telephone number of the individual agreeing to

participate in the experiment. Ninety-two cards were

returned. One week prior to the date of the program, a
reminder was sent to those who had returned the cards.
During the week preceding the program, a number of mothers

called the University television station and apologized
for not being able to attend because their children had.
measles or chicken pox. Both diseases were at epidemic

proportions in the city. In addition, tornado warnings
were out on the evening of the program. In spite of these
handicaps, sixty-two participants appeared, thirty-five to

view the television program and twenty-seven to attend the
lecture.

Airing the Program
The television program was broadcast live over
KUHT-TV, the University of Houston Edueational Television

Station, from seven to seven-thirty in the evening. A

regular announcer introduced the program and the author
served as the lecturer on the program. The material of
the lecture was presented in a didactic manner. Two cameras
were used. Visual aids and charts were incorporated into
the lecture to help clarify or reinforce certain points.
The visual aids and charts were in alternating order on two









44
easels, one on either side of the lecturer. In this way,
as the lecturer completed her discussion of a chart, she
moved away from it, thus providing time for the floorman

to remove the chart from the previously used easel and
prepare the next to be presented.

Presenting the Lecture
At the close of the television lecture, the author
moved to the amphitheater in Science Hall. She was in-

troduced to the audience by the proctor who had given the
pre-leeture test. An introduction comparable to the
television introduction was used. The lecture followed
in exact form that of the television lecture, however, in

the classroom situation, the visual aids and charts were
handled by the speaker. This fact, plus the visual inter-
play between speaker and audience, increased the lecture

time to approximately forty-five minutes. As no question-
answer period could be permitted during the television
lecture, it was necessary to omit a question-answer period

from the classroom lecture even though the audience
requested it.

Pro- and Post-testing
Three graduate students in the Radio-Television
Department of the University of Houston were hired to
serve as proctors during the testing and to give the test









45
instructions. These students received careful briefing

regarding the administering of each test. Two students
were assigned to the television audience and one to the
lecture audience. As the group arrived to view the tele-
vision program, they were directed into the two rooms
set up for viewing. Each desk-chair in these two rooms

held a packet containing a sealed pre-test and post-test
marked Test A and Test B and two sharpened pencils.
Promptly at 6:30 the proctors instructed the group to

open Test A. The instructions were read and a sample
question was written on the blackboard. At 6:35 the

test began.

Pre-testing had shown the test required approxi-
mately fifteen to twenty minutes to complete. The group
was instructed to work quickly and to record their first
impressions or feelings. At 6058, the group was instructed
to place Test A on the shelf under their desk chairs and

the television sets were turned on. No talking was per-
mitted during the test, the lecture, or during the time
between the test and the lecture. following the program,
the group was permitted to get a drink of water and stretch;
however, they were asked not to discuss the program or the
test. They then returned to their respective rooms. The

test instructions were re-given orally. The group was
instructed to break the seal on Test B and to complete











parts I and II. The proctors collected the tests as they
were completed. Quite a few of the mothers remained after
the test to talk with the proctors and to comment on the
lecture.
The group arriving to hear the classroom lecture
came directly to the room in Science Hall. The teat
packets were on the seats. The group received the same
test instructions as the television group. At 7:05, the
lecture group began Test A. Because of the seating
arrangement in the amphitheater, it was necessary to collect
Test A upon completion. At 7:35, the lecturer was in-
troduced. Upon completion of the lecture, the speaker
left the room. The group was given an opportunity to get
a drink of water and then the proctor proceeded with the
oral instructions for Test B, parts I and II.

Treatment of Test Data
Throughout the designing of the tests, the author
was in contact with the Computing Center of the University
of Houston in order that the test data could be coded
for use on IBM cards. The test data from Test A and Part
I of Test 8 were coded and punched on IBM cards using the
I1M heard punch machine 026. The material was rearranged
and re-punched so that the true-false, meaningful-meaningless,
and believing-skeptical answers to the questions would fall









47
in order. To accomplish this, it was necessary to use
the IBM card sorting machine (#082), reproducing punch

(#579), and computing machine (#650). The material was
then analyzed to determine whether there was any signifi-
cant difference of the means or population variance between
the pre-test results of group I and II, the post-tent
results of group I and II, the pro-test and post-test
results of group I and the pre-test and post-tost results
of group II. The *tt, sign, 't2t, statistical tests were
used for comparing the before and after test results of a
single group. The It' and F statistical tests were applied
when comparisons were made between the two groups.
The material contained in Part II of the post-test
was coded. A comparison of percentages and an analysis
of the subjects' comments was made. A 't' ratio was
computed for significance of the difference between per-
eentages wherever a difference between the responses of
the two groups occurred.












CHAPTER III


ANALYSIS OF THE DATA

Introduction
As stated in the preceding chapter, sixty-two
mothers of preschool children came to the campus of the
University of Houston to attend a lecture on speech and
language development in preschool children. Thirty-five
of these mothers listened to a television lecture on this
subject while twenty-seven of the mothers heard the same
lecture presented by the same instructor, but in a class-
room situation. Both groups were tested relative to their
knowledge of speech and language growth in the first year
of a child's life before attending their particular lecture
and immediately following their lecture. The same test
instrument was administered prior to and following the
lecture. It consisted of thirty statements pertaining
to speech and language growth during the first year of
life. These statements were judged against three pairs
of adjectives, each pair arranged on a seven-point scale.
In addition to the pro- and post-test, both groups received
a second test following the lecture. This test pertained

to the method of presentation, general interest of subject

48









49
matter, and whether they would like to have additional infor-
mation regarding this subject. Following the administering
of the tests, the information contained therein was coded,
tabulated on IBM machines and a statistical analysis was done.

