Florida school counselors' self-reported child abuse interventions


Material Information

Florida school counselors' self-reported child abuse interventions practices, knowledge, and skill effectiveness
Physical Description:
x, 241 leaves : ill. ; 28 cm.
Baker, Bonnie, 1949-
Publication Date:


Subjects / Keywords:
Abused children -- Services for -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Abused children   ( lcsh )
Counselor Education thesis Ph. D
Dissertations, Academic -- Counselor Education -- Uf
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )


Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Florida, 1985.
Bibliography: leaves 230-239.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Bonnie Baker.
General Note:
General Note:

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 029584577
oclc - 14878435
System ID:

This item is only available as the following downloads:

Full Text









With sincere gratitude I want to thank Larry Loesch, my

chairman, for the many years he has been my teacher and

friend, and for the untold hours spent helping me through the

dissertation process. As this counselor's counselor, Larry's

confidence in my abilities has been extremely helpful.

Thanks are also extended to Paul Fitzgerald, Jim

Longstreth, and Paul George, all of whom have served on my

doctoral committee. Their interest, guidance, and friendship

are greatly appreciated.

The many "special" people involved, directly and

indirectly, in the creation of this study who deserve special

recognition and appreciation for their contributions include

Mary Benson, Joe Brewer, Donna Bushnell, Sally

Chambers, Betsy Folk, Elaine Frank, Delphine Jackson, Laurel

Kaden, Joan Shalls, and Sandra Southmayd, my school counselor

colleagues, all of whom generously volunteered to serve as

research assistants throughout the state;

Dennis Adair, my longtime friend, for his computer

wizardry and infinite patience;

Walt Busby, Karen and Bill Dishman, Gilda Josephson,

Marta Konik, Patti Mastin, and Dot Thomas, my "special"

friends, for their never-ending caring and help;

Don Darling, my Tallahassee "connection," for his

continuing friendship and assistance in gathering information

for the study;

Martha, Irving, and Laura Baker and Aunt Gussie, my

family, for their love and encouragement;

Lavelle Oswalt, my friend and typist, for her

dedication and patience; and

Tom Ridgik, who deserves a gold medal for his

assistance and for putting-up with me during the past


My final words of appreciation go to those members of

the Florida School Counselor Association who completed the

survey. Their concern for the abused children in the state,

above all else, made this study possible.



ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ............................... iii

LIST OF TABLES................................. vii

ABSTRACT ............ ......................... ix


I INTRODUCTION........................ 1
Overview .................... .... 2
Theoretical Framework ............ 6
-Statement of the Problem......... 8
-Need for the Study............... 9
-Purpose of the Study............. 10
Rationale........................ 11
Research Questions............... 12
Definition of Terms .............. 13
Organization of the Study........ 17

The Abuse of School-Aged Children 19
Role of the School in Child Abuse
Intervention................... 38
Role of the School Counselor in
Child Abuse Intervention...... 45
School Counselor Professional
Development Training........... 51
Summary........................... 62

III METHODOLOGY.......................... 64
Population........................ 64
Instrument........................ 66
Research Procedures.............. 71
Data Analyses.................... 73
Methodological Limitations....... 75


IV RESULTS ................................
Introduction ........................
Description of Respondents...........
Analyses of CAIS Responses...........

V DISCUSSION ............................
Generalizability Limitations.........
Evaluation of Research Questions ...
Implications.................. .....
Recommendations for Future Research.







C GEOGRAPHIC REGIONS .....................

D INSTRUMENT ..............................

E INTRODUCTORY LETTER ...................




BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ............................














Table Page

4.1 Frequency Distribution of Respondents
by Geographic Region..................... 79

4.2 Frequency Distribution of Respondents
by Years of School Counseling
Experience.............................. 81

4.3 Frequency Distribution of Respondents
by Work Level Setting ................... 83

4.4 Frequency Distribution of Respondents
by Race.................................. 84

4.5 Frequency Distribution of Respondents
by Sex................................... 84

4.6 Frequency Distribution of Respondents
by Caseload Size.......................... 85

4.7 Frequency Distribution of Respondents
by Child Abuse Training................... 86

4.8 Frequency Distribution of Respondents
by Types of 1983-1984 and 1984-1985
Child Abuse Case Involvements ............ 88

4.9 Means, Medians, and Standard Deviations
for 1983-1984 and 1984-1985 Child Abuse
Case Involvements........................ 89

4.10 Response Frequencies and Percentages..... 90

4.11 Response Means and Standard Deviations... 101

4.12 Frequencies of Additional Child Abuse
Intervention Responses................... 107
4.13 Means and Standard Deviations of Responses
by Areas of Child Abuse Intervention..... 109

Table Page

4.14 Intercorrelations Between Survey
Sections I, II, and III Items............. 111

4.15 Correlations Between Responses and
Years of Experience (YE) and Size
of Caseload (SC)........................... 133

4.16 Correlations Between Responses and
Child Abuse Case Involvements During
the 1983-84 and 1984-85 School Years...... 136

4.17 Analysis of Variance/Duncan Multiple
Range Tests by Geographic Region.......... 140

4.18 Analysis of Variance/Duncan Multiple
Range Tests by Work Level Setting......... 148

4.19 Analysis of Variance/Duncan Multiple
Range Tests by Child Abuse Training....... 160

4.20 t-test Comparisons of White and Ethnic
Minority Counselor Responses.............. 172

4.21 t-test Comparisons of Male and Female
Counselor Responses....................... 175

4.22 Frequencies and Percentages of School
Counselor Comments Concerning Their
Child Abuse Intervention Training.......... 180

4.23 Frequencies and Percentages of Comments
Regarding the Extent to which School
Counselors Should Be Involved with
Abused Students and Their Families......... 181

1i7 i-?i

Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy



Bonnie Baker

December 1985

Chairman: Dr. Larry Loesch
Major Department: Counselor Education

The purpose of this study was to assess the extent to

which the child abuse intervention practices, knowledge, and

skill effectiveness reported by school counselors in Florida

meet the standards advocated by authorities in the child

abuse and counseling fields. This investigation was done to

allow inferences to be made about Florida school counselor

professional training needs in the area of child abuse.

Relatedly, because this information was not available, the

study attempted to fill a void in the professional


The Child Abuse Intervention Survey was administered to

343 elementary, middle/junior high, and secondary school

counselor members of the Florida School Counselor

Association. Items developed for the survey were based on

the types of interventions frequently cited by child abuse

experts in the professional literature as appropriate for

school counselors. Demographic characteristics of

respondents were also obtained to investigate possible

differences among responses on the basis of those


Results of the study revealed that recommended child

abuse interventions were used inconsistently among school

counselors throughout the state. The most used interventions

included identification and reporting of abused students and

consultation with other professionals. The respondents' self-

reported levels of child abuse intervention knowledge and

skill effectiveness, as well as their comments, suggest the

need for clarification of appropriate school counselor roles

and responsibilities related to the identification,

treatment, and prevention of child abuse. Furthermore, the

results imply the need for further development of school

counselors' child abuse intervention knowledge and skills and

research to develop more effective methods of training

counselors to implement child abuse interventions.


Do ye hear the children weeping, O my brothers,
Ere the sorrow comes with years. .
They are weeping in the playtime of the others,
In the country of the free.

"The Cry of the Children"
Elizabeth Barrett Browning

The poetic words of Elizabeth Barrett Browning referred

to the exploitation of children as laborers in the coal mines

of England in the 1800s. The maltreatment of children has

commonly occurred throughout the history of humanity and has

only become recognized as a major societal problem in the

past century. Browning's outrage about the sorrowful

condition many children faced in the 1800s is shared today

in the United States by numerous professional and lay groups

who are similarly distraught about the estimated one million

cases of child abuse and neglect reported annually. Although

great strides are being made to understand what has been

called a national "epidemic," much work remains before the

problem of child abuse will be eradicated.


Professional interest in the maltreatment of children

grew out of the work of nurses and social workers in the late

1800s. The case of Mary Ellen, a severely physically abused

and neglected child, brought national attention to the fact

that no legal means existed to remove a child from a

dangerous living environment (Fontana, 1973). Ironically,

protection was available for animals, through the Society for

the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, and Mary Ellen was

removed from her home on the grounds that she was a member of

the animal kingdom. In 1875, as a result of Mary Ellen's

case, the first Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to

Children was organized in New York. Similar societies were

established throughout the country in the following years.

The medical community became aware of child abuse

through the contribution of radiologists in the 1940s. They

demonstrated, through the use of X-rays, patterns of

fractures and lesions in their infant patients that defied

explanations of accidental injury. A breakthrough in the

field of child abuse occurred in 1961 when Dr. C. Henry Kempe

coined the term "battered child syndrome" to describe

physical abuse (Kempe, Silverman, Steele, Droegemueller, &

Silver, 1962). His first-of-a-kind nationwide survey of

physicians and law enforcement agencies was the turning point

for drawing attention to child abuse.

The phenomenon of child abuse as a major societal

problem in the United States has surfaced over the past two

decades. Since the 1960s attention to this subject has

expanded to professionals in every discipline involving

children. The professional literature in the fields of

nursing, medicine, law, psychology, law enforcement, and most

recently, education, contains numerous studies relating to

various aspects of child abuse. Through coverage by the

media, the lay community has also become increasingly aware

of this phenomenon. Rarely does a day pass without a news

story concerning a "sensational" abusive occurrence. Most

recently, public officials are offering testimonials

regarding abuse they experienced as children in an effort to

raise the public's consciousness of the problems of our

nation's maltreated children. In addition, accounts of

sexual abuse in day care facilities have attracted

considerable interest and outrage in both professional

and lay communities.

The efforts of professionals in the child abuse field

to bring child abuse to the public's attention have been

quite successful as indicated by nationwide surveys (Gelles,

1982). In his discussion of the results of two Louis Harris

and Associates' surveys conducted in 1981 and 1982, Gelles

stated that 91% of American citizens consider child abuse to

be a serious problem and that three of four Americans want

the government to assume the major responsibility for dealing

with the problem. Also discovered was that 6 of 10 people

surveyed believed the current state of the economy was causing

increased child abuse and that 9 of 10 Americans believed

that being abused increased a person's chances for later

involvement with crime. In summarizing the survey results,

Gelles (1982) observed the following:

Twenty years (almost exactly) after the
plight of battered babies was first identified as a
significant health problem public recognition of
the extent, nature, and tragedy of child abuse has
grown remarkably.

The American public is no longer unaware of
child abuse and its consequences. Far from it.
The feeling that child abuse constitutes a major,
and growing problem is widespread, as is the
mandate for government and individual action.
Americans want something done to prevent child
abuse, they may be ready to identify what they can
do; it is timely to provide such education. (p. 9)

In 1974 Congress enacted the Child Abuse Prevention and

Treatment Act, also known as Public Law 93-247. This

legislation established the National Center on Child Abuse

and Neglect and mandated the reporting of all abuse cases.

Since that time all states have adopted laws to protect

children from harm by their caretakers.

The Florida State Legislature has recognized the

existence of child abuse since 1899. Laws dealing with child

abuse victims were enacted in 1901, 1923, 1965, 1971, and

1974. The Child Molester Act in 1951 recognized child

molestation as a criminal offense and penalties were

established for abuse perpetrators. The current Chapter 827,

Florida Statutes, was enacted in 1975 and provided for the

mandatory reporting of suspected child abuse cases,

assignment of responsibilities to public agencies, creation

of a statewide abuse registry, and the confidentiality of

records. Under Florida Law anyone who suspects child abuse is

"ethically" obligated to report this suspicion to the Florida

Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services (HRS);

however, school personnel and other professionals are

"legally" obligated to report such cases according to HRS

guidelines. Failure to do so constitutes a second degree

misdemeanor and may result in prosecution. School counselors

are included in this group of legally mandated reporters

(HRS, 1984).

The passage of Florida House Bill 296, Prevention of

Abuse and Neglect of Children, in 1982 represented the first

substantial effort by the Legislature to prevent child abuse

and neglect. This progressive bill required HRS to develop a

comprehensive state plan for the prevention of child abuse

and neglect and created an interprogram task force with

representatives from the Department of Education, local

agencies, and organizations. The Department of Education and

HRS were also required to develop materials to educate public

school employees in the detection of child abuse and neglect

and to develop curricular materials on child abuse and

neglect for Florida's student population. Other provisions

included requirements for law enforcement personnel, the

education of the general public, and the establishment of

district plans and task forces (HRS, 1983-1984). The bill,

which was signed into law by Governor Bob Graham on March 29,

1982, has become Chapter 82-62, Laws of Florida.

