The case for party politics in Trinidad and Tobago


Material Information

The case for party politics in Trinidad and Tobago
Physical Description:
24 p. ǂc 21 cm.
Williams, Eric Eustace
Port-of-Spain, ǂb Printed by the College Press
Place of Publication:
Trinidad and Tobago


General Note:
At head of title: Teachers Economic and Cultural Association, Ltd. People's Education Movement.

Record Information

Source Institution:
UF Latin American Collections
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All rights reserved by the source institution.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 27104517
oclc - 10804311
System ID:

This item is only available as the following downloads:

Full Text

The Case for Party politics in Trinida<


I- --- --




.. of

m U

tj 30


IN A" V -A P -f. .

"k jj, vk
P. r nd

Nlo ;.0-7..., f Im .. "'111-1-- 1 1 ?-. e- i 11 i-14P. ,

~p~ ~I ii;,
~Bi Irl
I :"""
..jx;i ~6~
ca c IEI~
rE:l~l rk~,~ 4ls *ixllii~~ ~g i"~i~
~~~~ I;
r ira~
liriililili9 l.Z
"'" :rla~ 1811111111; ,i;,1
~:11II IP
ii- I~
1~? ~%~%,,,
a~ i~i~~rc~

L ~i~OF~
:"*i ~II Bl~otie~i~~~-S ~.~s'~nl''~~lxCii.~lln
ui:a8 x~x~;i "~f~~L~~~';j.*"-"":;;;
i ~~ i
~i~~lr~~ ~~~~~~I~~ ti~:i~In
I~~rr ~ i;?i:;aiz~~:'~:,:sci lCll
1-1 ~- ii""""-"ai~~~~~~::~~e~ ~~i
35~~~~~ sjl i~l~~llii;
~I ~~~~i"t ~~u; ~ ~J~
::i3~ I~~ ~5~i~I~~~ I~
'iiB Bi~.s:i6;Il1:;181 IBBJ i;lirR *.. ;,,,,,_, 7 -..,:diulal(plS!
1, ii~li~l~OLci~sa~~ I~t;b~i,~,;i;p%~z,.~Eli~i~:
i ~,S ~h,~~a~:x~, -~r:
:i* ~II
811 ~ a~ aa ~
:"."~I;~~l'? di ;rii .g
a s
u i
ii n
B~B;Of~~ ~;,xk:~6~L~
:i !~~~ ?p~ii~
Z ~g
~8~ ~ B a ~x~a~l~a I~:~ ll.~i; ":"r~~
:-~~ itilililnr
.6 "i~:"L~"fl";t~~~::,r;c;Y~~:: l;i~r~ dl~h X1 wa :"~Q~:~-lii~:D"'a:' i:i.:i$~s
I-I,. iW.IW.I ~ ~gl~S ~ai s~~i i-n
Ei"i~g. -anns
.,:., "~.~2:r~ ~;i 9.~~~~~*~j**l?-.~jl~";u:l,*la: i;Ej~g~
~I i,
i; a
,, ~E e-a .,i a~,
~li~~i st8Ji
'lar'"";"~."b~~it~it~it~i~ ~ a
:8~"; i%
L I,
,, i ~i;jil
~~E ~~i"in ;I
Bi d liii:~IIDI~~
b;r ~na;IP .ib?
a~ 9":: """~
E8~~~~i~ :: ~ m:I,
*~ I~ ii":~~" ~I~~ 3P~~
n~~,n~iiiI~ :a
:~~~i~a~l ~al
E ~~i~~~~iEDi.~r ~~i~~~IF
AE8ir~~l ain?ili~~.,,;,,
F1~ cu .i;~is ,,
E 1; i.
~I ~B
~8i~ ~I x,
re r- Bi~Y~~1U LI; rir
~~lil.a~~~l~ ~~"*ai I~ ;erI~ss~~i~i~
Bg~ F~i ~c ~Ei~i~si







:~~ ,.




Sept. 14, 1955

Sept. 15, 1955

Sept. 16, 1955

Sept. 20, 1955

Sept. 22, 1955

Sept. 23, 1955

Sept.. 24, 1955

Sept. 25, 1955

Sept. 26, 1955

Sept. 28, 1955

.. -. .. '


We, the people of Trinidad and Tobago, are the sick man of the Carib-
bean. Our principal handicap to recovery is our doctors. Five years ago we
called in a new team of local doctors to look after us. For five years they
have neglected us; they have been too busy growing rich in private practice,
and in having tea in the House of Commons, sightseeing in Scandinavia, and
not sleeping a wink in Montevideo. Now they are afraid that we might call
in another team more able and less expensive. So, aided and abetted by their
foreign consultants, they have drugged us for eight months and brazenly threaten
even now to extend the period of unconsciousness. It is the biggest fraud in
the annals of political medicine in Trinidad and Tobago.
It is not the sort of fraud that the police can deal with. It is political
fraud, which must be dealt with by political methods. This demands the crea-
tion of an Opposition we have not yet had; an Opposition so enlightened, an
Opposition so alert, an Opposition so relentless, that long before those eight
months have ended our Legislators and our Government will be wishing that
the Secretary of State for the Colonies had saved them from themselves. We
are going to do it right here in the University of Woodford Square.
The first essential of this Opposition is that it shall be the organised ex-
pression of that overwhelming public opinion which the Legislators, the Gov-
ernment, and the Colonial Office have so flagrantly disregarded in prolonging
the life of the present Legislative Council. That opinion must be organised
into an effective political party. I propose therefore to analyse tonight the
need for and the nature of such a party.

We last went to the polls on September 18, 1950, under a new Constitution.
Less than a year before this historic date, the people of Jamaica also had passed
judgment on their government. Three months before the people of the United
Kingdom had had their election. The election in Trinidad and Tobago differed
fundamentally from the elections in the United Kingdom and Jamaica. In the
United Kingdom the election was a contest between two equally matched, or-
ganised parties, with a few candidates belonging to a third party. The inde-
pendent candidates, of whom there were a few, were slaughtered to a man,
both by the organised parties and by the voters the parties with their slogan,
"outside the party there is no salvation"; the voters by the outlook expressed by
one, "I would vote for a pig if (my) party put one up."
In Jamaica the election was also a contest between two equally matched
parties. But whereas one was a democratically organised party with a positive
programme, the other was a party organised around a single individual with no
real programme to speak of, while there were hundreds of independent candi-
dates, many of whom forfeited their election deposit, and only one of whom was
elected; he subsequently accepted an important Ministerial post in the govern-
ment formed by the majority party, whose leader had campaigned on the slogan,
"If I tell you to vote for a dog, vote for him. "

In Trinidad ancd. :obago, on the other hana, .notwitUstanomng the existence.
of a party which contested all the seats, organised around the personlityof a
single individual who advised the voters to vote for a frog if he told them to
do so, and three smaller parties limited for the most part to the urban areas, the
election was a contest between a horde of independent candidates. There were
141 candidates in all, or one candidate for every 2,000 voters. In one particu-
lar constituency there was. one candidate' for every 1,000 voters. One-seventh
of the candidates received fewer than 100 votes; one-tenth received more 'than
100 but less than 200.
The difference between Jamaica and Trinidad .and Tobago is best llustra-
ted by a comparison of the programme of Jamaica's democratically I.organised
party with the programme of the one-man party and the manifestos issued y
some of the independent candidates in Trinidad and Tobago.
The 1949 programme of the People's National Party in Jamaica began as
In December 1949, you will vote for a new. Government of Jamaica.
Normally, the citizens of a democratic community have a genuine
CHOICE of programmes and reasoned: statements of policy..
You will NOT have a genuine choice
There wll be ONLY ONE PROGRAMME prepared and 'endorsed
by a great party of Jamaican citizens organised democratically
throughout the Island.

You will read so-called statements of policy. There will be one-
man programmes, statements issued in -the- names of self-interested cliques
and self-opinionated persons. You will encounter many slogans, many
catchphrases. But the ONLY democratic programme will be the PRO-
WHY? :

Because the PEOPLE'S NATIONAL PARTY the ONLY Island-
wide party basing its policy upon the' democratic discussion and decisiQns
of its members.
IT IS NOT an amorphous mass drifting around a self-willed
