An address


Material Information

An address
Physical Description:
23 p. ;22 cm.
Williams, Eric Eustace


General Note:
Delivered by Eric Williams, Prime Minister of Trinidad and Tobago and political leader of the PNM to the ninth annual convention on Friday September 24, 1965
General Note:
"Reprinted from The Nation.(FU)Trinidad and Tobago Politics and government. People's National Movement.

Record Information

Source Institution:
UF Latin American Collections
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All rights reserved by the source institution.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 22916602
oclc - 07027031
System ID:

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Full Text


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AD DR -S ...

Delivered by

Dir. The Rt., Hon. ERIC WILLIAMS

Prime Minister of Trinidad and Tobago
and Potlitical Leader of the PNM

to the


V l 0 -Y r.~
~- \

ia September 24, 1965

RepYrinted from The NATION
r: Q-
i- : i


Nine years ago at
e were most of us
e listened to the
)ming in and pili
inounced to the we
N.M. had been gi,
rm the first Pairt
e history of Trinii
hose who had sneei
would not survive t
nd themselves in t
ne years of P.N.)
count the numbc
wve been formed c
)position to the P.A
ill goes on and is I
Ten stranger permit
nations, alliances
s,' copulations a


lis time tonight:
tenterhooks as
electionn results'
Sup until they.
d that we of the
n a mandate to
Government in
d and Tobago.
Ilthat our Party
;1956 elections
Position, after
power, unable
of parties that
d misformed in
M. The process
t yet complete.
itions and com-
Ind 'mesallian-
I divorces, lie

O ninth anvrayof our historic election victory
n w6 e get. ray fr another g eral leuctip we
find arayed against us, thgsame combination of motley.. d eissi-

faces have been added, that is all.Amidst all the olfusin

Rest, .N.M. stands proudly, the symbol of. order an stabil-
ity the livi-ng expression 4 oe
lf ''this were not so, if the Algiers Conference which s
PN.M. had not been there did not take place. i

to guide the destinies of' our r
Country frm 1956t to 1965, Uei J I p
froi colonialism to hide- UtnonS, faUion s
pendence, if P.N.M. wier I m tn
Ineoit in e s-addlde Impot t,
today in iis tr-ubled W AT is there to stop the a
world -of 1965; what, fellow impending catastrophe?
Party Members, what do you Not the United Nations, its s
think would be the fate of futility starkly dmonstrated
Trijndixdtland -Tobago-and its by the internal conflict over
people today? finance ad the cost of peace-.
S~ keeping operations.. 'a
l The Unitied Nations has
oil landdisorder. The whole, unable to pat
of Asia has erupted, is- erupt.. the,. pro ration f nus,
ig ^it eit th w ct'aatur weapons. and, to '
in Vietnam, the confron'atl'. workf out a basis for gen-; -
ofiMalaysia anda Indonesia, the, era disarmanirenty.
secession of Singapore froim TheoeesiNatinsasnotel
4what is or is nor
Malaysia, the Indo-Pakistani boen able to bring peace.t-
war over Kashmir, Non-align to Cyprus or the Congo r
| t is in tatters, Afro-sian I beien.t o denied any i
solidarit' has become a moCk- locus stand incVk-fnam,
eryas Hindu fights Moslem It was powerlesss o pe
^inl'K1 it thishikir, o t ventf its aexcision from:

threatens Malays in in omiica epubc
por, African. opposes Arabae t will be powerless to do
the, SidanTunisian Arab o pabout.Rhcdesia,
y idad au Tobag ad e foe
poses otherArab Over Isel, Ithas not soefrar e en. able g-
Afrcan opposesIndiani st 'thto resolve its basic. prob-fwha,
SAfri a, ad Chi se seek toitn s ys.ifs n.a.e bership-',-
Asia couns who. now in that should.
1be exclu : d, who now out
The spirit of tandung, that that should be included.
powerfulsoure-ofispiration : Tiew-. tel whai itmcan, e

eyaiporatintothe intrigues' 'that wl o~Iturlyn depended otthe et
and' auoeis surr 320

want it to do, anything, and cup of coffee, it would add
if so what. $400 million a year to the
For in 1965 the world national income of Brazil,
knows that the future of world $150 million' to Colombia's,
peace depends not on the $20 million to Costa Rica's-
United Nations but on some the extra income by way of
accommodation between the trade in coffee alone being
two super powers, USA and worth more to these three
USSR, who, if they spent as countries than the entire cost
much time and energy on the of American economic aid in
world as we know it that they 1961 to the whole of Latin
both spend on Mars, the moon America.
and outer space, might be I heard the Cuban represen-
able to assure the peace of the tative to the United Nations
world for some generations. Conference on Trade and De-
As it is they go their separ- velopment in Geneva present-
ate ways, each seeking to win ed on March 25, 1964a graphic
friends and influence people, demonstration of the deterior-
steadily polarizing the division action of the terms of trade
of the world into two camps. which developing countries
Between them, caught as it have experienced. He analysed
were between the upper and the increase between 1955
nether millstones, the vast and 1962 of the basic national
mass of new countries emerg- product of a number of coun-
ed from colonialism face an tries which -was required to
increasing racial intolerance purchase a 30-39 horsepower
and a deterioration of their tractor. Taking 1955 as 100,
individual economies with the the increased pauperisation of
drastic decline in prices of the developing countries was
such primary products as oil, demonstrated by the following
sugar, coffee, cocoa and bana. figures:
Ghana cocoa, representing
A 67% of national exports-233
A d Brazil coffee, representing
EACH super power goes 46% of national exports-201
aroundwith its policy of Maaysia rubber, represent-
eccnomic aid, aid tied to the ing 66% of national
products of the donor country, exports ............................... ...... 170
aid that often frustrates the Turkey tobacco, represent-
ocnnomic development of the ing 26% of national
beneficiary, aid that is a exports ..................................... ... 163
euphemism for military and U.A.R. cotton, represent-
political subordination, aid ing 71% of national
that is an unworthy substitute exports .......................... ........... 161
for healthy and orderly trade. Ceylon tea, representing
A former President of a 60% of national export..... 155
Tatin American country esti- Rhodesia copper, represent-
mated some years ago that if ing 57% of national
the U.S. consumer agreed to exports ................................... ......... 128
a:- -,ne extra cent for every Burma rice, representing

