Digital Dreams : the Potential in a Pile of Old Jewish Newspapers

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Digital Dreams : the Potential in a Pile of Old Jewish Newspapers
Series Title:
Journal of Electronic Resources Librarianship
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Journal article
Jefferson, Rebecca
Taylor, Laurie N.
Santamaria-Wheeler, Lourdes
Journal of Electronic Resources Librarianship (2012: 24/3)
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Subjects / Keywords:
Isser and Rae Price Library
digital collection development
digital humanities
digital curation


To celebrate the thirtieth anniversary of the Isser and Rae Price Library of Judaica at the University of Florida, the Price Library launched the first stage of a project to digitize an important, special collection of anniversary editions of Jewish newspapers from around the world. This article provides the history of the collection, need for this project, steps involved in digitization and digital collection building, and future events based on the feedback to the initial project, which will include outreach, subsequent individual and collaborative digital collection development projects, online exhibits, and more.
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The attached version is a pre-print, author version in accordance with the Taylor & Francis' policies on copyright and author rights (
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pages 177-188

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University of Florida
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University of Florida
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1 Digital Dreams: T he P otential in a P ile of O ld Jewish N ewspapers To celebrate the thirtieth anniversary of the Isser and Rae Price Library of Judaica at the University of Florida the Price Library launched the first stage of a project to digitize an important special collection of more than 200 anniversary editions of Jewish newspapers from around the world. These anniversary issues were un catalogued by the University of Florida (UF) Libra ries and until no w have been hidden from users. The first stage of the project focuse d on 38 representative issues of 25 Jewish newspaper titles In this article, we introduce th e pilot collection its broader impact, and its future significance The article outlin es the collection history, describ es the first pilot project, explains the current database, and summariz es a few aspects of the collection that show why this is such an important resource now and for future resource development and impact History of the Collections UF established the Center for Jewish Studies in 1973 and it quickly became necessary to acquire a solid research library to support its teaching program. To this end, the UF Libraries engaged collection in Chicago which was coming onto the market. Rabbi Mishkin ( 1906 1996) was at that time the owner of the largest private library of Judaica and Hebraica in the United States. A professor of Jewish hi story at the Hebrew Theological College with doctorates in Jewish philosophy, history and education, Mishkin had amassed more than 40,000 volumes in a range of languages and covering every area o f Jewish scholarship, but with a major strength in Jewish pe riodicals. Mishkin ranging set of Jewish festschriften A festschrift is a book honoring a respected person or entity and most frequently produced by the scholarly community in order to honor a fellow scholar Mishkin collected not only scholarly festschrifts but also any other type of festschrift that he could find, including booklets and


2 pamphlets celebra ting landmark events, Jewish institutions, and illustrious Jewish rabbis and leaders One exam ple from Mish The Kallah Annual C onvention of Texas Rabbis (Kallah of Texas Rabbis, 1936 ) a tenth anniversary volume of a short lived, scarce yearbook Other types of festschriften collected by Mishkin were Yizkor books commemorating lost Jewish communities, and pamphlets or booklets published to mark the anniversary of an ; for example Komets zekher Leah Stupniker ( Stupniker, 1924 ) is a rare booklet in memory of a young girl who died on Ellis Island. Lastly, Mishkin extended his festschrift collecting philosophy to include any and all anniversary issues of a wide range of Jewish newspapers. Charles Berlin submitted an extensive report to UF in which he noted in his cover letter that e catapulted established although of recent vintage are, in fact, more rare In 1977, UF received one of the first N ational Endowment for the Humanities grants as well as matching state funds to put towards the purchase of the Mishkin collection and to pay for a bibliographer to care for the co llection. The following year, UF also purchased a collection of books formerly owned by Dr Shlomo Marenof, a Russian Jewish migr and lecturer in Hebrew and Near Eastern Civilization at Brandeis University works included important titles in Hebrew, with concentrations in biblical studies, Midrash and Modern Hebrew literature. A large endowment for this rapidly growing Judaica collection was created in 1977 by two university alumni, local real estate developersJack and Samuel Price, in honor of their parents, Isser and Rae Price. Isser and Rae were both instrumental in creating a Jewish Center in Jacksonville in the 1920s and had raised their family with a deep commitment to Jewish education and philan thropy (Jefferson, 2010)


