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A study of the comparative effectiveness of two methods of presenting to parents information relative to speech and language development in the preschool child

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A study of the comparative effectiveness of two methods of presenting to parents information relative to speech and language development in the preschool child
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Battin, Rosabell Ray, 1929-
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English
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vi, 147, [1] leaves. : mounted illus. ; 28 cm.

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Subjects / Keywords:
Child psychology ( jstor )
Classrooms ( jstor )
Infants ( jstor )
Language development ( jstor )
Lecture methods ( jstor )
Lectures ( jstor )
Mothers ( jstor )
Spoken communication ( jstor )
Universities ( jstor )
Weeping ( jstor )
Dissertations, Academic -- Speech -- UF ( lcsh )
English language -- Study and teaching ( lcsh )
Speech -- Study and teaching ( lcsh )
Speech thesis Ph. D ( lcsh )
Television in education ( lcsh )
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bibliography ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

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Thesis:
Thesis (M.A.) -- University of Florida.
Bibliography:
Bibliography: leaves 135-146.
General Note:
Manuscript copy.
General Note:
Vita.

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Copyright [name of dissertation author]. Permission granted to the University of Florida to digitize, archive and distribute this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.
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A Study of the Comparative Effectiveness of Two

Methods of Presenting to Parents Information

Relative to Speech and Language Development

In the Preschool Child









By
ROSABELL RAY BATTIN









A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE COUNCIL OF
THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE
DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY


UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
August, 1959













ACKNOIWLDGiXENTS


The writer would like to express her deep appreciation
and gratitude to Professor H. P. Constans, Chairman of the
Department of Speech, for his interest, helpful suggestions,
and criticisms in the preparation of this study and for the
time and effort he extended as chairman of her committee.
She would also like to express her appreciation to Dr. E. P.
Home, Dr. L. L. Zimmerman, Dr. L. L. Hale, Dr. J. C. Dixon,
and Dr. R. E. Tow for serving as members of her supervisory
committee. Appreciation is extended also to Dr* C. K. Thomas,
who graciously agreed to serve on the committee during
Doctor Tew's absence, and to Dr. R. J. Anderson for checking
the statistical findings.
Special thanks go to Dr. T. C. Battin, Mr. R. E.
Barthold, and the staff of KUHT for the use of their tele-
vision facilities and their assistance in producing the tele-
vision program. The writer is grateful to Dr. R. K. Evans
and to Professor Sol Tannenbaum for helping with the procedure
and statistics, to the ministers and educational directors of
the churches for assisting in securing subjects, and to the
mothers who gave freely of their time to serve as subjects
for the study.














TABLE OF CONTENTS


ACKIOWLEDGENTS *

LI3T OF TAMIES .

Chapter


* 9 9 9 9 9
* 9 9 9 9 9,


I, INTHnnUCTION .

Background Material
Purpose of the Study

II, PROCEDURE .

Experimental Design
Designing the Televisioa Program and Lecture
Arranging for the Program and Lecture
Preliminary Interview
Designing the Teat
Selection of Subjects
Airing the Program
Presenting the Lecture
Pre-testing and Post-testing
Treatment of Test Data

III. ANALYSIS OF THE DATA .

Introduction
Group Variables
Pre-teating and Post-testing Resulta

IV. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS .

Summary
Conelusions
Possible Applications


Pag

Ut










TABLE OF CONTENTS -- Continue


APPENDIX I 90

I. Questionnaire for TV Stations 90
II. Television script 92
III. Visual Aida Used with Locturo I ll
IV. Sohodule used by Interviewer. 117
V. Proe-tet and Part I of Post-test 119
VI. Part II Post-test Leeture Group 129
VII. Part II Post-est TV Group 131
VIII. Letter to Television Group 133
IX. Letter to Leture Group .. 134
BIBLIOGRAPHRY 135
BIOnRAPHICAL SK TCH .. 17













11 T OF TABLES


Table Page
1. Parental Age and Education 49
2. Mothers Employent 50
3. Fatherst' hployment 51
4. Number of Children 52
5. Group I with Group II Before 53
6. Variances Group I and II Before *. 54
7. Group I with Group II After 55
8. Variances Group I and II After 56
9. Comparison of Before and After Soores 57
10. Comparison by Evaluative Dimension Before 58
11. Comparison by Evaluative Dimension After 60
12. Question 1 62
13. Question 2 63


15. Question 6 ....... 65
15. Question 6 .......... 66
16. Question 7 66
17. question 8 66
18. Question 9 .. 68
19. Question lO .. 69
20. Question .. .. 69










LIST OF TABLES Continud

21. Question 12 .. .. 71
22. Question 3 .. 71


24. Question f ....... 72

25. Response to uestiona 3 and 16 75
26. Question ) .......... 77
27* question 4 786
287 Questlon 16 79
28. Queotlon 16 ........ .,?











CHAPTER I


INTF.ODUCTION

Background Material
In the 1951 White House Conferenee Report on
Children and Youth it was estimated that there was a
five per sent incidence of speech disorders occurring
between the ages of five and twenty-one years. The
percentages by type of defect indicated approximately
three per cent had functional articulatory defects,
seven-tenthe of one per cent were classified as stut-
tering and the remaining one and three-tenths per cent
were non-functional defects.1
There is evidence in 1957 to show that through-
out the nation the incidence of speech disorders among
the general population has reached a higher percentage.
Milisen has sumarised the numerous reports on the
incidence of speech disorders among the general
population. In this summary he placed the median
incidence at fifteen per cent of the public school

Aaerican Speech and Hearing Association Comaittee
on the Mid-Century White House Conference, "Speech Dis-
orders and Speech Correction," Journal of Spoeeh and HeariTn
Disorders XVII (June, 1952), 130.











children from kindergarten to the fourth grade who may
have seriously defective speech. He found that four to
five per sent of the children in grade four and above had
speech difficulties severe enough to require remedial
work,2

The majority of speech problems encountered in
the public schools are functional and can be traced
back to their onset which is in the early developmental
stages of speech and language. Van Riper states:
The skills involved in speech begin to be acquired
as soon as the child is born and are seldom perfectly
mastered, even during a lifetime. Mueh of the speech
learning during the first six months is relatively
independent of the stimulation given by the child's
parents. Lven in the crying and wailing of infants
the short, sharp inhalation and prolonged exhalation
so fundamental to true speech are being practiced.
Lip, Jaw, and tongue movements involved in the pro-
duction of all the speech sounds in all the human
languages are repeatedly performed. The early aware-
ness of these movements and their accompanying sounds
provides the foundations for speeeh readiness. Through-
out the first years of life, there are many ways
in which parents can help or hinder the development
of speech. Their knowledge or ignorance determines
whether the child shall learn to talk because of
parents' efforts or in spite of them. Their appli-
cation of principles so obvious that we wonder why
they should ever be violated, will determine whether
the child's speech will be an asset or a handicap.
Time after time the speech correctionist tries to
trace the cause of a stutter or an articulatory
defeat, only to lose it in the vague parental

2Robert Mllisen, "The Incidence of Speech Disorders,"
Handbook of Sneech Pathology, ed. Lee Edward Travis
(










memories of childhood.3

Since speech is a learned process, we might
L'ollow the assumption put forth by Van Riper that a
speech difficulty rests not only with the child but with
the parent who serves as the child's teacher for this
aiportant function. Ainsworth qualifies this assumption
in the following manner:

As far as the child himself is concerned, speech
develops from his ability to cry lustily, then to
enlarge the variety of noises, or sounds, which he
makes, and finally to select and apply these sounds in
organized patterns (words) which have an established
meaning for other human beings with whom he is in
contact. Out it is the parents who supply these
patterns and who interpret them for the child. The
ways in which they do these things determine, to a
gret eItent, the eventual adequacy of the child's
speeeh-.
In further support of what the parent role consists,
Wood found in a study on the relationship between parental
maladjustment and functional articulatory defects in

children that
When the mothers themselves were clinically treated
for purposes of alleviating their own problems and
securing better adjustment for themselves, their
children improved more rapidly under a program of
speech correction than did the children of those
who were not treated.

3Charles Van Riper, Speech Correction. PrinciLle;
and Practles (E:nglewood lif a, New Jerseys Prentice- all,
Inc., 1954), p. 92.

4Wendell Johnson (ed.), Speech Prpblems of Children
(New eork: Grune and Stratton, 195l ) p. 1.8











Finally we ay say on the basis of this study
that functional articulatory defeats of children are
definitely and significantly associated with alad-
Justent and undesirable traits on the par of the
parent, tnd that such factors are usually maternally
centered.F
Molyneaux conducted a study in which she compared
the environment of children classified by their teachers
as having advanced speech development with that of children
classified as having retarded speech development. She
had two groups of thirty children; each group ranged fro
four and a half to six years of ag. One group was
advanced in articulation and language ability and the
other group was retarded in articulation and language
ability. These groups were matched for age, sex, and
I. Q. and they did not include bilingual, physically
handicapped, poorly coordinated or mentally retarded
children. The parents of both groups were given a ques-
tionnaire using the personal interview technique. Her
study indicated that:
The importance of parental attitudes and behavior
in the creation of the child's early environment
cannot be overemphasized. The two groups of parents
included in the investigation were remarkably similar
in some respects, but they differed significantly
in regard to (1) their attitudes toward the importance
of language training in the preschool years of child-

flenneth Wood, "Parental 'aladjustaent and Func-
tional Articulatory Defects in Children," JournM atpeeh
sad Hearinx Disorders, II (December, 1946) 2720











hood as demonstrated in their actual efforts to foster
linguistic skills, (2) their realization of the is-
portance of parent-child companionship and cooperative
activities (3) the consistency and wisdom of their
child training techniques, and (4) their estimate
of their child's capacity for mature behavior."
The desire of the parents of the advanced group
to encourage language activities in the home and
their actual efforts to aid their children in de-
veloping verbal proficiency appeared to pay definite
dividends in the level of linguistic skill attained
by those children. It is interesting to note that
in addition to exhibiting greater verbal proficiency
in their actual social contacts with others, the
children of the advanced group also appeared to
exhibit more extensive use of verbal expression in
their solitary play activities.. The use of
language thus appeared to ke a pleasurable activity
even in social situations,'
The importance of parent-child relationships in
the development of articulate speech has received additional
emphasis in an unpublished study directed by Mower. The
relationships of a number of mothers and their infants
over a period of many months with special reference to
the role of vocalisation of mother and infant were observed.
Mover states:

One of the first things discovered was that
most others and particularly those, who, by
other criteria, seemed to be the "good" mothers -
kept their infants "bathed in sound" most of their
king hours. While caring for their infants or

6Dorothy M. Molyneaux, environmentall Factors
Differentiating Children of Advanced Speech Development
from those with Retarded Speech." (Unpublished Ph.D.
dissertation, Stanford University, 1949), p. 209.

7ljid*. p. 215.











just spending leisure time with them, these mother
vocalized aLnost continuously; and even when other
duties took them to adjoining rooms, they would com-
monly sing or call to the baby intermittently. .
It seems probable that much of the motivation for
the babbling and cooing that infants normally engage
in stems from the fact that the human voice, by
virtue of the circumstances just described, has
taken on pleasurable (secondary reinforcing) prop-
erties. Although baby's voice does not sound exactly
like mother's voice, the similarity will usually
be sufficient to cause a carryover of some of the
pleasurable qualities of one to the other and we
may surmise that the production of mother-like sounds,
in the form of babbling is a first and highly suc-
cessful step in the child's progression toward fully
articulate speech.5
Lewis also stresses the importance of the role
which the mother plays. Referring to it as "interchange
between mother and child" he points out that:
Most mothers are happily able to watch their
children grow in a normal way-some children more
quickly than others. All that is needed is a
mother's natural interest in her child, so that
she is constantly speaking to him and getting
his rudimentary cooing and gurgling in reply,?
The value of the role played by parents, especially
during the beginning of the child's speech readiness, is
likewise emphasized by Stinehfield and Young who believe that:
Children develop speech most normally when given
encouragement and direction at the age when the
speech readiness first begins to be apparent, with

80. V. Nowrer, "Speech Development in the Tonng
Child: 1. The Autism Theory of Speech Development and Some
Clinical Application, on a.l of oeh and zBl Dis-
orders, XVII (September, 9 27-26.
9N. M. Lewis, ow Children Learn to Segak (London,
George 8. arrap and Co. Ltd., 1957), 7.










the attempt to name objects or to designate then
in words. This is close upon the end of the first
year in the average child, but say appear as early
as the ninth month in precocious children, and is
likely to continue active to about the eighteenth
moath. With the ooming of the second birthday, or
around the twenty-fourth month, the most favorable
period for speech development may have passed so
that speech subsequently develops much more slowly
and with less facility than when it is begun earlier.10
Van Riper asur up the beliefs that have been
expressed by writers in the fields of linguistics, psy-
chology, and speech pathology regarding the important
role that parents play in helping their children achieve
normal speech and language in these words
The large majority of speech disorders date from
early infancy. The child has somehow failed to gain
the proper articulation, veal or fluency skills
which anoral children master without too mech diffi-
culty. Our culture demands a high standard of speech
very early in lift but few parents know how to teach
a child to talk.J'
As more and more emphasis has been placed upon the
effee of environment and parent-child relationship on
the development of speech and language in the child,
specialists in the field of speech correction have become
aware of the need to educate parents of preschool children

10Sara Stinehfield and d&na Hill ouIng, Children
itailag r DfIve I (Stanford, Californis

lVean Riper, Speech Correction, p. 92.











concerning normal speech and language development.
Anderson states:
There is little doubt that the home is the greatest
single influence in shaping a child's speech into
the pattern it will eventually assume when he becomes
an adult. The speech models involved in the home
environment all combine to be a powerful force in
determining whether the child's speech develops
normally, whether the process is interfered with,
or whether serious problems later manifest themselves.
While perhaps the pre-school years are the most
critical ones in the establishment of speech and
language habits the process continues as long as
the child remains at home. The problem then, is
first one of prevention and later one of cure. The
parents' first concern, therefore is to establish
the favorable conditions that will insure normal or
superior speech development in their children. The
second concern is to discover and apply the proper
remedies at the right time in the event speech dis-
turbances do appear.. Parents want to do the
right thing for their children; what they need is
proper guidance for avoiding and modifying the
negative factors that may bring on speech problems
later and for fostering conditions that will make
for normal speech development or will bglp alleviate
the speech problems once it has begun.2
Previous to 1950, few books written for parents
emphasized a positive means of facilitating normal speech
and language growth. Rather, the material was set forth
to aid those parents whose children had a speech problem.
In 1950, Van Riper wrote a book specifically directed
to the parents of young children in which he discusses

1 2Virgil Anderson, lrovit the Chld,' Seeh
(New York: Oxford University Preoss, 19), p. ix.










the normal development of speech in the preschool child.13
While some parents may read material such as that
found in Van Riper's book, the great majority of parents
of preschool children won't even know it exists. Because
there is a need to oducato parents relative to their
position or role in the development of speech and language
in their children, it is desirable to develop a more
effective method of disseminating such material. Among
the many ways that a wider dissemination of this material
might be brought about we are concerned with: (1) pre-
sentation of classroom lectures for parents of preschool
children, and (2) presentation by television of a lecture
series.. The major difficulty encountered with the first
method would be that of motivating the parents to some to
centrally located points where the lecture course could
be held. In the second method, parents who had television
sets could view the lectures without leaving the comfort
of their living room.
Present day statistics indicate that in the United
Stee s, an average of four hours and fifty-seven minutes
per day are spent in televiewing.l4 Statistics also

13Charles Van Riper, Teachil our Child to Talk
(New Yorks Harper and Brothers, 1950).
14Loo Beoar t The Ag of Telovialo (New Yorkt
rederick Ugar Publishing Co., 1956)a, p. 4.









10
indicate there are over forty-two million receivers in homes
throughout the nation.15 These figures offer some basis
for assuming that parents might be more readily contacted
through television. The potential of this medium for
adult education has been recognized by the educators
and cultural leaders who have been instrumental in estab-
lishing thirty-four educational television stations now
in operation n in twenty-five states and which could be
used as outlets for presenting a series on speech and
language development. If television were to prove a
satisfactory and effective method for presenting infor-
mation on speech and language development, a series
could be recorded on film or video tape and made available
through the facilities of the National Educational Radio
and Television Center to communities in which there was
a commerelal television station. Some interested person,
presumably a speech correctionist, could then make
arrangements to have such a filmed series publicized
and telecast through local television facilities.
However, there are several factors to be taken
into consideration before a decision can be reached as
to which method of parent education should be employed.

5Televisioa Faetbook. XIVII (Fall-Winter, 1905), 31.









11

Before such a project is undertaken the following questions
should be answered, (1) do parents desire this type of
information, (2) would they be willing to attend and
follow such a lecture series, (3) which method of presen-
tation, television or classroom lecture, would be the
better means of disseminating this type of information to
parents, and (4) is either method effective?
There are other factors that must be considered
when looking at the overall picture of these two methods
of presentation. In the classroom situation it is
always possible for the parent to interrupt the instructor
to ask a question. Since the classroom instructor is
not burdened by the pressure of time, such as that imposed
upon the television instructor, it in possible for those
in the classroom situation to receive answers to their
questions. They also have personal contact with the
instructor. However, because of the seating arrangement
usual in the classroom situation, a number of the parents
milht not be able to see charts and demonstrations easily
and clearly.
On the other hand, the television presentation
offers each parent a "front-row seat" for each lecture,
Because of the technical aspects of television, the
parent is able to clearly see each chart and demonstration.











It is obvious that the parent viewer can't interrupt the
television presentation to ask questions. However, parents
could mail in questions to be answered on the next program
or they could telephone their questions in to an assistant
who in turn would pass the questions on to the instructor
in the studio who could answer them during the television
lecture. This procedure of relaying questions to the
instructor has been used by KUHT, University of Houston
Educational Television Station.
In any event, it is necessary to experiment with
both methods of presentation to determine which is accepted
as the more effective means of presenting information on
speech and language growth in the preschool child.
By the very nature of the television medium, that
of its potential coverage and method of communication by
sight and sound, it would appear reasonable to assume
that here is a means by which specialists in the field of
speech correction could give parents direction and guidance
in the speech and language development of the child. To
determine whether educators in the field of speech corree-
tion have utilised television for this purpose, a
questionnaire (refer Appendix I) was sent to the thirty-four
educational stations now telecasting, and to the office of
the National Bducational Television and Radio Center in









13
Ann Arbor, Michigan. The questionnaire was divided into

two parts.
The first part concerned itself with whether or
not the station had presented a telecourse in the field
of speech correction. If so, how many programs were pre-
sented, how long did the telecourse run, the year of
presentation, and the number and classification of students.
It also asked whether the course included material on speech
and language development in the preschool child; if so, how
many lectures were devoted to this type material. A question
was included on whether or not any survey was made relative

to the effectiveness of the telecourse method of presenting
the material as opposed to presenting the same material

in the regular classroom situation.
The second part of the questionnaire concerned
itself with whether or not a series of programs in the

field of speech correction had been presented. If the
answer was yes, they were asked the number of programs
in the series, the type of audience for which it was
designed, the length of the series, year of presentation,

and estimated number of viewers. The questionnaire
inquired whether the series included material on speech
and language development in the preschool child, and, if so,

the number of programs devoted to this type of material.









14
The station was also asked for the results of any survey
conducted relative to the effectiveness of such a series
and a description of the experimental design.
The thirty-four educational stations and the National
Educational Television and Radio Center returned the
questionnaires. Thirty-two reported no telecourse in the
area of speech correction while two reported that they had
presented such a course. One of the stations was WHA-TV,
Madison, Wisconsin. In 1957, they presented a one semester
course entitled: "Speech 25, Introduction to Speech Correo-
tion," consisting of forty half-hour programs. The course
was viewed mainly by college students; however, some of the
general public also viewed the course. Forty students were
enrolled and a research study was made in conjunction with
their viewing of the course. The regularly enrolled
students were divided into two groups, one remained in the
studio with the instructor while the other watched in a
separate classroom over television. Written tests were
presented to both groups at the end of the course to deter-
mine comparative learning scores. To test comparative
effectiveness of primarily visual versus aural styles of
exposition, six units of the course were presented by means
of specially made kinescopes and the identical units taught
verbally. A true-false written examination and a filmed
examination were then given.









15

The primary findings from the research project
were (1) the method of testing affects the apparent
efficiency of the method of teaching and (2) comparison
of the two conditions of instruction revealed no signifi-
cant difference in learning between the studio group and
the monitor group regardless of the type of examination.
The instructor felt that the use of television
had improved the quality of instruction because demon-
stration of clinical techniques of diagnosis and therapy
in speech correction could be handled more efficiently by
television techniques than in the usual live class
situation.16
WQD, Pittsburgh reported that they had presented
a thirty-two program, two semester telecourse on speech
improvement designed for primary grade children. No
research has been carried out in conjunction with the series.
Eight of the thirty-four stations reported that
they had presented a short series of programs on speech
correction. Of this group, five stated that their programs
were aimed at the public in general, two reported that the
programs were primarily designed for parents, and one
directed the series toward teachers ano students. None of

16A detailed report of research findings in connection
with this series is to be published as hsear t
ro. 11 by the University of Wisconsin Television bortory.









16
the eight stations reported having made a survey or study
as to the effectiveness of the series.
KOAC-AM-TV, Corvallis, Oregon is presenting a con-

tinuing series on speech and language development designed
for parents and children. The series has been running
approximately six months and there are an estimated 100,000
television sets in the viewing area. WVS, Milwaukee,
presented a four program series on speech correction in 1958
with one of the programs devoted to speech and language
development in the preschool child, while the Alabama
Educational Television Network originating from Auburn
presented a twelve program series in 1957 with approximately
three programs devoted to speech and language development
in the preschool child. Neither station was able to
estimate the number of viewers. KCTS, Seattle, Washington
reported four programs devoted to speech and language
development in their series which was designed for teachers
and students. The remaining four stations had presented
a series on speech correction which did not include infor-
mation on speech and language development.
The Educational Television and Radio Center reported
that they had no films in the speech correction and speech
science area.
Over the past ten years, there have been television
programs broadcast over local and national commercial









17
stations demonstrating how various speech and hearing clinics
diagnose and treat speech problems. In 1953 and again in
1956, Western Reserve University and an affiliate, the
Cleveland Speech and Hearing Center, offered over a local,
commercial station a telecourse entitled, "Your Child Learns
to Speak."17 This series was presented as a university course
for which students could receive three hours of credit under
the academic listing of "Introduction to Speech Correction."
The purpose of the course was listed as:
(1) to present a qualified university course for
beginning students in speech and hearing therapy,
(2) to discuss the training procedures and the pro-
fessional needs of children with speech and/or hearing
problems, and (3) to initiate an interest and
awareness in parents so that ame speech or hearing
problems might be prevented.l
No attempt was made to evaluate the effectiveness of
presenting this material over television.
When attempting to evaluate television for educational
purposes, one is immediately aware of the tremendous educa-
tional potential which this medium has to offer. Newsom, in
his summary report of the Televisions Institute held in 1952,

17ancy Wood, T ur Child Learns to Seak: Telecourse
e Study and Guide (leveland: Western Reerve Unversity,

1raney Wood, "Televised Speech and Hearing Therapy,"
Journal of Exceptional Children XXII (January, 1956), 152.









18
listed the assets of television as: (1) large audience
can be influenced, (2) television goes right into the home,

(3) people and properties can be utilized better, (4) simul-
taneity adds effectiveness and (5) television can teach. In
explaining this fifth item, he states:
Participants in the institute believe that there
is now convincing evidence from numerous experiments
that television can be utilized successfully as a
teaching medium. Whether it be the experience with
the telecourses at Western Reserve University, or the
experiments at Syracuse University, or at the Special
Devices Center of the United States Navy, at Fort
Washington, Long Island, all agree that television
is an effective educational medium. Evidence indicates
that television is as effective as traditional class-
teaching in the amount learned and retained.I7
In order to test the effectiveness of television as
a teaching tool, research projects were set up and conducted
by students working for advanced degrees. However, Kumata,
in reviewing the research that has been conducted in thia
area states that it lacks quantity and quality.
Actual performance has far outstripped evaluation
in instructional television programming. This lag,
taken by itself, is not disheartening. Indeed, it
bespeaks a faith and enthusiasm in instructional
television even though concrete evidence on many points
may as yet be lacking. It is the relationship of evalgg-
tion to practice which should merit serious attention,2.

19Carroll Newsom, "Use of Television in Education,*
A Television Policy for Education: Proceedins of the Tele-
vision Prorams Institute (Washington: American Council on
Education, 1952), pp. 1O4-141.
20. Kumata, An Inveto of Intartto al Televfson
Research, (Ann Arbors Educational Television and Radio Center,
T195T P. 1.











Research projects which utilise television are

difficult to construct because of the restrictions imposed
by the medium. Some television research has been discredited
because the individual setting up the problem attempted to
evaluate instructional programs which had already been aired.
This resulted in trying to fit the questions to a set program
rather than preparing the experimental design prior to the
presentation of the program. A second difficulty is finding
adequate criteria for measuring program effectiveness. A
third problem is the inability to establish adequate controls.
In the fourth place, if an attempt is made to establish better
controls the studies are forced into closed-circuit and a
captive audience situation. Finally, there is difficulty
in getting representative audience sazpllng.
One of the important questions raised in connection

with this research has been, how do students taught by means
of television compare with those taught in the regular class-
room situation? Most of the investigators have found that
students taught by television have done as well as students
taught in the regular classroom situation, and on occasions,
the television students have achieved higher academic stand-
ing. In an attempt to evaluate television and regular









20

classroom lectures, Evans, Roney, and McAdams21 studied
the effectiveness of television instruction in two college

level courses offered over KURT-TV, at the University of
Houston. An elementary psychology course and an elementary

biology course were chosen for the investigation. In the

psychology course, comparisons were made between ninety-
six students in an on the campus lecture section, seven-
teen students enrolled in a section for the television

lecture followed by correspondence work, and thirty
students enrolled in a television, supplemented by campus-

discussion section. In the biology course, two groups of
seventy-eight students matched for college class, grade
and sex were used in television and non-television sections.
The authors report that their findings show no significant
difference among test scores for the groups in the psy-

chology sections nor for the television and non-television
sections taking biology.

Rock, Duva, and Murray22 presented a series of

21[, ana, H. B. Roney, and W. J. cdams, "An
Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Instruction and Audience
reaction to Frograuming in an i4ucational Television Station,'
Journal of Applied Psychology, XX111 (1955), 277-279.
22R. T. Roek, Jr., J. 8. Duva, and J. E. Murray,
Training by ieeaviion The omparativ L' e ivna o
nstruction by Tleviion Tevison ecordin and
vetionl Glasro Prod D report 47t-02-2,
ort Wasington, L. I., N. .. Special Devices Center,
NAV&luS P-650-2, no date.










eight one-hour telecasts concerned with different phases
of an Army division's operation in an encounter. The
subjects were 3000 army reservists, representing almost
all branches of the army, and ranging in rank from private
to colonel. The reservists were selected from reserve
headquarters in ten different cities, and viewed the series
in their respective locations. Professional actors were
used in each of the eight programs. Learning was measured
by multiple-choice type questions and a pro-test and post-
test was given for every program except the first. A
number of the pre-test questions were used to measure
retention from one to six weeks after the presentation
of a single program. Questionnaires designed to check
reactions toward television instruction were presented
at the end of the final session, and a rating scale for
reactions to the entire series was also presented.
The findings revealed that all subjects made
higher scores following the telecast. This gain held
true for all groups when they were eategorised according
to rank. Four-fifths of the persons in the groups
reported that the series was interesting or very inter-
eating and a majority of the group judged the series as
good or excellent. Three-fourths of the men stated

that they preferred being taught by television rather
than by any other method.









22
The investigators, after analyzing the programs,
stated that narration by itself or combined with other
forms of teaching was extremely effective. They felt
that drama used as the sole means of presenting material
was the least effective.
Shimberg23 evaluated the effect of teaching the
American Red Cross home nursing course by television.
He used three experimental groups; the first received all
instruction by television, the second received a weekly
practice session in addition to the television instruction,
and the third received its instruction in a regular class-
room situation without television. The television groups
viewed thirteen half-hour programs twice a week while the
regular classroom group attended seven two-hour lectures
with demonstrations and supervised practice. The tele-
vision groups met in Houston while the classroom group
met in Oklahoma City. Comparisons were made between the
groups on a battery of pre-tests and post-tests. There were
seventy-seven in the television only group, forty-three
in the television and practice group, and two hundred
and seventeen in the classroom group.