71% of national exports-123
Philippine coconut oil,
representing 35% of national
exports ......... ............................ .. 121
Uruguay wool, representing
55% of national exports-120
This then is the state of the
world on the ninth anniver-
sary of the election victory
which took our country from
colonialism to independence.
The world teeters on the
brink of the third world war.
Small countries are caught
up in the quicksands of the
cold war; where they are able
to maintain their political in.
dependence, their economic
progress is at the mercy of
world market forces which
they cannot possibly hope to
control; if they are non-white
in the bargain, they are sub-
jected to the increasing indig-
nity of racial discrimination.
P.N.M. cannot escape these
pressures as we seek to
guarantee the independence
of Trinidad and Tobago and
raise the living standards of
our people. Our economic
plans are thrown out of gear
by financial restrictions im-
posed by the U.S.A. and the
United Kingdom in their bal-
ance of payments crises. The
fall in the price of oil, sugar,
coffee and cocoa inevitably
affects our foreign exchange
and our capacity to pay for
our essential impoi'ts. Racial
restrictions on immigration in
the United Kingdom, race
riots in the U.S.A., racial atti-
tudes in Canada block the
conventional migration out-
lets. Cold war pressures begin.
to weigh more heavily on us,
whether direct, in our own
country, or indirect, through
our Caribbean neighbours.

Should the tension rise, i
Kashmir, the possibility of
repercussions in Trinidad will
become less and less remote.


OVER and above these basic
difficulties created for us
by the growing world disor.
der, whether political, econo.
mic, or racial, we in Trinidad
and Tobago have to pay the
price of our geographical lo.
cation. The emergence of Cas-
troism in Cuba so close to us
has had an enormous effect
on the Latin American scene.
It is very easy for us to say
that we are not like those
Latin Americans-that our liv-
ing standards are higher, that
we have no indigenous mass
of people living outside of
the western society and posing
problems of language and
literacy, that we do not have
the problems of inflation
which plague most of them,
that we have no military dic-
tatorship suspending the guar-
antees of paper constitutions.
Above all that we do not have
that problem of land monopo-
ly whereby in Brazil 3% of
the landowners own 62% of
the land while half the land-
owners own 3%; in Ecuador
90% of the landowners own
17% of the land while less
than half of one per cent of
the landowners own 45% of
the land; and in Colombia
82% of the land owners
own 12% of the land while
one per cent owns 40% of the
What is important, how-
ever, is not the ways in which

We Are superior to our Latin
American neighbours, but
what we have in common with
them-the highest rate of
population growth in the
world,. vulnerability to fluctua-
tions and vicissitudes in, ex-
port markets of the two or
three products on which we
depend for our essential
foreign exchange, domination
of our economy by large
foreign enterprises, a' rate of
economic growth that barely
keeps pace with the popula-
tion pressure.
This is the Latin Ameri-
can society to whose
'problems Castro's Cuba
claims to have found the
answer, What is that answer ?
Revolution organised against
the existing order of foreign
capitalist domination by a
handful of'middle class mis-
fits directing guerrilla bands,
operating a campaign, of ter-
ror and sabotage, and claim-
ing to act in the name of the
workers and farmers.
The reality does not match
the promise. The Cuban revo-
lution, has taken the sugar
economy which was dependent
on the United States market
through a special preferential
quota, given it a more domin-
act and entrenched position,
and made it even more de-
pendent on the Russian mar-
ket through a special pre-
ferential trade agreement.
The trade unions are totally
subordinated to the state the
workers' wages are cut, and
worker discipline ruthlessly
enforced. 'The land is not
given as was promised to the
landless peasants; instead it
is organised into vast state-
owned collective farms. In-

stead of 'importing American
manufactures, the new Cuba
imports Russian raw materials
for its /factories. It has to pay
for the latter as it paid for
the former; while the ac-
cumulation of Cuban credits
in unconvertible rubles makes
it difficult for the country to
finance its essential "imports
from Western sources. Plan-
less planning, Castro has
called it.
This is the general internal.
tional framework within which
your P.N.M. government has
functioned during the past


First 'Priority
0UR first priority has been
agriculture-the distribu-
tion of crown lands to per-
sons desirous of going back
to the land.
The fundamental reality of
the world economy today is
the steady decline in the
prices of primary products.
We get less and less for our
oil, our 'sugar, our cocoa.
Much worse than this, our
position in the world market
for these commodities is
deteriorating. In the case of
cocoa it is competition from
countries which pay much
lower wages than we do. In
the case of sugar we are up
against, on the one hand, -the
uncertainty whether the Com.
monwealth Sugar Agreement
will .continue and on what
terms, and, on the other the
enormous expansion of the
sugar industry in Cuba which
ains at a production of ten
million tons in 1970--for each