3 In May 1979, UF hired Robert Singerman from the Klau Library, Hebrew Union College. Fresh on the job, o collection to complement the Mishkin and Marenof collections. Singerman had learnt that s lower east side, was keen to sell his entire inventory (around 10,000 imprints mostly from the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, including boo ks, pamphlets and other ephemera of which about 60% is in Yiddish). where books were precariously piled everywhere on the floor, in corners, and on shelves beyond reach Singerman found many treasures, including editions of all the major Yiddish novelists, poets and dramatists as well as many little known authors and scarce titles (Singerman, 1979) and Morgenstern were dubbed) was officially dedicate d and renamed the Isser and Rae Price Library of Judaica in March 1981. Over the next 27 years Singerman took the Price Library of Judaica from strength to strength. An extraordinary bibliophile and bibliographer, Singerman had a rare eye for collecting. He was also keen to build upon and extend collecting philosophy and thus regularly added scarce periodicals and festschriften to the collection. Realizin g their historical potential, Singerman kept a particular eye out for anniversary issues of J ewish newspapers (Singerman 1986 and 2001). By the time of his retirement in 2006, the Price Library of Judaica had amassed a collection of over 200 such newspaper issues from around the world. Yet, due to the demands of managing a large circulating lib rary with few staff, these newspapers remained largely unprocessed in storage. Singerman had, however, assigned numbers to each issue and had created a simple card catalog which listed basic bibliographical information such as title, date and page numbers Approximately 150 newspapers were preserved in binders; the rest were stored flat in boxes. Singerman impressed upon his successors the importance of making this unique collection more visible and accessible, particularly before the acidity of the newspa per degrades these rare print copies to the extent that they become unusable and unreadable. Background o f the Pilot Project


4 The UF Libraries hired Rebecca Jefferson as the librarian for the Price Library of Judaica in 2010. In 2011 the Price Library celeb rated its thirtieth year. An anniversary of this kind afforded to revealing some of its hidden gems. One of the main initiatives during this celebratory yea r was to kickstart the preservation and digitization of this special anniversary newspaper collection by This collection of anniversary newspapers is highly significant for a number of reasons. The more than 200 newspaper titles represent a wide cross section of Jewish newspapers from around the world which, by the 1960s, amounted to nearly 600 titles. The Jewish press of the twentieth century was an extremely vibrant entity and an important tool of social change ; not only did it report on the key events of the day, but it often led the way in major political movements, gave leading Jewish authors their first publishing platform, offered a major outlet for struggling little known authors, provided a means for Jewish women to have a voice, assisted Jews with assimilation into the surrounding culture and provided a vital linkto the community for those already assimilated. The editors of these newspapers were often major Jewish writers of their day a nd as such these editions are great sources for their portraiture (Fraenkel & Cohen et al 2007) A large and disparate collection like the anniversary newspaper collection represents an important resource for research and teaching by its very existence. It can teach us a great deal about Jewish history and culture. Certainly, the marking of milestone s the notion of an anniversary can be traced back to biblical law and the observance of the jubilee year. Furthermore, the twofold biblical injunction to remember and not to forget has forged a distinct Jewish identity based on collective memory. This coll ective memory has been reinforced throughout the ages by the cycles of Jewish ritual and recital. It is not surprising then that in addition to having a great thirst for current news, Jewish people would enthusiastically produce a sub genre of newspaper that celebrates the achievement of a milestone with a firm eye on the past and the concern to bring meaning to a particular period of history. It is this aspect of the anniversary editions of Jewish newspapers that make them such interesting and important resources for research. Concentrated in one special issue are articles, editorials, comments and features that shed light on the history of the particular newspaper in question (and