Theoretical Framework

Since school personnel have been legislatively mandated

to identify and report abused children to state social

services personnel and provide instruction in child abuse to

their students, a need has arisen for professional development

training to adequately perform these tasks. The school

counselor, as the school-based mental health professional,

must assume a leadership role in the school's response to

these state directives.

In a position statement on the subject of child abuse

and neglect, the American School Counselor Association (ASCA)

charged school counselors with the responsibility of becoming

involved with abused children (ASCA, 1981):

School counselors need to be aware of the
causes of child abuse and neglect which are
essential to accurate reporting. They should
become aware of their state law. .

School counselors must not only be able to
identify abused and/or neglected children, but also
must know what their role is in dealing with child

abuse/neglect. They should be aware of the signs
of observable abuse and observable neglect. School
counselors should be actively involved in the
development of local child abuse/neglect policies.

School counselors should cooperate with other
community agencies in providing periodic staff
development on the subject of child abuse and
neglect. (p. 162)

Others in the field of child abuse expanded the school

counselor's role to include child advocate and resource to

teachers (Westcott, 1980); consultant to families and

community groups (Craft, 1981; Slager-Journe, 1978); parent

education group leaders (Craft, 1981; Moore & McKee, 1979);

and work with individual families (Slager-Journe, 1978).

These calls for school counselor involvement with

abused children are consistent with the ethical standards

adopted for the school counseling profession (ASCA, 1984).

In specifying the school counselor's responsibilities to

pupils, those ethical standards maintain that the school


Is concerned with the total needs of the pupil
(educational, vocational, personal, and
social) and encourages the maximum growth and
development of each counselee. .

Is responsible for keeping abreast of laws
relating to pupils and ensures that the rights of
pupils are adequately provided for and protected.

Makes appropriate referrals when professional
assistance can no longer be adequately provided to
the counselee. Appropriate referrals necessitate
knowledge about available resources. .

Informs appropriate authorities when the
counselee's condition indicates a clear and
imminent danger to the counselee or others.
(p. 1)

In specifying the school counselor's responsibilities

to "self," those ethical standards also stated that, "The

school counselor strives through personal initiative to

maintain professional competence and keep abreast of

innovations and trends in the profession" (ASCA, 1984, p. 1).

When applied to their involvements with abused children,

therefore, in addition to the legal responsibilities imposed

by state law, school counselors are ethically responsible to

be competent in assisting their abused students.

The delineation of responsibilities regarding child

abuse identification, treatment, and prevention assumes that

school counselors are skilled in these areas. There exists

little research, however, to indicate the extent to which

Florida school counselors are prepared to meet this new role


Statement of the Problem

The professional development training needs of Florida

school counselors in the area of child abuse are unknown.

Contrary to the mandates of professional organizations (e.g.,

ASCA; National Education Association), legislative

regulations, and professionals in the field of child abuse,

school counselors report encountering an unrealistically low

number of child abuse cases (Wilson, Thomas, & Schuette,

1983). For example, in their survey of 241 elementary and

middle school counselors in Kentucky, Wilson et al.

discovered that the respondents, who averaged 11 years of

experience, had encountered an average of only six cases of

child abuse in their careers as school counselors. Although

the majority felt confident about their ability to recognize

the symptoms of child abuse, relatively few cases were

reported. Data describing the current needs of school

counselors in Florida to competently fulfill their

professional responsibility to become involved in child abuse

cases do not appear to exist.

Need for the Study

Assessing the professional development of school

counselors in the area of child abuse is needed to provide

data to professionals responsible for providing such training

and/or others involved in child abuse prevention efforts.

Potentially, the following groups of professionals could

benefit from the results of this study:

1. Student services directors, guidance supervisors,

and guidance coordinators, all of whom are responsible for

coordinating the in-service activities for their school

district's student services personnel;

2. Counselor educators who are responsible for the

professional preparation of school counselors;

3. Florida Department of Education Student Services and

Curriculum personnel who are responsible for planning and

implementing statewide child abuse prevention programs and

developing material for training use;

4. Florida Department of Health and Rehabilitative

Services personnel who frequently provide in-service training

programs for school counselors in their districts;

5. Professional organizations that provide

conferences, newsletters, and workshops to improve the skills

of their members; and

6. Policy makers, such as legislators and school board

members, who are in a position to allocate financial resources

to meet the in-service needs.

In addition to implications for practitioners and

providers of training for school counselors, the data

generated from this study would be beneficial to

theoreticians and researchers working on ways to improve the

effectiveness of school counselors' responses to child abuse.

Purpose of the Study

The purpose of this study is to assess the extent to

which the child abuse intervention practices, knowledge, and

skill effectiveness reported by school counselors in Florida

meet the standards advocated by authorities in the child

abuse and counseling fields. In addition, school counselor

characteristics (e.g., experience, training) will be assessed

in relation to their self-reported child abuse intervention

practices, knowledge, and skill effectiveness. These data

will allow inferences to be made about school counselor

training needs in the area of child abuse. Since this

information is not currently available, the intent of this

study is to fill a void in the professional literature.

The implication in conducting this research is that the

findings will aid providers of school counselor training in

their future research and development of programs to better

prepare school counselors to meet the role expectations of

legislation and professional imperatives regarding child

abuse identification, treatment, and prevention.


The state of knowledge regarding the professional

development training needs in the area of child abuse of

Florida school counselors is unknown. This knowledge would

be necessary to design an experimental research study, such

as an assessment of a potential training model. However,

although Florida school counselors are legally obligated to

report child abuse cases; their preparedness to perform this

function has not been determined. Therefore, needs

assessment is the logical method of determining what

additional training, if any, they believe they need to

effectively fulfill their obligations and responsibilities in

regard to child abuse.

Since Chapter 827 of the Florida Statutes affects all

school counselors in the state, it follows that the data

collected should be from a statewide population, reflecting

statewide needs. Geographic or district comparisons could

provide useful information to state-level policy makers and

providers of counselor training.

The use of a paper-and-pencil instrument was selected

as the most efficient method of collecting data from a large

population. Other approaches, such as interviews, could also

provide the same information; however, financial, time, and

convenience considerations determined the selection of the

paper-and-pencil format.

Research Questions

This study will attempt to answer the following

research questions:

1. To what extent do the child abuse intervention

practices and knowledge reported by school counselors in

Florida meet the standards advocated by authorities in the

child abuse and counseling fields?

2. What interventions are currently being used by

Florida school counselors in the area of child abuse? (Survey

Section I)

3. What are the self-reported levels of school

counselor knowledge and levels of skill effectiveness in the

following child abuse intervention areas: (a) identification

of abused students, (b) reporting abuse cases, (c) legal and

professional responsibilities in child abuse cases, (d)

treatment of abused students and their families, (e) prevention

of child abuse, (f) consultation with school staff, parents

and community members, and (g) consultation and coordination

with community agency personnel? (Survey Sections II and


4. What are the relationships among school counselor

child abuse intervention practices, self-reported knowledge,

and levels of skill effectiveness?

5. What are the relationships among the following

school counselor characteristics and their self-reported

child abuse intervention practices, knowledge, and skill

effectiveness: (a) geographic location, (b) years of school

counseling experience, (c) experience with child abuse cases,

(d) work level setting, (e) size of caseload, (f) training in

child abuse (g) race, and (h) sex?

Definition of Terms

Child Abuse. There are no universally agreed upon

definitions of child abuse (Besharov, 1981). For the

purposes of this study the term "child abuse" will be used to

describe broadly the phenomena of both child abuse and child

neglect as legally defined in Florida:

Child abuse. "Any nonaccidental injury, sexual battery,

financial or sexual exploitation or injury to the

intellectual or psychological capacity of a person by the

parents or other persons responsible for the child's welfare"

(Florida Statutes, 1983). The "other" abusers may

include legal guardians, foster, group or nursing home

operators, babysitters, day care workers, other family

members, roommates, or persons cohabiting with a child's


Child neglect. "Failure to provide adequate food,

clothing, shelter, health care, or needed supervision"

(Florida Statutes, 1983).

Children. Persons under eighteen years of age.

Consultation. A process of interaction between
two professional persons--the consultant, who is
a specialist, and the consultee, who invokes
the consultant's help in regard to a current
work problem with which he is having some
difficulty and which he has decided is within
the other's area of specialized competence.
(Caplan, 1970, p. 19)

As applied to educational settings, parents as well as

professional people are included as consultees.

Counseling. A personal and dynamic relation-
ship between a professionally prepared counselor
and an individual (or group of individuals), where the
purpose is to assist that individual in his under-
standing of himself and his environment. This
special learning process usually involves the exploration
of feelings and behaviors as they are related to

decision-making processes that affect
personal growth and development. (Myrick &
Wittmer, 1972, p. 43)

Family counseling. A specialized type of counseling in

which the "family unit" is identified as the counseling


Group counseling. "An interpersonal process involving a

counselor and several members who explore themselves and

their situations in an attempt to modify their attitudes and

behaviors." (Hansen, Warner, & Smith, 1980, p. 4)

Knowledge. An organized body of information, either

factual or procedural, which, if applied, makes job

performance possible (Corley, 1981).

Need. "A condition among members of a specific group

S. that reflects an actual lack of something or an awareness

(perception) that something is lacking" (Collision, 1982, p.


Needs assessment. A process for identifying and
measuring gaps between 'what is' and 'what ought
to be', prioritizing the gaps, and determining
which of the gaps to work on to obtain closure.
In the educational setting this process yields
information which can be used in educational
planning, in problem solving, for making
educational decisions, for accountability and for
supporting applications for funding. (Trimby,
1979, p. 24)

Prevention. "Any maneuver or program which has as its intent

the prevention of child abuse and/or neglect" (Helfer, 1982,

p. 252). Prevention can be classified into three subsets,

which are as follows:

Primary prevention. Any maneuver that occurs
to or around an individual the stated purpose

of which is to prevent child abuse and neglect
from ever occurring to that individual,

Secondary prevention. Any program or maneuver that
is implemented to or for an individual or group of
individuals, who have been identified as coming
from a very high risk environment, which has as
its intent the prevention of the abuse and/or
neglect from occurring to that individual's

Tertiary prevention. Any after-the-fact program
initiated after abuse and neglect has occurred,
the intent of which is to keep the abuse and/or
neglect from happening again. (Helfer, 1982, p.

School counselor. A professionally trained counselor who

works in a school setting. The entry level preparation for a

school counselor consists of a master's degree with the

following recommended program of studies: human growth and

development, social and cultural foundations, the helping

relationship, appraisal of the individual, groups, life-style

and career development, research and evaluation, professional

orientation, and environmental and specialized studies. In

addition, supervised experiences are essential components of

school counselor training (Association for Counselor

Education and Supervision, 1979).

Skills. The proficient manual, verbal, or mental

manipulation of data, people, or things. The performance of

a skill implies a prerequisite knowledge of the activity

(Corley, 1981).

Training need. "An inability or projected inability to

perform an act of work to a specified performance standard "

(Pecora, Dodson, Teather, & Whittaker, 1983, p. 397).

Organization of the Study

The remainder of this study is divided into four

chapters. Chapter II contains a review of literature

related to the study. In Chapter III the study methodology

is presented, including detailed descriptions of the

population, sampling procedures, resultant sample,

assessment techniques, research procedures, data analyses,

and methodological limitations. Chapter IV covers the

results of the research and includes a presentation of

data analyses, summary tables of data, and a nonevaluative

explanation of the results. Chapter V contains a

discussion of these results. Topics included in this

discussion will include the generalizability limitations of

the research, responses to research questions, conclusions,

implications, recommendations, and a summary of the results

and findings.


The review of the related literature has been divided

into four sections: the abuse of school-aged children, the

role of the school in child abuse intervention, the role of

the school counselor in child abuse intervention, and school

counselor professional development training. The

intent of the section regarding the abuse of school-aged

children is to provide the reader with an overview of the

social and psychological context of child abuse by describing

the problems of definition, incidence, etiology, effects,

treatment, and prevention of child abuse.

The section on the role of the school in child abuse

intervention reviews the child abuse identification and

reporting, prevention, and treatment roles ascribed to school

personnel in the related literature. The section on the

school counselor's role in child abuse intervention

describes specific roles recommended for school counselor

involvements with child abuse. These roles include

coordinator, reporter and referral agent, abuse victim and

family counselor, parent and school staff consultant, primary

prevention consultant, liaison with community, and child


The final section describes school counselor

professional development training as related to their child

abuse intervention roles. The needs assessment method of

data collection is also reviewed.

