The effects of human sexuality instruction on sexual guilt, psychological androgyny, and attitudes toward the sexual beh...

MISSING IMAGE

Material Information

Title:
The effects of human sexuality instruction on sexual guilt, psychological androgyny, and attitudes toward the sexual behaviors of others
Physical Description:
xvii, 210 leaves : ; 28 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
Nagy, Franklin Joseph, 1941-
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Sex instruction   ( lcsh )
Sexual ethics   ( lcsh )
Sex (Psychology)   ( lcsh )
Counselor Education thesis Ph. D
Dissertations, Academic -- Counselor Education -- UF
Genre:
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Thesis:
Thesis--University of Florida.
Bibliography:
Bibliography: leaves 203-209.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Franklin Joseph Nagy.
General Note:
Typescript.
General Note:
Vita.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 026385874
oclc - 04168532
System ID:
AA00012935:00001


This item is only available as the following downloads:


Full Text

















THE EFFECTS OF HUMAN SEXUALITY INSTRUCTION ON SEXUAL GUILT,
PSYCHOLOGICAL ANDROGYNY, AND ATr'ITUDES TOWARD
THE SEXUAL BEHAVIORS OF OTHERS








By

FRANKLIN JOSEPH NAGY











A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE COUNCIL OF
THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE
DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY









UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

1977

























This dissertation is deservedly dedicated to Dr. Tom

Skovholt, mentor, counselor, and fellow researcher, who for

the past two years has helped me continuously with all aspects

of my graduate work. Tom has given unselfishly of his most

valuable time and energy whenever I have called upon him. On

so many occasions when I was discouraged, Tom was there pro-

viding the lift I needed. Hle is a true friend.













ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS


1 wish to express my appreciation to the following:

Dr. E. L. Tolbert, Chairman of my Doctoral Committee, for

his continuous help and encouragement.

Dr. Franz Epting and Dr. Paul Fitzgerald, my other committee

members, for their valuable ideas and ongoing support.

Dr. Jim Pitts for his continuous friendship throughout my

graduate program.

The other faculty in the Counselor Education Department

who have given their time to help me, especially Dr. Larry

Loesch, Dr. Robert Stripling, Dr. Rod McDavis, and Dr. Harold

Riker.

My fellow students and friends for their help and support,

Marilyn Jackson, Becky Swiggett, Terry DiNuzzo, Nancy Downing,

and Barbara Rucker.

Arden Goettling for her highly effective editing and typing

of this dissertation.

Paul Nelson, Kathy Sheley, Dr. Jaquie ResniAk, Therese May,

Blair Turner, and Dan Hobby for allowing me to recruit volunteer

subjects from their classes.














TABLE OF CONTENTS



ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ............. .......... ............

LIST OF TABLES .......... .......... ..........

ABSTRACT ....

CHAPTER

I INTRODUCTION .................... .. ..........

Statement of the Problem...................

Rationale ..................................

Need for the Study .........................

Purpose of the Study.......................

Research Questions ..........................

Definition of Terms ........................

Organization of the Study ..................

II REVIEW OF TIlE LITERATURE .....................

Introduction ................................

Sexual Guilt ................................

Psychological Androgyny ....................

Effects of Sex Education on Attitudes
toward Sexual Behaviors ....................

III METHODS AND PROCEDURES .......................

Overv iew ........................... ........

Hypotheses ............... ........ ..........

Research Design .............................

Participants ..............................


Page

iii

vii

xiv



1

1

1

9

10

10

11

12

13

13

13

17


22

34

34

35

36

36










CHAPTER Page

III (continued)

Instrumentation........................... 36

Data Collection Procedures................ 42

Treatment ................................. 45

Analysis of the Data...................... 46

Methodological Assumptions ................ 47

Limitations of the Study.................. 48

IV RESULTS .......... ............................ ........ 49

Introduction ................................ 49

Results ................................... 49

V SUMMARY, DISCUSSION, AND RECOMMENDATIONS FOR
FURTHER RESEARC ............................... 175

Summary ............ ............. ......... 175

Discussion ........................ ........ 179

Recommendations for Further Research ...... 181

APPENDICES

A INSTRUCTOR AGREEMENT FORM ................ ........ 182

B MOSHER FORCED-CHOICE GUILT INVENTORY-SEX GUILT
SUBSCALE .................. ......................... 183

C BEM SEX-ROLE INVENTORY............................. 190

D THE EXPERIMENTER'S ADAPTATION OF THE ATTITLOE
MEASURE OF SEXUAL BEHAVIORS ..................... 191

E TOPIC CHECKLIST FORM ............................... 194

F INSTRUCTOR I -- COURSE OUTLINE.................... 195

G INSTRUCTOR II -- COURSE OUTLINE ................. 197

H INSTRUCTOR III -- COURSE OUTLINE ................. 199

I INSTRUCTOR IV -- COURSE OUTLINE .................. 200










APPENDICES (continued) Page

J LECTURE SIRIES -- BES 252 ........................ 202

REFERENCES ............... ................. ... ....... 203

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETC ............... ............. ... .... 210














LIST OF TABLES


Table Page

1 Sexual Guilt: Two-way Analysis of Covariance... 52

2 Sexual Guilt: Means and Standard Deviations.... 53

3 Sexual Guilt: One-way Analysis of Covariance... 54

4 -Psychological Androgyny: Two-way Analysis of
Covariance ....................................... 56

5 Psychological Androgyny: Means and Standard
Deviat ions ..................... ................ 57

6 Psychological Androgyny: One-way Analysis of
Covariance ....................................... 58

7 Attitude, Concept A--Good-Bad Dimension: Two-
way Analysis of Covariance...................... 64

8 Attitude, Concept A--Good-Bad Dimension: Means
and Standard Deviations ....................... .. 65

9 Attitude, Concept A--Good-Bad Dimension: One-
way Analysis of Covariance...................... 66

10 Attitude, Concept A--Valuable-Worthless Dimen-
sion: Two-way Analysis of Covariance........... 67

11 Attitude, Concept A--Valuable-Worthless Dimen-
sion: Means and Standard Deviations ............ 68

12 Attitude, Concept A--Valuable-Worthless Jimen-
sion: One-way Analysis of Covariance........... 69

13 Attitude, Concept A--Understandable-Mysterious
Dimension:Two-way Analysis of Covariance....... 70

14 Attitude, Concept A--Understandable-Mysterious
Dimension: Means and Standard Deviations....... 71

15 Attitude, Concept A--Understandable-Mysterious
Dimension: One-way Analysis of Covariance ...... 72

16 Attitude, Concept B--Good-Bad Dimension: Two
way Anal ysis of Covari alince ................. .. .... 73

vii










Table Page

17 Attitude, Concept B--Good-Bad Dimension: Means
and Standard Deviations ........................ 74

18 Attitude, Concept B--Good-Bad Dimension: One-
way Analysis of Covariance..................... 75

19 Attitude, Concept B--Valuable-Worthless Dimen-
sion: Two-way Analysis of Covariance ........... 76

20 Attitude, Concept B--Valuable-Worthless Dimen-
sion: Means and Standard Deviations............ 77

21 Attitude, Concept B--Valuable-Worthless Dimen-
sion: One-way Analysis of Covariance........... 78

22 Attitude, Concept B--Understandable-Mysterious
Dimension: Two-way Analysis of Covariance ...... 79

23 Attitude, Concept B--Understandable-Mysterious
Dimension: Means and Standard Deviations....... 80

24 Attitude, Concept B--Understandable-Mysterious
Dimension: One-way Analysis of Covariance ...... 81

25 Attitude, Concept C--Good-bad Dimension: Two-
way Analysis of Covariance..................... 82

26 Attitude, Concept C--Good-Bad Dimension: Means
and Standard Deviations ........................ 83

27 Attitude, Concept C--Good-Bad Dimension: One-
way Analysis of Covariance..................... 84

28 Attitude, Concept C--Valuable-Worthless Dimen-
sion: Two-way Analysis of Covariance .......... 85

29 Attitude, Concept C--Valuable-Worthless Dimen-
sion: Means and Standard Deviations ........... 86

30 Attitude, Concept C--Valuable-Worthless Dimen-
sion: One-way Analysis of Covariance.......... 87

31 Attitude, Concept C--Understandable-Mysterious
Dimension: Two-way Analysis of Covariance ..... 88

32 Attitude, Concept C--Understandable-Mysterious
Dimension: Means and Standard Deviations ...... 89

33 Attitude, Concept C--Understandable-Mysterious
Dimension: One-way Analysis of Covariance ..... 90










Table Page

34 Attitude, Concept D--Good-Bad Dimension: Two-
way Analysis of Covariance ...................... 91

35 Attitude, Concept D--Good-Bad Dimension; Means
and Standard Deviations ....................... .. 92

36 Attitude, Concept D--Good-Bad Dimension: One-
way Analysis of Covariance...................... 93

37 Attitude, Concept I--Valuable Worthless Dimen-
sion: Two-way Analysis of Covariance........... 94

38 Attitude, Concept D--Valuable-Worthless Dimen-
sion: Means and Standard Deviations............ 95

39 Attitude, Concept D--Valuable-Worthless Dimen-
sion: One-way Analysis of Covariance........... 96

40 Attitude, Concept D--Understandable-Mysterious
Dimension: Two-way Analysis of Covariance ...... 97

41 Attitude, Concept D--Understandable-Mysterious
Dimension: Means and Standard Deviations....... 98

42 Attitude, Concept D--Understandable-Mysterious
Dimension: One-way Analysis of Covariance ...... 99

43 Attitude, Concept E--Good-Bad Dimension: Two-
way Analysis of Covariance..................... 100

44 Attitude, Concept E--Good-Bad Dimension: Means
and Standard Deviations ........................ 101

45 Attitude, Concept E--Good-Bad Dimension: One-
way Analysis of Covariance..................... 102

46 Attitude, Concept E--Valuable-Worthless Dimen-
sipn: Two-way Analysis of Covariance........... 103

47 Attitude, Concept E--Valuable-Worthless Dimen-
sion: Means and Standard Deviations............ 104

48 Attitude, Concept E--Valuable-Worthless Dimen-
sion: One-way Analysis of Covariance........... 105

49 Attitude, Concept E--Understandable-Mysterious
Dimension: Two-way Analysis of Covariance...... 106

50 Attitude, Concept E--Understandable-Mysterious
Dimension: Means and Standard Deviations....... 107










Table Page

51 Attitude, Concept E--Understandable-Mysterious
Dimension: One-way Analysis of Covariance...... 108

52 Attitude, Concept F--Good-Bad Dimension: Two-
way Analysis of Covariance..................... 109

53 Attitude, Concept F--Good-Bad Dimension: Means
and Standard Deviations ........................ 110

54 Attitude, Concept F--Good-Bad Dimension: One-
way Analysis of Covariance..................... 111

55 Attitude, Concept F--Valuable-Worthless Dimen-
sion: Two-way Analysis of Covariance........... 112

56 Attitude, Concept F--Valuable-Worthless Dimen-
sion: Means and Standard Deviations............ 113

57 Attitude, Concept F--Valuable-Worthless Dimen-
sion: One-way Analysis of Covariance........... 114

58 Attitude, Concept F--Understandable-Mysterious
Dimension: Two-way Analysis of Covariance ...... 115

59 Attitude, Concept F--Understandable-Mysterious
Dimension: Means and Standard Deviations ....... 116

60 Attitude, Concept F--Understandable-Mysterious
Dimension: One-way Analysis of Covariance....... 117

61 Attitude, Concept G--Good-Bad Dimension: Two-
way Analysis of Covariance....................... 118

62 Attitude, Concept G--Good-Bad Dimension: Means
and Standard Deviations......................... 119

63 Attitude, Concept G--Good-Bad Dimension: One-
way Analysis of Covariance....................... 120

64 Attitude, Concept G--Valuable-Worthless Dimen-
sion: Two-way Analysis of Covariance........... 121

65 Attitude, Concept G--Valuable-Worthless Dimen-
sion: Means and Standard Deviations.............. 122

66 Attitude, Concept G--Valuable-Worthless Dimen-
sion: One-way Analysis of Covariance........... 123

67 Attitude, Concept G--Understandable-Mysterious
Dimension: Two-way Analysis of Covariance...... 124










Table Page

68 Attitude, Concept G--Understandable-Mysterious
Dimension: Means and Standard Deviations .. 125

69 Attitude, Concept G--Understandable-Mysterious
Dimension: One-way Analysis of Covariance....... 126

70 Attitude, Concept I1--Good-Bad Dimension: Two-
way Analysis of Covariance.................... 127

71 Attitude, Concept il--Good-Bad Dimension: Means
and Standard Deviations ........................ 128

72 Attitude, Concept H--Good-Bad Pimension: One-
way Analysis of Covariance.................... 129

73 Attitude, Concept II--Valuable-Worthless Dimen-
sion: Two-way Analyis of Covariance ............ 130

74 Attitude, Concept H--Valuable-Worth less Dimen-
sion: Means and Standard Deviations ............ 131

75 Attitude, Concept H--Valuable-Worthless Dimen-
sion: One-way Analysis of Covariance........... 132

70i Attitude, Concept II--Understandable-Mysterious
Dimension: Two-way Analysis of Covariance ...... 133

