Midlife career change

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Midlife career change analysis of a model
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Shepard, Diane, 1946-
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Vocational interests   ( lcsh )
Vocational guidance   ( lcsh )
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Counselor Education thesis Ph. D
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Thesis--University of Florida.
Bibliography:
Bibliography: leaves 133-140.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Diane Shepard.
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Typescript.
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Vita.

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MIDLIFE CAREER CHANGE: ANALYSIS OF A MODEL


BY

DIANE SHEPARD









A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE COUNCIL OF
THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE
DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY







UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

1979































To my mother, with love and deep
appreciation for her constant support and faith in
my abilities.













ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS


This dissertation was made possible by the support and dedication of

many people, who gave of themselves in a variety of ways to make this

research possible.

I offer my deepest appreciation to my family, without whose support

and love, this project would never have been conceived. Special feelings

of warmth and thanks are extended to my mother, who typed this dissertation.

This dissertation would never have been completed without the loving

support and tolerance of my husband, Don. He responded to my frustrations

and absences from home during the time of the research with patience,

tenderness and love.

I offer special thanks to Dr. Harold C. Riker, my committee chairman,

for the patience, faith and encouragement he extended to me throughout my

graduate education and dissertation. His support and understanding were

always available to me, especially in stressful times. I will always be

grateful for the honesty and openness shown to me during my graduate

education by Dr. E. L. Tolbert. He was always willing to listen sym-

pathetically to my frustrations and offer concrete suggestions for their

resolution. I appreciate the patience and understanding of Dr. J. Watten-

barger, whose suggestions and insights were welcome, timely and necessary

for the development of this project.

This dissertation would not have been possible without the unqualified

support and encouragement I received from the personnel management of the

central Florida industry, who agreed to allow its employees to participate







in the program. The employees' openness and warmth were variables which

weren't measured, but which guaranteed the success of this program.

Many friends have added depth and insight to this dissertation through

their suggestions and advice. I wish to express special thanks to Dan Vale,

Linda Pierce, Randy Segool and Gail Miles for their encouragement and

affection.

Special thanks go to you, Dad, for your support, enthusiasm, partici-

pation and love.













TABLE OF CONTENTS


PAGE
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ............... ..................... ....... .. iii

ABSTRACT.................................................... viii

CHAPTER

I INTRODUCTION.......................................... 1

Need for the Study.. ................................ 1

Purpose of the Study................................. 3

Rationale for the Study............................. 4

Definition of Terms................................. 6

Midlife........................................... 6

Career Changer..................... ..... .......... 6

Tapes............................................... 6

Organization....................... ............ ...... 6

II A REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE............................ 8

Midlife Crisis...................................... 8

Career Development.. ............................... 14

Life-stage Career Development Theories............ 14

Vocational Self-Identity.......................... 16

Vocational Maturity................................ 16

Vocational Maturity and Personality Development... 18

Life-stage for the Midlife Career Changer......... 19

Group Career Counseling........ .................... 22

Transactional Analysis as an Effective Group
Counseling Technique .............................. 23

v








Group Career Counseling Programs for the Midlife
Career Changer........................................ 25

Industrial Career Development Programs................. 27

Governmental Policies and Programs Aimed At Midlife
Career Changers...... .. ........................... 29

Summary. ............................................... 31

III METHODS AND PROCEDURES

Overview............................................... 33

The Hypotheses..................................... 34

-i) p the ss 1 .................... .... ...... ......... 34

Hypothesis 2 ....................................... 34

Hypothesis 3........................................ 34

Hypothesis 4 ....................................... 35

Population and Procedures for the Organization of
Groups.................................................. 35

Treatment Program...................................... 38

Rationale............................................. 39

Description of Treatment Model...................... 41

Session One.......................................... 42

Session Two........................ ...... ............ 42

Session Three............................................ 43

Session Four........................................ 43

Session Five....................................... 44

Session Six.......................................... 44

Session Seven.......................... ............ 45

Session Eight........................................ 45

Instrumentation............................ .. ......... 45

Adult Vocational Maturity Inventory.................. 46

Vocational Preference Inventory...................... 46

Analysis of Data....................................... 48

vi








Limitations of the Study....... ............................ 49

IV THE FINDINGS.................... ............................. 51

Introduction ............................................... 51

Analysis of Sample...................... ............ ...... 52

Personal Characteristics................................. 52

Additional Information Related tn Sample Characterisitics. 60

Findings Related to the Null Hypotheses..................... 64

Hypothesis 1............................................ 64

Hypothesis 2. ................. ........................ 67

Hypothesis 3 ................. ...................... 72

Hypothesis 4 ............................................ 78

V SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS

Overview........... ...... .......................... 84

Discussion......... ..................... ......... ......... 85

Conclusions. ................ ............................ 89

Implications..................... ............................. 90

Recommendations For Further Research ......................... 91

APPENDIX A LESSON PLANS FOR GROUP EXPERIENCE ......................... 94

APPENDIX B INFORMED CONSENT FORM......................................128

APPENDIX C CAREER DEVELOPMENT NEEDS SURVEY............................129

APPENDIX D ADULT VOCATIONAL MATURITY INVENTORY.........................130

BIBLIOGRAPHY ................. ........................ ...............133

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH.................. ............................... 141






vii







Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate Council
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy.


MIDLIFE CAREER CHANGE: ANALYSIS OF A MODEL


By

DIANE SHEPARD

August, 1979
Chairman: Dr. Harold C. Riker
Major Department: Counselor Education

The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of a group

career counseling experience as a method to assist midlife career changers

in clarifying career directions. This study attempted to determine to what

extent the treatment model affected the participants' degree of vocational

maturity, independence in decision making, self-esteem and self-confidence

and personal integration. The instruments used were the Adult Vocational

Maturity Inventory and the Vocational Preference Inventory.

A Solomon Four research design was used to compare two groups of

employed adults in midlife who wished to change careers in an industrial

setting. Eighty employees who responded to program advertisements were

invited to participate in the experimental or control groups. Of the eighty

respondents, sixty-six were used in the study for statistical analysis.

Four experimental, two pretested and two non-pretested groups were formed.

Four control groups, two pretested and two non-pretested, were formed. This

procedure was followed in order to evaluate the effects that interaction of

protesting and treatment may have had upon the subjects. An analysis of

covariance for pretest effect was made on the pretest-posttest scores of

the combined groups to measure for a significant pretest effect. If a


viii







significant amount of pretest interaction occurred, a t-test comparison

was made on scores of the non-pretested experimental and control groups.

If a significant amount of pretest interaction did not occur, an analysis

of covariance was made on the scores of the pretested experimental and

control groups.

It was found that, upon completion of treatment, the level of vocational

maturity and independence of decision making was raised significantly in

the experimental group while the level of self-esteem, self-confidence and

personal integration was not significantly raised for the experimental group.

The effects of pretest interaction were significant for the Vocational Pre-

ference Inventory.

The findings in this study suggest that 1) this treatment program is

useful for employees in an industrial setting, because the vocational

maturity and independence of decision making of the subjects is improved;

2) protesting may enhance treatment for this type of a population; 3) there

is a need for personality and vocational interest inventories which are

more sensitive to self-concept change within adults; 4) there is a need

for a longer period of time between treatment completion and posttesting

for the assessment of self concept and self confidence; 5) research de-

signs which control for protesting effects should be used in educational

research; and 6) career counseling programs should include personal assess-

ment, personal counseling and information dissemination components.

Recommendations are made for replication of the study, the research develop-

ment and cost analysis of career programs in industrial settings.









CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

Increasing numbers of men and women have become midlife career changers.

These career changers are in need of assistance in uncovering and dealing

with the personal and environmental factors which are the cause of their

present crisis (Goodman, Walworth, Waters, 1975). This situation has moti-

vated post-secondary career counselors and industrial managers to develop

new programs and activities to deal with this phenomenon. Group experiences

stressing values clarification and self assessment exercises, as well as

decision making methods, are an essential part of these programs. Emphasis

is placed upon aiding the individual to find a new career direction.


Need for the Study

Traditionally, the adult years have been looked upon as a period of

stability and maintenance in which individuals have reached a period of

personal and career satisfaction. The decisions which were sometimes

rather painfully reached in the adolescent years become the blueprint for

the so-called serene, strife-free adult years. This concept is changing

because of the situation mentioned above. According to the literature, the

adult years are filled with changes and situations which demand an ability to

adapt and to adequately solve the problems which occur (Entine, 1977).

The issues which produce change during the midlife crisis seem to

center around a loss of a sense of one's identity, soul searching, a sense

of bodily decline, a recognition of mortality, a sense of aging in a youth-

oriented world, waning sexual powers, a fear of death, and a desire to







re-establish oneself in a constantly changing world. Dr. Gary Walz,

Director of ERIC/CAPS (1978), notes that the frustration, depression and

personality changes resulting from the occurrence of these problems in

one's life are usually focused on the career concerns of the individual.

For example, middle-aged company department heads and mid-level managers'

job performances may begin to fail and the entire section to which they

are assigned can be affected by their midlife crisis with its depression

and self-examination, fear, hostility and health problems. Gysbers and Moore

(1975) state that, during this period of life, job dissatisfaction occurs

and persons begin to consider a change in career. Robert Hoenninger (1974)

reports that, according to a Health, Education, and Welfare Department

report, nearly 50% of Americans are dissatisfied with their present jobs.

Harold Sheppard (1971a) feels that whether or not this awareness or

desire of middle-aged individuals to start a new career is an old or a

new phenomenon, it does exist. Increasing the life span of individuals

increases the amount of experiences they have. These experiences affect

individual's occupational self-identity and may in turn change their interest

in their present jobs. Technology and the skills to utilize this technology

are also rapidly changing. Individuals may no longer prepare for only one

career, for that career may become obsolete and the skills used may be

taken over by automation. Individuals may well have to prepare themselves

for a variety of somewhat differing jobs (Sheppard, 1971a), so that they

may more easily shift gears in middle age to adapt to a new and changing

occupational environment.

In July and August of 1970, Sheppard (1971a) interviewed 300 male,

white workers in four urban areas of Pennsylvania. Thirty-five percent

of these individuals were found to be dissatisfied with their present careers.







In October 1973, the Department of Labor issued a report in which it was

found that 1,500,000 persons thirty-five years of age and over were

attending postsecondary schools in the U.S. (Entine, 1976b). Of these

individuals, fifty-three percent were women, three fourths of whom were

employed or seeking work. Eight percent of the males were part-time

students, but ninety-eight percent were employed.

These figures underscore the desire of midlife individuals to change

from one career to another for a variety of reasons. Henry (1961) questioned

a group of 45 male executives about their present attitudes, values and

self concept. It was found that all of the employees over forty years of

age doubted their present choice of career and wondered if they should have

or could now consider a new one. Self confidence among this group was

extremely low and conflict in values was high. Eighty-one scientists and

managers in a British industry were found to be questioning their occupational

identity and self-identity during a research project by Sofer (1970). A

common occurrence among this group of men was to withdraw their energies

from their work and place them in another area of their lives, such as

family, home, politics or religion.


Purpose of the Study

The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of a group

career counseling experience as a method to assist midlife career changers

in clarifying career directions. This study attempted to determine to what

extent the treatment model affected the participants' degree of vocational

maturity, decision-making ability, self-esteem and self-confidence, and

personal integration. The following research questions were examined:

1. What common characteristics, personality traits, and values are dis-

played by the subjects in this sample?





4

2. What effect will the group treatment have on participants' a) level of

vocational maturity; b) self-esteem and self-confidence; c) independence

of decision making; d) degree of personal integration?

3. After the treatment, what differences will be found between the experi-

mental and control groups in their a) level of vocational maturity; b) self-

esteem and self-confidence; c) independence of decision making; d) degree

of personal integration?


Rationale for the Study
Brown (1972) points out that midlife career changers who are dissatis-

fied in their present situations are in need of assistance in uncovering and

dealing with the personal and environmental factors which are causing their

perceived unhappiness. They need to assess their personal resources and

learn their strengths, weaknesses, interests, and potentialities for

growth. They need help in information gathering, planning, and carrying

out career development alternatives.

Thomas (1976) suggests that individuals' attitudes toward their

vocation are linked to the state of their psychological well-being. He

states that "the work environment molds or at least stabilizes the individual

personality; the implication being that personality would be less stable

without such environmental support" (Thomas and Shepher, 1975, p. 38)

According to these authors, midlife career changers are in need of a

counseling service which will allow them to re-evaluate their present goals

and lifestyles. While undergoing the changes which are encountered in mid-

life, such as getting married, getting divorced, death of a close relative

or friend, moving from city to city, adults need the support, assurance,

clarification, and atmosphere of positive growth that a counseling situation

would offer.







In order to deliver counseling services to individuals who are dis-

satisfied and unhappy in their present occupation while attempting to keep

them employed, the counselor must reach these people on the job. There are

many outstanding employees with excellent work habits and skills who are

undergoing a midlife crisis. Nelson (1975) states that midlife career

crisis usually means a "short economic and associated psychological dis-

ruption for the individual" (p. 18). This crisis precipitates a need for

substantial economic support and long term education.

Entine (1976a) points out that once individuals over forty become

unemployed for any reason, they are likely to stay unemployed for up to

seventy percent longer than the younger person. In order to prevent the

midlife career changer from becoming unemployed while retraining or searching

for a new job with another employer, the work environment and/or company

policies need to be adapted to meet these individuals' needs. If these

workers receive interceptive career and personal counseling while they

remain in their present occupation and job, their need for financial assist-

ance is alleviated. The psychological pressures they place upon their co-

workers and family members are also minimized as they find support and

relief in the counseling process.

Once a new career has been identified through counseling, alternatives

for training which allow the worker to remain employed are discussed. This

is done by inviting the personnel manager of the company, vocational and

technical school counselors, post-secondary school counselors, and other

persons who may play a significant role in the retraining process to parti-

cipate in a panel discussion with treatment group members. Alternatives

which will be identified may include company training and apprenticeship








programs or a return to an educational institution. It will be advantageous

for the company to transfer the employees with their new skills and back-

ground knowledge of the company to a new position. The workers who were

unhappy and dissatisfied in their present careers and whose productivity

may have fallen due to this state of discontent, have found a new, exciting

career without totally disrupting their lives. They have retained many

fringe benefits including retirement, which would have been lost if they

had become unemployed or hired by a different employer.