The Abuse of School-Aged Children

By far the greatest amount of research on the subject

of child abuse has been descriptive. The professional

literature in the fields of medicine, nursing, law,

sociology, social work, psychology, education, and school

counseling contain scores of articles describing the scope

and nature of child abuse as well as recommendations for the

respective professionals' response. In the five-year period

from 1978 to 1983 alone, the National Center on Child Abuse

and Neglect's Clearinghouse collected reports from 1,392

research studies in child abuse and neglect (Klaus & Martin,

1983). Frequently, these studies contradicted each other in

areas such as definitions, causes, effects, incidence rates,

and professional roles regarding effective identification,

treatment, and prevention strategies (Zigler, 1983). Such

inconsistencies made the task of conducting meaningful

research difficult because of lack of comparability,

reliability, and taxonomic delineation (Besharov, 1981). The

problem of definition in this regard was the greatest.

The Problem of Definition

The vagueness and ambiguity that surround the

definition of child abuse and neglect affect every aspect of

the field and results in confusion in research as well as

legislation (Klaus & Martin, 1983). There are hundreds of

conflicting definitions of "child abuse" and "child neglect"

today which vary according to the researcher's legal, social

work, medical, psychological, and/or sociological

orientation. They range from specific definitions,

emphasizing serious physical injury, to any maltreatment that

harms a child's health or welfare (Benjamin & Walz, 1983).

Because no one definition has been widely accepted,

researchers continue to develop their own idiosyncratic

definitions, measures and variables. The slightest

difference can include or exclude large numbers of subjects

being studied, thus making comparability of findings

impossible (Besharov, 1981). In particular, "this lack of a

standardized definition of child abuse has a dramatic impact

on incidence data because statistics reflect phenomena

ranging from the number of children killed to the number

spanked each year!" (Zigler, 1983, p. 333). Those incidence

studies, for instance, which are directly related to

definition, have produced yearly estimates ranging from

60,000 (Hefler & Kempe, 1974) to 4.5 million (Gil, 1973)

cases of child abuse each year.

There is no way of knowing whether the cases
being counted represent similar or diverse
phenomena, and hence no way of knowing what
the numbers actually mean, save for an
indication of the volume of cases being
processed under particular labels through
various reporting and protective systems.
(Giovannoni & Becerra, 1979, p. 14)

Efforts to address the definitional problems associated

with child abuse and neglect research have been made as

indicated by the National Study of the Incidence and Severity

of Child Abuse and Neglect (U.S. Department of Health and

Human Services,[DHHS], 1981). This was the first national

study of child abuse and neglect which had common and

consistent definitions at all data collection locations.

Forms of maltreatment encompassed by the National Incidence

Study included the following:

Physical Abuse

I. Assault with implement (e.g., knife, strap,
2. Assault without implement (e.g., hit with
fist, bite, or means of assault unknown)

Sexual Abuse

3. Intrusion (acts involving penile penetration--
oral, anal, or genital; e.g., rape, incest)
4. Molestation with genital contact
5. Other or unknown

Emotional Abuse

6. Verbal or emotional assault (e.g., threatening,
7. Close confinement (e.g., tying, locking in
8. Other or unknown (e.g., attempted physical or
sexual assault)

Physical Neglect

9. Abandonment
10. Other refusal of custody (e.g., expulsion,
refusal to accept custody of runaway)
11. Refusal to allow or provide needed care for
diagnosed illness, health condition or
12. Unwarranted delay or failure to seek needed
remedial health care
13. Inadequate physical supervision
14. Disregard of avoidable hazards in home (e.g.,
exposed wiring, broken glass)
15. Inadequate nutrition, clothing, or hygiene
16. Other (e.g., reckless disregard of child's
safety such as driving while intoxicated)

Educational Neglect

17. Knowingly "permitting" chronic truancy
18. Other (e.g., repeatedly kept child home,
failed to enroll)

Emotional Neglect

19. Inadequate nurturance/affection (e.g.,
20. Knowingly "permitting" maladaptive
behavior (e.g., delinquency, serious drug/
alcohol abuse)
21. Other (e.g., refusal to allow needed remedial
care for diagnosed emotional problem).
(DHHS, 1981, p. 2)


Data from the National Incidence Study (DHHS, 1981)

were collected over a 12 month period from nearly 600

agencies in 26 counties selected nationwide. Only cases

considered clear-cut and "serious maltreatment" were included

in the study. The findings revealed that at least 652,000

children are abused and/or neglected annually in the United

States, and very likely the actual number is approximately

one million. The key findings of this landmark study were

reported in the following areas:

1. Forms of maltreatment

a. The number of abused children and the number
of neglected children are approximately the
b. Physical assault is the most common form of
abuse--more than half of the abused children
were physically assaulted.
c. Educational neglect is the most common form
of neglect--more than half of the neglected
children were educationally neglected. (p.5)

2. Severity of maltreatment

a. At least 84% of the 652,000 children were
moderately or more severely injured or impaired.
b. Approximately 1,000 children die each year as
a result of child maltreatment related injury.
(p. 5)

3. Age and sex of maltreated children

a. Substantial numbers of children of all ages
are abused and/or neglected.
b. The maltreatment incidence rate for adolescents
is more than twice the rate for preschool
children. (p. 5)

4. Income, race, geographic setting of maltreated

a. Maltreated children can be found in all income
b. Children from low income families are much more
likely to suffer maltreatment than are children
from high income families.
c. The incidence rate for blacks and whites is
almost identical.
d. No geographic setting is free of child abuse
and neglect. In fact, the incidence rates are
similar for urban, suburban, and rural
communities. (p. 9)

5. Recognition and reporting of maltreated children

a. Nationally, 1,101,500 children are reported to
Child Protective Service (CPS) agencies annually
as suspected victims of maltreatment.

b. Of those children reported, 43% are
substantiated by the CPS agencies as victims.
(p. 12)
c. Only one-fifth of the children recognized as
maltreated by professionals in community
institutions (e.g., schools, hospitals) are
officially reported to local CPS agencies.
(p. 14)

The findings of the National Incidence Study related

to sexual abuse have been criticized as being overly

restrictive due to the definitions used in the study. The

usefulness of the data has been considered inadequate by limiting

the definition of sexual abuse to cases where the caretaker

was the perpetrator (Finkelhor & Hotaling, 1984).

The National Committee for Prevention of Child Abuse

conducted three follow-up studies of all 50 states in 1982

and 1983 to assess increases in reported cases (National

Committee for Prevention of Child Abuse, 1984, March). Only

five states had not experienced an increase in child abuse

and neglect. Florida showed an increase of 4% from 1981 to

1982 and a 24% increase from 1982 to 1983 (pp. 5, 7).

Incidence data from Florida's Department of Health

and Rehabilitative Services (HRS) showed 100,333 reported

cases of child abuse and neglect in Florida in 1983 (L.

Fulop, personal communication, October 28, 1984). Health and

Rehabilitative Service workers substantiated that in 43% of

these cases abuse was indicated, which exactly matched the

national average. The total number of school-aged children

(5-17 years old) reported was 63,984 or 64% of the total

reported. Within this group of cases, 44% were substantiated

while 52% were unfounded, 1% unable to locate, and 3% of the

cases still remained open. Florida's school-aged children

represented a total of 65% or 28,003 of the children who have

experienced substantiated incidents of child abuse in 1983.

Etiology of Child Abuse

No single factor can account for child abuse and "in

some respects, all families are vulnerable" (Cohn, 1983, p.

3). The most common factor discovered in child abuse cases

was that the parents themselves were nearly always abused or

neglected as children (Steele & Pollock, 1974).

Another near-constant is the inability of
maltreating parents to identify with or relate to
other people, including or especially their own
children; and their lack of understanding of the
needs and limitations of children. Battering
parents, particularly, tend to share an inability
to cope with stress; they require little
provocation to lose control and give vent to their
hostility. (Fontana, 1973, p. 68)

The inability to manage the stress caused by numerous

sociological or situational conditions has been widely

theorized in the child abuse literature as a major source of

child abuse. Poverty, unemployment, social isolation,

overcrowded or inadequate housing conditions, financial or

legal difficulties, alcohol and drug misuse, single or

adolescent parenthood and stepparenthood all have been cited

as factors that increase the risk of child abuse and neglect

occurring within the family (Broadhurst, 1979; Cohn, 1983;

Fontana, 1973; Gil, 1973; Kempe & Kempe, 1984). Poor

parenting skills, unrealistic expectations, and inconsistent

disciplinary measures were also described as characteristic

of abusive parents (Cohn, 1983).

Characteristics of the child that have been cited as

eliciting abusive behavior included premature or low birth

weight babies, physically or mentally disabled children, and

provocative children. Disruptions in attachment and bonding

between parent and child have also been shown to increase the

risk of abuse (Cohn, 1983). In addition, the values and

attitudes of families toward children, changing family roles,

violence, corporal punishment, economic and social

competition, and religion further influence the nature and

extent of maltreatment (Broadhurst, 1979).

Severe emotional pressure or psychopathology of the

parents can also result in child abuse. However, the

sadistic or psychotic parent represents a small percentage of

the abusive parent population (Fontana, 1973).

Child abuse most likely occurs when a combination of

these negative forces exists within the family unit. In

combination, these multiple factors tend to reinforce each

other and exacerbate the family's problems which create

abusive situations (Broadhurst, 1979).

Effects of Child Abuse and Neglect

The physical, emotional, and mental development of

children can be permanently and seriously damaged by child

beatings or neglect may include organic damage, such as

paralysis or damage to the vital organs, which results in

mental retardation, blindness, deafness, loss of limb, or

possibly death. More subtle damage to the central nervous

system may appear as perceptual or learning difficulties and

developmental delays (Forrer, 1975). For the purposes of

this study, the research related to the emotional,

behavioral, and educational consequences of child abuse was

primarily reviewed.

Emotional effects of child abuse

A review of nine studies of emotional development in

abused children indicated that these children have serious

emotional problems (Kinard, 1980). Despite the

methodological limitations of small samples and variations in

sample sources, criteria for control group selection, and

observation instruments, the studies were remarkably

consistent in their findings of substantial deficits in the

emotional development of abused children. "The research

evidence indicates that abused children have serious problems

with respect to aggression, self-concept, relationships with

peers and adults, attachment and detachment behavior, and the

capacity to trust others" (Kinard, 1980, pp. 452-453). The

major findings of Kinard's (1980) review were as follows:

Aggression. Abused children demonstrated greater

aggressive behavior than control group children and that

aggressive responses may vary according to the types of abuse

and the home environment.

Self-concept. Six of the nine studies examined

elements of self-concept and all agreed that abused children

exhibited a general air of depression, unhappiness, and


Relationships with peers and adults. Interaction

with peers and adults was problematic for abused children in

such areas as aggression or avoidance of peers and in giving

or receiving affection as indicated by the four studies

reviewed using measures of relationships with others. Abused

children saw themselves as different from their peers, likely

to be excluded from peer groups, and perceived themselves as


Attachment and detachment behavior. Four of the

studies discussed attachment and detachment behavior and

results indicated that abused children showed far less

attachment to the mother figure than did the control

children. The abused children had fewer positive feelings

toward their mothers; however, they tended to deny negative

feelings about her. Resolving the developmental task of

separation from the mother figure was more difficult for the

abused children than the nonabused children.

Establishment of trust. Abused children were found

to be impaired in their ability to develop a sense of trust

in others.

A later study showed the emotional adjustment of

school-aged abused children, as measured by psychological

evaluations, to be differentially affected by the nature of

the abuse and interventions (Kinard, 1982). Generally, the

younger and more repetitive abuse experiences were found to

result in greater emotional problems. Fantasy aggression was

more often apparent in children who had experienced

repetitive abuse while increased psychiatric symptoms such as

temper tantrums, hyperactivity, aggressive behavior toward or

avoidance of peers, and bizarre behavior were characteristic

of children exposed to severe abuse. Living with caretakers

who had emotional problems was also likely to have increased

the child's emotional difficulties.

Just as physical abuse represented one of the frontiers

of pediatrics 20 years ago, today emotional abuse is in that

position (Krugman & Krugman, 1984). New studies have

challenged many long-held beliefs about the causes and

effects of child abuse. For example, a longitudinal study of

200 children discovered that the most seriously "damaged"

children in the study were those who had been psychologically

neglected (Brody, 1984). The term "psychologically

unavailable mothering" has been coined by researchers to

describe a new form of child abuse--emotional

unresponsiveness to a child's needs. Such mothers tend to

ignore their children when they are uncomfortable, hurt, or

unhappy and fail to share in their child's pleasure (Brody,


Another recent study of the case histories of elementary

school students initially diagnosed as school phobics

revealed they were, in reality, victims of a verbally abusive

teacher. Upon dismissal of the teacher, the school phobia

symptoms disappeared in a majority of the cases (Krugman &

Krugman, 1984).