Group Variables
In order to determine the homogeneity of the experi-
mental groups, a comparative analysis was made between the
variables of these two groups. These variables consisted
of age, education, employment of the mothers and fathers,
and the number of children in the family. A standard error
of the difference and 't' ratio was obtained for the mean
age and education for the mothers and fathers. As shown in
Table 1, no significant difference for these factors existed.

TABLE 1
PARENTAL AGE AND EDUCATION


Category D* SED t

IM with II MA .. 0.63 1.3 0.48
I FA with ~ 0.86 1.62 0.5)
I ME with ILj 0.4 0.45 1.07
I FR with I f .0.37 0.31 1.19

*Difference in favor of underlined group.









50
Tables 2 and 3 compare the groups for mothers' and
fathers' employment. The mothers of both groups fell into
two categories, professional and housewife. Nine per cent
of the mothers in the television group and seven per cent of
those attending the classroom lecture were classified as
working outside the home in a professional capacity. Ninety-
one per cent of the television group and ninety-three per
cent of the classroom lecture group were classified as house-
wives.

TABLE 2
MOTHERS' S4PLOYMENT


Category T I Leture 1N27

0 Laborer Non-skilled .. 0 00 0 00
1 Semi-skilled.. 0 00 0 00
2 Skilled .. .. 0 00 0 00

3 Clerical, Sales 0 00 0 00
4 Managerial Self-employed. 0 00 0 00
5 Professional. ... 3 09 2 07
6 Protective Services .. 0. 00 0 00

7- Housewife ......... 32 91 25 93

The occupational spread for the fathers of the groups
ranged from skilled through the professional level. The











TABLU 3
FATHERSt EMPLOYMET


Category to. t o.re

0 Laborer Non-skilled 0 00 0 00
1 Sei-skilled. .. 0 00 0 00
2 Skilled 2 06 0 00
3 Clerical, Sales 8 23 6 22
4 Managerial Self-employed. 5 14 6 30
5 Professional. 19 54 13 48
6 Protective Services 1 03 0 00
7 Housewife ... 0 00 0 00

television group had a wider range with six per cent listed
as skilled laborers, twenty-three per cent as eleriosa-sales,
fourteen per sent as managerial or self-employed, fifty-four
per cent as professional, and three per cent as protective
services. The latter represented one individual serving as
a pilot in the air foree. Twenty-two per cant of the father*
in the classroom lecture group were classified as clerical-
sales, thirty per cent as managerial or self-employed, and
forty-eight per cent as professional. As the other variables
were closely aligned and since the others were the partici-
pants in the study, the author did not feel that the difference











in occupations shown here would have any bearing on the
results of the study.

As shown in Table 4, the average number of children
for each group was 2.3.

TABLE 4
NUMBER OF CHILDREN


TV Lecture

Ran* ..... 1 5 1 -4
Average 2.3 2.3

There appeared to be little or no significant differ-
ence between the two groups when compared for age, education,
employment of the mothers and fathers, and the number of
children in the family.

Pre-test and Post-test Results
All pre- and post-test data were coded and tabulated
on IBM machines. An analysis of these tabluations was then
made. In checking over the individual test item responses,
it was noted that both groups predominantly responded to
question twenty-two in a negative rather than the anticipated
positive direction on the post-test. In rechecking the
lecture notes with this particular test item and in light of
this interpretation, an ambiguity appeared. Therefore, the









53
statistical analysis of test scores was done twice, once with
item twenty-two included and once with it omitted from the
test scores.
The first step in analyzing the data was to deter-
mine whether a significant difference existed between the
means of group I, the television group, and group II, the
lecture group, on the pro-teat, i.e. either to accept or
refute the null hypothesis that no difference existed, and
to check for pro-teat population variance, i.e. to accept
or reject the null hypothesis that the two samples came
from the arme population. Therefore, a 'tt ratio and F
ratio were computed. As is shown in Table 5, there was no

TABLE 5
GROUP I WITH GROUP II BEFORE

Total Means DG* 8D 't

With #22
I Before
4 9.53 0.420
II Before
Without #22
X Before
5 9.21 0.54
II Before

*Difference in favor of underlined group.









54
significant difference between the pre-test means for
group I and II; therefore; the null hypothesis stands.

There was a shift in the direction of the obtained
difference between the means with group II having the larger
score by four points when the analysis was made with item
twenty-two included, and group I having the larger score by
five points when item twenty-two was omitted. We must also
accept the null hypothesis that there was no difference in
the ratio of population variance (Table 6) for the two
groups in the pre-test situation.

TABLs 6
VARIANCES GROUP I AND I -I BEFORE


Category g2 F

With t22
I Before 1119
1.46
II Before 1630
Without #22
I Before 1072
1.47
II Before 1581

The second step was to compute the tt' ratio and F
distribution for the post-test results for group I and II.
With item twenty-two included, a significant difference was
noted at the .02 level of confidence with group II having









55
the larger mean score (Table 7). With item twenty-two
omitted, a significant difference was noted at the .05
level of confidence in favor of group II.