demagogue. ";..
It is NOT the political expression of a wealthy and privileged class.
It is THE PARTY FOR democratic Jamaicans.
The P.N.P. -provides the means for the only real expression of'the
will of the people of Jamaica." -
The keynote of the P.N.P.- programme was more production. The ..Pay
pledged the creation of a Ministry of Production, the establishment of.a Lind
Authority and co-operative. farms, the establishment of an Industrial Develop-,
ment Corporation and a Small Industries Credit Corporation with emphasis. on
the food industries,, the production of building materials, furniture, and ot6er
household goods, boxes, packages and containers, and the development of. the

.. -* :- > .-a--' ": : -' ** -. *' :'". -1

Aial serve
d educe

to com
pay; eq
ries; al
ts well

plan f
Af teaci

decent housing
presentation on
boards in private

I accommodation

dignity or even common decency. It has used its power to deny work
to opponents and to victimise and oppress those -who -do not give it sup-
port. The people of Hanover and Trelawny will not have forgotten that
the government threatened them during their by-elections that they
'should not he allocated nublic money if 'they returned onnosition candi-


It is not
of worthless ir
of the spoils,

The Peo]
Government c

prising, then, that the Government's wretched example
-sentation, self-seeking and internal strife for the division
been reflected elsewhere in the Island.

National Party is determined to conduct the affairs of
he highest levels of integrity and public morality. Self-

s: a 45 hour w
all workers, in
pay for wome
ion of child 1
for the settler
kers. The pro
accepted the p,
n industries pul

national propos
iversal and con
the provision of
; adjustment c
icilities for teach
conquest of illi

gramme ended
d for honesty
five years have
!c honesty. :R
ommon in the If
mal standards
iot only democ
government has
-iio n niki

7,A s

Government for Jamaica will never be advances
last five years have been removed from our po:

When we compare the People's National Party's
maica with the election manifesto of the party which
of seats in the election in Trinidad and Tobago, the j
is the fact that the Trinidad party's manifesto was co
first person. It began by recapitulating the leader's s
the people and castigating some of his opponents by
string of reforms and pledges, in which one can fir
no sequence: the right of self-determination; the right
tory legislators; three square meals a day; increased
secondary education; creation of suitable new industry
tions; first class recreation centres; health insurance;
servicemen and seamen; intelligent and wise control
"good and plenty water"; free nurseries and clinics; e
local industries; a housing scheme for various categc
ployees and for pavement sleepers; and nationalisation
all the major industries.

The only indication of the method of financing
following statement:

"If the millions that are collected out of Oil
'in Britain are made to remain (by law) in Ti
government of the People of Trinidad and Tobaq
poor of Trinidad and Tobago specifically and e'
Generally prove insufficient to give the People N
entitled to enjoy in their own Country then a big
in America to be used in turning Agricultural T
the greatest industrial Country in the whole hi

It was recognized, however, that the millions distri
might not be enough. The demands for free second
free dental and medical attention, free b6oks and
with the statement:

"If there is sufficient money in the local Tn
uniform to boot."

The manifesto called on the people to support th
of the party. But it distinctly and emphatically stated
policy were-the work not of the party but of the lea(
tains this paragraph:

'These are but a few of the many (Reform!
thought and put into carefully prepared plans fo
,dence of our Country I have saddled m)
responsibility of preparing (and due to certain 4
unaided this historic Document."

i[ the stains of the
1 system."

for Progress in Ja-
the largest number
hing that strikes us
I throughout in the
-es in the cause of
Then followed a
) plan, no pattern,
recall of unsatisfao-
age pensions; free
d self-help occupa-
for fishermen, ex-
agricultural policy;
agement of efficient
of government em-
he oil industry and

programme was the

absentee shareholders
d to be used by a
the interests of the
Ddy in the Country
they want and are
i shall be sort (sic)
td and Tobago into
of British Colonial

[ to oil shareholders
education, free milk,
transportation ended

, a free nice fitting

gramme and. policy
the programme and
The manifesto con-

it I have personally
edom and Indepen-
to the very serious
stances) alone and

come back to us again, at this election with another party, which is even
ess fortunate, as it cannot even find sufficient candidates for the. eighteen
ts It wasi lear that they ere opposing not the leader of a party but

eta thfrd condemned th very conception of party politics. I
e cart before the horse, he advised the electors:
"The claims of the leaders of these so called Politic
discredited at once, since every thinking person know
system can only be effective among a people having s
value of discipline, and who have been accustomed tc
tolerance, -honesty and sincerity.

it is myy personal conviction that real Political Pai
only after the people of this Colony have had a chan
manage their own affairs. The New Constitution,
beginning in the matter of government by the peopk
will nevertheless serve as a stepping stone to the develop]
Parties in -this country."
What did: these non-party candidates offer you five yes
hing under the sun. I have examined 52 of the manifestos;
rom successful candidates, two of whom became Ministers.,
The most promise was employment. Listen to
eased, employment; emp oyment for all; regular employment
cvocated greater eonomic prosperity and a census of the unE
dked to the establishment of industries as a means- of ac

0ese 18 were

ii ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ A i! i i,,!! i i! L ---, ,! !i iii i iij L -f At-i !ii!i i" ,i ~~ ii, i :: '!! iiii' i !iiii~ii~

Isi Biiiii~ ii~iii i

creasing unemployment" Yet another future Minister advocated the policy,
"Develop new industries". Recalling in his manifesto that he had raised the
slogan, "Trinidad must industrialise. or perish", and claiming that he had been
instrumental in getting the Aid to Pioneer Industries Ordinance passed, he
enthused over the textile industry which, he claimed, "will soon start operations
providing work for over 500 of our jobless youth.". Have the 1955 elections
been postponed to give Trinidad time to perish because he now opposes indus-
trialisation, to allow the Aid to Pioneer Industries Ordinance to be repealed,
and to complete his operations for putting out of work the people employed by
the textile factory ?
The farmers and the agricultural workers were promised their place in the
sun. Some of the specific proposals for agriculture included: acquisition and
equitable distribution of agricultural lands; nationalisation of the sugar industry;
a better price for farmers' canes and cane farmers' insurance; free holdings for
agricultural labour; a grow more food policy; co-operative cane farmers estates;
intensive agriculture with mixed farming; a tax on uncultivated land. With