5 sometimes these are the only sources available to provide that history) as well as providing a focused history of a community or movement. While each issue provides a spotlight onto one time in history, the rich content within each issue and across the different anniversary editions places the newspapers within larger historical cultural, and sociological contexts. As such, the anniversary newspapers are a valuable resource on their own and an excellent choice to digitize to strengthen the foundation for additional and larger projects. The Pilot Project In order to provide full access to and ensur e long term digital preservation of these important materials, a phased approach was necessary to develop the resources for funding and processing. the best first phase. The UF Libraries started this program in 2006. It was designed to provide a supportive environment for planning, writing, and implementing grant projects that were parallel to the same processes for submitting grant proposals to exter nal funding agencies (UF Libraries, 2006). The pilot project for the anniversary newspapers was an ideal candidate for the Mini Grant Program. In the process of gathering information for the anniversary newspaper project proposal, the background historical and technical information on the newspaper s would then be available for use in proposals to larger, external granting agencies. Further, the results of the pilot project would then be available online as proof of concept and a demonstration collection. Creating the proposal required close collaboration between the l ibrarian for the Price Library and the Digital Library Center l ibrarian and staff. First, in preparing the proposal, a small group of representative issues had to be selected. In order to mak e that selection, the Librarian for the Price Library converted the existing card catalog into an Excel database to allow for sorting. The create a small c orpus within the time and budget limitations it would be necessary to scan the newspapers using an i2S CopiBook scanner. The CopiBook is an efficient overhead scanner that accommodates documents up to 15.5 x 23 inches Each color capture using the CopiBook takes approximately 6 seconds and the scanner can be operated by student workers. Larger newspapers could be digitized but would require using a Betterlight Super 8k HS camera back


6 Each color capture using the Betterlight ta kes approximately 6 minutes and the Betterlight must be operated by an experienced staff member. Thus, to meet project needs within the Mini Grant Program budget, the newspapers had to be measured first to meet the limitations of the CopiBook, with its efficient scanning and operatio n by student workers, before other criteria could apply. The newspapers also had to be reviewed for preservation concerns. Because preservation concerns can dictate handling and prioritization, a preservation review is conducted for all new digitization p rojects. For newspapers, the nature of newsprint often leads to all materials being in need of digitization for preservation. This was the case for the anniversary newspapers. The anniversary newspapers did not have other preservation concerns, aside from standard careful handling as is the case for all historic newspapers. After the preservation review, the only technical aspect affecting selection for the pilot project remained that of physical size. Once the newspaper selection was narrowed down by size, the content selection process began. I ssues were selected to represent a variety of languages and places of publication. Another criterion was anniversary date to reflect a range of milestones. Other categories included the date of the newspaper (with the aim of achieving a range between pre and post WWII publications); the history of the newspaper in question: its reputation, longevity and contributors, and the type of newspaper (whether a daily, weekly or other). After the preliminary list of titles an d dates was developed based on subject matter, the final list had to undergo further alteration to ensure compliance with copyright and other applicable rights. Several titles in the preliminary selection were still current ( i.e., The American Israelite ) a nd might not be willing to give permission for their older copies to be freely available online. The newspapers were evaluated for copyright based on year of publication and compliance with U S formalities for registering copyright. The issues determined to still be protected by copyright were not selected for the pilot project because of the expected time required to request and receive permissions from copy right holders. The UF Libraries operate heavily on permissions based digitization and have found t hat responses from rights holders can be expected to take several months. In most cases, the UF Libraries are granted permission because of the equitable permissions model in which rights holders grant permission for their materials to be digitized and sha red openly online, but relinquish none of their rights. The permission