Definition of Terms

For the purpose of this study the following definitions apply:

1. Midlife refers to a period of life between thirty and sixty-five years

of age. It is postulated that, in adult development, motivations to change

careers emerge at about the age of thirty and are dissipated by the age

of sixty-five.

2. Career Changer refers to an individual who wishes to move from his/her

present occupation to another occupation.

3. Tapes refers to the theory in Transactional Analysis that "everything a

person experiences in his childhood, perception of events, feelings associ-

ated with these events, and distortion he brings to his memories" (James

and Jongeward, 1973) are recorded in brain and nervous tissue. These

"tapes" may be played back at any point in an individual's life.


Organization of this Study

The remainder of this study is organized into four chapters plus the

appendices. A review of the related literature in midlife career change

andcareer development is presented in Chapter II. Chapter III contains








the methods and procedures for conducting the study. Chapter IV contains

the results found during the study. A summary and discussion of the

results, as well as the recommendations for further study, are presented

in Chapter V.













CHAPTER II

A REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE


In order to understand the problems and position of the midlife career

changer within the present structure of today's world, a review of relevant

literature on this subject will be presented in this chapter. It will

include an overview of the midlife crisis, the position career development

has taken on the subject of midlife career change, and a discussion of the

career development programs available to the person in midlife who wishes

to consider a change in career directions.


Midlife Crisis

Through a review of the literature, it is apparent that Adulthood is

not all that it is promised to be. Children are expected to go through

stages ranging from the Infamous Infant to the Agony of Adolescence.

Teenagers are told that the frustrations and emotional upheavals which

they perceive as occurring in their lives are normal. Stability, financial

security, career status, and maturity are all one step away in the idyllic

period of life called Adulthood.

Through theorizing and research, it is now felt that Adulthood is a

time of change, adaptation, successes and failures, losses and gains.

Adults, particularly in their midlife years are faced with decisions and

demands in their lives which are difficult to resolve. Adulthood is now

considered a time of development in the life cycle when certain tasks must

be met (Levinson, Darrow, Klein, Levinson, and McKee, 1976).






9

Else Frenkle-Brunswick (Nuegarten, 1968), using 400 autobiographies

of famous persons, was one of the first psychologists to develop stages

within the life cycle. She stated that all individuals pass through five

life stages, three within the Adult years. Murphey (1947), Sullivan (1974),

Freud (1933), and Buehler (1933) also describe developmental life stages,

all of which differ in number and in basis for definition, depending on the

particular philosophy and interest of the theorist. All of these authors,

however, agree on the fact that adults do pass through developmental stages.

The work of Erik Erikson (1963) closely parallels that of Frenkle-

Brunswick. He describes eight stages (oral-sensory, muscular-anal,

locomotor-genital, latency, puberty and adolescence, young adulthood,

adulthood, and maturity), three of which are stages of adulthood. Each

stage is characterized by a crisis, or turning point in the individual's

life which restructures the future. The developmental tasks which must

be met during the stages of adulthood deal with intimacy versus isolation,

generativity versus stagnation, and integrity versus despair. Generativity

may be defined as the process of becoming creative and committed to guiding

the younger generation. Integrity is defined by Sheehy (1974) as the point

at which individuals sum up the meaning of their lives and resolve the midlife

crisis. Erikson (1963) states that, although he uses the term crisis, he is

not always referring to a catastrophic event. At such points in a person's

life, a crucial period of decision making has arrived which must be resolved.

The results of these decisions map out the continuation of events in an

individual's life.

The stages of adult development have become a testing ground for

researchers interested in the identification of developmental tasks and

characteristics of the midlife individual. Neugarten (1976) and her

associates have been exploring myths about the aging process and the







changes that occur in midlife. She found that a "particularly conspicuous

feature of middle age is that life is restructured in terms of time left to

live rather than time since birth. Not only is there a reversal in direc-

tionality, but also an awareness that time is finite" (Neugarten, 1976,

p.17). The individual begins to feel that time is running out. The goals

and achievements which were once aspired to appear to be out of reach due

to a change in time perspectives.

Other characteristics of middle aged individuals which Neugarten

(1976) comments upon concern a feeling of being in control of one's life,

a reversal of value priorities, heightened introspection, and stock taking.

Neugarten and Gutman (1958) found a paradoxical shift of viewpoints which

occur in men and women during midlife. Jean Lipman-Blueman (1972) further

emphasized this point for women. She states that women form their own

identity through the achievements and accomplishments of the significant

others who dominate their lives. As middle age approaches, women may lose

those significant others through such incidents as death, divorce and children

leaving home. They suddenly find that they must develop a new identity

of their own. A crisis develops in their mid years as they struggle to

adapt to a new role identification and changing personal relationships.

They must also face the traditional values and mores of the particular

culture in which they have been brought up. These values and mores may

limit women's alternatives and abilities by pronouncing them to be out

of a women's reach. Women may tend to fill their time with more external

affairs outside of the home, than before.

Men are dominated by the desire to become success objects (Farrell,

1974). Their identity becomes wrapped up in their ability to achieve








and provide for their families (Schlossberg, 1976). A crisis develops

in midlife as they begin to question their drive for achievement and

their propensity to exclude emotions from their lives (Robbins, 1978).

Through these changes a polarity between men and women occurs in mid-

life years (Neugarten and Gutman, 1958; Schlossberg, 1976). Women become

more achievement oriented and men become more affiliative. In many cases

this causes a strain on their relationships with each other.

Lowenthal et al. (1976) and Robbins (1978) found a difference in

the level of perceived happiness among middle aged men according to

their value systems. Those who valued money, status, possessions, and

work were more unhappy and dissatisfied with their lives than those who

valued family and interpersonal relationships. According to Lowenthal

(1976), the dissatisfied men were worried that there was not enough time

left within their life span to accomplish the goals they had set at a

younger age. Robbins (1978) points out that many of these men are in

despair because they have not been able to learn how to cultivate and

enjoy the benefits of warm interpersonal relationships. They have been

too concerned with achievement and financial relationship gains.

In a study by Levinson and a team of researchers (Levinson, Darrow,

Klein, Levinson and McKee, 1976) the period of midlife crisis is discussed

and developmental tasks are laid out. The biographical data collected

in interviews with forty men ages 35 to 45 were used to construct a

theory of developmental stages in adulthood. Each stage engages individuals

in specific tasks which must be dealt with, but which are not always

resolved. People move from one stage into the next only when they

begin to work on a new developmental task. The sequential periods are:








1) leaving family a transition between adolescent life, which has

been centered around the family, to separateness, or placing oneself

in the adult world; 2) getting into the adult world a stage marked by

important changes in the life structure as the individual struggles to es-

tablish a link between internal self and the outside adult world; 3) settling

down a period of deep commitment and then disillusionment and soul search-

ing; 4) becoming one's own man a time of becoming recognized in the roles

an individual values the most; 5) the mid-life transition a period of

questioning and resolving important issues which occur in every individual's

life in varying degrees. The latter stage leads to a time of restabili-

zation, in which the individual adapts a new life structure for the duration

of middle adulthood.

The concept of life structure is central to Levinson's theory. It is

composed of actual events in the external world concerning all aspects of

an individual's life and the internal perceptual world of the individual.

The life structure does not remain static, but changes according to the

way in which developmental tasks are resolved during the transitional and

stable periods of the stages described above. The primary developmental

task of a transitional period is to "terminate the existing structure and

to work toward the initiation of a new structure. This requires a man to

reappraise the existing life structure, to explore various possibilities

for change in the world and in the self, and to move toward the crucial

choices that will form the basis for a new life structure in the ensuing

stable period. Each transitional period also has its own distinctive

tasks reflecting its place in the life cycle" (Levinson, 1977, p. 100).

Levinson (1977) explains that there is a midlife transition period

which starts at approximately 40 years of age and last four to six years.








He feels that the midlife transition is a "developmental link between

two eras in the life cycle" (Levinson, 1977, p. 107). It is the function

of this period to terminate the era of early adulthood and usher in the

new era of middle adulthood.

During this transitional period, midlife individuals begin to question

their present life structure. They evaluate past achievements, present

situations, and future perspectives. This can cause a moderate to severe

crisis to occur for the person. If the issues raised during this time are

not resolved, they will present themselves again in a later developmental

stage (Levinson, 1976; Bocknek, 1976).

Some of the issues which arise at midlife have been discussed. They

include a sense of bodily decline, soul searching, a recognition of mor-

tality, and a developing polarity between the sexes. Schlossberg (1976)

states that role transformations bring a variety of changes to a person's

life. People get married, move to another location, accept new positions and

retire. All of these changes can occur and reoccur throughout individuals'

lives. It is possible that a role transformation can cause an issue to

arise which in turn will cause a crisis to occur during the midlife transi-

tion period.

Robbins (1978) states that evidence through research proves that a

midlife crisis, or transition, does occur in every individual in differing

degrees of severity. The severity of the crisis depends on external

events and on the internal emotional and physical stability of the person.

It also depends upon the midlife person's ability to resolve issues as

they arise during this period of development.











Career Development

Life-stage Career Development Theories

Career development refers to the lifelong process individuals go

through in the development of work values and attitudes, the investigation

and evaluation of career possibilities, and the development of actual

career choices. The stages of vocational development tend to follow

the stages of human development (Hershenson, 1968). The vocational

developmental tasks found in each stage, as well as the names and age

references for each stage, vary according to the philosophy and constructs

of the theorist. Most career development theorists, however, are beginning

to realize that midlife is not a stage of stability in a career. The mid-

life years are filled with changes and frustrations which, to an extent,

can be responsible for the individual to seek a new career (Sinick, 1977).

One element of a career development theory is the vocational life

stage. Ginzberg (1971) defines a stage of vocational development as a

series of generalizations which identify the crude differences in behavior

of individuals of different ages, but of similar background. Individuals

move through a sequential series of stages, each linked to the other.

Ginzberg (1971) suggests the definition of three stages in the career

choice process: fantasy (birth to age 11), tentative (ages 11-17), and

realistic (ages 17 and above).

In Ginzberg's original theory, there was no mention of open ended-

ness, or the ability to seek new career options after the original career

choice was made in the young adulthood stage. He has restated his theory

and now describes middle age as "no longer necessarily a period of hopes

abandoned and of reconciliation prior to entering old age. It has become






a period of new options that provide an increasing number of men and women

with new opportunities for developing new sources of satisfaction and mean-

ing" (Ginzberg, 1971, p. 85).

Havighurst (1964) has developed six stages of vocational development

which stresses the importance of viewing it as a lifelong process. The

stages are: 1) identification with the worker (ages 5 to 10), 2) acquiring

the basic habits of industry (ages 10 to 15), 3) acquiring identity as a

worker in the occupational structure (ages 15 to 25), 4) becoming a productive

person (ages 25 to 40), 5) maintaining a productive society (ages 40 to 70),

and 6) contemplating a productive and responsible life (ages 70 and above).

Hershenson (1968) proposes a theory which he feels combines and inte-

grates all of the concepts of the present vocational life-stage theories.

He describes his theory as a "series of sequential steps differentiated

on the basis of the primary way in which energy, both physical and psychic,

is used" (p. 24). The five stages described are: 1) social-amniotic the

period from conception to the time that the muscles at both ends of the

digestive tract are under voluntary control, in which awareness is the primary

developmental task, 2) self-differentiation the period in which the indi-

vidual focuses attention on control of the body and of the environment, 3) com-

petence the period in which the individual seeks to discover what can be

done vocationally, 4) independence the period in which energy becomes

directed toward a vocational goal, 5) commitment the period in which the

individual reaches the culmination of the vocational development process.

Super, Crites, Hummel, Moser, Overstreet and Warnath (1957) defined

five stages of career development based on Buehler's (1933) system of

personality development. The five stages include growth (conception to

age 14), exploration (ages 15 to 24), establishment (ages 25 to 44), maintenance

(ages 45 to 64), and decline (ages 65 and above). These five stages and the








tasks associated with them were researched and validated using the results

of the Career Pattern Study (Super and others, 1957). This twenty year

longitudinal study followed the career patterns of approximately 540 eighth

and ninth grade boys. The findings were instrumental in the development of

Super's theories concerning vocational development.

Vocational Self Identity

One of the concepts Super defined concerns vocational self-identity.

A good deal of attention has been focused on the relationship the vocational

self-identity has upon the vocational decision making process (Barrett, 1976;

Barrett and Tinsley, 1977; Healy, Bailey and Anderson, 1973; Maier and

Herman, 1974; Resnik, Fauble and Osipow, 1970). It is proposed that "in

expressing a vocational preference a person puts into occupational

terminology his idea of the kind of person he is the occupation thus

makes possible the playing of a role appropriate to the self concept"

(Super and others, 1963, p. 87).

The self concept may be defined as individuals' subjective evaluations

of self (Gordon and Gergen, 1968). Super's insistence on the congruence

of self concept and vocational self concept as an essential requirement to

job satisfaction is justified through the research activities of several

authors (Hershenson, 1968; Munley, 1975; Barrett and Tinsley, 1977). Job

satisfaction appears to be dependent upon "the extent to which the individual

finds an adequate outlet for his abilities, interest, personality traits,

and values (Super, 1953, p. 190).

Vocational Maturity

A second concept which evolved from Super's (1957) work involves

vocational maturity. Putnam and Hansen (1972) confirm through their research

that vocational self concept and vocational maturity are related.








Vocational maturity may be defined as the "degree of development, the

place reached on the continuum of vocational development from exploration

to decline" (Super, 1955, p. 153). The degree of individuals' vocational

maturity is dependent upon the level of completion of certain developmental

tasks. These tasks include: 1) the awareness of the need to make a vocational

decision, 2) the acceptance of responsibility for making vocational plans,

3) the specificity of information gathered, 4) the specificity and extent

of the planning toward training for a vocation, and 5) the amount of

resource utilization (Tolbert, 1974).