'Wl.po- and Woody tyThejda trib
In the tion of 20,000acres of land
Dt oity. do to small farmers is envisaged

and n be fired tby t Prim repeat o e nvn

eTh, question *of the consti- once before, that Cabinet la
tuti0oality of the Act is be- it down fronthe start th
fore the Courts; I am sure -the members of the Inustrial
that ith. Convention will ap- Court have the same privileges
preciate the reluctance of the and immunities, similar terms
.Prime Minister to emulate and conditions of service, that
the gross impropriety of the Judges have, and they can'
S union concerned and its ex- be removed from office only
patriate legal adviser in corn- after investigation by the
menting on a matter before Judicial and Legal Servic*
the "ourts. Commission acting inI" uomit-
The other claims are arraLtL action with the President of
nonsense.' T:he Iftenational the Court.
Confederation of Free Trade T opposition "to teA :ct
The opposition to the':A
Unions and the Canadian therefore is purely politca
.Labour Congress have clearly t f is purey political
1Laou Congress have cleary TSo long as the opposition does
advised their local affiliates not te unconstitutional
that the Stabilisaion Act sections, so be it. The Act
does. not violate the freedom O
f association conventions of on the Statute
te Ia Lwill remain on the Statute
the. Eternatonal Labor Or- Book.. (Prolonged Applause)
'ganst The national interest. d:e-
,, A few days ago the British mands it and the national
Government, in consultation interest ill an pre l.
with ,thie. Trade. Union Con- '. : ': .*
gress, .officially announced The operation and. imle-
ii that it will shortly introduce mentation of the Indust ,r I
Legislation to give the Govern- Stabilisation .Act .. have. becne .,
imert the following powers: one of the major conderi'i0if
AR t. o r the Cabinet; one Cabinet Com-
S to equir notification ittee meets at least fo t-
of'. intention to increase n
3~:pricesr charge:an 10 emient's responsibilities un-,
ri n.tfi..i der the Act. One of the more
..... claims ; relating to pay, ..
ims rtin to pay, important aspects of this con-
.. hours or othermajor im- tinuing responsibility is the'
..prvements and prospective regulatiOns t
tBemE f, c :laim for recognition by' a
.0 to refer to the Na- union and the taking of a
"ti ona Board for Prices and count as provided for i the
.Incomes in he national in-* :ActIt has' been cssar for
t :,ferest (a) any. price whether the Gov enm to take steps
existing,.' or., propWSed, (b) etonesure that the workers -n
any ciaim.or sehlemehf" "- I'
ttle sh counts are fn o
0to6 ':uii e the proposedc to bribery- corruption intimi
Sprit or pay increase to be nation and other encei con
" "" deferred outi *the -Board nected wi^' etions h reported.. regu'laticns l shortIb
I als( take this opport~iity of made public.....
.8.' $*K I ; /
i; ;__;:;;:i; !i~~~i~;iii~ C

ADIE U lN DISUtH TY is encouraged by world

.. cre a and a ..ris e w v-
he disunity in trade union Increases and a rise n -
le is partly matter ing costs for which the
sl arty a matter whole population pays, give
pities. No9 one regrets it rise to parilel demands in
6 oone reg
e than : Robert Wallace. such sectors of the economy
S t many precious as agriculture which, in the
I I spent many precious
s t: y s ao seek face of world competition,
)ystwo years ago sei sng
"Canot possibly s .^-K ii;
:estlblis conditions favour- cann*. possibly stand suc~, .
e to l ur unity as the increase.
t e tpwads the associ- Worst of all, there is evi.
S. a e l madence to prove that each ad-
n o: ited labur m ditional dollar of income in
it ith the constructive a T n r
vernmev, co ano uorlg eany 9 ;i )
k of z r&ea1 planning. The Tia and T encour-
n lea cents on foreign. g ,ods; thus
Suio older's ppoSi-
continuous wage increases are
St a commission of en onemeans o aggravating our
,y or to the report of a balance of payments problem
mission onf enquiry or to b in'reai-g u r imperta at
,||||||ise|- ,.. : u. aL .. .'.
tpItie machinery of y increasing our imprt ..3 a
.. m r o a time when the position of
en t, management d our exports continues to de-
tons to discuss particular teriorate
.... J.- L Iteio ..
lq It cannot however,. :

as and-pleas regarding use Public Service
p funds contrary to theUR third priority relates to
!eioi provisions of existing
Jao, and the whole our public service civil
thresnsrb ty servants, policemen, fire of-
e fers ..rison officers, teach-
v-in respect f their funds ers, employees bf statutory
e n and audit oftheir boards. This is not only
s, qznual returns of their question of wages; it is even
n opc more a question of classifica-
f their poi t, cl : tion ,and qualifications and
I the remuneration that should
ad, as well as the super-
cuo -ec s with both, quesion of
Sof uon election on bargaining and negotiating
qqP is scheduled for eaarly machinery and procedures for
0gislativereappraisal (Loud resolion of dis-utes.
This is a comprehensive
[t is important here for us exercise which after examina-
recognise a basic problem- ton by Working Parties ap-
S ~rbitrary wage in- pointed for the purpose, has
c~re&s that ignore or do been receiving the unremit,
do not even take into ac- ting attention of t he ..Cabinet
o 41Y6the overall national for the past nine months It