TABLE 7
GROUP I WITH GROUP II -- AFTER

Total -- Means D* SED ,t p

With #22
I After
26 10.56 2.46 .02
II After
Without #22
I After
24 10.17 2.36 .05
II After

*Difference in favor of underlined group.
Table 8 shows that the comparison of the sample
variances, with and without item twenty-two, yielded an
insignificant F.
To summarize the findings thus far, no significant
difference of the mean scores for the two groups was demon-
strated on the tests prior to receiving the information.
However, following the receipt of information through the
respective lecture situations, group II, the group receiving
information in the regular classroom situation, demonstrated
a significantly greater gain in the testing situation.











TABLE 8
VARIANCES GROUP I AND II -- AFTER


Category g2 F

With #22
I After 1646
1.06
II A er 1739
Without #22
I After 1487
1.14
II After 1693

A comparison was made between the test results for
group I before and after receiving the information both
with and without item twenty-two. The same comparison was
made for group II. Since this comparison was between the
aeans of related groups, the sign test rather than the 't'
teat was used. tt21 was computed to compare the variance
of related groups and to test the hypothesis that no genuine
change in variance had occurred. In all four instances, a
significant difference was noted between the means of the
before and after tests at better than the .0001 level of
confidence. There was no significant change in the
variance of either group on the before and after test
(Table 9).











TABLE 9
COM~AhISJN OF BEFORE AND AFTBR SCORES


Group s p t2

I Before I After 5.75 less than 1.*. than
with #22 (after) .0001 one
I Before I After 5.75 los* than les. than
without 122 (after) .0001 one
II Before II After 6.20 leos than less than
with #22 (after) .0001 one
II Before II After 6.20 loss than less than
without #22 (after) .0001 one

Following the comparison of the means of the total
tost scores, the results for each evaluative category were
studied. These categories were true-false, meaningless-
meaningful, and believing-skeptical. The means for each of
the evaluative dimensions were compared for group I and
group II before, group I and II after, and between the
before and after scores of the individual groups. As shown
in Table 10, when the results of the before test were coa-
pared by evaluative dimension, there was no significant
difference between the two groups for any of the categories.
There was no significant difference in the F distribution
when item twenty-two was included in the computations; how-
ever, when this item was omitted, there was a significant F











TABLE 10
COMPARISON BY EVALUATIV- DI:.'N3S N BEFORE


Dimension t F p

With 122
True less than one 1.70
Meaningful less than one 1.14
Believe 0 1.02

Total 0.420 1.46


Without 122
True 1.16 1. les*8 than
(11) .05
Meaningful loss than one 2.15 less than
(II) .05
Believe less than one 1.09
Total 0.54 1.47

at better than the .05 level of confidence for both the
true-false and meaningful-meaningless dimensions. There-
fore, when the comparison of means for these two dimensions
was computed the significant F was taken into consideration
and a comparison of means for unknown but presumed unequal
population variances was used.
When the comparisons were made of the evaluative
dimensions on the post-test, a significant difference in









59
favor of group II was noted at better than the .025 level
of confidence for the true-false dimension both with and
without item twenty-two. For the meaningful-meaningless
dimension a significant difference was noted at better
than the .005 level of confidence, again in favor of group
II. However, no significant difference was apparent for
the believing-skeptical dimension (Table 11). In attempting
to explain the difference in response for the true-false
and meaningful--maningleas dimension but not in the
believing-skeptical dimension, one might postulate that
this difference is related to a possible deviation in the
instruction. That is, the material was so stressed in the
classroom lecture situation that facts were more acessible
and more easily retained so that they were parrotted back,
thus, showing up on the true-false and meanaigful-meaning-
less dimensions, but that this material was not internalized
to any greater extent than by the television group. There-
fore, there was no significant difference in the degree of
change of basic attitudes and beliefs. If there was a
change of stress, it was unintentional on the part of the
instructor as every effort was made to equalize the two
lectures. However, the instructor was aware of an audienee-
speaker circular response in the classroom situation. This
was mentioned in the procedure when the difference in time
between the two lecture situations was discussed.











TABLE 11
COMPARISON .I aiV.LUATIV. DIM4SION AFTER


Dimension t p F

With #22
True 2.06 (II) le*s than 1.13
.025
Meaningful 3.36 (II) les* than 1.13
.005
Believe loes than 1,0)
one
Total 2.46 (II) .02 1.06
Nemen eeeeeeeeeeeeee e ewomew eelemeeee

Without #22
True 2.02 (II) loss than 1.06
.025
Meaningful 3.44 (II) lose than 1.16
.005
Believe less than 1.19
one
Total 2.36 .05 1.14

It can not be definitely stated that this nos the
cause for the difference between the two groups. Rather
it presents the question, why did any difference exist
between these two groups or, if a difference was present,
why did it favor the classroom lecture rather than the
television lecture when other research comparing the two











methods of presentation revealed either no difference or a
difference In favor of television. In considering this
question, it is necessary to refer to the discussion in
Chapter I of the various research studies. In this die-
cussion it was brought out that adequate controls either
in terms of sampling or environment were not used. Con-
sideration might be given the possibility that when the'
"true" classroom lecture situation utilizing a small
audience is compared with television, the advantages whioh
are attributed to television, i.e. the closeup of charts
and demonstration material, the front row seat, are off-
set by the personal contact found in the classroom.