Crites (1961) reviewed Super's theory of vocational maturity and

found it to be inadequate and conflicting. He suggests that two dimensions,

degree and rate, of vocational maturity must be taken into consideration

when assessing the level of vocational maturity. The degree of vocational

maturity refers to "the maturity of an individual's vocational behavior

as indicated by the similarity between his behavior and that of the oldest

individual in his vocational life stage" (Crites, 1961, p. 259). The rate

of vocational development refers to "the maturity of an individual's

vocational behavior in comparison to that of his own age group" (Crites,

1961, p. 259). Utilizing these dimensions of vocational maturity, Crites

(1961) defined eighteen variables of vocational maturity and grouped them

under four headings: 1) consistency of vocational choice, 2) wisdom of

vocational choice, 3) vocational choice competencies, 4) vocational

choice attitudes. According to Bartlett (1971), Crites approach to

vocational maturity is the most acceptable.

Gribbons and Lohnes (1968) conducted a similar research project to

Super's Career Pattern Study. Entitled the Career Development Study, it

followed the career development of 111 subjects over an eight year period

from eighth grade to two years after high school. Through the results of this








study, vocational maturity was defined as the "readiness for vocational

planning" (Gribbons and Lohnes, 1968, p. 29). Vocational maturity

behaviors were defined and grouped by these authors under the following

headings: 1) factors in curriculum choice, 2) factors in occupational

choice, 3) verbalized strengths and weaknesses, 4) accuracy and adequacy

of self-appraisal, 5) evidence for self rating, 6) interests, 7) values,

8) independence of choice.

Vocational Maturity and Personality Development

Bartlett (1971) maintains that if vocational maturity'can be related

to personality development, the individual will be seen as a whole,

developing person rather than a person who develops at different rates

in different segments of life. In order to present this picture of the

maturing person, Heath's (1965) model for five stages of personality

development is translated into vocational terminology. Bartlett (1971)

describes the vocationally mature person as one who is becoming: 1) more

organized in terms of involvement in the vocational choice process and

less disturbed by threatening experiences, 2) more open to new information,

3) aware of internal (self-concept) and external (world of work) worlds

through symbolic representation, 4) more independent in the choice process,

and not immediately controlled by the environment, motivational state or

earlier childhood history.

Bohn (1966) and Bartlett (1968) found that there is a relationship

between vocational maturity and personality development. Bohn used the

Interest Maturity scale of the Strong Vocational Interest Blank as a

criterion measure for personality development. He found that the male

subjects who had high Interest Maturity scores were more achievement

oriented, independent, sociable, sensitive, and persuasive and less self

critical than those with low Interest Maturity scores.








Bartlett (1968) used the Vocational Maturity scale of the Vocational

Development Inventory as a criterion measure of vocational maturity and

the Adjective Check List as a criterion measure for personality development

in his study. He found that the subjects with higher vocational maturity

scores were more self-confident, achievement oriented, independent, sociable,

forceful, independent, less defensive, interpersonal relationships and

less self-critical than those with low vocational maturity scores.

Holland's (1966) theory of vocational choice is related to vocational

self-concept, vocational maturity, and personality development. At the

time of making a vocational choice, the individual is a product of the

interaction of heredity, cultural and personal factors. Individuals may

be classified into six personality types and occupations may be classified

into six work environments: realistic, intellectual, social, artistic,

and conventional, and enterprising. According to Holland (1966) individuals

who are satisfied with their career choose a work environment congruent

with their personality types. Lack of differentiation and inconsistency of

interests is viewed as a sign of vocational immaturity. Persons who do

not recognize their dominant personality type and characteristics or the

demands of an occupation will be unhappy in their choice of a career

(Holland, 1969).

It is evident that vocational maturity, vocational self-concept

and personality development are interrelated. These factors must be taken

into consideration when counseling an individual who is experiencing career

choice indecision.

Life-stage for the Midlife Career Changer

Through a review of the literature, it has been established that

a period of midlife crisis, or transition, occurs during the personality







development of the adult. Erikson (1950), Neugarten (1968), Havighurst

(1952) and Levinson (1977) have dealt with the issues and developmental

tasks which the midlife person faces.

Career develop theories have not, at this point in time, dealt

effectively with the issues and developmental tasks midlife career changers

face. In an article describing a career development program for midlife

individuals wishing to change careers, Goodman, Walworth, and Waters (1975)

suggest that career development theorists turn their attention to the span

of life labeled adulthood. Schlossberg (1976) describes the fact that

an individual is expected to consider and narrow down career choices in

the adolescent or early childhood stage. Job changes occur for a variety

of reasons and the career decision making process must be used in the middle

years, as well as in early adulthood.

Technological advancements, sociological and economical developments

and the midlife developmental process are four broad categories which

produce reasons for the midlife person to wish to change careers. Accord-

ing to Sinick (1977), people change careers for the following reasons:

Initial career not person's own choice
Career inappropriate from the onset
Original aspirations not met by the career
Purpose of first career accomplished
Change of career required by changing goals (or
life structure)
Satisfaction sought for higher level needs
Dead end reached in terms of advancement
Inadequate outlet for creativity
Insufficient challenge for abilities
Data-People-Things involvement inappropriate
Incongruence with vocational interests
Desire to implement a vocational interest
Disproportion between prescribed and discretionary duties
Insufficient variety in work content
Work pressures and deadlines too demanding
Work becoming too physically demanding
Work context source of dissatisfaction
Employer policies and practices dissatisfying







Purpose of employer enterprise incompatible
Co-workers divergent in values and lifestyles
Personality conflicts with supervisor or co-workers
Earnings outstripped by living expenses
Desire to "keep up with the Jones'"
Social status of occupation inadequate
Insufficient time for leisure activities
Greener grass in another field (p. 20, 21).

While all of these reasons are not applicable for all midlife clients,

they do represent problems which the midlife person is faced with in vary-

ing degrees and numbers. They are the reasons for "the emerging pattern

of second careers" (Sheppard, 1971 a p. 89). the concept that a person

chooses one career and then remains in that career for life is no longer

valid. Patrick Murphy and Harman Burck (1976) call for a revision in

Super's career development theory due to the research which has uncovered

the midlife transitional phase of personality development.

According to Super's (1957) present theory, the midlife years fall

into the stage of maintenance. During this state, two of the vocational

developmental tasks are: 1) stabilization a period in which the individual

settles into one particular field between the ages of twenty-five and thirty-

five, 2) consolidation a period in which the individual consolidates

status and advancement in his field between the ages of thirty-five and

fifty. After reviewing research in the area of midlife career change

(Levinson, Darrow, Klein, Levinson, and McKee, 1976; Horrocks and Mussman,

1970; Armstrong and Scotzin, 1974; Gould, 1972; Henry, 1961; and Sofer,

1970), Murphy and Burck (1976) reached the conclusion that a developmental

stage entitled renewal does occur in midlife and should be inserted between

Super's establishment and maintenance stages. Super's theory is concerned with

the development of a vocational self-concept. It is in midlife that the self-

concept of the individual is questioned and even changed to fit a new life








structure (Levinson et al,, 1976). During the stage of renewal, the

individual may find that "at midlife one's career may no longer be an

expression of that changed self concept and that a change or adjustment

in the career may have to be made" (Murphy and Burck, 1976, p. 334).


Group Career Counseling

If counselors are to be helpful to adult clients who are under-

going the transitions and changes found during the midlife years, new

counseling strategies and methods of intervention must be developed and

evaluated. These strategies must take into consideration the develop-

mental tasks and issues of the midlife developmental stage and include

ways to increase vocational maturity, raise the level of self-concept,

and increase the ability to make a decision.

In a study utilizing undergraduate students, Smith and Evans (1973)

found that group counseling was more effective in increasing the vocational

development of the subjects than individual counseling or no counseling.

Graff and his associates (1972) found in their research that group career

counseling was equally as effective as individual counseling. Hoyt (1955)

did a similar study to Smith and Evans (1973) utilizing sixty freshman

students. Although there were no differences found between the effective-

ness of individual and group counseling, the group participants were more

satisfied, realistic, and certain in their choice of careers than the

control group.

Group career counseling offers many advantages over individual

counseling. Yeager and McMahon (1974) state that group career counseling

is efficient and offers a means of comparison among peers in regard to

personal achievement, effectiveness of interpersonal relationships,







value systems, lifestyles, and personal goals. Through use of peer support

and reassurance, group counseling is effective in reinforcing suitable

career development behavior (Aiken and Johnston, 1973).

Transactional Analysis as an Effective Group Counseling Technique

Transactional Analysis was developed in the 1950's by Eric Berne as

an "alternative approach to current popular psychoanalytic techniques"

(Goldhaber and Goldhaber, 1976, p. 29). Berne insisted that the current

psychoanalytic theory was too complex and its language too technical for

the layman to understand fully. Since he felt that every individual was

capable of understanding personality and behavior or pattern development,

Berne concentrated on making psychological terms and concepts easy to

understand, explaining them in simple layman language.

Since Transactional Analysis focuses on the analysis of transactions

an individual has within the self among the three ego states and with

others, it is used primarily as a group therapy. Berne (1961) states that

Transactional Analysis is offered as a method of group therapy because it

is a "rational, indigenous approach derived from the group situation itself"

(p. 165). It allows group members to support one another in their attempt

to recognize their own ego state transactions, resulting behavior patterns,

and methods of transacting with others.

Transactional Analysis can be combined with other theories, such as

Gestalt, psychoanalysis, reality and behavior therapy, in its use as a group

therapy. Berne (1961) states that Transactional Analysis "offers a primary

matrix within which other therapeutic operations can find their place

according to the therapist's personal inclinations" (p. 166). This allows

the facilitator great latitude in its use and expands the areas to which

Transactional Analysis can be applied.








In education Transactional Analysis has been used in a variety of

group situations. David Myrow (1977) describes its use in a pre-service

teacher education program. Transactional Analysis was taught students in

an effort to better their peer and professional relationships. Meyer,

Thomas and Key (1975) successfully used Transactional Analysis with junior

high school students in career development. Their premise was that student

development and career development are mutual concerns. Through the use

of Transactional Analysis, student and career development could be furthered

by developing adult thinking and decision making powers. Copeland and Borman

(1975) attempted to effect self concept change in seventh grade students

through the use of Transactional Analysis as a group process. Self concept

change was not demonstrated through immediate post testing. The authors

state, however, that if self concept is developmental, change would be a

slow process and the self concept may improve over time.

Transactional Analysis has also been used in family agency settings

as group psychotherapy. Marilyn Goldhaber (1976) describes its use in

combination with reality and behavior therapy and states that "Transactional

Analysis seems to work best in groups" (p. 228). She feels that Transactional

Analysis in groups allows client participation and feedback which gives

their "adults a wealth of information about themselves and their behavior"

(Goldhaber and Goldhaber, 1976, p. 228). Steiner (1968), Goulding (1972),

and Schiff (1969) support Goldhaber's statements and describe, through their

own research and experiences, Transactional Analysis as an effective

group treatment.

Organizations, particularly large industrial complexes, have used

Transactional Analysis in a group format to aid in solving people-oriented

problems. Jongeward (1976), Goldhaber and Goldhaber (1976) and Morrison

and O'Hearne (1977) describe various applications of Transactional








Analysis to organizational needs, including redevelopment and restructuring

of company values, beliefs and attitudes, use as a consulting model, use

in management and supervision training and use in developing effective

organizational communication. The application of Transactional Analysis

to organizational structures is particularly useful when focused on

employees needs, as well as company needs.

Group Career Counseling Programs for Midlife Career Changers

According to Alan Entine (1976 b), the most effective type of counseling
for the midlife career changer involves both personal growth and career `

counseling. A group format for career counseling allows the individual to

receive both types of counseling. Exercises in the group format can be

devised to allow the individual to identify appropriate work options based

on actual abilities and skills and to receive support and assistance from

group members about common problems and issues which arise during the mid-

life transition. Members who may feel trapped and helpless will be able

to relate to those who have the same feelings. It will also be possible

for group members to discuss alternatives for the relief of such feelings

and for the positive change of situations causing those feelings.

One of the essential goals of career group counseling which is
mentioned in a large number of articles is based on Super's theory of

the implementation of the self concept in a career. (Entine, 1976 a, b);

Healy, 1973; Heddesheimer, 1976; Goodman, Walworth and Waters, 1975). Healy

(1973) states that a career group counseling program should allow individuals

to discover an occupation which would allow them to use the talents they

have and to become the person they wish to become. The objectives of

such a career group counseling program include; 1) exploration of the








means the individual has for achieving the career goals through self-

examination, 2) examination of the different possibilities from the per-

spective of these goals and means, 3) development of a plan to enter or

continue in the chosen career, 4) execution of the plan, 5) evaluation

of the progress made in order to decide on future actions.

Goodman, Walworth, and Waters (1975) present a group career counsel-

ing program for midlife career changers which embodies many of Healy's

objectives. The basic components for this program involve self-examination

and assessment through the use of values clarification exercises, information

gathering and personalization techniques, and the career decision making

process. The overall goal of the program is to aid the participants to

become self-directing in the exploration and planning stages of their new

careers and to supply them with the necessary tools to become self directed.

Natalie Rubinton (1977) describes a "New Careers For Adults" program

which was funded by the Vocational Educational Act of 1968. The three

areas covered by this group career counseling program included career

planning strategies, career information giving and discussion of career

related concerns. The career planning strategies focused on self-assessment,

identification of work related skills, and the setting of short and long

term goals. The career information sessions were designed to allow par-

ticipants to meet with resource people in the academic, industrial, and

business communities and discuss various careers available in those settings.

Realistic printed information concerning careers was handed out. The

career-related concerns were explored in small group sessions. These

concerns dealt with the issues surrounding the midlife transition, as well

as the realistic concerns felt by older workers, such as age discrimination

male-female roles, tight labor market, etc.