privileges, and discrimination all the protective services."
inherited from the colonial 3. The establishment of
regime the underestimation special machinery within the
of professional and technical Industrial Court to deal with
qualifications, the stagnation disputes involving public ser-
at certain levels such as sub- vants and the Government.
ordinate police officers, the 4. The establishment of an
discrimination against the Examinatir:.i Board for the
primary school teacher, the conduct of examinations of
--hotch potch of posts and the !the public service.
jumble of salary scales im- 5. The substitution of
posed one '.on the other on grants for training purposes
an ad hoc basis as the scope for the -leave passage grants
of governmental activity has for holiday purposes inherited
increased, the hopeless con- from the period of expatriate
fusion Lo the education legis- control.
lation of the colonial period. 6. The control of the poli-
tical activities of public ser-
7. The total reorganisation
New legislation has been of the education system of the
proposed tc cover the civil country to provide 'for a uni-
service, the police service, the fled Teaching Service, the conL
fire service, the prisons ser- trol of all teachers by the
vice and education, and the Public Service Commission,
legislation will also take care the registration of teachers,
of such related matters as of- the control of the private
facial secrets. The following school system, the protection
are the principal features of of the child of school -age
this new legislation which will from the evils of cinema
be complemented by appropri- shows during school hours.
ate regulations in the fields betting places and rumshops.
in which the Public Police (Prolonged Applause)
and Judicial and Legal Service
Commissions are, under our CLASSIFICATION,
Constitution, the competent COMPENSATION.
1. The -establishment of a The classification and corn-
Personnel Department under pensation plan proposed by
the Minister of 'Finance to the Cabinet will shortly be
negotiate and bargain with available for public informa.
associations of employees and tion, discussion and comment.
to keep the classification and It places particular emphasis
compensation plan under con. on the qualifications, required
tinuous review, for various posts .and relates
2. The establishment of compensation .to qualifications;
separate' associations divorced in this connection- a pro.
from trade, union activity of gramme of accelerated tiain-
senior staff in the civil and ing in summer schools and
teaching services holding night classes for untrained
managerial positions and of teachers is receiving urgent

attention. It pays particular respect of financial operations
attention to those posts in the they, are virtually autonomy.
public service which. entail ous; they fix their own rates
stagnation for long years be- of remuneration thereby un-
cause of. the absence of op- settling other public servants;
portunities for promotion. It they borrow' on their own ini-
seeks to equate. posts in the tiative, interfering with the
teaching and police services country's overall financial
with comparable posts in the position in respect of liabili.
civil service, on the basis of ties:, they negotiate wage and
qualifications, responsibilities, salary increases on their own
experience. Whilst laying down initiative and then come to
for the future rational and the Cabinet for the necessary
orderly criteria for compensa- funds; they charge such rates
tlon and promotion, it seeks as they please, but those rates
to preserve the accrued rights for the most part do not mean
of existing officers. that they thereby generate
Above all, the classification their own resources for expan-
and compensation plan must sion and fulfil the obligation
take into account the court. imposed on them by the De-
try's capacity fo pay., One of velopment Programme.
our.most serious problems is On the personnel side, the
the relentless tendency of statutory boards hire and fire
Government expenditure to as they please. A board may
exceed Government revenue, vary the recruitment criteria
notwithstanding the enor- which apply to-the civil ser-
mous increase in Government vice, though the board may
revenue over the past few be performing a function
years, to the point where the which could be performed, or
increase: in Government ex- might' previously have been
penditure threatens to exceed performed, by a government
the rate of growth of Gross department. The civil servant
Domestic Product and Nation- cannot be fired by his head of
al Income.. This threat of a department or Minister; he
deficit on current account has to be charged before the
would, jeopardise ou.r. credit- Public Service Commission
worthiness: in, the .world.mar- which alone, after giving the
ket.and make: it .difficult for officer the right to be heard
us, to,, borrow money, and in his own defence, has the
woulc.make. impossible for right to dismiss him. These
the Government to continue constitutional guarantees are
its capital development pro- cot enjoyed by employees of
gramme which by the end of statutory, boards.
Jun,. 1965,. was employing The reorganisation of the
over..8000 persons, public service which is now
being carried out by the CabL
STATUTORY BOARDS net therefore pays consider-
able attention to the problem
Within the public service of the statutory boards. The
the statutory boards present Cabinet has already decided
a very special, problem.. In that no board can hereafter

m'a ttfett -invlvotving .loans -'or ''radical changes that
-charges w Vitho'ut the written taken place in religious public
approval of the Minister of opinion, especially Catholic,
Finance. The question of a in th past few -years.
Service Commission for statu--
tory boards, -to control ap`. CATHOLIC DOCTORS SURVEY
pointment, transfer, promo-.
-tion '.dismissal and .discipline O most, recent ad o
of -employees, is now. being diamatic manifestation of that
actively considered. The draft c is the surv recent
Legislation for t~e establish- uertakenin ngland by the
ment of a PubliHe Utilities Catholic doctors' association.
Commission to *fix rates and Of 654 Catholic doctors who
charges is being expedited, replied to the questionnaire,
The .association -of the Mins- eight out of ten indicated
S try of "Finance through the ehat o their expeince,
proposeC Personnel- Dep art- li practice contracep-
Sment of the Government with to, Half found the rhythm
all wage and salary nego- method unsuccessful; mor e
tions entered into by s tan half found that't
tory. boards is; now being rhythm method .was nt'.psy-
examined as one urer chlogially satisfatory t
means of establishing a single either men or women.. Six' ut
public serVice working min its of ten found that abstin'ece
several branches towards comn- produced psychol ical
mom goals, following uniform effects on men; more than
procedures, and keeping stead- half found that tho sam6 was
ily before" it the national in-m true' of women; two out ofi
terest which is one and ind- thi'ee found that 'abstlnc
visible.," produced psychological
effects 'on the marriage. Si
ultion outof ten in their owInn cop
science did eot' regard con.
SGrowth' tac o within the bond
i:of marriage, as against the
DRIp RITY'No. 4 among the. e f owne
Government's activities sic the doctors-tht
relates: to the 'relentless in- t at contraception' within the
erease of Population aggra- bonds of marriage, should.
vatingthe'demand for jobs permitted in the following
and the' strain on the social cumstances: to prevent the
services, particularly educa- break-up of a marriage, two
tion and housing. ...out of three; for medical rea
This explains why the -Gov- sons thre u o'
eminent has referred. the eco mihreasonsu morffor;fo
whole matter' of family plan- six outOfen
Ingtothe Party for full and The survey demonlstrlantes in
conipr isive dis usion A the words of one : oinnent
committee' of the Genieral tor, the, grwn unwhl....g
Council Is now examining the |ness- ofCatholi c doctors'i