To summarize the findings relative to the pro- and
post-test results for the two groups, it can be stated
that both groups demonstrated a highly significant change
in attitudes and beliefs regarding speech and language
behavior in infants from ere days to one year of age
following their particular lecture. On the pre-test, there
was no significant difference between the two groups.
However, on the post-test, the lecture group demonstrated
a significantly greater change in attitudes and beliefs
than the television group.
In reviewing the results of Part II of the post-

test, a qualitative study was done using percentages.
Wherever a noticeable difference in percentages occurred










between the two groups, the significance of the difference
was tested. Part II of the post-teat contained sixteen
questions pertaining to the subjects reactions to the
particular lecture they attended and t the material pre-
sented (Appendixes VI and VII). A choice of answers was
provided in thirteen of the questions while three were
open-end type questions.
Question one of post-teat XI asked the subjects to
rate the program or lecture on a five point scale ranging
from very good through very poor. Table 12 shows these
results. Twenty-four individuals representing sixty-nine
per seat of the television group rated the program as very
good while twnty-five individuals representing alnety-three
per cent of the classroom lecture group rated the lecture

TABLE 12
WULSTION 1

Thoght le re TV Group Lecture Group Differease
No. % No. % t p

1. Very Good ... 24 69 25 93 2.61 .01
2. Good ... 9 25 2 07 2.05 .025
3. Fair. .... 2 06 0 00 1.50
4. Poor. 0 00 0 00
5. Very Poor 0 00 0 00










as very good. Nine individuals representing twenty-five
per cent of the television group rated the program as good
while two individuals representing seven per cent of the
lecture group rated their lecture as good. Two individuals
representing six per cent of the television group rated
the program as fair. A 't' ratio for the significance of
the difference in percentages was computed for very good,
good, and fair ratings. The difference in percentages
obtained for the very good rating was significant at the
.01 level of confidence. The difference obtained for the
good rating was significant at the .025 level of confidence
while the difference obtained for the fair rating was not
significant.
Table 13 shows the results of question two. This
question asked whether or not the individuals would be
interested in the complete series. Ninety-seven per eent

TABLE 13
QUESTION 2

Interested in series: TV Grop Lecture Group
we. W %o. %
1. Would be .. 34 97 26 96
2. Would not be 01 03 01 04











of the television group and ninety-six per cent of the
lecture group stated that they would be interested in hear-
ing the entire series. Three per cent of the television
group and four per cent of the lecture group stated they
would not be interested in the rest of the series.
As shown in Table 14, seventy-four per cent of the
television group and sixty-three per cent of the lecture
group believe they have people in their neighborhood who
would be interested in such a series. Twenty-three per
cent of the television group and thirty-seven per cent of
the lecture group did not believe they had individuals in
their neighborhood who would be interested in such a series.
The remaining three per agent of the television group re-
ported they did not know whether or not there were any
interested parties in their neighborhood. The differences
in the percentages between the two groups did not prove to
be significant.

TABLE 14
QUESTION 5


Have people in neighbor- TV Group Lecture Group Difference
hood interested in series. no. y Ne. tS p

1. Do .. ... 26 74 17 63 ,93 -

2. Do not 08 23 10 37 1.19 --
3. Don't know 01 03 00 00 -









65
Seventy-seven per cent of the television group and
eighty-one per cent of the lecture group stated they had a
friend who should receive this information (Table 15), while
twenty per cent of the television group and nineteen per
cent of the lecture group did not have a friend who should
receive such information. Three per cent of the television
group or one individual did not answer the question.

TABLE 15
QUESTION 6

Have friend who needs TV Group Leture Group
this information. No. No. %

1. Do 27 77 22 81
2. Do not .. .. 07 20 05 19
3. No answer. ... 01 03 00 00

The groups were asked whether or not they would
listen if a series on speech and language development of
children were presented over radio. Fifty-seven per cent
of the television group and fifty-six per cent of the
lecture group stated that they would listen if the material
were presented on radio. Thirty-seven per cent of the tele-
vision group and forty-four per cent of the lecture group

stated they would not listen if it were presented on radio.
Two individuals in the television group, representing six









66
per oent, did not answer the question (Table 16).

TABLE 16
~UItTION 7


Listen if on radios TV Or.oup ItE.ure grou

1. Would 20 57 15 56
2. Would not 13 37 12 44
3. oe answer .. 02 06 00 00

The next question was concerned with whether they
felt this material could be presented better, as well, or
not as well on radio. Neither group believed that it could
be presented better on radio (Table 17). Light individuals
or twenty-three per cent of the television group thought it
could be presented as well as on television while four per

TABLE 17
UJLSTION 8


Presented on radios T1 Groug LAtIureo Grn

1. Better .. 00 00 00 00
2. As well 0. 08 23 01 04 2.35 .01
3. Not as well 27 77 26 96 2.35 .01









67
cent representing one individual from the lecture group
believed it could be presented as well on radio as by
lecture. This difference was significant at better than
the .01 level of confidence. Twenty-seven individuals
or seventy-seven per cent of the television group and
twenty-six individuals or ninety-six per cent of the
lecture group believed this material could not be presented
as well on radio as by the particular method of presentation
they had attended. A significant difference at the .01
level of confidence was obtained.
When asked whether this material could be presented
better, as well, or not *a well in a book, six per cent of
the television group stated it could be presented better;
fifty-seven per cent stated that it could be presented as
well and thirty-seven per cent stated that this material
could not be presented as well in a book (Table 18). Seven
per cent of the lecture group stated that this material
could be presented better in a book. Thirty-seven per cent
stated it could be presented as well and fifty-six per
cent stated it could not be presented as well in a book as
in the lecture. A 'tt ratio was computed to determine
whether the differences in percentages between the two
groups was significant. These differences did not prove
to be significant.