This program was evaluated using a pretest-posttest design. It was

found that participants rated the "New Careers for Adults" as being very

helpful and informative. Attitudes among participants changed signifi-

cantly concerning competence of decision making ability. The item that was

scored the highest by participants dealt with the "how and where to find

a job" (Rubinton, 1977, p. 367). The author felt that the program met

the needs of a large group of people who were in the process of deciding

how and where to gather information about occupational training programs

which would allow a career change.

Robbins (1978) lists a number of college programs which are specifi-

cally designed for adults. Apparently, there are no articles available

evaluating all of these programs. Robbins cautions that the list is not

comprehensive and in no way reflects the quality or comprehensiveness of

the program listed.


Industrial Career Development Programs

There are a number of large businesses which have organized career

development programs for their employees. In an attempt to express a

company's reasons for setting up these programs, Robbins (1978) quotes

a manager for General Electric: 1) For individuals, to stimulate and guide

them to grow within their interest and abilities while contributing to the

needs and aims of the organization; and 2) for the employing organization,

to humanize its attempts to deal with the needs of its members within

operating realities in order to maintain its own survival and growth.

Although there seem to be no programs specifically designed for

midlife career changers, the programs offered could be adapted to meet the

needs of this population. One of these programs is the Career Development

Program sponsored by the General Electric Company (Montana and -i'iinson.







1978; Robbins, 1978). It was designed to aid employees to initiate and

adapt to changes which may occur in their work world. Five phases of

career planning are dealt with: 1) Reviewing your career now, 2) En-

visioning and crystalizing your next step, 3) Planning your development,

4) Implementing your plan, and 5) Recycling. General Electric has found

this program to be highly successful. It has improved the company's

methods for fitting the right people to the right jobs, improved the quality

of data for manpower reviews, provided a framework for affirmative action,

and allowed the company to better predict where the allocation of funds

for employee education should be funneled (Robbins, 1978).

Another program which is structured in such a way as to meet the

needs of midlife career changes is a five day career development workshop

at National Lead Industries (Montana and Higginson, 1978). This program was

originally designed to prepare younger men for upper management positions.

The workshop includes these procedures:

1) Collection and analysis of personal data to determine managerial,
technical and interpersonal strengths and limitations.

2) Formulation of a profile of these characteristics.

3) Identification of factors in work situations that have contrib-
uted to success and provided a sense of satisfaction.

4) Survey of various jobs that seem to offer the possibility of
satisfaction; how to acquire the knowledge and skill required
for these positions.

5) Deciding a feasible succession of future jobs to which the
individual aspires and identifying intermediate jobs
between the present job and the ultimate one.

6) Comparing present strengths and limitations with the
requirements of jobs selected.

7) Identification of developmental needs and prioritizing
these needs.

8) Survey of possible approaches for closing gaps.







9) Selection of the most appropriate approach for closing gaps.

10) Writing action plans for the highest-priority development needs.

Emphasis is placed upon personal feedback and self-insight during the

exercises conducted at the workshops. Participants are given the opportunity

to examine their self concept, assess weaknesses and limitations, receive

realistic information concerning their world of work, and choose possible

job and occupational changes. The most important component of this program

is the evaluation process. A six-month follow-up procedure is done for

each participant which consists of a written progress report by the par-

ticipant concerning the attainment of goals. A year following the workshop,

participants meet for a one and one-half day meeting, in which they compare

progress made, analyze the factors that have inhibited their progress, and

revise their original plans to meet new situations and developmental needs.

The Polaroid Corporation has developed another excellent career

development program for its employees (Robbins, 1978). Job vacancies within

the company are advertised to employees before being advertised in outside

publications. Employees are encouraged to apply for these jobs, even if

they are not within the employees' present division or occupation. A

group career counseling workshop is available to all employees in order

to aid them in clarifying values, skills, goals and interests. These exer-

cises culminate in the development of a career life plan for the participants.

Governmental Policies and Programs Aimed at Midlife Career Changers

Governmental interest and support for counseling programs aimed at

the career development of midlife career changers has increased over the

years. Two recent study groups have written monographs respectively for

the U.S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare (O'Toole, 1974)

and for the National Manpower Institute (Wirtz, 1975). Both of these








monographs go into great detail about ways to improve the quality of work

life. Both advocate policies which encourage midlife career change and

cite it as a benefit for the social good. One of the points stressed is

that midlife career changers tend to retire at a later time in life than -

the person with one career.

Harold L. Sheppard (1978) cited several priorities for research

projects dealing with mid-career change which the U.S. Department of Labor

should consider for federal funding. In a final report prepared for the

Employment and Training Administration (Sheppard, 1978), he reports a need

for research on midcareer change to determine 1) the characteristics and

work experience of changers and 2) the differences between workers in

midlife who wish to change and workers in midlife who do not desire a

change. A study of European government sponsored programs for retraining

of middle-aged workers is also suggested.

In an article written for the National Council on Aging, Ossofsky

(1976) states that second careers are becoming more and more a normal part

of the adult stage in the life cycle. He cites a survey of the literature

on the capabilities of middle-aged and the older workers which the NCOA's

Institute of Industrial Gerontology recently compiled. Some of the

findings were:

1) If older workers are properly placed, they function effectively
and have greater stability on the job, fewer accidents, and
less time lost from work than younger workers do.

2) In most jobs today the physical demands are well below the
capacities of most normal aging workers.

Based upon these findings Ossofsky (1976) states that "we also need

many different types of second career programs to fill the economic and

psychic needs of people in different age categories, with different work

experiences, and in different economic circumstances" (p. 88).








Governmental agencies are financing the compilation of these reports.

It is conceivable that governmental policies and funding priorities will

be affected by these findings. If this occurs, programs for second careers

may be federally supported in various settings.


Summary

It is evident from the review of the literature that a midlife

transition does exist as a separate developmental stage. It is a period

of life which all individuals pass through and in which varying degrees

of crises and changes occur. The need for the inclusion of this stage

in career development theories has been stated.

Counseling programs to aid the individual who is undergoing a period

of crisis in the midlife transition stage must contain personal, as well

as vocational components. The midlife career changer will be experiencing

more than the simple desire to change occupations. The issues and crises

discussed in the literature which arise during the midlife crisis must be

dealt with and resolved. If these issues and crises are ignored, they will

rise again at a different stage in the developmental process.

The effectiveness of the group career counseling method for aiding

the midlife person has been discussed. It has been demonstrated to be a

viable format for the participant in educational and industrial settings.

!The main components of this method of career counseling must include

self-assessment, career information, and decision making techniques

in order to meet all of the needs of the midlife career changer. This

individual is in need of support and assurance concerning abilities,

interests, fears, doubts, strengths and weaknesses which a group at-

mosphere will provide. )





32


Existing programs available for the midlife career changer have

been reviewed. The role of existing governmental support of programs for

older workers has been reviewed and the need for further research in

this area has been expressed.













CHAPTER III

METHODS AND PROCEDURES


Overview

The primary purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness

of a vocational group treatment model designed for the midlife career

changer. This model may be used in any work setting which offers a variety

of career opportunities to its employees. The effect of the group experience

upon the variables of vocational maturity, self-esteem and self-confidence,

independence of decision making, and personal integration was assessed.

A comparison of two groups of employees was made in an industrial

setting. These groups were 1) the experimental group, whose members

received the treatment during the study, and 2) the control group, whose

members did not receive treatment during the study, but immediately following

the collection of all data for the study. Data collected on both groups

were compared using statistical measures to assess significant differences

among the variables mentioned above.

A Solomon Four research design (Isaac and Michael, 1971) was used in

the study. Eight groups of seven to ten subjects each were formed. Four

groups were experimental and four were control groups. Two experimental

and two control groups received a pretest. The four experimental groups

received treatment. All eight groups received a posttest following the

completion of treatment.







The following diagram illustrates.the Solomon Four research design

(Isaac and Michael, 1971) chosen for this study:

Group One Pretest Treatment Posttest (7 to 10 members)

Group Two Pretest Treatment Posttest (7 to 10 members)

Group Three Pretest Control Posttest (7 to 10 members)

Group Four Pretest Control Posttest (7 to 10 members)

Group Five Treatment Posttest (7 to 10 members)

Group Six Treatment Posttest (7 to 10 members)

Group Seven Control Posttest (7 to 10 members)

Group Eight Control Posttest (7 to 10 members)

The Adult Vocational Maturity Inventory and the Vocational Preference

Inventory were used as the pre- and posttest instruments. This chapter

describes the hypothesis, population and sampling procedures, research

design, collection of data, experimental treatment, instrumentation, analy-

sis of data and limitations of the study.

The Hypotheses

The following hypotheses were tested in this study.

Hypothesis 1

As a result of participation in the midlife career change program,
there will be no difference in scores of vocational maturity of
subjects in experimental groups and in the control groups as
measured by the Adult Vocational Maturity Inventory (AVMI).

Hypothesis 2

As a result of participation in the midlife career change program,
there will be no difference in scores of independence of decision
making of subjects in experimental groups and in the control groups
as measured by the Adult Vocational Maturity Inventory (AVMI).

Hypothesis 3

As a result of participation in the midlife career change program,
there will be no difference in scores of self-esteem and self-
confidence of subjects in experimental groups and in the control
groups as measured by the Status Scale of the Vocational Preference
Inventory (VPI).








Hypothesis 4

As a result of participation in the midlife career change
program, there will be no difference in scores of personal
integration of subjects in experimental groups and in the
control groups as measured by the Acquiescence Scale of
the Vocational Preference Inventory (VPI).


Population and Procedures for the Organization of Groups

A large, diversified company located in central Florida agreed to

support this research project by advertising for participants in the manage-

ment and employee newsletters, and providing space for the treatment groups.

Eighty volunteers from all areas and departments of the company, including

management, skilled, and unskilled labor, were accepted for the study. The

first eighty volunteers who answered the advertisements were invited to par-

ticipate in the experimental or control groups. In order to insure that

these workers were volunteers, the treatment program was offered during their

off hours, not during work hours.

Advertisements describing the group experience, participant qualifi-

cations and procedures to sign up for the midlife career change program

were placed in the management and employee newsletters. The program was

called Midlife Career Change Program and was described as follows: 1) open

to all employees between the ages of thirty and fifty-five; 2) a program

in which participants can learn about themselves and possibilities for

charting new careers.

As a further means of advertisement, the researcher discussed and
illustrated the program for department heads and training personnel in the

company at a pre-arranged meeting. The program was described, a number of

sessions discussed, and sign-up information given out. These management

personnel were asked to relay this information to workers within their

departments.








An employee in the company's Career Planning and Placement office

received all calls from interested employees and compiled a list for the

researcher. The researcher contacted each interested party by telephone

and the selection criteria were discussed and assessed. The employees must

be between the ages of twenty-eight and sixty-five, and must express a

desire to move from their present type of career. This latter requirement

for selection was used in order to avoid attracting persons who wished to

redirect their energies in their present career through promotion or transfer

methods. For this study, employees were accepted if they expressed a need

for a career change. They were not required to express a definite new

career direction.

Because of work schedules, four time frames for group treatment were

established before volunteers were selected. Each time frame consisted of

two hours for treatment and was set up during times employees could attend

either before or after their work shift. In this company all days of the

week are considered work days. In order that all employees could attend,

two time frames of treatment were offered one day and two time frames of

treatment were offered the next day of the week. In this way, four time

frames for treatment were offered per week: two per day, two days a week

for eight weeks.

During the selection process, approximately twenty volunteers were

assigned to each of the four frames. Randomization was accomplished by

using a table of random numbers to assign half of the volunteers to an

experimental group and the other half of the volunteers to a control group

per time frame. In this way there were four experimental and four con-

trol groups.







This procedure was followed in order to evaluate the interaction of

protesting and treatment that protesting might have had upon the subjects.

This method of assigning the employees to groups also minimized the possi-

bility of differential selection by randomly assigning those who chose a

certain time frame to either a control or treatment group.

All eighty workers who replied to the advertisements were contacted

by the researcher by telephone. During the telephone conversation, the

researcher reported that because of the overwhelming interest, half of the

volunteers would participate in the program for an eight-week period, while

the remaining half would participate during a second eight-week period. All

forty volunteers in experimental groups one and two and control groups three

and four were asked to attend the first scheduled sessions for a pretest.

Individuals in control groups three and four understood that their treatment

would begin eight weeks later.

Experimental groups five and six were contacted by telephone and given

a schedule for the treatment group meetings. Control groups seven and eight

were told that because of the overwhelming response, their group meetings

would begin in eight weeks. They were scheduled for the posttest session

immediately following completion of the treatment program for the experi-

mental group. These four groups were not given the pretest as provided by

the Solomon Four research design.

Of the eighty respondents contacted, sixty-six were chosen for the

statistical analysis in this study. The following is a list of the groups,

the number of employees originally accepted in each group, the number of

employees whose test scores were used in this study and the number of

employees who dropped from the study:






Group Number Number Used
Accepted in Study for
Statistical
Analysis


Number Dropped
Due to Exces-
sive Absentee-
ism


Number Who Did
Not Show Up For
Pretest or Post-
test


One

Two

Three

Four

Five

Six

Seven

Eight

Total


The criterion for excessive absenteeism was to miss more than two

of the eight scheduled treatment sessions. Twelve of the eighty employees

contacted did not come to either the pretest or the posttest sessions.

Since no makeup test sessions were given, a total of sixty-six employee

test scores were used for statistical analysis. Of these sixty-six employees,

thirty-two were pretested and posttested. Thirty-four of the employees

received a posttest only. The posttest session was scheduled for all sixty-

six employees during the last hour of the eighth treatment session.


Treatment Program
A careful review of the literature and the researcher's personal

experience with Transactional Analysis were utilized in the development

of this eight-session midlife career change, group counseling program.

Each experimental group was scheduled once a week for a two-hour period.