''rf f *- '' t *; '" '' **; % '^.t ^f

simple matter rf ane w
utter. We hMve to the G(
mot part abroad ing in
'; *

gene .of -.President. -Frei in
Chile,. with --his -ideas of an
expanded Latin American
Free Trade Area as the first
step towards closer association,
with Europe, is a develop-
ment which we will ignore .at
our peril. Senator Fulbright
has specifically noted the Im-
portance and value of Latin
America building bridges -to
Europe, Asia, Africa and the
Communist countries.
Closer to home, and nearer
and dearer to the heart of the
P.N.M. which initiated the
concept, is the question of
the Caribbean Economic Corn.
munity. -The Gdvemment has
done its best to assist in the
realisation of this obvious re-
quirement, but the difficulties
in the way are formiable: in-


On -the incorporation of
Grenada into our unitary
state,. which ..again is -being
studied at Party level, the
British Government has re-
fused to move. one single
millimetre In the* direction of
assisting n the- building up. of
Grenada's infrastructure to
bring- it closer to Trinidad and
Tobago. The British attitude,
which I have heard -expressed
more than once,- is. that if
Trinidad and Tobago is so up-
start as to want Grenada to
join; :it; then Trinidad, and
Tobago must pay the cost of
Grenada's development.
The same attitude towards
the proposed smaller Federa-
tibon of the ,West Indies indi-
cates that,- as- has, happened
so -ofte in.- West Indian his.

tory; the British will continue
to promote West Indian inte-
gration on the- cheap. But the
crucial problem impeding the
realisation of a Caribbean
Economic Community is the
continued foreign presence
in the Caribbean area, to the
point, in some areas, of down-
right .;colonialism. -Trinidad
and Tobago cannot afford to
debase its independence cur.
rency by associating with or
supporting restrictive colonial
practices and proposals which
really originate outside of the
Caribbean The fundamental
problem of Caribbean inte.
gration is that it cannot pro-
ceed-without the collaboration
of the U.S.A. in respect of-
Puerto Rico and the Virgin
Islands or of "France res-
pect of its overseas depart-
ments: "
We have however main-
tained our contacts with inde-
pendent .Jamaica and with the
Netherlands Antilles and
Surinam which have parity
with the Netherlands in the
independent tripartite King-
dom of the Netherlands. We
continue to explore with Ja.
maica the possibility of a free
trade area of all the Coin.
monwealth countries in .the
Caribbean and adjacent main-
land areas. We continue, our
efforts to organise an auto-
nomous- Caribbean- Committee
of the United Nations Econo.
mic Commission for Latin
America to study and. formu-
late proposals for Caribbean
integration. Above all we con-
tinue loyally to support and
promote the single regional
LUniversity of the West:In dies
and to frown 'on ll parochial
deviations which eould'~only

be attractive to those who
have not the slightest. idea'of
what is meant by. high: intel-
lectual standards.



ET another priority of the
Government has been the
concentration on the effective
mobilisation of our local re-
sources and the effort to re-
direct profits earned on -our
soil into local irnv -lm.nmt--ir
order to provide more job
opportunities for. our popn-


The urgency here is not
only the balazne of payments
problem.and the impact of
the restrictions imposed -by
the U.S.A. and the United
Kingdom in the light of their
own balance of payments dif-
iiculties. It is also the re-
cognition of the inadequacy
of the economic aid arrange-
ments of the developed 'coun-
tries. The strings attached
to economic aid are such
that it becomes increasingly
difficult or impracticable for
us to accept even the limited
offers that are made. Fori
Example the tying of Canp-
dian aid to Canadian goods
and services is such that,
however favourable the
terms offered, -we cannot.
find sitfficient appropriate
projects to take up the aid.
''International agencies are
becoming more sensitive,
at "long last to the
needs "of the developing

countries and -are -widen-
ing their perspectives to .:in-
elude, in par'icular;.such. im-
portant fields: of develop-
ment as education, agrarian
reform and agricultural cred-
it, and port operations.. But
I must warn party members
that if we: look for help- out-
side, we must not expect
those we vtish to help us to
allow us total freedom to
spend their aid as we please.
There: will be no freeness
allowed such as the Trinidad
and Tobago population is so
quick to look for. As one
example of this restriction
on our freedom, I may in-
dicate that we have already
come up against the fact
that assistance in respect
of our port operation
has raised the issue of
the capacity of a public
authority to operate port la-
labour with the required ef-
ficieny and productivity.
We have had to turn in-
creasingly to our own re-
sources -' revision of our
tax structure, renegotiation
of our double taxation agree-
ments, improvement of bur
machinery for tax assess-
ment and tax collection. and
the prevention' of tax eva-
sion, efforts to promote re-
investment of profits espe-
cially by insurance com-
panies, encouragement of
domestic savings, promotion
savings bonds. The difficulties
are formidable-on the oine
hand there is the pronoun-
ced propensity. at all levels
of the population to spend
and to buy foreign; on the
other there is the opposition
of some -foreign investors to