77 Attitude, Concept li--Understandable-Mysterious
Dimension: Means and Standard Deviations....... 134

78 Attitude, Concept H --Understandable-Mysterious
Dimension: One-way Analysis of Covariance ...... 135

79 Attitude, Concept I--Good-Bad Dimension: One-
way Analysis of Covariance..................... 136

80 Attitude, Concept I--Good-Bad Dimension: Means
and Standard Deviations ........................ 137

81 Attitude, Concept I--Good-Bad Dimension: One-
way Analysis of Covariance ..................... 138

82 Attitude, Concept I--Valuable-Worthless Dimen-
sion: Two-way Analysis of Covariance........... 139

83 Attitude, Concept I --Valuable-Worthless Dimen-
sion: Means and Standard Dleviations ............ 140

84 Attitude, Concept 1--Valuable-Worthless Dimen-
sion: One-wav Analysis of Covariance ........... 141









Table Page

85 Attitude, Concept I--Understandable-Mysterious
Dimension: Two-way Analysis of Covariance...... 142

80 Attitude, Concept I--Understandable-Mysterious
Dimension: Means and Standard Deviations....... 143

87 Attitude, Concept 1--Understandable-Mysterious
Dimension: One-way Analysis of Covariance...... 144

88 Attitude, Concept .J--Good-Bad Dimension: Two-
way Analysis of Covariance..................... 145

89 Attitude, Concept J--Good-Bad Dimension: Means
and Standard Deviations ......................... 146

90 Attitude, Concept J--Cood-Bad Dimension: One-
way Analysis of Covariance....................... 147

91 Attitude, Concept J--Valuable-Worthless Dimen-
sion: Two-way Analysis of Covariance........... 148

92 Attitude, Concept J--Valuable-Worthless Dimen-
sion: Means and Standard Deviations ............ 149

93 Attitude, Concept J--Valuable-Worthless Dimen-
sion: One-way Analysis of Covariance........... 150

94 Attitude, Concept J--Understandable-Mysterious
Dimension: Two-way Analysis of Covariance ...... 151

95 Attitude, Concept J--Understandable-Mysterious
Dimension: Means and Standard Deviations....... 152

90 Attitude, Concept J--Understandable-Mysterious
Dimension: One-way Analysis of Covariance ...... 153

97 Attitude, Concept K--Good-Bad Dimension: Two-
way Analysis of Covariance...................... .. 154

98 Attitude, Concept K--Good-Bad Dimension: Means
and Standard Dleviations ........................ 155

99 Attitude, Concept K--Good-Bad Dimension: One-
way Analysis of Covariance ..................... 156

100 Attitude, Concept K--Valuable-Worthless Dimen-
sion: Two-way Analysis of Covariance........... 157

101 Attitude, Concept K--Valuable-Worthless Dimen-
sion: Means and Standard Deviations ............ 158










Table e Page

102 Attitude, Concept K--Valuable-Worthless Dimen-
sion: One-way Analysis of Covariance........... 159

103 Attitude, Concept K--Understandable-Mysterious
Dimension: Two-way Analysis of Covariance ...... 160

104 Attitude, Concept K--Inderstandable-Mysterious
Dimension: Means and Standard Deviations....... 161

105 Attitude, Concept K--llnderstardable-Mysterious
Dimension:One-way Analysis of Covariance....... 162

106 Attitude, Concept ,--Good-Bad Dimension: Two-
way Analysis of Covariance....................... 163

107 Attitude, Concept ,--Good-Bad Dimension: Means
and Standard Deviations ......................... 164

108 Attitude, Concept L--Good-Bad Dimension: One-
way Analysis of Covariance. ..................... 165

109 Attitude, Concept I--Valuable-Worthless Dimen-
sion: Two-way Analysis of Covariance .......... 166

110 Attitude, Concept L--Valuable-Worthless Dimen-
sion: Means and Standard Deviations ............ 167

111 Attitude, Concept I--Valuable-Worthless Dimen-
sion: One-way Analysis of Covariance........... 168

112 Attitude, Concept L--Understandable-Mysterious
Dimension: Two-way Analysis of Covariance....... 169

113 Attitude, Concept L --Understandable-Mysterious
Dimension: Means and Standard Deviations....... 170

114 Attitude, Concept L--Understandable-Mysterious
Dimension: One-way Analysis of Covariance...... 171

115 Attitudes, Concepts A through L: Two-way
Analysis of Covariance......................... 172

116 Attitudes, Concepts A through L: Means and
Standard Deviations............. ............. 173

117 Attitudes, Concepts A through L: One-way
Analysis of Covariance......................... 174









Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate Council
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy

TIll EFFECTS OF HUMAN SEXUALITY INSTRUCTION ON SEXUAL GUILT,
PSYCHOLOGICAL ANDROGYNY, AND ATTITUDES TOWARD
THE SEXUAL BEHAVIORS OF OTHERS

By

Franklin Joseph Nagy

August, 1977

Chairman: Dr. E. L. Tolbert
Major Department: Counselor Education


This study was designed to determine the effects of

instruction in human sexuality on undergraduate college students.

S..... in sexual guilt, psychological androgyny, and attitudes

toward the sexual behaviors of others were evaluated. Subjects

for the study consisted of students enrolled in a ten-week

human sexuality course offered during spring 1977 at the Univer-

sity of Florida.

Three instruments were used to measure posttreatment dif-

ferences. These were the Mosher Forced-Choice Guilt Inventory-

Sex Guilt Subscale, the Bem Sex-Role Inventory, and the Attitude

Measure of Sexual Behaviors experimenter's adaptation. All

three instruments were administered during the f.rst and last

week of the quarter.

A total of 137 volunteer subjects completed the pre- and

postcomponents. The experimental group, the human sexuality

course participants, consisted of 70 subjects and the control

group, students enrolled in courses other than human sexuality,

contained 07 subjects.









Statistical analyses of the data were computed by using

a two-way (group x sex) and a one-way (group) analysis of co-

variance. These analyses were performed on subjects by sex as

well as by the total experimental and control groups.

The results are as follows:

1. There were no significant differences between the

experimental and control subjects on sexual guilt after the

treatment.

2., There was a main effects significant difference on sex

guilt after the treatment between males and females with the

females exhibiting greater change. However, this greater change

was believed to be artifactual because of the use of two ver-

sions of the sex guilt instrument.

Additional comparisons for sex guilt revealed no signifi-

cant differences between the experimental males and control

males or between the experimental females and control females.

3. There were no main effects significant differences

between the experimental and control subjects on psychological

androgyny after the treatment.

4. There was no main effects significant difference

between males and females for psychological andiagyny after the

treatment.

Additional comparisons for psychological androgyny revealed

no significant differences for experimental males and control

males or for experimental females and control females.

5. For attitudes toward the sexual behaviors of others,

there was a main effects significant difference between the









experimental and control subjects for three concepts after the

treatment. These concepts were a woman who masturbates (all

three bipolar dimensions), an engaged person who has premarital

intercourse (valuable-worthless dimension), and a person who

reads "hard-core pornography" (good-bad and understandable-

mysterious dimensions). Scores for all three concepts changed

in the liberal direction.

On an additional test for the combined set of 12 concepts,

a main effects significant difference was revealed in the

liberal direction after the treatment.

b. There was a main effects significant difference for

sex for two concepts of the attitude measure. These were a

homosexual (valuable-worthless dimension) and someone who

engages in oral and/or anal intercourse (good-bad dimension).

In both concepts females showed greater change than males.

These changes occurred in the liberal direction.

Additional comparisons for attitudes revealed significant

differences between experimental and control subjects by sex.

A comparison of experimental males and control males showed a

significant difference for the concept a woman who masturbates

(good-had dimension) ; a comparison of experimei tal females and

control females revealed a significant difference for two con-

cepts. These were a woman who masturbates (valuable-worthless

and understandable-mysterious dimensions) and a person who reads

"hard-core pornography" (understandable-mysterious dimension).

Ci, for these additional comparisons were in the liberal

direction.










It was concluded that this treatment is valuable. Impli-

cations for further research are also discussed.


xvii














CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION



Statement of the Problem


Psychological education is a preventive educational approach

that integrates academic learning and personal learning (Mosher

I Sprinthall, 1971; Skovholt, in press). As such, it offers an

important way to demystify our profession while providing mental

health services. According to Ivey and Alshuler (1973), we need

to pass on our knowledge as rapidly and coherently as possible.

Human sexuality courses represent one type of course

offered in psychological education. This study will examine

the impact of a human sexuality course on the sexual attitudes

of college students. Recently there has been a great increase

in the number of human sexuality courses offered in colleges and

universities. However, there is little known about their impact

on the attitudes and behavior of the participating students

(Zuckerman, Tushup, & Finner, 1970).



Rat ionale


According to Elizabeth Taylor Vance (19b3), a wide variety

of mental health problems exist in our society which cannot be

overcome by the individual therapy of clinicians. Therefore,

the clinician needs to modify his role in the dire tion of










greater involvement in the developmental, environmental, and

social context of the individual. A prevention approach needs

to be employed.

Preventive efforts in mental health have been separated

into three areas: primary prevention, secondary prevention,

and tertiary prevention. Primary prevention is the step taken

to prevent the occurrence of a problem; secondary prevention is

the early treatment of the problem; and tertiary prevention is

the attempt to minimize the long-term effects of the problem.

Primary prevention is believed by most authorities to be the

most effective type of preventive approach in mental health

(Bloom, 1971; Brownbridge Van Fleet, 1969; Hollister, 1966;

Joint Commission on Mental Health, 1961; Joint Commission on

the Mental Health of Children, 19701).

Psychological education is one form of primary prevention.

As such, it is designed to promote the goals of both personal

learning and psychological competence (Skovholt, in press).

The integration of academic learning and personal experience

serves as the primary vehicle for achieving these goals

(Cottingham, 1973). More guidance specialists and psychologists

are now entering the curriculum in order to teacL the behavioral

sciences in a preventive educational mode.

Some psychological educators concerned about prevention

have begun to look at higher education as one area of focus.

Skovholt (in press), in discussing central concerns in psycho-

logical education, has questioned the usual academic perspective

in higher education. lie believes that there is an ambivalence








3
among the traditional disciplines concerning personal growth as

an outcome of college classes. The usual academic perspective

is to consider the behavioral sciences as a body of knowledge

to be mastered. The students' goal is to learn the content.

For example, academic psychologists continue to teach students

that psychology is an academic discipline to be critiqued and

understood like any other discipline. Psychology, they say, is

not intended to provide answers for the personal concerns of

students. Academic psychologists talk about this unfulfilled

expectation of students and the dilemma teachers face in telling

students the true value of psychology. This message must be

continually told to psychology students since they often enroll

in psychology courses because of a belief in the utility of

the discipline to "help me understand myself and others better"

(Lunneborg, 1974, cite: ;0 Skovholt, in press, p. 13).

The human sexual. "urse is one psychological course in

higher education that enables students to integrate learning

about sexuality with personal experiences and to become more

psychologically competent and healthy in this area.

The value of sex education has gained greater acceptance

in recent years. According to Masters and Johnso,, (1970),

sexual maladjustment which has been caused by sexual conflicts

derived from ignorance can be prevented through early effective

sex education.

Human sexuality is an area in which considerably greater

study is needed, hut it is also an area in which there is much

research. "In the last decade systematic and direc" research










has provided a detailed habi for understanding the complex

processes involved" (Gordon & Johnson, 1976, p. 9.). Many have

contributed to this research, yet certain professionals stand

out. Masters and Johnson (19b6) led the way in sex research.

Investigations and programs for direct physical and social

treatment procedures for a variety of sexual dysfunctions followed

this early research (Kaplan, 1974, 197.;; Masters & Johnson, 1970).

With newly acquired research-based information we can

enlighten students and help them integrate this learning with

personal experiences. Still, there remain frontiers to conquer.

How will we know if we have succeeded in our instruction? How

will we know if students have integrated their academic learning

about sex with their personal sexual experiences? How will we

know if our psychological education efforts have been successful?

Clearly, pre- and postcourse evaluations need to be made

if we are to know the effectiveness of a human sexuality course.

These evaluations provide much valuable information. From them

we can learn whether or not the course had any impact on stu-

dents, the degree to which a course had an impact, the kinds of

changes which occurred, if any, and the kinds of changes which

have not occurred. Evaluations can provide evid nce of the

kinds of changes which take place as a result of particular

instructional activities. With this knowledge, our curriculum

can be improved so that effective human sexuality instruction

will be possible.

Sex researchers have emphasized the importance of sexual

attitudes in relation to human sexual behavior (Fr-tz, 1975;










Fromme, 1955; Kaplan, 1974; McCary, 1967). According to Kron-

hausen and Kronhausen (1965), attitudes come from the cultural

values of society. Cultures which approve of women's orgasms

produce women who have orgasms. Cultures which do not approve

produce women who are incapable of orgasms.