that vagueness which has characterized our Ministerial policy, one future Minis-
ter advocated "a sound agricultural policy" with "full prices for the colony's
staple products." He merely forgot to tell us how he would fix it. Self-suffi-
ciency in rice to eliminate rationing and find jobs for the unemployed was the
contribution of another Minister in the making, little realizing that when he
eventually eliminated rationing, it would be because Trinidad was so self-
sufficient in rice that the price went up to 40 cents a pound.

Side by side with promises of employment in industry and agriculture went
a concern with wages and social security. Some of the promises read as fol-
lows: a higher wage scale; better wages; a living wage for sugar workers; a
real living wage for all; a minimum wage tied to the cost of living. A famous
democratic slogan suffered a sea change into something rich and strange, when
one candidate advocated a fair day's work for a fair day's pay; some capitalist
wolf in the labouring sheep's clothing, no doubt I Another candidate advocated
family allowances and what he called "more social securities"; two others
pledged unemployment insurance, a future Minister called for a sound social
security programme with improved working conditions and a living wage for
all workers. The most precious gem was the promise of one candidate to
"demobilise unemployment"; the electorate, however, was not amused and left
him unemployed.

Where the social services were concerned the candidates were in their ele-
ment. These are some of the promises regarding our health:-better health
services, one candidate specifying the backward areas; improved medical
facilities; more modern hospitals; health insurance; rural clinics and health
offices. A future Minister took a world view: improvement of the colony's
Health Services to meet adequately the needs of the people in association with
the efforts of the World's Health Organisation. As he wrote this, he must
have licked his chops in anticipation of all the trips promised by such an

In the field of education the consensus was that there was vast room for
improvement. The slogans varied only slightly larger and better schools;

improved education and more schools; better education facilities; more elemen-
tary and secondary schools; more medical scholarships; more scholarships for
Civil Servants; free secondary education; more money for education; or, simply,
more schools. A future Minister called for the extension of adult education
facilities. A future colleague advocated expediting the school building pro-
gramme for the purpose of producing additional facilities for improving voca-
tional and technical training as well as more secondary schools. One candidate
pledged the substitution of Chambers and Royal Readers for the West Indian

The housing reformers had a field day. More houses for all; comfortable
houses for workers; comfortable houses for all; housing at reasonable rentals;
government loans for improving houses; better housing for teachers these
were the inducements held out to voters. Our old friend wanted to "demobi-
lize" the barracks. A future Minister capped it all with a promise to further
the people's cause by "a Housebuilding Programme to provide cheap and im-
proved houses to take care of the ever increasing housing problem." You see
how right I was when I suggested banishment of the Ministers to Shanty Town
to live with the corbeaux.

And then there was the question of water. A comprehensive water supply;
an island wide water supply; a better water supply; extension of water supplies;
these were the hopes held out, a future Minister contributing the promise of
improved water supply for the entire Colony. The omissions were more elo-
quent than the admissions; no one mentioned either the Caura Dam or the
dammed Caura.

No one was left out The aged were promised larger pensions, the fisher-
men better facilities, the workers restriction of freedom of movement in
federation. An island wide electricity supply was very popular. Someone
advocated protection of public funds and an improved Civil Service. Many
candidates pledged more efficient and economical transportation, cheaper
transport, more and better rural roads. A few remembered responsible gov-
ernment. Many talked of reducing the cost of living. Some advocated sub-
sidies on essential foodstuffs and the reduction of import duties on food. One
candidate called for better protection by the police. A few promised jobs for
local men in the Civil Service and in industry. Those who ran out of specific
objectives made up for this by more general promises to honour womanhood,
to raise the social and moral standard, or, in the. words of one candidate, to
do the things required to be done, but only what is just, upright, decent and
Where was the money to come from all these things? There was uni-
versal silence, broken only by the candidate who advocated higher taxation
of the oil companies.
In commending themselves to the voters, the independent candidates, since
they could claim no party allegiance, necessarily fell back upon their personal
claims and past records. They emphasised their labour affiliations and their
struggles in the cause of labour or their sympathy with the workers through
their own experience. One candidate, for example, stressed that he "slaves

like you". Others reminded the voters of their connect
with Uriah Butler.
One of the most common of the claims made to fa
was their experience in city or county councils and in w
festos are full of boasts of standpipes erected, drains i
telephone booths installed or secured, traces improved an
undertaken, or under construction. If the candidate is
you living space, dying space is the next best thing; if y
didate a happy hunting ground in this life, he will gt
resting place in the next.
The candidates stressed their philantrotpy, their socd
they had donated, the scholarships granted, the years of i
provided. One claimed that he had been responsible f
into the island; another emphasised the big shots he had
recalled that he had brought the Governor to see sometht
had sent a memorandum to the Secretary of State for
helped fishermen, cane farmers and municipal employees
association with youth movements and cultural groups
Minister, boasted that he had restored Carnival after tl
can readily sympathise with his interest in "ole mnas'",
by the delegations they had led at one time or another.
anything than nothing. One candidate raked up his cox
cane inspection committee way back in 1930. It was fc
that Trinidad lies outside the hurricane zone.
The self-portraits of the candidates also speak volun
climate of Trinidad and Tobago five years ago. Several I
widely read. The people of Trinidad and Tobago cou
from men of sincerity, -integrity, ability, experience,
Some were business successes; others were honest, bra
iinformed. Some had'educational qualifications, others
One had a sound mind in a sound body, another condu4
to God and man. There was one who advertised himself
knows poverty, and another who was friend to one and al
fearless agitator and servant of the working .masses rubbo
war veteran. One emphasised that the candidate should
understand English well; another insisted that the canc
not be such that he would be embarrassed in taking pa
social activities.
