The future of the West Indies and Guyana


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The future of the West Indies and Guyana
Physical Description:
39 p.22 cm.
Williams, Eric Eustace


General Note:
Address delivered at Queen's College, Georgetown, Guyana, under the auspices of the Extra-Mural Department, University of the West Indies,by Eric Williams, 13th March, 1963.
General Note:
Suject-Geo. Trm.: West Indies Guyana

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University of Florida
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UF Latin American Collections
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All rights reserved by the source institution.
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aleph - 24857254
oclc - 21238638
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972. 905




S" delivered atueen's College, Georgetown, uyana-, under
the auspices of.the ExtraMural. Department,
ttt.-Y.University ofthe West Indies -

The* on. Dr.I. Ensc lias I...

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Adidres by he Ho. Dr Eric Williains, Primne finidter of Trinidad aid Tobago and
Pro6'Chaice0hlrbf lh'e'Unr'lersity of the .Wesl Iidie. Delivered at Queen's College,
S Geirgeiownh Guyana, under the ausijces oJ the Extra- Mual Department, University -
". of the:WetI ie, s.o th Mr ch; 1963.. .

AMR CAix M LAD:I ES AD-'G..rL BN : ..' "".-
a very glad that the' Exti-a:Muiial Dep-itment.of the University of the. West
diess 'irragedithis. meeting:heiretbnight, partly. beeaise it is a long time since I had-
...e hhnour and the'privilege ofispeaking to.ain audience in British Giuiana- -osgibly seveniers.; partly, because ,ai.speaking on-the platform of the University
;of- theWest. Indies of whichlI am :Pro-Chancellor.and:..on whose'behalf:I am here in
Brifish Guiana on a '-pecial mission wi ch whilst i i important in itself, is infinitely
more important as an illustrationof 'ihat I consider to be one of the great needs of
our age i.mtii t WestTidies, and thit is colaboration among the various countries of ,
.the region'that we call th..Wes I et des igelung Guy na .
Andthenofcorse amparticary hapyto be here because the Ch airman
-advised .m thatthere ;wasgoing to bg p i au diene. -
I am ^ quite used to capaoit3 andiebct (auger) bu7 I never expected that
"Iwouldfind such: an audience in one' mgle~aiditornui and I must say-this is, I-
'think,. perhaps my first thisdistguished intitution of yours in Guyana
ain .glad'to ..see-.that they make.provision for capacity audiences of this nature
(ldaughfer). We in Trinidad prefer the open.f,,air., am accustomed to. capacity:
audiences (prolonged lau ghter) But it is very niceseeingyouand above all, Ladies
and Gentlemen very .gratifing-to think that so many of you in G ana have some
concernasto hefuture of theWes Ind es and Gu .... .
:have been-herenor'.three daysit seems as. though it is over a weekthere has
been'so much work to do': I have been.holdig official dis.cussibnswith the Gov.ern- .
: menit of Guyana on a number .of matters-the miversiy ofth&West.ndies iee, ..: .
other possible form of collaboration and consultation between- the 'two countries.
.I had the opportut ..this morning.of meetim informally with rpresentaives of the .
People's National 'Congress.' As, a,,visitor here itwo'uld have been-my responsibility
.,anyhow to, uiepaid a courtesy call on the eader:of the Opposition. i' hii absence
I had the opportunityy of a brief dis ussion with top members of te hierarc hy of his
party and I amt due to m eet tomorrow evenig.with representatives of, the ThTited
Force nin formal discussions

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*.... .,. 'paiaa .courtesy: car ontis, orshp taie.e iay(p oghoLueorgetoi ; A
Stopportuty tpday to take a qmck loot at(eorgetp s deelpme
S'.. low-costkiosmg, townp.t laggand thieysibwed m'esom
",.''. : caused lastyeare (laUrhghter)..':.. ..' :'
*lm .t.. h..".v a t'meetthte.Chamber of.Comer o F abne
.:. -'The .Premier is takingmetomo r toseeone lo
the coun I erwbared meta number of oladfis an ade l
I: .thin you had. so. maTny Trindaians livic in .British ,Gruan
.., appy to seehat indeed .met- some ofthem thisafternool nneo
beh.e e for.thir tyb eigt..her3.r;; y-g^t. ears., *: eli ;low..w^e ha^vemana
Tnm, ; "L :.Tnmdadfobr muchlIonger than thirtywejait ."ea (latht) aglat9.. that
a -fici'.sa two wy t eaffidca nd'I na going:bak, to see.t em Iafishe
Y.;knw. ': .h.u eseua. mam 'tn