In addition, it seems that in the area of sexuality, atti-

tudes appear to be more predictive of behavior than in the

past (lcCary, 1973). Christensen and Johnson (1971) agree.

Their study showed that in 1958, 411 of the females and 65% of

the males with premarital sexual experience held permissive

sexual attitudes as compared to 78% of the females and 82% of

the males in 1968.

The significance of measuring attitudes in a human sexuality

course has been acknowledged. "Our sexual behavior is related

to our sexual attitudes. These attitudes in turn are a direct

result of the sex education that we have received or not received

and the misinformation that we carry into our sexual relation-

ships" (McCary, 1971, p. 179).

It is necessary to study changes in sexual attitudes as a

result of participation in a human sexuality class. Through iden-

tification of particular attitudes which change r do not change,

we can begin to isolate attitudes for more detailed study. It

will be possible to correlate specific sexual attitudes with

specific human sexuality courses. This identification and corre-

lation process would effect a systematic approach to teaching
sexual attitudes in a human sexuality course.

Several considerations are important in relation to those

attitudes which seem valuable to measure. I'irst, it is









appropriate to measure attitude changes toward self. According

to Davidow (1976), only minimum research has been reported which

reflects the impact of sex education on attitudes of one's own

sexuality. Two constructs which may be measured in this regard

are sexual guilt and psychological androgyny. Katchadourian

(1972) described the status of guilt in our society.

It seems that the current generation of young people
is living in a transitional period, in which there
is an overlap between two phenomena. One is the
belief that guilt feelings associated with sex are
a heritage from past generations and are acquired
in childhood; the other is the new morality, intel-
lectual acceptance of the premise that sex in the
proper context is good and should not be associated
with feelings of guilt. (p. 469)

The negative consequences of guilt have been described

(Goldstein, 1976; McCary, 1973). Kaplan (1974) showed how

children are affected by guilt.

The youngster learns from infancy that it is wonder-
ful to walk, to talk, to paint, that he is a good
boy when he eats his meals or takes his nap, but
that his sexual impulses are not acceptable. He is
taught to deny his sexuality, to disassociate this
aspect of himself, that it is dangerous, nasty,
hostile, dirty, disgusting and immoral to give expres-
sion to his sexual urges. Especially if his home is
a "religious" one the youngster usually learns that
sex is sinful, shocking, ugly, dangerous, and taboo.
Babies of both genders tend to touch their
genitals and express joy when their genitals are
stimulated in the course of diapering and b-.thing,
and both little girls and boys stimulate their penis
or clitoris as soon as they acquire the necessary
motor coordination. At the same time, sexual expres-
sion is, in our society, systematically followed by
disapproval and punishment and denial. The little
boy's hand is repeatedly removed from his penis,
often with strong emotion, and the little girl meets
shock and censure if she tries to peek at or (God
forbid!) touch her father's genitals in the bathroom.
These repeated negative contingencies to early sexual
expression result not only in appropriate control
of the sexual impulses but also in destructive, con-
flict, guilt, and alienation, Each time the ioy has









the normal impulses to.masturbate, to peck at his
parents, to fantasize making love to his sister, to
get rid of his father so he can be alone with his
mother, or the girl desires to look at a little boy's
penis, masturbate or exhibit her little body, he or
she also feels a jolt of anxiety and/or shame and
guilt .Youngsters who are discovered in sexual
activities are subjected to harsh punishments and
humiliations and often are made to feel that they
have committed the unpardonable sin. They are made
to feel guilty and to repress and hide even from
themselves their sexual impulses for many years.
(p. 147)

The long-range effects of guilt are serious. "When the

Kinsey reports were published they merely confirmed what edu-

cators had long known--guilt feelings aroused by inadequate

sex knowledge interfere with happy living, school work, friend-

ships, and future mental adjustments" (McCary, 1973, p. 15).

The second construct related to sexual attitudes and self,

psychological androgyny, measures traditional sex role beliefs,

i.e., that men and women each have their own set of character-

istics and these are at opposite poles. Because of the differing

views in measuring androgyny, this study will be confined to

psychological androgyny as measured by Sandra Bemr (1974). The

traditional concepts of masculinity and feminity have obscured

two other possibilities.

First, that many individuals might be "androgynous,"
that is, they might be both masculine and feminine,
both assertive and yielding, both instrumental and
expressive--depending on the situational appropri-
ateness of these various behaviors; and conversely,
that strongly sex-typed individuals might be seriously
limited in the range of behaviors available to them as
they move from situation to situation. (Bemrn, 1974,
p. 155)

In addition to Bemr, others have discussed androgyny (Bazin

i Freeman, 1974; Block, 1973; Spence Helmreich, & Stapp, 1975).










The importance of androgyny is described by Bern (1976). She

said,

The point of course is that the two domains of mas-
culinity and feminity are both fundamental. In a
modern complex society like ours an adult clearly
has to be able to look out for himself and to get
things done. But an adult also has to be able to
relate to human beings as people, to be sensitive
to their needs and to be concerned about their
welfare, as well as to be able to depend on them
for emotional support. Limiting a person's ability
to respond in one or the other of these two compli-
mentary domains thus seems tragically and unneces-
sarily destructive of human potential. (p. 250)

Because of the importance of psychological androgyny, it

is a valuable concept to examine in a human sexuality course.

It seems logical that since a course in human sexuality brings

in perspectives of the opposite sex, it will affect individuals

on a personal level. If we can determine that the psychological

androgyny of a person can change as a result of participation

in a human sexuality course, then we can begin to explore

reasons for these changes. Ultimately, we will be able to

alter sex-type stereotypic beliefs, and in so doing move toward

androgyny; this will promote psychological health and prevent

psychological problems (Bernm, 1974).

The third area which will be measured is attitudes toward

the sexual behaviors of others. The value of assessing sexual

attitudes has been discussed previously (Fretz, 1975; Fretz &

Johnson, 1971; Fromme, 1955; Kaplan, 1974; Katchadourian, 1972;

McCary, 1973). Through more assessments we will be able to pin-

point certain attitudes which can be changed by sex education.

In turn, by isolating those attitudes which can change, we can

provide instruction relative to those attitudes antI improve the

quality of sex education for college students.










The benefits of effective sexual attitude instruction in

a human sexuality course will have far reaching positive results.

Changed sexual attitudes may help prevent a variety of sexual

problems and sexual crimes.



Need for the Study


Sexual guilt and psychological androgyny have been shown

to be both relevant and important. Therefore, each of these

constructs is valuable to study.

Most studies on sexual guilt have correlated guilt with a

variety of attitudes and behaviors (D'Augelli i6 Cross, 1975;

Mosher, 1965; Mosher A Cross, 1971). Only one study measured

pre- and postguilt changes in a human sexuality course for

college students (Bernard, 1973). Clearly, more studies are

needed if we are to know whether sexual guilt can be changed

as a result of participation in a human sexuality course.

A number of psychological androgyny studies have been

completed (Bem, 1975; Bem A Lenney, in press; Bem, Martyna, &

Watson, 1975; Gonzalez, 1975; Murray, 1976; Spence, Helmreich,

A Stapp, 1975; Wakefield, Sasck, Friedman, & Bowden, 1976;

Zeldow, 1976). However, no study has been completed to deter-

mine whether psychological androgyny changes as a result of

participation in a human sexuality course. Therefore, a study

is necessary to determine whether change can occur.

"The need for a study of attitude change as a function of

a comprehensive sex education course within a university setting

is clear" (Bernard & Schwartz, 1975, p. 2). An exploration of










the third focus of this study, attitudes toward the sexual

behaviors of others, reveals that only a limited number of

studies have been done with college students. More research

is needed if we are to clearly know whether attitudes can be

changed through participation in a sex education course.



Purpose of the Study


The purpose of this study is to investigate the impact of

an instructional experience in human sexuality on sexual guilt,

psychological androgyny, and attitudes toward the sexual behav-

iors of others. This instruction was offered through BES 252--

Human Sexuality, an elective course of the Department of Behav-

ioral Studies, University of Florida, given in Spring Quarter,

1977.



Research Questions


The research questions which will be explored for sexual

guilt, psychological androgyny, and attitudes toward the sexual

behaviors of others are as follows:

1. Do students who participate in a human sexuality course

experience a reduction in feelings of guilt about sexual matters?

2. Will a course in human sexuality affect the status of

psychological androgyny for the students who participate?

3. Does a course in human sexuality affect students'

attitudes toward the sexual behaviors of others?









Definition of Terms


Attitude an attitude for the purpose of this study is

defined as those responses assessed by the Attitude Measure of

Sexual Behaviors (Fretz, 1975).

Human sexuality learned social conduct which includes

all the learned patterns of.helieving, perceiving, behaving,

evaluating, and feeling (in relation to others and to one's

self) that involve actual or symbolically conceived stimulation

of primary and secondary sexual organs and zones (Gordon &

Johnson, 1976).

Liberal capable of a high degree of acceptance of alter-

native styles of behavior.

P ,1. .1 ,i,.1 ... having a high degree of both

male and female characteristics, i.e., being both assertive and

yielding; both instrumental and expressive, depending on the

situational appropriateness of these various behaviors (Bern,

1974).

Psychological education education intervention designed

specifically to promote personal learning and psychological

competence. The integration of academic learning and personal

experience serves as the primary vehicle for achieving these

goals (Cottingham, 1973).

Sexual behavior the totality of normal and abnormal,

conscious and unconscious, overt and covert sensations, thoughts,

feelings, and actions related to sexual organs and other eroto-

genic zones, including masturbation, heterosexual and homosexual

relations, sexual deviations, goals, and techniquesi(Wolman,

1973).









Sex guilt generalized expectancy for self-mediated

punishment for violating or for anticipating violating standards

of proper sexual conduct (Mosher, 1966).

Sex role behavior patterns expected from an individual

by their social group believed to be typical of their sex

(Wolman, 1973).

Sex typing the designation in a culture of certain

behaviors as feminine or masculine and the training of children

to adhere, to these roles (Wolman, 1973).



Organization of the Study


The remainder of this study is organized into four addi-

tional chapters plus appendices. Chapter II includes a review

of the literature of attitudes toward sexual behaviors, sexual

guilt, and psychological androgyny, along with studies relating

to human sexuality classes. Chapter III contains the methods

and procedures for the study, hypotheses, design, description

of evaluative measures, and treatment. The results of the study

are presented in Chapter IV. Chapter V includes a summary of

the study, a discussion of the results, and recommendations

for further research.














CHAPTER [I

REVIEW OF THE LITEI RATURE



I ntroduct ion


Today sex education remains a controversial area. Both

champions and critics of sex education are contending for the

majority view. The highly inflamed debates continue with only

a minimum of data to support either side. A review of the

literature indicates that few studies have examined the changes

produced by sex education. Furthermore, a problem exists in

that experimental data which have been gathered are often based

on a course which is difficult to replicate. Most of the

reports of experimental studies do not show the curriculum

components.

Chapter II consists of a discussion of the available

research on sexual guilt, psychological androgyny, as measured

by Bem (1974), and the effects of sex education on attitudes

toward sexual behaviors. The research on sexual guilt and

psychological androgyny is limited; whereas, for sexual attitudes

the research is extensive.



Sexual Guilt


A distinction can he made between two motives for
the inhibition of morally unacceptable behavior.
One motive is fear of external punishment for
transgressing societal standards. A second motive
is guilt, which has developed as a result of a

I









past reinforcement history which favored the inter-
nalization of moral standards. The guilt-motivated
person assumes the task of inhibiting behaviors
which he defines as morally unacceptable to avoid
experiencing intense feelings of guilt. (Mosher,
19 5 p. 161)

The person who is sexually guilty inhibits behaviors which

relate to thoughts, feelings, and behaviors about sex. Specifi-

cally, "sexual guilt is a generalized 'xpectancy for self-

mediated punishment for violating or for anticipating violating

standards of proper sexual conduct" (Mosher 6 Cross, 1971, p. 27).

Research has examined the relationship between sexual guilt and

(a) sexual behaviors, (h) eroticism, (c) sex experience, and

(d) time.

Two studies of special interest have looked at guilt and

sexual behavior. In a study of 80 male college students using

the Mosher Incomplete Sentences Test, Mosher (1965) found that

high sex-guilt subjects were relatively insensitive to situational

cues concerning the likelihood of external punishment. On the

other hand, low sex-guilt subjects were found to be significantly

more influenced by such cues. This interaction between fear and

guilt in inhibiting unacceptable behavior was predicted from

social learning theory.

D'Augelli and Cross (1975) assessed 119 unmarried college

women with regard to sex guilt. High sex guilt was found to

inhibit sexual expression.