Great stress was laid on the fact that the candidate
constituency he aspired to represent. "Why did you lea,
fight the seat in this constituency?" was the question on
Sas a must for the electors. That, however, was not eno
propose another question: "Have you associated with 1
you feel yourself too big to attend our wedding functions,
or our grandmother's funeral?" One wonders what wot
the candidate to whom this question was directed had be
though he had not attended Granny's funeral, he had enla
her reception.

with Cipriani or

y the candidates
ork. The mani-
rqads surfacedO,
ieteries enlarged,
ble to guarantee
arantee the can-
ee you a happy

irk, the trophies
aching they had
producing B.C.G.
reviewed; a third
r other; a fourth
colonies aiid had
srs recalled their
tother,- a futuree
time ban. We-
d set great store
ras better to say
)n with a hurri-
:e for the voters

to the political
avelled, one was
ike their choice
I, dependability
regressive, well-
clean characters.
habits pleasing
/9 '


rely for the sake of being facetious or to
m Is ..v

ion to its two principal features.

rst is the utter impossibility of carrying. c

gular employment for all. How is he
If contribute to regular employment ir

nploy a domestic se
he did not have c
oceed hire a ya
promise to establish in
question of the reqi
ow can one man iu
dight be the incentive
Ow .can he guarantee
n he guarantee to e
'hen the location of
ght of the availability
proximity to specific r

For the same:real
r all, be they uncoi
ighter wage scale, w'
between the employer
institute one text
ie Education Depart
ipply' or an island wi
se more a schools; he c
re to get subsidies fr
bhools. All these ar
decided in terms of 1

rvant on the basis "0
mne before, a~d afte
rd boy. It makes 1
idustries. The estab
aisite amount of cap
idertake, to guarantee
e needed to bring a"
me to train the nece
establish any industry
... TV -

going to achieve this
a small way. For
: his salary as Legis
r increasing his salh
lo more sense for t
ishment of an indus
ital and the requisite
a tax holiday for
individual capitalist
isary labour? More
at all in any partic

the industry will be determined by the
y of raw materials, existence of the net
markets, etc.?

son no individual can guarantee to his c(
mfortable or comfortable; nor can he gti
ich is a matter to be determined by col'
Sand the union.- The individual who p
book for another encroaches on t
ment. No individual can guarantee an i
ide electricity supply or better roads. Nc
,an only approach the Education Departt
rom the state, unless he means that he w
e in the last analysis financial matters v
the total resources of the community at

ced by the
ly promise
3 can him-
)le, he can
can then
dividual to
of labour.
ears which
ie country ?
)rtant, how
stor in the
r amenities,,

cents houses
se td all a

) himself to
inctions of
wide water
160 2 *-

Ul am~LoUUI
Sup private
have to be
reforms are

eeueu or not. rveryoouy KUnoWs mey are. i ne quesuon is
ie aspiration into reality. No one man can do that. His 6le
aahmi,..A a p ha<;l1m r-,:f nVIA'v riati a i A mni. ;nrinmlt,*" ehnil

ver and run a nationalized industry.

If the individual claims were abs
tore absurd. For example, one of ti
rm all and facilities for industrial exp
ni., .v mr_ ._ .I

ird, the basis of those
e candidates who pron
insion urged the voters
son I -1 .

iminatininae anrl th elrnuii~a he hadr

DDort of farmers. suvuorted his election claim by reference

rces To taIe

is was even
sk the aspi-
I post He
adicraft and
sic and art.
Industry and
e thousands
I at his own




expense for the erection of a school. The candidate w
social securities" and "more agricultural securities" upheld
fact that he had enlarged two cemeteries, repaired several
several water pipes, while he had the attention of the govern
provision of a taxi stand and the construction of a sidewalk
damental deficiencies in the political life of Trinidad and
this low level of political intelligence reflected in such appe

The second conclusion we can draw from an analysis
manifestos is that it is folly to say that the cause of our pre
people backed the wrong horses. In one case they clearly
cumbed to the seduction of back pay. But for the most
instinct, the people preferred one candidate who said he w
of another candidate who said he would do virtually the s
large there was a remarkable similarity between the pr
present eighteen members and substitute another eightec
unsuccessful candidates in 1950, or send the present fly
and substitute another five from the eighteen successful
fundamental situation in Trinidad would be today exactly
one particular one of the unsuccessful candidates in ]
terrific one-man opposition.

But this does not mean that those who were elected
those who were chosen as Ministers could not have.done I
tive Council had the choice between holding the elections
poning them. It decided to postpone. It could just as easily
postpone. The difference is one of ethics and respect for the
Minister who decided to close the textile and shirt factories
have decided not to close them. What matters is the perspe
and the appreciation of economic realities. There is nothing
prevented the Constitutional Reform Committee. from produce
tution which would not make Trinidad and Tobago a laughing
otherwise. But it was not inevitable that it should have a
ted the community as it has done.

This, then, is the lesson of the 1950 election: even i
might have done better, the individuals as individuals cou
plement individual programmes, many of 'which bore no
to fundamental economic realities and were totally innoc
conception of planning.

The conclusion is a very simple one: the ,case for party
and Tobago is overwhelming.
What are the advantages of party politics over the
individual politics ? Assuming that the party is a demc
party, the advantages are the following;
1. The electorate is presented with a coherent prog
not the personal thoughts of one man but the collective
membership. This programme is a national one, present
over the country without any deviation or alteration. Ti

promised "more
is claim by, the
is and extended-
it engaged in the
One of the fun-.
bago is precisely
tn theA elfnrat~e

call organized


* ;'* '

r -vte for_ or against not the caprices of an individual but the d

2. The programme Isa'national prb'gramme, too, in the
[s with national issues affecting the country as a whole and
Ds limited to a section of it. Standpipes, drains, sidewalks, tel
eteres are parochial matters, not national issues. They con
diton, of the County Council, not the Legislative Council.

8.- The- members oftheparty with its national program
'a national viewpoint. They are not lobbyists or representative
ips as in the U.S.A. seeking legislation desired by sectional
members ofa national team as in the United Kingdom, where
parliament has to sign the following declaration when he 'ace
Lt to a committee on a Bill:

"I swear that my constituents have no local interest M"n
-1 have no personal interest in it."

4. Party discipline ensures that'the party members in: t
as. the party deciees. The party whichwins -a majority in th
efore carry out -its election pledges. The alterative. isr
later by the ChiefMiniter, or' dismissal of members froi
lsion is dreaded weaLpon. It means that' the membercan