7 agreement explicitly prohibits UF Libraries from any for profit or commercial uses, which not selected for the pilot project because of rights concerns, those issues can be considered for inclusion in the next phase of the project, using the permissions process. To complete the content selection process for developing the list of titles and issues to include in the pilot project and future projects, research was also conducted to see whether there were any other similar databases freely available on the internet. T here were approximately seven U S databases featuring Jewish newspapers, but they were based on local newspapersor single titles, or only allow ed access to recent issues. The London based Jewish Chronicle is online but can be accessed only through subscr iption. The Israeli Historical Jewish Press database is freely accessible, and it presents a good range of historic Jewish newspapers; neither however, include anniversary issues. The pilot project proposal was created using the information gathered from this project planning work and leveraging the UF Digital Collections (UFDC) system as an existing freely available resource. UFDC operates on an engine named SobekCM, open source software developed and supported by the UF Libraries (Sullivan, 2011). In a ddition to exemplary support for standard features including searching, browsing, multiple item views, and customized collections and interfaces, SobekCM supports many rich user features including user portfolios or bookshelves for saving and sharing resul ts and favorites. SobekCM also supports full, web scale delivery using cloud or local storage and disseminating records and materials through a MARC record feed, OAI compliant metadata served for harvesting by other repositories, and search engine optimiza engines. In addition to the robust infrastructure for online access to collections and materials with a vast array of user tools, SobekCM and thus the UF Digital Collecti ons also provide many supports for digital production and preservation. Additional supports are provided with production tools for all stages of digitization, including record ingest tools where ingest of any existing metadata or record source and continue on through digitization, quality control, loading, and archiving. Records for all items in the UF Digital Collections (UFDC) system are stored using the Metadata Encoding and Transmission Standard (METS) metadata format. The METS files in UFDC


8 include te chnical and structural data about each image, as well as descriptive and administrative information. The descriptive metadata can be created directly in UFDC or imported from existing records. UFDC provides automatic support for importing MARC, EAD, VRA Co re, and spreadsheet (tab delimited, CSV, XLS) metadata (Sullivan, Taylor, & Santamar a Wheeler, 2011). For the anniversary newspapers, existing catalog records were available for each title. The Digital Library Center staff imported the records into the UF DC system. In importing the records, a new permanent identifier was automatically created within UFDC. Each UFDC permanent identifier is a unique eight digit alphanumeric bibliographic identifier which is used to correlate the bibliographic information and to tracking in process materials. With the records imported and the identifiers assigned, the items could then be prepared for digitization. First, the materials were reviewed by Digital Library Center staff which assessed the need for preservation handl ing. The newspapers that were fragile and disintegrating (about 70% of them) were disbound by the preservation unit before digitization. After this preparation, the materials could be digitized. All items are digitized according to established standards ba sed on the form of the material. All images are captured as uncompressed TIFF files (ITU6.0) at 100% scale, at a minimum of 300 dpi in either 24 bit color or 8 bit gray scale based on significant color present in the original Items are imaged using equip ment that is regularly calibrated for color fidelity. The production imaging unit performs an initial image quality control review on all pages. This includes adjusting the image quality when necessary for levels, skew, and contrast. All processing is done in order to support image fidelity, to best capture and present the materials as they are and not to correct to an ideal or new version of the image. After the initial image quality control processing, the items are passed into the item level quality con trol process. The item level quality control process u ses the UFDC tools to automatically create derivative images (JPG, JP2, and thumbnail images). During this process, all of the tatus. The item and images can be accessed only by using the direct link or through internal views because no links to the item record or item itself are made public until quality control has been completed successfully. Using the derivative and master files, the quality control staff reviews all of the images for fidelity with the item, correct bibliographic metadata The staff also adds additional metadata including pagination and table of contents as applicable. If any errors are noted, the


9 item is r eturned to the imaging unit or bibliographic for correction. Once the item successfully undergoes quality control review without any errors, the item moves on to the final processing: optical character recognition, deployment, final verification, and archi ving. The optical character recognition (OCR) processing runs automatically. Following OCR, the items are loaded or deployed using the UFDC system tools. Thenitems are verified for proper display online. During the final verification, any additional metad ata is added. This may include collection codes and wordmarks if these were not entered when the metadata was initially created with the record ingest. After the final verification is complete, archiving for long term digital preservation is performed. All materials in UFDC are preserved internally as well as through the Florida Digital Archive (FDA), supported by the Florida Center for Library Automation (FCLA). Completed in 2005, the FDA software is modeled on the widely accepted Open Archival Information System (OAIS). It is a dark archive and no public access functions are provided. It supports full redundant archival copies with the preservation functions of format normalization, mass format migration and migration on request (FCLA, 2011). After items are loaded into UFDC for public access, they are automatically processed using the UFDC system tools to prepare the METS files in the format required by the FDA and all files are then transmitted to FDA. After successful ingest of the files into FDA, an ingest report is sent to UFDC and logged into the UFDC tracking and record system for verification of the successful ingest. Local archiving in accordance with general best practices for information technology and archiving with the FDA are core components term plans for storing, maintaining and protecting electronic data. The Mini Grant proposal was awarded in November 2010 (Jefferson, 2010b) in part because the proposed project wisely leveraged the existing capacity of UFDC system to ensu re the successful digitization and display of the newspaper issues for the pilot project as well as the potential for use in larger future projects. Work began on the pilot project soon after it was awarded. The completed issues were mounted online as a di stinct Judaica digital collection, the Price Library of Judaica Anniversary Collection (Jefferson, 2011), in May 2011. This digital collection is one of many within the Price Library of Judaica Digital Collections The end result was a small, representativ e corpus of 38 anniversary issues of 25 newspaper titles that can be read online and,