our new tax procedures, go- been given in all of this
ing to the length in some governmental activity, in
cases of their seeking the the framework .of the un-
aid of their governments, al- fortunate examples of racial
most as if Trinidad and To- intolerance being set all over
bago for the sake of a mere the world, to the preservation
pittance of economic aid, is of our internal democracy
to pay the price of foreign and the realization of the
dictation to its Ministry of ideals enshrined in our Na-
Finance. tional Anthem and guaran-
In between there is the teed in our Constitution
old-fashioned trade unionism i this situation, the Go-
with its mnew-fangled politi- vernment has introduced as
cal subversion of governmen- he principal stabilizer cf the
tal policies. Time and time community a comprehensive
again I have urged the trade programme of communityde-
union- movement to invest programme of community'de-
union movement to invest development. Based very
an elopment. Based very
in constructive projects as in largely on the represena-
Israel; such projects as hous- tons of the people them
ing, light industries, con- selves through their com-
sumer cooperatives, and so munity organizations on the
on. All the response that I Prilme Minister's "Meet the
have achieved is the boast People" tour, and expanded
of one leader that he has by party members on the
never bought a savings bond Political Leader's "Meet the
in his life and his opposition Party" tour, huge pro-
to government's collection of gramme, utilising the prin-
the 42-1 % company tax as ciple of self-help wherever
interfering with the wage possible, is now underway
claims of the workers, to provide basic community
We can cope with domes- facilities and amenities. No
tic baloney and expatriate village community is too
intransigence. What is be- humble or too remote to be
yond our control is the incorporated in the program-
world prices on which our me. Considerations of geo-
revenue collections ultimate- graphy, race, religion, poll
ly depend. The fall in tical affiliation are totally
prices is already affect- excluded from the programme.
ing our revenue an icipa- Any national problem is
tions and this must neces- discussed with any village
sarily influence our capacity community, giving the vil-
to remunerate the public lage a real sense of belong-
sector of our economy and ing. One village is called up-
finance our development pro- on to work out its own
gramme, development programme,
another is invited to pre-
PRESERVrNG INTERNAL pare a programme of adult
DEMOCRACY education, to a third it is
suggested that the Commu-
The highest priority has nity Centre be expanded in-

to a centre fr vocational out in sharp contrast to
;;tralminig nothing bas 'ever \ emerging countries like Pak-
lpbeen developed in nidad istan or fIndoesia which
of a comparable nature that claim that ,democracy must
tends -ire- to integrate a be guided and our
village community. and pro- Government of the P.N.M.
mote the national commiuni- finds itself maintaining *ith-
ty ideal which the P.N.M. out pressure, with a mini-
launched in 1956 than this mum of, tension, and with.
programme of community out the abrogation of tradi-
devd opment. tional humAn rights and con-.
.. stitution guarantees, a
SRACIAL SOLIDARITY State characterised by a mu]-
tiplicity of parties as against
S. .... ... the one-party slate which is
It is curious to participate sweeping Africa and Asia, or
.in, these gatherings and see he military state which ijs
SHindus ?and MoslJms w rking common in. Latin America.
together in- a common.. cause
instead of fighting as in their
homelands, to see Indians Nti onal ecurlt
and Pakistanis feeling safer .*
and more confident than they U stable the coun-
feel in any other coun ry to tr however weU-disposed
.-which they have migrated, the mass of the population,
I t "see people o Atrican an- no Government can afford to
,cesry.s singing Hindu songs 'he complacent where na ion-
and playing Indian musical al security is concerned
I instrument's, to see people, of Here in Trinidad and Tobago
Indian ancestry-playing steel- we have had to give the ques-
band -music, to see Indian Pon of security the attcntiMn
Children dancing the Shango it requires.
and )the R.1, to see mixed F som time n wk'it has
village council executives ben clear ihat there is a
wih an Indian chairman in a recalcitrant minority n our
Negro community and a midst that is dermined to
Negro chairman in an Indian make trouble. This minority
community. (Appla use) is quit* obviously comwiu-
I: is not a -development of nist in sympathy in persua-
the earth-shaking variety sion, and in the tactics it
like a nuclear bomb. -It is contemplates and even ad-
n ,nothing so wonderful that it vocates
* would take us to outer space. It has sought to operate
But in, a world of growing principally by utilizing the
indecency, iins'ability, and trade unions and playing- 'on
ten son, it has its place and working class disconlnv -
it is an 'inspiration for our creating 'suh discontent
i nger eneraion where neceary. : "y
ii. o another point of view There is nothing amiliar i
this village democracy stands in all this to those of us who :

f *.:, s a a ^ ^^ 1. :; .*17.:. 1- :' ^ :*: :::. -w *a i

we live in a worlm 1
foreign governments
know our contemporary
As long as it does not
of bounds, we don't 1
drastic action. It v
necessary last March,
ample 'o declare a
emergency under the
tution; unly the most
restrictions proved


Similarly it is the
ment's view that a
Order Act would inv
in erference with c
civil liberties, with n
and processions and
stations, which is nc
fled in present circum
you use a fly-swatt
flies, not a sledge h
(Laughter) The worth
the country are seeking
equilibrium, a new
tion. It is difficult enc
them to appreciate tl
days of agitation are o'
that the criterion of
ship today is no loni
loudmouth and the
head. Let us, fellow
members, as the Pa
power, 'set the exam
restraint and tolerance
at all times remaining
alert. Never fear, the
country knows that, if
cumstances should 'ei
quire it, the Governme
not hesitate to act in
fence of the national ili
(Loud applause)
0 Let me merelI
one point crystal cle
taint of communism
ever be permitted in