TABLE 18
th.STION 9


Presented in a book TV roup Letlre Orr;n Differeace

1. Better 02 06 02 07
2. As well. 20 57 10 37 1.60 -
3. Not as well. 13 37 15 56 1.51 -

The television group was asked whether this material
could be presented better, as well, or not as well in a
lecture series, while the lecture group was asked if this
material could be presented better, as well, or not as well
over television. The results are shown in Table 19. Nine
per cent of the television group felt the material could be
presented better in a lecture while eleven per cent of the
lecture group felt it could be presented better on tele-
vision. This difference was not significant. Sixty per
tent of the television group stated it could be presented
as well, and thirty-one per cent stated it could not be
presented as well in a lecture series. Eighty-five per
cent of the lecture group stated this material could be
presented as well on television and only four per cent,
representing one individual, felt the material could not
be presented as well on television as in a regular lecture









69
series. These differences were significant at the .025 and
.005 levels of confidence.

TABLE 19
;.,UL Srjind 10


(a) Lecture TV Group Lecture Group Difference
Presented as (a) (b)
(b) TV No. No. p

1. Better .... 03 09 03 11 .26 -
2. As well .... 21 60 23 85 2.31 .025
3. Not as well. 11 31 01 04 3.10 .005

Table 20 indicates the per cent of each group which
would attend a lecture series on speech and language develop-
ment in the preschool child. Twenty-six per cent of the

TABLE 20
;UUSTION U1

Attend lecture series TV Oroup Lecture Group Difference
No. % No. t p

1. Yees .. 09 26 08 30 .34 --
2. Soae ..... 06 17 10 37 1.78 .05
3. No. ..... .. 11 31 00 00 3.97 .0005
4. Don't know. 09 26 09 33 .60 -











television group reported they would attend sueh a aeries

of lecture@, seventeen per cent reported they would attend
some of the lectures, thirty-one per cent reported they

would not attend, and twenty-six per cent reported they

did not know whether they would attend a lecture series on
this subject.

In the lecture group, thirty per cent indicated
they would attend such a lecture series, thirty-seven per

cent haid they Would attend some of the lectures and
thirty-three per bent shid they did not know whether they'

would attend any of the leeturea. The difference between'

the two groups for those individuals reporting they would

not attend a lecture series was significant at better than

the .0005 level of confidence. A significant difference at

the .05 level of confidence was obtained for those indi-
viduals reporting they would attend some of the leturea.

When asked whether a series of television programs

on speech and language development should be presented over

KUHT, ninety-four per event of the television group and one

hundred per event of the lecture group responded in the

affirmative. The results of this question are indicated
in Table 21. Eighty-nine per cent of the television group

and ninety-six per cent of the lecture group stated they

would watch the series if it were presented (Table 22).


~











TABLE 21
QUESTION 12

Series on LUHT: TV Group Lecture Groug

1. Feel .. 33 9 27 100
2. Do not feel .... .. 02 06 00 00


TABLU 22
.iUESTION 13


Watch the series: TV Group Leture Orgun
No. 1 Noo.

1. would ......31 9 26 96
2. Would not 04 11 01 04

In response to question fourteen which asked whether
they would be interested in reading a book on this subject,
eighty per cent of the television group would be interested
and twenty per cent would not be interested in reading such
a book. eighty-one per sent of the lecture group stated
they would and nineteen per cent stated they would not be
interested in reading a book on this subject (Table 23).

While a high percentage of both groups indicated
they would watch a television series devoted to speech and
language development in the preschool child, neither group












TABLE 2)
wULSTION 14

Interested in book TV Grou- Lecture Graup
No.no. 1o

1. Would 28 80 22 1
2. Would not. .. 07 20 05 19

indicated they were interested in enrolling in a television
course on this subject. As indicated in Table 24, thirty-one
per cent of the television group and thirty-three per cent
of the lecture group indicated they would enroll in such a
telecourse while sixty-nine per cent of the television group
and sixty-*even per cent of the lecture group stated they
would not enroll in a telecourse on this subject.

TABLE 24
QUESTION 15

Interested in telecourse: TV Group Leiture Oroyu


1. Would .. 11 31 09 33
2. Would not .. 24 69 18 67

To review the findings for Part II of the post-teat,

the majority of both groups thought their particular presen-
tation good or better. However, a Iignificantly greater











per cent of the lecture group rated their program as very
good. The members of both groups were interested in attend-

ing the rest of the series. The majority of both groups
had friends or neighbors who they thought should receive

this information. Slightly more than fifty per cent of
both groups would listen if the material were presented
over radio. A significantly greater per cent of the lecture

group than television group believed this material could
not be presented as well over radio. More than fifty per

sent of the television group believed that material on
speech and language development could be presented as well
in a book as on television, whereas more than fifty per

cont of the lecture group did not believe it could be
presented as well in a book as by lecture. Sixty-nine per
cent of the television group believed the material could
be presented as well or better in a lecture series while
ninety-six per cent of the lecture group stated the material

could be presented as well or better on television. This
represents a significant difference at better than the

.0005 level of confidence.