10 in the case of the English language papers, fully searchable by keywords. Work on adding Hebrew character recognition is ongoing. The Online Collection The significance of the Price Library of Judaica Anniversary Collection is intrinsic as a resource, while also expanding further into how it serves to support future projects. The intrinsic significance of the Price Library of Judaica Anniversary Collection is based on the individual titles and issues included in the collection, as well as the collection as a whole where the different titles and issues can be read together. The uses of the collection directed the promotion and next steps following the pilot project. To dete rmine specifics for those next steps, additional information was gathered and documented for each of the titles in the collection and several are reviewed here to explain their significance and relevance to the pilot project as well as their relevance for developing future projects. One of the anniversary issues included in the collection is the anniversary edition of the weekly English language Jewish newspaper, The Indiana Jewish Chronicle ( Strauss, 1951). It is a special edition of 120 pages, 51 of which offer a condensed, month by month review of local, state and world Jewish events during its 30 years from 1921 to 1951. The editor, Morris Straus, he Press that an extensive record of events transpiring during the past three decades has ever been published by a Jewish weekly The fascinating range and juxtaposition of historical information can be seen in is this excerpt from June 1922 which reads : Indianapolis Mrs. Jennie Barnett became the Publisher and Morris Strauss, the Editor of theIndiana Jewish Chronicle. They succeeded Rabbi Jacob Bienenfeld. Washington, D.C. President Harding endorses Keren Hayesod Indianapolis Indianapolis Jewry mourns the death of Mrs. Meyer Efroymson Mr. Wolf Davis elected President of Talmud Torah. Indianapolis Mrs. A. W. Khan, prominent Jewess, dies suddenly. semitism. Little Rock, Ark. U.S. government donates plot to L. N. Levi Ho spital. London Israel Zangwill says Mexican offer to settle Jewish immigrants should be accepted


11 By dedicating 51 pages to placing the current historical moment in context with the prior three decades, The Indiana Jewish Chronicle situates itself within a larger history, reaching out to connect to the past and to other historical resources. As such, its significance for research increases because it, as a resource, is able to inform and complement many other resources that address similar concerns, histor ical moments, and the movement of history itself. An other example of the unique historical information contained in these anniversary newspapers is found in the twenty fifth anniversary of the monthly periodical Der Argentiner Magazin ( Tshernoyetski, 196 1 ) which was establish ed in Buenos Aires i n 1935 and ran until the 1970s. Seven pages in the Yiddish section of this 420 page edition are devoted to a n account of world events during the 25 years from 1935 1960. The same summary is repeated in the Spanish s ection of the newspaper t ogether with a six page history of the Yiddish press in Argentina. Much of the rest of this special edition newspaper contains one page biographical accounts of prominent members of the Argentinian Jewish community. Also of great historical interest are the more than 47 pages of photographs of Jewish community members as well as the many pages of advertising. These features are even more prevalent in the tenth anniversary issue (Tshernoyetski, 1946) of Der Argentiner Magazin which devotes over 80 pages to photographs of the community and contains more than 30 pages of personal messages and local advertising, providing a unique snapshot of contemporary life in Argentina. In terms of historical background and perspective included in the collection are two very interesting issues of the South African Zionist Record The first celebrates the fortieth anniversary of the Zionist Record ( 1948 ) and the fiftieth anniversary of the South African Zionist Federation late in 1948 just seven months after the establishment of the State of Israel. The second issue marks the fiftieth anniversary of the Zionist Record ( 1958 ) ten years into the State Thus, not only do these special issues celebrate and record the history of the well organized and successful South African Zionist movement, they also provide evidence of early viewpoints on the creation of Israel. The Golden Jubilee edition further contains articles dealing with the history of South African Jewry as well as providing an important bibliographical list and 98).