Some studies have used erotic stimuli in order to assess

sexual guilt. Mosher (1973) studied the psychological reactions

of 191 single male and 183 single female undergraduates to

erotic stimuli. The instrument used was the Moshe i Forced-Choice










Guilt Inventory-Sex Guilt Subscale, Male Form (Mosher, 1966)

and Female Form (Mosher, 1968). The students viewed two films

portraying face-to-face intercourse and oral-genital sex between

the same couple. The films were rated as more pornographic,

disgusting, and offensive by female subjects (as compared to

males), by high sex-guilt subjects las compared to low sex-

guilt subjects), and by less sexually experienced subjects (as

compared to more sexually experienced subjects).

Love, Sloan, and Schmidt (1976) divided 35 male under-

graduates into three groups on the basis of their scores on

the Mosher Forced-Choice Guilt Inventory (Mosher, 1961, 1966,

1908). The amount of time subjects spent viewing and rating

photographic slides of varying erotic content was recorded. The

viewing time of the low sex-guilt subjects increased as the photo-

graphic content increased. No significant increase in viewing

time occurred for high sex-guilt subjects.

Other studies have compared sexual guilt with low sexual

experience. Studying orgasm frequency, Leiman and Epstein

(1901) found that individuals with more sex guilt reported a

lower frequency of orgasms per week.

Mosher and Cross (1971) related a measure o. sex guilt to

(a) the reporting of previous sexual experiences, (b) feelings

following sexual activity, (c) reasons for nonparticipation,

and (d) premarital and postmarital sexual standards. Among the

60 male and 70 female college student participants, sex guilt

was found to be negatively correlated with the level of intimacy

of premarital sexual experience. The guilty subje ts had less
I







16

permissive premarital standards. Moral beliefs were the reason

given by guilty females for their lack of participation in

intercourse or more intimate forms of petting. The reasons

given for nonparticipation by guilty males included moral

beliefs, respect for the girl, and fear of pregnancy or disease.

In another study of 100 females, Kutner (1971) found that

sex guilt was negatively correlated with all the sexual phases

associated with the use of birth control pills. He found that

the greater the guilt, the less the sexual desire, responsive-

ness, orgasm frequency, passion, and orgasm ease.

Schwarz (1975), in a study of 286 male and female college

students, found that low levels of sexual experience were asso-

ciated with a "traditional moralistic" sexual-moral philosophy

and with high levels of sex guilt.

Sometimes guilt changes as a function of time and increased

sexual activity. According to Christensen and Carpenter (1962),

as a relationship between a boy and a girl moves from acquaint-

anceship to going steady to engagement, sexual behavior becomes

more intimate, and guilt over sexual endearments decreases for

both sexes. Also, as the sexual values of our society change,

sexual guilt changes. There has been a distinct drop in recent

years in the guilt feelings experienced by both males and females

as a result of premarital intercourse (McCary, 19731). Still,

the prevalence of sexual guilt among college students is aptly

stated by Albert Ellis (1971): "The fact is, therefore, that

literally millions of Americans, including untold numbers of

college students, are still exceptionally guilty about sex in

general" (p. 227).








17

Only one study has looked at the sexual guilt of college

students with respect to changes from sex education. Bernard

(1973) used Mosher's Forced-Choice G;uilt Inventory in evalu-

ating sex guilt over the time span of a human sexuality course.

Sex guilt, hostile guilt, and moral conscience were measured

to determine the effects of sex education on the participants'

attitudes toward their own sexual behavior. A significant

reduction on the sex-guilt variable was reported.






Ihe focus of this component of the study is psychological

androgyny as measured by the Bem Sex-Role Inventory (Bern, 1974).

According to Bem (1974), psychological androgyny is a condition

or state in which a person has a high degree of both masculine

and feminine characteristics, i.e., being "both assertive and

yielding; both instrumental and expressive, depending on the

situational appropriateness of these behaviors" (p. 155).

Bem's concepts of masculinity and femininity are two independent

dimensions, in contrast to treating them as the opposite ends

of a single dimension. This measurement of masculinity and

femininity is different from other masculinity-femininity

measures. Most personality inventories have items that are

arranged or worded in a way which emphasizes differences between

males and females. Also, the traditional inventories do not

allow for a person to he classified as both masculine and femi-

nine. Bem's method is significant and important because no pre-

vious measurement technqiin e has allowed for this classification.








18

Scoring of the Bem Sex-Role Inventory (BSRI) has been an

area of controversy. Initially a t ratio was used as the

measure of psychological androgyny. According to Bern (1974),

the t ratio is the difference between means, F-M (the andrpgyny

difference score), divided by a term reflecting the variances

of the two sets of ratings. However, more recently the scoring

has been revised. Strahan (1975) suggested that the t ratio is

inappropriate to measure psychological androgyny for statistical

reasons.' Thus, Strahan suggested that an individual's androg-

yny is measured solely by his Femininity (F) mean score minus

his Masculinity (M! mean score. The smaller the difference

between F-M, the greater the degree of androgyny. Wakefield

ct al. (1976) employed this scoring method of androgyny. There-

fore, low scores indicate androgynous individuals and high

scores (either positive or negative) indicate sex-typed

individuals.

Much of the research on psychological androgyny has at-

tempted to demonstrate its relationship with behavioral corre-

lates and other personality traits. Four studies have shown

the BSRT to be highly predictive, two have been disconfirming,

and two others are inconclusive. In addition, o._e unique study

(Murray, 1976) correlated the BSRI with the educational levels

of women.

The first supportive study was done by Bem, Martyna, and

Watson (1975). The subjects were "listeners" in a "talker-

listener" situation. Facial expressions of the subjects were

secretly recorded. Results showed that feminine and androgynous
I







19

men did not differ significantly from one another, and all were

significantly more expressive than masculine men who were the

least expressive of any group. Feminine women were the most

expressive listeners of all.

Another supportive study of behavioral correlates (Bem,

1975) explored the relationship between sex-role identity and

examples of independence. To test independence four male and

four female subjects rated the level of humor in cartoons.

Also, they listened to tape recordings of individuals giving

false impressions of the cartoons. The subjects, however,

were unaware that the recorded responses were contrived. This

procedure was used to determine whether the subjects would

adhere to their impressions of the cartoons or conform to the

contrived responses. Results showed that the masculine and

androgynous subjects did not differ significantly from one

another, and both were significantly more independent than the

feminine subjects. This was true for both males and females.

One very recent supportive study (Bem ti Lenney, in press),

looked at the relationship between cross-sex activities and

discomfort. Subjects chose activities (each having a monetary

value) from 30 pairs of items presented to them 60 items).

Of these items, 20 were masculine, 20 feminine, and 20 neutral.

To determine discomfort, they rated enjoyment for each activity

after it was acted out. Results showed that sex-typed subjects

were significantly more stereotyped in their choices than

androgynous subjects, who did not differ significantly from

one another. In other words, the masculine man and the feminine








20

woman were significantly more likely to select their own sex's

activities even though such choices cost them money and even

through the researchers tried to make it as easy as they could

for the subject to select cross-sex activities. Results for

the discomfort component showed that sex-typed subjects felt

significantly more discomfort than androgynous subjects, who,

again, did not differ significantly from one another. That is,

it was the masculine men and the feminine women who experienced

the most 'discomfort and who felt the worst about themselves

after performing the cross-sex activities. The authors con-

cluded that only the androgynous subjects felt comfortable

participating in cross-sex behaviors.

A final supportive study by Wakefield et al. (1976), using

59 male and 56 female undergraduates, analyzed Bem's measure of

Masculinity (M), Femininity (F), and androgyny by the principal-

component's method with scores from the M-F scales of the

Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory, the California

Psychological Inventory, and the Omnibus Personality Inventory.

The results from these M-F scales supported Bem's statements

about androgyny being an integration of masculine and feminine

characteristics.

The two disconfirming studies were carried out by Zeldow

(1976) and Gonzalez (1975). Zeldow (1976) studied 50 male and

50 female undergraduates using the BSRI and the Spence and

Helmreich Attitudes Toward Women Scale. The results showed

that only feminine males differed from all of the other

subjects. These feminine males exhibited traditional







21

conservative attitudes toward the rights and roles of women in

contemporary society.

Conzalez (1975) studied 47 nursery school mothers and pre-

dicted that androgyny would he inversely related to dogmatism.

She explored whether a significant association existed between

sex-role attitudes as measured by the BSRI and dogmatism as

measured by the ..1.. 1, i-.. ,r ,,i ilc. The results showed no

significant correlation between these two scales. It was con-

cluded the the BSRI was not a valid predictor for dogmatism.

Bemn, Martyna, and Watson (1975) and Bern (1975) conducted

studies which were inconclusive in their support of the BSRI.

Bern, Martyna, and Watson (1975) carried out a study in which

genuinely interpersonal situations were created which would

elicit the subjects' nurturant sympathies. The subjects were

given an opportunity to interact with an infant. Results

showed that feminine and androgynous males were significantly

more expressive toward the baby than the masculine males.

However, no significant differences occurred among the women.

The feminine women were not particularly nurturant nor did they

display any particular deficiency in the expressive domain.

Bem (1975) explored the relationship between sex-role

identity and examples of nurturance. This study involved inter-

action activities with a kitten. Results showed that the

feminine and androgynous men did not differ significantly from

one another, and both were significantly more responsive to the

kitten than the masculine men. Also, the androgynous women,

like the androgynous men, were responsive to the kitten. The
I








22

feminine women were significantly less responsive, and masculine

women fell ambiguously in between.

In a unique study, Murray (1976) obtained ratings on the

BSRI from 281 women from diverse backgrounds and found that most

women desired to be more androgynous than they felt they actu-

ally were. She also found that the higher the educational

level the more likely that women would be androgynous. In part

two of the same study, Murray used the Measurement of Attitudes

Toward Stereotypic Behavior to examine women's perceptions of

the "psychological health" of various sex-related tasks. Par-

ticipants were asked to rate the "psychological health" of

individuals pictured in 45 different photographs. These photo-

graphs pictured three female stimulus persons, neutral, feminine,

and masculine in appearance, each of whom engaged in five mas-

culine, five feminine, and five neutral behaviors. For real

self, those women who were androgynous produced the highest

psychological health ratings. It was concluded that androgyny,

rather than femininity, was a psychologically healthy goal.



Effects of Sex Education on .Attitudes Toward Sexual Behaviors


A review of the literature for attitudes measured as a

result of sex education shows numerous studies completed. Of

the outcomes reported, nearly all show a change in the liberal

direction. Some studies have examined specific attitudes rather

than a wide range of attitudes. Other studies have examined a

comprehensive set of attitudes. Two studies have used the

Attitude Measure of Sexual Behaviors to assess attitudes.








23
Two studies looked at high school students and young adults

in order to determine if attitude change occurs as a result of

sex education. Hoch 11971) attempted to determine the effects

of a nonjudgmental sex education unit conducted as a part of a

high school biology course. One hundred stuJents were involved

in the study: fifty in the control group and fifty in the experi-

mental group. Changes between pre- and posttests led to the

following conclusions: (a) students did not become more per-

missive in their attitudes involving sexual behavior as a

result of sex education; (b) students became more conscious of

the problems facing the world in the areas of population control,

family planning, birth control, and abortion and tended to be

more liberal in their thinking in regard to these topics; and

(c) students tended to be less hostile and more accepting of

sexual deviates as a result of sex education.

In a much more comprehensive study, Diprizio (1974) pro-

vided a sex education program for 97 public school and 64

parochial school junior high students and for 36 public school

and 19 parochial school parents. Pre- and posttesting with a

general attitude questionnaire and a form of the Osgood Semantic

Differential indicated that there was a significant liberal

change in the attitudes of students and parents.

Four studies reported in the research were based on programs

for medical trainees. The results of these studies generally

showed pre- and postchanges in the liberal direction.

In one study, a three-day human sexuality course was offered

to 186 medical, nursing, and graduate psychology students by










Minms, Brown, and Lubow (1976). The program's purpose was to

supply accurate information, encourage participants to question,

explore, and assess their own sexual attitudes and to help

participants develop a more tolerant attitude toward the sexual

beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors of others. A significant

liberal difference in attitudes occurred between mean scores of

the pre- and posttests for all subjects. When examined sepa-

rately, nursing and medical students showed significant liberal

changes (p< .001) in attitudes for all scales except the hetero-

sexual scale (p .01). The psychology students showed literal

changes (p < .01 ) in two scales, autoeroticism and sexual myths.

In another study involving medical trainees, Meins, Yea-

worth, and llorstein (1974) provided a human sexuality program

for five days. lhe subjects of the study were 70 medical

students and 37 nursing students. One of the purposes of the

course was to decrease anxiety related to sex. An attitude

instrument was administered to the participants before and

after the course. Results showed that participants' attitudes

toward sex became more liberal after the course.

Alzate (1974) used a prQ- and posttest evaluation of a

human sexuality course required of 38 sixth-seme.,ter medical

students. The results of the study showed that the instruction

produced a liberalization of sexual attitudes.

All of the studies evaluating medical trainees showed

positive results except one (Woods I Mandetta, 1975). In this

study tlie researchers administered a 163-item questionnaire to

11 female nursing students and 12 male under radua es who








25

participated in a sex education course. No correlation existed

between liberalization of attitudes toward sexuality and com-

pletion of the course.