Twenty-six per cent of the television group and
thirty per cent of the lecture group indicated they would
attend a lecture series devoted to this subject. However,

the difference between the two groups for those reporting
they would not attend a lecture series was significant at









74
better than the .005 level of confidence. A significant
difference at the .05 level of confidence was obtained for
those reporting they would attend some of the lectures.
Both groups were highly interested in having a series
on speech and language development presented over the
facilities of KUHT and a high percentage from both groups
indicated they would watch the series if it were presented.
Both groups also indicated they would be interested in
reading a book on this subject but neither group was inter-
ested in enrolling in a telecourse devoted to speech and

language growth.
Questions three, four, and sixteen on Part II of
the post-teat were open-end questions. They were concerned
with what was liked or disliked about the program or lecture
as well as what the individual would want included in a
series. Table 25 indicates the response to these questions.
In the television group, twnty-nine individuals, or
eighty-three per cent of the group answered question three,
sixteen individuals, or forty-six per cent, answered question
four, and twenty-three persons, or sixty-six per cent,
answered question sixteen. However, only four individuals,
or eleven per cent, of the group answered both questions
three and four. Nine persons, or twenty-six per cent,

answered questions three and sixteen, and twelve persons,










or thirty-four per cent, answered all three questions.
Nineteen individuals in the lecture group, representing
seventy per cent, answered question three; eight, or
twenty-nine per cent, answered question four; and seven,
or twenty-six per cent, answered question sixteen. Only
three individuals, representing eleven per cent of the
group, answered questions three and four and three and
sixteen while four individuals, or fifteen per cent, of
the group answered all three questions.

TABLE 25
RESPONSE TO .Ub3TIJNS 3, 4, & 16

Answered question TV GIrou -- ei ture ra


#3 29 63 19 70
#4 16 46 08 29
#16 23 66 07 26
#3 &4 04 11 03 11
#3 & 16 09 26 03 11
#3, 4, a 16 12 34 04 15

The responses to these questions weererviewed and
general categories were set up so that the responses could
be tabulated. This tabulation appears in Tables 26, 27,
and 2.8 The five things most frequently listed as liked in









76
the television program are speech development pattern, charts,
presentation, everything, and clarity. The lecture group
listed charts, preparation, organization, parents' role in
the hild's acquisition of speech, speech development pattern
and clarity. Six individuals in the television group listed
some phase of the material presented as the one thing they
disliked about the program. These responses varied with
several individuals stating they were not interested in the
particular age level presented and they believed material
relating to the two year old and above would be more
interesting. Two individuals questioned the authenticity
of some of the statements and one woman wrote that froa
her experience as a mother she knew that children did not
begin to speak until they were eighteen months of age.
Four individuals believed the program was a little too
long. Only a few manbers of the lecture group responded
to this question. However, three wrote they could find
no criticism with the lecture*
questionn sixteen brought forth a variety of responses
with requests for information pertaining to speech diffi-
culties appearing most frequently for both groups. Seven-
teen Individuals from the television group and nine Indi-
vidals from the lecture group comprising forty-two per
cent of both groups asked for information on onset, cause,
recognition, and sources of help for speech difficulties.











TABLi 26

QUESTION 3


Liked TV Lecture

1. Charts 20 11
2. Length 1 1
3. Amount of information 0 1
4. Presentation 10 7
5. Preparation organisation 2 3
6. Stimulating interesting -
informative 0 5
7. Hearing parents' role 0 3
8. speech development 11 5
9. Examples 1 2
10. Terminology 2 0
11. everything 8 3
12. Nothing 0 0
13. Clarity 8 4
14. Percentages 1 0
15. Recording 1 *
16. Factual 2 1

*aot presented











TABLE 27
QfSlTION 4


Disliked TV Lecture

1. No question answer period 0 2
2. Lack of detail 1 1
3.) Too much detail 0 0
4. Material presented 6 1
5. Charts too any 1 0
6. Charts not enough 0 0
7. Length too long 4 1
8. Length too short 0 1
9. Terminology 1 0
10. Presentation 1 0
11. everything 0 0
12. Nothing 2 3
13. Lacks variety in visual material 2 0
14. Too much repetition 1 0
15. Drawings 1 0

Six members of the television group also asked for
corrective speech exercises.
In comparing the responses of the two groups, it is
interesting to note that many more mothers who attended the











TABLE 28
QUESTION 16

Want in series TV Lecture

1. Guidance of your child
through speech development 0 1
2, Guidance of older child through
speech development 0 1

3. Speech difficulties, onset,
oause, help recognition 17 9
4. How to handle discipline and
emotional problems 0 2
Learning a second language 0 1
6. Adult speech models other
than parents 0 1
7. Mouth structure 1 0
8. Continued growth pattern 3 0
9. From 2 to 6 years 1 0
10. Supplementary reading 2 0
11.. Bilingualism 1 0
12. Phonics 1 0
13. Speech exercises (therapy-
speech improvements) 6 1
14. Don't know 1 0
15. Vocabulary for preschool child 1 0
16. Emotional growth and speech
development 3 0














TABLE 28-Continued


Want in series TV Letture

17. Influence of older children 1 0
18. Parents' role in speech
development 3 0
19* Other forms of communication 2 0
20. gEnouraging book reading
instead of TV 1 0

television presentation requested specific types of infor-
nation than did those who attended the lecture presentation.
This strongly suggests that the television presentation
aroused greater interest in the mothers than did the lecture
presentation.