12 On e of three major Jewish weeklies, the Dutch Jewish newspaper Centraal Blad Voor Israelieten in Nederland ( Utgave van de Firma van Creveld & Co ., 1925) continually s truggled to keep up with its rival, the leading Jewish newspaper, Nieuw Israelitisch Weekbl ad The Nieuw Israelitisch Weekblad was central to the Dutch Jewish readership due to its greater success at securing local advertising and personal announcements. Nevertheless, the Centraal Blad contained many important articles, particularly from the 193 0s when Jewish refugees from Germany were invited to contribute and speculate on the position of world Jewry. The newspaper was closed down in 1940 with the German invasion of Holland (World Federation of Jewish Journalists, 1980 381 2 ) Articles in the fortieth anniversary edition of this ill fated image of the first issue then entitled the Israelietisch Vliegend Blad Voor Nederland This fortieth edition is beaut ifully produced on good quality, durable paper and is particularly notable for its striking art deco graphics. In general, newspapers are significant research resources for their artistic content and for the design and artistry applied to text, graphics, a nd layout. By celebrating the past and present while looking toward the future, anniversary editions can also inform studies of design as is the case with Centraal Blad voor Israelieten in Nederland The advertisements and announcements placed in the newspapers by local Jewish and non Jewish businesses as well as the personal columns are an important facet of the anniversary issues, aiding historical and genealogical research. Many of these are published t ogether with congratulatory messages. Photographs of prominent and active members of the Jewish community are also included, often with compliments on the milestone achieved or accompanying a short biographical/historical article. A good example of an anni versary edition that contains all of these facets is the tenth anniversary issue of the erratically produced newspaper, Der Veg ( Rosenberg, 1940 ) one of two Mexican Jewish daily newspapers created for the Yiddish speaking public The advertisements show a range of Jewish Mexican businesses in 1940 from clothier to clockmaker to hotelier published in Spanish together with their personal messages in Yiddish. This special issue of Der Veg, like the other examples given here also contains copious article s of historical interest,


13 dealing with the history of Mexican Jewry, the history of Yiddish and Jewish schools in Mexico, as well as the history of the newspaper itself, together with a wealth of illustrative photographs. In certain cases, the anniversary edition of a newspaper sheds new light on the history of a publication that has perished and about which little is known. One example in the collection is the Yiddish newspaper Dos Naye Lebn ( Kaplan, 1929 ) It is known tha t the paper was founded in 1919 and produced daily thanks to the incredible efforts of its prodigious editor and contributor Pesach Kaplan In fact, Dos Naye Lebn was the most popular and widely circulated paper in interwar Bialystok but, due to financia l difficulties, probably sometime after the tenth anniversary edition was produced, a cooperative was created to keep production going and the paper was renamed Unzer Lebn in 1931. The newspaper and its editor perished in the Bialystok ghetto during WWII Our tenth anniversary edition, the 3000 th issue, offers us a unique insight into the early history of this Yiddish newspaper, particularly the in depth editorial written by Kaplan (World Federation of Jewish Journalists, 1980, 237 8) The hundredth edition of the Central Verein Zeitung (1934 ) testifies to the longevity of the German Jewish pe riodical which at its height in 1933 amounted to nearly 300 titles. The C V Zeitung is also an important witness to the rise of Nazism as well as evidence of the ways in which German Jewry dealt with this threat. By the time this anniversary issue was produced in 1937, the C V Zeitung was a press under persecution: carefully worded arti cles celebrating the (World Federation of Jewish Journalists, 1980, 333) This anniversary edition also provides a fascinating glimpse at the number and range of Jewish businesses in Berlin names and occupations that would soon perish. The paper was closed down in 1939. The selected issues reviewed here show that there is a great deal to discover in the anniversary newspapers and that t hey are rich in history. When viewed together with the other titles and issues in the Price Library of Judaica Anniversary Collection the significance of these materials is even more apparent. However, this small digital collection is just the tip of the iceberg. Digital Futures