Certain studies in the related literature assessed sexual

changes among educational personnel. These studies included

teachers, administrators, and other school staff.

Flatter (1975) analyzed the effects of a series of six-

day human sexuality workshops on the degree of sexual liberalism

of 341 educators. The workshops included both cognitive and

affective areas of human sexuality. The major conclusion drawn

from the study was that participation in a human sexuality work-

shop affects attitude change in the direction of increased

sexual liberalism.

Karas and Gale (1972) provided a course in sex education

to 29 elementary school teachers in Danbury, Connecticut. A

pre- and postattitude instrument was administered to the

teachers as well as to the control group. The findings revealed

a more liberal attitude toward sex among the participants than

among the nonparticipants.

In another study, Poinsett (1970) examined the effects of

an experiential workshop, "Promoting Positive Social-Sexual

Functioning in Handicapped Children." Pre- and postdata and

delayed postdata were collected on attitudes. From dis-

positional data three groups were established. Group A

focused on self and was inner-directed. Group B focused on

communicating and was other-directed. Group C focused on

receiving specific sexual information and how to deal with










the concerns of handicapped students. The results for all

three groups showed statistically significant increases in

tolerance toward autoeroticism and knowledge of sexual myths.

Group A developed a statistically significant more liberalized

attitude toward premarital and extramarital relations as com-

pared to Groups B and C. From 80% to 85% of the participants

reported changes in their personal lives and professional

intents and performances regarding sex education for the

handicapped. The experiential workshop proved to be an

effective means of increasing tolerance in sexual attitudes

as well as promoting more interest in involvement in sex educa-

tion fui the handicapped.

Ten studies, identified by this researcher, have used

college students as subjects. In order to evaluate the effec-

tiveness of a marriage course, Olsen and Gravatt (1968) studied

97 university students. Results showed a positive change

toward the sexual behavior of others on an attitude scale con-

taining 48 items. However, the course content was unclear and

the attitudes measured were nebulous.

Bernard (1973) conducted a comprehensive outcome study on

a sex education course given at the University of Rochester.

Twenty-four lectures were given by various specialists, and

weekly discussion groups were held. Topics covered included

psychosexual development, human sexual response, pregnancy,

birth, abortion, and contraception. Discussion groups were

open-ended in format and arranged from didactic exercises which

focused on lecture material to personal discussion, concerning










participants' experience and feelings in the area of human

sexuality. There were 275 course participants who served as

experimental subjects. Two control groups, consisting of 93

and 48 subjects, were also included in the study. Results

showed that course participants became significantly more

accepting than both groups of controls in the areas of mas-

turbation and homosexuality. However, the first control group

became more accepting than both other groups on the question

of extramarital sex.

In a comparative study, McMain (1974) examined the effects

of three different sex education programs on counselor trainees'

attitudes about sexual myths, autoeroticism, heterosexual

relations, and abortion. Fourteen female and twelve male

graduate students were assigned to one of three experimental

sex education groups or a control group. Group El was given

a program consisting of filmed material of erotic art and human

sexual behavior. Group 12 was given a program consisting of

timed discussion periods on erotic art and human sexual

behavior. Group 13 was given a program consisting of filmed

material of erotic art and human sexual behavior preceding

timed discussion periods. Group C was a no-treatment control

group. Pre- and posttesting with the Sex Knowledge and Attitude

Test indicated that no significant changes had occurred. How-

ever, mean change scores in parts of the data suggested support

for (a) discussion and h() film and discussion in sex education

programs to effect change in counselor trainees' attitudes

about sex.









A study tRubin, 1970; Rubin & Adams, 1972) involving a

wide geographical area assessed 303 female and 95 male college

students using the Reiss' Premarital Sexual Permissiveness

Scale. The subjects came from numerous colleges in New York,

New Jersey, Connecticut, and Missouri. There was no consistent

curriculum among the courses since the studies were conducted

in such a wide geographic I area. No change in attitude as a

result of human sexuality education was found.

In a short-term college course of four weeks, Maxwell

(1972) evaluated 65 participants. Results showed that 50% of

the subjects reported that their feelings or attitudes had

become more liberalized as a result of course participation.

Five studies of college students are particularly rele-

vant for this literature review. Three of these studies com-

pared male and female subjects by means of pre- and postdata

analysis.

Rees and 2immerman (1974) studied 128 male and 102 female

college students to determine attitude change. There were nine

attitudinal questions which concerned masturbation, sexual

intercourse, oral-genital sex, mutual masturbation, anal

intercourse, intercourse during pregnancy and menstruation,

foreplay, homosexuality, and prostitution. No statistical tests

were conducted, but examination of the data showed that there

were changes in attitudes in the liberal direction. Findings

were as follows: 31% of the females became more accepting of

anal intercourse, 34% of the females became more accepting of

masturbation, and 30% of the females became more accepting of








29

homosexuality. For the males, 24% became more accepting of anal

intercourse, and 22% became more tolerant of homosexuality.

In one of the most comprehensive studies discovered by

this researcher, Vennewit: (1975) attempted to determine the

effects of a college human sexuality course upon attitudes toward

the sexual behaviors of nonsignificant others. The study also

sought to investigate the relationship between knowledge gain

and attitude change. Some of the course curriculum elements

included' in the Vennewitz study were movies, lectures, question

and answer sessions, and small group discussions. There were

both written and reading assignments. Although a description

of course activities was provided, specific information relating

to topics covered during the course was not included. The

experimental group of 107 students and the control group of

89 students completed pre- and posttests with an instrument

developed by the author and with the Premarital Sexual Permis-

siveness Scale developed by Reiss. Some of the major conclusions

were that (a) experimental males and females became significantly

more liberal on attitudes toward sexual behaviors of nonsignifi-

cant others than control males and females; (b) significant

liberalization in attitudes toward behavior of n. significant

others was observed in experimental males and females for some

topics, e.g., homosexual relations, mutual masturbation, and

oral-genital contacts, but not for others, e.g., premarital

intercourse and cohabitation; and (c) experimental females

more often than experimental males exhibited significant changes

in attitudes toward a variety of sexual behaviors involving

nonsignificant others.









In the other significant study which looked at male and

female comparisons, Zuckerman et al. (1976) compared attitudes

with behaviors. Participating in the study were 555 students

enrolled in personality, psychology, and human sexuality

courses. Instruction consisted of large class lectures,

explicit movies and slides, and small discussion groups where-

in students related the lectures to personal attitudes, feelings,

and experiences. Guest panelists and speakers presented

certain topics such as dysfunction and homosexuality. Males

had more permissive attitudes and experience with a greater

number of partners than females. Attitudes and experience were

more highly related in females, and students taking the sex

course were more permissive and experienced than students in

the control course. The course changed attitudes in both

sexes, but it changed behavior only in males.

In addition to the studies comparing males and females,

two other studies are especially relevant to this literature

review (Davidow, 1976; Skovholt Nagy, 8 lipting, 1976). Both

of these studies used the Attitude Measure of Sexual Behaviors

to assess the impact of the course.

This attitude measurement consists of 12 questions, i.e.,

"A homosexual" followed by seven attitude bipolar dimensions.

The bipolar dimensions have a 7-point evaluative dimension,

i.e., .. had." hach bipolar dimension was

scored with a 7 to the positive end and a 1 to the negative end.

In one study using this measurement, Davidow (1976) examined

the effectiveness of a sex education course taught at Boston








31
University. Twenty-two people were enrolled in the course which

consisted of lectures, films, outside speakers, and small group

discussion. The small group leaders were included in the final

sample. Topics included sexual attitudes and environment, sexu-

ality and sexual terms psychosexual development, cultural roles,

lifestyles, sexual dysfunction, massage, lifespan, "touching"

within different cultures, masturbatory practice between males

and females, gay issues, women's issues, autoeroticism, lesbian-

ism, sexuality and the handicapped, sexual researchers, and

communication. Results of the study showed significant changes

in attitudes toward sexual behaviors for two concepts: "a woman

who masturbates" and "an engaged person who has premarital inter-

course." Overall changes in attitudes were to the positive side

of the semantic differential scale for the evaluative factor,

the active side of the dynamic factor, and the understandable

side of the understanding factor.

In the other study using the Attitude Measure of Sexual

Behaviors, Skovholt et al. (1976) assessed male change. The

experimental subjects, 13 male undergraduate students at the

University of Florida, were enrolled in a human sexuality

course taught by the first author. Biological issues were

de-emphasized with behavioral science theories and research

emphasized. The control group consisted of 16 students enrolled

in a course in creative and critical thinking in the Behavioral

Studies Department in the fall of 1976. Three of the seven

attitude bipolar dimensions were chosen. These three dimen-

sions of good-had, valuable-worthless, and understardable-







32

mysterious were suggested by Fretz (1974) as the bipolar dimen-

sions that are most useful when assessing treatment effects.

Results showed that 10 of the 36 post treatment dimension compari-

sons were significantly different between the control and experi-

mental groups. In all of the differences the experimental group

received the more liberal scores.

In conclusion, a number of studied: have evaluated the

effect of sex education on attitudes. Most of these studies

have shown that sex education does change attitudes usually in

the liberal direction. Of the studies discovered by this

researcher, 10 have examined the attitudes of college students

and 2 of these have used the Fretz scale.



Summary


A review of the literature confirms that the research which

is relevant to this study is limited. The research which has

been done on sex guilt has shown that guilt is correlated with

the inhibition of sexual expression; with a lower degree of

interest in, and greater disgust with, eroticism; with conser-

vative premarital standards; 'and with a low degree of exposure

to sexual activity or instruction. Only one pertinent study

which showed change has been done for sexual guilt. This was

measured by the Mosher Forced-Choice Guilt Inventory.

The review of psychological androgyny, as measured by the

Bem Sex-Role Inventoiry, revealed that no prior pre- and post-

evaluai ions of sex education have been completed. The results

of the studies which have been reported on psycho logical








33

androgyny are varied. Four studies have indicated that the Bern

Sex-Role Inventory is highly predictive, two have been discon-

firming, and two others are inconclusive.

Only two studies have looked at pre- and postsex-education

change for the third area, attitudes toward the sexual behaviors

of others, as measured by the Attitude Measure of Sexual Behaviors.

The available research on attitudes measured as a result of sex

education indicated that most courses have a liberalizing effect.

Common elements to the human sexuality courses which showed posi-

tive change are lectures, small group discussion, audio-visuals,

and guest panels or speakers. In some cases, researchers men-

tioned all of the topics included in the course, while in others,

only a few topics were stated.














CHAPTER' R III

METIIODS AND PROC() DUlRIES



Overvi ew


Since effective instruction in a human sexuality course may

have far reaching results, research on factors affecting sexual

attitudes is valuable and necessary. Sexual attitudes which

have the potential for change as a result of sex instruction

need to he explored and identified. A review of the litera-

ture in this area shows that the number of experimental studies

which have been conducted is scarce. Undoubtedly, there is a

need for more research on sexual attitude change as a result

of sex education.

This study has investigated the impact of a human sexu-

ality course on sexual guilt, psychological androgyny, and

attitudes toward the sexual behaviors of others. The study

has attempted to provide answers to the following research

questions:

1. Does a course in human sexuality affect a students'

feelings of guilt about sexual matters?

2. Does a course in human sexuality affect the status of

psychological androgyny in the students?

3. Does a course in human sexuality affect students'

attitudes toward the sexual behaviors of others?








35

The method used for this study involved the comparison of

two groups of students attending the University of Florida.

These groups consisted of experimental subjects and control

subjects. The experimental group, students enrolled in a human

sexuality course, have been compared with a control group of

students who were enrolled in another course in the same depart-

ment. The comparison has been based on measures of sexual guilt,

psychological androgyny, and attitudes toward sexual behaviors.

Data collected from these measures were analyzed for statisti-

cally significant differences between the experimental and

control groups. Subsequently, null hypotheses which have been

formulated for the study have been evaluated. These null

hypotheses are shown in the following section.



Hypotheses


The null hypotheses shown below were developed from the

research questions previously stated.

1. There will be no group differences in sexual guilt
as a result of participation in the human sexuality
course.

2. There will be no sex differences in sexual guilt
as a result of participation in the human. sexuality
course.

3. There will be no group differences in psychological
androgyny as a result of participation in the human
sexuality course.

4. There will be no sex differences in psychological
androgyny as a result of participation in the human
sexuality course.










5. There will be no group differences in attitudes
toward the sexual behaviors of others as a result
of participation in the human sexuality course.

6. There will be no sex differences in attitudes
toward the sexual behaviors of others as a result
of participation in the human sexuality course.



Research Design


The experimental design of this study was a nonrandomized

pretest-posttest control group design (Campbell 8l Stanley, 1971).

This design is represented as follows:



Pretest Treatment Posttest

Experimental Group T X T2

Control Croup T2 T2


T1 represents the measure before treatment.
'\)l represents the measure after treatment.
X represents the experimental treatment.