23Benjamin Shimberg, Effectivenegs of TelejTsion
in Teaching Home Nursing, ('rinceton New Jersey: Eduea-
tional Testing Service, Research Bulletin RB-54-19,
August, 1954) (duplicated).









23
The findings suggest that television instruction
was as effective as the classroom instruction for teach-

ing home nursing. It must be noted here, however, that
the groups were not well matched for locale, number, or

length and number of lecture periods and there was no
mention of an attempt at control of such factors as age,
intelligence, and socio-economic level.

Tannenbaum reports two comparative studies on
instruction through television.24,25 The first was a
study presenting material in periodontics to practicing
dentists in six states. The procedure was as follows:
One group viewed three one-hour lecture-demonstrations
presented over closed-circuit television with a fourth
summary hour which was used to answer questions raised
during the previous lectures. Eaeh person in this group
was provided with a supplementary manual. A second group
heard only the sound portion over a telephone hookup plus
viewing film-strip visual aide. A third group studied
only the manual. A fourth group watched a kinescope re-
cording approximately one month after the live series.

2P. H. Tannenbaum, Instruction through Television:
A Comparative Study (Urbana, Illinois: Institute of Comnni-
cation Research, University of Illinois, June, 1956)
(mimeographed).
25p. I. Tannenbaum, anstruction throh T lervion
An Experimental Study (Urbana, Illinois: Insttute o Cmuni-
oation Research, University of Illinois, 1956) (mimeographed).









24

A fifth group, used as a control, consisted of dentists
who neither saw the television series nor the manual.
The live television group comprised of two
hundred and four dentists, one hundred and sixty of which
received a thirty-five multiple choice examination after
seeing the first three programs while the remaining
forty-six were tested after viewing the summary hour.
There were ten dentists in the telephone group, twelve
in the manual only group, forty in the kinescope group,
and one hundred and thirty-eight dentists in the control
group. No pre-testing was done. In analysing the test,
it was found that eight of the thirty-five questions were
not covered either in the manual or the telecasts and
nine of the questions were covered only in the telecast.
All of the experimental groups did better on the
test than the control group. Using the 't' test, the
mean differences were reported significant with the exception
of the comparison between the control group and the manual

only group.
The second study was made of three hundred and
fifty-six students in a basic physiology course at the
University of Illinois Medical School. The students were
divided into two groups which were equated on the basis
of their mid-term grades. The first group of one hundred









25
and eighty-nine students received regular classroom
instruction in a lecture hall in the presence of tele-
vision cameras; the second group of one hundred and

sixty-seven students received their instruction through
closed-circuit television. Three fifty-minute lectures
on the human respiratory system were given on consecutive
days. An unannounced nineteen-item multiple choice test

covering the material presented in the three lectures was
given to all students.

The test results were studied using analysis of
the variance to test whether differences could be found
between the lecture and television groups as a whole,

whether sub-groups (first and second year medical students,
dentistry, and graduate students) differed among them-
selves, and whether there was any interaction between any
of the sub-groups and the method of instruction. Com-
parisons of the mean scores showed a difference at the
seven per cent level of confidence in favor of the tele-
vision group. A preference scale was presented to the
television group.

On the basis of this scale, a comparison was made
between the test scores of those who were favorable to
television instruction, those who were neutral to tele-
vision instruction, and those who were unfavorable to










instruction by television. The results indicated that
those who were favorable or neutral to instruction by
television did significantly better on the examination
than those who did not favor this form of instruction.
An experiment in assa media and learning was
conducted by Villiams26 at the University of Toronto.
One hundred and eight undergraduates of the University
were used. They were divided into four groups containing
an equal number of high, average, and low students. Each
group was arbitrarily assigned to a classroom lecture,
a lecture by television, a lecture by radio, or to read
a mimeographed copy of "Think through Language" a subject
unfamiliar to all the students. The lecturer simultane-
ously presented his material to the lecture group, the
television group, and the radio group. During this
time, the fourth group read the talk. Key words in the
reading material were capitalized in an attempt to cor-
pensate for lack of sound and/or sight and to help show
the emphasis given in the lecture. A post-test, containing
nineteen multiple choice questions and one essay type
question to be answered in two hundred to three hundred
words,was presented immediately following the lecture.

26D. C. Williams, "Mass Media and Learning--An
Experiment," Mplorations. 111 (1954), 75-82.










The results showed that learning by television
was superior to radio. Thesa findings were significant
beyond the one per cent level of confidence. Radio was
superior to reading at the five per cent level of
confidence. There was no significant difference between
the lecture group and the group which read the material.
The same findings held true when the test scores were
evaluated in terms of the students' academic ability
with the exception of the lecture group which was last
in amount learned among the high and low groups but
equal to television for the average group. However,
it must be noted that the lecture group met in a studio
type setting with accompanying distractions of lights,
equipment and personnel for broadcasting.

A comparison between psychology classes taught
under four different reception conditions was made by
Husband27 at Iowa State College. The four conditions
studied were (1) television at home; (2) studio class;

(3) kinescope class; and (4) two campus classes. In
the first condition, all lessons were viewed over tele-
vision at home with the students coming to the campus
for examinations. In the second condition, ten students

27R. H. husband, "Television Versus Classroon for
Learning General Psychology," American Psychologist, IX
(1954), 181-183.











at a time made up a studio class for the television
presentation, while the rest viewed the lessons on a

monitor. The kinescope class was obtained in a later
quarter with campus students viewing kinescope recordings
of the class as well as engaging in twenty minutes of

informal discussion following each lesson. The two
campus classes received regular classroom instruction.
The instructor was the same for all groups and the
material covered was the same. Iach television session

was thirty minutes long while the classroom lecture
lasted fifty minutes. All participants were regularly
enrolled college students except the television home
group. Only the number of participants for the television
at home condition was given. Fifty-four out of fifty-

six persons enrolled finished the course by passing all
the tests. Of those completing the course, fifty were

women and four were men. The age range was from eighteen

through sixty-five with a median of thirty-seven. The
median age for the high school graduates was twenty years

of age. Thirty-one of the group had no college credit,
twelve had some, eleven had one to two years of college,
and three had two years or more.
Using high point average for the course a
means of comparison, the author found that the group









29
receiving television instruction at home had a higher
grade point average than the group receiving television
instruction in the studio and the two regular classroom
groups. The highest grade average was achieved by the
group receiving instruction from a kinescope recording.
There was no test of significance mentioned in the article.
While experiments studying the comparative effec-
tiveness of television presentation and regular classroom
presentation have been conducted for elementary, secondary,
and college classes, no known research of this nature has
been conducted in the area of speech pathology and
audiology. However, a number of audience surveys in
connection with telecourses and adult education type
programs have been reported. Halpern28 conducted two
surveys, one in May and the other in June, 1953, of
Cleveland residents with respect to the telecourse
offered by Western Reserve University. Three hundred
and three telephone calls to a random sample of Cleveland
residents were made on the first survey while the second
consisted of seventy-one intensive interviews of tele-
course viewers.

286. O. Halpern, The Western Reserve University
Telecourse Audtieqe (Cleveland: Western Reserve University,
1953) (mimeographed).









30

On the basis of the two surveys the following
conclusions were drawn. (1) Approximately 6,000 adults
representing one and two-tenths per cent of the tele-
vision families and twenty per cent of those who viewed
at nine a.m. viewed each day. (2) The telecourse viewers
were predominately female with an average of plus one
year of college. Those males who viewed had an average of
two and a half years of college. (3) Those who continued
viewing had more education and had been away from school
for a shorter period of time and had less distractions
at home during the television time. (4) Viewers tend to
prefer those courses which aid in everyday living.
Lynch29 interviewed even hundred and sixty-four

viewers in the metropolitan Detroit area. He was
investigating the siae, composition, and viewing habits of
the audience for the University of Michigan Television
Hour. He found that one-half of the television set owners
in the Detroit area viewed the program. Two-thirds of
this group reported seeing the program within the six
month period previous to the study and one-fourth viewed

29james 1. Lynch, *A Study of the Sime and
Composition of the Viewing Audience of an Educational
Television Program in the Detroit Metropolitan Area."
(Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Department of Speech,
University of Michigan, 1955).









31
the program one to four times a month. The audience
included all ages. College educated people were more
likely to view, however, a considerable number of high
school and grade school background people also viewed
the program. Viewing was relatively high at all income
levels. The viewers were not limited to any particular
occupational level.
A number of the studies reported stressed that a
straight lecture approach was most satisfactory for tele-
vision presentation. This was substantiated by Vernon30
who conducted a study on perception and understanding of
instructional television programs. He found that important
statements and generalisations were less likely to be
remembered if they occurred near the end of the program.
He also found that the more discussion there was in the
program, the less accurate was recall. He concluded that
if learning is to occur at an optimum rate, one commentator
presenting facts and statements in a straightforward
manner is best. Evans supports this, at least in part,
when he states; "an informal lecture combined with skillful
use of the blackboard may be a preferred method of

30M. D. Vernon, "Perception and Understanding of
Instructional Television Programmes," British Journal of
Pe7rholear, LII (1953), 116-126.










television presentation.w31
A sunmary of the findings of the research of
television as a teaching method has been presented by
Wischner and Scheier. They state:
A major conclusion warranted by all of the research
findings is: TV an ea.ch, Within the range of subject
matters and student groups investigated, TV groups
generally learn as well am regular instruction group.
In some instances TV groups achieve significantly
better than their controls. With respect to retention
measures, TV groups do as well as regularly instructed
groups.. .. Present research indicates that tele-
vision is neither uech better nor worse for straight-
forward lecture and blackboard presentation.'2
These research findings must be viewed cautiously
sines proper experimental controls were not always operating
and environmental and sampling biases were noted. It is
important to be aware of tha shortcomings of the research
that has been conducted; however, this must not overshadow
what has been shown relative to the educational properties
of television. From this research, we find indications that
television can be used effectively for adult education. The
method of presentation which has proved most effective is
the straight lecture with accompanying charts and demon-
strations.

31Richard I. Evans, "The Planning and Implementation
of a Psychological Series on a Non-commercial Educational
Television Station," The American Psychologist, X (October,
1955), 603.
320. J. Wischner and V. H. Scheear, "Some Thoughts
on Television as an Educational Tool," The Anerican
Psyahologist, X (October, 1955), 61).









33
The Purpose of the Study
This study seeks to determine which of two methods,
a television presentation or a regular classroom lecture,
is the more effective means of presenting basic informa-
tion relative to speech and language development in the
preschool child. The specific aims of the study are to
determine:
1. What if any changes occur in the response of a
group of mothers of preschool children to a series of
statements pertaining to the normal speech and language
development in the first year of life after receiving
information on this development?
2. Is there a difference in the evaluative judge-
ments made toward a group of statements pertaining to
speech and language growth in the first year of life by
a group of mothers who received information about this
subject by means of a didactic lecture presented over
television as compared with a similar group of mothers
who received the same material in a classroom lecture?

3. Did the mothers who viewed the television
program feel that a series on this subject would be of
value to them?
4. Did the mothers who attended the lecture feel
a series on this subject would be of value to them?









34
5. Did the mothers who viewed the television

program feel that a lecture series would be of equal or
greater value to them?
6. Did the mothers who attended the lecture feel
a television series would be of equal or greater value
to them?













CHAPTER II

PROCEDURE

Experimental Design

The first salient step in any type of research is

to delineate the problem so that maximum control can be

utilized and a clearly outlined project can be studied.

Therefore, the author consulted Dr. Richard Evans and
2
Professor Solomon Tannenbaum with regard to the number

of programs to be used in a television and classroom lecture

series. They advised that controls over time, environ-

mental influence, and other informational sources would

be lost if time elapsed between the presentation of the

material and the testing situation. Because of such

inherent factors it was strongly advised that only one

television lecture and one classroom lecture be used in

the experiment. Thus, the experimental design consisted

of selecting a stratified audience of one hundred mothers

1Dr. Evans is professor of psyoholojy, Univerlsty
of Houston, Department of Psychology. He has conducted
several audience research project for the National
Educational Television and Radio Center.

Mr. Tannenbaum is professor of soioloocy,
University of Houston, Department of Sociology and An-
thropology.









36
of preschool children to come to a pre-determined place
on a given date. One half of this group televiewed a
lecture on speech and language development occurring in
the first year of life (0 days to one year). The other

half of this group received the same lecture material,
presented by the same instructor who utilized the same
visual aid materials, in a regular classroom situation.
Identical test instruments were used to pre- and post-test

each group relative to the material presented.

Designing the Television Program and Lecture
It was necessary to do extensive library research

in order to prepare a lecture on the subject of language
and speech growth from aere days to one year, which could
be used both on television and in the classroom situation.
The material for the two lectures was taken from original
research and books by specialists in the fields of lin-
guistics, pediatrics, child psychology, and speech pathology.
An attempt was made to evaluate this material so that the
most recent and factual material could be presented. Thus,
a thirty-minute lecture was prepared in television script
form (Appendix IX). The material was designed to be pre-
sented in the didactic manner, utilizing charts, drawings

and a recording, in order to obtain emphasis and to aid
retention. The script was written in such a way that it











could be used as the classroom lecture. The accompanying
charts and drawings could also be used in the classroom
situation. The recording was used with appropriate visuals
during the lecture on television. However, the recording
was omitted from the lecture presentation. Instead, the
lecturer read the selection which had been recorded.

The art director of .:UHT-TV was consulted on the
proper ratio, type of material, sise of lettering and
coloring to be used on the charts and drawings. Following
the discussion with the art director, it was decided to
pay an artist to design and build the charts and drawings
to assure meeting the specifications of the television
station and still have them meet requirements for class-

room presentation (Appendix III).
A recording of a mother talking to her child was
cut by a professional actress using material from Van
Riper's Teaching Tour Child to Talk.3

Arranging for the Program and Lecture
Initially, it was planned to use the facilities of
KUHT-TV, the University of Houston Educational Television
Station, to present the lecture over closed circuit, with
the television group viewing in an auditorium equipped with

Van Riper, Teaching lour Child to Talk, pp. 32-34.











monitors. However, because of the heavy air schedule, as
well as the closed circuit teaching schedule, of the Radio,
Television and Film Center of the University, and the
heavy scheduling of the auditorium by the University, a

definite time could not be established which would be

convenient for the mothers of young children. Therefore,
the KUHT program director re-arranged programs in order to
provide the author thirty minutes of open circuit time at
seven o'clock on the evening of April 29th, 1958. Thus,
the program was scheduled as an actual on the air tele-
cast. However, to facilitate control, the experimental
groups were required to come to the campus at a designated
time. The television group was placed in two classrooms

equipped with three monitors each and set up to handle
twenty-five individuals each. A small amphitheater type
classroom in the Science Hall at the University of Houston
was reserved for the classroom lecture.

Once the air time was established, arrangements
were made with the program director for the director,
cameraman, floor manager, audio engineer, video engineer,
and crew for setting lights, set, and props. A meeting
was arranged with the art director of KURT to plan back-
ground and props.

Preliminary Interview
Before designing the test to be administered to









39
the subjects before and immediately following both lectures,
a preliminary interview of twenty-five mothers of preschool
children living in a middle-class neighborhood was run.
sing a schedule form of interview, the examiner attempted

to determine existing attitudes, knowledge regarding the
subject, and degree and intensity of attitudes. Hirht
open-end questions were used on the schedule (Appendix IV).
The examiner assumed the role of seeking information for
the development of a television series, thus placing the
interviewee in an authoritarian position. Twenty-four of
the mothers interviewed were housewives while one was a
schoolteacher in the elementary grades. The fatherst
occupations ranged from sales to professional work with
forty-eight per cent classified as professional, forty
per cent as managerial or self-employed, and twelve per
cent as salesmen. Thirty-six per cent of the mothers had
completed high school but had no additional schooling.
Sixty-four per cent of the mothers had from one to four
years of college while seventy-six per cent of the fathers
had from one to four years of college. Twenty per cent of
the fathers had acquired additional training beyond the
A. B. degree, one having received the M. D. degree.

Designing the Test
The information received from the preliminary
interview served as a guide in designing the test to be









40

administered just preceding and immediately following the
presentation of the lecture material. An attempt was made

to design an instrument that would test more than the ability
to parrot back information received. Therefore, it was
decided to adapt the evaluative dimension from Osgood's
Semantic Differential to a series of statements pertain-

ing to speech and language growth during the first year

of life in order to receive an indication of direction and
intensity of change. Thirty statements were judged against
three pairs of adjectives with intervals of seven points.

The test was pre-tested using five sets of alternative--
meaningful-meaningless, believing-skeptical, true-false,
good-bad, and important-unimportant--with five mothers
to check ease of administration and clarity of statements.
On the basis of the mothers' response to the scales

and the time required in completing the five judgments for

each of the thirty statements, two of the sets of alterna-
tives were eliminated from the final test form. The remain-
ing scales were true-false, meanlngful-meaningless, and
believing-skeptical. These sets of alternatives were con-

sidered to be measuring the same thing since factor analysis5

Charles E. Osgood, George J. Suci, and Percy H.
Tannenbaum, The Measurement of Meaning (Urbana: University of
Illinois Press, 1957).
5bid. pp. 53-61.









41
had shown them to be highly loaded in the evaluative
dimension.. ach question appeared three times, each time

with a different pair of adjectives. In an attempt to

avoid a "halo" effect, the question order was chosen at
random. The pair of adjectives was in turn randomly
assigned to each question. In order to offset any patterned

response by the subject, the poles for the adjectives were

varied (Appendix V).

A second part to the post-test was designed. It
included questions pertaining directly to the attitudes
regarding the program and lecture (Appendixes VI and VII).

Selection of Subjects
In order to obtain subjects for the experiment,
the ministers of churches falling within a five mile radius

of the University of Houston campus were contacted. The
purpose of the study and the need for mothers of preschool
children to participate in the research was carefully

explained. Permission was requested to contact the
educational directors of the churches to enlist their aid
in obtaining subjects. Twenty-one churches representing
eleven denominations and one synogogue were visited. The
ministers and rabbi were particularly enthusiastic regard-
ing the program. In every instance, permission was given

to talk with the educational director. Baeh director in









42
turn received a careful explanation of the purpose of the
experiment and the need for subjects. The directors were

asked to provide a list of mothers of preschool children

in their church. Several suggested, and all agreed, that
a notice be placed in the church bulletin to the effect
that KUHT of the University of Houston needed a group of
mothers of preschool children to view a pilot program and

participate in a classroom lecture on child development.
If interested the mothers were to contact the church office.
At the same time, the educational directors made a similar
announcement at the various church organizational meetings.
The directors presented their lists of interested mothers
to the writer. Three hundred and sixty-seven names were
received.

The names of the mothers were taken in the order
presented and numbered from one to three hundred and sixty-

seven. Those names receiving an even number were sent a
letter requesting them to appear on the Campus at 6o15 p.a.

to help evaluate a pilot program for a new television
series on child development (Appendix VIII). A similar

letter was sent to the names receiving the odd numbers
requesting them to come to the Campus at 6:45 p.m. to

help evaluate a pilot lecture for a new classroom lecture
series on child development (Appendix II). Return
addressed cards were enclosed with the letters.









43
The cards provided space for the name, address,
and telephone number of the individual agreeing to

participate in the experiment. Ninety-two cards were

returned. One week prior to the date of the program, a
reminder was sent to those who had returned the cards.
During the week preceding the program, a number of mothers

called the University television station and apologized
for not being able to attend because their children had.
measles or chicken pox. Both diseases were at epidemic

proportions in the city. In addition, tornado warnings
were out on the evening of the program. In spite of these
handicaps, sixty-two participants appeared, thirty-five to

view the television program and twenty-seven to attend the
lecture.

Airing the Program
The television program was broadcast live over
KUHT-TV, the University of Houston Edueational Television

Station, from seven to seven-thirty in the evening. A

regular announcer introduced the program and the author
served as the lecturer on the program. The material of
the lecture was presented in a didactic manner. Two cameras
were used. Visual aids and charts were incorporated into
the lecture to help clarify or reinforce certain points.
The visual aids and charts were in alternating order on two









44
easels, one on either side of the lecturer. In this way,
as the lecturer completed her discussion of a chart, she
moved away from it, thus providing time for the floorman

to remove the chart from the previously used easel and
prepare the next to be presented.

Presenting the Lecture
At the close of the television lecture, the author
moved to the amphitheater in Science Hall. She was in-

troduced to the audience by the proctor who had given the
pre-leeture test. An introduction comparable to the
television introduction was used. The lecture followed
in exact form that of the television lecture, however, in

the classroom situation, the visual aids and charts were
handled by the speaker. This fact, plus the visual inter-
play between speaker and audience, increased the lecture

time to approximately forty-five minutes. As no question-
answer period could be permitted during the television
lecture, it was necessary to omit a question-answer period

from the classroom lecture even though the audience
requested it.

Pro- and Post-testing
Three graduate students in the Radio-Television
Department of the University of Houston were hired to
serve as proctors during the testing and to give the test









45
instructions. These students received careful briefing

regarding the administering of each test. Two students
were assigned to the television audience and one to the
lecture audience. As the group arrived to view the tele-
vision program, they were directed into the two rooms
set up for viewing. Each desk-chair in these two rooms

held a packet containing a sealed pre-test and post-test
marked Test A and Test B and two sharpened pencils.
Promptly at 6:30 the proctors instructed the group to

open Test A. The instructions were read and a sample
question was written on the blackboard. At 6:35 the

test began.

Pre-testing had shown the test required approxi-
mately fifteen to twenty minutes to complete. The group
was instructed to work quickly and to record their first
impressions or feelings. At 6058, the group was instructed
to place Test A on the shelf under their desk chairs and

the television sets were turned on. No talking was per-
mitted during the test, the lecture, or during the time
between the test and the lecture. following the program,
the group was permitted to get a drink of water and stretch;
however, they were asked not to discuss the program or the
test. They then returned to their respective rooms. The

test instructions were re-given orally. The group was
instructed to break the seal on Test B and to complete











parts I and II. The proctors collected the tests as they
were completed. Quite a few of the mothers remained after
the test to talk with the proctors and to comment on the
lecture.
The group arriving to hear the classroom lecture
came directly to the room in Science Hall. The teat
packets were on the seats. The group received the same
test instructions as the television group. At 7:05, the
lecture group began Test A. Because of the seating
arrangement in the amphitheater, it was necessary to collect
Test A upon completion. At 7:35, the lecturer was in-
troduced. Upon completion of the lecture, the speaker
left the room. The group was given an opportunity to get
a drink of water and then the proctor proceeded with the
oral instructions for Test B, parts I and II.

Treatment of Test Data
Throughout the designing of the tests, the author
was in contact with the Computing Center of the University
of Houston in order that the test data could be coded
for use on IBM cards. The test data from Test A and Part
I of Test 8 were coded and punched on IBM cards using the
I1M heard punch machine 026. The material was rearranged
and re-punched so that the true-false, meaningful-meaningless,
and believing-skeptical answers to the questions would fall









47
in order. To accomplish this, it was necessary to use
the IBM card sorting machine (#082), reproducing punch

(#579), and computing machine (#650). The material was
then analyzed to determine whether there was any signifi-
cant difference of the means or population variance between
the pre-test results of group I and II, the post-tent
results of group I and II, the pro-test and post-test
results of group I and the pre-test and post-tost results
of group II. The *tt, sign, 't2t, statistical tests were
used for comparing the before and after test results of a
single group. The It' and F statistical tests were applied
when comparisons were made between the two groups.
The material contained in Part II of the post-test
was coded. A comparison of percentages and an analysis
of the subjects' comments was made. A 't' ratio was
computed for significance of the difference between per-
eentages wherever a difference between the responses of
the two groups occurred.












CHAPTER III


ANALYSIS OF THE DATA

Introduction
As stated in the preceding chapter, sixty-two
mothers of preschool children came to the campus of the
University of Houston to attend a lecture on speech and
language development in preschool children. Thirty-five
of these mothers listened to a television lecture on this
subject while twenty-seven of the mothers heard the same
lecture presented by the same instructor, but in a class-
room situation. Both groups were tested relative to their
knowledge of speech and language growth in the first year
of a child's life before attending their particular lecture
and immediately following their lecture. The same test
instrument was administered prior to and following the
lecture. It consisted of thirty statements pertaining
to speech and language growth during the first year of
life. These statements were judged against three pairs
of adjectives, each pair arranged on a seven-point scale.
In addition to the pro- and post-test, both groups received
a second test following the lecture. This test pertained

to the method of presentation, general interest of subject

48









49
matter, and whether they would like to have additional infor-
mation regarding this subject. Following the administering
of the tests, the information contained therein was coded,
tabulated on IBM machines and a statistical analysis was done.

Group Variables
In order to determine the homogeneity of the experi-
mental groups, a comparative analysis was made between the
variables of these two groups. These variables consisted
of age, education, employment of the mothers and fathers,
and the number of children in the family. A standard error
of the difference and 't' ratio was obtained for the mean
age and education for the mothers and fathers. As shown in
Table 1, no significant difference for these factors existed.

TABLE 1
PARENTAL AGE AND EDUCATION


Category D* SED t

IM with II MA .. 0.63 1.3 0.48
I FA with ~ 0.86 1.62 0.5)
I ME with ILj 0.4 0.45 1.07
I FR with I f .0.37 0.31 1.19

*Difference in favor of underlined group.









50
Tables 2 and 3 compare the groups for mothers' and
fathers' employment. The mothers of both groups fell into
two categories, professional and housewife. Nine per cent
of the mothers in the television group and seven per cent of
those attending the classroom lecture were classified as
working outside the home in a professional capacity. Ninety-
one per cent of the television group and ninety-three per
cent of the classroom lecture group were classified as house-
wives.

TABLE 2
MOTHERS' S4PLOYMENT


Category T I Leture 1N27

0 Laborer Non-skilled .. 0 00 0 00
1 Semi-skilled.. 0 00 0 00
2 Skilled .. .. 0 00 0 00

3 Clerical, Sales 0 00 0 00
4 Managerial Self-employed. 0 00 0 00
5 Professional. ... 3 09 2 07
6 Protective Services .. 0. 00 0 00

7- Housewife ......... 32 91 25 93

The occupational spread for the fathers of the groups
ranged from skilled through the professional level. The











TABLU 3
FATHERSt EMPLOYMET


Category to. t o.re

0 Laborer Non-skilled 0 00 0 00
1 Sei-skilled. .. 0 00 0 00
2 Skilled 2 06 0 00
3 Clerical, Sales 8 23 6 22
4 Managerial Self-employed. 5 14 6 30
5 Professional. 19 54 13 48
6 Protective Services 1 03 0 00
7 Housewife ... 0 00 0 00

television group had a wider range with six per cent listed
as skilled laborers, twenty-three per cent as eleriosa-sales,
fourteen per sent as managerial or self-employed, fifty-four
per cent as professional, and three per cent as protective
services. The latter represented one individual serving as
a pilot in the air foree. Twenty-two per cant of the father*
in the classroom lecture group were classified as clerical-
sales, thirty per cent as managerial or self-employed, and
forty-eight per cent as professional. As the other variables
were closely aligned and since the others were the partici-
pants in the study, the author did not feel that the difference











in occupations shown here would have any bearing on the
results of the study.

As shown in Table 4, the average number of children
for each group was 2.3.

TABLE 4
NUMBER OF CHILDREN


TV Lecture

Ran* ..... 1 5 1 -4
Average 2.3 2.3

There appeared to be little or no significant differ-
ence between the two groups when compared for age, education,
employment of the mothers and fathers, and the number of
children in the family.

Pre-test and Post-test Results
All pre- and post-test data were coded and tabulated
on IBM machines. An analysis of these tabluations was then
made. In checking over the individual test item responses,
it was noted that both groups predominantly responded to
question twenty-two in a negative rather than the anticipated
positive direction on the post-test. In rechecking the
lecture notes with this particular test item and in light of
this interpretation, an ambiguity appeared. Therefore, the









53
statistical analysis of test scores was done twice, once with
item twenty-two included and once with it omitted from the
test scores.
The first step in analyzing the data was to deter-
mine whether a significant difference existed between the
means of group I, the television group, and group II, the
lecture group, on the pro-teat, i.e. either to accept or
refute the null hypothesis that no difference existed, and
to check for pro-teat population variance, i.e. to accept
or reject the null hypothesis that the two samples came
from the arme population. Therefore, a 'tt ratio and F
ratio were computed. As is shown in Table 5, there was no

TABLE 5
GROUP I WITH GROUP II BEFORE

Total Means DG* 8D 't

With #22
I Before
4 9.53 0.420
II Before
Without #22
X Before
5 9.21 0.54
II Before

*Difference in favor of underlined group.