Behavioral effects of child abuse

The typical behavioral themes found in abused children

were violence and withdrawal (Forrer, 1975). Social

environments that result in child abuse similarly produce

juvenile delinquents. Most of the seriously aggressive and

destructive juvenile crimes are committed by abused teenagers

(Garbarino, 1983). In one study, 97% of the male recidivist,

"hard-core" delinquents had histories of severe physical

abuse (Welsh, 1976).

Each year two million children run away from home. As

many as half of them do so because they have been abused,

primarily sexually. The average age of a runaway child in

1984 was 12 years old as compared to 15 years old just 10

years ago (Kempe & Kempe, 1984). Researchers have discovered

that running away frequently leads to further abuse and

delinquency (Garbarino & Groninger, 1983). In addition, a

high incidence rate of running away has been discovered among

the siblings of physically abused children (Gutierres &

Reich, 1981).

Child abuse experiences are significant factors in both

suicide and drug and alcohol abuse. The emotional

consequences of abuse, such as depression, self-hate, anger,

and sense of futility, make the victim vulnerable to these

self-destructive behaviors (Garbarino & Groninger, 1983).

Educational effects of child abuse

Child abuse and neglect is clearly related to learning

in that abused children often demonstrate significant

learning problems. Deficits in cognitive, language,

perceptual, and motor skills appear widespread, as well as

poor attention spans and difficulty in dealing with

frustration (Broadhurst, 1979; Cohn, 1979).

Studies exploring the relationship between abuse and

neglect and the placement of abused children in special

education classes found abused children placed more

frequently than non-abused children in classes for the

emotionally handicapped, educable mentally handicapped, and

learning disabled. Victims of sexual abuse were placed in

these classes more often than those who had been physically

abused. Academically, most of the abused children were

performing substantially below their expected grade levels

(Kline, Cole, & Fox, 1981).

Treatment of Child Abuse and Neglect

The studies of the effects of child abuse and neglect

clearly demonstrated that the emotional repercussions of the

abuse experiences were serious enough to warrant mental health

treatment (Cohn, 1983; Kinard, 1980, 1982). Cohn (1983)

stated that

Although experts agree that a major effort is
needed to ensure the direct treatment of abused
children, there is little knowledge of how most
effectively to meet the therapeutic need for these
children. Unfortunately, treatment for the abused
child has typically centered on treatment for the
abusive parent. (pp. 15-16)

Findings from a three-year evaluation of the first

National Demonstration Program in Child Abuse and Neglect

concluded that few professionals agreed on effective treatment

strategies (Cohn, 1979). Theories ranged from

therapeutically-oriented interventions, such as psychiatric

counseling, to concrete services, such as homemaking

assistance, to education, such as parenting classes. The

1,724 parents included in the study were participants in 11

federally funded, three-year child abuse and neglect service

projects. One Florida program, the Parent and Child

Effectiveness Relations Project of St. Petersburg, was among

the programs evaluated. The major findings of this study

included the following:

1. The recurrence of child abuse while the parents

were in treatment programs occurred frequently. Cases of

severe recurrence were reported for 30% of the parents

included in the study.

2. The professional judgment of the child abuse

program staffs revealed that in most cases the treatment

programs were ineffective. The workers judged the likelihood

of future abuse being reduced in only 42% of the cases in

which services were terminated.

3. The study indicated that a substantial number of

developmental problems were exhibited by abused children and

that the children were in as great a need for treatment as

their parents.

4. Those programs that included lay counselors, such

as Parent Aides or Parents Anonymous, had the highest degree

of success.

5. Treatment programs that offered therapy for

children had beneficial results. Most of the children

treated had significantly higher scores on standardized tests

for cognitive, language, and motor skills at the time of


Although significant, the conclusiveness of these

findings was limited because of a number of methodological

constraints. There were no control or nontreatment groups in

the study; projects were selected for their treatment

strategies, not necessarily representing child abuse and

neglect projects in general; data came from those working

with the families rather than from the clients themselves;

and finally, data were collected when the clients terminated

treatment resulting in no data regarding the long-term

effects of treatment (Cohn, 1979).

In their review of child abuse literature, Benjamin and

Walz (1983) also addressed the need for alternative methods of

treatment for child abuse cases. They discovered a lack of

clarity as to appropriate helping responses and found little

usable information and resources for dealing with the

problem. More empirical data need to be collected and

disseminated on how human services specialists are treating

cases of child abuse and the outcomes from these treatment

strategies in terms of success experienced by the client

(Benjamin & Walz, 1983). A major conclusion from this review

was that any "serious commitment to assisting abused

children with existing abuse as well as taking action to

preclude future abuse necessitates dealing with the total

family structure" (Benjamin & Walz, 1983, pp. 54-55).

Other researchers and case workers viewed abusive

situations less in terms of the parent as perpetrator and

child as victim to a more interactive interpretation of the

"family itself as the victim". Current treatment approaches

were more eclectic, offering a combination of services and

therapies to the maltreated child and his or her family. "It

is now generally accepted that no one treatment method is

sufficient and that most abusive situations demand a range of

services, both to relieve the immediate crises and to provide

long-range help" (Klaus & Martin, 1983, p. 101).

Group counseling for abusive parents, structured to

maximize peer support and reduce social isolation, was

recommended as an effective treatment strategy (Otto, 1984).

Abusive parents have been described
consistently as isolated, lonely, and lacking
support, therefore, any attempt to bring about
change requires a response to these conditions as
part of an effective treatment program. Although
individual counseling offers help in many problem

areas, it does not provide an ongoing support
system that can alleviate the sense of isolation
and loneliness experienced by abusive parents.
(p. 337)

Researchers agreed that treatment programs for children

should include a thorough diagnosis of physical and

developmental (social, psychological, and emotional) problems

(Cohn, 1983; Kinard, 1980). Therapeutic, age-appropriate

treatment can then be offered to alleviate the identified

problems. Therapy should begin as soon as possible following

the abusive incident and afford the child the opportunity to

recognize and explore feelings about being abused (Kinard,

1980). Both individual and group services should be made

available (Cohn, 1983).

In a study of adolescent abuse, Mouzakitis (1984)

recommended that

[B]efore any treatment is attempted, it is
imperative for professionals to acquire a thorough
knowledge of the history of abuse, delinquent
behavior and home situation. Determining
chronicity and/or nonchronicity of experiences and
behaviors in their backgrounds will direct
professionals toward a differential treatment
approach. (p. 156)

Chronically abused adolescents need a long-term

treatment approach. In addition to extensive insight-oriented

therapy, youth-oriented programs were recommended.

For the nonchronically abused adolescent, a short-term

crises-oriented approach was considered most effective (Mouzakitis,


Prevention of Child Abuse

The literature on child abuse prevention contained

descriptions of numerous primary and secondary prevention

strategies. Research on the effectiveness of these

interventions, however, was scarce and has concentrated on

previously identified abusive parents rather than those at

risk (Cohn, 1983).

Researchers have discovered that child abuse and

neglect does not fit into the medical model from which

traditional concepts of prevention were derived. "There is

no easily identifiable population at risk, no one set of

symptoms or manifestations of the 'disease,' no one set of

universally applicable methods of either treatment or

prevention" (Klaus & Martin, 1983, p. 138).

Due to the complexity of the child abuse problem, a

comprehensive, community-wide prevention approach has most

frequently been recommended as being the most effective, overall

prevention strategy. The suggested goals of this comprehensive

approach to prevention were to

Increase future parents' knowledge of child
development and the demands of parenting

Enhance parent-child bonding, emotional ties, and

Increase parents' skills in coping with the
stresses of infant and child care

Increase parents' skills in coping with the
stresses of caring for children with special needs

Increase parents' knowledge about home and child

Reduce the burden of child care

Reduce family isolation and increase peer support

Increase access to social and health services for
all family members

Reduce the long-term consequences of poor
parenting. (Cohn, 1983, p. 25)

Community programs recommended to implement these goals

included the following:

Support programs for new parents

Education for parents

Early and regular child and family screening and

Child care opportunities

Programs for abused children and young adults

Life skills training for children and young adults

Self-help groups and other neighborhood supports

Family support services. (Cohn, 1983, p. 25)

Courtois & Leehan (1982) suggested that group treatment

for "grown-up" abused children who were not yet parents was an

effective preventive strategy for future abuse. They have

developed a model group treatment program for this population.

Although the family unit has been cited as the most

appropriate target for prevention efforts, there was general

agreement in the literature that programs directed toward the

treatment of abused or potentially abused children should be

considered as preventive measures (Helfer, 1982). Another

near constant theme in the prevention literature was the

critical role the public school system could play in the

prevention of child abuse (Anderson & Griffin, 1981; Benjamin

& Walz, 1983). "Because of the public school system's

consistent and logitudinal contact with children and families

it is perhaps the most promising institution for the delivery

of preventive efforts" (Brassard, Tyler, & Kehle, 1983, p.


In Florida, "programs for the prevention of abuse or

neglect of children are virtually non-existent. Where they

do exist there is little or no coordination of efforts. This

lack of coordination often results in poor client services"

(HRS, 1983-1984, p. 20).

Role of the School in Child Abuse Intervention

The major child abuse intervention roles assigned

school personnel included the identification, reporting,

prevention, and to a much smaller degree, treatment of abused

children (Benjamin & Walz, 1983; Breton, 1980; Broadhurst,

1979; Garbarino, 1979; Gil, 1970; Libbey & Bybee, 1979). The

identification/reporting responsibilities have received the

most attention in the literature reviewed, a situation which,

most likely, was an outgrowth of child abuse legislation.


A survey of state laws and child abuse reporting

practices found that all 50 states required reporting of

suspected child abuse cases by school personnel (Camblin

& Prout, 1983). Data collected on school-originating reports

of child abuse showed that nationally 15.5% of all child abuse

reports came from school personnel.

Florida school employees made 7,647, or 12%, of the

child abuse reports of school-aged children to HRS officials

in 1983 (L. Fulop, personal communication, October 28, 1984).

In comparison, other referral sources and the percent of

referrals made of school-aged children included the following:

Law enforcement personnel 9%

Neighbors/friends 17%

Child/victim self-referral 3%

Parent self-referral 2%

Other parent 7.5%

Other relative 9%

HRS institution employee 1%

Other HRS employees 5.5%

Other social service agency employees 4%

Physicians .8%

Other medical personnel 2%

Mental health personnel .8%

Court personnel .3%

Attorneys .2%

Clergy .2%

Other 5%

Anonymous 17% (p. 83).

Further analysis of the HRS incidence data showed that

of the 7,647 reports made by school employees, 4,544, or 59%

of the cases were substantiated as child abuse or neglect (p.

94). To summarize these findings, out of the over 100,000

reported cases of child abuse and neglect in Florida in 1983,

only 4,544 cases were identified as a result of school

personnel's observation and reporting.

Throughout the literature reviewed, educational

institution personnel have often been accused of seriously

underreporting incidence of child abuse (Bridgeman, 1984;

Camblin & Prout, 1983; Garbarino, 1979; Griggs & Gale,

1977; Levin, 1983; Nielsen, 1983; Pelcovitz, 1980) and have

been cited as contributors to the injury and death statistics

by failing to report suspected cases and by refusing to

become involved in the problem (London & Stile, 1982;

Shanas, 1975). Given that schools should account for half or

more of the child abuse referrals, it was cited as a concern

that a national average of 15% of suspected cases are being

reported by school personnel. "This appears to be a function

of limited awareness and reluctance on the part of the school

personnel. In addition, it suggests that state child abuse

programs have failed to reach out and educate school

personnel on child abuse" (Camblin & Prout, 1983, p. 366).

Other reasons for this reluctance to report cited most

frequently include the following: frustration with

disposition of cases once reported, lack of follow-up by

social services personnel who are frequently overloaded with

cases, fear of intruding in private lives of their students,

fear of confrontation with parents, and fear of legal action

(Beezer, 1985; Bridgeman, 1984).