Participants


The subjects for the study were first and second year

undergraduates at the University of Florida, a la ge state co-

educational institution. Since admission as a freshman to the

University is highly competitive, it is assumed that these stu-

dents have higher than average intellectual abilities as measured

by high school grades and college admission test scores. Students

who attend the University of Florida represent a wide range of







37

social and economic backgrounds. They come from all sections

of the United States as well as many foreign countries ,

Subjects in the experimental group consisted of students

enrolled in BES 2S2--lluman Sexuality, an elective course offered

through the Department of Behavioral Studies. There were four

sections of Human Sexuality in the experimental group (N=70).

These four sections were taught by four instructors. Three of

the instructors for the course are part-time instructors with

the Department of Behavioral Studies and are doctoral students

in the Department of Counseling Psychology. The fourth instruc-

tor is an affiliate instructor with the Department of Behavioral

Studies. This instructor has a Ph.D. in Counselor Education

and works full time as a counselor in the Psychological and

Vocational Counseling Center at the University of Florida. A

description of the course content for the experimental group is

contained in the Treatment section of this chapter.

The control group was comprised of four sections of students

not taking the Human Sexuality course (N=07). Students were

drawn from two classes in Cybernetics and two classes in Power

and Violence, also offered through the Department of Behavioral

Studies. The four sections of these control cla. ses were taught

by two different instructors with each instructor teaching two

classes. The instructors of both the experimental and control

classes gave prior consent to allow this researcher to administer

the questionnaire in their classes (see Appendix A). Motiva-

tion for students to volunteer to complete the questionnaires

was provided. The researcher (a) explained the nature of the








38

study and its value and (b) informed students that they could

learn of the results of their own questionnaire by contacting

the researcher whose telephone number was provided. The

questionnaire which was administered consisted of three instru-

ments which are described in the following section.



Ins trumentat ion


Ihe following instruments were administered to the experi-

mental and control group participants: (a) Mosher Forced-Choice

Guilt Inventory-Sex Cuilt Subscale (see Appendix B), (b) Bemn

Sex-Rol. inventory (see Appendix C), and (cl the experimenter's

adaptation of the Attitude Measure of Sexual Behaviors (see

Appendix D).

The Mosher Forced-(hoi ce Guilt Inventory-Sex Guilt Subscale,

Male Form, was developed by Mosher in 1906 and the Female Form

in 1968. Initially sentences were constructed and students were

asked to complete the sentences. Their completions formed the

basis for the responses to each item in the inventory. Examples

of the items are as follows:

As a child, sex play .
A. was a taboo and I was deathly afra.J of it.
B. was common without guilt feelings.

When I have sexual desires .
A. they are quite strong.
B. I attempt to repress them.

The male component has 28 items and scores for this compon-

ent can range from -45 to +37. The corrected split-half reli-

ability is .97. Tlihe female component has 39 items and scores

for it can range from -hl to +04. Corrected split-'half reliability

is .95.









As the name of the inventory implies, each item is a

forced choice since the subject is asked to select either the

A or B response. The subject chooses the most appropriate

response.

Construct validity for the Sex Guilt Si.hscale is supported

by data from numerous investigations (Calbraith, 1969; Gal-

braith, Ilahn, I Lieberman, 19b8; Galbra ith t Moshcr, 1968;

Lamb, 1968; Mosher, 1901, 1965, 1971; Mosher F Cross, 1971;

Mosher C Greenberg, 19(9). The development and previous use

of the instrument appear to make it quite suitable for the

subjects in this study.

The Boem Sex-Role Inventory, developed by Bom (1974), is

used to classify individuals as masculine, feminine, or

androgynous. This 60-item instrument is based on personality

characteristics classified as masculine, feminine, or neutral.

Examples of these items are: masculine--"acts as a leader,"

"aggressive"; feminine--"affectionate," "cheerful"; neutral--

"happy," "helpful." There are 20 masculine items, 20 feminine

items, and 20 neutral items. The items are distributed through-

out the inventory rather than grouped by type.

The subject is asked to rate each item on a scale from 1

("Never or almost never true") to 7 ("Always or almost always

true"). From these ratings a score is established and the

subject is identified as masculine, feminine, or androgynous.

The Bern Sex-Role Inventory (BSRII was first established

in 1973. Bem administered the instrument to 444 male and 279

female students at Stanford University and to 117 rale and 77

female paid volunteers at Foothill Junior College.








40

To estimate internal consistency, Masculinity, Femininity,

and Social Desirability (based on the neutral items) scores

were calculated. The results showed all three scores to be

highly reliable in both samples. These results were as follows:

Stanford University (Masculinity r=.80; Femininity r=.80;

Social Desirability r=.75) and Foothill Junior College (Mas-

culinity r=.80; Femininity r=.82; Social Desirability r=.70).

Scores are independent because of low intercorrelations.

For'test-retest reliability, the BSR[ was administered to

28 males and females from the Stanford normative sample.

Product moment correlations showed all scores to he highly

reliable (i.e., Masculinity r=.90; Femininity r=.90; Androgyny

r=.93; Social Desirability r=.89).

The BSRT was correlated with other instruments to estab-

lish concurrent validity. Results showed that the BSRI does

correlate moderately with the Masculinity-Femininity Scales

of the California Psychological Inventory. These results are

as follows:

BSRI Masculinity -- CPI Males -.42; CPT Females -.25
BSRI Femininity --- CPI Males .27; CPl Females .25
BSRI Androgyny ---- CPI Males .50; CPI Females .30

The Attitude Measure of Sexual Behaviors wa. made available

by Fretz in 197(0, The attitude measure consists of 84 semantic

differential items. These items consist ol 12 concepts, each

with a 7-point atittude scale. These concepts are (a) a homo-

sexual, (b) an unmarried woman who takes birth control pills,

(c) a woman who masturbates, (d) a child who writes "obscene"

words on a wall, (e) an engaged person who has prijearital








41

intercourse, (f) a teenager who asks his parents about orgasm,

(g) a teenage girl who allows a younger brother in the bathroom

when she is in there, (hi) a person who reads hard core pornog-

raphy like Sisters of the Wh ip, pay_ lot Nights, etc., (i) a man

wh o "molests" a child, ( j someone who engages in oral and/or

anal intercourse, (k) an l-year-old boy who holds hands with

another boy his age, and (1) an unwed mother. According to

Fretz (1975) these concepts were chosen in an attempt to represent

the full'spectrum of behaviors identified as sexual in out society.

The attitude scales are hipolar dimensions chosen from existing

literature.

Fretz developed the Attitude Measure hy reducing an initial

150-item semantic differential. This was done by administering

the instrument to 80 teachers in sex education workshops, 68

teachers in the same school system, and 128 freshmen and

sophomore students. A series of factor analyses were conducted

to determine which concepts and dimensions were representative

of the factor structure of teachers, and students' responses.

Examples from the Fretz are as follows:

An unwed mother
good had
valuab le worthless
unde rstandabh Ie mysterious

A child who writes "obscene" words on a wall
good 1bad
valuable worthless
underst andab le mysterious

The student is asked to assess concepts in terms of each

of three dimensions: "good-had," "valuable-worthless," and

"understndahle-mysterious." Tlie student places Ia X in the










space along the continuum which most closely represents his

attitude for that dimension.

In one study the Attitude Measure of Sexual Behaviors was

administered to 97 freshmen and sophomores (Fretz, 1975). Test-

retest reliability over a one-week period for college-age

subjects ranged from .52 to .78 for the bipolar dimensions.

For the purpose of establishing external validity, the

measure has been administered to various groups including

nurses, policemen, parents, teachers, and various others.

Except for the police group there were very few statistically

significant intergroup differences. In pre- and postdesigns

with participants in sex education workshops, lectures, and

courses, the instrument has provided evidence of results showing

differences in sexual attitudes.

This study has employed three of the seven bipolar dimen-

sions of the Fretz instrument. These three bipolar dimensions

of good bad, valuable-worthless, and understandable-mysterious

were suggested by Fretz (1974) as the most useful dimensions

when assessing treatment effects. Based on previous research

the instrument appeared to be. appropriate for use with the

groups in this study.



Data Collection Procedures


This study was conducted during the ten-week Spring Quarter,

1977, at the University of Florida. The data was collected from

students enrolled in the Department of Behavioral Studies. Ar-

rangements for collecting these data were made with' instructors








43

who agreed to allow the researcher to visit their classes and

utilize twenty minutes of class time during the first and last

class sessions of the quarter.

During the first week of the Spring Quarter at the first

class session the researcher visited the four classes designated

as the experimental group to administer the protest questionnaire.

The instruments in the questionnaire were stapled together in

the following order: Bemrn Sex-Role Inventory, Mosher Forced-

Choice G ilt Inventory-Sex Guilt Suhscale, and the Attitude

Measure of Sexual Behaviors.

When the researcher arrived the instructor announced to

the class that the researcher was visiting the class for the

purpose of collecting data for his dissertation study and was

seeking volunteers. The researcher explained that the ques-

tionnaire had three parts and would require 15 to 20 minutes of

class time during this first and last week of the quarter. The

instructor pointed out to the students that taking this ques-

tionnaire was optional. It was made clear to the students that

they could choose not to take the questionnaire with no penalty

in their course grade. Motivation for taking the questionnaire

was discussed as stated previously in the Participant section

of this chapter. Next, the instructor asked for a show of

hands from those students who chose to participate. The

researcher then distributed the questionnaire to those students.

Directions for taking the questionnaire were given, and a

brief explanation for completing each of the three instruments

was made. Then tile students were asked if they hac' any questions

about the direct ions.







44

The researcher then told the students that they could begin

to answer the questions and to bring their questionnaires to

the front of the room when finished. After all the questionnaires

were turned in, the researcher thanked the participants and left

the classroom with the data which had been collected. These

data were known as the protest data.

Also, during the first week of classes, the researcher

went to those classes designated to be the control group. As

with the.experimental group, a preplanned day and time was

arranged with the instructor. The same procedure that was used

for the collecting of pretest data in the experimental group was

used for the control group. The questionnaire of any student

participating in any activity or course relating to sexual

growth or development was discarded from the data. At this

point, all of the pretest data for both the experimental and

control groups had been collected.

During the tenth week of the quarter this researcher

collected the posttest data. To accomplish this task the

researcher returned to the experimental and control classes for

a second time. This was done on the last day of the tenth week

at a time which had been preplanned with each instructor. The

questionnaire was administered to those students who completed

the pretest. As in the pretest administration, the directions

for completing thie questionnaire were explained to the partici-

pants. When all of the participants had finished with the post-

test-questionnaire assessment, the posttest data had been

collected. These data were identified by student number and

only the researcher has had access to such data.










From the second class session of the first week through

the next to last class session of the tenth week, the treatment

was in effect for the experimental group. During this time

the subjects participated in the human sexuality courses. A

description of the projected course activities, as they can best

be identified, is provided in the Treatment section of this

chapter which follows.



Treatment


The treatment was provided to the experimental group

as previously described in the Participant section of this

chapter. This treatment consisted of participation in human

sexuality class instruction during the Spring Quarter, 1977.

FIach class met for a total of forty hours: thirty hours of

discussion in classrooms and ten hours of lecture for the

combined classes in a large lecture hall.

The methods and activities which were used by the instruc-

tors included lectures, small group discussions, audio-visual

presentations, lectures by guest speakers, debates, readings

from texts and articles, written reports, quizzes, and tests.

These methods and activities are based on informal discussion

with instructors and syllabi distributed to students.

Standardization for each Human Sexuality section was

attempted through an instructor topic intention process. In

the first stag- of this process participating Human Sexuality

instructors were requested to identify certain topics to he









included in their course curriculum plan. After topics were

submitted, a comprehensive list was compiled and distributed

to instructors (see Appendix E). In the second stage of the

process instructors were asked to indicate by a check (,1) mark

those topics they would include. From these checked items a

list of topics common to all instructors was developed to

demonstrate the degree to which the Human Sexuality sections

would be standardized. The common topics are listed below.

1.- Male Sexual System
2. Female Sexual System
3. Contraception
4. Sexual Behavior
5. Sexual Intercourse
6. Techniques in Sexual Arousal
7. Sexual Attitudes
8. Sexual Disorders
9. Sex Roles
10. Orgasm
11. Sex in Later Years

The specific amount of curriculum presented varied according

to each instructor. However, a review of the individual

curriculums revealed a large core of activities and approaches

shared by all the instructors.



Analysis of the Data


After the data were collected, the experimental and con-

trol groups were compared on posttest scores from the three

instruments employed in the study. An analysis of covariance

statistic was used to assess significant posttest group differ-

ences with the pretest data as the covariate. Luck and McLean

(1975) suggest an analysis of covariance as the best statistic

for a pre- and posttreatment study.









The following specific statistical tests were made:

1. A two-way (group x sex) and a one-way (group) analysis

of covariance were performed on the data from the Mosher-Forced

Choice Guilt Inventory-Sex Guilt Subscale to determine group

differences as a result of participation in the human sexuality

course.