54
significant difference between the pre-test means for
group I and II; therefore; the null hypothesis stands.

There was a shift in the direction of the obtained
difference between the means with group II having the larger
score by four points when the analysis was made with item
twenty-two included, and group I having the larger score by
five points when item twenty-two was omitted. We must also
accept the null hypothesis that there was no difference in
the ratio of population variance (Table 6) for the two
groups in the pre-test situation.

TABLs 6
VARIANCES GROUP I AND I -I BEFORE


Category g2 F

With t22
I Before 1119
1.46
II Before 1630
Without #22
I Before 1072
1.47
II Before 1581

The second step was to compute the tt' ratio and F
distribution for the post-test results for group I and II.
With item twenty-two included, a significant difference was
noted at the .02 level of confidence with group II having









55
the larger mean score (Table 7). With item twenty-two
omitted, a significant difference was noted at the .05
level of confidence in favor of group II.

TABLE 7
GROUP I WITH GROUP II -- AFTER

Total -- Means D* SED ,t p

With #22
I After
26 10.56 2.46 .02
II After
Without #22
I After
24 10.17 2.36 .05
II After

*Difference in favor of underlined group.
Table 8 shows that the comparison of the sample
variances, with and without item twenty-two, yielded an
insignificant F.
To summarize the findings thus far, no significant
difference of the mean scores for the two groups was demon-
strated on the tests prior to receiving the information.
However, following the receipt of information through the
respective lecture situations, group II, the group receiving
information in the regular classroom situation, demonstrated
a significantly greater gain in the testing situation.











TABLE 8
VARIANCES GROUP I AND II -- AFTER


Category g2 F

With #22
I After 1646
1.06
II A er 1739
Without #22
I After 1487
1.14
II After 1693

A comparison was made between the test results for
group I before and after receiving the information both
with and without item twenty-two. The same comparison was
made for group II. Since this comparison was between the
aeans of related groups, the sign test rather than the 't'
teat was used. tt21 was computed to compare the variance
of related groups and to test the hypothesis that no genuine
change in variance had occurred. In all four instances, a
significant difference was noted between the means of the
before and after tests at better than the .0001 level of
confidence. There was no significant change in the
variance of either group on the before and after test
(Table 9).











TABLE 9
COM~AhISJN OF BEFORE AND AFTBR SCORES


Group s p t2

I Before I After 5.75 less than 1.*. than
with #22 (after) .0001 one
I Before I After 5.75 los* than les. than
without 122 (after) .0001 one
II Before II After 6.20 leos than less than
with #22 (after) .0001 one
II Before II After 6.20 loss than less than
without #22 (after) .0001 one

Following the comparison of the means of the total
tost scores, the results for each evaluative category were
studied. These categories were true-false, meaningless-
meaningful, and believing-skeptical. The means for each of
the evaluative dimensions were compared for group I and
group II before, group I and II after, and between the
before and after scores of the individual groups. As shown
in Table 10, when the results of the before test were coa-
pared by evaluative dimension, there was no significant
difference between the two groups for any of the categories.
There was no significant difference in the F distribution
when item twenty-two was included in the computations; how-
ever, when this item was omitted, there was a significant F











TABLE 10
COMPARISON BY EVALUATIV- DI:.'N3S N BEFORE


Dimension t F p

With 122
True less than one 1.70
Meaningful less than one 1.14
Believe 0 1.02

Total 0.420 1.46


Without 122
True 1.16 1. les*8 than
(11) .05
Meaningful loss than one 2.15 less than
(II) .05
Believe less than one 1.09
Total 0.54 1.47

at better than the .05 level of confidence for both the
true-false and meaningful-meaningless dimensions. There-
fore, when the comparison of means for these two dimensions
was computed the significant F was taken into consideration
and a comparison of means for unknown but presumed unequal
population variances was used.
When the comparisons were made of the evaluative
dimensions on the post-test, a significant difference in









59
favor of group II was noted at better than the .025 level
of confidence for the true-false dimension both with and
without item twenty-two. For the meaningful-meaningless
dimension a significant difference was noted at better
than the .005 level of confidence, again in favor of group
II. However, no significant difference was apparent for
the believing-skeptical dimension (Table 11). In attempting
to explain the difference in response for the true-false
and meaningful--maningleas dimension but not in the
believing-skeptical dimension, one might postulate that
this difference is related to a possible deviation in the
instruction. That is, the material was so stressed in the
classroom lecture situation that facts were more acessible
and more easily retained so that they were parrotted back,
thus, showing up on the true-false and meanaigful-meaning-
less dimensions, but that this material was not internalized
to any greater extent than by the television group. There-
fore, there was no significant difference in the degree of
change of basic attitudes and beliefs. If there was a
change of stress, it was unintentional on the part of the
instructor as every effort was made to equalize the two
lectures. However, the instructor was aware of an audienee-
speaker circular response in the classroom situation. This
was mentioned in the procedure when the difference in time
between the two lecture situations was discussed.











TABLE 11
COMPARISON .I aiV.LUATIV. DIM4SION AFTER


Dimension t p F

With #22
True 2.06 (II) le*s than 1.13
.025
Meaningful 3.36 (II) les* than 1.13
.005
Believe loes than 1,0)
one
Total 2.46 (II) .02 1.06
Nemen eeeeeeeeeeeeee e ewomew eelemeeee

Without #22
True 2.02 (II) loss than 1.06
.025
Meaningful 3.44 (II) lose than 1.16
.005
Believe less than 1.19
one
Total 2.36 .05 1.14

It can not be definitely stated that this nos the
cause for the difference between the two groups. Rather
it presents the question, why did any difference exist
between these two groups or, if a difference was present,
why did it favor the classroom lecture rather than the
television lecture when other research comparing the two











methods of presentation revealed either no difference or a
difference In favor of television. In considering this
question, it is necessary to refer to the discussion in
Chapter I of the various research studies. In this die-
cussion it was brought out that adequate controls either
in terms of sampling or environment were not used. Con-
sideration might be given the possibility that when the'
"true" classroom lecture situation utilizing a small
audience is compared with television, the advantages whioh
are attributed to television, i.e. the closeup of charts
and demonstration material, the front row seat, are off-
set by the personal contact found in the classroom.

To summarize the findings relative to the pro- and
post-test results for the two groups, it can be stated
that both groups demonstrated a highly significant change
in attitudes and beliefs regarding speech and language
behavior in infants from ere days to one year of age
following their particular lecture. On the pre-test, there
was no significant difference between the two groups.
However, on the post-test, the lecture group demonstrated
a significantly greater change in attitudes and beliefs
than the television group.
In reviewing the results of Part II of the post-

test, a qualitative study was done using percentages.
Wherever a noticeable difference in percentages occurred










between the two groups, the significance of the difference
was tested. Part II of the post-teat contained sixteen
questions pertaining to the subjects reactions to the
particular lecture they attended and t the material pre-
sented (Appendixes VI and VII). A choice of answers was
provided in thirteen of the questions while three were
open-end type questions.
Question one of post-teat XI asked the subjects to
rate the program or lecture on a five point scale ranging
from very good through very poor. Table 12 shows these
results. Twenty-four individuals representing sixty-nine
per seat of the television group rated the program as very
good while twnty-five individuals representing alnety-three
per cent of the classroom lecture group rated the lecture

TABLE 12
WULSTION 1

Thoght le re TV Group Lecture Group Differease
No. % No. % t p

1. Very Good ... 24 69 25 93 2.61 .01
2. Good ... 9 25 2 07 2.05 .025
3. Fair. .... 2 06 0 00 1.50
4. Poor. 0 00 0 00
5. Very Poor 0 00 0 00










as very good. Nine individuals representing twenty-five
per cent of the television group rated the program as good
while two individuals representing seven per cent of the
lecture group rated their lecture as good. Two individuals
representing six per cent of the television group rated
the program as fair. A 't' ratio for the significance of
the difference in percentages was computed for very good,
good, and fair ratings. The difference in percentages
obtained for the very good rating was significant at the
.01 level of confidence. The difference obtained for the
good rating was significant at the .025 level of confidence
while the difference obtained for the fair rating was not
significant.
Table 13 shows the results of question two. This
question asked whether or not the individuals would be
interested in the complete series. Ninety-seven per eent

TABLE 13
QUESTION 2

Interested in series: TV Grop Lecture Group
we. W %o. %
1. Would be .. 34 97 26 96
2. Would not be 01 03 01 04











of the television group and ninety-six per cent of the
lecture group stated that they would be interested in hear-
ing the entire series. Three per cent of the television
group and four per cent of the lecture group stated they
would not be interested in the rest of the series.
As shown in Table 14, seventy-four per cent of the
television group and sixty-three per cent of the lecture
group believe they have people in their neighborhood who
would be interested in such a series. Twenty-three per
cent of the television group and thirty-seven per cent of
the lecture group did not believe they had individuals in
their neighborhood who would be interested in such a series.
The remaining three per agent of the television group re-
ported they did not know whether or not there were any
interested parties in their neighborhood. The differences
in the percentages between the two groups did not prove to
be significant.

TABLE 14
QUESTION 5


Have people in neighbor- TV Group Lecture Group Difference
hood interested in series. no. y Ne. tS p

1. Do .. ... 26 74 17 63 ,93 -

2. Do not 08 23 10 37 1.19 --
3. Don't know 01 03 00 00 -









65
Seventy-seven per cent of the television group and
eighty-one per cent of the lecture group stated they had a
friend who should receive this information (Table 15), while
twenty per cent of the television group and nineteen per
cent of the lecture group did not have a friend who should
receive such information. Three per cent of the television
group or one individual did not answer the question.

TABLE 15
QUESTION 6

Have friend who needs TV Group Leture Group
this information. No. No. %

1. Do 27 77 22 81
2. Do not .. .. 07 20 05 19
3. No answer. ... 01 03 00 00

The groups were asked whether or not they would
listen if a series on speech and language development of
children were presented over radio. Fifty-seven per cent
of the television group and fifty-six per cent of the
lecture group stated that they would listen if the material
were presented on radio. Thirty-seven per cent of the tele-
vision group and forty-four per cent of the lecture group

stated they would not listen if it were presented on radio.
Two individuals in the television group, representing six









66
per oent, did not answer the question (Table 16).

TABLE 16
~UItTION 7


Listen if on radios TV Or.oup ItE.ure grou

1. Would 20 57 15 56
2. Would not 13 37 12 44
3. oe answer .. 02 06 00 00

The next question was concerned with whether they
felt this material could be presented better, as well, or
not as well on radio. Neither group believed that it could
be presented better on radio (Table 17). Light individuals
or twenty-three per cent of the television group thought it
could be presented as well as on television while four per

TABLE 17
UJLSTION 8


Presented on radios T1 Groug LAtIureo Grn

1. Better .. 00 00 00 00
2. As well 0. 08 23 01 04 2.35 .01
3. Not as well 27 77 26 96 2.35 .01









67
cent representing one individual from the lecture group
believed it could be presented as well on radio as by
lecture. This difference was significant at better than
the .01 level of confidence. Twenty-seven individuals
or seventy-seven per cent of the television group and
twenty-six individuals or ninety-six per cent of the
lecture group believed this material could not be presented
as well on radio as by the particular method of presentation
they had attended. A significant difference at the .01
level of confidence was obtained.
When asked whether this material could be presented
better, as well, or not *a well in a book, six per cent of
the television group stated it could be presented better;
fifty-seven per cent stated that it could be presented as
well and thirty-seven per cent stated that this material
could not be presented as well in a book (Table 18). Seven
per cent of the lecture group stated that this material
could be presented better in a book. Thirty-seven per cent
stated it could be presented as well and fifty-six per
cent stated it could not be presented as well in a book as
in the lecture. A 'tt ratio was computed to determine
whether the differences in percentages between the two
groups was significant. These differences did not prove
to be significant.











TABLE 18
th.STION 9


Presented in a book TV roup Letlre Orr;n Differeace

1. Better 02 06 02 07
2. As well. 20 57 10 37 1.60 -
3. Not as well. 13 37 15 56 1.51 -

The television group was asked whether this material
could be presented better, as well, or not as well in a
lecture series, while the lecture group was asked if this
material could be presented better, as well, or not as well
over television. The results are shown in Table 19. Nine
per cent of the television group felt the material could be
presented better in a lecture while eleven per cent of the
lecture group felt it could be presented better on tele-
vision. This difference was not significant. Sixty per
tent of the television group stated it could be presented
as well, and thirty-one per cent stated it could not be
presented as well in a lecture series. Eighty-five per
cent of the lecture group stated this material could be
presented as well on television and only four per cent,
representing one individual, felt the material could not
be presented as well on television as in a regular lecture









69
series. These differences were significant at the .025 and
.005 levels of confidence.

TABLE 19
;.,UL Srjind 10


(a) Lecture TV Group Lecture Group Difference
Presented as (a) (b)
(b) TV No. No. p

1. Better .... 03 09 03 11 .26 -
2. As well .... 21 60 23 85 2.31 .025
3. Not as well. 11 31 01 04 3.10 .005

Table 20 indicates the per cent of each group which
would attend a lecture series on speech and language develop-
ment in the preschool child. Twenty-six per cent of the

TABLE 20
;UUSTION U1

Attend lecture series TV Oroup Lecture Group Difference
No. % No. t p

1. Yees .. 09 26 08 30 .34 --
2. Soae ..... 06 17 10 37 1.78 .05
3. No. ..... .. 11 31 00 00 3.97 .0005
4. Don't know. 09 26 09 33 .60 -











television group reported they would attend sueh a aeries

of lecture@, seventeen per cent reported they would attend
some of the lectures, thirty-one per cent reported they

would not attend, and twenty-six per cent reported they

did not know whether they would attend a lecture series on
this subject.

In the lecture group, thirty per cent indicated
they would attend such a lecture series, thirty-seven per

cent haid they Would attend some of the lectures and
thirty-three per bent shid they did not know whether they'

would attend any of the leeturea. The difference between'

the two groups for those individuals reporting they would

not attend a lecture series was significant at better than

the .0005 level of confidence. A significant difference at

the .05 level of confidence was obtained for those indi-
viduals reporting they would attend some of the leturea.

When asked whether a series of television programs

on speech and language development should be presented over

KUHT, ninety-four per event of the television group and one

hundred per event of the lecture group responded in the

affirmative. The results of this question are indicated
in Table 21. Eighty-nine per cent of the television group

and ninety-six per cent of the lecture group stated they

would watch the series if it were presented (Table 22).


~











TABLE 21
QUESTION 12

Series on LUHT: TV Group Lecture Groug

1. Feel .. 33 9 27 100
2. Do not feel .... .. 02 06 00 00


TABLU 22
.iUESTION 13


Watch the series: TV Group Leture Orgun
No. 1 Noo.

1. would ......31 9 26 96
2. Would not 04 11 01 04

In response to question fourteen which asked whether
they would be interested in reading a book on this subject,
eighty per cent of the television group would be interested
and twenty per cent would not be interested in reading such
a book. eighty-one per sent of the lecture group stated
they would and nineteen per cent stated they would not be
interested in reading a book on this subject (Table 23).

While a high percentage of both groups indicated
they would watch a television series devoted to speech and
language development in the preschool child, neither group












TABLE 2)
wULSTION 14

Interested in book TV Grou- Lecture Graup
No.no. 1o

1. Would 28 80 22 1
2. Would not. .. 07 20 05 19

indicated they were interested in enrolling in a television
course on this subject. As indicated in Table 24, thirty-one
per cent of the television group and thirty-three per cent
of the lecture group indicated they would enroll in such a
telecourse while sixty-nine per cent of the television group
and sixty-*even per cent of the lecture group stated they
would not enroll in a telecourse on this subject.

TABLE 24
QUESTION 15

Interested in telecourse: TV Group Leiture Oroyu


1. Would .. 11 31 09 33
2. Would not .. 24 69 18 67

To review the findings for Part II of the post-teat,

the majority of both groups thought their particular presen-
tation good or better. However, a Iignificantly greater











per cent of the lecture group rated their program as very
good. The members of both groups were interested in attend-

ing the rest of the series. The majority of both groups
had friends or neighbors who they thought should receive

this information. Slightly more than fifty per cent of
both groups would listen if the material were presented
over radio. A significantly greater per cent of the lecture

group than television group believed this material could
not be presented as well over radio. More than fifty per

sent of the television group believed that material on
speech and language development could be presented as well
in a book as on television, whereas more than fifty per

cont of the lecture group did not believe it could be
presented as well in a book as by lecture. Sixty-nine per
cent of the television group believed the material could
be presented as well or better in a lecture series while
ninety-six per cent of the lecture group stated the material

could be presented as well or better on television. This
represents a significant difference at better than the

.0005 level of confidence.

Twenty-six per cent of the television group and
thirty per cent of the lecture group indicated they would
attend a lecture series devoted to this subject. However,

the difference between the two groups for those reporting
they would not attend a lecture series was significant at









74
better than the .005 level of confidence. A significant
difference at the .05 level of confidence was obtained for
those reporting they would attend some of the lectures.
Both groups were highly interested in having a series
on speech and language development presented over the
facilities of KUHT and a high percentage from both groups
indicated they would watch the series if it were presented.
Both groups also indicated they would be interested in
reading a book on this subject but neither group was inter-
ested in enrolling in a telecourse devoted to speech and

language growth.
Questions three, four, and sixteen on Part II of
the post-teat were open-end questions. They were concerned
with what was liked or disliked about the program or lecture
as well as what the individual would want included in a
series. Table 25 indicates the response to these questions.
In the television group, twnty-nine individuals, or
eighty-three per cent of the group answered question three,
sixteen individuals, or forty-six per cent, answered question
four, and twenty-three persons, or sixty-six per cent,
answered question sixteen. However, only four individuals,
or eleven per cent, of the group answered both questions
three and four. Nine persons, or twenty-six per cent,

answered questions three and sixteen, and twelve persons,










or thirty-four per cent, answered all three questions.
Nineteen individuals in the lecture group, representing
seventy per cent, answered question three; eight, or
twenty-nine per cent, answered question four; and seven,
or twenty-six per cent, answered question sixteen. Only
three individuals, representing eleven per cent of the
group, answered questions three and four and three and
sixteen while four individuals, or fifteen per cent, of
the group answered all three questions.

TABLE 25
RESPONSE TO .Ub3TIJNS 3, 4, & 16

Answered question TV GIrou -- ei ture ra


#3 29 63 19 70
#4 16 46 08 29
#16 23 66 07 26
#3 &4 04 11 03 11
#3 & 16 09 26 03 11
#3, 4, a 16 12 34 04 15

The responses to these questions weererviewed and
general categories were set up so that the responses could
be tabulated. This tabulation appears in Tables 26, 27,
and 2.8 The five things most frequently listed as liked in









76
the television program are speech development pattern, charts,
presentation, everything, and clarity. The lecture group
listed charts, preparation, organization, parents' role in
the hild's acquisition of speech, speech development pattern
and clarity. Six individuals in the television group listed
some phase of the material presented as the one thing they
disliked about the program. These responses varied with
several individuals stating they were not interested in the
particular age level presented and they believed material
relating to the two year old and above would be more
interesting. Two individuals questioned the authenticity
of some of the statements and one woman wrote that froa
her experience as a mother she knew that children did not
begin to speak until they were eighteen months of age.
Four individuals believed the program was a little too
long. Only a few manbers of the lecture group responded
to this question. However, three wrote they could find
no criticism with the lecture*
questionn sixteen brought forth a variety of responses
with requests for information pertaining to speech diffi-
culties appearing most frequently for both groups. Seven-
teen Individuals from the television group and nine Indi-
vidals from the lecture group comprising forty-two per
cent of both groups asked for information on onset, cause,
recognition, and sources of help for speech difficulties.











TABLi 26

QUESTION 3


Liked TV Lecture

1. Charts 20 11
2. Length 1 1
3. Amount of information 0 1
4. Presentation 10 7
5. Preparation organisation 2 3
6. Stimulating interesting -
informative 0 5
7. Hearing parents' role 0 3
8. speech development 11 5
9. Examples 1 2
10. Terminology 2 0
11. everything 8 3
12. Nothing 0 0
13. Clarity 8 4
14. Percentages 1 0
15. Recording 1 *
16. Factual 2 1

*aot presented











TABLE 27
QfSlTION 4


Disliked TV Lecture

1. No question answer period 0 2
2. Lack of detail 1 1
3.) Too much detail 0 0
4. Material presented 6 1
5. Charts too any 1 0
6. Charts not enough 0 0
7. Length too long 4 1
8. Length too short 0 1
9. Terminology 1 0
10. Presentation 1 0
11. everything 0 0
12. Nothing 2 3
13. Lacks variety in visual material 2 0
14. Too much repetition 1 0
15. Drawings 1 0

Six members of the television group also asked for
corrective speech exercises.
In comparing the responses of the two groups, it is
interesting to note that many more mothers who attended the











TABLE 28
QUESTION 16

Want in series TV Lecture

1. Guidance of your child
through speech development 0 1
2, Guidance of older child through
speech development 0 1

3. Speech difficulties, onset,
oause, help recognition 17 9
4. How to handle discipline and
emotional problems 0 2
Learning a second language 0 1
6. Adult speech models other
than parents 0 1
7. Mouth structure 1 0
8. Continued growth pattern 3 0
9. From 2 to 6 years 1 0
10. Supplementary reading 2 0
11.. Bilingualism 1 0
12. Phonics 1 0
13. Speech exercises (therapy-
speech improvements) 6 1
14. Don't know 1 0
15. Vocabulary for preschool child 1 0
16. Emotional growth and speech
development 3 0














TABLE 28-Continued


Want in series TV Letture

17. Influence of older children 1 0
18. Parents' role in speech
development 3 0
19* Other forms of communication 2 0
20. gEnouraging book reading
instead of TV 1 0

television presentation requested specific types of infor-
nation than did those who attended the lecture presentation.
This strongly suggests that the television presentation
aroused greater interest in the mothers than did the lecture
presentation.












CHAPTER IV


SUMIRT AND CONCLUSION

Sumary
The purpose of this study was to compare the results
of a television and classroom lecture devoted to speech and
language growth from sero days to one year of life. This
comparison was made on the basis of presentation, audience
acceptance, and audience gain. The latter was evaluated
in terms of change in basic attitudes and beliefs regarding
the lecture subject following receipt of the information.
It was the hope of the investigator that from this com-
parison some insight might be gained relative to an effec-
tive means of reaching the parents of preschool children
with material on normal speech and language growth and
development which might serve as a preventive measure in
the development of functional speech defects.

In order to make the comparison between these two
methods of presentation, a group of mothers of preschool
children was invited to come to the University of Houston
campus to participate in the experiment. Sixty-two
mothers appeared, twenty-seven attended the claasroom











lecture while thirty-five viewed the television lecture
through the facilities of KUHT, the educational television
station of the University of Houston. The instructor was
the same for both lectures. The two groups were well
matched for age, education, socio-eoonomic level, and the
number of children in the family. Each mother had at least

one preschool child.

Both groups of mothers were given the same test
instrument before and after hearing the lecture. A second
test was administered to the mothers following the lecture.
This test asked for an evaluation of the type of presenta-

tion as well as a comparison of this means of presentation
with other methods and media.

The results from the tests were tabulated and a
statistical analysis was made of the data received from

the pre-test and Part I of the post-test. A qualitative

study using percentages was made of the results of Part II
of the post-test. Wherever indicated, a 't' ratio for the
significance of the difference in percentages was computed.

In setting up this experiment, the investigator
attempted to establish a more rigid set of controls than
had been used in previous research studies aimed at com-
paring the use of television and other media in adult

education. Therefore, it is the investigator's opinion
that the results of this study may present a more accurate











picture of the educational value of television.


Conclusions
1. When a comparison of group variable was made,
there appeared to be little or no significant difference
between the two groups. Therefore, the assumption can be
put forth that the two samples were drawn from the same

group.
2. No significant difference existed between means
of group I and group II nor was any significant population
variance noted. Therefore, it can be assumed that the two

groups were matched for attitudes and beliefs regarding
this subject prior to receiving the information presented
in the lectures.

3. While there was no significant difference in
population variance between the two groups on Part I of the

post-test, a significant difference of the mean was noted
at the .02 level of confidence with item twenty-two in-
cluded and at the .05 level of confidence with item
twenty-two omitted with group II having the larger mean
score in both instances. Therefore, it can be concluded
that the group receiving the information in the regular
classroom situation demonstrated a significantly greater
change in attitudes and beliefs relative to the growth and
development of speech and language in the first year of









84
life than the group which received this information over
television.
4. When a comparison was made between the before
and after test results for each group, a significant

difference of the means at better than the .0001 level of
confidence was obtained for both groups. Therefore, it

can be stated that while the lecture group demonstrated a
significantly greater change than the television group,

both groups showed a highly significant change in attitudes
and beliefs toward the subject matter following receipt of

the information.
5. The test results were broken down by evaluative
dimension and comparisons were made between the groups for
each dimension. When the results of the before teat were
compared by evaluative dimension, no significant difference
was found between the two groups for any of the dimensions.
Thus further support was offered to the conclusion that the

two groups were equally matched for attitudes and beliefs
regarding the subject matter prior to the lecture.

6. When comparisons were made by evaluative dimen-
sion for Part I of the post-test, a significant difference
in favor of group II was noted at better than the .025 level
of confidence for the true-false dimension and at better

than the .005 level of confidence for the meaningful-meaning-
le*8 dimension. No significant difference was apparent for











the believing-skeftical dimension. It can only be theorized
as to why a difference in response was noted for the true-
false and meaningfui-meaninglese dimensions while none

existed for the believing-skeptical dimension. However, it
can be postulated that the difference is related to a
possible deviation in instruction. That is, the material
was so stressed in the classroom situation that facts were
acquired more readily but basic attitudes and beliefs were
not changed to any greater degree than were those of the
television group. If these results are interpreted in
terms of potential carry-over and application of information
received, the assumption might be made that the lack of
difference between the two groups on the believlng-skeptioal
dimension indicates there was no greater internalization of
material by one group as opposed to the other. Therefore,
the long range effects of the lectures would be equal. It
is the opinion of the writer that further research should
be conducted in this area.

7. More than ninety per cent of both groups said
the lecture was good or better and they were interested in
viewing a series on this subject.

8. More than sixty per cent of both groups stated
they had people in their neighborhood who would be interested
in either a lecture or television series on this subject.









86

Seventy-seven per cent of the television group and eighty-one

per cent of the lecture group indicated they had a friend
who needed to receive this information.

9. While fifty-seven per cent of the television
group and fifty-six per cent of the lecture group indicated
they would listen to a series on this subject if it were
presented over radio, a significantly greater per cent of

the lecture group stated that this material could not be
presented as well by means of radio.

10. Eighty to eighty-one per cent of both groups
indicated they would be interested in reading a book on

the speech and language growth of children. However, only
six to seven per cent of the subjects believed this material
could be presented better in book form. Fifty-seven per
cent of the television group and thirty-seven per cent of
the lecture group indicated that the material could be
presented as well in a book. This difference did not prove

to be significant.
11. While sixty-nine per cent of the television
group indicated that the material could be presented as well
or better in a classroom lecture series, only twenty-six
per cent said they would attend all of the series and
seventeen per cent said they would attend some of the
lectures. 1linety-six per cent of the lecture group stated









87
the material could be presented as well or better over
television. Thirty-seven per cent of this group said they
would attend some of the lectures if a lecture series were
given while thirty per cent indicated they would attend the
entire series.

12. Although eighty-nine per cent of the television
group and ninety-six per cent of the lecture group said
they would watch a television series on this subject, only
thirty-one to thirty-three per cent of the subjects were
interested in enrolling in a telecourse on speech and
language growth of children.

13. Both groups indicated that they especially
liked the charts which were used as visual aids. They
also liked the presentation, clarity, language and speech
developmental pattern, and the parents' role in the child's
acquisition of speech. The criticism of the program was
mainly directed toward the particular age level presented.
Several mothers said they were more concerned with the two
to five year age period.

14. A large number of the mothers asked for infor-
mation pertaining to speech difficulties. They requested
information on onset, cause, recognition, and where to
receive help. Some asked for specific speech exercises
which could be used in the home. The requests for speech











exercises ranged from exercises for speech improvement to
speech correction measures. Such information was requested
by many more mothers attending the television lecture than

those attending the classroom lecture. This suggests that

the television presentation aroused greater interest in the
mothers than did the lecture presentation.