y support in the next election. rIt is well recognised in tI
tries that, as* the saying goes, it is easier to go to the country i

But ~there are-parties and parties. 'The. party which won the
ofl seatsin the 1950 election isLn6t a party in the recognised
L It-is a conglomeration of individuals around a certain ma
within its ranks was only a matter of time. A party whi<
viduals 'who come-together only in an attempt to get power
itin its attempt, and;is unlikely to last fitsucceeds. Ithas n
icaseofthepy to which Jamreferring,
the_ programme was the leader's programme., It could be
ical reasons by the party candidates before the election only I
. APolitical party, in other wordsis more then a bunch
,ped together to, contest a specific election. Nothing is gained
,a group of ten individuals for ten separate individuals working

The first prerequisite of party- politics fin Trindad- and Tobagc
establilshment of one good party. Such a party is now being
. dentified with it. I am authorised, to indicate, to you tonight
uL & party as my colleagues an-idI see them, in the light

fitins'bicwe aceItoay n-Tiniad nd oba o. ag

ifacton. f thspincial.nedo ody th oltca d

btle, ll' t ciite utb sbriae tot'|:, mus .ifdr
a .... th and -mustfindtheirmeaning^ i n t his

t i t t

me boxes,

F pressure.
asts; they

val of a

count on

to return

0,est num-

ad defee-
onsists of


t specific

d to the
an of the

Parties, are nothing. hut an expression of the orgai
of the community or-sections of it. Hence before you c
you must have a public opinion to organise. The orgar
opinion demands first of all education,
The most damming criticism of the present governmm
no steps whatsoever to promote the political education
the contrary; it sought to deport journalists and it disco
mentaries on the radio. One naturally expects a Crov
to keep the people in ignorance, to dictate to them and
scruff of their neck and push them into some measure ox
good for them. It may. indeed be the best thing for th
decision made by the people is better a thousand times
decision made for them; and who in Trinidad and 7J
temerity to say that Crown Colony decisions were correct
thing for the people in practice ?- But what is unpardo]
tion of the same contempt for the people and public c
flesh 'and blood, people whom we regarded as our triansiti

We hold, therefore, that a proper party in Trinidad
the highest priority to the political education of the pec
need guidance in this, especially in one particular. They
Mr. X, even though he represents Constituency Y, has
Legislative Council to serve not his constituency but the
say as Edmund Burke said-nearly two centuries, ago:

"Certainly, gentlemen, it ought to be the l~
a representative to live in the strictest union, the (
and the most unreserved communication with hi:
wishes ought to have great weight with him. It i
his repose, his pleasures, his satisfactions, to theirs
and in all cases, to prefer their interest to his own

But Parliament is not a congress of ambassad(
hostile interests; which interests each must maint
advocate, against other agents and advocates; parlis
assembly of one nation, with one interest, that ofI
local purposes, not local prejudices ought to guide,
resulting from the general reason of the whole.
indeed; but when you have chosen him, he is not n
member of parliament."

to ao uungs ror tmemseiyes and -to .tlink for themselves.
intensive educational activity throughout the country, I
of contradiction, except by those who stand to lose by it
telligence of the masses of the people is -astonishingly h
stincts astonishingly sound, and that they are the best a

political. opinion
ve party ..politics,
n of that public

tbat it has taken
e people. Quite
.d political conm-
lony government
ake them by the
ground that it is
pie, but a wrong
the most correct
.'--will have the
'ory. and the best
is the manifesta-
i from our own
self government.

'obago must give
The people will
understand that
returned to the :
y. Here let me

ss and glory of
stituents. Their'
duty to sacrifice
above all, ever,

)m different and
Ls an .agett and
is a deliberative
hole; where, not
he general good,'
choose a member
r of Bristol, he is

d to the party's
y step taken by
. I- *L ,E

Say wX.uuuL xulea
the political in-
heir political in-
)st vital students

. .. d Ag . .



I have encountered in any university in my experience. The principal ob-
jective of the new party must therefore be at all times the dissemination of
knowledge and of facts among the people to enable them to draw. their own
conclusions. Whatever conclusions the party itself draws can then be tested
by the people themselves. The party is conceived of as a vast educational agency
equipped with an important research department, the data being presented in
simple language and an attractive manner to the people to encourage them to
form their own opinions. This will involve a party newspaper, party informa-
tion leaflets and newsletters, party pamphlets, to serve as the basis of discussion
groups within the party. The party recognizes that to educate is to eman-
If and when the party achieves power, its party education must be supple-
mented by a system of public service broadcasting designed to give the people
of Trinidad and Tobago the political education which they do not now receive
by radio. One of the principal features of this public broadcasting might be
broadcast of debates in the Legislative Council. Similarly the party must
particularly explain to the people the reason, scope and likely effects of all
bill, long before they are debated and passed, so that public opinion can. ex-
press itself on them.
I may conclude thus: the party we conceive for Trinidad and Tobago is
not only a party which has the confidence of the people, though that will be an
enormous step forward, but also one which. is much more than that, a party
which has confidence in the people, which understands from the very beginning
that its future depends on the development of an enlightened and politically
educated electorate.
After the political education of the people the next most important pre-
requisite of a party, in our opinion, is honesty.
The dishonesty and immorality of political life in Trinidad and Tobago
are now a byword. The population is tired of graft and corruption, sick to
death of broken promises, fed up to the teeth with the squandering of the
taxes for which it has to dig deep into its pockets. The situation daily gets
worse. Ministers come and go like absentee landlords paying routine visits
to the Caribbean to check up on their plantations, to hush up a scandal, to open
up the big house, and to enjoy a little of the sushine. The disease is rapidly
spreading to the Civil Service. We can find the money apparently to send
someone to witness an air show in Britain. We are about to send a department
head to a tourist conference In India and a Minister to another in Switzerland,
while we have nowhere to put the tourists, unless indeed they are to be put
in our newest tourist potential, the Caroni Swamp, to sleep, with the scarlet
The poison is seeping through the entire body politic. The postponement
of the elections in Trinidad and Tobago will go down in history as the greatest
dishonesty and iniquity we l~ve ever had to endure. The responsibility for it