CHAPTER IV


SUMIRT AND CONCLUSION

Sumary
The purpose of this study was to compare the results
of a television and classroom lecture devoted to speech and
language growth from sero days to one year of life. This
comparison was made on the basis of presentation, audience
acceptance, and audience gain. The latter was evaluated
in terms of change in basic attitudes and beliefs regarding
the lecture subject following receipt of the information.
It was the hope of the investigator that from this com-
parison some insight might be gained relative to an effec-
tive means of reaching the parents of preschool children
with material on normal speech and language growth and
development which might serve as a preventive measure in
the development of functional speech defects.

In order to make the comparison between these two
methods of presentation, a group of mothers of preschool
children was invited to come to the University of Houston
campus to participate in the experiment. Sixty-two
mothers appeared, twenty-seven attended the claasroom











lecture while thirty-five viewed the television lecture
through the facilities of KUHT, the educational television
station of the University of Houston. The instructor was
the same for both lectures. The two groups were well
matched for age, education, socio-eoonomic level, and the
number of children in the family. Each mother had at least

one preschool child.

Both groups of mothers were given the same test
instrument before and after hearing the lecture. A second
test was administered to the mothers following the lecture.
This test asked for an evaluation of the type of presenta-

tion as well as a comparison of this means of presentation
with other methods and media.

The results from the tests were tabulated and a
statistical analysis was made of the data received from

the pre-test and Part I of the post-test. A qualitative

study using percentages was made of the results of Part II
of the post-test. Wherever indicated, a 't' ratio for the
significance of the difference in percentages was computed.

In setting up this experiment, the investigator
attempted to establish a more rigid set of controls than
had been used in previous research studies aimed at com-
paring the use of television and other media in adult

education. Therefore, it is the investigator's opinion
that the results of this study may present a more accurate











picture of the educational value of television.


Conclusions
1. When a comparison of group variable was made,
there appeared to be little or no significant difference
between the two groups. Therefore, the assumption can be
put forth that the two samples were drawn from the same

group.
2. No significant difference existed between means
of group I and group II nor was any significant population
variance noted. Therefore, it can be assumed that the two

groups were matched for attitudes and beliefs regarding
this subject prior to receiving the information presented
in the lectures.

3. While there was no significant difference in
population variance between the two groups on Part I of the

post-test, a significant difference of the mean was noted
at the .02 level of confidence with item twenty-two in-
cluded and at the .05 level of confidence with item
twenty-two omitted with group II having the larger mean
score in both instances. Therefore, it can be concluded
that the group receiving the information in the regular
classroom situation demonstrated a significantly greater
change in attitudes and beliefs relative to the growth and
development of speech and language in the first year of









84
life than the group which received this information over
television.
4. When a comparison was made between the before
and after test results for each group, a significant

difference of the means at better than the .0001 level of
confidence was obtained for both groups. Therefore, it

can be stated that while the lecture group demonstrated a
significantly greater change than the television group,

both groups showed a highly significant change in attitudes
and beliefs toward the subject matter following receipt of

the information.
5. The test results were broken down by evaluative
dimension and comparisons were made between the groups for
each dimension. When the results of the before teat were
compared by evaluative dimension, no significant difference
was found between the two groups for any of the dimensions.
Thus further support was offered to the conclusion that the

two groups were equally matched for attitudes and beliefs
regarding the subject matter prior to the lecture.

6. When comparisons were made by evaluative dimen-
sion for Part I of the post-test, a significant difference
in favor of group II was noted at better than the .025 level
of confidence for the true-false dimension and at better

than the .005 level of confidence for the meaningful-meaning-
le*8 dimension. No significant difference was apparent for











the believing-skeftical dimension. It can only be theorized
as to why a difference in response was noted for the true-
false and meaningfui-meaninglese dimensions while none

existed for the believing-skeptical dimension. However, it
can be postulated that the difference is related to a
possible deviation in instruction. That is, the material
was so stressed in the classroom situation that facts were
acquired more readily but basic attitudes and beliefs were
not changed to any greater degree than were those of the
television group. If these results are interpreted in
terms of potential carry-over and application of information
received, the assumption might be made that the lack of
difference between the two groups on the believlng-skeptioal
dimension indicates there was no greater internalization of
material by one group as opposed to the other. Therefore,
the long range effects of the lectures would be equal. It
is the opinion of the writer that further research should
be conducted in this area.

7. More than ninety per cent of both groups said
the lecture was good or better and they were interested in
viewing a series on this subject.

8. More than sixty per cent of both groups stated
they had people in their neighborhood who would be interested
in either a lecture or television series on this subject.









86

Seventy-seven per cent of the television group and eighty-one

per cent of the lecture group indicated they had a friend
who needed to receive this information.

9. While fifty-seven per cent of the television
group and fifty-six per cent of the lecture group indicated
they would listen to a series on this subject if it were
presented over radio, a significantly greater per cent of

the lecture group stated that this material could not be
presented as well by means of radio.

10. Eighty to eighty-one per cent of both groups
indicated they would be interested in reading a book on

the speech and language growth of children. However, only
six to seven per cent of the subjects believed this material
could be presented better in book form. Fifty-seven per
cent of the television group and thirty-seven per cent of
the lecture group indicated that the material could be
presented as well in a book. This difference did not prove

to be significant.
11. While sixty-nine per cent of the television
group indicated that the material could be presented as well
or better in a classroom lecture series, only twenty-six
per cent said they would attend all of the series and
seventeen per cent said they would attend some of the
lectures. 1linety-six per cent of the lecture group stated









87
the material could be presented as well or better over
television. Thirty-seven per cent of this group said they
would attend some of the lectures if a lecture series were
given while thirty per cent indicated they would attend the
entire series.