2. A two-way (group x sex) and a one-way (group) analysis

of covariance were performed on the data from the Bern Sex-Role

Inventory to determine group differences as a result of partici-

pation in the human sexuality course.

3. A two-way (group x sex) and a one-way (group) analysis

of covariance were performed on the data from the experiementer's

adaptation of the Attitude Measure of Sexual Behaviors to deter-

mine group differences as a result of participation in the

human sexuality course.



Methodological Assumptions


The following assumptions about the methodology utilized

were made:

1. The human sexuality'course was considered to have

positively changed attitudes toward sexual behaviors if the

mean difference between the compared groups is significant at

the .05 level.

2. The human sexuality course was considered to have

positively changed sex guilt if the mean difference between

the compared groups is significant at the .05 level.









3. The human sexuality course was considered to have

positively changed androgyny if the mean difference between

the compared groups is significant at the .05 level.



Limitations of the Study


One limitation of the.studi was the fact that some

subjects withdrew from the course following the administration

of the pretest. Therefore, there were some students who com-

pleted the pretest but did not complete the posttest.

A second limitation was the difference in teaching styles

among those instructors who taught the Human Sexuality sections.

An attempt was made to standardize the topics which were presented;

however, it was not possible to control for the differences in

instructors' personalities, the types of activities utilized in

the class, and the specific curriculum material presented.

A third limitation was that results cannot necessarily be

generalized to other human sexuality courses on other campuses.

However, by providing information about methodology used, the

participants, the course standardization attempted through use

of topic agreement, and other data, other researchers will be

able to conduct similar studies.













CHAPTER IV

RESULTS



Introduction


This research study investigated the impact of a college

level human sexuality course using three variables as criteria.

These were sexual guilt, psychological androgyny, and attitudes

toward the sexual behaviors of others. Three instruments were

administered to a treatment group which participated in an

academic course in human sexuality and to a control group which

did not participate in the human sexuality course. The treat-

ment group was comprised of four sections of the human sexuality

course and the control group was comprised of four sections of

other courses in the same department. The following instruments

were used:

1. Mosher Forced Choice Guilt Inventory-Sex Guilt Subscale

2. Benm Sex-Role Inventory

3. Attitude Measure of Sexual Behaviors experimenter's
adaptation



Results


All of the data were analyzed through the computer facilities

of the Northeast Regional Data Center of the Florida State Uni-

versity System. The experimental design used for the study was

a pretest-posttest nonrandomized design. Six hypot'heses were









established as the evaluation criteria for the experimental

study. The methods used to assess these six hypotheses were

the two-way Igroup x sex) and one-way (group) analysis of co-

variance test statistics. In each test case an analysis was

conducted on the posttreatment score with the prescore serving

as a covariate.

Initially a total of 197 subjects volunteered to partici-

pate in the study. Predata were collected from 105 experimental

subjects and 92 control subjects. On the 105 pre-experimental

group, 70 completed the posttest. On the 92 precontrol subjects,

67 completed the posttest. In total, of the 197 students who

volunteered initially, 137 completed the posttest. These 137

students comprised the study sample. An analysis of the data

collected has shown the following results which are presented

by variables.


Sexual Guilt

The Mosher Forced-Choice Guilt Inventory-Sex Guilt Sub-

scale, Male Form (Mosher, 1966) and Female Form (Mosher, 1968)

were used to assess the change in sexual guilt of students.

The Male Form consists of 28' items and has a possible range of

scores of -45 (low guilt) to +37 (high guilt); the Female Form

consists of 39 items and has a range of -61 (low guilt) to +64

(high guilt).

Hypothesis 1

There will be no group differences in sexual guilt as
a result of participation in the human sexuality course.










The null hypothesis is accepted. Table 1 shows the

results of a two-way analysis of covariance comparison between

the experimental and control groups. For sexual guilt there

was no significant difference in the posttreatment comparison

between the experimental and control groups. This finding

suggests that a human sexuality course does not change a

person's sexual guilt.

Hypothesis 2

ThOre will be no sex differences in sexual guilt as
a result of participation in the human sexuality
course.

The null hypothesis is rejected. The two-way analysis of

covariance main effects sex comparison shows a significant dif-

ference at the .001 level between males and females (Table 1)

with females exhibiting greater change toward the direction of

less guilt. This main effects sex difference may be artifactual

because there are two versions of the sex guilt instrument (see

Appendix B). Of these two versions, the females show greater

differences in mean scores (Table 2). This may he due to the

different questions asked in each version of the instrument.

A one-way analysis of covariance comparison of the post-

treatment scores for thie experimental and contrWl males shows

no significant difference between these two groups. Also a

comparison of posttreatment groups for experimental and control

females shows no significant difference. These data are shown

in Table 3.


Psychological Androgyny

Posttreatment comparisons in psychological androgyny were

measured by the Hem Sex-Role Inventory (Rem, 19741). The subjects






















Table 1

Sexual Guilt: Two-way Analysis


of Covariance


d(I Sq:,re


31. 06

3668.57


1 0.13

132 109.71


S ou c.


o1 I p i


S401 ). *


31. 06

3668.57


0. 13

14482.13


F lati oa



0. 28

33.44***


0.00


L' l ; l' J l ,!




















Table 2

Sexual Guilt: Means and Stand ird Deviations


Gr up


,Exper'imn 'tal

Conit r'>

t i l


Ly .r i i t.l 1

Ci-ontrol

Tot l


Pre -
N mean


26. 51

22. 19

24.51


33.97

41.17

37.68


Pos -
SD mean SD


9.06

19.87

15.11


26.66

15.34

21.73


-26.89

-23 13

-25. 10


-42.73

-46.57

-44.71


10. 50

19.39

15.28


20.57

12.35

16.83


-30.03 19.66 -34.30 17.81

-32.10 19.95 -35.33 19.89




















Table 3

Sexual Guilt: One-way Analysis



Sura of
Source Squares df



iroiu> 4.91 1

lies i, 00o675.73 06



,,I o,!p 4. 14 1

k-.R idju:i; 7532. 15 05


t-i -r post c .;: ri s .on.


of Covariance



Mean
Square F Ratioa


4 .91

101.15



4. 14

115.88


0.05





0.04










rated themselves on each of 60 items from 1 to 7, with a 7

being the highest. Of these items, 20 are traditionally mascu-

line, 20 feminine, and 20 neutral. The masculine mean is sub-

tracted from the feminine mean providing a score. The nearer

the score is to zero, the more androgynous the subject.

Hypothesis 3

There will be no group differences in psychological
androgyny as a result of participation in the human
sexuality course.

The null hypothsis is accepted. An examination of the

main effects in the two-way analysis of covariance test revealed

no significant difference for main effects between the experi-

mental and control groups (Table 4). This finding shows that

in general human sexuality instruction does not effect psycho-

logical androgyny status.

Hypothesis 4

'There will be no sex differences in psychological
androgyny as a result of participation in the human
sexuality course.

The null hypothesis is accepted. An examination of the

two-way analysis of covariance test for psychological androgyny

revealed no main effects sex. difference. These data are shown

in Table 4 and the means and standard deviation' are shown in

'Fable 5.

In a one-way analysis of covariance test, a comparison of

posttreatment scores for experimental and control males and for

experimental females and control females revealed no significant

difference (Table 6). The means and standard deviations for

these data are shown in Table 5.

























Psychological








S.li oup




G r,.. ,> S 1
(sii e ,


Table 4

Androgyny: Two-way Analysis of Covariance




Suc, of M an a
Squ r-- .1 Sq. re F i atio


0. 00

0. 29


0. 32

34. 09


0.00

0.29


0.00

1.12


1.20


1 o. 32

132 0.26




















Table 5

Psychological Androgyny: Means




Pre -
'oup \ mean


Mali's
E .erii n r, t

C,-1 t ro I

Total




Coin rI I

lota!

To t a 1
I \pe r iw t

('Con trol


1 01

0.80

0. i94


0.66

0.09

0.08


and Standard Deviations


Post
Sp mei:


0.62

0. 62

0. 62


0.49

0.54

0. 51


0.85 0.59

0.77 0.58


1.07

0.87"

0.98


0. 05

0.77

0.71


SD


0. 61

0.71

0.66


Gr


0.87 0.67

0.82 0.64




















Tab 1 e

Psychological Androgyny: One


Source



Group

Rj^ idu: 1



Gt oup

Re:,idual


Analysis of Covariance


Sum of


S. 18

19. 83



0 10

14 .49)


1 0 .18

66 0.30


0 16

0 .22


aFor ios t coI:p i s orl.


F Ratioa




0 .60


0.74









Attitudes Toward the Sexual Behaviors of Others

Twelve concepts reflecting a broad spectrum of sexual

behaviors of others were evaluated by the subjects of this study.

These evaluations, part of the Attitude Measure of Sexual Behav-

iors (Fretz, 1974), are based on the attitude of the subject toward

these sexual behaviors. For each concept the subject rated his/

her attitude toward the concept by placing a check mark on a

bipolar dimension. The present experimenter revised the Attitude

Measureof Sexual Behaviors in accordance with Fretz' suggestion

(1974) that three dimensions were particularly useful as change

indicators. These three bipolar dimensions, good-bad, valuable-

worthless, and understandable-mysterious were used. A score of

from I to 7 was assigned to each position on the bipolar dimension,

with 7 assigned to the positive side (good, valuable, understand-

able) and 1 to the negative side (had, worthless, mysterious).

Hypothesis s 5

There will be no group differences in attitudes toward
the sexual behaviors of others as a result of partici-
pation in the human sexuality course.

The null hypothesis is rejected. For Hypothesis 5, a two-

way analysis of covariance was conducted for the experimental

and control groups. An examination of the main effects for group

difference revealed that nine concepts showed no significant

change. The two-way data for these concepts are shown in Tables

7, 10, 13, 1o, 19, 22, 34, 37, 40, 52, 55, 58, 61, 64, 67, 79, 82,

85, 89, 91, 94, 97, 100, 103, 106, 109, and 112. Means and

standard deviations for these concepts are shown in Tables 8, 11,

14, 17, 20, 23, 35, 38, 41, 53, 56, 59, 62, 05, 08,1 80, 83, 86,

89, 92, 95, 98, 101 104, 107, 110, and 113.








00

Three concepts did show a main effects significant differ-

ence in the liberal direction for the group comparison. In these

comparisons the experimental group showed higher mean scores than

the control group. The concepts were as follows:

Concept C: A woman who masturbates

Concept lI: An engaged person who has premarital intercourse

Concept I1: A person who reads "hard-core pornography" like
Sisters of the Whip, Gay Ilot Nights, etc.

For Concept C: A woman who masturbates, all three bipolar

dimensions revealed a significant difference at the .01 level

(see Tables 25, 28, and 31). The means and standard deviations

for this comparison are shown in Tables 27, 29, and 32.

Only one bipolar dimension, valuable-worthless, revealed

a significant difference at the .05 level for Concept E: An

engaged person who has premarital intercourse. The data for this

concept is shown in Table 40. Table 47 shows the means and

standard deviations for this comparison.

The pornography concept, fl, contained two bipolar dimensions

with a significant difference at the .05 level. These were

good-bad (see Table 70) and understandable-mysterious (see

Table 76). The means and standard deviations for these com-

parisons are shown in Tables 71 and 77 respectively.

An additional test for significance was conducted on the

combined set of concepts (A through L). A significant differ-

ence at the .05 level was revealed in the liberal direction for

this test. The results of this two-way analysis of covariance

data are shown in Table 1 IS, and tlhe means and standard

deviations are shown in Table 116.










These findings are partially consistent with a previous

attitude study (Davidow, 1976) which also used the Attitude

Measure of Sexual Behaviors. Davidow's study revealed changes

in the concepts of a woman who masturbates and an engaged person

who has premarital intercourse as did the present study. However,

the present study also revealed a significant change in the

pornography concept as well.

Hypothesis 6

There will be no sex differences in attitudes toward
the sexual behaviors of others as a result of partici-
pation in the human sexuality course.

The null hypothesis is rejected. A two-way analysis of covari

ance revealed a sign if icant difference (.05 level) for main effects

for sex for two concepts. Each concept had one bipolar dimension

with a significant difference. These concepts and dimensions

were Concept A: A homosexual--valuable-worthless dimension and

Concept J: Someone who engages in oral and/or anal intercourse--

good-bad dimension. These two-way results are shown in Tables

10 and 88, and the means and standard deviations are shown in

Tables 11 and 89 respectively. The other dimensions of these two

concepts and the remaining ten concepts of the attitude measure

revealed no significant difference for the main effects sex com-

parison. These results are shown in Table 7, 13, 16, 19, 22,

25, 28, 31, 34, 37, 40, 43, 46, 49, 52, 55, 58, ti61, 64, 67, 70,

73, 76, 79, 82, 85, 91, 94, 97, 100, 103, 106, 10)9, and 112.