Application to a Preventive Speech
Correction Program
The results of this study tend to support the hypothe-
sis that facts on speech and language growth intended for

mothers of preschool children are better received when pre-
sented in a regular classroom lecture than when this

material is presented in lecture form on television. How-
ever, both television and classroom lecture presentation
provide a highly significant change in attitudes and beliefs

toward this subject. There appears to be no difference
between the two methods of presentation in terms of the

amount of internalization or acceptance of the material.
Therefore, the difference obtained in favor of the lecture
group does not rule out the use of television for adult
education in the area of speech and language development.
The tremendous audience, the willingness of the mothers to
view a television series as opposed to attending a lecture

series tends to offset this difference. It does suggest,









89
however, that further study should be conducted in an
attempt to determine why this difference existed.













APPNDIX I


LJESTIUN A IRE

1. Has your station ever presented a telecourse in the field
of Speech Correctioat Yese lN..

It anwer to above is TbS, how many programs were pre-
aented in the telecourse? How long did the
telesourse r? ______________
t Tear or presentation VWa
the tfeeoours viewed mainly by; College Studaen
SParennts Both How many were
eIrolled? .
Did the toleoours include material an Speo*h and
Language Development in the Preschool Child? TYes
Noe .

If answer to above is ES, how many leeture were devoted
to this type of material? lt__ _________

We any survey made relative to the effectiveness of the
telesours method of presenting the atrial as opposed
to presenting the same material in the regular elasaroom
situation? Yes No

If answer to the above is YES, please end brief on
findings of survey and a description of the experimental
design.
*********i ***********

2. If your station has not preasnted a teloeourse in the
field of Speech Correction, has it ever presented a
series of programs in the field of Speecb Correction?
Tea_ No .
If answer to above is IES, was it designed for parents
_or for public nl general .


1









91
ow many programs were in the series? How
long did the series run?
Year of presentation Estimate the
number of viewer_ .__ _
Did the series include materials on Speesh and Language
Development n the Preschool Child? Yesa_
No-*
If answer to above is IYS, how many programs were devoted
to this type of material?______,_

If such a series was presented was any survey mad
relative to the effectiveness of the series? Too_

If answer to above is TYS, please sued brief on find-
ings of survey. Describe experimental design.


1













APPhNDII II


SPEECH AND LANGUAGE DEVELOP NT SERIES

'Helpaun Your Child to SDpakw

Prograa 01
"The First Word"

IBM A.RMO
Slide ejl AIXLCh Good evening, this is "Help Your

Child to Speak", a special series on Speeh
Slide #2 sad Language Development in the fre-achool

Child. Tonight we present the first
Slide #3
program entitled "The First Word". Tour
instructor is

same and title
----- ^ -- j ^^-------


institutio
NIM here is ____

INSTRUCTO s Good evening. Before we sen

get into a discussion on speech sd
language development, t it important
that we define our terms.









93
Chart #1 Language is every for of eoommuniation
in which thought and feelings are symbol-
ised. That is the written, spoken, sign,
facial, gesture, ;antomine, and art form.
Chart #2
Speech is merely one forn of language in
which spoken symbols, that is sounds or
words, are used to convey thoughts.
Many people believe that language
and speech abilities are instinctive in
nature. This is far froe true. While
the infant progresses naturally froe
sitting to rawling,standing and finally
walking, he does not progress from crying
to babbling t talking without guidance
and help. In other words, a child is
taught to talk and in most instances, his
parents are his teachers. fortunately,
it the parents are not good teachers the
child may become a speech cripple.
SSurveys of children in public schools
show that as many as 15% of the children
from kindergarten to 4th grade have
seriously defective speech and 4 to 5%
of the children above the 4th grade have









94
a speech difficulty severe enough to
require remedial work. Many children
Switch speech difficulties are penalized
Chart #4
in such subjects as reading, spelling
and english since language growth and
speech serve as foundations for these
subjects. Authorities in the field of
speech correction state that most of the
functional speech problems in our schools
can be traced back to the first few years
in a child's life. Many authorities
attribute these speech problems to poor
teaching by the parents.
If you as a parent, and in most
instances it is the mother, want to help
your child,and I't sure you do, to
develop normal speech, you must have some
understanding of the way in which speech
develops.
rhen the newborn infant informs the
world of his arrival with a lusty cry,
he has, in a way, begun to speak. For
the first two or three weeks of his
existence, his vocalisations sound the
same no matter what the situation. This




Full Text

PAGE 1

A Study of the Comparative Effectiveness of Two Methods of Presenting to Parents Information Relative to Speech and Language Development In the Preschool Child By ROSABELL RAY BATTIN A D I S S ERTAT I ON PRE S ENTED TO THE GRADUATE COU NOL O F THE UN I VER S ITY OF FLORIDA IN PAR T IA L FULF I LLMENT OF T H E REQU IR EMENTS FO R T HE DE G R EE O F D OCT OR OF P HIL OSO PHY UNIVER S ITY OF FLORIDA August, 1 959

PAGE 2

Th ~1t r ould lie to expr her de -~preclation nd gr tttude to rof saor Constan, Cb i~ n of the D p rtm nt of Spe ch, for hi int r st, helpful su tions, criticla 1n t pr p r tion of t is tudy n tor the time and ftort xt n ed as chalr ;pa of b r co itt e. be ould al o 11 to xpre sher appreciation to Dr P Horne Dr nd Dr. co itt L Zt erman, Dr L. L. H le, Dr. J. c. ixon, ie tor servin mber of her supervisory ppr ciatlon 1 lo to Dr. G. o Doctor Tews ba nee, and to r J. nder on or ch c 1ng tb t tiatic l findings. Special thanke go to Dr T c ttin, r Barthold, and t e et ft of UHi' for th use of their talevi ion facilities and their aaistance in producing the tele vision pro;;.:-am The writer le grateful to Dr. R. E nd to Prof'eaaor Sol 'rannenb&11m for helping with the procedure and atatietics, to the inietera nd educational directors of the oburcbe or aistin in securing subjects, ana to the others who gave freely or their time to aerve as eubjeeta tor the study. 11

PAGE 3

I. Ill. IV. S s dy ent l algn uBa ~ -a the l 1sion rogr L cture -"" tne r.ogr_ nd L ctu.'" _ry nt rvi gn --a th __ t o u j cte . _r n _.e Pro r!!!;"" '1"A S(mt1n th cture t1M t-test1n ~~atwent i t D Introduction Group ri lea Pr -t et Post -test1n D CONCLUSio s ry Conclusi ons o ibl plic tions ill ulta ii 1 81

PAGE 4

DIX I. II. Ill. I v. VI. VII. lII. I u~-tionn 1r.e tor St tione Tel vi ion cript 1 ~-1 ids s d th L cttir Sch dul used y Intervierer r -t st nd Par.t I of ost~teet ar I Post-t st Lectur Group t II Po tt t Group Let~er to Television Group L tt r to L ctur Group BI LIOG AP BIOOR PHIC L 11,,;1 '" ,&,,if ... ,. l 9Q 92 lU 117 119 129 131 l);J 134 13S 147

PAGE 5

T ble l. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. s. Pr nt l Ane nd due tlon. ploy et ployment others' Fa thers' um\)er of Children Group I wlth Group II Before Variances Group I nd II etor Group I with Group II tter V riancea Group I and II 9. Comparison of Before and ft r Scor s 10~ Co par1son by v lu tiv Di ension for 11. Comp rlson by luative Di ens1on fter 12. 1). 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. u atlon 1 ueation 2 uestlon S uestion 6 uestion 7 ue tion S ue tion 9 ueatlon 10 u ation 11. . ., i.9 so ;1 52 SJ 54 ss 56 S'l 58 60 62 63 6l. 6S 66 66 68 69 69

PAGE 6

21. 22. 23. 2s. 26. I '27. u st1on 12 uestion 1; uestion 14 n to stion 3 u e tion 2 8 Q ue tlon 1 6 A B L S - Contlnu C I 1 ueetion ;, 4, and l v1 71 71 72 72 75 11 7 79

PAGE 7

I c round teri 1 In th 1951 ht lou Cont r nee port an 8 five per cent incid nee of pe c 1 0rder 0 oceurrin or fir yp ot d f c indict thre of on tutter1n nd th rch~~1 nin on n thr t nth r non-f~nction 1 d eet .1 er t vid nee i 1957 to -.,nO th t thr u l,U out the ation th ncidenc of~ opul tion. In thi ~mon th g n r l h pl ced th edi n incid nee t fift n pr c nt of the public chool ric~ ech and e ri ng ociation Co ittee on the idC ntury w~-it Houe Cont rence, "S ech D1a or d r nd op ch Gorr ct1on," Journ of Spe c~ nd ff.earing D .~,~p~cJ,>.~.s, XVII (June 1952)' 130. SJ I I I I 11 a l

PAGE 8

2 .b s riou ly -ctive pe ch ound th t four to e ildr n in r de four nd bov h d encountered ln th publ o chool function land can b tT =c d uaC to their onN-t bich 1 t_e::,es of eecb nd 1 n arly de elo nt l n i r t t Th e kill inYolv din eech b in to be acqui d a oon th child 1 orn ~d ar ldo wgrf c ly stered, n durin 11 t me uch of th Pv ..... cb l arni-. ,a urin t ...... ..a iret 1x onth 1 r~l tlvely lndep ndent of the ti ul tion v n by chi ld' ,..,. r nt n in tb c-~tn d tlin o lnf nt th :;..~ort., b rp in.ti l tion a p r o lon. !?ed "".1.t:li. tion so funaament l to tru pe ch r b i. 0 r ct c d Lip, ja n ton~~ ov nt in olv d n the n~o duction of ll t p c ound i ll th hu~~ lan a es re r p t dly perfor ~~d he Q.AlJ .J 8 nee or th ovct"" .. 1,inta nd th ir cco pany1n ound provld s the fund t1on for p ech re din hrou h ut tb fir t ea, of llf th e ... .. y y i ich parent c n p or h1nd r th "~v lop ent 0 sp ech. Th 1r n 1 a e o ie;:) .. orranc d t 0 ,...n,ln a h ther th child 4Jt.Qll le rn to t l ec .... l,ille of arent ef orts or i it of th~m Th ir ppll c t1 n of principle o obviou th t e onder by they hould v r be viol tad ill t ne hether th child' pa ch 1il l be n a tor h ndi c ap Ti tt~r t th pee ch correcti nist tr1 to the c ua o tutter or n rticul tory defect only to lose it 1n the v ane ~r ntal 2 Robe rt ilia n b In oid nc ot Spee ch isord rs, Iiand ok of w ch ath olo il'ft7 ed Lee d rd Travis ew orkt py.eto entury Cro t, Inc ., 1957) P 2SO.

PAGE 9

he ori s of ch11 hooa .3 l ern d proc fr-~ t .. child 1 elf 1 cone rned, pe c d v lop r o i bil1ty to c l 1 stil th n to nlar e th v riot of noi ar oun h ch h nd 'i.n 11 to select nd ply h s ound ln organim d nr::1tt n { woro ) mich ,.. ._v n est bl1sh d me in for otw"-r h ~-n b in ..... '!,# 1th o h is ..,...... _ cont ct ut lt is t rL> ar nt O upply the e tt-6 n nd mo int ~pret th m tor th ch ld. way in h ch thy o th~Q ting det ~-ne to gr t xt nt, the 11tu l :=.ueia u C)" of th ch1ld' p ch.4 n furth r upport o ht the par nt ol con 1 ood tound in study on th r ~ution h1 bet en p rental AM,, 1 dju t nt nd unctional rtieul tory d..... ct l n chilar n t.~t : en th oth r t Gelves ere c inie lly tr t~d or urpos s of lln.~i t1u~ th tr o n robl~:=~ Ulud ecuring bett r juatment for th msel e. th ir children -~,._ov ore r pid y und r progr ot ch corr ctton tbg,4~ did t chil ~ en of ho re not tr t d 3ch rle n ip r, l:!~e ctt C~rrf:ct,ton .. ~npi.el s u-act1 es ( n le od Clill s,r le Jer ey: r ntioe-liafl nc., p 92 ( i 4 end 11 Johnson ( d .), or : Grune n tr tton, l~R"'P"",----.--~,,., e ot Childr en

PAGE 10

in lly e on the b is of thi study th t tunct--...,n lcul try er cts of children~ def nit ly --de fie ntl aoci t d 1th l d Just ent ~d un 1r bl . ... tr it on the ...,~t th J ~Qr nta, V&~ot ch ctor u u lly tr ly centered d ln hie th ir te chers cl s 1i d four nd 0 rticul tion ..,,.,. oth r group r tQ,41, d in QA, r I nd thy di ot d, orly o rdiu~ OU h l, hy ic lly d or nt ll rt r d tiom1aire usin the T'.1-r on 1 int rvl t chnlqu th t: r he ; e~ort nc o ental ttitud\::lo d eir.aaV1 r in th er at on 0 tH~ child's u~rly nviro nt c .... ot ov rsn b=. ~t d. h t o groups o r nts includ d io t~ nv ti t1on re r :uQrK aoly ...wil r in so.I.I"~ r o ct ut t y dif er d signific tly :ln r ~~tlrd to ( l) th tr ttituUL'"" to 4 th ""-~1rt ~~ ce ot l ~uu1e, t tll ...... 1n bh prRRChool y are ot c 11 5 ennet oo P'are... t l iL"-' c.l dj t nt d T.:L"""~ctional u-ticul tory ef eta in Child en," 89ur11f!l gt pe(tch 22nd I .~ ,~lns." & ~ord;,a,r.ti II ( C 1,111:,.r, 1946) 212

PAGE 11

hood s dmon tr teu l th lr ctu l tforts to fo tr 11,w.auistic ill ( 2} t eir r aliz "" .. lon of t 1 porta~,.ce of ; par nt-chil: co .,.,cauion ip "-'W,., """ coop r tlve activitl~~, (3) th co t ncy -~~o or t 1r child r 1 1 .... a. techni u a na ( 4} ta,.gir vot4L.aat of tb,.:;,-.r c lld' c cit or ...-~tur ue1J1a or~b lr o QF,,. l a.u .. t,;IAC:11 wul ....,f P"'* IJ,IGIY d finite --11 tt a., .... 'ICJ o not th t cy ot ra h -" .... d to sion in e of ct vity th ir nf nt ov r the rol of voe lia~~,1on o ""v of he 1r t ti ost otb r nd ~grt oth r c rlt rl ept ~h ir rif t i hour. bile c t e t -4-t o, by o her helr n ... t or 6 orothy olyDcnUXt Bnviro nt 1 ~ ~ctor Differ n i ti Ch11 r n of dv nc p,AAch Dev lo 1Ant fro th .. ~''" tarc,ed S ecb ( npublish d h D 1 s rt tion St nford niv r ity 1949t. P 209 7J. id 21S I

PAGE 12

6 j st p ndl lei ure ti i. & ... t&s....,mt ese otb r oc l o t continuou ly; ,..~Y,n n h n ot~e r ut t e to djoi.Mong roo by ould c o o ly o ll h b by t_~itt nt y t m r b th t uch or th ot v ton for b blin nd coo1n th t n gut --r lly n a~ ~ ...... ....+I rom th ,,,ct t,11.gt th b,.u J iQn o ic by virtu o t "~ ci rc t n c ju t d cr ib d, t __ en o l r l { cod ry r inforcin} pro rt~ ~. lthou h u~ y oi co do =t sound x ctly liK R oth r oi c t,."Q .;,4. ... l rit till sually b ur ici nt to c uC'l:a c rryov r o r o ...... of t plA~ ur bl qu 11 ... u o on to th other; nd m~Y ur i th t th roduct on of oth r-11 e oun int "~ o~ of ulibbl1n, 1 irst n 1 hi s u cc __ st pin h c hild pro ion to ar f ll y rticul t e p c h ol ot b er p ly o1nts out h t: o t oth rs r e H~ p il l to tc h th 1r ch11 r n g;r o in m~ y-o ch ldr en ore quickly than other ll th t an de other's n tur 1 it re tin ~~vr c ild she is cont ntly sp i to h nd ~a his rudiment ry cooin a.,d A'-"4~in in reply 9 The value of th r le p la ie o elieve that: Childr n develop -~~Reh o t normally hen -~ ven en c ourQ N ement nd dir ctlon t t e ~en th sp acb r din tiret __ in to e ppo.. ent, th 80 H Mo1-1rer "Sp ech Develo nt in the oung Chi l d: l he Autis eory or pe ch D velop .. ~nt nd Some Clinic l~plic tion "Journ l or I ch and Herring ia orders I (Septe ber J'.:~52), 26'/.; s '" George G L s ow qhil ;n. L i:n. t~ (London: arr p nd Co ttd I 5Jj, P ;7

PAGE 13

7 t e att pt to 1 name obj cts or to d sie,r"Ef-e them in words. Thi ls close upon the end ot t1e lr t ye_ ln th r e chll, but ay per arly the ntnth onth in precociou children, nd la likely to continu ctive to bout t igb'te nth onth. 1th th co 1.~ o th econd blrthd Yt or round the t enty ourth onth, tua ~,~t t vor le rlo for sp ech dev lo nt y h ve nasu~d, so that speech ub equently d elo uch or lo ly nd t l facility t h nit i ~,AW~ rller.10 chology, rol that parent ply in elpin their ch ldr n chteve -in th s word: fhe l r ,or1ty o eeh dlsor era d te fro e rly inf'. ncy. Xh ch ld UQ so eho ile to the proper articul tlon, T c 1 or fluency kills w icb nor. .a... childr n ter ~~tout too ucb ifflculty. ur cultur d ,man'IA!gl 1 t n rd of lt""e ch very arly in llf but f rents kno o tote ch child to t lk.11 or and mo effect o environm the develo ent of ~w.~si h. : nA&D lace upon the W1d gar;ent-cb1ld r 1 t1on 1 on specialiate in the fi ld o epe ch correction h ve become aware o the e d to uc te par nta or rec ool children 10 era ttnchfield C/1,Ud ,Una ill Youn, hild el ed or ectiye "'"""88Ch ( tanford, Caliloinla: __.ord n ver ty r sa, p. 18. llv an i er, ::eee~~ ,Go~r ,.Crt.~q p. 92

PAGE 14

concerni lab normal. speech and la11gu age d evelopnent. nderson st tes: There 1 littl doubt th t the hoe i the greatest in le 1nluence in ah pin a child's &nAech into the pattern it 1 111 eventually a sum h n b become an a ult he p ecb od. la involv din the home enviroinment all combine to be a po'J~rrul force 1n determinin whether the child's sp ech d velops normally other the proee sis interfered 1th, or whetb r serious proble later manit st the lv \bile p rha p s th pre-school y ars ~e th mot critical ones in thee tablish. nt of eech and l ngua e habits the rocess oontinu s s lon s t e child r ins at ho The proble then, 1a .first one 0 prevention and later on of cure. The pr nts' first concern, thereforei is to est blisb t he faYor ble conditions th a t il insure norwal or uperior speech dev lo ent in th 1r children The second concern is to discover and pp ly the oper remeaiea t th rignt time in the event sp ech dis turbance do p p e r P rent iant to do the right thing tor their children; wh t they n ed is proper guid nc for voidin nd odify1ng the n--ative r ctors that ay bring on p ech problems 1 ter and for r ost rin cond tlons that 11 make ,. tor nor~yl p ech d velop ent or ill help llevi te the s p ch probl -once i t h s begun ,1 2 Previou to 1950 f~ books written tor oare ts e phasized a po itiv ane or cilit ting nor al p ech nd langua g e growth R ath r th aterial e et forth to aid tho e parents hose children h d speech proble In 19SO V n R i r wrote book p cifically dir cted to the p ren~ of young children in which he discusse 12 Virgil nderaon Im ........ ovin the Cbi l' ( ew York: Oxford Univ r tty J .. P eech

PAGE 15

9 the nor,aal developm nt ot speech in th preschool child. l) bile so e p rent ay rad teri l uch s that found in Van iper' book, th great m jority or uarenta of re chool children ont e ven kno it x1ats. B c a use I th re ia ne d to due te p arent r l tive to their position or role in the dev lo nt of p ech nd la -~,,ua~ in th ir children, it is d e ir bl to develop ore teri l i ht ~e brought about e re cone rned with: (1) present tion lectures for p r nts of pr chool c lldren. and ( 2 ) pre nt tio y television 0 lecture eri The jor diffic u lty encountered th the fir t ethod would th tor rent to co e to centr lly locat d ~int here the l cture oour could I be a:1.ul In the cond ethod, st could vie the lectures ents ho h d t levi ion Ort of their llvin Pre nt d y st t1stics l die te th tin th ntted p r d y ar 0 our C ild to lk ork:

PAGE 16

10 indic tether r over orty-two million receivers in omee throughout the nation.lS Th s fi ur of r o-~ b is for s wning th t narents ht be or re dil cont cted t rou h televi ion The ot nt1 1 of thi ed112m for dult eduction be n recognized .1 th educ tors nd cultural l a ders ho h ve be n in trumental in et lishing t irty-four educ tional tel vi ion t tions now in operation 1n t t nty-f'iv t te -... d hich could be u ed s outl t or pre nti g eri on sp ch nd 1 ngua e d velo u_nt. If t levi ion ere to prove s ti f ctory n ffect v ethod for pr s nti 1 -orm tion on speech nd lan u ge d velonment, erie could be r corded on fl~ or vid o t pe nd d v ilable through the ciliti s of the tio ducation 1 ~dio and Television C nter to con unltie in hich th re co erci l tel vision t tion. o e interested pr on, res"'-'~bly p ech correctionist, could th n e arra~ ents to &Qve uch film d eries publleiz d and t leca t thro~h loc l televi ion facilities Ho ev r, th r aro s veral actors to be taken into consideration before a decision c n e reached as lSTeleviaion VII (all-inter, 1958), )l.

PAGE 17

11 Before such a proj ct i wid rt ken the ollodn qu tion hould be answered, (1) do par nts de ir this type of information, (2) 1ould they be illing to tt nd and follow such lecture serie, ()) ~m;ich w~thod or pr en tation, television or cl s room lectur, would be the better mens of dies in tin this type of infori tion to parents, and(~) is either ethod ffective? There are oth r actors that must be considered when lookin t th over 11 picture oft eae to thode of pr entation In the cl ssroom situ tion it is lways pos 1ble for the p rent to interrupt the instructor to ask question. Since the claasroo not burdened by the pre ur ot time, in tructor ia uch that 1 osed upon the television n tructor, it 1 pos ible for those in the cl ssroo ituation to rece v rs to their questions They lao have p rao.....wl cont ct with the instructor However, because of the seating arrangement usu 1 in the cl ssroo situ tion, number ot the arente 1 t not be ble to see charts and de onstrations ea ily and cl~urly On the other h nd, the television presentation offers e eh parent a "front-ro seat" for each l cture Becaus of the technic l ~upect or televi ion, the arent ie ble to clearly see ch chart and de onatr tion

PAGE 18

12 t o to u tio s. Ho ev pr nts .. ~ ~ .or e on th next who in turn oul as the qu stion on tot i structor \. th e stu 10 ho could n r the d urin th t lev sion lectur. 'hla p rocedur of r l yin qu tions to the instructor 4Agg b e n d by r UHT University of i ou ton uc tion l l vi io t tio n ny v nt it 1 n cess ry toe er1 ent with ot methods of pr s nt tion to d tr inc hch is cccpt d st e or ff ctiv m Han of p r nti....... i .... o r a.uc.tion on u t::eC an lan i lttlt:L g~ .ae c-.:,-o,7th in th pr school c h ild it oul a p pe r re SOu Q l to SS-8 ~.~ n y h ich p eel list int e f ield ot spe ch correction could ive deter ine uheth r educ tors in the f1 ld of s p eech correction b v tilized television for this pur p o e questionnaire (refer Appen ix I) as nt to the thirty-four education l st tion no tel cQgtin, and to th office of the tion l due tional Tl vision nd n gdio Center in

PAGE 19

13 tionn as d ivid d into two R ~ rt Th fir t p rt cone rned its lf ~1th heth r or not th st tion h d pre ented t l cours in the r ld of p ee c h correct o n. It o, ho er p r s nted ho lon d i th t l cour e run, the y~ar of pr .ent ton, and th num b er nd ela 1fic tion of stu ents. It lso asked ther the cour e included m a t rial on p eech I nd 1 ngu g d velopm nt in the preschool \ child; if so how ~~ny lectures r d voted to thi ty ques ti o n t a included on h th r or not any survey s ~-d r l tive to the rroct1venee 0 th telecour e ethod of r enting rial teri 1 in th regul r cl s roo s i tu tio The ec o nd pa rt or the q 1 tionn ire c o ne rn d field or s-nech c o rr cti o n had been pr sent d If the ns er a yes t 1 ey e r e a ked then ber of progr ...__ in the eries t h ty of a u d ience or hich it 8 rie, year of present tion, he qu stionnair in uir d he t hor th s rie included at rial on p ech nd langu e dev lo ~~nt in th pre cbool c hild nd if so,

PAGE 20

14 he station was cw.SO ked for the results 0 any urvey conducted relativ to the effectiveness or uch and description of the exp ri ental design. eriea Tho thirty-four educational t tions nd the tlonal Ed ucations Televi ion and .adio C nter return d the qu stionnaires. Thirty~t o reported no telecourse in the area or speech correction hile tor ported that thoy h d pr ented such a cours One or the t tions as a~-TV ~ adison, tsconsin In 1957, they presented a on semester course entltl d: "Sp ech 25, Introduction to Sp ech Corr c, tion," consi tin o forty hal -hour pro rams. The course e vie ed ~~inly by colle e students; bo ever, ow~ of the neral public 1 o vi ~Ad th course. orty tudents ere enrolled Q& d a rs arch etudy ,a,s wade in conjunction 1th their vie in ot the course. The regul rily enrolled tudent s re d 1 1ded 1 to t o roups, on rem ined n the tudio 1th th n tructor while th other in t::i~parate classroo over tel vision. r1tten tests er pr sented to both roups at th end of the course to d ter cores. Tot at co par tive ffectivenes or riwtlrily vi u l ver us ur l styl s of xposition, six units ot the cour w re nt d by ens of pecially made kine COnAS and the identical unit t uffflt verb lly true1 xamination were th n g iven.