openly P.N.M. ( Prolop
world, plause)
let out
e tooForeig
s not
or ex- Interfere
ate of
'onsti- THE Government
limited equally on the al
) be spect of foreign inl
in our domestic aff
ticularly as there
CT reason to believe
local dissidents rece
overn- cf their inspiration
Public side sources. This
ve an problem is more ii
linary than most because
etings deep-seated and its
emon- deep in the colonial
justi- is complicated and m
aaces; irritating by the pre
r ;for
our midst of many re
nmer, tives of foreign
rs of both public and privy
a new we know and those v
enta- know, who bring w
:h jor
a basic contempt for
t the
Ste ernment and institute
r and
ader- small country without
a fundamental conci
r tye with their own natio]
Pmpty ests and how we can
Sary to serve those intere
Ys on Let me give you
vilst amples of what I m
n the foreign government
whole sought to claim the
e cir. approve our invitatic
r r our Independence
r re- tions. One govern
twill desperately to get me
Sde- that the Trinidad an<
ries Cabinet would be its
guests on our Inde]
make Day. One foreign
r-no tried just as despel
will get me to agree that
Trini- nidad and Tobago


tola Dy a foreign gov
that we should, take
the meetings. of -th
funct Caribbean OrgV
that we should join
that trading bloc. I
deal once with one
who sought to instruc
to which member of
nidad and Tobago Ci
vice I* should :sen
which I -should sen
in. order to take. t
which h considere
sary to save the dyin
action. -I once had t(
diplomat to leave n
for language grossly
to the head of the
ment, and I have sin
edly ignored his exi


Diplomats in Trin
Tobago have an acce
principal centres of'
ernment which our d
abroad do nct enjoy.
.foreign missions in
far exceed the numb
in our view is req
a small .,country li
Everyday we, the
read in the :newspap
Y or Z, politician, c
ant, private citizen
been selected by Go
A, B or C for.a -'sc
or a:travel gran, wil
consultation or the I
ledet nf ,the Govi

at some that. I warn you, Party mem-
r Inde- bers, our country will live to
ns. We regret thp ease with which it
is been can be suborned and patron-
ernment ised and bought by a scholar-
part in ship or an inviLation to cock- de- tails. We have asked Govern-
anisation, ment X for assistance in field
this or Y; it tells us it cannot give
had to that assistance except in field
diplomat Z, which may happen to be
:t me as the very field in which we do
the Tri- not want foreign intrusion.
civil Ser- Every foreigner who comes
d here, to Trinidad thinks he has a
d there, eight to see the Prime Minis-
he steps ter. Diplomats asi for inter-
d neces- views for X, Y or Z; our
g Feder- counterparts to .X, ,Y or Z
o ask a would have as .much chance
iy office of seeinghe-Prime Minis her's
insulting counterpart in a foreign coun-
Govern- try as a snowball in hell.
ce point- (Laug)ter)
stence. Every director or represent.
tative of every foreign com-
AFF pany who comes here thinks
that he must pay a courtesy
idad and call on the Prime Minister
ss to the and' hold discussions with
the Gov- him; The general impression
diplomats sought to be conveyed by all
Staffs at this is that the work of the
Trinidad Government of Trinidad and
er which Tobago is always subordinate
juired in to the requirements of foreign
ke ours. interests, and that we ought
,Cabinet, to feel -honoured to talk to
ers of X, legislator X or newspaperman
ivil serv- Y or professor Z or investor
, having X Y. Z,
verunent All these matters are now I
:holarship being tarefully considered by
thout ~ay the Government which is tak-
foreknw- ing the necessary steps to en-
ernment of sure respect for the Govern.
it rest is ment- and Pfiameit and
hat "'the People of Trinidad and To-
has se- bago and also for our -repre
this and s6ntatives abroad; After all,

seek to use a small independ- is in time, money and dis-
ent country as a base for sub- ruption cf our domestic pro-
versive operations and remove gt;amme, we must play the
one government. and instal game according to the inter-
another; their more un- national rules.
scrupulous nationals might FOREIGN PRESS
even embarrass them by seek-
ing to bribe a Prime Minis- The day-to-day foreign in-
ter. Believe me, fellow Party terference in our domestic
members, I saw foreign inter- affairs is most in evidence
ference at work during the at the level oi our foreign
existence of the Federal :Gov- press. Its deplorably low"in-
ernment, and if similar inter- tellectual quality is serious
ference is to be tolerated in enough; to have on top of
our affairs then you must get that the regular misrepresent.
another Political. leader and ation, distortion, falsification
the country must get another and even suppressi-n of Gov-
Prime Minister. ernmental statements, in or-
INTERNATIONAL ganisations .where non-na-
CONFERENCE tionals occupy high position,
is becoming increasingly in-
Our foreign relations and our tolerable. The presence of
foreign interests require us non-nationals in cur rad.
as Ministers to attend a vari- unions and personnel depart
etv of international confer- ments, complicating: our. in-
ences. It might be a confer- dustrial relations, is a mat' er
ence where a proposal is pu. for equal concern; reduction
forward to increase postal ad absurd, a 'foreign lawyer
rates, to which we cannot pos- now comes in to tell us
sibly be indifferent. It might what is or is not consis'-
be a conference to discuss ent with our Constitution
preferences or fix quotas; if (Laughter).
we get knocked about when These questions are now
we are present, we would being 'looked into, parti-
have our throats cut if we cularly in connection. with
.stayed away. No one will the drastic overhaul of our
watch our interests ior us; we immigration legislation. It is
must watch them for our- a little thick for a non-na-
Sselves. The nature of most tional resident in Trinidad to
conferences is such that only attack the Government of Tri-
a Minister, directed by the nidad and Tobago at a foreign
Cabinet, can speak authority. conference or for a foreign-
tively, sign on behalf of the owned newspaper to publish
Government, or yote on Doli- the exact opposite of what the
tical questions like the in- Prime.Minister says. on a.mat-
elusion of Communist China ter of public importance.
or the exclusion of South Chagu ra
Africa--a civil servant would Uo
:be in a very embarrassing I turn .to one other aspect
position. So, costly though it of our foreign relations-