14 Promotion of the current online collection began soon after its completion I t was presentedat a poster session at the 2011 ALA conference, and the collection website was linked to other websites, and publicity materials and press releases were sent out. The pilot project has been successful because it has ensured that these rare anniversary newspapers will be preserved and accessible. Further, i n less than a year of being online, the online collection materials have been viewed over 5,883 times and the UF Libraries have received abundant feedback from a variety of patrons, including scholars, students, and others. The pilot project has also bee n successful in terms of inspiring other related work. The memorial nature of the anniversary newspapers encouraged a student intern to work on the creation of a Price Library of Judaica Memorial Books Portal This project will develop a visual catalog of the 674 memorial books held in the Price Library, books which are largely hidden due to the fact that each book is separately cataloged. With the work of the intern, the p ortal already includes covers and selections of over two dozen books (Jefferson, 2011 b). Similar to the anniversary newspapers, this project has already begun to serve as a first point of access to these important books and to bring attention to them. The experience on the pilot project also led to the development of a full grant proposal for the Library Services and Technology Act (LSTA) for a Florida Jewish Digital Newspaper Project (Jefferson, 2011c). Digital collections like the Price Library of Judaica Anniversary Collection are pivotal in terms of impact because their source material s contain rich content as well as content that traces and interacts with longer histories. The richness of the content and the connections formed through the longer histories can be activated when in digital form because of the ease of connection for digi tal materials. For instance, each item in one digital collection can also be listed in another, when appropriate. The anniversary newspapers contain content that is significant and can inform many other thematic collections and thus can serve to seed and e nrich a great variety of other collections, both directly and indirectly related. Building from the success of the pilot project, the next steps will work toward new digital futures, seeking to maximize the impact of the resources from the pilot project a nd to develop new projects. For increasing impact, current work is underway to develop a permanent companion online exhibit. The exhibit will further promote the collection and raise awareness of


15 the UF Libraries holdings. The exhibit will allow the news papers and their historical context to be explored in greater detail along with their relationships to each other. The user learning experience (both linear and non linear) will also be enhanced via the online exhibit by allowing them to select their level of learning and interaction. The casual user may choose to only view the images and perhaps their brief captions while another user may select to read the expanded labels. While yet another user may choose to follow the links to the original content and/o r other resources. Another method for increasing impact is the incorporation of the online collection into courses. This is currently being explored for immediate implementation and for shaping the next steps in developing new projects. For developing new projects, the UF Libraries hold additional issues that could be included in a larger project. The UF Libraries have in storage over 160 more of these newspapers and are very keen to add them to the online collection. Funding, as ever, is a major issue, bu t it is hoped that a concerted effort to raise publicity for these newspapers will attract an interested donor. An ideal larger project would include collaborating with other institutions holding similar materials. For a larger project, one model could be a national effort to emulate the German Compact Memory ( 2011 ) a database of German Jewish periodicals, by creating an American Jewish periodicals database or even an extended database to include world Jewish periodicals. This is ambitious, a more feasible future project that could serve as a bridge from the pilot project to a national effort for Jewish periodicals could be the development of a portal or database style collection. For instance, the UF Digital C ollections (UFDC) supports record only, digital library, and mixed collections. One record only collection in UFDC is NewspaperCat: the Catalog of Digital Historical Newspapers (Seale, 2009 ). NewspaperCat is a discovery tool for online digitized historical newspaper content. NewspaperCat serves as a portal, allowing all of the newspaper records to be fully and freely searched and browsed within the system. New records are regularly added to ensure NewspaperCat best serves the purpose for which it was design ed : to serve the reference need for finding historical newspapers from around the U S and the world. Developing a portal from other institutions holding anniversary newspapers and similar materials would promote these rich historical resources and facili tate access at each holding institution. In turn, such a portal could be used in developing a larger project to then digitize those materials for full access and long term digital preservation.