Number Who
Dropped Out
Of Group



0

0







Rationale

Transactional Analysis was chosen as a format for the career coun-

seling group. Actually, several of the goals in Transactional Analysis

and career counseling are the same. Both are concerned with inter- and

intrapersonal growth. Transactional Analysis provides a framework the

client may use during self exploration and exploration of interpersonal

relationships. It also provides a method of discovering, accepting, or

changing the important values one holds. During career counseling, in-

creasing self knowledge, the ability to relate to others, particularly in

a job situation, and discovering the work values a person holds are important

goals. Transactional Analysis provided an exciting and easily understood

format for pursuing these goals.

Transactional Analysis is also concerned with the process persons go

through when making decisions in their lives. This therapy suggests the

use of all three ego states, integrated into the Adult, during the decision

making process (James and Jongeward, 1973). Career counseling is also very

much concerned with the manner in which a person makes a decision.

Gelatt's decision making theory was chosen to be incorporated into

the treatment model because of the cyclical process it describes. It encour-

ages the individual to assess the effect past decisions have had on present

situations. This assessment may be done by examining the extent to which

the Parent, Child, and Adult ego states have entered into the decision making

process. If the participant finds that past decisions made tend to be inef-

fectual or unsatisfactory, the need for a new decision making process

becomes apparent.

According to Gelatt (1962), decision making begins when an individual

realizes that two or more alternatives to a situation exist. The partici-

pants in a midlife career change group are aware of dissatisfaction in







their present careers and the desire to find other alternatives. The next

two steps in the process involve the collection of data and the evaluation

of the desirability of alternatives generated from the data.

The participants utilized the Parent ego state as described in the

theory of Transactional Analysis to gather data on personal and work values;

the Child ego state, to clarify feelings concerning self and stereotypes in

relation to occupations; and the Adult ego state, to evaluate test results,

personal feedback and support from group members, and retraining or re-

education information gathered from significant others. When viable alter-

natives were formed through use of a contract between researcher and partici-

pants, the participants predicted the success and desirability of each

alternative by processing this information through the computer-like

Adult state.

Once the decision was made, it was tried out to determine its possible

success. Some decisions became final. Others required a reprocessing of

new data, making the entire process cyclical. Combining Transactional

Analysis and Gelatt's decision making model allowed individuals to reprocess

new data taking all three ego states into consideration each time a situ-

ation arose.

Some advantages of using Transactional Analysis as a format for a

midlife career change group are: 1) It provides the participants with a

common vocabulary with which to discuss themselves and their relationships

with others; 2) It increases the participant's self-knowledge and aware-

ness during a crisis period of life; 3) It encourages participants to

make use of the Transactional Analysis concept of contracts to define de-

sirable behaviors which enable them to either adapt to their present

work environment or take steps toward retraining in a new career.








The major disadvantage of this technique is the amount of time

the counselor must spend with the group explaining the concepts of

Transactional Analysis. Two two-hour sessions are required to introduce

the basic concepts and vocabulary. Considerable time in each of the

following sessions is needed to discuss and re-emphasize these concepts.

Other disadvantages include: 1) Transactional Analysis was developed

as a theory. Some concepts and methods incorporated into this theory are

not applicable to vocational counseling. However, it is possible to

include parts of Transactional Analysis concepts, such as structural

analysis, the complementary, crossed and ulterior transactions, and exclude

others, such as time structuring, strokes, and stamp collecting. 2) Trans-

actional Analysis does not offer terms or concepts to deal with all of the

factors that influence career choice, as pointed out by Kurtz (1974). The

vocabulary deals with self and with relationships with others; it does not

deal directly with the economic, social or cultural factors an individual

may face during a second career decision making process.' However, its

concepts may be combined with Gelatt's decision making model in such a

way that the individual can learn to respond to such factors in a realistic

and objective manner.

The Transactional Analysis format for a career counseling group of

midlife career change clients creates an atmosphere conducive to personal

growth. The participants gain a more positive self concept as they gain

more self knowledge. Their degree of vocational maturity as defined by

Super (1953) and Ginzberg (1972) tends to increase as they realize new

options that are open to them.

Description of Treatment Model

The sequence of the experimental treatment was designed to allow the








participant to 1) identify the Parent ego state and examine Parent tapes

related to personal and work values; 2) identify the Child ego state and

examine Child tapes which relate to feelings about the world of work and

specific jobs; 3) identify the Adult state and examine the way it is

presently used in decision making situations; 4) receive realistic feed-

back about self through interactions with group members and vocational

interest and personality inventories; 5) learn Gelatt's decision making

model (1962); and 6) receive realistic occupational and retraining information

to use during the decision making process for a new career direction.

The specific objectives and format of each experimental group session

were as follows (see Appendix A for detailed description):

Session One

Objectives: A. To introduce participants to one another
B. To discuss participants' reasons for becoming
involved in the group.
C. To discuss and agree upon group goals.
D. To discuss and agree upon individual goals.

Format:

1. Getting acquainted exercises: help group members learn each other's
names and establish rapport.

2. Discussion of individual reasons for involvement.

3. Discussion of Leader's goals for group: participants learn what is
expected during each group session.
4. Discussion of individual group member's goals.

5. Pretest for Treatment Groups One and Two.

Session Two

Objectives: A. To identify possible career avenues for further
research.
B. To identify Self Directed Search code for each
participant.
C. To describe "Parent, Adult, Child" concept of
Transactional Analysis.








Format:

1. Administration and discussion of the Self Directed Search.

2. Discussion of Self Directed Search and meaning of Self Directed Search
codes: Aid participants to understand their Self Directed Search codes.

3. Overview of Transactional Analysis.

4. Drawing Ego Gram: Aid participants in identifying their three
personality parts.

5. Homework assignment: Write a career autobiography. Aid participants
to review past occupational decisions and present situation.

Session Three

Objectives: A. To understand the concept of "Parent", "Adult",
"Child".
B. To discuss verbal and nonverbal ego state charac-
teristics.
C. To discuss "Parent" tapes which are related to career
values.

Format:

1. Review of Ego States: Reinforce participants' knowledge of three
ego states.

2. Discussion of verbal and nonverbal ego state characteristics Help
participants to recognize when they are in a particular ego state.

3. Values Clarification Exercise: Aid participants to identify their
"Parent" tapes in relation to personal values.

4. Career Values Clarification Exercise: Aid participants to recognize
characteristics in work environments which they value.

Session Four

Objectives: A. To identify "Child" tapes and related behavior.
B. To define the following terms: natural Child,
little Professor, and adapted Child.
C. To identify at least one tape and related behavior
for each of the three parts of the Child.

Format:

1. Trust forming exercise: Aid participants to self disclose.

2. Minilecture on the "Child" ego state: Aid participants to
understand the concept of the Child ego state.

3. Small group exercise: Aid participants to discover Child ego state tapes.







4. Administration of Meyers-Briggs Type Indicator.

Session Five

Objectives: A. To describe the Adult ego state as defined
in Transactional Analysis theory.
B. To define the meaning of exclusion, contamination,
placating the Parent and pleasing the Child.
C. To give and receive effective feedback from one
another.

Format:

1. "Child" Fantasy Exercise: Aids participants to identify unrealistic,
ideal attitudes and feelings toward the world of work.

2. Minilecture on the "Adult" ego state: Aids participants to understand
the concept of the Adult ego state.

3. Discussion of ways to use "Adult": Enables participants to consider
ways to change or modify behavior.

4. Discussion and small group exercises on giving and receiving effective
feedback: Teaches participants an effective method for giving/receiving
feedback in a work environment.

5. "Adult" Feedback Exercise: Allows particpiants to give and receive
personal feedback in a positive manner.

Session Six

Objectives: A. To discuss the significance of the type preference
received through results of the Meyers-Briggs Type
Indicator.
B. To identify at least two possible career directions
which interest participants.
C. To gain realistic information concerning the feasi-
bility, necessary time involvement, and financial
requirements for training/re-education in a new career.

Format:

1. Discussion of Meyers-Briggs Type Indicator: Aid participants in under-
standing their particular style of perceiving the world; support or
suggest further thought concerning career directions through person-
ality match.

2. Table Materials: Pamphlets, books, leaflets describing careers, job
trends, educational requirements and opportunities which aid partici-
pants in their thinking realistically about career directions by
supplying career and job information.

3. Panel Discussion Period: To receive information about retraining, re-
education and job opportunities. Panel includes members from university








and community colleges in the area, federal government information
office, Florida State Employment Service, company employment and
company career planning and placement office.

Session Seven

Objectives: A. To describe a decision making process in which the
Parent, Adult, and Child tapes are integrated
and used.
B. To discuss career plans in relation to the decision
making process taught in the group.
C. To demonstrate intent toward achieving career goals
by developing a "contract" with the instructor.
D. To write a resume in the manner described during
this session.

Format:

1. Minilecture on Gelatt's Decision Making Process: Teach the participants
a decision making model which can be used for personal and career decisions.
This model allows the adult to process Parent, Adult, and Child tapes,
as well as realistic data in the decision making process.

2. Contract Making: Assure participants that what has gone on in the
group between the facilitator and participants is likely to be an
activity which promotes growth toward the decision.

3. Resume Writing: Teach and ask participants to write a basic resume
directed toward their new career objectives.

Session Eight:

Objectives: A. To prepare for a job interview.
B. To identify the parts of an interview.
C. To exhibit successful verbal/nonverbal
behaviors.

Format:

1. Preparation for interview: The participant is able to research policies,
programs and products of the company involved.

2. Parts of an interview: To help the participant prepare for all
aspects of the interview, including: the introduction, discussion
of background, discussion of actual job and closure.

3. Small Group Exercise: The participants "see themselves" in an
interview situation through the eyes of their peers.

Instrumentation

The instruments used in this study include the Adult Vocational

Maturity Inventory and the Vocational Preference Inventory. These

instruments are described below:








1. The Adult Vocational Maturity Inventory (AMVI) was developed by David I.

Sheppard (1971a) to measure the degree of vocational maturity in adults. The

construction of the inventory is based upon the past occupational choices

of adults. The attitudes which are assessed relate to the amount of the

individual's involvement in the vocational choice, orientation toward work,

degree of independence in decision making, and the extent which one factor

may have as an overriding influence upon the choice.

The instrument was validated by Sheppard (,1971a) utilizing four hundred

male subjects. An item analysis of the vocational statements which make

up the inventory was done by using two methods: 1) item correlations with

the total score, which provided a measure of internal consistency and

2) t-test, and analysis of variance of the inventory's items to determine

its ability to differentiate among three sample groups, providing a measure

of group validity. A split-half reliability correlation was computed and

found to be .80 for Form I (true and false format) and .84 for Form II

(Likert Scale).

Norms were established by obtaining percentile equivalents from the

raw scores of the forty items which tested out to be the most reliable

and valid. These scores were found to be within normal distribution when

a chi-square analysis was made.

Form II of the Adult Vocational Maturity Inventory was chosen for this

study because of its response format. This format is a Likert five-point

scale with weighted responses of strongly agree (5); agree (4); neutral (3);

disagree (2); and strongly disagree (1). A low total score indicates a high

degree of vocational maturity.

2. The Vocational Preference Inventory (VPI) was developed by John L. Holland







(1975) primarily as a personality inventory. It may also serve as a

vocational interest inventory, an inventory to assess personality types in

Holland's (1975) theory of career development, and a means to stimulate

occupational exploration.

The VPI has a test-retest reliability (.71) for samples of college

students and older women which ranges from moderate to high internal con-

sistency for employed male and female adults and for college students

(Holland, 1975).

Through a variety of investigations, construct, criterion referenced,

and predictive validity have been established for the VPI. The construct

validity of the VPI was established in 90 of 100 studies summarized by

Holland (1975). Significant correlations have been found between VPI scales

and the following personality inventories: California Psychological Inven-

tory, Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory and Edwards Personal

Preference Schedule (VPI Manual, 1975).

Criterion related validity has also been established for the VPI.

Through concurrent tests, it was found that the VPI discriminated among

normal, psychopathic, psychiatric and tuberculosis patients. In a sample

of 400 men aged 25 to 55, the VPI correctly identified the occupational

groups of 42 percent of the sample (Hughes, 1971). Holland (1963) found

the VPI to be moderately predictive of choice of major field and vocation

over one and two year periods for high ability students. In addition, the

interest scales appear to have moderate validity for predicting occupational

memberships and field of training.

The Status Scale was used in the analysis of data for this study.

This scale includes fourteen items, the responses to which provide an

estimate of an individual's self-esteem and self-confidence. The higher








the score, the higher the degree of self-confidence and esteem; low scores

indicate self-depreciation.

The Acquiescence Scale was also used. The first thirty items of

this scale measure the degree of personal integration or amount of cor-

relation each individual demonstrates to the following characteristics:

sociability, dominance, dependency, impulsiveness, cheerfulness, self-

confidence, range of interest, frankness, conventionalism. High scores

indicate the reverse. Extremely high scores indicate a lack of personal

integration and poor judgment.

3. The Career Development Survey was developed by the researcher to

collect demographic data from participants in the study. Information

collected under the following headings was used in this study to provide

a composite description of those who took part in the study: Age, Marital

Status, Children, Other Responsibilities, Residence, Years of Education,

Sex, Race, and Years Out of School. Chi square analyses were used to

determine if there were any significant differences between the experimental

and control groups.

Analysis of Data

The pretest and posttest scores for each of the selected instruments

were computed by hand. The responses to the Career Development Survey

were assigned numerical values. These scores and numerical values were

then transferred, by means of key punch, to data cards for analysis at

the Northeast Regional Data Center (NERDC). Data analysis was completed

by computer at NERDC. The Statistical Package for the Social Sciences

(NIE, 1975) was used for this analysis.

Demographic data collected in the telephone interview and on the

Career Development Survey were compared to determine individual differences







(such as age, sex, marital status, education, socio-economic status) and

to draw a composite description of the midlife career changer. A 2 x 2

chi-square test was used to determine the existence of significant re-

lationships between the experimental and control groups on the various

demographic factors. An analysis of variance for pretest effects was

used to determine whether there was a significant amount of interaction

between the pretest and the treatment. If there was not a significant amount

of interaction, an analysis of covariance was used to compare the pretest-

posttest scores of the experimental and control groups which received the

pretest. A multiple classification analysis adjusted the means to allow

for any initial differences in the groups due to the pretest or differ-

ential selection. If there was a significant amount of interaction between

the pretest and the treatment, a t-test comparison of the means of the

experimental and control groups which did not receive the pretest was used.