dock and the proposed estab- coitry and its position
ishment of a tourist project in the wold on the, ninth
at cotland Bay, together wi b anniversary of our 1956 elec-
the possible reorganization of tion victory and as we begin
their citruss plantation in our Ninth Annual Convention.:
STuker Valley, mark the ap- Where our Party 'is con-
proach of t da when Cha- cerned, I shall have specific
guaramas is free to play its proposals to put before
full part in the development of the General Council as 1
the potential of our count y carry further the- Political
for the benefit of our citizens Leader's "Meet the Party"
who are rejected elsewhere. tour and find time to analyse
To this end instructions have the representations, comn-
already beer given that a ments and' criticisms of the
comprehensive plan for he. Party Groups.
proper se of Chaguaramas Interim measures hae al-
sho uld be drawn up n ready been adopted at the
meantime the Joint e leve of the Legislative Group
et te aea nte to meet the situation that has
our Defence Force is located been encountered. Represent-
ar Teteron and Staubles, and atives and Ministers have
visits to their installations been gaged, with some as
are a regular Part of state distance from Senators and
visits. The dissoluti of the party Officers in establish-
SIndian Federation and ig closr contact with Co
thea Idependenee of Trinidad stituency and Party Groups.
an& Tob io have created a: It is a little difficult as ye.
situation not envisaged when to assej the strength and
the 1941 Agreement was re. weaknesses of this pro-
vised in 1961.. and this is be- gramme, principallyy because
.ing attended o the constituency reports that
have been, requested have n' t
PeoN been coming, in. The pro-
HAVE sought in this ad- gramme has necessarily been
dr"- s, fellow Party mem- affected, especially where
bersl to analyse and explain Ministers are concerned, by
the report submitted by the priority they must give to
the Legislative Group of poli-. national business for ex-
tica aiUrities at all levels of ample, the special Cabinet
.Government in the country. meetings on the occasion of
Ical government activities the' Industrial Stabilisatio r
are involved in what I have Act, the transfer of the Cabi-'
already said -about the stath- net to Tobago for the Heads.'
tory boards, and the future of Missiens Conference,
scope ,-of. lotal govern n't the commitments of those
now awaits the repot of a members o"the Cabinet Com-
committee set up as a result mittee working on the public
of' aa xti6n i the 'Huse of service reorganization whose
Iepren tatives. meetings must take priority
This then is the state of the over all other business.
I. ,:; *i+ .,'

The problem here is a very
formidable and intractable
one, and I know it best, as
Sthe principal victim. The old
mentality bred by slavery
and colonialism still prevails.
Everyone wants to see a big
shot, to get close to a big
shot, especially to the Prime
Minister. Some still think of
political activity in terms of
fetes and functions; it is very
hard for a Minister, and par-
ticularly the Prime Minis er,
to satisfy this when he is
working, -or getting ready to
work, or resting after working.
The concern with the per-
sonal favour, the contact with
a godfather, not only of Party
member against non-Party
member but also of Party mem.
ber against Party member con-
tinues to dog us at many
levels of the Party. The most
senior Party members who
should know better are al-
ways quick to seek for them-
selves or for others some
s ecal meeting with the po-
litical Leader; in one most
reprehensible case the sup-
pliant case came to the
Political Leader to protest
against what he had been
told by the Party Chairman.


My own tours, meeting the
People and meeting the
Party, have brought me into
close, direct and regular eon.
tact over the past two and a
half years with Party mem-
bers all over the country. I
am happy to see the con-
structive role which, with a
few. regrettable exceptions,
they are playing in' the com-

munity effort. Many of them
have been called to repre-
sent the Party and serve the
country in a. variety of cap.-
cities --on statutory boards,
on investigating committees,
as community development
aides, as price inspectors
under the Industrial Stabili.
saoion Act, and there are
other responsibilities that lie
ahead. Our national Party
School on the Industrial Sta-
bilisation Act, was of con-
siderable value to many
Party members and allowed
them to play their part in the
correction of dishonest. and
hostile propaganda.


One priority I can already
see fbr the future of our
Party, and I shall attend to it
as soon as possible. It is a
Party School. I do not mean
school for the training of
Paaty Group officials or even
a school for the discussion
of particular .s~bjelts, such
as the Industrial Stabilisa-
tion Act. I mean a school
for selected party members
running regularly over many
months, for training them
in international and national
problems. It is for the edu-
cation of such members
principally that I write the
Political Leader's Page in
The NATION each week, re-
viewing in detail a book
they would not have the
time to read or- the. money
to buy, writing on subjects
like Independence or the
Prime -Ministers' Confrence
or the Caribbean Economic
Community, to give them

ments. On the eve of its cen-
e tenary celebrations the Cana-
l dian Federation ,is plagued
e with problems ,of' bilingual-
ism and biculturalism; En-
lish and French face each
other, in the words of a Ca-
g adian author twenty years
Its ago, "two solitudes in the in-
finite waste of loneliness
under the sun".
The President.of the Ca-
d nadian Export Association
e indicated a few months ago
ed that Americans control 95%
of Canada's automotive, in-
dustry, 89% of its rubber
products-, 70% of its petro-
leum and natural gas, 64%
of its electrical apparatus,
52% of its mining and smel-
ting, 43% of its -pulp and
3d paper industry, representing
t in all close to 60% Ameri-
e can control of all Canadian
Le manufacturing. The United
o Kingdom is very concerned
e over foreign edntrol of its
g automobile industry, West
e -Germany over its chemical

Date Due

IDue Re tti'!e Duete Returined

P R .1 t c 1;4

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