PAGE 21

lS The pr1 ary find1n~5 fro th r se rch proJ ct w r : (1) t ethod or te tin ffects the appar nt efficiency of the ethod of teachin n1 (2) co pari on of the to condition or in truction r veal d no s1'""ifi cant diff rence 1n lgQrnin b t en th tudio group nd the onitor group regardless or t ty of exQWin tion The in tructor r lt th t tho us or television had improved the quality of in truction because de on str tion of clinic l techniques or dia __ osis nd t rapy in peach correction could b h ndled ore efficiently by television technique than in the usual live cl s situation 16 ED Pitt burgh r ported th t they h d presented th1rty-t o progra two e ester telecourse on ep ech improv ment desiimed for priauary grade children 0 research h s b en carried out in conjunction 1th he seri s Eifal t of the thirty-four stations reported that they had pre ented a ehort series of ogr on speeoh correction Of thi oup five st ted th t their programs were aimed t the public in neral to reported that the programs ere pr_,,.arily designed tor par nta and one dir cted tho s ries to ard teachers a, tud.ents one of 16 det 1led r ~rt of resear c h findin in connection with this saris is to be published ae ese rcb lletin o 11 by the Uni v ersity ot 1econe1n e!ev!alon 'f: 6oratory

PAGE 22

16 the eight stat ons reported having m de a survey or study as to the eff ctivene s of the riee KO A CAr,t -TV, Corv llis 1 pr senting a continuing e rles on speech nd langua e development d si g ned for parents and children. The seri s has been running approxim tely six onth and there are n estimated 100 1 000 television aets in the vie ing area 1 S 1 11 aukee presented a four progr seriee on speech correction in 1956 with one of the pro ra a devoted to speech and langua __ development in the tr school child whil the A labam ~ucat1on l Television two~k ori inating from Auburn pr sented a twelve progra eries in 1957 with approximately three programs devoted to in th preschool child Neither station w a ble to esti at then ber ot vie ere KCTS S attle a hin ton reported four progra e d voted to speech and langu e development 1n their series hich was designed for teach ra and tud nt Th re ainin tour stations h d pre ented ri son correction which did not include information on speech and langua e dev lo nt Th Educational T lev1a1on and dio C nter report d that they had no films in th a peach correction nd speech science re Over the past t n years ther h ve been t levi ion cw1S bro de t ov r loc 1 nd nation 1 co rcial

PAGE 23

17 stations de onstratin how v riou speech and haring clinics diagnose and tr at peach robl In 1953 and a ain 1n 1956, tern Re erve University nd an aff111 t, the Cleveland Speech d H ri.6b C nter, off red ov r a loc l, co ercial atat1on at lecourse entitled, "Your Child Learn to Spe nl7 This seri e ae pr eented aa a univer ity cour Nfor which students could r eeive three hours of credit under the cade ic listin of Introduction to Speech Correction The pur o e of th cour s s 11 ted a: (1) to pr ent a qualified university course for beginning students in speech nd he rin therapy, (2) to discus th tr in1ng proc dur s nd th pro tea ional needs or children 1th speech and/or he rin problems and {3) to initiate an interest and wareness in p rents so th t Qome sp ecb or hgQring problem mi ht b vent d.18 No ttempt a ade to evaluat the rr ctiveness ot pres ntin thi material overt le 1 ion. pti to ~alu te telev1 ion for ducation l purpos s, one is 1mmediat ly are of the tre: n ou educ tional pot nt ial hich this ediWl.l,I ha to offer. som, in bis aumm ey r port of the Tel visions Institute held in 1952, 17N ncy ood Yo.~ Chil~ Le rn,11, tp, ,@. . ki 11:el.~,s~,raS! Hom Studx and Guide ( a1eve! nd: 2 ~e tern serve ifnlver -t,-, l952T. ' l~aney ood "T levigad eecb and He rin h r y," ~9,urn l;. ,9f P,,.2t~9,n,.1 Pb~~dr n XXI[ (January 1956), 152

PAGE 24

18 listed th a ets oft levision a: (1) large audience c n b influenced, (2) television o s ri ht into the home (3) p ople and prop rties can b utilized b tter., (4) i ul t neity adds efectiv nee nd (5) television can tech. In explainin thi fifth item, he states: P rticiJJitnts in th institute believ that th r ia now convincin evidence fro n erou experi ents that television c n be utiliz d succ asfully e teaching medium eth r it be the exper19nce with the telecourses at e ter.n Res rve Univ ,. r ity t or the exp riments t yracuse University or t the Special Device Cent r of the United S tats avy at ort aahintn-on Lon Island all agre th t televi on is an eff etiv educ tional mediJm videnc indic tea that television is eff ctive ae tr ditlonfl cl sate ching in th ount le rned and rt ined 9 In order tot st the ffectiveneea or t 1 vision e at aching tool, r e rch p rojects ere et up and conducted by tudents ,orking tor dv need d grees o ever umat in reviewtn the r ese rch that ha been conducted in thie area st tee th tit l cks quantity and quality. ctual p rforinance has tar outstrlpp ev lu ton in in truct1onal t levi ion programm1n This lag taken by it elf is not d1sheart nin Indeed it be peak a faith and enthusia 1n 1nstruetional televi ion even though concrete evidence on any point may as yet oe l eking It 1 the r l tionahip of v lya tion to pr ctic e which should erit serious ttention 20 19carroll e so "Oee ot Television in Ed ucation T levi 1 n Polic for ducatio : rooeedin f th T 1 vis on ros 1 ams n titute shin on: American Counc on Education~ ~$2f; 'pp;> ... 141 20 H K ta , ll In~en~O!.J, of,' ,n t:i:-ucti9nal. ,'l' lttv;I. ioJJ Re e rch ( nn rbor: . due 'tfona felevlsiori and adio "center, 1956) P l

PAGE 25

19 s rch roj ct ch ut111z tel i ion re dif cult to co ... gtruct b c uae ot th r s r cti.on po ed t __ dium tel- .t: a o re ~CUi ch ... .u. b n di ere it d b cauge the ndividual up th proble ttempt to iuotruct on~l am .. c h d alr dy een lr d 1 r stilted in try to t t qu tion to r th r tl1 n ..,.~paring the xp ri nt~ de 1 n prior to t pr t=~ nt tion of t ....... rogram. R~ difficulty 1 i .,_l d q""~t crit ri or me url pro~ ff ctiven third probl~i the inability to st bli h deq __ te controls n th fourth pl c if an tt"'u,pt i .ri ...... e to t bl h e t te r control t di r ore nto clo~~d-circuit nd c ptiv ud nc itu tion. Fin lly, th r i difficulty in ~ettin r pr entative u inc ~c pl1n On o ort t uest1on r i din conn ctio n t tlli r a rch h b n, ... "' o s d nt U,uut by wee.ins or t l vi ion co ,._ r itl1 hos t -ah t i th re __ l r cl sa roo situ tlo l? oat of ... ... in __ tor ha foun th t nts tau ht by tel vi io h ve do a M~11 s stud~~ts t '-'&&t 1 th r .... -ul r c ... '-'esroo it tion on occ io s -~ t l V. ion tu nt ...... v chi V i _.._ ie tor u.A"' .. "'<:3 In ttgwpt to ~ff lu t tel Viwion ~6W r l r

PAGE 26

20 oney, and c Adc;wus 2l tudied the efteotiveneea oft l vi ion in truction into colleg level cour ea offer dover UH -TV, at the Univ rsity ot Houston biology cours lement ry P SVChology course nd n elementaey ere chosen for th investi~:::.tion In the sychology cour: cop ri ons ere lw:lde bet en nin ty six student in non the c mpus l cture a ct1on, even teen students enrolled in section for the television lecture follo ed by corr spondenc work nd thirty students enrolled in at le 1s1on, supplg~ented QY c~pus discussion section In tb biolo~ cour~~, to roups of and ex ere uJCll'C.'d in televi ion and on tel vision sections. The uthors re ort that their findi s sho no igntfic nt differ nee am on te t cor111aa for the oup in t e psy chology section nor for the television and non t l vision section taki.68 biology eries of 21 vQ& .., on y c W.li.l!& luation ot the tfectiv neea of I struction and udi rR .ROti-to o fJ"li'l!::i i in n u i n l l 1 o t .,-om;na,l, of,. J2Rll.e~ ,P-.rc.~~logz:. X (19SS), 277-279 22a. i D nee tion,"

PAGE 27

21 1 ht on hour telecasts cone rned with different ph see or an A rmy di 1 ion's oper tion in a n encounter The subject ere )000 rmy reservi t, repre entin lost all branches of the army. and ranging in rank fro. p riv te to colonel The r sMrvieta ere elected from reserve headquarters in ten different cities, nd vie ed the seri s in their respectiv loc tions Proession 1 ctors re used in each of the ei ht prograrne Le rning s asured by multiple -c hoice type q uestions and pre test nd post t est as iven for every progr m ex c ept the firat n ber of the pre-test questions were used to measure retention tr one to six eks after the presentation ue tionnaire deigned to c he c k reactions to rd tel vision instruction were pre en t ed at the end of the tin 1 session, nd a ratin ac le for reactions to the entire seri s as lso presented The finding r Ye l d that all subjects ade higher scores followin the tele c st This gain held true for all roupa h n they re cntegori1ed ccording to rank Four fifths 0 the persona in the &&-oupa reported that the eries ~a int resting or very inter esting and majority of the roup judged the series a good or xcellent Three-fourths of the en stated th t they preferred being taught by television r ther t han by any oth r ethod

PAGE 28

22 The investig tors, after analyzing the progra m s, stated that narr tion by its lf or combined with other forms of te ching s extre m ely ffective They felt that dram used as the sole eans of presenting material was th e least effective. Shimber 2 3 evaluated th effect of teaching the A erican R ed Cross home nursin course by television He used thre ex p erimental groups; the first received all instruction by t levision, th econd re c eived a we kly practice session in ad d ition to the television instruction, and tl 1 e third r ceived its instructi o n in a regular class room situation without television The television groups viewed thirt en half-hour p rogr s twice a eek hile the regular c lassroom ;:oup attended seven two-hour lectures with de onstratlons a nd supervised practi c e The tele vision roups met in Houston while the classroom group met in Oklahoma City Comnariaone w re ade between the groups on a battery of pre.tests nd ost-teets There were seventy-seven in the television only group, forty-three in the television nd practice group, nd two hundred ands venteen in the classroom uoup 23senja in Shimber Ettectivene s or TeleYision tlonal Testing rvice ese rch Bul etin R B-54 19 ugust 1954) (duplicated)

PAGE 29

23 that t l vi ion in truction as s ff.ective as tbe cl.--sroo in truction fort achthe groups 9er not ell atcb d for l.oc ber or l ngth nd num r or lectur periods nd th re a no m ntion of an tt mpt at control of uch f ctors as intelli ff ~nc nd socio cono ic level Tannen aum reports t10 co par tire stud nstruction through televi i.on 24;2S The fi:ret on at rial i riodontics to practicing dentists in six st tea. Th proc dur follo s: ne group vi-,, ed thre one-hour lactur -do::onstrations pre ent d over clo d-ctrc it tel vision th a fourtl1 sry hour hich was used to answer qu stion ised uring t previous lectures ch person int 1 group nu 1 second group hard only th sound portion over t l phone hoo up plus third group tudied only the nu 11. A fourt cording -~tely one onth after the eries 24 H nn nb"UloU n truction throu-ion: , Comp~?'.'_ t 1 y ~ 1t ud1: ( Urb na ..... no s : inst t t o ommun c tion ese rob, University of Ill1no1s June, 1956) ( i eographed} 2 .5 H TQ.U.l. .. ..,nb~'"""' 1 tr.uct,ion thrpffb Tel vision, : .L -perime,~t1l ,S~'1 X ( Urba il!lnois: Insttute 'of' Co "uni 0 tion e earcli, University of Ill.inols, 1956) ( im.eo phedt

PAGE 30

, 24 firth roup, u ed control, con 1 t d of denti t who n ith r th t l vi ion ..., .... ri nor th wt;:1nu 1 liv t le'i ion group co prised oft ltundr d ena tour d n i ts, on hundred nd lxty of hich rec iv d th1rty-fi e le choic exel!'fW~gtlon fter s e ng th r rat three romram hil th r inn forty1x IUJ'or t "'ted ft r vie :in th uum ry hour There w r t n denti t in the tel phon ctoup, t ln ta.ac nual only ~oup, forty i t kinescop roup, nd one hundr~u e1,d thlrtyt ht nti t in h control rou o pree tin I .... "" ly lil~H the t t, it s found t t 1 P.Jl t of t e tbirty-f'iv ou tlon .... r not cov r d eith r i th nual or t et le t n ne of th u ti.on r co on y in th l cg.gt. Allot th ri nt l rouaa id tter on th t t tll th control gr 't' t t, en diff r nc __ er r port d lgniflc nt 1 h tne only i&fl oup econd tudy fifty-six tud nt iv rsity of Illinois F< oupa of their ld-t~de o hr e hundr d nd ic phy iol.ogy cour:::1ts t the die 1 School. h tud nt ere hicb on th h tir t roup ot on ia undr d I

PAGE 31

2; and ighty-nine students r c ived egular classroom i11st~uction in a 1 cture hall in tb pre ence of tele vi ion cam ra; the s cond group of one hundred and sixty-seven student received t eir instruction though closed-circuit t levision Three tiftyinute lectur a on th hum n re piratory ~y te ~re given on consecutive d y. n unannounced nin teen-item ultiple choice test covering the material pr aented in the thre 1 cture i as given to all students The test results ~er studied u in analysi of the varian c e to t=Mt whether dif rence could be found bet een the lecture and televiuion groups as a whole whether sub groups (first and second year edical students dentistry and gr duate students) differed a.u;i selves and 11ether there W::IS ny interaction bet een any of the sub groups and the thod of i11struction Com parisons 0 th eQ..I. scores sho ed a di feronce at the seven per cent 1 vel of confidence in favor of th tele vision group A pr fer nee scale was presented to the television group On the basis of this scale a comparison --s uiade b t1 een the te t cor of those ,ho were favor ble to television instruction, tho ho ere n utral to tele vision instruction, and those ho r u11f vor ble to

PAGE 32

26 instruction by t lovision The results indicat cl tha t t hose who were avorabl or neutral to instruction by television did significantly better on the examin tion than those who did not favor this or of instruction An exp rim nt in &.U(lls edia and learning was conducted by 1111 a26 t th Univeraity of To ronto. O ne hur1dred nd eight undergraduates of t Uni versity were used. They were divided into four aou s contai ing an equal number or high, verage, and lo students group wa arbitrarily assign d to a cl assr oom lectur, a lecture by television, lecture by radio, or to read unfa uiliar to all the students The lecturer si ultane o ualy presented his teri l to the l cture group the television group, nd th r dio group During this ti e, the ourth roup read t h t lk Key words in the re ad ing aterial wer capit alized in an attempt to co nsate tor 1 ck of sound and / or sight and to help show thee phasis given in the lecture post -teet,containing cw.i.d one essay type nin~teen multiple choice questions que tion to be ans er dint o hundred to thr e hundred words,was pr esented immedi tely following the 1 cture. 260 l!aXperi ent," c illiame, Ex2lorations C I \ I T1C ill& 1 5 ass edia and Learning -n III (1954), 7S-82.

PAGE 33

27 he r sults ho th t 1 rn n t 1 ion e e findin u ..,, l>JAr ign r1 c nt b yond the one er c nt level of confi nc. ive nt l v of confidence c nt diff re!!Ce trial The h ld tru en th test cor s ere evalu ted int r of the t d nt' c de ic bil ty ith th exce tion of th e lectur roup hich was last in a ount le ; rn d on the bi h nd lo rou p but equ 1 tot lev ion for th v ra e rou. Ho ever, it u t b noted t, u.1t th l ctr roup t n studio ua n in ietr ctions of li ht, I co pari under our d1ff r nt r ception cond1 ion t t Colle The four c nditi ne ()) kine cop cl th fir t condition, vision at home 1th the tudent for exa n tion In the econd condition, t n tudents 27a ~Hub nd "Television Versu Cl sroo for L arn i n General P ychology maric ?l, ,P ,I9h9logi_~t I ( 1954,) 1 1 18.3 7 7

PAGE 34

28 at tie de up studio clas for th t levision pr sentation, while the re t vio ed the ls on on onitor h in scop cla s as btained in a later quarter b~th c~, .. pus tud~~t vie in in acop r cordin of the cl s Q,Q ,ell a --nj~c1~l .. "'l!'I in enty ute of e ch le so The to campu cl s rec ived ra l r cl ssroo in true ion h instructor s the s m for 11 group and th IUQlteri 1 cov red uru t 8 OQ.W8 .L:J!Cll.cb t l vision ession s th rty 1nut hile the olas roo l ctur lasted fifty inutes 11 participant ere r_~ularly enrolled coll-student e c pt t t levision ho~ ~ e:l"""'up Only th articipant for the televi ion at ho e Q 1 g giv n Fif1;y-fo r ut of r ftysix pr on nrolled finished th course by passin all t t ts or tho e co pleti"'(:::) th course fifty r t10 en and four r n The __ e ra ~e ,a fro eignte n through sixty-five 1th edian r thirty even The edian ag for th igh school ~aduate as twenty y ars of ge hirty-on of the group had no college credit twelve ._.d so e, lev n had one tot 7 ar of collog and hree h d to years or or U ing hi... oint aver :r.~ or the course as a eans of compari on the uthor found that t.e roup

PAGE 35

29 receiving television instruction at home had a higher grade point average than the group receivin t levision instruction in the tudio and the t10 regular classroom groups. The highest grade aver e a chieved by the group r c ivin instruction from kinesco e recordin. There s no teat ot ai n1fic nee entioned in the a~ticl e. ile xperiments studyin th compar tiv effec tivenes of tel vision presentat on and regular classroo pr sentation h ve been conducted for element~ry, second ey, ad college cl s eo, no known res arch f this nature has been c onducted in the area of speech 12thology and audiology . However, a number of udience surveys in c onn ction th t lecours sand adult education type programs h ve b en re p orted. Halpern2g conducted two urveys, one in ay and the other in June, 1953, of Cleveland residents with respect to the telecoursee offered by stern Reserve University Three hundred and three t lephone c a lla to a r ndo aa pl of Clevel nd residents ere ade on the first survey while the second consisted of seventy-one intensive interviews of tele course viewers. 28. G. Halpern T TglJc,9-!!f!e f.J.!d1 ~pee ( Cleve 1 3 ) mI eographed) estern Rese ve U iv reit est rn eserve University,

PAGE 36

30 On the b sis ot the t o surveys the fo l lowing conc l usions were drawn (1) pprox ately 6 000 adult repre entin one and two-tenths per cent oft et l vision f mills nd t enty per cent of tho e who vie1ed at nine a vie de ch day (2) The telecouree viewers were predo in tely female 11th n avera-of plus one year of c ollege Those m le ho viewed had an avers-~ to and a half years of college (3) Those who continued viewing had ore education and had be n a y fr o m chool for a shorter period or tie and had less di tr ctions at hoe during th t levis1on tie (4) Viewers tend to prefer tho e courses y living Lyncb29 interviewed s ven hundred and ixty-tour viewers in the etropolitan Detroit r a He as investigating the 1se co position and v1-~1n h bits of the audience for the University of ichigan Television Hour Ile towid that one-h lf of t he television s t owner in the Detr o it area viewed the program T thirds of this group reported se ing the program ithin the six month period previous to the tudy and one-fourth view d 29Jam e s Lyn c h Study of th Siae and Composition or the Viewing Audien c e or an Educ tional Television ogr min the Detroit etropolitau _Paa (Unpublished Ph D dissertation, Depart ent ot Sp ech University of icbi an, l95S)

PAGE 37

31 the progra m one to four ti es a month T he udience included all ge s. C olle g e e d uc ted eople were ore 11 ely to vie l ho w ver, a consid r ble number o f hi g h school and r a de school b ckground p eo p l a lso viewed the p rogr ~ V ewin g ~s rel a tively h i b a t 11 income levels. The v i e~ftrs e r e not 11 ited to any p articular occupational l val number of the st udi es reported stressed th ta strai g ht lectur e a pp roach s oats tis ctory for tele vision p r e sent a tion This ~ a substantiated by Vernon30 who conducted a tudy on perce p tion and ndersta n din of instruction l t levision pro rams. He found that im p ortant tate e nts and eneraliz tions er e less 11 ly to be re m e m bered if they occurred near t h e end of the p rogram He also found t ha t t h e ore discussion there s in the p rogra, t h e less ccurate rec 11 He conclud d that if learning is to occur at n optimum rate, one comment tor presenting fact and s t at ments n anner is best v a ns sup p orts this, t lea tin ~rt, when he states; an 1nfor al lecture co bined with skillful use of the bl ckbo a rd may be a preferred method or D. Vernon, "Perception and Understanding of Instructional Te vision ro: es ritisb Journal ot P I~h~~op;, LI (1953), 116-126.

PAGE 38

32 television present tion n31 A su ary of th findin s of t na research of television as ate chin been presented by ia c hn r an:l Scheier hey state: ajor conclusion arr nted by all of the re e rch findin sis: TV c an te eh itbin the r nge of subject atters and student groups i V sti,... .,,_ ted, TV roupa gen r lly learn s ell a r~--1 r instruction groups In som~ instances V groups achieve signffio ntly better th nth ir control it reapect tor tention easures, TV groups do a well as regul rily instructed groups .. Present rese rch in ic ts t t t le vision is n itber uch better nor worse for l}traiE,A-At torward lecture nd blackboard presen t tion j2 he er uat b vie ed cautiously ys oper tin port nt to be ,are of t th t has b en co uct d; how v r, t ust not overshado ht bas been homi rel tiv tot eduction l pro erti s of tel vision ro thi re earch, e find indications th t television can used ctiv ly for dult eduction Th ethod of present tion hich ha d demonstr tions .3la1chard I Tans, "The l nning nd I ple ent tion of a Psycholo ic l erie on on commerci ~ due tional Television Station," i'he , ~~ic,,n Psxchologl.st, (Octob r, 1955) 60) . 3 2 0 J i i chner nd Seheier, "Some Tho~~--ts on Television as an due tion l Tool," The erican Psxchologist I (October, 1955) 61) 1

PAGE 39

33 The Purpose or the This study seeks to determine which of two ethods, a television pr s ntation or a re ul r cl s room lecture, is the or effective means of pre sen tin b sic inf oz't11a tion relative to speech and langua e d v lop ent in th~ pr school child. The specific im of the study are to determine: 1 at 1 any ch nges occur in the respon a or a group or others or ~Meschool children to a aerie o! I state ents pert ining to the normal p ech nd language development in the first y r of life fter r ceiving intor ation on this develo ant? 2 Is there difference in the ev lu tiv judge ments ade toward a group ot st tements pert 1n1ng to speech and langu ge growth in the first y ar of lif by oup of others ho received information bout this subj ct by ean of didactic lecture presented over t levieion a oowpared with a i ilar group of mothers who received the sw material in cl ssroo lecture? ) Did the others who viewed th televis on program eel that a aeries on this subject would be ot value to them? 4. Did the other who attended tl1 lecture f el a series on this subject would be of value to them?

PAGE 40

34, 5 Did the mothers who view d the t levision feel that a lectur eries ould be 0 equal or greater v a lue to th ? 6 Did t .... ,., oth rs who ttended the lecture feel a tel vision series ould be of equ l or reater -ftlue to the 1

PAGE 41

CJ-I A ~!1ER Il P!~OCEDURE E ::perimenta.1 De sign Tho fi1"st st"J.:l.ent step 1n o.ny type o f research as to cleli11cc. te the problem no that maxinntr11 controls c~n be tttil1zea and e. clearly outlined project can be stucU ed Therefore, tl1e uthor oonsulted Dr Ricl1a1d Eve~ns 1 and ... r.' P1,ofesso1' Solor.1on T1 ..... 1me11~'\ttm ,..,1 11 regard to the nun1ber o:r p1"oe;rams to b~ used !1'l tolevision e.nu classroom lecture series Tl1;cy advised tl1a.t co11trols over t:lme 1 env_1"on I!1entc .. l ir1f!uence, a nd ot1.c:" informa.t1one.l sources :ould be loot 1:f time elapc.ed bet,zee11 tl1.e presor1t~c .. tion 01~ the mu. terial ancl tl1e teeti11g situation Beca-use of such inl1ercnt fe .. ctoro 1t llO.S et1 l ongly advised that only one television lecturo and one class1"'oom lecture be used in of sel e cting a stratif i ed audience of one hundred mothers 1 Dr Evo.ns is profcseo1" of' psyohologj', ll1i1vers1ty of Ii oust o n Depo rtment of Psychology rie l1an conducted se v eral audience research p oJccts for the ~ atonal Eduoat1ona.l Television and Radio Cente1, 2 I~ Tannenbaum is proi'esoor of sociolocy, Univeroi ty of Housto11, Depart1nent of Sociology nnd An thropology 35

PAGE 42

36 of preschool childr n to co m to p re-deter ined p l ce on a g iven d te. On 1,alf of this group tel vie ed a lecture on p eech and lan ua" '"' d v lo e n t occurrir1 in the first re ~ or life (O d ys to on year) Te other half of this group r ceiv d the -m lect r aterial. pres nted by the e in tructor ho utilized th s;lJUe vlsu l id ~teri ls, in a r.~ular cl s room situ tion~ Identic l test in truments ere u ed to r and post-t e ch group rel tive to th ~-trial presented. elevi It w s nee aaary t o d ext n 1ve libr ry res rch in order to preoor 1 cture on th u jeet of lan~~a e and s p eoh gro h fro zero d ys to one y r mieh could be used both on t 1 vi ion n d in roo itu tion. The ateri 1 for the two lectures t~ n fro ori 1 al res arch and boo by apeciali ts in the fi l of lin~-1 tics, pedi trice, child psycbolo~, '-Md peech pathology n attempt w d to ev luate tis ateri l so t h t the ost recent and r ctual terial could be presented Thus, thirtyinute lecture s prepar dint l v s1on script for ( pendix I) Th terial a eaigned to be prented in the did ctic ann r, utilizing cl1 rt dr in s and recording, in order to obtain e phasis and to aid retention The script w s writt n in uch a y that it

PAGE 43

37 yng ca r t s and ra ings could alwo b used in the c la sro om he recordin as use rith a pro ri ate visuals uring t 1 l ct ur e on t l evi sion Ho ver, the re c ordin as o itte fro th le e ure res nt ti on InsteQu, the lecturer rea th l c tion hich b d en recoided. Th e art direc tor or UHT TV w s co nsulted on t e proper ratio, ty pe of m~terl 1 siae of lettering an colorin g to b usD~ o the ch rt and dr.a,i gw ng the di cussion with the ar t rector, it wao decide d to p ay an artist to d si gn and build th c har ts nd dr a ins to as sure meeti .. th specific tions of the te l vision tation and still h ve them eet require ents f o r class room presentation ( ppendix III ) A recordi of a oth r talkin g to her child as cut by a professional actr s using material from Van iper' s Teahing Y~ ~, iChi.;J.d t:o ,'falk 3 rranging or th ro gram and cture nitially, it a ~n ned to use the facili ies of UHT -TV, the U niversity of Houston fdu cation l elevision S t a tion. to pres nt the lecture over closed circuit with the television group viewin in au auditori11m qu ippe d ith

PAGE 44

38 on11;or llo~Yav r beeau.-..r:: or u,. avy --r c h dul a schedul rt dio, U11i r ity, ...... .. .. t e 11 a the closed circuit teachi~ l vision ~d il C nt r o f t ne h avy schedul n o f the uditor 11m by the niv er it d~. ni t e tie c o u ld not bee ta 11 hed hl c h e c end.en t for the ~~ther of y un c ildr n h e r for e, t e K JHT ro ~... director r -a rr _.. .. &e r...,,_r~s in u,.a. r to rovid th inutes ot op e n c rcuit tie t seve n cloc on the v eni n g of pr1l 29th 1958 hue, the progra as sc h duled a an ctu l on th air t leca t o ev r, to cilit t e c on trol, the e xp eri ental groups ,1are required to co to the c~ t de tie The tel vi ion group a s l ced into clas roo s equipped with t hr e mo nito rs each and set up to handl t enty-tive 1~ Nividu ls e a c h .._ ll a p bithe ter ty p e cl a ssroom in the S cience Ha ll t th Un iversity of ouston waa re erved for th cl sroo 1 ctur O nce th air ti m e est blished, arrange ents wer ade with the p ro ~ em director for the director, c era n, floor anager audio en in er, video en ineer, nd cre w for settin li gh ts, st, an props e ting was arrauAed 1th the rt dir ector of UHT to pla n ba c ~ound an d p rops P reli in ry Interview fore des ignin the t ~inistered to

PAGE 45

39 the subj ct befor and immediately follo1in both l ctur a, a relimin ry intervie 1 of t enty-five mot ers 0 preschool U in a schedul form of interview, t e eAai iner ttc u, pt d to deter m ine exiting ttitudea, knowledge re,~rdi .. th subj ct, and int n ity of ttitude. open-end question ere u ed on the schedule ( ppendix IV) th dev lopm nt o a tel vi ion~ r1e, thu intervie e in an author t rian position. T enty-four or the mothers intervie ed were hous~M1ves bile one as schoolt acher in the ele entary r de. The fath rs' occuP.ati ns ranged fro lea to profeseio nal ork with forty ei ht per cent classified s professional, orty per cent 1 ors lt-e ployed, and t elve per c nt s salesm n. Thirty-six er cent of th other had co pleted high school but had no additional schooling ixty-four per c nt of the mother h d fro one to four years of college bile seventy-six per cent of the fathers had from one to four year of college. T enty per cent of the fathers had acquired addition 1 tr ining beyond the B degree, one having rec ived the D. degre he intor at1on rece1 ,...~ fro the pr 11 inary interview served Qg

PAGE 46

administered just preceding and immediately following the pr esent ation of the lecture mater1al An attempt ,ras 1nade to des1gn an instr ument that ,,ould test more than the a.b111 ty to parrot back info1,nat1on received. Therefore, it was decided to adapt the eval ,1ati ve dimension from Osgood a Semantic D1f:rerent1a.l 4 to a series or statements pertain ing to speech and language gro,rth during the first year of life 1n order to receive an 1nd1cat1on of direction and intensity of change. Thirty statements ,-1ere judged a.go.inst three pairs of o.djeotives '111 th intervals of seven points The test '\'ra s pre-tested uains five seto of alternatives meaningful meaningless, bel1ev1ng-skept1ca.l, true-false, good -bad, and 1 mporto.nt -un1 mportant --, .,1th five mothers to check ease of administration and clarity of statements. On the basis of th e mothers response to the scales and the t1me required 1n completing the five judgments for each of the thirty atatementa, two of the sets of alterna tives ,-1ere eliminated from the f1no.l test form. The remain ing scales ,-,ere true-false, meaningful meaningless, a.nd bel1ev1ng .. skept1cal. These sets of alternatives \-Jere con sidered to be ~eaeuring the same thing since ructor ana.lysis 5 4 Charles E O sgood, George J. Suc1, o.nd Percy H Ta.nnenbo. tun, e I w !ee .. u e ent o M ee. n (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1957. 5 Ib1d PP 53 -61.