Several researchers have further accused educators of

being perpetrators of "institutional child abuse" by

inflicting corporal punishment upon their students

(Dubanoski, Inaba, & Gerkewicz, 1983). The "irony" of the

Supreme Court of the United States sanctioning the use of

bodily punishment as an "acceptable method of prompting good

behavior and instilling notions of responsibility into the

mischievious heads of school children" (Ingraham v. Wright,

1976, p. 1406) while other government agencies (e.g., National

Center on Child Abuse and Neglect) are advocating non-violent

methods of disciplining children appeared frequently

throughout the child abuse literature (Broadhurst, 1979; Garbarino,

1979; Gil, 1970). While all 50 states have enacted

laws mandating teachers to report physical abuse of children,

46 states permit teachers to physically punish their students

despite evidence that corporal punishment fails to deter

misbehavior, discriminates against boys and minorities, and

teaches the use of physical aggression as an appropriate

method of resolving conflicts (Feshbach, 1980). During the

1983-1984 school year, 155,622 students received paddlings in

Florida's public schools (Florida Department of Education,


One of the major goals set forth in the State Plan: A

Comprehensive Approach for the Prevention of Child Abuse and

Neglect in Florida was "to have all appropriate school

personnel knowledgeable of the indicators of child abuse and

neglect and to have them knowledgeable of how and when to

report suspected abuse and neglect cases and to know what

action to take in such cases" (HRS, 1983-1984, p. 25). The

training of all Florida school personnel to meet this goal was

scheduled to be completed by June 1, 1985.

As part of Florida's State Plan (HRS, 1983-1984), HRS

officials specified the following barriers that could hamper

the state's child abuse detection efforts:

Personal feelings about getting involved in
other people's problems or judging their child rearing

Local school policies that all reports of
child abuse and neglect be made through an
administrator who may then fail or refuse to make
the report for various reasons which are
obstructive and illegal.

Insufficient knowledge of signs and symptoms
of child abuse and neglect.

Bad experiences with and distrust of child
protective counselors.

Large numbers of schools in Florida and over
70,000 school teachers to whom this instruction
must be given.

Resistance of school administrators to have
their staff receive such instruction and to have
them take action in cases of suspected child abuse
or neglect.

Sixty-seven separate, autonomous school
districts. (pp. 25-26)


Most of the research reviewed suggests that the

school's most effective role can be in the area of prevention

and that a systematic program of parent education and life

skills management would serve as an effective preventive

strategy (Benjamin & Walz, 1983; Broadhurst, 1977, 1979;

Garbarino, 1979; Garbarino & Garbarino, 1982). This program

should include training in interpersonal skills, parenting

roles, and protection from abuse as well as offering

instruction in child development, family and life management,

self-development, sexuality, birth control, and methods of

receiving community assistance (Cohn, 1983). According to

Heifer (1982) interpersonal skills programs in public schools

can be effective preventive strategies when, and only when,

combined with a community-oriented multifaceted program.

Concurrent interventions must include some combination of

community commitment that family violence is unacceptable,

new parent training and home health visitor program, early

childhood development programs, and adult education programs.

The school system can play an important role in reducing

the social isolation of families by sponsoring parent support

groups and social activities which foster a sense of

community. In addition, school personnel can lessen the

cultural support for violence against children through

modeling non-violent methods of interpersonal social control

(Broadhurst, 1979; Downing, 1982; Garbarino, 1979).

Other recommended (Garbarino & Garbarino, 1982) child

abuse prevention strategies for school personnel included the

following: classes in nonviolent conflict resolution for

both students and parents, the elimination of physical

punishment, alternative education programs for unsuccessful

students, self-help peer groups, and child abuse awareness



The prevailing view found in the literature reviewed is

that school personnel should be actively involved in the

treatment of abused children (Benjamin & Walz, 1983; Benton,

1980; Broadhurst, 1979; Halperin, 1979; Pelcovitz, 1980; Riggs,

1982; Sgroi, 1982). Unlike the clearly stated legislative

mandates for reporting child abuse, however, the role of school

personnel regarding treatment remained relatively undefined.

Recognizing that the trauma created by abuse is as much

a detriment to learning as is a perceptual or physical

difficulty, professional education associations, such as the

National Education Association, issued resolutions to

their memberships to become involved with their abused

students and recommended varied intervention strategies. These

range from individual conferences with the teacher to special

activities involving the entire class (Tower, 1984). In a Phi

Delta Kappa publication, London and Stile (1982) charged the

classroom teacher with the role of positively supporting the

abused child by displaying sensitivity to the child's needs,

structuring success experiences, and avoiding caustic remarks

about the child's parents (p. 25).

Including school personnel on child protection teams has

been recommended as a necessary part of helping abused

children (Breton, 1980). An in-school treatment plan should

be developed utilizing the resources of school personnel.

For example, this group could organize after-school

activities or local people to care for students in crises

situations. By forming a partnership with social agency

efforts, school personnel can help meet the abused child's

need for support and stability (Broadhurst, 1977).

While schools are already providing special services for

several conditions caused by abuse (e.g., language delays,

emotional disturbance, and learning disabilities), some

researchers believed that by not treating abused children as

handicapped, school officials were violating the law:

Public Law 94-142, the Education for All
Handicapped Children Act, had mandated that schools
provide equal educational opportunity for all
children. Child abuse and neglect certainly have
been shown to be handicapping conditions, and true
compliance with that legislation clearly involves
schools in the problem of child maltreatment,
whether they wish it or not. (Benjamin & Walz,
1983, p. 39)

Role of the School Counselor in Child Abuse Intervention

Inconsistencies appeared in the child abuse literature

regarding the professional roles of school employees related

to child abuse intervention. The call for a multidisciplinary

intervention approach was most frequently recommended (Benjamin

& Walz, 1983; Resick & Sweet, 1979). However, with the

exception of the American Association for Counseling and

Development (AACD) journals, school counselors were rarely

mentioned as a necessary member of the multidisciplinary

teams. Those professionals cited most often included

doctors, nurses, lawyers, law enforcement officials,

psychologists, and social workers (Resick & Sweet, 1979).

When educational personnel were included, the classroom

teacher (London & Stile, 1982), school health nurse (Riggs &

Evans, 1979), and school psychologist (Kline, Cole, & Fox,

1981) were mentioned more often than school counselors. It

appeared that school counselors were not yet recognized as key

participants in combating child abuse in professional

communities other than their own.

The overriding theme found in the school counselor child

abuse literature was that school counselors can make a

significant contribution toward ameliorating the effects of

child abuse previously committed and preventing future abuse.

The following role descriptions were most frequently cited as

appropriate for school counselors' involvement with child



The school counselor was frequently cited as best

qualified to serve as coordinator for the school's response

to child abuse. In assuming this role the counselor must be

knowledgeable in legal requirements and issues, community

resources, and have established intervention procedures

(Camblin & Prout; Davies & McEwen, 1977; Halperin, 1979;

Otto & Brown, 1982).

Reporter and Referral Agent

"Reporting suspected cases of child abuse/neglect to

the proper constituted authorities is understood to be the

responsibility of school counselors" (ASCA, 1981, p. 162).

In 46 states, including Florida, school counselors are

considered "mandatory" reporters.

The role of identification and reporting was considered

paramount in much of the literature reviewed (Davies &

McEwen, 1977; Foreman & Seligman, 1983; Garbarino &

Garbarino, 1982; Griggs & Gale, 1977). Because school

counselors have greater access to children than other mental

health professionals, Otto and Brown (1982) claimed this to be

the "most".critical role; however, they cautioned counselors

against prematurely reporting abuse cases and suggested working

with abused children until they are psychologically prepared

to support the "turn-in" decision as a more professional


Abuse Victim Counselor

Individual and group counseling for abused children

appeared throughout the literature as another essential

school counselor role (Davies & McEwen, 1977; Forrer, 1975;

Griggs & Gale, 1977; Halperin, 1979; Otto & Brown, 1982;

Williams, 1981). In planning and conducting counseling

interventions as part of the referral process for exceptional

student education programs, counselors were urged to consider

the child's abuse history (Kline, Cole, & Fox, 1981).

Sgroi (1982) claimed that "all" child sexual abuse

victims need some level of therapy, including family therapy.

For intrafamily sexual abuse (incest) a combination of

individual, group, dyad, and family therapy was the

recommended treatment. Working only with the child, although

not optimal, can prove beneficial. A minimum six-month

treatment program was suggested. For adolescents, group

therapy was the treatment of choice. The major goals of

incest treatment are to strengthen the family members' egos

to improve their self image, to help family members learn to

trust each other, and to improve feeling of security within

the family (Sgroi, 1982).

Other recommended counseling interventions for abused

children included play therapy and peer-group counseling

(Benjamin & Walz, 1983). Bibliotherapy was cited as an

effective intervention by Belcher (1983) and Watson (1980).

Through the process of involving abused children, emotionally

and psychologically, with literary characters whose abuse

experiences may resemble their own, counselors can aid

children in gaining insight into the causes and effects of

abuse. The realization that others have had similar

experiences was therapeutic in itself, relieving the isolation

and suffering the abused children experience.

Family Counselor

The school counselor can serve as therapeutic agent in

relation to the family system ( Amatea & Fabrick, 1981;

Golden, 1983). Since many families will not accept referrals

for psychotherapy beyond the school setting, school counselor

intervention may be the only assistance received by some

families. Simon's (1984) brief intervention model, using

principles of family and behavior therapy, suggests using

parent conferences as "therapeutic moments" to promote

positive change in the family system.

In their discussion of adolescent abuse, Foreman and

Seligman (1983) claimed that family counseling should be the

treatment of choice. Through counseling, the school

counselor can assist abusive parents in developing realistic

expectations of their children (Forrer, 1975), and help them

understand the problems of developing adolescents in our

society (Huhn & Zimpfer, 1984).

Consultant to Parents

There was widespread agreement that school counselors

can play a significant role in providing parent support and

education to prevent child abuse (Caskey & Richardson, 1975;

Otto & Brown, 1982). Craft (1981) suggested that school

counselors can play a critical role in combating emotional

abuse of children by providing parent education groups and

parent stress-reduction groups. Her recommended group model

is based on an Adlerian counseling approach. Group

consultation to parents on alternative forms of discipline

and effective communication was also recommended as an

appropriate counselor role ( Dinkmeyer & Dinkneyer 1978;

Moore & McKee, 1979).

Consultant to School Staff

Another universally agreed upon school counselor role

is that of consultant to the school staff for child abuse

related concerns. Through inservice training programs as

well as individual consultation sessions, counselors have

been charged with the responsibility of familiarizing their

colleagues with identification and reporting procedures,

classroom intervention strategies, prevention strategies, and

services available for abused children and their families

(Benjamin & Walz, 1983; Davies & McEwen, 1977; Moore & McKee,

1979; Otto & Brown, 1982; Strein & French, 1984).

Primary Prevention Consultant

According to Dinkmeyer and Dinkmeyer (1984) the school

counselor can effectively serve as a "primary prevention

consultant" to create effective change within the school

setting. This role is particularly appropriate when applied

to child abuse prevention. Sponsoring school-wide child

abuse awareness programs and conducting classroom guidance

units on "realistic" parenting are examples of primary

prevention strategies (Davies & McEwan, 1977; Foreman &

Seligman, 1983). The need for increased primary prevention

efforts by school counselors has recently become a prominent

topic in school counseling literature (Barclay, 1984;

Dinkmeyer & Dinkmeyer, 1984; Sprinthall, 1984).

Liaison with Community

Serving as a link between the school and community

agencies was another role assigned counselors in the child

abuse literature. In assuming this role counselors may be

required to participate in court hearings as expert witnesses

(Anderson & Griffin, 1981; Benjamin & Walz, 1983; Davies &

McEwen, 1977).

Child Advocate

Both individually and in professional groups,

counselors were called upon to serve as advocates for abused

children (Westcott, 1980; Griggs & Gale, 1977).

Individually, school counselors were encouraged to become

involved in community child abuse prevention organization

activities. As a group, counselors were directed to advocate

politically for legislation that will assist their students.

In addition, Davies & McKewen (1977) suggested that school

counselors monitor the level of physical punishment being

administered in their schools as part of their child advocate


School Counselor Professional Development Training

Although research in the field of child abuse is still

in its early stages, several factors relative to this study

have emerged. The first was that abused children exhibit

symptoms that are identifiable. Second, once identified,

school-aged children were responsive to child abuse treatment

programs. A third common theme in the literature was that the

public school system can play a significant part in the

identification, treatment, and prevention of child abuse.

Finally, especially in the counseling literature reviewed, was

the call for school counselors to assume a major role within

the school system's response to child abuse.