rests squarely on the shoulders of our elected representatives and the Colonial
Office. Our elected representatives know the demand in the community for
constitution reform. They took power on the distinct understanding that theirs
was a transitional constitution. They shirked the vital issue until they could

Even in the midst of the life and death struggle of
the British or American people could go to the polls;
bago are denied that right at the height of dhe peace
British Government suspended the constitution of -B
did not have confidence in the governIment in power; i
the constitution of Trinidad and Tobago because It hE
ernment in power. I watched for years in the Ca
British Goverinment officials took sides against Non
because they knew that he could not be influenced an
to, deal with people who were, as they said, "pliable",
plans to offer, and who would therefore be an eany
and wiles, whilst behind their backs they laughed at ti
Office pays lip service to colonial self government
public opinion', while it surreptitiously tries to achieve
ment which it considers satisfactory.

The whole rotten mess has been stirred -ip by a
The Secretary of, State for the Colonies announced
was a matter for the Legislative Council. One of th
ever advised us some time ago that, even before the
Council had been presented to him, eth Secrietaly of S
decided in favour of the postponement -of the election
an "'the nir-atieq f mnrnfnrn1 Tnn crrp n ntii- lka Ainal-

ri1. Now, to add init
ch is yesterday leftdirs
>pular acceptance to hat
lice, Fully consciousof
y are doing theirbestto
come, and when .itdes
es to blame-if they fl-to

The British Governpn
arent pars of th
'ns at the schedu ledl
the Second Wol ar,
we in Trinidad an IT.
which iskiilling- e
ritish Guiana ebea
t hiasinefEectsp
is confidence in the
dbbean Commissionii ow
man Manley in
d because they prefiP
who had xjn conitru
pre to their own ad
heir antics. 1The l1
for the.b'enefitof od
the typeof self go n-

section of the locale
that -constitution-rform
e local.
eview of the Legislative
3tate for thle Colonies Iad
ns and was only waitig
lt, we are now to h
o reform, our constitution
al has been issued about
[erationist as any in Trini-
Ivocating federationfloi
sent supporters. I ded
tions in order to.ahieve
we accepted theprinciple
is totally- abintl in tl
ados since it was "draft.
A and Tobago. There is
th the' final establishinent.
only totally.discrddited-In
t In the Britishliarlb



or o0
onst :i Omein

arty. n bn eq~dised ot
g,&fp hfieefi 1mm

MA pltft aini d 6n4
dod bf.fsui-6, i d n to
~ mperLonation
=y-,-he-,'rast' redctio -ofthe ndef~ible costof t. NaqleL
Bon'A~ate,.-n~nehi~ato -qis too4'Ifoeth nOt ;&OS fhi, atl$
the bd~l of 'Aus~i'ltz d-theni':a4:0sO t conu CAthtelvls a
O 8"~;~":%'fi"":i;oi;:
boeousa,.!:as a Asteliifo popq. t

es -a rae-an t e qt Ia'-"diiwsig.toi~t s ne-o Wic
I=- it I~ee fo.'som ne, 6 :s~y.. hat h- Isa, cadidae of he', pary fc
tbi, eg~tie,,Conci,-or neof he Mui l. r ~uny ounil, fihe
'.wpe f r~icadanToa Aosy, thm. JM-110le 30,
I~ei ar' bhoes smeadiee"-hnety, soe us. av hne
:E tyl W1
pdn- em e par t


Tryy t6 foist A.,cies e y
oneseecinma hism 6f'he .?i ish t P 9ii
xi6l ashbrs if d poag "ii is catveevecb a
up chi~~ nd thed hs s.

thPty' bP 0 p ci

gi~iez~os Thle gout n ither area -overted-ni Gre Sbettoth1, p
oth.Constituzency Giup' th Co~y which s asd oncfeei .on
-f aR, InI

e4 h etvot atyditesor Th ecigtio ~subsr- ts

ig s wiblthe- hek~ dui~dsio th Part Coup rct$n oi~t3 dfaJ

Th t' CnstitGtip. Theu preitta us Consite of f~~n whfca
Confedec by c eetstl the Pa~rty Jfcr p
mnemb ce ~Teasrq th e lti' nPmmeso teMn
office f esrt ind nnbeng
arryenteefr hieaoi 'r -ecti4 t
s. e a$ t ie P, ctiv Oo, Oct

Party S aalS exctv e :-addtsJq aoha eetosa lede b
~~T, aaxtvco ee

d ted fGon Those ofp mi the -t Leaiers

Co eaden e r fc let l the Party. Ofcr xetti alae
an thScearty and bTeing er Thgie~ P.N. Trln tveConilcoda 'f
yrth -a yeIn

ihe fieso Party andr~ the ~memes authority of th Cc ;at
~a o p~ry cadidt~a thepart rnrnbes Party~
plus~~p 6w~ebesromec costttuencfry eujecte toc the l *h
once a week. a$tuee
byteannilCdeece,,tePrlaeiar edrstre ersnttvi"

or chial election. Itk,6sincos onat wthte alimntr
;"x~t e pa,
aidiiit stefnso he ao n alt edrtc aris, GU01
an pniblt'o Cara fth atelce y'hePiy'CIirn ..
ai eprtd tintoe.- teLadrof eGou.4hii
reogie&ladr fth aiy

Partys exeutive
-Oe uthraswt f h nrI sdmorai sre;ene&.U b bt &

(,:i **;v y ^ *'" : :-r,;; :. : ..... .. ^ .:- : .: ; ..* : -. :* .- ..... : : -: : ::; *. ,:* :- i.:* .: \
Iis juus sp grat i; Triidad and obagi. The onyf solution is to have a masse ::,
| partyi : .dnsc g yi dues yimg meMbers a'd synip the ti& didu ls
some of B'the revenue bing refunded to the party and constituency groups, as 5
-the P. cqititution u provides, father than bjy undisclosed sources which :;:
might cpttute pressure groups. If the country wants goodTgovemment, it
muistb: prepared to pay fbr it. The only alternative is or t to accept irum
Iroti a'nd dollars as its price for misgovernment
: .. .. : _.
S:- goes : without saying that the party I am describing iiust exercise strict
a disciplie. The spectacle of'individuals moving from party to party, or
Sabauong i a party as soOn as the election objective'has been achieved, or
oppomg pgity ^decisions, or publicly .dissenting from them, :s as notorious ini
TriT~dh d and Tobago as the sun a innooiday. A Minister who stays "in a.
Sgovenmenfit after publicly rebelling against government policy has become as
,characteristic of the political life of Trinidad and Tobago as that of the leader
' of an opposition who accepts an acting appointment 'as a Minister. Behaviour
of this :sort only illustrates that saying swich epitomise~ the imimorality- of
|t li ii Trinidada and : Toago, pin politics anything goes".
S uch ibesaviour contrary to the true party spirit. A proper party cannot
Spos~i6j ndoi if' The eed :f discipline' is particularly strong in a plae
ia lilciTnidaaiid Tobago % heie the word is ha:dly known. It is necessary
prmic :ly'i tree dirtioffs (1) the refusal by the party's executive to
adii anyone whodait its opinion, is not likely to abide bits decisions or whose .
past :ecord'is regarded as compromising to the pars reputation for honesty
Saidde~ (2) the expulsion of any member whose conduct hasbeen in the
exec tives opinion contrary to the interest of the party or to its programme,
p^oJiy r principles; (5) a clear prohibition by theparty of any indulgence by A
its date in personal abuse in election campaigns.
SThis brings mme n th o the constitution and prdgramme of the party, the .:
t ncipal criteria-by which th pa will be judged by the electorate. The
t;is tcns;ittioni must enshrine:tli pncipl]b of democracy already indicated.
Sj ty progra:mme must clearly- arid precisely indicate' to the voters. what
rtK M- p posbs to achieve and how it iifends to do so.

**.in ihe. Jarty states that it proposes to bid schools, or roads, or bridges, :
te pole piusf infdeudrstarid that the party, wiil build schools, roads and -
b;ges, Wh:en it states that it .will provide i jbs, dtie people must understand '-i^;!
th ft wl lprbovide jobs. People dominated by the Colonial Office mentality
~babble about ,agriculture being ;the babis of our. prosperity, in the face of .:i^
4^ &idence that oil and not agriculture is the basis and that agriculturee ? ::. |