12. Although eighty-nine per cent of the television
group and ninety-six per cent of the lecture group said
they would watch a television series on this subject, only
thirty-one to thirty-three per cent of the subjects were
interested in enrolling in a telecourse on speech and
language growth of children.

13. Both groups indicated that they especially
liked the charts which were used as visual aids. They
also liked the presentation, clarity, language and speech
developmental pattern, and the parents' role in the child's
acquisition of speech. The criticism of the program was
mainly directed toward the particular age level presented.
Several mothers said they were more concerned with the two
to five year age period.

14. A large number of the mothers asked for infor-
mation pertaining to speech difficulties. They requested
information on onset, cause, recognition, and where to
receive help. Some asked for specific speech exercises
which could be used in the home. The requests for speech











exercises ranged from exercises for speech improvement to
speech correction measures. Such information was requested
by many more mothers attending the television lecture than

those attending the classroom lecture. This suggests that

the television presentation aroused greater interest in the
mothers than did the lecture presentation.

Application to a Preventive Speech
Correction Program
The results of this study tend to support the hypothe-
sis that facts on speech and language growth intended for

mothers of preschool children are better received when pre-
sented in a regular classroom lecture than when this

material is presented in lecture form on television. How-
ever, both television and classroom lecture presentation
provide a highly significant change in attitudes and beliefs

toward this subject. There appears to be no difference
between the two methods of presentation in terms of the

amount of internalization or acceptance of the material.
Therefore, the difference obtained in favor of the lecture
group does not rule out the use of television for adult
education in the area of speech and language development.
The tremendous audience, the willingness of the mothers to
view a television series as opposed to attending a lecture

series tends to offset this difference. It does suggest,









89
however, that further study should be conducted in an
attempt to determine why this difference existed.













APPNDIX I


LJESTIUN A IRE

1. Has your station ever presented a telecourse in the field
of Speech Correctioat Yese lN..

It anwer to above is TbS, how many programs were pre-
aented in the telecourse? How long did the
telesourse r? ______________
t Tear or presentation VWa
the tfeeoours viewed mainly by; College Studaen
SParennts Both How many were
eIrolled? .
Did the toleoours include material an Speo*h and
Language Development in the Preschool Child? TYes
Noe .

If answer to above is ES, how many leeture were devoted
to this type of material? lt__ _________

We any survey made relative to the effectiveness of the
telesours method of presenting the atrial as opposed
to presenting the same material in the regular elasaroom
situation? Yes No

If answer to the above is YES, please end brief on
findings of survey and a description of the experimental
design.
*********i ***********

2. If your station has not preasnted a teloeourse in the
field of Speech Correction, has it ever presented a
series of programs in the field of Speecb Correction?
Tea_ No .
If answer to above is IES, was it designed for parents
_or for public nl general .


1









91
ow many programs were in the series? How
long did the series run?
Year of presentation Estimate the
number of viewer_ .__ _
Did the series include materials on Speesh and Language
Development n the Preschool Child? Yesa_
No-*
If answer to above is IYS, how many programs were devoted
to this type of material?______,_

If such a series was presented was any survey mad
relative to the effectiveness of the series? Too_

If answer to above is TYS, please sued brief on find-
ings of survey. Describe experimental design.


1













APPhNDII II


SPEECH AND LANGUAGE DEVELOP NT SERIES

'Helpaun Your Child to SDpakw

Prograa 01
"The First Word"

IBM A.RMO
Slide ejl AIXLCh Good evening, this is "Help Your

Child to Speak", a special series on Speeh
Slide #2 sad Language Development in the fre-achool

Child. Tonight we present the first
Slide #3
program entitled "The First Word". Tour
instructor is

same and title
----- ^ -- j ^^-------


institutio
NIM here is ____

INSTRUCTO s Good evening. Before we sen

get into a discussion on speech sd
language development, t it important
that we define our terms.









93
Chart #1 Language is every for of eoommuniation
in which thought and feelings are symbol-
ised. That is the written, spoken, sign,
facial, gesture, ;antomine, and art form.
Chart #2
Speech is merely one forn of language in
which spoken symbols, that is sounds or
words, are used to convey thoughts.
Many people believe that language
and speech abilities are instinctive in
nature. This is far froe true. While
the infant progresses naturally froe
sitting to rawling,standing and finally
walking, he does not progress from crying
to babbling t talking without guidance
and help. In other words, a child is
taught to talk and in most instances, his
parents are his teachers. fortunately,
it the parents are not good teachers the
child may become a speech cripple.
SSurveys of children in public schools
show that as many as 15% of the children
from kindergarten to 4th grade have
seriously defective speech and 4 to 5%
of the children above the 4th grade have









94
a speech difficulty severe enough to
require remedial work. Many children
Switch speech difficulties are penalized
Chart #4
in such subjects as reading, spelling
and english since language growth and
speech serve as foundations for these
subjects. Authorities in the field of
speech correction state that most of the
functional speech problems in our schools
can be traced back to the first few years
in a child's life. Many authorities
attribute these speech problems to poor
teaching by the parents.
If you as a parent, and in most
instances it is the mother, want to help
your child,and I't sure you do, to
develop normal speech, you must have some
understanding of the way in which speech
develops.
rhen the newborn infant informs the
world of his arrival with a lusty cry,
he has, in a way, begun to speak. For
the first two or three weeks of his
existence, his vocalisations sound the
same no matter what the situation. This




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