Training has been called the "critical link in the
smooth, effective delivery of services to families
at risk. Without a corps of well-trained people
adept at detection, efficient in management, and
dedicated to prevention, community efforts to
reduce the incidence of child abuse and neglect
will not be fully effective. The importance
of training cannot be overemphasized, and no
community program to combat child abuse and neglect
can be considered complete without it. (Broadhurst
& MacDicken, 1979, pp. ix, x)

Training Needs

The delegation of responsibilities related to school

counselors' involvements in child abuse cases assumed they

were familiar with the various types of abuse and neglect,

knew procedures for reporting suspected cases, and were able

to develop intervention strategies for treating and further

preventing abuse (Courtois & Leehan, 1982; Miller & Miller,

1979; Wilson, Thomas & Schuette, 1983).

Little research data, however, were available to support

these assumptions. Conversely, what appeared frequently was

support for the view that school counselors were inadequately

prepared to fulfill this child abuse intervention role. The

following child abuse related skills were most often cited as

areas in which greater training is needed for school

counselors to more competently assist in the school's child

abuse efforts:

Identification and reporting skills. The first step

cited in promoting significant school counselor involvement

in child abuse interventions was to increase their awareness

of the severity of the problem and their potential as "significant

interveners" (Benjamin & Walz, 1983). Unless counselors were

sensitized to the problem they would likely assume either

passive or very minimal roles.

A survey designed to assess the degree to which

elementary and middle school counselors were aware of and

felt competent to deal with the problem of child abuse raised

questions about current performance levels (Wilson, Thomas, &

Schuette, 1983). The survey, which was sent to all

elementary and middle school counselors in Kentucky, found

the counselors reporting an unrealistically low number of

cases of child abuse. With an average of 11 years of

experience, the counselors averaged encountering only six

cases of child abuse in their school counseling careers.

These figures fell far below even the most conservative

estimates of child abuse incidence. The reasons for such a

limited number of recognized child abuse cases remained

unclear because in the same survey 95% of the counselors

claimed to recognize the seriousness of the child abuse

problem, 76% felt confident they could recognize child abuse

symptoms, 64% agreed to knowing counseling procedures to work

with abused children, 92% felt supported by their school

administration in becoming involved in reporting abuse cases

and 90% in counseling abused children, and 82% of the

Kentucky counselors indicated they had no fear of being sued

for reporting.

In analyzing their survey data by years of experience,

Wilson, Thomas, and Schuette (1983) identified two groups of

50 counselors each for comparison. The "more experienced"

counselors (15.5 to 38 years of experience) had a mean of .4

cases encountered per year, while the "less experienced"

counselors (1-5 years of experience) had a mean of 1.9 cases

encountered per year. t-test comparisons found the less

experienced counselors encountering significantly more cases

than the more experienced counselors (p. 301).

In a survey of professional response to child sexual

abuse Finkelhor (1984) found that school personnel seemed to

be very reluctant to engage in any social work or mental

health intervention. Thirty percent of the responding group

of 790 professionals were school employees including

teachers, school nurses (21%), and school counselors (32%)

from elementary and high schools. Of the professional groups

surveyed (mental health, medical, criminal justice, school,

an other social services), school personnel had the least

experience in working with victims and offenders. During

their professional careers only 60% of the school group had

reported seeing one or more victims and 27% as seeing one or

more offenders.

When compared to other groups, school personnel were

"conspicuous" for their low number of recommended

interventions. Schools represented the lowest percentage of

workers who wished to interview the mother again, interview

the child, interview the offender, or arrange for a physical

examination. In short, school personnel wanted to do little

else but report the cases to social services agencies. He

further found that in 47% of the cases, school personnel did

not even refer the case to another agency, thus violating the

legal mandate to report.

Another issue related to identification and reporting

was the counselor's knowledge of ethical guidelines in abuse

cases. Both pre-service and in-service training are needed to

prepare counselors with the skills necessary to make

appropriate ethical decisions in their management of such

cases (Wagner, 1981).

Consultation skills. The frequently ascribed role of

consultant to parents, teachers, administrators, and

community agency personnel in the child abuse literature

assumed that school counselors are proficient in consultation

skills (Otto & Brown, 1982; Strein & French, 1984). A major

obstacle to successfully fulfilling this role, however, was

the limited amount of training most counselors have had in

this area (Umansky & Holloway, 1984).

A survey of counselor education training programs

showed that 95% of the 144 counselor training programs

surveyed provided some training in consultation topics or

skills; however, these consultation topics comprised an

average of only 15% of the material presented in the total

training program. In less than one-half of the institutions

surveyed were students required to take a separate course in

consultation (Splete & Bernstein, 1981).

Dinkmeyer and Dinkmeyer (1984) claimed that

counselor education programs are not preparing school

counselors to serve as effective "primary prevention

consultants". These skills are needed to provide in-service

training to school staff members in dealing with the needs of

special students (Sweeney, Navin, & Myers, 1984). Other

researchers believed a separate component dealing with child

abuse and neglect should be included in counselor education

training programs. As counselors become more knowledgeable

about the subject of child abuse and treatment strategies,

they will be more likely to assume active leadership roles in

prevention efforts (Benjamin & Walz, 1983).

Counseling skills. Individual and group counseling

skills, which have generally been considered basic skills for

school counselors, have been cited as particularly essential

for work with abused children and their families. The

emotional trauma of child abuse may be greatly increased by

insensitive interventions by counselors. A study of sexual

abuse of boys found the "distressive reaction" of child

victims to correlate with the reactions of parents and

authorities who became involved (e.g., school counselors,

police, and physicians) with the child (Nielsen, 1983). The

need for counselors to "become educated about this prevalent,

intergenerational multi-faceted problem and come to grips

with their own fears and vulnerability surrounding child

sexual abuse" was cited as essential for authoritative

intervention (Nielsen, 1983, p. 141). Similarly, Sgroi

(1982) indicated that it is not abuse itself, but how the

situation is handled that causes long-lasting damage.

Group leaders should be "professionally trained in

group theory and knowledgeable in several specific areas

related to child abuse intervention, such as child

development and family violence" (Otto, 1984, p. 337).

According to Courtois and Watts (1982) however, "nost

counselor/social service training has not included coursework

on sexual assault and family violence" (p. 275).

Although family counseling was frequently recommended in

abuse cases most school counselors lack sufficient training

and experience in family counseling (Knox, 1981; Nicoll, 1984).

Assessment and research skills. Barclay (1984) claimed

that although there is widespread acceptance of prevention by

counseling professionals, there is little actual commitment

to it as a system. The major obstacle to prevention is the

lack of effective and meaningful use of assessment. The lack

of training in assessment theory was identified as a major

problem since assessment is a necessary condition for


As school counselors enter the field of child abuse the

need also arises for skills in research, particularly for

program evaluation skills. Because of accountability

pressures, program evaluation has become an important

counselor activity (Umansky & Holloway, 1984). According to

Wheeler and Loesch (1981), "research training for counselors

has typically consisted of preparation in experimental

research methods and statistics. Unfortunately, no

specialized training for program evaluation is usually

provided" (p. 575).

The effectiveness of prevention programs is dependent

upon sound research involving a logical, systematic,

developmental approach. Wilson and Yager (1981) recommended a

process model for prevention program research which featured

the four essential steps of assessment, goal setting,

strategy implementation, and evaluation.

A Delphi study of future trends in counseling further

showed several areas of professional development needs

applicable to this study (Daniel & Weikel, 1983). The 334

randomly selected, full-time, doctoral level faculty members

predicted that in the area of changes in school counseling

during the 1986-1990 time span there will probably be a

reduction of school counselors employed in the public

schools. Growth in elementary school counseling was seen as

an improbable trend, as was a change in the counselor's role

to emphasize student counseling.

In the area of preparation and training, the

respondents predicted an increase in continuing education and

in-service training as highly probable trends in the

immediate future. They also predicted as highly probable a

focus on prevention activities in counseling and a greater

emphasis on the counselor's role as consultant to parents,

teachers, and others (Daniel & Weikel, 1983).

In their Standards for Entry Preparation (Master's and

Specialists) of Counselors and Other Personnel Services

Specialists the Association for Counselor Education and

Supervision (ACES, 1979) also predicted that "the need for

counselors and other personnel services specialists for

self-renewal and in-service education beyond minimum

preparation or certification will increase" (p. 2).

Counselor education faculties will be called upon to assist

off-campus agencies in planning and conducting in-service

education and in developing program improvement models.

A conclusion drawn from these future forecasts is that

continuing professional development is an appropriate and

expected professional activity. The topic of child abuse, as

reviewed in the literature, is one in which school counselor

practitioners clearly need more training. The developers of

child abuse pre-service and in-service training programs and

program improvement models in Florida will need information

about the child abuse training needs of these counselors.

Because this information is not currently available, this

study will attempt to assess such needs.

Needs Assessment

Needs assessment was considered by many researchers to

be a vital step in guidance and counseling program

development and evaluation (Collison, 1982; Rimmer & Burt,

1980; Shaw, 1977). Utilizing needs assessment data,

therefore, appeared to be the appropriate first step in

exploring ways to increase school counselor effectiveness in

their child abuse interventions:

It is generally agreed that some form of needs
assessment activity should precede and accompany
program development. Needs assessment data permit
rational planning of programs designed to achieve
predetermined results. Needs assessment data also
provide benchmarks by which to evaluate programs.
(Froehle & Fuqua, 1981, p. 511)

Approaches to needs assessment included the key

informant approach, the community forum approach, the nominal

group approach, the rates of treatment approach, the social

indicators approach, and the survey approach. Survey research

methods were considered particularly valuable for gathering

information and suggestions for improving the delivery of

counseling services (Hackett, 1981). Exploratory surveys

were suggested when little is known about a group or when

further information about research variables is desired

before launching a major research effort.

The major approaches to survey data collection are the

personal interview, the mail questionnaire, and the telephone

interview (Hackett, 1981). The main advantages of

questionnaire methods are lower costs in dollars, time, and

energy. Drawbacks in questionnaires, particularly mail

questionnaires, include poor quality due to lack of

protesting of survey questions, unattainable validity checks,

and low return rates. Although offering some of the

advantages of personal interviews, telephone surveys are

limited by lower response rates, difficulty in obtaining

standardized responses, and difficulty in checking the

accuracy of responses.

The two basic survey designs are the cross-sectional

survey and the longitudinal survey. Cross-sectional surveys

gather information about a population at one point in time,

whereas longitudinal surveys collect data at two or more

points in time.

Shaw (1977) suggested that a needs study promotes

interest in change and that programs developed on the basis

of practicing counselors needs were more likely to be

effective than administrator-proposed programs. According to

Herr and Scofield (1983) however, needs assessment surveys

may not be the best method of assessing areas for personnel

development. They proposed a "competence assessment" model

for promoting staff development by identifying the important

components of competence and the critical competencies

exhibited by superior job performers. They further suggested

examining the differences between superior and average job

performers by evaluating client outcomes, interviewing the

counselors, and analyzing major themes. Those competencies

that distinguish the performance of superior from average

staff members were identified as the most appropriate focus of

staff development activities.


This chapter reviewed literature related to the abuse

of school-aged children, the roles of the school and school

counselor in child abuse interventions, and the professional

training school counselors need to effectively fulfill their

legally and professionally mandated roles. There was

widespread agreement that child abuse is a major problem

facing American youth despite variations in the definition of

child abuse. An overview of the incidence, etiology,

effects, treatment, and prevention of child abuse was

included to provide the reader with the social/psychological

context of this study.

The significance of the public school system was another

universally agreed upon theme in the child abuse literature.

Because of their longitudinal contact with children, school

personnel were seen as playing a vital part in child abuse

identification and reporting. Through educational programs,

they can also promote primary prevention. In addition,

school personnel can be instrumental in providing treatment

for abused children.

Within the context of the public school system, the

school counselor performed a central role in responding to child

abuse. Those roles most frequently appearing in the

literature included coordinator, reporter and referral agent,

abuse victim and family counselor, consultant to parents and

school staff, primary prevention consultant, liaison with

community, and child advocate.


Finally, this chapter reviewed the specialized training

needed by school counselors to perform these child abuse

intervention roles. These training needs were described in

terms of the identification and reporting, consultation,

counseling, assessment and research skills necessary for

effective intervention. There appeared no studies in the

literature describing the status of Florida's school

counselors' child abuse intervention training. This study

attempted to identify which, if any, intervention skill

training was needed. A needs assessment approach has been

selected as the most appropriate method of filling this gap

in the child abuse literature.