S$eadlydisplacing labo u: nd must continue to do so. The party must show : li
ti people clearly that I stands fr ?a prograinme of industrialisation designed :.
iontlyto provide jobs for the unemployed and for those whom agriculture |
::e edato. trow out of -emiployent, but also to lead to the Very ex-. ,.:.-
pen.on o agricultural activity which the agriculturists themselves wilfully refuse
t..-derstand. It must show the people also that it is industry alone ;::.
swa- eea higher standard of iring han agriculture and which will thus .-
.ipi aricpture to fall in line, The party pogramme will make these, things' :::
,. : ,, : ., :;.:, ,;, ., .. ...- :-.1 .' ., ., .. ," ... .?.:: ., ,::.,;::.;:, ..

be .co'teU to"..U:U .

capital- is nothing to be atraid ot. "L he Venezuelan ;o0
been co-operating with -the oil companies using excess pr

Venezuelan agriculture and secondary industries.' The
most .powerful trade .unions, in the United Kingdom a-

.his union had' a health and welfare fund totalling $40

tended to raise to .$400 millions, making the: union, a

capitalist in the country.

i T71 ~~~~~~''''
-L ~S~St~i rr:*?
u :,,r; .;... i
....... ~,~j~II~:~;:~
r* ~: :~:'
,~r' r

... o .. ... -. .. . . ... .


It m :nst not, however., actively ..intervene in. .the formation of -management. .of
:trade nions; the people of Trinidad and Tobago are sick and tired of scheming
politicians riding on the backs of the workers to gain the confidence of the
Colonial Office and the Chamber of Commerce. I wish to make it clear,
..... l. 0 T r,,'~,&fmr...rI -n-l o larlare f it'h nerlnr. hlace mnrramn t

ist proclaim as its principle a career open 1
derations. But it must recognize that- this i.
keaactive steps to discourage and eliminate 4
fment which is so characteristic of our society
ranteed, it only remains to respect thb legiti
several racial groups in our diversified society.

iousquestion is yet another case where the
)f the utmost importance. This raises the w
1 school.
t a :' ., 'es
the listictive features of our educational
have we, the people of. Trinidad and '
i this important matter. Outside commissi

u tt e ~ achersamnd the par~ens.-to dnest entee ce n

Here, I hope, you will permit mn to intodtzcea4 personalJnote
uniformldy held that this question of the orgaznisatiton, of~ our-eduainsno
matter of individual-.'prejudice bt one. for thepeople -themnsele o'eida
their elementarydemocratic right

'Me question has been rai sed, both pblcly~andpiaey. otoasr*,
the wishes. of the people? 'Mat is the ais t fal:Mrl o,'akte:
qx~estioxn is to enmphadsle thekneed for the,, oliical education o he el
there anyone today whio can claim* that -he,4des not nwth *h
people on ~ the issue of postponement ~ofte eleions, atral-hLUrsltos._
passed against it at meetings~ all over the 'countr'y?,.Ltes-En dto~niab
appeared in the ?1ress against m~y personalviwadopsn h'stf,
scoo.Friends' of mnen have aked: e. whetheIsriulexcthino-.,
support a state school sy~em run by4MinisterX-o mstrY The-.qV7sn*_.1
the slihtest-doubt in my mind'as 'o te wihes h;adiec.aJwy
ago at~a public foruminSan Femandowh l-ttdtatfep~lo
British West Iniles feel a deep debt of -grattu 4~o tecuhsfdgiighML1
A edlucation when theState-delbrtlI- eue t o.s, n ht
of state control of schools has toface the fiundmna ifclyta tt
is identified by thexpeople all over the area a,thiprnpa emyhoubt
their history. `-IconclJuded. it~ih aprpsa forth aponmtof.lcl
comiamssion of inquiry to go 1into the* enti0e queionoeuai' i'r~d_::
and Tobago. The audience tedmy remak*-ihetuasc pls.,
My old friend, Dom Basil Matthewss u t e
the disunity which rmight epooe y h prsn ytmzigtw
controlled by a uniform curriclmcope.,ihrgdntitorofh
I regard the~ suggstion.-and 1 old him oa nhoethAsne6: ftt_.
reconcile the vWishes Qf th~e peplw th- h til mrto orri~ibe.`..
educatiol objective

Onefturther illustration -ma~y- ehgien., of h ntona.otk-1
tfrated by theparty no wlin process o omton.Iis-ht0aalbe-aen
in the community, irre tive of political
sevice- of the community. Asumatterssas tday, te sautr ois_&~
corporations, the 'civil service, the teaching- roesson u
datons are all dominated by nepotsm id n n~im- n p~m~nlt
promotion are -dependent to a ver ag xent onuht~ n so
Ministeers tazdwaggon.

1 hope that I may be a6wed to illustrate'tiponbyrfece o
self,*merely because I know the relevant fats ettea hnIkotoeiiovn
oth e ebersofthecomunity.Ishlares'
to the recent Ministerial -condemnato fsm lnl eisM u .dt_.
wh i gther. air e ate



irU nvesiyandis.dferentcoleges.Lokarund this va
.e 1 how. lonely I'a, mseeifI want tobeialone. Ihaepve i
~ee wth a group of som~e of the most intelligent -menmin
scussing and planning the orga~nisation of

stuied thvanc~e constitution and I expressed strong critic
Fehidepa~rtur~e.The M4inister' in' question imditly
,opmy public lectures. It was quite clear that I h~ad 4teppi
hie bad ind the R~ance report,. and that he had had the
D ~~bt ba, section ofte Press, to assume that I would
gh 'gist or governmients for the freedom~ to think oly

Thi lcture on thie draft federal constitution was given uxn
F h Exr~aMural Departmen~t of the University College ofI
Phic wsrfsed by- another- Minister any use of governme
9 oure oni the ground, as I was given to uniderstand, that I
ithito- Iwassusequently advised that the Minister vetoed
iae to im egarding my active association as director witih
Aua dvities in Trinidad -and Toba''o
I wa apointed ~adviser to the- Regional Economic Comm
the Comonweailth Conference on' the Geifera1 Agreement
radehl in London lst year., The appointment was based
et West Inian case which I had- originally prepared
rasaw of St. Ki~tts at his request and which the RE.C. ha.
ketn held here 'in I'Port-of-Spain. This statement events
tetacor ofthe West Indian case. At the conferencoeI
wzp isareeent with~ one of the Ministers of Trinidadl and
se:(1) his repeted reference to the political dependence
arben-on tjhe United Kingdom; (4my, insistenceathat
Dunceents e rac9rom a. text carefully. written aid genera

iii peopl il n .


as a11thiD
giv'e som~e

ie MInisters

iVest iidie
aildings for

ii ii i!! iil~iI Iiiliiiil~i


reasonable conclusion that 1, and others with me,, coql drw was t

d- On of a erwa
offended h Minlister. Oe ofhis friends'said.aft'r ads. that. bIa
mistake on my return to Trinidad ahead of :the- Minister- of, speal~ng,1
and writing on the -importance of the conference thus stealing, sd
Minister's y was on
econo ar.I
ecnmic interests, of the British Caribbeast' were -more moat
Personal interests of the leaders of the, delegaton.

Have not -said what I have said' Ladies. nn Geemen, ."an
spit' pevshness. What I fighting is the attitudebhn it al
e orpeei a 1 AJh6

atiuethat I fought for years -at the Caribbean Q-msio thei
b an to imp niali

.serve one s country only by being a. yes-ma to imeilsts'- or Miniseran
that political Poe 0s amnsopeoalaradisement., an. opportunt"fr.
-rewarding friends and uihig. enemies If my.4 case. were singul
.Would bie no Problem. But as you all know' it can be dulcated-Iun&
imsall over Trinidadan Tog.

Yet these are the very peddle who accusei me o0tyngt
everytbi n d' triww,* _~ilr
and everybody ..ond~ "~~" a; -

of 'unwillingness to --co-operate, aid, of aiming
man control. ~~But it is they who refusetoecgietiorht r