PAGE 47

41 had a om th m to be b1~-1Y lo a de d in the v lu tive di en ion ~li c h que tion appe red tbr 1th diftexent pai r of 1.4 u at e p t to voi r ndom . Th ir or d j c tl v in turn r ndomly ind to e~ch qu e t ion In ord r to of.fset any : LU2.tterned et th ol a for th dj ct v r varied ( ppendi s deign d It included qu sti on pert inin dir ctly to th ttitudes re arding the pro;;a an l cture (Appen i es VI and VII) election or Subjects In order toot 1n su jects Or th exp riment the inist r of churches f lling ithin a fie ile radius re cont ct d he purpose or th tudy and the ne d or others of pr chool c ildren to p rticip te in th r se rch s carefully explained e uc tion 1 directors of th churches to nlist their id in o u b j eta Tenty-one churches representin el v n deno in tt o ns and one syno ogue re visited The i1isters nd r bbi ere particul rly enthuei stic regard ing the progra~~ In every instance, p r m ission as given to talk 1th the due tonal director ach director in

PAGE 48

42 t rn r ceived a c~eful ex p l nati n of th pur p o of the ex p eri en he need ~or subj ct. T he dir ctor e r a ked to provid a list of oth r of p re chool children in th ir c urch. S everal s u ggest d, and all -~reed, that a notice be pl ced in t h e church bulletin to the ef ct that UH of th U niversity of H ouston needed group of others o pr acbool children to vie a pilot progr~m nd particip t in cl ssroo lecture on child development If intere t d th mothers ,er e to contact the church office t th s~e tie, the educational directors "' d e lmilar annou cement at th v a riou clurch organizational Th directors pr nted th ir lists of intere ted mothers to the writer. T hree hundred and s1xty-sev n names were r ceived The name of the mothers re taken int order present d and numbered fro one to three hundred and eixty sev n Thos na m s receiving n ven nub r ere ent a letter requesting the to p pear on the C pus at 6:15 p.m to help ev luate a pilot pro ram for new television series on child development ( ppendix VIII) i 1lar letter s ent to the na es receiving th odd n'-&14Abers requestin th e m to co e to the Ca pus t 6:45 p to help evalu tea p ilot lecture for an~~ cl esroom l oture series on child develo ent ( ppend1x I) R eturn addressed cards ere enclo ed th he 1 tters

PAGE 49

43 Th pr ovi d d ce for th ddre ss nd 1 p on u b r of th indi idu l to J~r tici pa t in h exp rimen t. in ty-t o c ards er r t urn d One e k prior to the date oft er wAs nt to tho e mo had returned the c rd c lled t h U niv rsity t l vision tation nd -... olo g lzed for not bein b le to ttend bee us their children h d measles or chicken po. proportions in t h e city In ddition, torn do arn1n.~~ er out on th e ev en in In s p ite 0 these handicaps, sixty-top rtici p ants ppeared, thirty-five ~o nd t nty-s v n to attend the 1 cture he television pro ra bro do st live over UH TV the n1versity of H ouston ducation l Tel vision tation, fro sev n to ev n-thirty in the v nin A re 1ar announcer introduced the pro r and the aut h or erv d s th l cturer on th he ater ial ot the lecture was p r sented in a did ct1a manner ere used Visual ids nd charts were incor p orated into the l cture to help cl rify or r eint"orce certain oint The visual aids a n d charts e r e in a ltern ting oru~r onto

PAGE 50

easels, on on it er side of the lecturer. In t hig Y , s t he lec t urer compl tad her di cu i on of a ch art she ov d ay f~om it, thus pro vidi fort floo~ an t o remove th ch art ro the previo usl a 1 ""'~d prep r the next t o be presen. ted. Presenting th Lectur A t the clo e of the television lecture, the uthor ove d to th a phitheater in ocience Hall Sh a introduced to th udlence by t proctor ho h d iv n the pre-lecture test. n introduction cop rable to the television intro uction as used he lecture followed in exact for th~t of the television lectur ho ever, in the cl roo situ tion, th vi ual aids _..d c1art ere handled by the speaker This fact, plu th visual interplay bet een sp aker nd audienc ed the lecture time to pproxim tely forty-five inut-~ no que tionns er period could b py~itted durln the television lecture, it w~r nee sary too it a questionns r period fro the cl a ssroo lect u r event ough the udience requ sted it Prend Post-testing Three r du te students in the Ra dio Televi ion Department of the University of Hou ton era hired to serve s proctors during t testing and to give the test

PAGE 51

45 instructi on s. hese tudent received careful riefing r garding the ministerin g of ach t st To tud nts were as i::r.ed to the t le v ision audience and one to the lectu re audien ce. A t vision pro r QU,\ they w re dir cted into t et o rooms et u p for viewi n acb de sk -ch a ir in thee to roo s he ld pac m or the test. T hey then returned tot eir resp e ctive roo s T h test in truction were re-g ven or a lly T he in tructe to bre k tl' 1e se a l on es t B and to co plete

PAGE 52

46 arts I nd II The procto rs coll ct d t e tests s they er co pl t d. uite of th ot ers ramain dafter the t t to talk rl.th the roctors and to co mme nt on th l cture. he group Q,4,rivin to h ar th cl ~ ~sroo 1 cture cg ~ e dlr ctly to th roo in cience Hall The test packets ere on the se ts he l!roup received the a c e test instructions e t h e t levi ion ~oup the lecture group be b_... Teat B c u se of the aeatin arr ngem nt in the wnphithe ter, it ~~an c ssary to collect t upon com p l tion t 7:35, the lecturer sin troduced Upon co pletion of the l ctur tle p k r left the roo be roup s given an opportunity to et a drink of wat rand then th proctor proce ded with the oral instructi o n for et B p rts I and II Tre t nt of est at Throu bout th d si gnin of the t sts the uthor in c ontact t the Co p uting Cent r of the University of Houston in order that the test d t could be coded for use on I i cards Th teat data fro Test and Part I or Test B ere cod d nd pun c hed on I cards usin the I c rd pun c h chine 026 The muterial "es rearr nged and re pun c hed so that the true-talee eaningtuleaninglees nd believin skeptical ans ers to th Q ue tions would fal l

PAGE 53

47 in order. o cco pli h this, it an cess ry to us the I card sor tin g ebine ( 082), r produc1n unch ( 579), nd co putin chine ( 6;o) The material-~ then n lyzed to d termine whether th re any signifi e nt difference or the eans or population v ar iance b tw~ n t pr -te t results of group I nd II, the pot -test results o oup I nd II, th pr -te t r sults of roup I nd t pr -test nd poat te t re ults of group II The 't', sim, t2, statistical t sts ere u ed for com paring the before and aft rte t result ot single group. The 't' nd F st tistic 1 t ts ere pplied h n cop rison ere a~et een the t .o group s. Th was cod d ~ Qt ri 1 cont ined in P rt II of the post-test co par1 on of perc ntages and n analysi 't' ra~io wae computed for ignificance of th difference bet een per c nta s h erever dlff renc betu-en th re~pons of the to groups occurr d

PAGE 54

CHAPTER III Introduction s st ted in the precedin chapter, sixty-to mothers of preschool childr n came to the c ... mpus of the Univ raity ot Houston to attend lecture on s p eech and language develo ent in reschool children birty-tive of th se others listened to a television lecture on this subject while t r1enty-sev n of the others heard the e lecture p res e nted by th QMe instructor, but in a class room situation, re te t d relative to their kno w ledge ot sp ec h nd l n ag e ro h in the first ye a r of child's life b ef ore tten di n their particular lecture and immediately follo1in their lectur. The s(Allle teat instrument a ini ter ed prior to and following the lecture. It consi te d o f thirty st te ents p rtainin to speech and lan,::;.w~ge g ro Ith d uring the first ye ar ot life. These st tom nts re jud g d ga inst three p airs of djectives, each p ir arranged on a ev n-point sc la. In addition to the preand po t-t st, both groups receive a s e cond t st tollowin the l ctur. T his t e t pertained to the ethod of presentation, general interest ot subject 48

PAGE 55

1+9 matter and whether they would like to have additional in.form tion regardin this subject. ollot~ng the dministering of the tests, th inform tion contained ther in as coded, t bulated on I~~ achines nd a statistical nalysis as done. Group Variables In order to deter ine th homo eneity of the expertmental grou s, com parati v analysis was ~Qde bet een the v riables of these to g roups. These variables con isted 0 age, educ t1on, ploys nt of the others and fathers, and the n,Jmber of cbildren in the a 1ly stand ard error or the difference and r tio w s obtained for th mean age nd education for the mo thers and fathers. a shown in Table 1, no aignific nt differ nee for these f ctors existed. TABLE l PARENTAL AG E ND DUCATION t with II U 0.6) I FA with ,II 2 ,FA I o.66 l.62 0.53 I ~E with IX o .i. a 0.4s 1.07 I E with II t 0 .37 0 .31 1.19 *Difference inf vor of und rlined group

PAGE 56

,o Tables 2 and 3 cop re the roups for oth ra nd f th rs nt Th mother or both group ell into to categories, professional nd hou e ite ine per cent or the oth rs in th tel vision group and seven per c nt of those ttendin the clas roo lectur working outsid th hoe in a profs ional c p city inety one pr c ent or the t levision group nd n1nety-thr per Category 0 L borer onkilled l Semi-a ill d 2 killed 3 01 ric 1, ales l' LOYr T o 0 0 0 0 4 ana g eri 1 S lf e ploya 0 s Profession 1 6 rotective erv1c 0 7 )2 00 00 00 00 00 09 00 91 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 2S he tion l s p r~ud tor th fatb rs or t rro killed throu-~ level 00 00 00 00 00 07 00 93 o40Up

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Sl L 0 Labor r onkilled 0 l ... 1 sklll a 0 ,. 2 4 s rofe eion 1. . 19 6 ... Prote ctiY rvicea . ..... l 7 Houa ite. 0 televisio ,n roup bad 00 00 06 2.3 54 03 00 o 0 0 0 6 8 13 0 0 00 00 00 22 )0 46 00 00 skill d labor rs, t nty-tbr e er c-cleric 1-sal... tourt e n per cent n er1 l r olf-e ployed, i your r cent e p rof ssion l, nd tr per c nt s p rotectiv s rvicee he l tt r repr~on tn ividu l erving a ilot in the ir force nty-two p r c nt of the t thera lea, thirty r ce nt gg manl1ger1 l or elfployed, and orty-eignt per ce t s rote sion 1 the oth r v ri blu~ wer closely al.E~6d Qud since th otb r r th parti clp nt in the stud7, th

PAGE 58

52 in occup tions shown her oul d h v any be a r ing on the results or the study A a sho n in T le~ th a vera g e number of chil d ren tor e a ch g roup w a s 2 3 TV Lecture l 5 Ther ppeare d to be 11t t l o r no n i f ic a nt ence bo t een th to rou p a h e n c ompa re d or Q~ e, eduction, p loy ent o f t he ot he r a nd f t h er s c h ildren n th e fami ly the nu b er of r -t st nd P o t-teet e sults A ll p rean d p oet-te t d a t ere c ed nd t bul ted achinea n anal y si of th et blu tions s then m de In ch ek i n g ov r the in d ivi d ual t e t i t res p onses it w s note d th t both rou p s p re d o inantly r s p on d ed to question t enty-two in n e a t1ve r th r than the anticip ted p ositive dir e ction on the post-test. In r checkin the lecture notes ith t h is p artic u l~ te t it nd in 11 ht of this inter p ret a tion, an a m biguity app e a red T b refore, the

PAGE 59

53 statistical an lyes oft st cor s as done tiice, nc ith it m t nty-t o n clu ded c.i.a d once wit 1.t o ltted ro the t st scores. Th fir t ep in n lyzin the d ta a to deter1ne hether a 1 nificant differe ce existed bet en th eans of group I, the tel vision roup, nd group II, the lecture group, on tne pre-test, i either to ace pt or r fute the null hypoth sis t no diff renc xisted, nd to chec for pr -test population v ri nc, i e. to cc pt or reject t h null hypothesl th t the to sam pl e c e fro the ~e popul tion Ther fo a 't' ratio nd r tio ere computed sis shown in T bl 5, there a no T BL 5 GROUP I n: H GROUP II B 1 FO E Total -1th f/ 22 I etore II efore ithout I Before II efore D SED 4 5 Difterenc in favor of underlined group

PAGE 60

signific a nt differenc bet een the pre-t e st mens tor group I and II; therefore; the ull hypothe s 1 stands. T he~e was a shift in th e dir e ction of the obt ined difference et..a n the m eans th g roup I I having the larg r score by f o ur po int he n th analysi w s ade five p oints men ite t enty-to -~so itted. uet also accept the null hy p othesis t h t there no difference the ratio of p o p ul a tion v a riance (Table 6) for the two g roups in the re-test itu tion. Category s2 F I Before II Before 1thout 22 I Before II J!ef'ore 1 1 1119 16)0 1072 1581 The second atep as to co p ute the 't' ratio and distribution for the post-test results or group I and II 11th it m twenty-two included, a a1gn1cant i ference w s noted t the 02 lev l of confidence with group II having

PAGE 61

,5 the larger ean cor (T bl ?). itth it mt enty-t o o itted, a sig ific nt diff r nc wae mted t th .05 level of contidenc in vor of roup II. 1th 22 I tter II fter ithout 22 I fter I!. ~tet SED 26 10 56 24 10 17 D1ffer nee in favor of underlin d group p 02 T bl 8 shows that tb c parison of tne s--ple variances with and 1thout ite t enty-t o, yield d an i ign1cant F. To su WG.J.ize the findin a thu fr. no ignific nt d1ferena or th men scores for the to roup s demon strate on the tests prior to receiving the inoz~~t1on However, follo ing th rec it or infor tion through the r spective lecture ituation, group II, th g?-oup r ceiv1ng inor tion in the r ular cla roo it~tlon, d onstr ted 1gnific _tly tr ~~1n int teeti situation

PAGE 62

56 TABLE 8 V A I C s GROU l All D II ...... H.I.' Category 1th 22 I tter II After ithout ~ 22 I A fter a2 1646 17)9 1487 R F 1 06 1 14 A comparison was de bet een the t st results tor group I before and after r ceivi g the information both with and dthout it em twenty-two The same co mpa ri on was made or group II Since this comparison wa b twe n the eans of related g rou ps the si g n test r a ther than the 't' test was used t2 1 was co p uted to compare the variance of related group,s and to teat the hypothesis that no enuine ch nge in v a riance had occurred In all four instances, a significant difference was noted between the e a ns ot the befor and after tests t better than th 0001 level of confidence. There was no signttic nt chan e in the variance or eith r group on the before and fter test (Table 9).

PAGE 63

Group I fore I fter ith 22 I etore I ter ithout 22 II Befor II fter with 22 II fore II ~tr without 22 S? 5 75 (after) s 1s (after) 6 20 (aft r) 6 .20 ( fter) C p le s th 0001 less than .00 01 l ss than .0001 l ss than 0001 t2 l as th n one les than one les than one of th total er true-t ls e ningful and believin -skeptic l he eans fore ch of the ev luative di ension ere co pared or group I and group II b fore, group I nd II after, Bi bet een the before Q4d aft r cor a of th 1nd1vi d u l gr oups shown p red by av luativ di ension th re difference bet 1 ~ 0 en th to roups for ny or the c te ories. The re s no si nifieant diferenc in the F distribu tion en it= t enty-t o ever, hen this it includ din the co p ut a tion; ho o itted, the r e wa s1 nific nt F

PAGE 64

Dimension Tru eaning.ful Believ T otal 0 0.420 't' F p ----------~------------------------------------------------ithout 22 True an1ngful Believe Tot 1 1.16 le e th n one 1 8 (II 2 .1s (J:I) 1.09 1.4,7 lee than .os t bett r than the o, level of cont dence for both the true-false and eaningfule ningl for when the comp rison of e ns for theae ttio dimensions was co puted th signific nt F a taken into consider tion and a comparison of ean for unknown but presumed unequal popul tlon v rianc a -u ed. Rlen the comparis ons were &U,Qde ot the evaluative di ension on the post-t st, a si'. g~~i ticant difference 1n

PAGE 65

S9 noted at b tter than th .02s l vel ot con id nee or th tru la 1 en ion oth 1th a ud ithout ite t enty-t o. or t e e ...... in fulvc.:lnin 1 ea di en ion a i't:lific nt dif erence th nth 005 level or confid nc, a in in r vor ot roup parent tor the b liev ptio l d ension ( ble 11) In tt --ting to explain th itf r nc in r sponse fo t tru -le s di en ion but not in the b lievin -sk p tic 1 di en io, on i ht ostul te th t this clif erenc 1a el t d to sible d vi tion int e instruction Tb tis, the cl sroo lecture itu t1on th t t ct nd or e ily rt ined ao th t thy thu, sho in u on th truel or ace a 1 le r less di nsion but t t tl1is : ma t ri l s ot int rn liz d to ny rcater ext nt th n by t ... t l vi ion ::-ou herefor th re in the de r of ch nge ch ne or tr sa, it e unintent1on l on the instructor ize th t o lectur Ho eYer the instructor w r of n c asroo itu tion. hie waa entioned in the proc dure hen t bet ee the to l cture ituat ons rence in ti discussed

PAGE 66

D1men ion True ean1n ul eli Ye Total 60 t 2,0 (II) 3 36 (II) l sa than one 2 46 (II) p l se than 025 1 a than oos .02 1.13 1 0) 1 06 --------~---------------------------------------------~-,. ithout 22 ?rue Bell ve Tot l 2.02 (II) ).44 (II) lea than on le a than 02s les th n .005 .os 1 16 1 19 1 14 lt c n not be definlt ly t ted th t tis a the cau e tor the di fer nee b t nth to roup. ather 1t pr sents th u t1on, y did ...._.y cl i tfer nc t bet en t e to rouu~, or, 1 re ent, why di it favor the c ~ eroo .a.g ctur r th r than the te ev1 ion 1 ctur h n other~-~ rch cop r1n th two

PAGE 67

61 methods nt tion r veld 1th r no di erence or a di fere ce 1n f vor of t el vision. In considerin this u ation, it i n cess ry to r~T er o t di eu s ion 1n Ch pt r of th v riou r cu sion it tntrso r n o t used Conaid r 1;i n be giv nth o ib111ty th _ "true roo lecture i tu t1on ut1li in ll d with t l vi on, t dv re ttributed o t l 1 ion, 1. t,1 clo eup of ch rte ont ro t ar ottroo st t d in ttitu .... .,,. l n b hav1or in 1nr,mta fro zero d y to one ye e r nee igni.fic ntly reater chg&'- t=. in tti ud and li rs th nth t l v ion roup In r vi.. in the r ult or Lll ""'rt II of th ttes t.,

PAGE 68

62 bet en th two ~oup, th i g nicance of the d i fer nc ost-t at cont in en particular l ctur c thy att nded and to th terial p resent d ( ppendixe I nd VIl) A ch o 1c of n er provided in thirteen of the que tions htl thre ere 8 uestion on 0 p o t-test II a ked the ubj cts to or 1 cture on tiv p o nt sc le r fro v ry good thro~h very oor. T ble 12 aho r sult. r enty-four indi~i uals re p r __ r cent o th tel vi ion rou rat d the p rom.ram s very ni ety-three good hil t nty-tive in d i id\40 1 reprea~" l bou ht l ctur Grou Le cture Grou l. Very Good. 2. Good 1r. Poor o. o 24 9 2 0 69 2S 06 00 5. Very oor 0 00 2s 2 0 0 0 93 07 00 00 00 itference t p 2.61 2.os 1.so 01 .02s

PAGE 69

6) as very ood 1 ividuals r pre enti ... "8 t enty f v per c ent of the t l vision group r ted th good hile two 1ndividu ls pr entin s v n er c nt othe lectur group r tad their l cture ood Two individu l a entin ix er c nt of th t ~oup r ted the ;)r o a ae fir ratio fort s-r ~ .. ific nee ot the di erenc in perce11t a c put d for very ood, ood nd t ir r ti ....... s. h ranee in ercenta._. obtained tor the very i~11fi c nt t th 01 level of confid nc he di erence obt i ed for the 1 nific nt t th 025 level or con ence ..... 1le th difference o t in d t ....... r 1r r tin QQ not igni c nt be lJ h w~ the re ults o qu tion to hie qu et1on a k d hether or not the 1nd1vidu la uld be 1ntere t din th co ~ pl te ri I n t rested in eries: TV G r oup Le c ture O r o u p 1. 2 ould b ould not o 8 9 1 03 26 01 96 04

PAGE 70

of the t levision ;rr oup nd ninety-six r cent of the lecture group st ted ~ht t ey ould b interest din h~Qrin th entire r.1.es hr e per c nt of the television roup and our pr cent or th leotur group sta ed thy would not be 1 terested nth r et of the series. hon in fabl 14, enty-tour per c~~t of the televi ion grou and ixty-thr pr c nt or the 1 cture roup beli Ye thy h oul e nterested in uch cent of th t levi ion roup rie. -~ t irty-seven r c nt of th lecture -oup d d not believ t--Y h d 1nd1vldu 1 in ries. h remainin thre uar cent 1 0f th t 1 Yision roup r .. ported they did not kno hether or not ther re ny interested parti in th ir n 1~.borhood he di r rences in the percent ge bet een th t b significant. d1d not rove to Have people in neifdl boo~ int r st in f:" Gr9u2 C ,L~ ct~i: G!;?~E 1f rence I 1 . Do 2 . Do not 26 08 Don't know 01 74 2) 03 17 10 00 63 31 00 El 111& II t I 5 p S I I 1 19

PAGE 71

6S ei eventy sev n er cent of th t levi ion roup and per cent or the l cture group t t d th y h d trlend who should receive this infor tion (T ble 15) ile t enty per cent of th t lev1 ion ro p nd n nete n per cent of the lecture group d not h ve friend o hould rec ive eu c h inrorLUQtion Three per c nt of the televi ion roup or on indiv i dual did not answer t Ha v e riend honed thi into~ tion Do 2 .. Do n o t 27 07 15 77 20 0) que tion o 22 OS 00 Sl 19 00 h group were asked h ther or not they ould liat n 1 c hildren ere pr e nted over r dio irty seven per cent ot the t l vi i n roup c.wd ityix ... ~r cent or the lecture roup st t d tb t th y ould listen if th "'c:1.terial wer pres nted on r dio T irty-e ven per c nt or the television Jlf'oup nd forty-tour r cent or t 1 cture roup t te they ould not lf t ere presented on r dio To individuals in th t l Yi ion group re resenting six

PAGE 72

66 pe~ c nt, did ot ns er th question [ T ble 16) ist n 1 on r dio: TV Grou Grou ---o o 1 ould 20 57 l~ S6 -.. ., .. ,. ,, ., 2 ould not 13 )7 12 .. .. .. ; o an er 02 06 00 00 .. .. .. l1e n concern d lt thi pr ant a better, ell, or I b pr sented etter on r dio ( ble 17) or twenty-th...ae er cont of the televs1on rou tl1ou 7 ht it could be pr ent d s oll 1 2 Bett r As well 00 08 J ot aa ell. 27 T 00 23 77 00 01 26 00 04 01 96 2 35 01

PAGE 73

67 b lie ed t could ru::1 lecture. Thie differ. nc s 11 on r~u1o e by DW'l1ficant t b tter thau th .01 l v l of confid nee. T ntyv n individw le or ventyven pr cent of th t lev1 ion group nd t nty-six indlvidu l or ninetyix r cent or the lect~ group ellev d ~hi pre ented e11 on r io rticul r etl1od of r s nt t1on thy had att nd d level ot conf1d nc ai-ifio nt di r nc t th .01 obtained. L IJ llf'II en e ed tmeth r t hi teri l could b pres nt d b tt r, a 11, or not a ll in a boo six per cent ot th t levisio op t ted it could nte
PAGE 74

66 e ented in book T Grou Lecture Grou l 2 ) o o B tter 02 ell 20 ot as ell 13 06 f7 37 02 10 1.5 07 31 56 1 0 1 s1 1he t levi t n oup e -=t r th1 t ri l be pres nt db tte r ell or not ell in a l ctur s::-ie il th l etur group r'lc~ sk d 1 t 1 teri l coul d pr e ent d ett r, s ell r not 11 ov rt l Yi ion h r u t r ho in l 1 9 in r cent of th t l ision f!.r'OUp flt the teri 1 could be pr nted et .. ~r lectur el v n pr c tor th 1 cture group felt it could pr ente d better on t l Yi ion enc ~ant Di ic._.t. nr c nt of th tel v ion -oup st t d it coul e pr es nted a ~~11, n d thirty-one p er c nt t t d it cou~d not b pres nt d s ll in a 1 ctur RAri E 1 ty-iv p er c t of th l ctur 1 S'OUP t t d thta wet ri l could b pres nted ~ 4 ,ell on tel -vi ~.on d only tour pe r cent, epres ntin on in ividual, lt th .. J,-teri l could not be r ented ag ll on tel vi on in r gular lecture

PAGE 75

series hes di r nc .oo~ levels of confidence. 69 e r e 1-1r1 c nt t th 025 19 UESTIO 10 ( ) L cture Group Lecture Group Difference 1 3 { b) a b o o ett 0) 09 0.3 6o 23 s ell 21 ot s ell 11 . ).I 01 t p 11 26 S 2 )1 02s 3 10 oup hich would att nd cture s rie on speech nd l n ua~~ d velonent in th reschool c 11d. Tenty six per c nt ot the 20 ttend l cture s r1ea oi;o~,, 1ct~e o No ; 1 y 09 26 08 30 34 "' 2 So e 06 11 10 37 1 7 .os 3 o 11 .31 00 00 3 97 ooos 09 26 09 3) 60

PAGE 76

70 television group report they uld ttend uoh a .ri a of l ctur s, nte n '1Qr cent r po rted thy ould attend ome of the lecture, thirty-one pr cent re ort d they would not atten, -.u.d t enty-six per c nt re orted they did not kno whether thy would attend al cture eris on this ubject In the lecture r:-,.oup, thirty per cent in c t I thy ould ttend uch lee ure seri a t irty-sev n per cent said thy wo 1a tt nd o e of the l otur s nd thirtr-t ree pr c ht s id thy d id not no hether thy ould ttend any or th l. etures The difference t een the to rou p for tho indlvidu l r por tin they ould not attend lectur ari s was i ific nt at better th n the 0005 level of contid nee 1 n ficant diff r nc t the 05 level ot confid nc as obt for tho e individuals r porti.u~ they ul d attend some of the lecture lhen eked ~hether s ri oft leviaion pro r s nt should be pr anted over UHT ninety four p er cent of the televi ion :i:-oup and one hundr d per cent of the l cture group r sponde ln the ftir ative he result ot this que tion are in icated in Tabl 21 igbty-nine pr cent ot the televi ion roup nd nin ty-six per c nt of th l cture roup tat d they would watch the eries if it u~r e r nt d (Table 22)

PAGE 77

rt on 1. eel. 71 )3 2. D o not teel 02 22 94 06 atch th eri a: TV Grou l. 2. .. ould 1 ould not o. )1 04 11 n I 27 00 ectur o. 26 01 100 00 96 04 tll y ould ook on this ubj ct, int r d d twenty er cent a book. i hty-on ould not 1 ter ted n r 0 nding ucb u~r c nt of th l cture rou p tated they would and nineteen per cent tated thy uld not be il thy ould tcb book on thia subj ct ( 1 bl 23) c are nta g of both group in ic ted el vi ions ri ad vot d to S n Mech nd ent in th p reschool child, eith r roup

PAGE 78

72 STIO 14 Inter sted in book l 2 1 o\lld . 28 ould not 07 1ndic t 4th y er nt,r t din 80 20 22 05 81 19 1n t l vision c o rs on t hi ubject s in ic tea in abl 24 thirty-on per cent of th t 1 vi ion group nd thirty-three per cent of the l cture m~nup indo ted they would enroll in uch a telecourse wh1l sixty-nine per ce n t of th tel vision J?r ,o up a.ud aixty~s v n per cent of the l cture roup st a t d thy ould not nroll 1 at l cour s e on thi ubj ct n ter st in tel cour e: ii o~ Qz:o,,, .L~!';'~--9r~ul! l 2 ould ould not 11 24 31 69 09 16 .33 67 T o revie the findin s for P rt II of th o t-t t, ~ Aou pa t ought their p~ ticul r p re n the jority ot bot tation ood o rb t t r ei nific~~tly re ter

PAGE 79

73 a V ry d Th 00 n t endriea. th1 tntor ation. ore th n r ty er c nt 0 at ri l r pr ent d ov r radio. r per cent of th lectur ~~oup th n tel vision group beli v d t 1s teri l could or er 11 in son tel v sion, ore tan fifty per c nt of the l ctur roup di d not b 11 v it coul d e pre ent oo s by lectur. ixty-n1ne per cent oft t 1 6 -i ion group believ d the teri l could b resented a ~~11 or better in l cture eris hile could be ented e ll orb tter on tel vi ion. 0005 l vel of con d nee entyix per cent of th tel vi ion oup uid thirty pr cent of the l cture grou 1nd1c t d thy ould attend l cture erie devoted tot i ubj ct ow ver, the difference bet een th to roups or toe re orting they ould not tten d lecture series ..