The purpose of this study was to investigate the

professional development of Florida school counselors

related to their child abuse interventions. The

counselors' self-reported child abuse intervention practices,

knowledge, and skill effectiveness were assessed in the

following seven areas: (a) identification of abused children,

(b) reporting abuse cases, (c) legal and professional

responsibilities, (d) treatment of abused children and their

families, (e) prevention, (f) consultation with school staff

and parents, and (g) consultation and coordination with

community agency personnel. This chapter includes a

description of the population, assessment instrument,

research procedures, analyses of data, and methodological



In March, 1985, there were 2,929 school counselors

employed in Florida public schools, of which 1,021 work at the

elementary school level, 631 at the middle/junior high school

level, 1,051 at the secondary school level, and 226 reported

working at "other" levels (D. Darling, personal communication,

March 6, 1985).

The specific population surveyed in this study

consisted of the elementary, middle/junior high, and

secondary school counselor members of the Florida School

Counselor Association (FSCA). Although 1242 names appeared

on the December, 1984, FSCA membership roster, 161 members

were not surveyed. These members were excluded from the study

because they were graduate students, retired counselors, post-

secondary counselors, unable to locate, or not currently

employed as an elementary, middle/junior, or secondary school

counselor. The resultant sample consisted of 1081 FSCA

members. Based on limited demographic information available

on school counselors in Florida the assumption was made that

the resultant sample was representative of all school

counselors in the state. Additional preliminary demographic

information about this population was unavailable; therefore,

descriptions and comparisons of these FSCA members were made

after the surveys were returned and are included with the

survey results in Chapter IV.

The population of FSCA members was selected as

representative of school counselors who would most likely

benefit from the results of this survey because of their

involvements with the state's primary school counselor

professional organization. Because the purpose of this study

was to gather information to assist providers of school

counselor training in their program planning, it was assumed

that professionally involved counselors would be more likely

to seek additional training than their unaffiliated

colleagues. For example, they are more likely to attend

statewide conventions and workshops, and enroll for

additional college coursework. As likely recipients of such

training, assessing the needs of professionally involved

counselors, as exhibited by their FSCA membership, would be

of greater benefit to the providers of the child abuse

training programs.


The Child Abuse Intervention Survey (CAIS) was designed

to assess Florida school counselors' child abuse intervention

practices, knowledge, and skill effectiveness. The 107 items

were derived from the review of the related literature,

representing those areas of child abuse knowledge and skills

related to school counselor intervention in child abuse

cases. The following seven areas of child abuse

interventions were identified for this study: (a)

identification of abused children, (b) reporting abuse cases,

(c) legal and professional responsibilities, (d) treatment of

abused children and their families, (e) prevention of child

abuse, (f) consultation with school staff and parents, and (g)

consultation and coordination with community agency personnel.

The areas of child abuse interventions and subsequent

CAIS items were selected following the review of three

categories of primary reference sources found in the child

abuse literature. First, legal sources served as the basis

for items assessing the school counselors' knowledge of child

abuse legislation and legally mandated responsibilities

(e.g., items 11-5, 11-6). The second major source of

items was the professional organization guidelines

regarding educational personnel and school counselor

interventions in child abuse cases (e.g., items 11-9,

11-15). The third, and largest, source of items was

professionals in the field of child abuse who offered

recommendations for school personnel in general, and

school counselors in particular, to become involved in

the identification, treatment, and prevention of child

abuse (e.g., items 11-17, 11-21).

The primary reference sources used in the development

of the CAIS are found in Appendix A. Because of the large

quantity of child abuse references and similarities in

recommended child abuse interventions, the references listed

in Appendix A are not intended to be comprehensive. Instead,

these references are included to validate items as related to

school counselor intervention in child abuse cases. A

representative legal, professional organization, and child

abuse professional reference source is included for each item

when appropriate.

A description of the relationship between the CAIS

items and the seven areas of child abuse interventions can be

found in Appendix B. Each item was assigned to one of the

areas of child abuse intervention identified from the review

of literature related to the role of the school and school

counselor in child abuse intervention. These areas and the

corresponding CAIS item numbers are included in Appendix B

to show how the survey items are related to each other in

terms of their reference sources.

A demographic section was included with the CAIS items

to assess the following differences among school counselors

that may affect their current, self-reported child abuse

intervention practices, knowledge, and skill effectiveness as

well as future training needs.

The school counselors' school districts were surveyed to

determine whether their geographic locations were related to

survey item responses. The Florida Department of Education's

five reporting regions were used (Florida Department of

Education, 1983, p. 3). The regions include the following:

(a) Panhandle, (b) Crown, (c) East Central, (d) West Central,

and (e) South. A listing of the Florida counties included in

each of these regions can be found in Appendix C.

Studies in other states indicated that the frequency of

school counselor identification of abused children and their

involvement in abuse cases was related to their years of

experience as a school counselor (Finkelhor, 1984; Wilson,

Thomas, & Schuette, 1983). These factors, therefore, may

influence their training needs.

The counselors' work level settings were surveyed to

determine differences in training needs at the elementary,

middle/junior, and secondary school levels. Several studies

suggested differences between abused children and abused

adolescents that may affect the school counselors' training

needs at the various levels (Garbarino, 1983; Mouzakitis,

1984; Sgroi, 1982).

The size of the counselors' caseloads was surveyed to

assess school counselor training needs in relation to the

number of students assigned each counselor. According to

Benjamin and Walz (1983), the school counselors' caseload size

influences their involvements in child abuse cases.

Researchers claimed that school personnel have a

"limited awareness" of child abuse (Camblin & Prout, 1983).

The counselors' formal training in child abuse/neglect was

surveyed to assess the types of child abuse training

previously completed by the school counselors.

The racial composition of the sample populations in

previous studies of counselor involvement in child abuse cases

has either been unspecified (Wilson, Thomas, & Schuette, 1983)

or selected from a population of predominantly white

counselors (Finkelhor, 1984). A study of the ethnicity of

child abuse victims and perpetrators suggested that "treatment

models based on work with white families may not be

appropriate for work with black families" (Pierce & Pierce,

1984, p. 9). Counselor familiarity with minority family

dynamics may therefore influence their training needs,

particularly in the area of family counseling.

The school counselors' sex may also have an influence on

their child abuse training needs. For example, Nielsen (1983)

suggested that since 90% of reported perpetrators of sexual

abuse of boys are male, the male professional would need

training in avoiding defense responses. Other studies have

either omitted the counselors' sex (Wilson, Thomas, &

Schuette, 1983) or have used a predominantly female population

(Finkelhor, 1984).

A comment section was included on the survey to provide

respondents with an opportunity to describe any additional

child abuse interventions used during the current school

year. In addition, comments and/or concerns about their

professional training in the area of child abuse

interventions and the extent to which they believed school

counselors should be involved with abused students and their

families were also surveyed.

A Likert-type scale with five response categories was

used for the purpose of scoring and evaluating Sections II

and III of the survey. The five response categories for

Section II of the instrument ("None," "Little," "Moderate,"

"High," and "Very High,") indicated the self-reported level

of the respondents' knowledge of child abuse intervention

topics. The five response alternatives in Section III ("Very

Ineffective," "Ineffective," "Somewhat Effective,"

"Effective," and "Very Effective,") indicated the school

counselors' self-reported effectiveness in performing

child abuse related interventions.

The Dale-Chall Reading Formula (Dale & Chall,

1948) was used in the development of the CAIS to assess

the reading level of the survey items and directions.

The reading level was found to be at the college

graduate level (average corrected grade level 16). This

readability level may be inflated because of limitations

in applying the Dale-Chall procedure to the CAIS (e.g.,

use of incomplete sentences; professional jargon). The

complete instrument can be found in Appendix D.

Research Procedures

The CAIS was delivered to each school counselor

listed on a current FSCA membership roster. A cover letter

was included with the survey. The purposes of this

letter were (a) to describe the purpose of the study, (b) to

provide administrative instructions for returning the

completed survey, (c) to identify the researcher conducting

the study, and (d) to delineate the rights of the

respondents. These rights include the assurance of

anonymity, an explanation of who will receive the

information, and procedures for obtaining the results or

further information about the study. A copy of this letter

can be found in Appendix E.

Research Assistants

The use of research assistants was planned to assist in

the distribution and collection of the CAIS in counties

having 30 or more FSCA members. However, this was not

possible for all such counties due to variations in school

board regulations regarding the use of school mail systems.

Research assistants were used in the following counties:

Alachua, Brevard, Broward, Dade, Duval, Marion, Orange,

Sarasota, Seminole, and Volusia.

All of the research assistants were school counselors

who were selected because of their familiarity with research

procedures and the concepts of confidentiality and/or

anonymity. The role of the research assistants only

consisted of distributing and collecting the surveys of FSCA

members in their school districts. Specific instructions

provided for them can be found in Appendix F.

Distribution and Collection

The CAIS, introductory letter, and return envelope were

sent to each participant. For those counties in which

research assistants were used, the surveys and letters,

addressed and sealed in envelopes, were sent to the local

research assistant for distribution. Return address

envelopes were included for return to the research assistant

who then forwarded all the surveys collected in a large

envelope provided for that purpose. Postage expenses were

reimbursed, as requested.

Response Return Criteria

A return of 50% or more was considered optimal for the

purposes of this study. However, due to the characteristic

low return rate of mail surveys, a 30% to 40% return was

anticipated. A minimum of 25% was considered the least

acceptable return. In the event that less than 25% of the

surveys were returned, a postcard would have been sent to all

participants reminding them to return the CAIS and thanking

them for their assistance if they had already done so. This

was not necessary because 32% of the surveys, as anticipated,

were returned.

Data Analyses

Statistical analyses were conducted for the returned

surveys which included the demographic items and a minimum

response to 50% of the CAIS items. The incompleted surveys

were reviewed to determine reasons for the lack of responses.

These are summarized in Appendix G.

The following statistical analyses were used to

describe the survey results:

Response frequencies, means, standard deviations, and

percentages were calculated to allow evaluation of the extent

to which the child abuse intervention practices and knowledge

reported by school counselors (Survey Sections I and II) meet

the standards advocated by authorities in the child abuse and

counseling fields.

The child abuse interventions currently being used by

Florida school counselors (Survey Section I) were described

in terms of frequencies, percentages of total respondents,

means, and standard deviations. Additional interventions

listed by respondents in the survey comment section were

described in terms of frequencies of response.

Response frequencies, means, and standard deviations of

each cluster of items related to the seven areas of child

abuse interventions identified for this study were calculated

for the counselors' self-reported levels of knowledge and

skill effectiveness. Intervention areas and corresponding

CAIS items can be found in Appendix B.

The relationships among school counselor self-reported

child abuse intervention practices, knowledge, and skill

effectiveness (Survey Sections I, II, and III) were

determined through the use of an intercorrelation matrix.

Pearson Product Moment Correlations were calculated for these


The following statistical analyses were used to

determine if relationships existed among school counselor

demographic characteristics and their self-reported child

abuse intervention practices, knowledge, and skill


The respondents' years of school counseling experience,

number of child abuse case involvements during the 1983-1984

and 1984-1985 school years and the number of students on the

counselors' caseloads were correlated with their responses to

each CAIS item. Pearson Product Moment Correlations were


A 1 X 5 ANOVA was used to evaluate possible CAIS

response differences based on school counselors' geographic

location. A 1 X 3 ANOVA was used for work level setting

differences and a 1 X 7 ANOVA for differences in child abuse

training experiences. Duncan Multiple-Range Tests were

calculated for items with statistically significant (p < .05)


Possible differences between white and ethnic minority

school counselors' responses to CAIS items and male and female

school counselors were determined by using t-tests.

Frequencies of responses and percentages of total

responses of school counselors' comments and/or concerns

about their professional training in the area of child abuse

interventions were tabulated. In addition, comments related

to the extent to which respondents believed school counselors

should be involved with abused students and their families

were compiled in terms of frequencies and percentages.

Methodological Limitations

There were several methodological limitations to this

study. According to Froehle and Fuqua (1981) the positive

effects of a "one-shot" needs assessment are time limited.

"The significant positive residuals of a needs assessment. .

can only be exploited over time" (pp. 511-512). The purpose

of this study, however, was to assess current training needs

with the understanding that these needs will change as school

counselors increase their child abuse intervention knowledge

and improve their skills. The intent of the study was only to

assess current levels in these areas. Further studies will

be needed to justify conclusions about long range school counselor

training needs. Because child abuse is a relatively new area

of school counselor involvement, this "snapshot" approach was


Another limitation was that by restricting the

population to FSCA members, conclusions drawn from the survey

analysis may not be representative of all school counselors

in the state. This limitation was considered in the research

development, however, the FSCA population was selected as

likely to benefit most from the study. These professionally

involved school counselors are more apt to seek additional

training through professionally sponsored workshops and

conventions. Therefore, assessing their professional

development related to child abuse appeared more appropriate

than assessing the professional development of counselors in


Requiring the counselors to assess their own child

abuse intervention practices, knowledge and skill

effectiveness was another limitation to this study. The

results of the self-reporting method may not accurately

represent the counselors' actual levels of practices,

knowledge, and skills. However, decisions to seek training

experiences are based on perceived needs for additional

knowledge and/or skill development, despite actual levels

attained in these areas. Ironically, the school counselors

with the greatest knowledge and skills may be the ones who

most feel they need additional training. Because this

perceived need for additional training will most likely

determine training participation, the self-report method was

considered appropriate for the purpose of this study.