The level of significance accepted for the analysis of covariance for

pretest effects was .10. The level of significance for all other

statistical tests was .05.


Limitations of the Study
Several limitations apply to this study and must be understood before

replication can be considered. The results of this study can be generalized

only to the midlife employees of a large diversified company. The results

are not valid for the midlife person who is unemployed or who is employed

by a small company which has limited retraining programs and transfer
possibilities.

The researcher was unable to randomize completely the sample because
of differences in employee availability as a result of differing work hours.





50


However, an effort was made to control the effects of differential selec-

tion by the random assignment of individuals to control or experimental

groups in each time frame.













CHAPTER IV

THE FINDINGS

Introduction


This study examined the effectiveness of a group career counseling

experience as a method to assist midlife career changers in clarifying

career directions. The effects of the treatment on the variables of

vocational maturity, independence of decision making, self-esteem and

self-confidence, and personal integration were assessed by using a series

of statistical procedures explained in detail below.

In order to insure that any significant differences found between the

experimental and control groups were due to the treatment and not the

effects or influence the protesting may have had upon the sample, a Solomon

Four research design (Isaac and Michael, 1971) was chosen for this study.

This design facilitates the control and measurement of the interaction

effects of protesting by permitting the comparison of pretested and non-

pretested groups. It may be found that the pretest has a significant effect

upon the treatment by actually raising or lowering the level of one of the

variables through interaction with treatment. This effect would suggest

that the pretest can be a valuable tool; at the same time, the influence

of the pretest on the treatment must also be determined. The Solomon Four

research design includes four experimental groups, two pretested and two

non-pretested and four control groups, two pretested and two non-pretested.

The first statistical test used in this study measured the amount of

interaction between the pretest and the treatment. This measurement was accom-

plished through an analysis of variance for pretest effects. If a significant
51





52
amount of interaction occurred, it was assumed that the pretest had influenced

the results. The level of s1iniin i,.:e accepted for the analysis of variance

was .10. A t-test was used to compare the posttest scores of the experimental

(groups five, six) and control (groups seven, eight) groups which were not

pretested in order to assess significant differences which occurred because

of the treatment.

If a significant amount of interaction between the pretest and the

treatment did not occur, an analysis of covariance was used to compare

the mean scores of experimental groups (one, two) and control groups (three,

four) which received the pretest. A multiple classification analysis of

the pretest-posttest means was used as part of the analysis of covariance

to adjust for the initial differences between the groups on pretest criteria

which arose by chance or through differential selection. The level of

significance accepted for the analysis of covariance was .05.


Analysis of the Sample
Personal Characteristics

In this study one of the research questions asked was: What common

characteristics, personality traits, and values are displayed by the

subjects in this sample? In order to answer this question, data were

collected through responses to the Career Development Survey on age,

marital status, number of children, residence, years of education completed,

sex, race, and number of years out of school. These data were studied by

means of chi-square and analysis of variance procedures (p<.05 level of

significance).

The sixty-six adults who comprised the sample ranged in ages from
28 to 65, with a mean age of 43.2. The largest group (37.8%) ranged in

ages from 31 to 40; 30.2 percent, from 51 to 65; 27.1 percent, from 41 to

50; and 4.9 percent, from 28 to 30 years of age. The mean age for females

in this sample was 45.20, while the mean age for males was 39.88, as shown







in Table 1. There was no significant difference found between the experi-

mental and control groups by age (Chi square = 31.53329; df = 27).

The majority of these adults (62.2%) were married: 10.6 percent were

single: 24.2 percent, divorced; and 3 percent were separated (Table 2).

No significant differences were found between the experimental and control

groups on the basis of marital status (Chi square = 3.00261; df = 3).

The mean number of children reported by the sample was 1.5; however,

42.2 percent of the adults reported that they had no children (Table 3).

In both the control and experimental groups, females reported a higher

mean number of children (1.22) than the males (.28). There were no

significant differences between the experimental and control groups on

the basis of number of children (Chi square = 8.40952; df = 6).

The majority of these adults (63.6%) owned their own homes. Apartment

dwellers accounted for 18.2 percent of the sample; 10.6 percent lived in

trailers; and 7.6 percent lived in other types of residences. There was no

significant difference between the experimental and control groups based upon

type of residence (Chi square = 4.2; df = 3), as shown in Table 4.

As reported in Table 5, 35.8 percent of the sample completed some

postsecondary education. The mean number of years of education reported by

the sample was 13.0. The experimental group reported a mean number of 13.5

years of education, while the control group reported a mean number of 12.5.

Females in the sample reported a mean number of 12.77 years of education, and

males reported a mean of 13.46. Two adults in the sample, one male and one

female did not respond to this question on the Career Development Survey; there-

fore, 64 responses were used in the statistical analysis. There were no sig-

nificant differences found between the experimental and control groups on the

basis of years of education (Chi square = 11.28201; df = 9).




TABLE 1

DIFFERENCES BETWEEN EXPERIMENTAL AND CONTROL GROUPS BY AGE


Mean Age Group Age Group
28-30 31-40
N % N %


Age Group Age Group Chi-
41-50 51-65 Square
N % N %


df Significance
of f


Age 31.53329 27 0.23


Experimental 33

Male 17

Female 16


43.2 2 6.1 13 39.4

41.94 2 6.1 7 21.1

44.56 0 0 6 18.2


8 24.2 10 30.3

2 6.1 6 18.2

6 18.2 4 12.1


43.1 1 3

35.50 0 0

45.60 1 3


12 36.4 10 30.3 10 30.3

6 18.2 1 3 1 3

6 18.2 9 27.3 9 27.3


43.2 3 4.5 25 37.9 18 27.3 20 30.3

39.88 2 3.0 13 19.7 3 4.5 7 10.6

45.20 1 1.5 12 18.2 15 22.8 13 19.7


*p <.05 (level of significance)


Control

Male

Female


Total

Male

Female


Variable






TABLE 2

DIFFERENCES BETWEEN EXPERIMENTAL AND CONTROL GROUPS BY MARITAL STATUS

N Single Married Divorced Separated Chi-
N % N % N % N % Snuarp


Marital Status


3.0026:


4 12.1

3 9.1

1 3.0


Experimental

Male

Female


Control

Male

Female


Total

Male

Female


df Significance
of f

1 3 0.39


23 69.7

11 33.3

12 36.4


18 54.6

5 15.1

13 39.4


41 62.1

16 24.2

25 37.9


*p<.05 (level of significance)


Variable


7 10.6

4 6.1

3 4.5





TABLE 3
DIFFERENCES BETWEEN EXPERIMENTAL AND CONTROL GROUPS BY NUMBER OF CHILDREN
Variable N Mean Zero One Two Three Four Six Seven Chi- df Significance
N % N % N % N % N % N % N % Square of f
Number of Children 8.40952 6 0.21

Experimental 33 1.64 13 39.4 2 6.1 6 18.2 8 24.2 4 12.1 0 0 0 0

Male 17 1.41 8 24.3 2 6.1 1 3.0 4 12.1 2 6.1 0 0 0 0

Female 16 1.88 5 15.1 0 0 5 15.2 4 12.1 2 6.0 0 0 0 0

Control 33 1.40 15 45.4 6 18.2 6 18.2 2 6.1 2 6.1 1 3 1 3

Male 8 1.00 5 15.1 0 0 1 3.0 2 6.1 0 0 0 0 0 0

Female 25 1.40 10 30.3 6 18.2 5 15.2 0 0 2 6.1 1 3 1 3

Total 66 1.50 28 42.2 8 12.1 12 18.2 10 15.2 6 9.1 0 1.6 1 1.6

Male 25 .28 13 19.7 2 3.0 2 3.0 6 9.1 2 3.0 0 0 0 0

Female 41 1.22 15 22.5 6 9.1 10 15.2 4 6.1 4 6.1 0 1.6 1 1.6


*p <.05 (level of significance)






TABLE 4

DIFFERENCES BETWEEN EXPERIMENTAL AND CONTROL GROUPS BY RESIDENCE

Variable N Apartment Trailer Own Home Other Chi-square df Significance
N % N % N % N % of f

Residence 4.20000 3 0.24


Experimental 33 3 9.1 4 12.1 14 72.7 2 6.1

Male 17 2 6.1 4 12.1 10 30.3 1 3.0

Female 16 1 3.0 0 0 4 42.4 1 3.1


Control 33 9 27.3 3 9.1 18 54.5 3 9.1

Male 8 1 3.0 1 3.0 4 12.1 2 6.1

Female 25 8 24.3 2 6.1 14 42.4 1 3.0


Total 66 12 18.2 7 10.6 42 63.6 5 7.6

Male 25 3 4.5 5 7.6 14 21.2 3 4.5

Female 41 9 13.6 2 3.1 28 42.4 2 3.1



*p <.05 (level of significance)





TABLE 5

DIFFERENCES BETWEEN EXPERIMENTAL AND CONTROL GROUPS BY YEARS OF EDUCATION


N Mean Eight
N %


Ten Eleven Twelve
N % N % N %


Thirteen Fourteen
N % N %


Years of Education

Experimental 31** 13.5 1 3.2

Male 16 13.75 1 3.2

Female 15 13.33 0 0


33 12.50 0 0

8 12.88 0 0

25 12.44 0 0


64 13.00 1 1.6

25 13.46 1 1.6

41 12.77 0 0


0 0

0 0

0 0


2 6.1

1 3.0

1 3.1


2 3.1

1 1.6

1 1.5


1 3.2 12 38.7 4 12.9

1 3.2 5 16.2 1 3.3

0 0 7 22.6 3 9.6


1 3

0 0

1 3


17 51.5 6 18.2

3 10.0 1 3.0

14 42.4 5 15.2


2 3.1 29 45.4 10 15.6

1 1.6 8 12.5 2 3.1

1 1.5 21 33.0 8 12.5


Variable


Control

Male

Female


Total

Male

Female


3 9.7

1 3.2

2 6.5


5 15.2

2 6.1

3 9.1


8 12.5

3 4.7

5 7.8





TABLE 5 continued


Fifteen Sixteen Seventeen Eighteen
N % N % N % N %


Chi-square df Significance
of f


Years of Education

Experimental

Male

Female


Control

Male

Female


Total

Male

Female


11.28201 9 0.2569


1 3.2

1 3.2

0 0


1 3.0

0 0

1 3.0


2 3.1

1 1.5

1 1.6


6 19.4 2

4 13.0 1

2 6.5 1


3.0 0

3.0 0


6.5 1 3.2

3.2 1 3.2

3.3 0 0


0 0

0 0


0 0 0 0 0


7 10.9 2 3.1

5 8.0 1 1.6

2 2.9 1 1.5


1 1.6

1 1.6

0 0


*p <.05 (level of significance)
**1 Male, 1 Female failed to respond to this question on Career Development Survey.







There was a majority (62.1%) of women in the sample. A significant

difference between the experimental and control groups was found on the

basis of sex (Chi square = 4.57069; df = 1). The control group consisted

of 24.2 percent males and 75.8 percent females. The experimental group

consisted of 51.5 percent males and 48.5 percent females (Table 6).

The majority (93.9%) of adults in the sample classified themselves

as White by race; 3,1 percent, Black; 1.5 percent, Mexican; and 1.5 percent,

Indian. There was no significant difference between the experimental and

control groups by race (Chi square = 4.13313; df = 3).

The mean number of years out of school for the sample as a whole was

17.3 (Table 8). Males in the sample reported being out of school for a

mean number of 10.13 years; while females reported a mean number of 21.69

years. Three of the adults in the experimental group did not respond to

this question on the Career Development Survey; therefore, 63 responses

were used for statistical analysis. There were no significant differences

found between the experimental and control groups based on the number of

years out of school (Chi square = 30.25887; df = 30).

Additional Information Related to Sample Characteristics

The Vocational Preference Inventory was administered to the sample and

scored by hand. The raw scores were then transferred to a norming profile

sheet provided by the test publishing company. This profile sheet converts

the raw scores into percentile ranks. There is a separate profile for males

and females. In this study a normal range for a profile is defined by the

following criteria: 1) profiles with six or more scales which fell in the 40

to 90 percentile range for males and 30 to 90 percentile range for females;

and 2) profiles in which raw Acquiescence Scale scores range between 5 to 20.

When the raw scores for the sample were transferred to the norming profiles,










TABLE 6

DIFFERENCES BETWEEN EXPERIMENTAL


N Male
N %


AND CONTROL GROUPS BY SEX


Female Chi- df Significance
N % square nf f


Sex 4.57069** 1 0.0325*


Experimental 33 17 51.5 16 48.5


Control 33 8 24.2 25 75.8


Total 66 25 37.9 41 62.1




*p<.05 (level of significance)
**Corrected Chi-square
Raw Chi-square 5.72597 with 1 degree of freedom--significance 0.0167.


Variable










TABLE 7

DIFFERENCES BETWEEN EXPERIMENTAL AND CONTROL GROUPS BY RACE


Variable N Black White
N % N %


Indian Mexican Chi- df Significance
N % N % Square of f


4.13313 3 0.2474


32 97.0

16 48.5

16 48.5


30 90.9

8 24.2

22 66.7


62 93.9

24 36.4

38 57.6


1 3

1 3

0 0


0 0

0 0

0 0


1 1.5

1 1.5

0 0


*p .05 (level of significance)


Experimental

Male

Female


Control

Male

Female


Total

Male

Female







TABLE 8
DIFFERENCES BETWEEN EXPERIMENTAL AND CONTROL GROUPS BY YEARS OUT OF SCHOOL


N Mean


Zero 1-10 11-20 21-30 31-42 Chi- df Significance
N % N % N % N % N % square of f


Years Out of School

Experimental

Male

Female


Control

Male

Female


Total

Male

Female


30.25887 30 0.4525


30** 16.50

16 10.81

14 33.93


33 17.10

8 8.75

25 21.00


63 17.30

24 10.13

39 21.69


2 6.7 10 33.3

1 3.3 10 33.3

1 3.4 0 0


6 18.1 5 15.2

1 3.0 4 12.1

5 15.1 1 3.0


8 12.7 15 23.8

2 3.2 14 22.2

6 9.5 1 1.6


6 20 9 30.0 3 10

2 6.7 3 10.0 0 0

4 13.3 6 20.0 3 10


9 27.3 3 9.1 10 30.3

2 6.1 1 3.0 0 0

7 21.2 2 6.1 10 30.3


15 23.8 12 19.1 13 20.6

4 6.3 4 6.3 0 0

11 17.5 8 12.8 13 20.6


*p <.05 (level of significance)
**1 Male, 2 Females failed to respond to this question on Career Development Survey.


