- Effects od nitrogen ammonia and MS-222 on Xenopus Laevis development, growth, and foraging behavior
- Physical Description:
- Byram, J. Kelly
Nickerson, Max A.
- Florida Museum of Natural History, University of Florida
- Place of Publication:
- Gainesville, Florida
- Publication Date:
- Copyright Date:
- The anesthetic MS-222 (i.e., tricaine, Finquel) is widely used by biologists on amphibians in the field, even though field use of MS-222 on amphibians is not approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Previous studies have identified the impact of MS-222 on vision, olfaction, stress, heart, and liver, and have documented its lethality to certain microbes that commonly populate amphibian skin. We examined the potential impacts of “off-label” use of MS-222 on a model aquatic amphibian, the African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis Daudin 1802). Animals were exposed to an environmentally relevant concentration of nitrogen ammonia, a pollutant commonly found in U.S. waterways, and unbuffered MS-222 in a manner simulating typical field use of the drug. The animals’ foraging success in the hour post-recovery was observed. MS-222 impacted foraging behavior, with animals exposed to MS-222 eating significantly more food pellets than the control animals (P = 0.01). Although an ANOVA revealed no statistically significant difference in the mean weight and length between the animals exposed to nitrogen ammonia and their controls, the group of animals exposed to nitrogen ammonia had an increased variance in weight and length, which may indicate population-level effects.
Key words: MS-222, tricaine, Xenopus laevis, nitrogen ammonia, ammonia, stress.
- General Note:
- Bulletin of the Florida Museum of Natural History 51(4):217–226.
- Source Institution:
- University of Florida
- Holding Location:
- University of Florida
- Rights Management:
- All rights reserved by the source institution.
- Resource Identifier:
- issn - 0071-6154
- System ID:
EFFECTS OF NITROGEN AMMONIA AND MS-222 ON XENOPUS LAEVIS DEVELOPMENT, GROWTH, AND FORAGING BEHAVIOR J. Kelly Byram 1,2 and Max A. Nickerson 3 1 2 3 Xenopus laevis ABSTRACT Xenopus laevis P Key words: Xenopus laevis,
INTRODUCTION 3 3 Lithobates clamitans L. pipien 3 3
Xenopus laevis 219 MATERIALS AND METHODS Xenopus laevis n n n = 3 Cryptobranchus alleganiensis bishopi of MS-222 on C. a. bishopi NH 3 3 NH 3 NH 3 MEASUREMENTS
ENVIRONMENT DIET MS-222 TREATMENTS 3 3 NH 3
Xenopus laevis 221 3 STATISTICAL ANALYSES t 3 RESULTS DEVELOPMENT AND GROWTH P n P n = P = n 2 P n 2 Table 1. 3 NH 3 -N NH 3 -N MS-222 19
222 P n 2 = 1.93, df = 1 and P n 2 P n 2 P n 2 FORAGING P n 2 P n 2 P n = 2 Figure 1. Xenopus laevis Figure 2. Xenopus laevis Figure 3. Xenopus laevis Figure 4. Xenopus laevis
Xenopus laevis 223 P n = 2 DISCUSSION buffered MSDEVELOPMENT AND GROWTH Xenopus laevis Figure 5. Xenopus laevis
MS-222. FORAGING ACKNOWLEDGMENTS LITERATURE CITED Xenopus laevis
Xenopus laevis Xenopus Xenopus laevis Alaria in Rana pipiens Ambystoma tigrinum nebulosum Rana clamitans R. pipiens Desmognathus Eulamprus heatwolei Rana temporaria Rana arvalis
Xenopus laevis Hyla versicolor Rana pipiens Cryptobranchus alleganiensis Cryptobranchus alleganiensis bishopi Diemictylus viridescens Ictalrus punctatus Oncorhynchus mykiss
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