A limitation of using the Likert-type scaled responses

was that the possible range of responses was limited to those

provided in the survey directions. Some subjects may have

wished to make responses not provided of on the scales

(Green, 1977). The advantages, however, of allowing

respondents to answer a large number of items quickly and the

uniformity provided for data analyses made this response

format suitable for the study.

A final limitation was the low response rate of mailed

questionnaires. Respondents are usually less committed to

respond to mail surveys than other survey methods, such as

personal interviews (Green, 1977). This limitation was

addressed by offering to share the survey results through

articles in the FACD Guidelines and FSCA Newsletter.

Increased interest in participation was anticipated due to

the current media and professional attention concerning child


A second incentive planned to increase participation

was to provide the respondents with a token compensation for

completing the survey. This method was suggested as a way to

maximize the return rate (Green, 1977). Several of the fast

food chains in the state were asked to assist by providing

coupons for food items to be included with the surveys as a

"token of appreciation" for the counselors' cooperation.

Although much interest was expressed in assisting, none of

the managers contacted followed through by sending the




The analyses of this study were based on responses from

the 343 Florida school counselors who completed and returned

the Child Abuse Intervention Survey (CAIS) by the specified

deadline. Descriptions of the respondents are presented in

Tables 4.1 to 4.9. The remainder of Chapter IV is organized

in the sequence described in the Data Analyses section of

Chapter III.

Description of Respondents

All of the respondents were elementary, middle/junior

high, or secondary school counselor members of the Florida

School Counselor Association. Counselors from all of the

state's five geographic regions--Panhandle, Crown, East

Central, West Central, and South--responded to the survey

and represented 53 of the state's 67 school districts

(counties) as shown in Table 4.1. The West Central region

had the most representation (27.70%) and the Panhandle region

the least (9.04%).

The average number of years experience as a school

counselor was 8.87. Respondents' experience ranged from 14

first-year counselors to one 30-year veteran (see Table 4.2).

Table 4.1. Frequency Distribution
Geographic Region.

of Respondents by

Region/Counties N %

Region 1--Panhandle
Santa Rosa
Total Region 1

Region 2--Crown

St. Johns
Total Region 2







Table 4.1. Continued.

Region/Counties N %

Region-3--East Central

Brevard 12 3.50
Indian River 2 .58
Lake 4 1.17
Okeechobee 0 0
Orange 21 6.12
Osceola 5 1.46
St. Lucie 3 .88
Seminole 19 5.54
Sumter 0 0
Volusia 13 3.79
Total Region 3 79 1~303

Region 4--West Central

Charlotte 1 .29
Desoto 0 0
Glades 0 0
Hardee 1 .29
Hernando 3 .88
Highlands 1 .29
Hillsborough 23 6.71
Lee 8 2.33
Manatee 10 2.92
Pasco 7 2.04
Pinellas 23 6.71
Polk 9 2.62
Sarasota 9 2.62
Total Region 4 95 27.70

Region 5--South

Broward 19 5.54
Collier 4 1.17
Dade 23 6.71
Hendry 1 .29
Martin 6 1.75
Monroe 1 .29
Palm Beach 8 2.33
Total Region 5 62 ITM.


Table 4.2. Frequency Distribution of Respondents by Years
of School Counseling Experience.

Years of Experience N %

1 14 4.08
2 36 10.50
3 22 6.41
4 29 8.46
5 31 9.04
6 25 7.29
7 19 5.54
8 27 7.87
9 7 2.04
10 14 4.08
11 12 3.50
12 12 3.50
13 19 5.54
14 12 3.50
15 15 4.37
16 10 2.92
17 5 1.46
18 3 .88
19 3 .88
20 5 1.46
21 5 1.46
22 4 1.17
23 3 .88
24 3 .88
25 3 .88
26 2 .58
27 2 .58
30 1 .29

The 174 elementary school counselor participants

comprised approximately half of the total population (see

Table 4.3). Secondary school counselors were the next

largest group (81 counselors) followed by the middle/junior

high school group (66 counselors). There were 22 counselors

whose work level settings were undifferentiated. In some of

these cases the counselors were working at multiple levels

and checked two or more responses to CAIS question #3. In

other instances, the respondents indicated the number of

years they had had of work experience at the various levels

without indicating their current work level.

The participating school counselors were predominantly

white females. White school counselors comprised 95.63% of

total respondents and females 80.18% (see Tables 4.4 and

4.5). For the purposes of analyses the ethnic minority

respondents were grouped together. Included in this group

were black, hispanic, and American Indian school counselors.

The rationale for combining these groups was to allow

comparisons to be made with previous literature.

Students on the school counselors' caseloads varied

considerably as shown in Table 4.6. The average caseload

consisted of 536 students. Responses ranged from 0 to 1600

students per counselor.

Counselor responses to the open-ended question (#7)

about their formal academic or professional training in

child abuse/neglect are summarized in Table 4.7.

Approximately three out of every four school counselors surveyed

(76%) had experienced some form of child abuse/neglect

Table 4.3. Frequency Distribution
Level Setting.

of Respondents by Work

Level N %

Elementary 174 50.73

Middle/Junior High 66 19.24

Secondary 81 23.62

Undifferentiated 22 6.41

Table 4.4. Frequency Distribution


Ethnic Minority

Table 4.5. Frequency Distribution



of Respondents by Race.

N %

328 95.63
15 4.37

of Respondents by Sex.

N %

68 19.83
275 80.18



Table 4.6. Frequency Distribution of Respondents by
Caseload Size.

Number of Students on Frequency %



Table 4.7. Frequency Distribution of Respondents by Child
Abuse Training.

Type of Training N %

0. No training 82 23.91

1. College coursework 10 2.92

2. Inservice training 73 21.28

3. Workshops 121 35.28

4. Inservice and workshops 34 9.91

5. Inservice and convention programs 9 2.62

6. College coucsework. inservice, and
workshops 14 4.08

training, primarily in school district sponsored inservice

programs or workshops.

The school counselors were asked to approximate the

number of child abuse cases with which they had been

involved during the past (1983-84) and current (1984-85)

school years. The number of physical abuse, emotional

abuse, sexual abuse, and neglect cases as well as total case

involvements for each year are shown in Table 4.8. Means

and medians for each category of abuse and for the total

average for 1984-85 were higher than the 1983-84 averages as

summarized in Table 4.9.

Analyses of CAIS Responses

Description of Responses

Descriptive statistics were used for investigation of

the extent to which Florida school counselors' self-reported

child abuse intervention practices, knowledge, and skill

effectiveness corresponded to the standards advocated by

child abuse authorities. Each survey item represented an

area of child abuse intervention considered by child abuse

professionals to be an appropriate school counselor activity

(see Appendix A).

Response frequencies and percentages were calculated

for items in the three survey sections: (a) child abuse

intervention practices; (b) child abuse intervention

knowledge; and (c) child abuse intervention skills (see

Table 4.10). Means and standard deviations for responses to

Table 4.8. Frequency Distribution of Respondents by Types of 1983-1984 and 1984-1985
Child Abuse Case Involvements.

Cases Physical Abuse Emotional Abuse Sexual Abuse Neglect Total
1983-84 1984-85 1983-84 1984-85 1983-84 1984-85 1983-84 1984-85 1983-84 1984-85

N 7. N

N 7. N

N 7 N 7

N 7. N 7. N 7. N %

28.86 60 17.49
14.87 60 17.49
13.12 64 18.66
12.54 45 13.12
8.46 31 9.04
9.33 28 8.16
3.21 16 4.67
.58 4 1.17
2.04 7 2.04
.58 2 .58
2.33 14 4.08
-- 0 --
4 1.17
.29 1 .29
-- 2 .58
1.17 1 .29
.88 0 --
-- 0 -
-- 0 --
-- 0 --
.58 1 .29
.88 2 .58
.29 1 .29
-- 0 --
-- 0 --
-- 0 --

208 60.64 154 44.90
36 10.50 61 17.78
24 7.00 36 10.50
16 4.67 23 6.71
10 2.92 8 2.33
12 3.50 12 3.50
6 1.75 5 1.46
2 .58 2 .58
3 .88 5 1.46
0 -- 1 .29
10 2.92 9 2.62
0 -- 1 .29
3 .88 7 2.04
0 -- 0
0 -- 0
2 .58 5 1.46
0 -- 0 -
0 -- 0
0 -- 0
0 -- 0
5 1.46 7 2.04
3 .88 3 .88
1 .29 1 .29
0 -- 0 --
0 -- 1 .29
2 .58 2 .58

155 45.19 122 35.57
72 21.00 81 23.61
53 15.45 58 16.91
32 9.33 32 9.33
10 2.92 12 3.50
9 2.62 15 4.37
3 .88 7 2.04
1 .29 5 1.46
2 .58 3 .88
0 -- 0 --
4 1.17 6 1.75
1 .29 0 --
0 -- 1 .29
0 -- 0 -
0 -- 1 .29
1 .29 0 -
0 -- 0 -
0 -- 0
0 -- 0
0 -- 0
0 -- 0 --
0 -- 0
0 -- 0 -
0 -- 0 -
0 -- 0
0 -- 0

185 53.94 127 37.03 64
41 11.95 86 25.07 21
36 10.50 37 10.79 24
24 7.00 19 5.54 35
U 3.21 18 5.25 25
9 2.62 13 3.79 17
9 2.62 8 2.33 23
4 1.17 3 .88 12
2 .58 4 1.17 11
0 2 .58 11
11 3.21 11 3.21 8
0 -- 1 .29 10
4 1.17 3 .88 10
0 -- 0 8
1 .29 0 -- 3
2 .58 2 .58 7
0 -- 0 -- 5
0 -- 0 -- 5
1 .29 0 -- 7
0 -- 0 -- 2
0 -- 3 .88 2
0 -- 1 .29 8
1 .29 1 .29 7
1 .29 1 .29 5
0 -- 0 -- 2
1 .29 3 .58 11

0 99
1 51
2 45
3 43
4 29
5 32
6 11
7 2
8 7
9 2
10 8
11 0
12 0
13 1
14 0
15 4
16 3
17 0
18 0
19 0
20 2
21-25 3
26-30 1
31-35 0
36-40 0
over 40 0

18.66 26 7.58
6.12 17 4.96
7.00 24 7.00
10.20 25 7.29
7.29 32 9.33
4.9 31 9.04
6.71 25 7.29
3.50 16 4.67
3.21 17 4.96
3.21 8 2.33
2.33 14 4.08
2.92 4 1.17
2.92 8 2.33
2.33 10 2.92
.88 12 3.50
2.04 8 2.33
1.46 4 1.17
1.46 4 1.17
2.04 6 1.75
.58 5 1.46
.58 4 1.17
2.33 12 3.50
2.04 7 2.04
1.46 7 2.04
.58 4 1.17
3.21 13 3.79


Table 4.9. Means, Medians, and Standard Deviations for
1983-1984 and 1984-1985 Child Abuse Case

Type of Abuse 1983-1984 1984-1985

M Mdn SD M Mdn SD

Physical abuse 3.04 1.98 4.16 3.29 2.30 3.75

Emotional abuse 2.32 .32 6.33 3.03 .79 6.64

Sexual abuse 1.35 .73 1.99 1.76 1.11 2.25

Neglect 2.05 .43 4.46 2.76 1.02 5.87

Total 8.73 4.65 12.80 10.87 6.16 14.20

Table 4.10. Response Frequencies and Percentages.

Survey Section I.

Item Response Frequency Percent Item Response Frequency

11 1-2 10 18

I-i 0

1-2 0









Full Text
xml version 1.0 encoding UTF-8
REPORT xmlns http:www.fcla.edudlsmddaitss xmlns:xsi http:www.w3.org2001XMLSchema-instance xsi:schemaLocation http:www.fcla.edudlsmddaitssdaitssReport.xsd
INGEST IEID E3SV4GBKB_ZKMFS4 INGEST_TIME 2013-01-23T15:03:37Z PACKAGE AA00012953_00001