Variable









it was found that 37.9 percent of the sample fell within normal ranges

(Table 9).

The majority of the sample (62.1%) fell within extreme or random

response styles. Scale interpretation suggests the following personality

traits may be indicated for individuals whose response styles are extreme

or random: defensive behavior, lack of interpersonal skills, self-depreciation,

incompetency, depression, confusion about self and career goals, low level

of personal integration and low level of self confidence.


Findings Related to the Null Hypotheses

The differences between the adults attending the treatment sessions

and those not attending the treatment sessions were studied in terms of

differences found in vocational maturity, independence of decision making,

self-esteem and self-confidence, and personal integration as measured by

the Adult Vocational Maturity Inventory and the Vocational Preference

Inventory. The effects of possible interaction between protesting and

treatment were also studied through analysis of covariance for pretest

effect. Findings related to the null hypotheses follow.

Hypothesis 1

As a result of participation in the midlife career change program,
there will be no difference in scores of vocational maturity of
subjects in experimental groups and in the control groups as
measured by the Adult Vocational Maturity Inventory (AVMI).

The Adult Vocational Maturity Inventory provides a score which ranges

from 200 to 40, with low scores reflecting higher degrees of vocational

maturity. A review of Table 10 shows that the experimental groups' mean

score was 100.94 on the pretest and a mean score of 99.61 on the posttest.

The control groups' mean score was 100.15 on the pretest and a mean score

of 101.45 on the posttest.













Normal
N


N


N
Pretest Posttest 32

Male 17 5 15.7

Female 15 4 12.5


34

8 4 11.8

26 12 35.3


66 25 37.9

25 9 13.6

41 16 24.3


TABLE 9

SCORES OF SAMPLE ON VOCATIONAL PREFERENCE INVENTORY

Extreme Random Extreme
Range Response Style Response Infrequency
% N % N % N %


10 31.2

5 15.7




2 5.9

11 32.4


28 42.4

12 18.1

16 24.3


Extreme
Acquiescence Scale
N %


1

1 3.1 2


1 1.5

0 0

1 1.5


7 10.6

2 3.0

5 7.6


Posttest Only

Male

Female


Total

Male

Female


--






TABLE 10
ANALYSIS OF MEAN SCORES FOR SAMPLE ON THE ADULT VOCATIONAL MATURITY INVENTORY


Means for Non-Preteste
SGroups (n = 34)


Pretest Means SD Posttest Means SD Posttest Means SD

Control 100.46 16.96 104.27 15.71 99.10 14.43

Male 108.20 11.03 112.00 11.07 115.00 14.80

Female 96.50 18.51 100.40 16.73 95.93 12.52


Experimental 105.00 18.08 98.00 15.12 101.31 10.86

Male 109.69 16.64 100.18 17.49 102.50 13.72

Female 97.50 19.70 94.00 9.53 100.60 9.51



Grand Mean

Male

Female


d Combined Posttest
Group Means (n = 66)

Posttest Means SD

101.45 15.02

113.13 11.62

97.72 14.19


99.61

101.00

98.13




100.53

104.88

97.88


13.13

15.85

9.77




14.03

15.50

12.52


broup


Means for Pretested
Groups (n = 32)









An analysis of covariance on pretest-posttest scores of the combined

sample for pretest effect (Table 11) revealed that there was no significant

amount of interaction between the pretest and the treatment (f = 1.469).

For this reason, an analysis of covariance was used to compare the mean

scores of the experimental (groups one and two) and control (groups three

and four) groups which received the pretest (Table 12). A multiple

classification analysis of the pretest-posttest means (Table 13) reveals

how the means were adjusted for initial differences between the groups on

pretest criteria that arose either by chance or due to differential selection.

The analysis of covariance indicated that there was a significant

difference between the experimental and control groups on posttest scores

in the level of vocational maturity (f =5.548). The experimental group

raised its level of vocational maturity significantly by the end of the

treatment period, when compared with the control group; therefore. hvoothesis

1 is rejected.

Hvoothesis 2

As a result of participation in the midlife career change program,
there will be no difference in scores of independence of decision
making of subjects in experimental groups and in the control groups
as measured by the Adult Vocational Maturity Inventory (AVMI).

The sum of the Adult Vocational Maturity Inventory items 2, 3, 10, 11,

16, 17, 23, 24, and 28 measure for the factor of independence of decision

making. Scores range from 45 to 9, with lower scores reflecting a high

degree of independence of decision making. A review of Table 14 indicates

that the mean score for the experimental groups on the pretest was 19.94

and on the postest was 18.48. The mean score for the control groups on

the pretest was 19.93 and on the posttest, 19.21.

An analysis of covariance on the pretest-posttest scores of the








TABLE 11

ANALYSIS OF COVARIANCE FOR PRETEST EFFECTS
ON SCORES OF SAMPLE FOR THE ADULT VOCATIONAL MATURITY INVENTORY


Source of Variation


Main Effects

Group

Pretest


2- way Interactions

Group Pretest

Residual

Total


df Sum of Squares


69.858

59.558

13.479




294.433

12428.070

12792.363


*p< .10 (level of significance)


Mean Squares


34.929

59.558

13.479




294.433

200.453

196.806


f


0.174

0.297

0.067




1.469

0.606


















TABLE 12

ANALYSIS OF COVARIANCE OF PRETEST-
POSTTEST SCORES OF PRETESTED EXPERIMENTAL AND CONTROL GROUPS FOR
THE ADULT VOCATIONAL MATURITY INVENTORY



Source of Variation df Sum of Squares Mean Squares f


Covariates- 1 3334.832 3334.832 28.135

Between Groups 1 657.625 657.625 5.548*

Within Groups 29 3437.395 118.531


Total 31 7429.852 239.673


*p<.05 (level of significance)















TABLE 13


MULTIPLE CLASSIFICATION ANALYSIS OF PRETEST
POSTTEST MEANS OF PRETESTED EXPERIMENTAL AND CONTROL GROUPS
FOR THE ADULT VOCATIONAL MATURITY INVENTORY



Variable + Category N Unadjusted Deviation Adjusted Deviation


Group

Control 33 0.92 0.95

Experinmental 33 -0.92 -0.95


Pretest

Yes 32 0.41 0.47

No 34 -0.38 -0.44






TABLE 14

ANALYSIS OF MEAN SCORES FOR SAMPLE ON INDEPENDENCE OF DECISION MAKING ON THE
ADULT VOCATIONAL MATURITY INVENTORY


Group Means for Pretested Means for Non-Pretested Combined Posttest
Groups (n = 32) Groups (n = 34) Group Means (n = 66)


Pretest Means SD Posttest Means SD Posttest Means SD Posttest Means SD

Control 19.93 5.22 19.47 3.27 19.00 3.47 19.21 3.47

Male 20.00 4.30 21.00 4.36 23.67 4.73 22.00 4.38

Female 19.00 5.81 18.70 2.50 18.07 2.81 18.32 2.66


Experimental 19.94 4.28 17.41 3.41 19.63 3.81 18.48 3.73

Male 20.64 4.74 18.00 3.63 19.67 2.94 18.59 3.41

Female 18.67 3.27 16.33 2.94 19.60 4.40 18.38 4.15



Grand Mean 18.85 3.59

Male 19.68 4.00

Female 18.34 3.27








combined sample for the pretest effect (Table 15) revealed that there was

no significant amount of interaction between the pretest and the treatment

(f = 2.321). For this reason an analysis of covariance was used to compare

the mean scores of the experimental (groups one and two) and control (groups

three and four) groups which received the pretest (Table 16). A multiple

classification analysis of the pretest-posttest means (Table 17) shows how

the means were adjusted for initial differences between the groups on

pretest criteria that arose by chance or due to differential selection.

The analysis of covariance showed that there was a significant

difference between the experimental and control groups on posttest scores

for the level of independence of decision making (f = 5.409). The experi-

mental group raised its level of independence of decision making at the

end of the treatment when compared with the control group; therefore, hypothesis

2 is rejected.


Hypothesis 3

As a result of participation in the midlife career change program,
there will be no significant difference in scores of self-esteem
and self-confidence of subjects in experimental groups and in
control groups as measured by the Status Scale of the Vocational
Preference Inventory (VPI).

The Status Scale of the Vocational Preference Inventory measures the

individual's level of self-esteem and self-confidence. Scores range from 14

to 1. The higher scores are positively correlated with self-esteem and self-

confidence, while low scores represent self-depreciation. As shown in Table

18, the experimental groups' mean score on the pretest was 7.94; its posttest

mean score was 7.88. The control groups' pretest mean score was 6.21 and

its posttest mean score was 6.79.

An analysis of covariance for pretest effect (Table 19) revealed that





TABLE 15
ANALYSIS OF COVARIANCE FOR PRETEST EFFECTS ON SCORES OF
SAMPLE FOR INDEPENDENCE OF DECISION MAKING ON THE ADULT
VOCATIONAL MATURITY INVENTORY


Source of Variation


Main Effects

Group

Pretest


2-Way Interactions

Group Pretest

Residual

Total


df Sum of Squares


21.395

7.469

12.668




29.489

787.595

838.479


*p<.10 (level of significance)


f


0.842

0.588

0.997




2.321


Mean Squares


10.698

7.469

12.668




29.489

12.703

12.900











TABLE 16

ANALYSIS OF COVARIANCE OF PRETEST-POSTTEST SCORES OF PRETESTED
EXPERIMENTAL AND CONTROL GROUPS FOR INDEPENDENCE OF DECISION
MAKING ON THE ADULT VOCATIONAL MATURITY INVENTORY


Source of Variation df Sum of squares Mean squares f


Covariates 1 102.234 102.234 13.162

Between Groups 1 42.011 42.011 5.409*

Within Groups 29 225.254 7.767

Total 31 369.499 11.919




*p <05 (level of significance)











TABLE 17

MULTIPLE CLASSIFICATION ANALYSIS OF PRETEST-POSTTEST MEANS OF PRETESTED
EXPERIMENTAL AND CONTROL GROUPS FOR INDEPENDENCE OF DECISION MAKING ON
THE ADULT VOCATIONAL MATURITY INVENTORY


Variable + Category


Group

Control

Experimental


Pretest

Yes

No


N Unadjusted Deviation Adjusted Deviation


0.36

-0.36




-0.47

0.45


-0.45

0.43






TABLE 18

ANALYSIS OF MEAN SCORES FOR SAMPLE ON THE STATUS SCALE OF THE
VOCATIONAL PREFERENCE INVENTORY



Group Means for Pretested Means for Non-Pretested Combined Posttest
Groups (n = 32) Groups (n = 34) Group Means (n = 66)


Posttest Means SD

5.87 2.26

6.40 1.14

5.60 2.68


Posttest Means

7.56

6.33

7.80


7.31

7.83

7.00


Posttest Means

6.79

6.38

6.92


7.88

7.94

7.81


Control

Male

Female


Pretest Means

6.21

6.40

6.11


Experimental

Male

Female


Grand Mean

Male

Female


SD

2.41

1.06

2.71


2.60

2.36

2.90




2.54

2.14

2.78






TABLE 19

ANALYSIS OF COVARIANCE FOR PRETEST EFFECTS ON SCORES OF SAMPLE FOR THE
STATUS SCALE OF THE VOCATIONAL PREFERENCE INVENTORY


Source of Variation

Main Effects

Group

Pretest


2- Way Interactions

Group Pretest

Residual

Total


if Sum of Squares

2 69.858

1 59.558

1 13.473


294.433

12428.070

12792.363


*p< .10 (level of significance)


Mean Squares

34.929

59.558

13.473




294.433

200.453

196.806


f

0.174

0.297

0.067




1.469*

0.606








there was a significant amount of interaction between the pretest and the

treatment (f = 5.382). For this reason a t-test was chosen to compare the

posttest means of the experimental (groups five and six) and control (groups

seven and eight) groups which did not receive the pretest. This procedure

allowed for a comparison of means to assess significant differences between

groups without the contamination of the pretest. Table 20 shows that there

were no significant differences between the experimental and control groups

(f = 1.67) in the t-test procedure. The level of self-esteem and self-

confidence of the experimental group did not change significantly more than

that of the control group; therefore, hypothesis 3 was accepted.

Hypothesis 4

As a result of participation in the midlife career change program,
there will be no difference in scores of personal integration of
subjects in experimental groups and control groups as measured
by the Acquiescence Scale of the Vocational Preference Inventory
(VPI).

The Acquiescence Scale of the Vocational Preference Inventory measures
the personal effectiveness and personal integration of the individual.

Scores range from 30 to 0. Extremely high scores represent an individual's

tendency to over-respond to the test items by choosing many occupations.

This tendency suggests that the individual lacks the ability to adequately

discriminate among the different ability requirements of occupations, is

unaware of the abilities he/she possesses, and is confused about what type

of an occupation to pursue. The individual with high scores tends to lack

personal interaction and to be confused and disoriented in his/her attitudes

toward the world of work. Extremely low scores indicate that the individual

chose very few occupations. Few preferences indicate low self-esteem, low

self-confidence, unsociable and depressed or unconventional outlooks toward

the occupational world.