PAGE 80

74 b tt r tb-... th 00 5 level of c nfid nc i nific nt ditr r nee t th os l v l of con id nc tor thos reportin they ould ttend o e of the l cture Bot group mer hi hly intereet din vin a e rlM~ on p ch nd lan wc::t~"d v lo HA d ov r the f c litie ot UHT nd hi ; ~ percent g fro both ~-oup tndic t d thy -uld tch the s r.ies it it er pr ~~nt d oth group lo indict d h y ould b int r~Qt din re di.~ boo on ti ub3 ct bu~ n i hr rou int re ted 1 in nroll n in l courgQ devoted to pe oh cu-,d rowth. u ations thre four, nd 1 en on II of the post t st er O nnd qu tions n-Y wAr concern th hat ~g liKad or di 11 e bout th p ro or l cture s ell as h th .ud viduoul4 ,~nt includ din eri ble 2S indie t th rRnpo to thee que tione Int l vi on ~oup, t enty-nine dt idu l or our c nt of' th oup ra-red q11 tion thr 1xt~ n ndi du l, or fort six r c nt tw er d qu~atlon four d t nty-t r per ons, or 1 ty-a1x pr cent, ane rd question sixte n only four indi idu l or l v n p r cent of the roup an red both ue tiona th r ua Q.td four in pr on or t~ 6 nty iX pr c n r"... qu t1on thrAA d er on

PAGE 81

?f> rd ll thr e qu~ ~tion. nty p r cent, f t nty-nin per cent, or t entyix pr c nt, ns red qu t1on sl.xt n. Onl y thre id vidu la, r pr ntin l v n er cent o the b,A oup. n w red ue tion thr ixt th il ns er d q u stion 16 3 4 3 16 ), 4, 16 l, or 29 16 23 04 09 12 Oro 46 66 11 26 34 nd en pr c nt, f 19 70 08 29 07 26 0) 11 03 11 01+ 15 I

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76 the television program are speech development pattern 1 charts, p~osentation, everything, and clarity The lecture group listed charts, preparation, organization) parents role in tl1e child's acquioition o-P npcech, speecl1 development pattern and clarity S1x individuals in the television group 11sted some phase or the material presented oo the one thing they disliked about the progre~m These responses var i ed '\'11th several 1ndivid1_ials stating they ,-1ere not interested in the particular ~GO level presented and they believed mate~1al relating to the t,10 year old and above ,-,ould be more 1ntoreot1ng T,-ro individuals qi1est1oned the a.uthent:toi ty of some or tl1e stv,.temonts and one 1vroman ,-,rote that from her experience as a mother she knew that children dld not begin to spoak until tl1ey t1e:re e1g11t~en months of age Four individuals believed the progl"~m was a little t o o long Only a f e,1 members of the lecture group responded to tl11s question Ho 1 revcr three ,rrote they could find no c1-.1t:tc1am ,r1th the lecture Q ueotion sixteen brousht forth a va~iety of responses \.tilth requests for 1:nformation pertaining to spee c h d 1 ffi cult1ea appearing most frequently for both groups Seven teon 1nd1v1duo.la from the television 6roup and nine indi v i d ual s fro m the lec tur e g rou p co mp r i oi ng :ro r t y -t \tr o per cont or both groups asked for 1nforma.t1on on onset catto e, recognition, and sources of help for speech difficulties

PAGE 83

Liked l Ch rt 2 Le ngth 3 77 5 rep r tlon or,u.ani tion 6 S timul ti inter ting 1nf or .. ,.=ti ve 1 He rin 1>a1 ente' role 8 Sp eech develome11t 10 Ter inology 11 12 Nothing l) Cl rity 14, Pe rcentage lS Re cording 16 ctual not resent d TV 10 l 0 10 2 0 0 ll l 2 8 0 8 l 1 2 Lecture 11 1 1 1 3 s 3 s 2 0 0 4 0 l

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78 Di liked 1 No question ans r p riod 2 L ck of d t il ,~ Too ucb det 11 4 i 1 present d 5 Ch rt too ma 6 Charts not enough 7 Lenfff--h too loo 6 en,..h too abort 9 T """'inology 10 Pre ntnion 11 TV 0 l 0 6 l 0 0 l 1 0 2 13 L cks v ri ty in visual t ri l 2 ll. Too uch r petition 15 Dra l l S1x emb r of the tel vi ion ;:xeo up lso correctives ec e ercises Lecture 2 l 0 l 0 0 l l 0 0 0 ) 0 0 0 d tor In co oaring th re p oneea of the t E~oups, it ls interest1n to note th t many ore other ho tt nd d th

PAGE 85

79 2S ant in eriee l Guidance o your child through p ch develop ent 2, Guid nee of older child thro b 0 pe ch develo ent 0 3, pe ch lf icultie onset, c use help reco nition 4 o to ndle di ci lin nd e otlon l roble s L ear in 6 4ult =: ch o d el other than p rente 1. outh structure 8 Continued bl-owth p ttern 9 ro 2 to 6 ye rs 10 Suppl_ .... entQ.A 11 . ilingu li...,au 12. honic 1) p ech ex rci s (ther py aech ~ p rov m exts) lit, on't know 15 Vocabul ry tor reechool c ild l.6 Bmotlonal gro h nd p ch d velo nt 17 0 0 0 1 1 2 l l 6 l Lecture l l 9 2 l 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 l 0 0 0 I

PAGE 86

nt n erle 17 Intluence ot older ch11 ren 16 rents' role in speech d velopm t 19 Other to~ of co un1c tion 20 noour in book r inategw of TV telev:i ion present tion requeat,e TV l 2 l Lectur 0 0 0 0 ecif1c type ot inforation than did tho e ho attended ~he lectur pre ent tion Thie etro ly au et th t th te vi ion pr s nt tton rou ad gre ter intere tin th oth r tho did the lecture pr eentation

PAGE 87

IV """"ary he purpo ot this study w to cop r th re ult de on th b ai of pres nt tion audi n c c c eptan c inter. s of evaluat d th l ctr subj ct follo in receipt of th 1nforw~t1on It the hope or th inv ti ator th t ro th1 co ~ained rel t1ve to n er ool children deY lop ent hich 1 ht serve s reventiv ure in th d v lop ent of tu ctional p ech e ct bet e n t ese two methods of resent tion. 1oup or ot er or pre chool childr n w s invited to co e to th University of Houston c pus to partioip te in th ... ~nt. -two others appe re t ntyeven tt nd d th cl ro 81

PAGE 88

82 lecture while t hir t y -.f'iTe vie1ed t e televi ion lecture throu h the f ciliti s of UHT the educat1o~.el television st t1on o the Univer ity of H ouston. The instructor 1 a the sa,e for both l ctur a. Th two groups were well tched tor age, du e tion, ocio -econo ic level, and the n YMlb r of c hildren in the fw.uily one reachool child. oth :--oups of moth rs ere iven h inetru ent b fore nd fter he rin th lectur. sec nd dmini t r d to th other iollo i the lecture. a...&.U tion or the type tlon ell s co pcuis n of this n of pr se tation -'tb other thod and wcdi The results fro the te ta er t bul ted nd a d of th d ,tar c iv d fro th pre-te t nd ~ ~rt I of the pot-test q u lit tive or t he post -t es t herever indicted, 't' r tio for the si nific nc or the dif! r nc ae co put d. In ttin p thi e periment, t ... inv st ... J!..Qtor or rigid st of cont rols than 1.1.a1d een us d in pre v1 oua re arch studies i d t co pariuN th use of tel vi ion nd other edi in dult eduction. Ther ore, it 1 th investigator's o pinion th t th result or tis tudJ &UQ1 pre ent or ccur te

PAGE 89

picture ot th eduction l value of televi ion~ Conclu ions l. h n a cop rison of --oup v ri bl there rd to b llttl or no el nific nt dif r nc l1 refore, the ss..tmption c n be pu t forth that th two a p lea r dr wn fro th oup 2. e n hr ror it c n be ss .... .... d th t th two r this ubj ct prior to ivi in th lectur post-te t, at the 02 lev l of c onf' id nc ith it m t elude t t .OS level or confi ne 1th ite or the not d tw nty two o m itted with group II havin th lar er en hereCore it c th t the rou p rec iv cl seroo itu tion d onstr ted in ttit d nd

PAGE 90

4 tel v sion. nd fter te t re ult for differ nc of the ens t b tter than th 0001 level of confidence f s obt lned both roups her fore, it c n b t ted th t ile th lecture oup dt.:r m on tra t d a both in ttitudes and 11 r to~ Hrd t e ubject the info u=tion betor te t er co ared y ev 11 tive 1Lil~n ion. no a nic nt differ nee w s found t n th t o group for c;r..a .. y or th di ens one bus furth r u port to ~ou s r qually in th u ject of red to th c onclu ion th t the ed for ttitud nd beliefs rior tote l cture 6 hen cop riso re by ev lu tiv n sion tor art I of th in r vor or ;::aoup I noted t bett r th n the 025 1 val of corif d nee for the tru -t l di~~naion and at better th n the .005 l v l of confidenc _._n ful e nin i ss di en ion if'.fer nc

PAGE 91

O\ ever, it ossiol evi tion n n tr ction. e u1red ore re dily bu re t levialon B l ck ot the t o grou p s on t b li vin e tic 1 no re tr intern a.t.1aa t1on ot t ri l n 0 p h erefore, ould b qu 1 It v .. f ct 0 th lectur opinion or t e it rt t furth r r e cor..auct in this rea. 1. ore than nt ety per cent o both roups aid th l ctur s :rood or t er GU6d th y er inter tea in ri son this ubj ct 8 ore than s xty nP.r c nt of both SA'oup t t d o hood ho ould b interested in eit er lectur or t l~ni ion eris on th1 subj ct

PAGE 92

6 ev nty ev n r c nt t the t 1 vision group nd ei hty-on r cent or th lectur thy ould 11 t n to s rie on tbi the lecture group t t d th t thi mt ri 1 could ot ns of r dio 10 ndic t d they ould b int r ted 1n e dln subjects b 11 v d t 1 ter1al could be pr ent d better 1 boo tor. c ent of th el vi ion rou nd thirtye n p cent or th ctur roup indic ted th t t e t ri l c ould b pres nted ell ln book hi ren c did not prove to be 1 nific nt 1 1 ixty-nin nAr c nt of the t 1 vi ion group indicted thet tne orb tter in a clas roo lecture er1 only t ntyix pr cents id they ould tt nd 11 oft .. nd nteen per cent ald h y oul tt nd so of th t t d

PAGE 93

87 the w~ter,i l coul b pr nted 11 or ~~tter ov r t l vi ion Thirtyev n per c nt of thi roup s d they ould tt nd eo.u~ of th lectures it 1 cture ri a were ,iven hil t irty p r c 11t indicated they uld tt nd t~ ntire aeries 12 lthough eic:,r-ty nine pr c nt of th t 1 vi ion roup Q' nin ty-six er c nt of he l ctur roup e id thy ould watch t l vi ions ri a on this subject only thirty-one to th rty three r c nt ot th ubj eta ere inter std in enrollin in a tel cour on ape ch nd e ro th of childr n l) :r.roup inlet d t -t t .. ~y speci lly liked the ch:= ich us d visu 1 id al o 11 d th pr sent tion, cl rity 1 and eech develo ent 1 p tt rn, nd th parent t rol in tl\e ch1l c ui it ion of :::eech h criticism of tne caiu ::.as 1 wainly dlr c ed tonurd th rticul r a e level pr anted S v r l oth ra cai.id they r or concern d with th t o to fiv y r -ucriod 14 ation p rt w.uber oft e th rs ked tor infor pe c difficulti They r qu sted inforiwation on on et c use recogiiiton ad er to rec ive h lp So e ked for pee fie eech x rci s ich could b u din th ho h requests for e ch

PAGE 94

88 spe ch corr cti on toe ttendin tne t th t intere ti the other th n dld the lectur nt tion. p lie tion to r ntiv p ech Gorr ct1 h r of thi u y t nd to support th hypothe 1 th t f cte on ech and 1 ~-roo lectur th n h n thi n l cture form on t l vi --on ev r, o th t 1 vi ion d c l asroo lectur provid h j ct. no diff r nc b t e the to thod of p res nt tion int rs of th rn liz tion or cc p t nc of tu~ ot rul out t ducation in the ar a of p ech n l n 0 The tr endous udienc th illin ea of the other to vie lectur aerie t nds to off~~t thi lfferenc It o

PAGE 95

89 howpver. th t further tudy hould be conducted in_.. atte p t to deter ine wny t1is diCf rence xi t d

PAGE 96

l. your t tio e~-r r nt t l co r in vu i l ot ch rr ctlo ? et!,.,........,.. o....,....,. I ov 1 0 d lecour e? ___ ..... cour a r..u' ......... ... --; &11 $~ z __ ,,_, ......... ..,E.1SpiS~J~ ..,ut, tion ~~----~ ~ ~ YJ Col1ee~e 0 r n -: ... .......... I roll.ed? ...... ....... ----------------Did th t l on1 cl de ~ ~l on ch u Ler..~ -~ nent l ool Child? ........... ..._ o_,_ ___ r to ov 1 o 1 ctr to tl i ty of t ri l? ...,..._...,....,...........,___, ........ _.......,.......,...,._.....,......., n urv y e rel t ,,..no to th --e .... of t 1 eou e thod f r nt_ tb 8 0 .. ,.. ...-0 ,t2U emuar cl Baro~'"' r entl t tert~ i lt"'Qtl n? o ....,....,......,,... 2. t your aU
PAGE 97

91 n r _________ ........ ~-------~ ri eluue ... Qteri ........... .., on p c au\.& ... ~~E>l~Klfi e u sve o nt in the r cbo l C 114? es_,.._....,... o....,. .............. ._ f 1 .:ua r to ~~~ is t .o re to bl y ot 1 ll>Qt r:Lali.....,.. ___ _._..,_...,..........,. .... __....,.. ________ we rantd vey lllU\&8 ff cti ene so t ~arie t _ 1 C :N&:t&&! a if ~=s r to bove 1 s le en rl to ti din,~ o aurv y. rl ex er i: nt l _._...,ign

PAGE 98

.,;;;,.;.; ....... .,;,; ....... 2 1 gt\.~ 1 ............................. ro ~ am l Child s rl son ecb n nt ln t r c hool Chll4 ntgn t _.RJ .... rl!iLm --title resent th first he ir t o d Your l atr ctor le Lt zqrak Wltd I PUB I 10 7 5 F 1 g PI l 1natitut on 0 1 00 C n int l Rt::;,....... e d V 10 ~1.&unt, it i th t e our tr a. 92

PAGE 99

c1a1n 1 1 Obar, # 2 9) I angqa g e 1 err tora or e01111unicatlo11 1D wbiob thought and reeltn1 are 8Jllbol lsed. That ie th wri\ten, P taolal, gesture pan\oalne, anda1 't. rona. Speeeb 1 one Iona ot lQlll&I ill whlob epoken qabola, tb111 aouda or wrda, are ueed to conwer tho&h' M any people belieTe that language and abllitl are llaet1netl la aetve. rial l far frOII tnae. 11 tb lntant naturally tr eittiq to arawlln1,naadta1 ad finally I walking, be doe no, prolJ' troa crrlaa ,o babbling to \alkiq wltbo& ancl help. In other wont a child la talllbt to talk aJMI in taa,ane, hl parent are UntonunatelJ, it ti. are not gool teaobera tbe chl14 uy beoo.1 a cripple. IU"Yeye or chlldr1n la publle ac~oola abow that aa aaa, aa lS ot tbe ehlldrea .troa kinder111t.e11 t,o 4th grade lane riouly deteo~i apeeoh and 4 to 5ot th obtldrea bot' tba 4,tll p-a4 Jaave

PAGE 100

94 1>eech d f iculty v re enoll&l to requir r all or t =: ech d f 1cul i in such u ct nd n lie i c ~JBu ch rve oundat on u jct. ut ori 1 a in taan sp ch correction tu~ ,.~ o t of the funct101,ul .. 0 c pr-o le .... .., in our sc oole Ca;:. b trac db C t th flr t f y r c ild' 11t. -.. utboritle f you ""ent , _.. .. d n o t " t ....... cg~ 1t th o r, 1 nc:u t to yo r ~ad ur you do, to d velop nor~~l ~ -ec, you u t lfflVe o e WAr t ..... diti of th w y n r.e oh d v lo h n t e orn inf ~~t i f the world ot his Q,I l ith lu ty cry, 1 "*'!:lY, n o _ ..... e t ir to or tbre of hie exi nee, i ocalia tion ou::d th .... no ..._ ... t r b t t ltu t1on. h1a

PAGE 101

9S co pl t 1 to th r you w r to r--trict his ho f ctivity, you oul 1 o lea cryi cried v ey li tle h ir 0 ti ~.t J 011nc! 0 2nd or )r o your child's life, th orld __ in to t on so e fo:~ he th voe l r cry. :l i the re lt o cert ln uscul r contr c tions 1n th towaCh 11, t e 8 r cco nie y tn th 0 oth r uecles tn h dy, includin

PAGE 102

the eo lt 1 nd di co ni the er t not t :t ln h retore i h t n tu~n till et tt ntion fro C?7in a th c lid dev lo ot r o .. old 111 Let u t k tJP ic l child 1 a.a.a is t h nth child i bout 8 or 12 8 he o, oun h child h

PAGE 103

97 found th t to h r but 1 114,l\;iainly to feel her or th ls coo a oc1at :th ound th ocal. 1 port nt tQ~ int e d v lo ent of ep ech nd l ...... ., ca ~ ... 11 d oabblin l st n o t ereon for ot th child s th child d v lo s or bi own vice b lo S p ca1ln voic of nother le in th of d velo nt, the c 114 ill roduc ore oun -th n ar avail bl n th l h all could kin Cbineee, you ,re h re nit order or h t cquirin ounda butte c h"'-ee r th t e ill o uce vo l uch ounde aet h' tee, 'oh, 1.

PAGE 104

'ooo, etc. T-,,.. p ob bly be h r first tb 'b' th n the 't', sounds, th i rt cul tion h 1 lem-n '"{:i to ani ul t hi to produ c soWl hich be ill n e l tr on. n the e rily t_t. .., s o a blin your uuby noi ily uck, clue a and coo to sho how cont nt d h 1 lif his o~al ct vity is Inly ~a nd S\1allo nd th th re of th OU d he re r fined u d r l nd ounds it h arin e e 11 th r p tit1on 0 h ar ound Chart # 5 h third or tourt onth of the

PAGE 105

ecording ot 1ntant 99 hlld' 11. verly or t p th rly ound ~d ink into hi ilent orld eoaus he c nnot timul t h-throu hie be rin echanis. The early comfort sound, th clucks, coos nd gurgle, still remain durin Dalt of th l. llin p rlod. It rou watch 7our child closely en h 1 thie new vocal p ly, you will find th~ so eti sh r p ts his yll ble 1n whisper, other tie he b bbles loudly, so m eti e h ys t em with ide eyed ariousne sand at other ti es 11th a amlle of delight. How ver, his repetitive eeeoee1 la, la, l y, eeiiis' are hi to enjoy in p rivate nd ny I interruption ill stop the f low 0 ounds. lnce h n eds these sounds. n eds th1e pr1v t pr ctice in ord r to l y founda tion for later pea ch d velo ent, don't

PAGE 106

Ch rt 100 rush 1 nd int rrupt mu t, but o ot t p rt o chi14 C-. rld o d ult v r UQ_.l con u lon 1. agine ho th po :1.tion OU e it wn you ~oul f l l ort butt ln on brid~e t bl conv rs tion Don't exp ct our child to cop te th your ov r v r aliz tions s n dul t, you re too loud too tal--tive enjoy it id 1 by rel ood sot t be c a xpr hie content ent in v rb l l y e c nnot cry nd e ti e nd b bbli 1 o uc better tor ht ids b bli. and l llin re lot nicer to 11 ten to ng th c 1ld p s e i to hl e c ond six onth period you will notic t nat l ound b c o cl a.rer nd 1110r pronounc d nd onths he be in to vo c alize in 1

PAGE 107

101 'd ' l ,' and ayll bles, such such bl yll btc o nda s' a on't ff~t too xclt d if he 'dad 1 y ,' i not c lling you, it l till just aoun it, .. ... ut o ning o v r b e i makin n i port nt t p fort-rd for up 'till no h h s en bl to wcue a sound, 4 e r it and re p e tit ut b ha b en un ble tor pe at ound c u d to h by nother p r on t out 9 ontb ot lr t le is ble to re n to the 11 l po rtent et p .r onrard nd to is nQw no-no' econd, h ie able to 1 t te unds pre. s nte to h.e.w t l t your ol a r ntt ch r eco es mo t.:a.i one ot ettin t h e t -A for voe l pl Y ow you too can enter into the a e or th child i ready o m it te th o nds in bi enviro ~~t f c 11 this at echol lia t fir t the chil d xp ri e ts 1th th ounds h r co gni 1:uni::t, tbos ounda '>fflich he de h.u. uo lf durl g the l llin g a nd b b lin t e oon he look to greener field nd i the ood s

PAGE 108

102 t 11 tt pt ni to~.-uu 't i ter you l c for h.. It s ort nt tor you to n er nto thi voe l ply with your child to in th1 --nn r y u ar ftnuri hi f o p~~ch t you nter in o tis voe l 1 y, nt r 1 to it t your child' lev 1 not n oY re rin ult Don 1 t u~ bar h1 ~th ord nd ounds ( Jut pr ""' -t th sound~ in emon tr t) i ple s rou end your child l y to ther ith ound you ill in to notic th t be is copyi.--& not jut your ounds but t rhythm and lnton tion patt n of your peech H 11 question you (bub, bub, bub-bub), co and you (d bad I) or co pl in (ee, dab dee l). Thi i in l th the on will b n~ying h1 -st ord. for w di cus tbi i'ir t ord., l ~s ob c nd t l a little about your c ild' co preh n ion , hi und rtW1di or langu -e In th e rly inTOlY S

PAGE 109

103 g ture, r cl l xpr esion, otlon l o to th ,oic fe ord. He und rat~ds p ech lon b tor h I s it. In r ct, throu hot hi 11.f, ts ability to com re end ill exc d 1 ion cri lf. Co pr h n your inf nt i!;AW you t nd your hes ile in an wer to your de on tr tion o lo'7'-" Oo preh n ion 1 lo th r :hen you ecold hi ln rough or cross ton of voice. H do a not underat-nd th ord but n e o ethin is wron fro the xpr ion on your f c, the ton or your oice n yottr estur~ 0 ...... ,d nner 1n handl1n h He le rn ld of sounds nd vi ion. He kno tha c rtain thing~ repJ-ARlent le eur nd oth r thins~ r eent lac of ple ure. At about nin onth h 1 arn tor pond to th ver l co mHnd no. no. oweTer, pl,&,6 nt ehould

PAGE 110

Ch rt 104 cco p ny or r intorce v rb 1 communica tion th estur for th fir t toyer Int ct. the arly co and hlch your chil d res po nd to (no, no, lie do et o or etc.) prob bl are un ore tro the acco p any1a a n ~ ture than fro t rd.a. ( D monstr t adults tend tor ly on esture in co p rehendin. :am p l, if say; 'e ( h in he d no t t'l\ ,Q.L o ti ) do you re pond to h ord or th sh in o t e heud? If you nt o exper4'Uunt to l portY4,.t _.._ stur and voe l ton in or your child, y to bl tone you us for col i:: uud ocom p nyin e turee, ~ QWa lov a her uQbylff nd ac if reacts to the worda of love or to th tbr t nin ton of your voice rour gestur. T fir~ ord which your child un er tande ly re. et, 'byeby t b th' d u.a.c:a n 'd -d 1 1 bis un er t ndin 1 ot e dulte it. 1 c ild o not a oct te

PAGE 111

C O IO chin Child to lk) ictur r oth r Child 10; the or with ot v ty, object or p ron, ut r th r dt t t f bin oart or the contu ed orld o.t 1gnt, sounds, to c, ~~ ~ta nd f lin Toh lp yo~ c 11d underst nd, 11 it your t lk1n se word or hort phr s r pat dover nd over ain Q.ud ooiated 1th t proper tb:em th ir I h ve ref rr d reviou ly sit nc ucc d din int r corded Her is record d : in b nutt ry 0 ~ o'"n oth rt v 1c or an hour J 2 ., (;h1ng t,1hil,, 2 ~o .. ~ 111 !~) ir re you or t t ? f ao, tey and re e ber, aln l or or hort phr sea aa t the r, pr ctivity. It ort nt to I

PAGE 112

Chart 106 any for o co unic tion 1n this pr peech p rlod oth r th ceyin? Very de initely, he hash d which h h us d v ry ef ctiv ly and hlch lett no doubt in the parent' mind uniearly loJC&bJbood 1 elude pushing the ni pl from th outh with the tongt1e, turntn th head fro th n1 ple or llodn t e 11 to run out ot th outb all of blcb ow th t th b by is not hungry. milin and holdiu out th ar s lndic t that baby nt to be picked up Squlr in w1g~1n an crying durin dr ssln and nath1ng aho th t the oaby r nte the r tr1ctions to t1:ls ctlvitiea. fore we disou your child' cqulaition of tru pe ch, l t ere in you that lle e have di cu aed s eech d v lopment inter e of st ges, thes ta es overlap and ar not complete elves. chol 11a or i ita tion and even l llin continue lon ft r

PAGE 113

107 T fir .. will 1th r ord e On...-n your chi.id yll l (d } or duplic t yll bl1:s:o {maa) appe r : u~t e n 10-12 0 t 8 r onth Girl on t on tot o o th '1111 c ui1 .. e or-y rli r th n oys yll bl p e c h' th echol 11 ' c hi ld' r action tot ound or sounds them to de pecific obj ct. In other ors, th child has or del1ber t ly d pur ORA ully 1th the int ntion of xerti a e-~ur control o er hi nv~ronment P rh p 1 r fer to llport th ir first d

PAGE 114

106 Th child ti ulate h.w1,o-lt tor pet syll le y h-"rin it In ot h er ord he i in the l llin ta ~~ dw...t who prone, c the same sylla l sti ul t the ch il nd he T",;;;, t the yll blet h 1 itation or chol 11 c he child SRP.8 t ob j ct t the a tie th t so eon ronounce th ayll bl n sti --1 ts th c h ild to re -Ht t yllabl thu tti th child to as oei te th yll ble 1th the ound D. T .. chil d a s the object hicb ti ult t chil to produce t e syll ble n s id 1 r t 1 or b net t ta hen t the lthout obj ct b 1ng pr ent. hie sin l word ay h v v riety of en 'where 1s th doll't 'I want t e doll', or pick-~ doll up ott the floor' Th inf t' fir t ord ill not co e p to dult t nd rd b t thy re ~""anln i\tl to ht nd l!!: ener lly to the

PAGE 115

109 hen child fir t t ke rent are elat d. They ct t p, hi if' thi s the greate t acco plishment 1n the world, a if it hould b h adline in ll th p pers Littl do they realiz th child' tir t ord is far re ter chiev ment nd 1r vi ad in term of the i portanc placed on co=nun c tive bllity in th se tira thi first or C uire V n re tr s1nnicanc Therefore, lco your child's first ord 1th all the joy nd nthuei sm du thi acco plis ..w. in your role __ te oh r ert s titled H lp Your Ohild to peak ri e d signed to rs nt info tion on Speech aoo Langua e Dev lo il~nt 1 the Pr chool Child. Your instructor h been _, ----~ ~--.!""""' ~'t:"'!"'i"!'9~J:pz.-z ......, .. r .... ,--r-, ,,...u -z ......,., s u

PAGE 116

llO a a a : 7 I 11 1 I I' I 7 I El , nat tut1on ii F Ft! I e 1 vit ll -k

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p Visual 14 _ ad with el vlalo nd 01 eeroo L ecture LANGUAGE WRITTEN SPOKEN SIGN FACIAL GESTURE PANTOMINE ART FORM Chart l SPEECH READING WRITING DRAWING ARITHMETIC ( .s p o k e n) (writ t e n) .s ymb o l .s ymb o l LANGUAGE Chart 2 111

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112 Speech DiFricuty Among SCHOOL CHILDREN KINDERGARTEN TO 4th GRADE 12 -IS % -SERIOUSLY DEFECTIVE SPEECH ABOVE 4 !t! GRADE 4-5 %-SERIOUSLY DEFECTIVE SPEECH Ch rt 3 Speech DifFicultiu Penalize Children In: READING SPELLING ENGLISH Ch rt 4

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hi ch rt 113 0 DAYS ____ alRTH CRY 2-3 WEEKSDIFFERENTIAL CRY FOR HUN9Ell PAIN, DISCOMFORT 4 WEEKS __ DEFINITE AWARENESS OF SOUND 8-IZ WEEKS_ INITIATES BABBLING (.SINSLE VOWEL SOUNDS} COOS CHUCKLE& ATTENDS TO THE SPEAKING VOICE OF I ANOTHER PERSON IZ-16 WEEKS LALLI NG (3-4 MO) 28-32 WEEKSVOCALIZES SINGLE SYLLABLE AND (7-8 MO) POLY-SYUABLE SOUNDS (MA-MA) 36 WEEKS__ RESPONDS TO NAME AND 'NO-NO (9 MO) ECHOLALIA 10-IZ MONTHS-FIRST WORD RESPONDS TO BYEIYE AND PAT-A-cAKE Ch l cture. Removable p nel eov red the le el. 1 r gel vel cnart provided el ctur. 8 he 1n the l ctur Th to l ...