who boast that thi's or. that would. be done only' over the-if -dead bo'd'- hr
is the basis for co-operation ? There is none -on- the issu e' ofp postpo n
!be elections or closing, of the shirt:Jcoiso ehtoay-c
reform, Onle either 'agrees withsthese: Policies ofdisaigrees. I disakr&
iamae riulle. The' einphasis on th ther side 'is. on ,6pe en
0'ne of tlidelbtded mteinbers asked Ient collbborat %ithinandi his" cle
in drawing up a minority report, decline, because I -had yt
comited, nf"r- m

statement on the sub I was
thatI dd delin beause the elected member bits Isincege
that'I dd delin, be ceugno

And, in tru~ &

ffndn id in fact, I do, co-operate and' assist. pl`id
"theP non pro e'ti' 1textile-

th blicy of- d tecio of local shirts an exie. e 'ra
ene ince. Protection- e give
newspapers asked met for data on touim Evel.too he e
unsm rY. to orthkeewee s .J

produces the facts Igave them' wodf v or.Oeo h Minse
friends has goeso far as to ask me' to write an,.eco nomt blueprint for
and Tobago. lauihnl accused hiin of trying9 to aPpoint me_cnnd-,
iadviser ,to the* government, without- Pay,- -since. I have declined, -the p- ]ot
an f iin gtideas 'from me for the wMinis ters to car-ut d"
to, get ea s rrry:

Period of Postponement. He repe th --heewag' no harin in; Ahth
Seek. my assistance piaely, while they deouc 61blcy, as,:
So, you ~ now ~hav aohe raonfo ospoeen o heelc
stive the ins~istersI tim toi~ no hi o:ni odrTefnh

weIA hi al p_,ate have a` enhtnd ,lr an lentls OppositIo
be ove bytimstic.This i one ase won it will ntbtRicoo' s
hing o ones Lgsaof.s'm and Miisers lealaries wl ntbedue

orat, of all, howevf wn me- at
'y of'Pls rinshsarad houes. smareibly dise. OU
reported ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ be `absi htwhnte r nse ihm in. sh6
mut.n,4our -oo Univrsiy- f I ithem The 'boys Are shl ingh on thebeh
ghf n h caprs weffrshl fgtoi h ilsadi lesre
next i Wn the llsn weo shall ever suYeour a ,dsevenf whiah I ma
e, w nlghendaletan rletl

inmetizbelieve This Ui'esityewere cloed ithe wi cll es
Bart of~t T-biea -n ovbar wol car noth betrugge tor say
nk, to g xrs orves and. u~to wrk salrites nodot ob comui
and -oian accotdn be sil
th illp. traenonl neo curty down. t finxeinc n iel
Msite mpriht. Myf collhoevger, ano r laswill- behe inexpo M cleaguesnd'
on ncan ing o o nds e, proiin oe hn nddigt
Sef essdo. d'v tideals dn ed o rps to. Threy!e thaem,e
my wll',b it M.fact

begun.. i the of s ae o h my.ols...redhst pleart been,.uml doitetitssedve One o
reprt ae Ish

Miiser is- dr to` hssaod that owhen ierthey rd han ight' Withvl agi
be oi tkes hav dne That gret Nero hmearicady beolr Booae t
clos, donceur saiiidtha if youwanm'thm tha wee sal 'figh 'owin th ditch, e

we wn gtmintothe- c withal never surend frter, and even ifwih Io wa
noyo.a -oment el iee -rm gthis, nt t hier ditc- wee-yoused.,, te ,our cusoplle s *tn

th Vriisplet of. Trinidad and. Tobago would eiry.othe e setrgl dow r 'the
rgtA"-hink, -'toexpares our view mst and pller fou th goof ot.uM collemunity,

each ma an Wmit accodingat6 this way ltoyot. yteogaiaino
'-th n iedeciew. --as deat party ineperencedwoe

Thywi1'dsenoune Orfrm and ec-mc oca oitdcalireso
the-re deveitopmen of teausn' comuit asead~ s woll e, dneda edt
dealing min se ineligncthrithanto one emthiong and doing lethr
tical ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 6 edciodealaelsth oefoto isatiiis
a partyW w d aeideahls, aup o 'dou hedalothacen emoac

okkh lmtd one., Tht gret. byNaegry Amteria. scholrinatookeofT
-i 6 if you want
to Jl tin. in th usb~. fi to ditc-.;'youself you mus pul' t
yo, in 9

0 It ~ iL
an fi~ li
Thepeole,,. o Triida andTobgo ust.eiter b ket don i th
(ht i .wr. h th ed ut, o it. M-olleguesand.
ey. a e 'Or, -mus

lakfl, aifaio'6 iepyui h' ic'9"e eivetatw anhl
d hs yth raiato'f'
Ton. -d hatthei way o, o
6_1 J.~
d~rp arty wome

-as h dscried ocaticp o me
partY, of
one. j~es.,

N". an *bllit7 of -al -oour.' casss an credswit
ens e rogame eonoicso


of the simplest and at the same time most profound historical documents, the
funeral oration of Pericles:

"Its administration favours the many instead of the few; this is
why it is called a democracy. If we look to the laws, they afford equal
justice to all in their private differences; if to social standing, advance-
ment in public life falls to reputation for capacity, class considerations
not being allowed to interfere with merit; nor again does poverty bar
the way, if a man is able to serve the State, he is not hindered by the
obscurity of his condition. Our public men have, besides politics,
their private affairs to attend to, and our ordinary citizens, though occu-
pied with the pursuits of industry, are still fair judges of public matters;
for, unlike any other nation, regarding him who takes part in these
duties not as unambitious but as useless, we to judge at all
events if we cannot originate, and instead of looking on discussion as a
stumbling-block in the way of action, we think it an indispensable pre-
liminary to any wise action at all. ."

Animated by the noble sentiments of Pericles, my colleagues and I
humbly dedicate ourselves as from tonight to the service of all the people of
Trinidad and Tobago through the party of which I have spoken. This party
will shortly be formally launched. It will be designed, as its counterparts in
Jamaica and Puerto Rico, as the key, to quote once more my friend and
colleague, Dr. Arthur Lewis, needed to open the door behind which our
dynamic energies are at present confined.


7;; A
7 7~;7~ 7;
~ ~4~j7;j7 /
V <4 ~ ~7 7;

77; 7; 7;~* 7;
~77/ 77 7;

P7/v 777 ~>~41~ >>~ ~7T77<7> ~ 777
77 /777~ 7 7; 7>7 <~77< 77>7< 777 7 777> >~ 77 >
<777<4r 7<7 > 7 >7; ><7>>7>
~ 77; 77777 7>77777> 7> 77>7> ;> >7> A >7 7<

:74X77777%7.> J7;>> ~ '7>~ < 777> ~ 777 >7 ~7;~<> 77;

>777>7 777
7777>777;> 777 7 77>77> >~7;7<7

>7777>7; 77 77>77>7;.> 7

<>7 7 7
777; 777>74
77 77; 777

>7>77 > ~~7;7 4

7;;> 77 777 >77 >7 7>77;>
7;> 77777 7777<7; 77>7 7>77>> 7>77>

77> ~j>< <>~7~7~77 77 >7>7>7>7>777777.77<7777

7 >7>7>747>7;7> 777 >~777> >< 7;

7K>7>7. 777777 777 7 77 777> 7;>

7;f:7 7;>>; 7<777

777~7<77 ~ 77~777 ~ 77

7 777

77> >>7> ~~17> 7777> 7>7 7>7777
>~ >777<>;>~ 7 >7 777i<77 7~~7777 > 7 7>
7 7; 77.7

777> 71>7> 77 >77 7 7 7777; 7<>.7~>> r ~

7 7 7>777 7777> 7; >7 77;~~7;47>777;7;; 7>

7> >74> ~~>

7; >7777

47 7;



k 772


7777 7 7 >777;> 77,7777




Date Due

Due Returned D



The case 1

. .'-, .. .- .. .
'- ;1 ",-. .,' ""

.' i"i -"
,.. : '

,t .

)., ; : V .- -, : ,-"- ;. ,,
..~~1- ... -

,, .. o ,. ... .. .
''~~~~~~~~ ,." """" '..

S. ... .1. .
r .: :
~; i ~: ..

i ~.-.. ; ?
I, P : i ,
.- .. "

~* f"' 'i "' '. '' '"? .;

I .
, .', ..

.' ..; .. '"': i

":" ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ i .'i ". ,, :'i-'.


r, ,. .
., '" ',.. : !. .. "

'~ J" .. "' .- "- i .
.. .,. ,, ... .;... ..., '., ,..; .. : _
~ ~ ~~~~~' ; ;: !

~~~~~ ~~ .. .". :



' .*' ..* '. :- *' .. ..' '*

... ^ -*. *,^.-'" ,-

.. .' -o -, ;

. .,* ..*-. .' :^ '..

; ^ : ^ .- ." .'^ : ';.^

-** ._ "- -, ": .* -
o -
-i, .. .



.~ ~ ~ ~~ ."... .
~ ~ ~ ..."'

.. ,. .. ,: .. .. ..


': : ,i i,

.' ..,.

.. 1




i. !i.-






Full Text
xml version 1.0 encoding UTF-8
REPORT xmlns http:www.fcla.edudlsmddaitss xmlns:xsi http:www.w3.org2001XMLSchema-instance xsi:schemaLocation http:www.fcla.edudlsmddaitssdaitssReport.xsd