79

TABLE 20

T-TEST COMPARISON OF POSTTEST SCORES ON THE STATUS SCALE OF THE
VOCATIONAL PREFERENCE INVENTORY FOR NON-PRETESTED EXPERIMENTAL AND
CONTROL GROUPS


Comparison Mean T-Value SD Standard Error f

Control 7.56 2.307 0.544
0.27 2.43
Experimental 7.31 2.938 0.756



*p <.05 (level of significance)







High and low scores are defined by John Holland (1975) as mean raw

scores which are high in terms of an appropriate normative sample; that is to

say, scores with a high percentile rank (Holland, 1975). Included with the

Vocational Preference Inventory answer sheet is a norming profile which

converts raw mean scores into percentile ranks. There is a separate profile

for males and females. For this study, the norming profile was used to

interpret high scores for both males and females as falling in the 75 and

above percentile rank with raw scores of 25 to 30 on the Acquiescence Scale.

Low scores for both males and females were interpreted to be in the 40 and

below percentile ranks with raw scores of 0 to 6.

As shown in Table 21, the experimental groups had a mean score of 12.1

on the pretest and 12.38 on the posttest. The control groups had a mean

score of 6.50 on the pretest and 7.75 on the posttest.

An analysis of covariance for pretest effect (Table 22) revealed that

there was a significant amount of interaction between the pretest and the

treatment (f = 7.762). For this reason, a t-test was chosen to compare

the posttest means of the experimental (groups five and six) and the control

(groups seven and eight) groups which did not receive the pretest. This

procedure allowed for a comparison of means to assess for significant dif-

ferences between groups without the contamination of the pretest. A

review of Table 23 shows that no significant differences between the

experimental and control groups (f = 2.43) were found through the t-test

procedure. The level of personal integration of the experimental group

did not change significantly more than that of the control group; there-

fore, hypothesis 4 was accepted.






TABLE 21

ANALYSIS OF MEAN SCORES FOR SAMPLE ON THE ACQUIESCENCE SCALE OF THE VOCATIONAL
PREFERENCE INVENTORY


Group Means for Pretested Means for Non-Pretested Combined Posttest
Groups (n = 32) Groups (n = 34) Group Means (n = 66)

Pretest Means SD Posttest Means SD Posttest Means SD Posttest Means SD
Control 6.50 4.20 5.93 4.56 8.83 6.16 7.51 5.65

Male 5.40 3.13 6.40 5.59 9.67 10.02 7.63 7.03

Female 7.11 4.76 5.70 4.49 8.67 5.61 7.48 5.30


Experimental 12.41 6.07 14.41 7.27 10.07 3.15 12.00 6.33

Male 10.72 7.27 13.81 8.40 10.67 2.94 12.71 7.02

Female 15.50 4.32 15.50 5.09 8.70 4.42 11.25 5.65



Grand Mean 10.06 6.23

Male 11.08 7.29

Female 9.41 5.44






TABLE 22

ANALYSIS OF COVARIANCE FOR PRETEST EFFECTS
ACQUIESCENCE SCALE OF THE VOCATIONAL


ON SCORES OF SAMPLE FOR THE
PREFERENCE INVENTORY


Source of Variation

Main Effects

Group

Pretest


2- Way Interactions

Group Pretest

Residual

Total


Sum of Squares

350.044

321.327

18.165



254.589

2033.482

2638.115


*p< .10 (level of significance)


Mean Squares

175.022

321.327

18.165



254.589

32.789

40.586


f

5.336

9.797

0.554



7.762*




83



TABLE 23

T-TEST COMPARISON OF POSTTEST SCOPES ON THE STATUS SCALE OF THE
VOCATIONAL PREFERENCE INVENTORY FOR NON-PRETESTED EXPERIMENTAL AND
CONTROL GROUPS


Comparison Mean T-Value SD Standard Error f

Control 8.83 6.16 1.451
0.34 2.43
Experimental 9.44 3.95 0.987



*p <.05 (level of significance)













CHAPTER V

SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS

The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of a

group career counseling experience as a method to assist midlife career

changers in clarifying career directions. The treatment was designed to

meet both the personal and career development needs of subjects by use of

Transactional Analysis as a format. Past studies of midlife career changers

have minimized the personal needs of subjects. The emphasis has been to

supply the individual with current factual career and job information in

order to make the decision-making process viable and realistic. This study

examined a treatment model which offered this type of information, but also

enabled the subjects to deal with personal problems related to the present

work environment as well. This model enhanced and encouraged self-exploration

through values clarification, feedback, and fantasy exercises.


Overview

This study compared eight groups of employed adults in midlife who

expressed a desire to change careers. Four of the groups received a pre-

test and a posttest; two were control and two, experimental groups. Four

of the groups received a posttest only; two were control and two, experi-

mental groups. The groups were arranged and tested in this way in order to

assess any interaction effects protesting may have had upon the treatment.

All of the sample were employees of the same company located in the

central Florida area. Their jobs varied from management to custodial clas-

sifications. A study of these employees was made using statistical analyses





85

in the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (NIE, 1975) to assess the

effects of group treatment on the following variables: vocational maturity,

independence of decision making, self-esteem and self-confidence, and personal

integration as measured by the Adult Vocational Maturity Inventory and the

Vocational Preference Inventory.

The treatment used a variety of self-assessment exercises, including

values clarification, feedback and fantasy exercises. The format of Transac-

tional Analysis enabled the participants to make realistic decisions through

the use of the computerlikee Adult", one part of the personality as des-

cribed by Transactional Analysis theory. Realistic, current information

concerning careers, available jobs within the company and within the central

Florida area, educational opportunities, and current trends in the labor mar-

ket was made available to the experimental groups by means of a panel of experts.

Members of the panel consisted of representatives of educational institu-

tions in the area, the Florida State Employment Service, the Federal Office

of Personnel, and the representatives of the company's personnel and

educational offices. Job employment skills, including resume writing and

job interviewing techniques, were discussed within the experimental treat-

ment groups.

The results presented in Chapter Four indicate that there were some

differences between the experimental and control, pretested and not pre-

tested groups. These differences are discussed in the following section.

Discussion

Based upon the data presented in the preceding chapter, a number of

observations can be made. The experimental group consisted of 16 females

and 17 males. The control group consisted of 8 males and 25 females. The

significant difference found by sex between the control and experimental

groups may have affected the results of this study. The females in the







sample were older and had been oat of school longer than the males.

Attitudes towards test taking influenced by the number of years out of

school, differences in vocational interests because of sex, years of

education already completed, and attitudes towards returning to school

are factors which could influence the mean scores of the sample. It

must also be noted that there was a very small percentage of racial

minorities in the sample; therefore, the results of this study cannot

be generalized to minority populations.

The results of the sample scores on the Vocational Preference Inven-

tory suggested that the majority of the sample were depressed, had a low

level of self-esteem, self-confidence and personal integration, and were

confused, with an inaccurate knowledge of their abilities and a low degree

of self-understanding. This situation suggests the possibility that these

traits are affecting the productivity of the employees in the work environ-

ment. Unresponsiveness to the company's needs and desires, fear or inability

to be creative and lack of good interpersonal relationships could result

from the employee's depression and confusion. Defensiveness, a feeling of

mistrust, and misunderstandings can easily develop in an unhappy, dissatisfied

employee, who is unable to effectively communicate with peers or management.

Hypothesis 1 states that there will be no difference in the scores for

vocational maturity of the experimental and control groups as a result of

treatment. A decrease in the total score of the Adult Vocational Maturity

Inventory indicates a rise in the level of vocational maturity. A rise in

the total score of the AVMI indicates a decrease in the level of vocational

maturity. Analysis of the pretest and posttest scores of the experimental

and control groups revealed a significant change in the desired direction for

the scores of the experimental groups; therefore, the treatment program in-

creased the level of vocational maturity of experimental group members. This








increase suggests that the treatment program enabled the participants to

review career goals without the influence of career myths or misinformation.

In contrast, the scores of the control group on the Vocational Maturity

Inventory did not reveal a significant change in the desired direction,

suggesting that their level of Vocational Maturity remained the same during

the time the experimental groups were attending treatment sessions. Since

there were significant differences in the scores for vocational maturity of

the experimental and control groups as a result of treatment, hypothesis 1

was rejected.

Hypothesis 2 states that there will be no differences in the scores

for independence of decision making on the Adult Vocational Maturity Inven-

tory of the experimental and control groups as a result of treatment. The

scores of the experimental group lowered significantly following treatment,

which suggests that the treatment was effective in raising this group's

level of independence of decision making. It appears that following treat-

ment, these adults were more effective and depended less upon unrealistic

information and career myths in their career decision-making process. The

decision-making ability of these adults may transfer from career decisions

to personal and work-related decisions. The scores of the control- group did

not lower during the time of treatment for the experimental group; therefore,

there were significant differences between the scores of the experimental

and control groups for this variable following treatment. On this basis,

hypothesis 2 was rejected.

Hypothesis 3 states that there will be no difference in the scores

for self-esteem and self-confidence on the Status Scale of the Vocational

Preference Inventory of the experimental and control groups as a result of

treatment. Since there was a significant amount of interaction between

the pretest and the treatment, the scores of the non-pretested experimental







and control groups were compared. No significant difference between the

posttest scores of these groups was found following treatment. Therefore,

hypothesis 3 was accepted. This finding may reflect the probability that

self-concept change, such as lowering or raising self-esteem and self-

confidence, is a developmental process which occurs over a span of time.

The posttest was administered during the last treatment session. Perhaps

a sufficient amount of time had not elapsed between the treatment and the

posttest session to allow for self-concept change to occur. This finding

could also indicate that the instrument used in this study was not sensitive

enough to measure the amount, if any occurred, of self-concept change

following treatment.

Hypothesis 4 states that there will be no difference in the scores of

personal integration on the Vocational Preference Inventory of the experi-

mental and control groups following treatment. There was a significant

amount of interaction between the pretest and the treatment. For this

reason, the posttest scores of the non-pretested experimental and control

groups were compared. There were no significant differences found between

the posttest scores of the non-pretested experimental and control groups;

therefore, hypothesis 4 was accepted. However, there was a trend for an

increase in the level of personal integration for the pretested experimental

groups and a trend for decrease of this variable in the pretested control

groups following the treatment sessions. This information suggests that the

pretest interaction with treatment was a beneficial and necessary part of

the treatment in order to raise the level of personal integration in indi-

viduals. The experimental groups raised their level of personal integration,

personal effectiveness and interpersonal communication skills. Increased

personal integration may help to decrease communication problems this group

may have had with peers and management in the work environment.








In connection with the instruments chosen for this study, it should

be noted that the Vocational Preference Inventory was the instrument which

registered pretest interaction with the treatment. Perhaps this instrument

focuses the individual's attention on different careers and influences his/her

reaction to the treatment. It may also indicate that adults take this

inventory with other thoughts in mind than vocational interests. The past

work experiences and present work environment could affect the way in which

adults respond to the inventory, lowering or raising the responsiveness they

demonstrate. Perhaps this instrument is inappropriate in its present form

for use with midlife career change individuals.


Conclusions

This study leads the researcher to the following conclusions:

1. The treatment program, which utilized Transactional Analysis and

Gelatt's decision making theory, significantly raised the level of vocational

maturity in the experimental group. Since there were no pretest interactions

found, it is concluded that the treatment was responsible for the raising of

this variable in the experimental groups.

2. The treatment program which utilized Transactional Analysis and

Gelatt's decision making theory, significantly raised the level of indepen-

dence of decision making in the experimental groups. Since there were no

pretest interactions found, it is assumed that the treatment was responsible

for this change in decision ability for the experimental groups.

3. The treatment program which utilized Transactional Analysis and

Gelatt's decision making theory, did not have immediate effects upon the

self-esteem and self-confidence of the experimental group.

4. The treatment program which utilized Transactional Analysis and

Gelatt's decision making theory, did not significantly raise the level of





90
personal integration for the non-pietested experimental groups. However,

there was a trend to raise the level of personal integration of individuals

when the treatment program was combined with the pretest.

5. On the basis of statistical treatment of the data, it was found

that protesting has a reactive or interactive effect with treatment. The

pretest appears to sensitize participants in such a way that they tend to

respond to experimental treatment in a different manner than individuals

who are not pretested in the same population.


Implications
1. The treatment program used in this study may be a useful method

for employers who wish to maintain or raise the level of employee satis-

faction and productivity by reducing the depression and confusion which

midlife employees may exhibit who wish to change careers.

2. The treatment program used in this study may be an excellent way

for employers to strengthen the personal integration of their employees.

Increased personal integration is correlated with increased sociability,

dominance, self-confidence, frankness, and conventionalism. By strengthening

these characteristics, employees may increase their personal effectiveness

and become more sociable and confident on the job.

3. This treatment program may be useful to employers who wish to

improve the decision making skills of their employees not only on the job

but also in considering job changes which might be possible through promotion,

transfer or other methods.

4. Career counseling programs for the midlife adult should include J

not only career information dissemination components but also opportunities for

personal counseling as well. This personal counseling should focus on







self assessment and self understardnng. It should address the issues which

are important to the personal well-being of the group participant. J

5. This study implies that protesting may enhance treatment for this

type of population. For this reason, career change programs for the mid-

life individual should include a pretest.

6. There appears to be a need for further research, development and

study of vocational interest inventories which are used with adults in

midlife who wish to change careers.

7. This study suggests the need for a longer period of time between

the end of the treatment and the posttest. The researcher gave the post-

test immediately following the completion of the last treatment session.

This procedure may have affected the measurement of the developmental

process associated with a change in self esteem and self confidence.

8. Research designs which control for the effects of protesting

should be used in educational research. The fact that protesting does

affect the treatment has been demonstrated in this study; therefore,

educational researchers who wish to assess the impact a treatment model

has upon particular variables should take protesting effects into con-

sideration in the research design.

Recommendations for Further Research

1. This study should be replicated with these differing conditions:

complete randomization of subjects with no regard for work time frames;

posttesting of subjects several weeks following the completion of treat-

ment; a six month follow-up of the experimental group to assess long term

treatment effects; a six month follow-up of the control group to insure

that effects of treatment on the experimental group would not have occurred

in the control group as a function of time and not treatment; and use of

instruments more sensitive to self concept change.




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