The means and standard deviations for these data are shown in

Tables 8, 14, 17, 20, 23, 26, 29, 32, 35, 38, 41, 44, 47, 50, 53,

56, 59, 02, 65, 68, 71, 74, 77, 80, 83, 10 92, Or, 98, 101,









104, 107, 110, and 113. Those concepts in which a significant

difference occurred (Concept A and Concept J) revealed that

females showed greater change than males.

A one-way analysis of covariance comparison of the experi-

mental and control subjects by sex for the attitudes toward the

sexual behaviors of others revealed no significant difference in

posttreatment comparison for all three Uimensions of 10 concepts.

These results are shown in Tables 9, 12, 15, 18, 21, 24, 36, 39,

42, 45, 48, 51, 54, 57, 60, 63, 66, 09, 81, 84, 87, 90, 93, 96,

99, 102, 105, 108, 111, and 114. 'The means and standard deviations

are shown in Tables 8, 11, 14, 17, 20, 23, 35, 38, 41, 44, 47,

50, 53, 56, 59, 62, 65, 68, 80, 83, 86, 89, 92, 95, 98, 101, 104,

107, 110, and 113.

Those concepts in which a significant difference occurred

in the one-way analysis of covariance were Concept C: A woman who

masturbates and Concept H: A person who reads "hard-core pornog-

raphy," like Sisters of the Whip, Gay Hot Nights, etc.

Male data for Hypothesis 6 revealed a significant differ-

once for one concept, a woman who masturbates. In contrast to

females, however, the significant difference occurred for only

the good-bad dimension. The good-bad dimension rc ealed a sig-

nificant difference at the .05 level as shown in Table 27. It

is interesting to note that this concept did not show change in

a previous male study (Shovholt et al., 1970) whereas other con-

cepts did show change. The means and standard deviations for

this comparison are shown in Table 26.

On the other hand, for females there was a difference for

two concepts. Flor the woman who musturlbates, two of the







63

bipolar dimensions showed significant change, valuable-worthless

and understandable-mysterious. In both cases the significant dif-

ferences occurred at the .05 level of confidence. The one-way

comparisons are shown in Tables 30 and 33, and the means and

standard deviations are shown in Tables 29 and 32.

The other concept showing a significant difference was a

person who reads "hard-core pornography,' like Sisters of the

Whip, Gay Hot Nights, etc. For the pornography concept there

was a significant difference for females for one bipolar dimen-

sion, understandable-mysterious. This difference occurred at

the .05 significance level. See Table 78 for this data and

Table 77 for the means and standard deviations. No significant

difference was revealed for this concept for males for the one-

way comparison (Table 78) and for the means and standard

deviations (Table 77).

The pornography concept revealed no changes for two dimen-

sions, good-bad and valuable-worthless, in the one-way analysis

of covariance for males or females. The one-way data is shown

in Tables 72 and 75. Means and standard deviations for these

data are shown in Tables 71 and 74.

On the combined set of concepts (A through 1), no signifi-

cant difference was revealed in the one-way comparison of

experimental males and control males or for experimental females

and control females (Table 117). Table 116 shows the means and

standard deviations for these data.





















-Table 7

Attitude, Concept A--Good-Bad Dimension:
Two-way Analysis of Covariance


Mellan
(If Si un r


1 2.16

1 2.47


1 0.65


F Ration


1.76

2.02


0.53


1.23


Sum of
S quia r .


Sex
rtl api. Soc


2.16

2.47


0.65


161.73



















Table 8

Attitude, Concept A--Good-Bad Dimension:
Means and Standard Deviations


Group

Mal es
Experimental

Cont r 1ol

Total

Fem;i ] s
Exper mental

Control

Total

lotal
Experimental

Control


N


37

32

.69


Pre-


mean


2.87

2.94

2.90


3.12

3.71

3.43


Post-
SD mean SD


1.44

1.44

1.43


1.29

1.41

1.38


2.99 1.37

3.33 1.46


2.81

3.25

3.01


3.39

3.91

3.66


1.49

1.69

1.59


1.14

1.48

1.35


3.09 1.36

3.60 1.61


















Table 9

Attitude, Concept A--Good-Bad Dimension:
One-way Analysis of Coxariance



Sum of Mean
Source Squares df Square F Ratioa

Males

Group 2.46 1 0.246 2.24

Residual 72.72 66 1.10



Group 0.70 1 0.70 0.55

Residual 83.13 65 1.28

aFor post comparison.





















*Table 10

Attitude, Concept A--Valuable-Worthless Dimension:
Two-way Analysis of Covariance



Surn of Mean
e Squares df Square F Ratio


Main effects
Group

So-

Interact ion
Group Sex

Residual


Na0or pos
*.05s


0.31

5.28


0.06

188.82


co;mp r Lson .


1 0.31

1 5.28


1 0.06

P2 1.43


Sourc


0.22

3.69*


0.04



















Table 11

Attitude, Concept A--Valuable-Worthless Dimension:
Means and Standard Deviations


Group

Ma l es
Exper iment a 1

Control

Tot a I

I 'ia [l, s
Ixperimental

Control

Total


Total
Experimental

Control


Pre-
N mean


3.05

3.25

3.15


3.55

4.51

4. 04


Post
SD mean


1.49

1.59

1.53


1.03

1.48

1.37


3.29 1.31

3.91 1.65


3.16

3.41

3.28


3.88

4.46

4.18


SD


1.42

1.68

1.54


1.11

1.40

1.29


3.50 1.33

3.91 1.62


















Table 12

Attitude, Concept A--Valuable-Worthless Dimension:
One-way Analysis of Covariance



Sum of Mean
Source Squares df Square F Ratioa

Males

Group 0.28 1 0.28 0.17

Residual 104.28 66 1.58

Fcm'les

Group 0.27 1 0.27 0.21

Residual 83.29 65 1.28


aFor post comparison.





















Table 13

Attitude, Concept A--Understandable-Mysterious Dimension:
Two-way Analysis of Covariance


Source

Main Fffects
G group

Sex

Interaction
Group Sex

Res i dal I


Sum of
Squares


0.82

3.68


0.90

296.06


Mean
df Square


1 0.82

1 3.68


1 0.90

132 2.24


F Ratioa


0.37

1.64


0.40


aFor post (comparison.


















Table 14

Attitude, Concept A--Understandable-Mysterious Dimension:
Means and Standard Deviations


Group

Males
Experiment!

Control

Total

F'emia l es
Experiment;i

Control

Total

Total
Experiment al

Control


Pre -
N mei n


3.60

4.06

3.81


4.18

5.03

4.62


Post-
SD mean SD


1.71

1.56

1.79


1.79

1.71

1.79


70 3.87 1.76


3.60

4.16

4.39


4.39

4.83

4.62


3.97 1.76


67 4.57 1.70 4.51 1.76


1.64

1.71

1.82


1.82

1.77

1.79


















Table 15

Attitude, Concept A--Undprstandable-Mysterious Dimension;
One-way Analysis of Covariance



Sum of Mean
Source Squares df Square F Ratioa

Ma I es

Group 2.41 1 2.41 1.00

Residuad 159.56 66 2.41

Fema les

Group 0.18 1 0.18 0.09

Residual 130.67 65 2.01

aFor post comparison.





















Table 16

Attitude, Concept B--Good-Bad Dimension:
Two-way Analysis of Covariance


S ut of
Source Squares

M1ain 1 Effect-
troup 0.49

Sex 0.23

Interaction
Group Sex 0.01

Residual 167.66

For po'sL t'o:ilpt 'J sot l .


Mean
df Square


0.94

0.23


1 0.01

132 1.27


F Ratioa


0.38

0.18


0.01



















Table 17

Attitude, Concep.t B--Good-Bad Dimension:
Means and Standard De nations


Pre-
N man0


Group

Ma es
Exyper' i'ntai. t ,'



e .- t1 "I 1
Control



SL Li. IC
1 \pcr i ihULLt ;i I

Control

Total
Tot tl
Ixper imcntol 1

Cont ro1l


5. 9 2

5.53

5.74


5.82

5.60

5.71


Po t
SII mean.


1 .21

1.50

1 .30


1.40

1.50

1.45


5. 87 1.30

5.57 1.49


5.89

5.81

5.87


5.941

5.941

5.94


1.32

1.43

1.37


5.91 1.25

5.90 1.34



















Table 18

Attitude, Concept B--Good-Bad Dimension:
One-way Analysis of Coxariance



Sum of M-ea
Squares df Squiare



0. 27 1 o. 27

74.84 66b 13



0. 20 1 11. 20

92.73 65 1.43


Source


iu s il a 1 i




es idual


F Ratioa



I. 24


ator po.t ,,oi.pari oi.






















hable 19

Attitude, Concept B--Valuable-Worthless Dimension
Two-way Analysis of Covariance


SuLI of
SCq L1:1 1'r"


SouCi c


IMain H' I L Ft.
Clo iup


j il r t ilI' i u i
Group d ex:
!i a dd:


M S ian
dlF Squar c



1 0.10

1 1.08


1 35


132 1 .26


Sex


0. 10


166.23


0. 08

0.86


1 .07


ii')l r p,-) t C'. : p' l I' I, .


F atioa





















Attitude, Concept B-
Means and


Table 20

-Valuable-
Standard


Worthless Dimension:
Devi at ions


Group

Ma e s
Experim n'tal

Control

Totl .


xpcer im:elnt il

Control

Total

Total
E::pe ri wntevn tLal

CoIt rol


Pre-
N meal


5.89

5.56

5.74


5.58

5.71

5.65


5.74 1.20

5.64 1.47


Post
SD mean


6.00)

6.00

6.00


5.88

5.69

5.78


5.94 1.21

5.84 1.31


SD


1.78

1.34

1.15


1.27

1.45

1.36








78









Table 21

Attitude, Concept B--Valuable-Worthless Dimension:
One-way Analysis of Covariance



Sum of Mean
Source Squares df Square F Ratioa

Males

Group 0.31 1 0.31 0.30

Residual 68.93 66 1.04

Fema es

Group 1.13 1 1.13 0.76

Residual 97.10 65 1.49

aFor post coliparis'on.





















Table 22

Attitude, Concept B--Understandable-Mysterious Dimension
Two-way Analysis of Covariance


Source

Ma in Effects
Group

Sex

Inlt raC on
(;roIup S .x

Re;;idul, I


aFor post


Sum of
Squares


1.11

1.32


0.00

118.85


co ip;n I iJ son .


Mean
df Squarc F Ratio


1 1.11

1 1.32


1

132


1.23

1.47


0.00


0.00

0.90



















Table 23

Attitude, Concept B--Understandable-Mysterious Dimension:
Means and Standard Deviations


Pre-
N mean


Group


Males
Expcr ieh L 1

ConLrol

'lotal




Coi t rI lI






Cont rol


6. 32

6.97

6.16


6.36

6.34

6.35

0.16


Post
SD mean


1.00

1.60

1. 31


1.11

1.03

1.05

1 .33


6.38

6.09

6.25


6.58

6. 40

6.47

6.25


SD


0.92

1.15

1.04


0.71

1. 14

0.83

1.15








81










'able 24

Attitude, Concept B--Ulnderstandable-Mysterious Dimension:
One-way Analysis of Coxariance



Sum of Mean
Source Squares df Square F Ratioa

Males

Croup 0.55 1 0.55 0.59

Ros L !ui1 61 .64 66 0.93

Y'( .Ci l f^

lroup 0.50 1 o0.50 0.57

Resi dual 56.95 65 0.88


St'Ol r o t col-;p: .! s ,' .






















Table 25

Attitude, Concept C--Good-Bad Dimension
Two-way Analysis of Covariance


Mean
df S> r


1 9.15

1 )0.64


1 0.77

132 1.41


F Ratio


6.48**


0.45


0.55


Source


; [ro ii


(;i u p .S.





**. 01


Sum oC



9. 15

0. 04


0.77

186.51


-:I, p! r 1 '. t, .



















Table 26

Attitude, Concept C--Good-Bad Dimension:
Means and Standard Deviations


Pre-
111 mean


5.32

5.47

5.39


4.64

4.49

4. 5(


Group




CI1 a 1



experimental

C n ti I o

Total
Total
To t a !
.\xp r imi'*nta 1

Control l


Post
SD mean


1 .49

1 .69

1. 57


1.82

1.93

1.86


5.00 1.08

4.96 1.87


5.60

5.00

5.32


5.241

4. 80

5.02


SD


1.40

1.63

1.53


1.35

1.51

1 .44


5.43 1.38

4.90 1.56




Full Text
xml version 1.0 encoding UTF-8
REPORT xmlns http:www.fcla.edudlsmddaitss xmlns:xsi http:www.w3.org2001XMLSchema-instance xsi:schemaLocation http:www.fcla.edudlsmddaitssdaitssReport.xsd
INGEST IEID EIB9BQ67Q_NDT8ME INGEST_TIME 2013-01-23T15:17:25Z PACKAGE AA00012935_00001
AGREEMENT_INFO ACCOUNT UF PROJECT UFDC
FILES