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114 EARLY LANGUAGE COMPREHENSION GESTURE FACIAL EXPRESSION EMOTIONAL TONE OF VOICE FEW SINGLE WORDS Chart 7

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115 EARLY GESTURE LANGUAGE REFUSES FOOD SMILING AND HOLDING OUT ARMS SQUIRMING WIGGLING AND CRYING FIRST WORDS CHILD UNDERSTANDS EAT BYE--SYE BATH MA-MA AND DA-DA

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13.6 I .l'f: ___ < \:. .. ... ~~---.,.. ~? C D e bov p ictur u only 1th the l ctu~ clo e-up ot t11 picture pr nt tion o int nt. of other t lkln to her

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....._ .... .__ ..... ..,_ ________ ~----other ge~~........ -..... -ddr aa ......, ......................... ----~-....... Father's Occupatio : t er ______ ....... _...._..._...,._ ..... other ______ choolin : at.... r other ,, .__. ___ ......., ______ __..,.. b r of Ch1ldren__..._........, ______ gee __,,__,....,. ...... ____ __ l t h 1d your c ild or children ay its or t eir I tir t ord? id you l thls w e rly, l te, no~mal? 4 D id you pl y an ctive rol in t ching bl to s ak? S. D o you el you could h v p e11t or time in teaching your child to ""-eek?...,.. __________ ....,.., pl in 6. Do 7ou el t r i le~n to ? re din 117

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7 ht, i ny, lnto~ matlon -uld yo u like to h ve r r in ho ~ Au ch11 rna to ould you tcb a l vision eriee on dau lo ent ?

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p eat I other' a g ....................... -~---ath r eduction ----ther'a e plo ent ............................. ber, uld 11 you to jud e n r of CJL>.::11 ertions on e e c .... l n u _,,c:, -u-~v lor,m nt a in t v rlous a er pttve ac le. I in this t st, ple e e your jud ements on t e o h th t t ent ear. ~,9 ,Yq.u E ch 1t .11 ac l nc~th 1~ uu re torte th t emant on i le. c le: el th t th t to nt 1 :srl cl9s~lx n of th cg...a., you hould lace'your follo s: I ---n ch rue_: --If you el t __ -5FJ ... ,. or e otb r but not r ither: nin e ni gtul __ : : ... t you eel the tatem one id o~ e to the o -: ----119 :rst11a1 : --.......... I lse -eptlc l k ptic l to ss

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120 It you th th et ts:ent to u= neutr l on the c le (both si oft--~ c 1 qu lly aocI te 1t tt). or if t c l co pletelz.un~ 1 t d to th t t nt, -u n l ce your C ck'kin th raar. p ce. True : --------. lee 1. l c 7 ur c ec rk 1 th id l of 2. hec v ry lt 1!0, n~tl . ~. 1 1.t ... Pl on c le. 4. o not loo ue1ck 'IA&.d .... thro ~, h o not try d r b:::how you ch ck 1 11 r item e~.11 r in ta .. teat. ch it ae r te _. .. 4 ind p n ent jud""1.., nt. __ yo c~. 01Ye your fir t :i...., pr s lo rry or l o r lt -----------------.. -------Ill--.-----------------------------..... _: 2. c ll ningtul __ : ..._ .. : ). Cryin ia eptical ._: ........ ~: ._.._ et t __ ---4. parent hold not or JOWl child. stur -l : -----n t t -. -"""""', __ I 11: ---l e .........,_; F liMil di I I ........., ....,._. __ : ~-: --: true l

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7. 10. f el 11. --t __ ... .....,_ .. ---121 ------t ........ ..... ............ _.. .. -------' int nt o d ....,._. k o r tbr e tu~ 1 th ituation. ---: I ...,__ -~ ,. ..,.._ ound other th cryin 1 g ul It \In av a child b n to !o th b ot ot r t the th t he be co f bls o ~ It l i '!'!'ll!tt ~IL ...,.. ----~l. ll lin 11d pro uc u e 1n t ...... "" :W lf!:11 h lan~ .. g, a. or 14. C U e it oic re ound ell Yin . .~ __ .. 1 ----__ : ___ : kept1c l u.. l c 1ld b bblea -n 1a cont nted. ------1 terf res it b b 11n. __ ....__: -__ : ~~-s T ru .... ,, ____ : 11ev1n l You should lnt r1upt your child' b b liug. T rue ; -----... ,, .. -~ -

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l I ell 19. It 20. ut ..__. ---I ar 122 to your inf nt. ---: -; .....,._. __ : ..._...,.: S eptic 1 in tlnctive tor chll ren to = -,____. -_,..: _____ : rue ---ln ad p ech d v lop 1 th . . . .......... ~-------nd to' o-no' nd i ru 2 -----, ......,_. ---22. I :1 1011: rt_ ... th heir ch1l S eptlc l ____ : t r ........ _. ---I ann r. t tro ~e.v tur f ci l or l ._._: ~....,. -----2S. h tlra~ or_ to .u
PAGE 129

28. : -12; ......, -..... __ : --= rue -----I f?Uiil --~, ,~ln f ul __ : 30 I.&.Wll tt 1 ... ,., b by' bodily action 1ncre es hi ceyin. li vl .......... ...... -----: 31 Ch11dr n l rn tot 1 batter fro a ocl tin ith other chllir n t .. ~~ -. 1th dulte. Tru : : : ......... z &l:1 IS -C -C 9 s L )2. ou hould interrupt your child' b lin. I 11 vi I ,....._. ___ -: -----......... -----co t e nt d rue eptic ------: : t &ulQ uln 1e1a ....... ., .. ... 5 3 urin th ir t t r nPe~a t 1 th s o tter wh t th itu tion rue __ : -,. --37. eat chtldr n bble ....... lngtul __ : -: ----_ .. ~lae 38. rou bould ,.. .... 1 conetantly to y o ur lnf~t. ellev1.n SC fl tit; -------_, .. t' cry -___ : e ningtul I

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40. child b.,..,.., la.~ to ot uvt ~r p r on t th 1 o vote 41. f 1 & 17 ........ 2. l rn to co befor r'Jl 0 p 1'rue fl 12t. tt nti n to t; tie th th b& N unic t hi n e nin l d throu e lse 1'1.1 ~ -ji.e to t 1 F S 44 Cry1n 1 ls ,. p. s. irst st t or in rue a n I ord ---child ,. _....., der t d : B Keptic l ru r 0 l t d 1 tur I th child re ct to ounds fro the ti ah 1 0 d y old _: _: .. . _._,_, k ptlcal le___.: ----. : ru ii ----, __ ----_____ .. ~9. c ld le rns to re ond to no-no' bout th tl e. 11 vin : -so. cb1ld did not he r e ch eo rue ......... : ........ ... ---....,_. l t

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125 51. tel -.-tic l 1 -----s2. ile 1 Dabblin. C ild -~e 1n t ~ ~i h l n u .... Be eanin leas .....,_: __ : __ : -I : .. --: ., or elie : pa1ent houl not us eeture h n ta..-in to n or roun ch 11.d. re_: --= -' ---, ._.._ 5Z.. w. l n,t t or der t ndi pr lon d tone of voic th n from ell v1n -i -.....,_ ---, __ l e -1 d -d' ar cb1ld' fir t ord ---S It l por t for a p rent to nter into oc l pl 7 1th th !r youn child. r e --, ......... ----------=--P..k l J?. Inh1b1t1n bo tly ct o ere __ : -l Q!O L: .....,.,..: ,__ : : ............... C _.._ --......,.: T rue 59. It 1 l st1 ctive tlc 1 : __ __ tldr n tot l. __ .. ----60. U 1n l rd or hort nt lnf=t under r~~r old. rue...,_: 1. Cr ------, __ ----_: __ : __ : keptlc l I

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126 l ~__,. --child e cte to sound fro th t e he is Ody ol llevi in nt ood _..._. -: -----___ : ..,._: : -I ----la -66 He rin 1 eeaenti l to th d evelopm t s ---__ : : ----; 11 vtn e nln ul or hort ~Hr old. I child b to y t ntion to the oth r pr on oic. 0 f in ul rue __ : 10 F l e : -...n,_v I ,._J _i oJ A IQ t t : .......... --___ : __ : t -: --71. ou bould 72. __ : .....,._ ........ -: ----th b co l e -f'.trst ord. l e -rue ---= l oic 0 his f

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127 73. Ch 1en l to t l b tt r fro aeeoci t1 otb r childr nth n with dult. lleYin _.,.. ..... --' 1 chll l,ga.a ns to communicat hi n d thro before be le rn to s ~Qk. nin l se __ : ---it chlld di not her ap ech o he did not learn to ta --, ,.. . --76. It 1 1n tlnctlve for children to talk. nin ful : _.., = --77. .. tle bab ling, child produc used in the ~.mllah 1~""~~ 0 True : ........ ....,_ 1, ,e : -.... ... ---..... ... : : l ptlc 1 7 urln the fl.rat t o or t bre eE t ...... "' 1 .. nt cry 1 the s~ e no tter wb t th itu tion 79. n infant expre ion an ru ---11evin -81. Ce ------or underat ot vole t lit : : --..... . -----, __,__: I J : ----. ,.,.: ____ : -t 82. Inhibiting b by's bodily ction lncre~~,~g child c p le l _: lt t 0 11 0d t; 4 ontha o ---__ : __ -ptlc 1 la crytn

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128 The tir., ors chll und rt nds re t 0 ro e~mlng1 ~ : JIG\: a ilk _: __ : : i __ h r l Yi ....,.__. -----7. t le po,... ..... 4lt or 1 '""'th t ir oun child. llevln --. ....... -----: yo -: -__ -: inf 11 1 ----_: ----, __ li Vin ----c- - ----: l j ptical ptlc l

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I t II 1. I ho t lecture a (l) v r.y ood (2) ood (3) t 1r () or (S) very ~or. 2. (1) uld, (2J ould not b int re ted ~ r st of b lect r 1n the erles. 3. t t three hln s {if po a11) t t you 11 d oet bout t la 2. ----------------------------------------,. ____ ,..... _____ ...,... ________________________ .....,.. __ ____ 4. o (if po. ibl) lit tr thin tu.at you o t out tbi l ctur. 5. I (1) do (2) o not h ve opl in y n 1 hborhood ho would b int r std in tten ln aer e o l ctur on ti ubject. 6. I (1) do (2) do not b ve friend wno sho ld tt nd lectur o 1 1nd. ?. I (l) old (2) uld n t listen if ti a ri were rea nted over~ dlo I think ti mater11 could b pre ent d (l) b tter (2) well (3l not ell on r dlo. 9. th in thl 1 1nat ri l could be r~a111:.nt d ( l) (2) ell (3) ot a 11 in a book. 129

PAGE 136

1)0 nt d ( t b tter off
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II --t II B 1 I thought t,e pro r (4) oor (5) r, or. (1) er good (2) ood (J) fir 2 I (1) would (2) oul not b int r t d r"ttt or the ro g,lms 1 the rle 3 tat three t .~s ( lf out tl11 rogralm d o t l ________ ..._. ............... ~--------~--------...... --------i. ow ( 1 po ) llet thre o t bout thi ro 1. -----.....-.--------~-----------.. ........ ------------;. I (l) do (2) o not h v ople in y n ll?hborhood ho ul e lnt er~ct d 1n 1111:J,t n .... ch rl i (l) o (2) do not ha e o hould vi of this int.. 7 I (l) ould (2) muld not 11 t n 1 thi erles er r nt ov r r 410 I think t h 1 uu:st r .-.ol could pre ente (lJ tter t (2) 11 (3) ot a i 11 on r dio 9 I think thl t rl 1 could be pres nt d (l) better (2) ell()) not ell ln ook. 131

PAGE 138

1)2 10 I think this 11.L;lteri 1 could be pre nted (1) etter (2) ell (3) not s ll i lectur ftAri~a 1v n t cool or o e u 11c place. ll ould you tten aria of l ctur~~ 1 they w iven in th Cool or O e Ohr u lie l C? (1) y~a (2) so (J) no ( ) don 12~ 1 (1) e (2} do ot el u-t erie pro,~. -: wnD o Jt"Jr.i.ch l ,~ 0 0 n r.1v lo t bould be .v en over 1; I {ll oul (2) ould ot r RRnt d. 14 I (l) ould oo on p ch a~, ch1ld ld not b int re t ln r ct:ldtn &\&calf.~"'"" d V lo :nA t in th brf;~scboc,l 15. I (1) oul (2) ould ot DA it rest d 1n nrollin in t l course on p ch ~-d l v lo ft~nt of chil."ft~ if' offer y tiiv r ity 16 I tbl k 1ntorwc.;atlon about the c,. .. 4 in th ri Lit hould b in

PAGE 139

r 1 l l 1 9 5 8 D u~ educ~~lon l 1 v i io n t i on ~ r ity 0 OM w t, ou l 1 --you to h l t e ev lwat pilot progr~ to ne tel vi ion eri on child develo ent, stres 1ng pe c h and l .... e ua e dev lo ent 1n the pr school child You would serve s a ber or speci l udi nee whi c h would et 1n o SO, on the fifth floor of the 1 k1el Cul l en llding t the niversitJ of ou ton. le ae plan to be there by 6:15 on A ril 29th It you ar tnt r eted tn rv1n a m p le retur t h e closed card : encl tly app reci te rour elp 1 thi S incer l your, ~\. Q Y ttln lnstructor part ent of ~ ~e ch Un1ver tty of o\A6-'ton 133 I I

PAGE 140

to h lp them h r i t u on ould 1 e Vnn pilot ro r to n~w l ct--. __ t, t in .._I .. ch nd l n \4'-1<~ chool chll. o ould rl on child dev lo nt in UJ,'" ...... ... er t udl nc wn 1ch would ...... t 1 oo 1 din t tuv Univ ralty o Hout n t 118, cience -. ,. r r1l 29th. 1 7 u re i t pl r turn e 111 r ly -~ ,, ncl. ,5 on tAn ln servin 8 a meLU.uer O t ncl.os cl c rd. your b in hi incerely your , .. ... y tttn ..... ,~str ct r ct. partmen of --eech niY r 1ty ot out n i raoup,

PAGE 141

ooks lblz, .. 1111.am. Hill ew e rr. : Ha1v Doll, Doob, : l)J

PAGE 142

' l her, ll, 136 I . s an ua:::: att X'n o ch ol ildren. (Child evelo ent onogr phe o. __ ew ork: re u of bl1c tone, eacher Colle e, Colum i n1T r lty, 1934 0 G Gold te1, urt. W 0~: Gr y, Gile w A1i1 York: n e

PAGE 143

, rs n, o. Qi:,~gi.~,. L o tSn cCarthy, L. 0 137 or ~ ......... ~~~~----:..P--=~---"-_m-:. ~~ rin UUlt;ll0t 1957 I i).i~gt!, l on o:

PAGE 144

138 Pr~ n, 1ldr d. obbin Shirley, ltb, Procedur ~Hr. The L rnl to ........ .,,iQ oc ion h, on, 19I.4. Io oun -a Hill 0 t-, or: o. f cGraw

PAGE 145

I ~ o. 3S6). hop, r vi e:r, ltne7, 13 9 o., our Cb11,.--=e rotn-ra, a and f ethod. w e r-"y: rent c nd L v, Joseph. S t t1 tic l nfer~.:.:. e~ H olt nd Co., b of nna. ed. oltf, emer The Lf -r o ork: G rune and port one,

PAGE 146

140 o on., ;..;:.~,::..~..::..:::.=.,:: P ort r:lO'""'Fon : nae 1 ~ Oent r, n n er1n eport SD C 20( 0 dQV1oiifi) t o C 1111 on: etb o. ol. 28. shin Inc., 1959. etr.uctional ent 1

PAGE 147

141 Artiolee 9.nd Periodicals J. Study ot the Growth ot L n:r~. e Bet een wo and our e r ;.our1 2.f l,u:v; .Jill~ ,!, r!, re XVI ( S pt~~b r, 1932), 269-277. s tt n ly l o V rh Fo,""1'1'1, in th Sp ech or Young Chlldr n nd Tb 1 1-vlon to he Ll;ll. .. l:l,'-'i;lB earnln roce a, Journa 0 eri nt 1 '1! "'~2~~1,91), II (D ce.......... r, rte n S,n A~C n d .S'on zti:!;; --ocl ti D Co,m~Mi t ld-Oentuey 7hite Houae Conference. S i ord r n _,, ech Corr ctio, J ur-il:-c~ .. ,'.4._ -~~rS,nt5 .~t .. O}.;~e_r,s, 11 13Wl i-........ _. ::.:~:.....=:=-:~:S 1 '=' .. ion, --~ r on, J -,id V nd uer, n Cop r tl e S tudy or th ff ctivenes of Le on on t e lid ul esent d ,a elevl ion --ln .,~r ont 1he th tic e cher, XL II (19S4), 323-327. [ I Ii 2 El I 2 Ai 1 ecky, 8 tudy of Certain actor el R etard t1o o ech 1 9 Jour l Qf R ~.I ( te b r, 19571 3'Hl-3aJ;: ........ ---. ... ii::iiia.......,...._ nter, c. Psychological a arch U tn elevl ion, i he, erlc sychologl1t. { cto r, 1955), ooo::.om'; F I c.l. ea I I I C hapi nparent ducation or resohool Sp ech ll ef eti Ch 1ldre !!ow l, ,of cen,:~ PIA Child,~~,P. ( J llUEQ:'T t l 9} ' ilS-lJo Ch en, H and I r in, O rvla, c. "Infant ecb: o el Id ( i946), ~;.J:9 /!i:,.qrnlll.,pr ,pe,c;b,,. 1J~9.Ji.'d.e,rg 0 Coffin, 1 levieion' p et on S ociety &JS A i:ic "1 f. 19nq}.,~g~ ~. (Octob r, 19SS) t30 ..

PAGE 148

142 r, ,QU,1, rankiln. o d to th bundant Li: urv y of rducat on l l vi ion,n Ebe~, er~ca~ (October, 1955), 61S-51o/ Yan ~. "ulann1n nd I pl nt tion or P ycholo ie l ~Mri son o ~corm erci l due tion l Tel vi lo t tion, The r can cholo 1 t, n e rin Gitli X (Octo r, 1955), 602R. I., Roney, B. B. f71 c dam w J. n ~ t!llu tion or th E fect1Yen~~ of I truction Qud udi nc e ction to Pro: in in '-UA 1!,0UCation 1 T levi ion t tion,n J,ourn, l_ot, 2Pl1 P yebglogt, XUIII (195S)' 277-2.,,9; 7 4 1 I 1 I I 7 I and ogge, Genvieve. Co munlc tion ere: Selecte nd nnotat d 1bl1ogr phy, 9:9 rt rlr. I .1~. I a d.~o 1 anc;l , ,., I ( 1952) 283-31). IT 7 I I Irv........,l!li n t ur on e A P2l9s~,x (October, 19SS), ols-619. oo4enougb, "Us ot ronoun by oung C lldr n: ote on th v lo ent of Selfr ne ,n Jo~ Gen tic P avcholo LII (June 1938), Guttman, oui uo n, 1 rd P. "Int n 1 y tmd Zero oint or ttitud lyais, ric OCiR:19&1<;, ~-;1 .~:!1,, I (1947), 511. H rr1 Husb nd, "T levislon Versu Ola sroo or r. in a n r l ye ology, The ,,.~i:~.
PAGE 149

143 ---............ ome actors Rel ted to the Speech D v lopent of the Inf' nt nd Young Child," Jpurnal ij 32 y' e~~;~~ 9 ~-i, 1 .r\ns lsorq~r , II { epte 'b r, o c. and Chen, P nspe ch nd ound lb" nta During the irst ~~rs of Life: evie of tne 1 er ttur Journ 1 pt, ,Speec n.~ ,Rrd rs, III ( J,ane, 1943) t 109-121. IS V --------1 -- Int nt p ech: Vo l Q.Ud Consonant equency, ;~~r,nxl o, JR, ~h. 21 D.l,ord. i;e,, ( Jun 1946) .a.",_,-1 ~s Jellini, Und ratandlng ot ech, I (4 nu ry, 1950), 15-20. Jersilcl, Art ur -..d it on, uth. apects of .. l.sA -~ .... e Develo ent and th Growth ot Loqu city nd Voe bulaey, Child Devel~P.9!.,nt I (Sep\;emb r, 1938) f 243-2S9 2 :a 12 1 2 1 a 2 a sey, ru .w.lc;u..a J. e orldJ he eric. n szch loglat, (Octob r, 1955), 620-029. I 2 ,. I a !& I elly, Ge or e l Yi ion and the cber, Te .,. 2 rican ,rcb,(?lpgi ~. (Octob r, 1955), -W0-.592. cOarthy, D "Or anis ic Interpret tions of Infant Voe lis tion, 9hlld peveloR ~~t, III (Dece ber, 1952), ~7)-2so; ~cintp-e Charl~e J and Gre nhill, Le lie P nrhe ole of Clo ed Circuit elevi in in Univer lty esident Instruction, he AmerJ c n,. pychologist, ( ctob r, 1955), 598-t>GI: 21 I "' I a 2 c em r, Opi ionttitude etbodolo P zchologic ulletin, LIII, 0. 4, 1946. I an,,_" 2 I so.

PAGE 150

144 111 en, ob rt. "A R ationale for rtieul tion Dlsorders," Jour or S ech H rin Disord r, onogra h upp e ent Dec ber, -,4, owrer, ~yklebust, Helmer. "Langua e Di orders 1n Children," ~PUf"~ Liof;L 7 ~~ept12~, 1 ;i. qJ}i:}.dr~n, ~II ( 1956, Babblln nd ~holal1 1n L ngu-be eory, ~~-,~,~[---.Jo r of S eec and earin Disorders, 'Wl,II epte er, t ~Poole, C. ase of Individual Judgment rocea ee in R l tion to_olarization in Attitud in the Culture" ,Jf uf !al, of .~.S.i 1 liO'Ch.olqQ, IV (1941). 403._ 1~ S 1 5 td I A I. no nettc D v lo ent ot rticul tion ot Con onant Sounds 1 Speech," lem.entax:z ,ne;l;ih eviev, II (1934)' 1s9 .. 161 I fl lie 2 oz uskt Hoard and aylor, ugen J. "Pb7 ic l Dis b111t1: tional Proble ,n _a i an Journa or blio He 1th, VIII (October, 9 hiraberg..l Benj in. "Selected t ranees in uc Telavi ion," ~h eric n Psychgl9 1 gia.t. (October, 1955} i 642-61;6. 2 7 tion 1 gner, "The Cross-out Technique as a tho 1n Public Opinion n lysi ~o.rna_l ot 1 8001 fay~~~lost, ........ (1940) 79.6(); 1 I I I, tac, 2 1 1th, tudy of Some Factor Influencing th Developm tot the entenc in Pr school Ohlldrn,tt ou-na of Genetic P cholo XL I ( arch, 193S), ernon, D. "Perception and Ond rst ndi got nstructional T leviaion Progre ea, Br1tia~ Joyr lot PJ!xc~olog,;. XLI ( 195)) II6-I2 JP 2 I a

PAGE 151

145 O M a edi nd Lear in -n lor tion, III (1954), 75-82. 1 cn r; Gore J. nd Schier, n no ho ght on le lion n 1 du c tion 1 ool, Th ood, ood, oung, .,riz
PAGE 152

' 146 on T. o ly of Som .. ,. 1 tcor11e~ of I tr n cone, LJl lLl, rr po .. ,.... n t ......... y ~d Cla.a roo roe plic t d copy of r r d t t ntion, S-... r nci co, b'l"lf-' r, 19;5. nn .n.r.,,or: c ool of uuUC tion, Uni r _,., of ich n, l9S5. b b r ,l;I.L ..... .,.,, of T 11'1,'"'i i '"'"" i o ~ur in. ( r limin ry r port) Prl c ton: due tio,wl f sti .. Service{ re Bull t D ( -;4-19), ul,&8U t, 1954. upl C te ). v.r'~''\ 0 ,;;n b=...... P I ..... c tr ction Through ..... 1::1 ion: A Oom.p r tiv t dy. Urb n In it o Co unic tion R aarch, Uni rslty of Illinol Jun 19. ( i o r ph d). ttinnPructlon ro~h el vi ion: r nt l tu y. Urbni,.,. : n titut of Co""Pl'lunic tlon ~(:U, ch, Univ r tr 0 Illino1 1956. ( ~eo phed)

PAGE 153

TOH tttn hto, ere b du t d fro high ac ool tn June, 1943. he atte nt St t un1,,.~reity fro 1944 until r c iv d bar o elor of rt degi fro t. Univer D n er in 1948, hr ~& ~ ter o ci need ~~ae fT-~ the University of ~ 1ch1~~n 1n 1950 1 and hr Doctor of Philo ophy d ee fro the lJniv r ity 6f lorid on "'~au t 1959. r jor e ch ~tholos, and bar nor wd p ycholo~J In 1949, erv d 1natructor-cl1n1c1 n in ch t t .......... Univ rsi y of D nv r. h a __ ech th r pi t t ttie nn rbor chool in 1950 n4 l9Sl. uring l9SJ nd 19S4, h el sit nt hip tn peech at h Uni r ity or lori a. ~ue audiolo 1 t for th Hou ton Sp c~ nd rin C nter fro 1955 through 1957 hen s b jolne the "ttching t tt at h Un1vera1 y of Houston In 1958, he ec e dir ctor oft ... rt ent or Co unic tiv laord r t dg croft Ho pit 1 d eb billtation Center, Hou ton, T-~ a. ~he hol-w dv need certltic t1o in p c ~~db ic certif1c tion in ......, -~ fro th eric,_... S c cu.ad H-HriN-8 s oci tion. Sh 1e m ber of i lpaa A.I "' ... .. ,c. Inter n tional soci tion _ die honi tric, ec ociat1on. 147

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of n It pr pared under the dir ction a ...... ch 1rman of the ca ndld t u rv i ory co""'"it,t PDr<>ved by a...l ....... ...... ere o"f th t co t te u=itt to the n o of rt nd cl nc nd to th r du t Council, nd pprov d rti l lflllwant o th r quire enta or t--~ f Doctor of philo op y. J I Mi!! L

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UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA II I II 11111 1 1111 1 111 1 111 1 111 1 1 1 11 1 111 1 1111 1 11 1 111 1 111111 1 1 1 11111 1 3 1262 08554 9904


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