16 REFERENCES Berlin, C. (1973). Report on the Mishkin Collection, sent to Dr. G. A. Harrer from Dr. Charles Berlin, Harvard College Library. University of Florida Archives; Series 5, Price Library of Judaica Records, Box 1. C V Zeitung. (1934). Central Verein Zeitung 900 years of the Worms Synagogue Vol. 13 (No. 22). Retrieved from Compact Memory. ( 2011). Compact Memory. Retrieved from Rosenberg, M. (1940). Der Veg (El Camino), 10 th anniversary issue, 1930 1940. Retrieved from Kaplan, P. Dos Naye Lebn. (1929). Dos Naye Lebn 10 th anniversary 1919 1929 Retrieved from FCLA ( Florida Center for Library Automation). (2011). Florida Digital Archive. Retrieved from Fraenkel, J., Cohen, Y. et al. (2007). Encyclopedia Judaica (ed. Michael Berenbaum & Fred Skolnik, Vol. 16, 2 nd ed., Detroi t: Macmillan Reference USA Jefferson, R. J. W. (2010 Ha Tanin: newsletter of the Center for Jewish Studies at the University of Florida No. 20 & 21, Spring/Fall pp. 9 12. Jefferson, R J. W. (201 0 b ). The Price Library of Judaica Anniversary Collection: A first project to digitize a unique set of Jewish newspapers (Libraries' Mini Grant Proposal). Retrieved from Jefferson, R. (2011). The Price Library of Judaica Anniversary Collection Retrieved from Jefferson, R. (2011b). Price Library of Judaica Memor ial Books Portal. Retrieved from Jefferson, R. (2011c). Florida Jewish Digital Newspaper Project (Library Services and Technology Act grant proposal). Retrieved from


17 Kallah Convention of Texas Rabbis (19 36 ) The Kallah Yearbook: 10 th anniversary yearbook of the Kallah of Texas Rabbis Retrieved from Seale, C. (2009). NewspaperCat : the Catalog of Digital Historical Newspapers. Retrieved from to Bookstore owned by Bernard University of Florida Archives Public Records Collection; Series 5: University of Florida Libraries. Price Library of Judaica. Records, 1979 1984 Box 2. Singerman, R. (1986). Jewish serials of the world: a Research bibliography of secondary sources Westport, CT.: Greenwood Press. Singerman, R. (2001). Jewish serials of the world: a Supplement to the research bibliography of secondary sources compiled by Robert Singerman Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. Strauss, M., ed. (1951). Indiana Jewish Chronicle: Passover edition commemorating the 30 th anniversary, 1921 1951 Vol. 30 (No.1). Retrieved from: http://ufdc. Stupniker, L. (1924 ). Komets zekher Leah Stupniker Retrieved from Sullivan, M. V. (2011). SobekCM: Digital content management system Retrieved from Sullivan, M. V., Taylor, L. N., & Santamar a Wheeler, L. (2011). SobekCM: Metadata. Retrieved from Tshernoyetski, V., ed. (1946) Der Argentiner Magazin 10 th anniversary issue Retrieved from Tshernoyetski, V., ed. (1961). Der Argentiner Magazin 25 th anniversary issue Retrieved from UF Libraries. (2006). UF Libraries Mini Grant Program. Retrieved from Utgave van de Firma van Creveld & Co. (1925). Centraal Blad Voor Israelieten in Nederland 40 th anniversary issue, 1885 1925. Retri eved from


18 World Federation of Jewish Journalists (1980). The Jewish Press that was: accounts, evaluations and memories of Jewish papers in pre Holocaust Europe Jerusalem Post P ress. Zionist Record. (1948). Zionist Record: the organ of South African Jewry 50 th anniversary of the South African Zionist Federation, December 11, 1898 1948 and the fortieth an niversary of the Zionist Record Retrieved from Zionist Record. (1958). Zionist Record: the organ of South African Jewry, Golden Jubilee, 1908 1958 Retrieved from