h. ,- i'...' v.i ave some afterwards,:* So if .we re a, we, mnightm e hreou
"'h:. go:." .hav' "gbac.kto see what., onBntash ana.,iIii anaqi(ught
S. .. ". -
*-,-; .. ..--' ... :That is the programme-er genleralls a. t .ha.. "ee develoji afaci we lope tor .".
: plete. i by Fndd her I atoe return 'to ad
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.. .. .. ..--. ti
disusins- La'nUmnber f mtters. inforlmaitllCst dprni
Siguresm Guam v toouttadngla f.t
Shield a behevadies .and'Gelseme, the signicance .A-
," .. .. ,' "'.'.'. 'e on th'. isi. to;t'', ni'..'-t."'h,,.been paid at:' I.3'-'',oAe*i lerreuuerofl.e.(-"
-.c.nt. i,:.. t t'." O.4 u lst : z:..,.on :which y: .co,. k" --& '
-b- *; Wrembarked eihpbasiseth.cee orv

*.. '.. .:o.politiclorganisationthe mi prefere m te ,i d l
r; '".: ," :.:':'. bWe tned. one formd ometu.'.ne G a. 't Br '......aec de.t... at.IM

m it and athe 67th TrAbrokeup And I a14e&-'if '$au *oidd'llo\,we'fTlow-hetd t ,-.
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.,". .:. .:;..tQo t speak i nso.--to .speak' my Unvmersity- capcitasel, ebodehoedisver~' .dcbn.ceed.

:. ....... -t-of h a Lest ai-s. rje .upar '' a ea d h ich die'm.l .r

-1tndajo Wt` it was 4.;t

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.., ...,,..'.-, '.--:....T e frst:re~on. s ha, vtie r~t:: 'ia ] der :w s, ~stt~h~ed an,'A
:. Op-.'-;"4:

A'nd yo weare. on a ,Univrsity platform and .write the history ofthe
e n-dies.Itryto-do'if o to-enc outrage others to fill in the gaps and to go
ternd.erhapau would bear with me if I will read you '.
one .extracts 'f o:navery.impor.nqtdocument i your own history WitiwhIoh
yoqu :are possibly: ifarmilar-one.: of.the most offeiive documents one of fhe most'': '" ......". ..

in witmgc A: long e3 ago this adocueht wa written aundie and fourteen.--':,:
year I ag'%in hyeari 49, .The itl ol. ,the. documenqts perhaps,.one 'ofthe most
S'offensi tles thatone. could fd. e htetur te liistorical iterature,-of a ny "
countryr .Jie.ttleis u .Occasional:Dscourse uon he frhQuetion "

.. waswri en yofeo s most tambu ini euals ui tI 19th century, author '
eas hi^istorin '451man !calle4:Fhoiis,:Carll'ewhosm years af fterhiewrte.:-..'.:...
thi'ocument .: h irculteifen or esthose days in the Tited': "
d' K -gd becaimeigectr ,ofEdinkgUlivi erst't" in tevote'for t ie Ret s
Sg'ethli to Unitd eKingd ; of th tim Benja n Disraeli :.'-
.^^.e ~ i,'-^ ^ ^ ^ ..'"^.-. M '..-:."... ,, .-. ,, '.. *' %." 0.,.f
.Sthtt sno ordinar. ta Hewas the Retdor or, i other institutions
they woud say e C,,j,4. .hr.of. one of the thee grea:c.entres .oflearnng n th"e'

whoweire.qtal .going become -Memberg of Pariamen mbk"law frth
est antc ome os dydpersons, o if they cd ld no get ihfto
SPar nt became o o another or, atone, .or ii arOf the
.d d .... o^ wa t wraktoe.ot. thlen.the W i oIediancolone ...
'6.... the**;;:l i W e'3.'. g..w.:.*. ... ...,di..:... ...... ... ...... .. .. .. ., r."..
: -.So:y .idb sn... an'ke Oarlyle,'aidiyoiu do nbdi :usth&"contempt., *:;:^". ..:;
t T .appr prblei 1 'yeaM aft ema cipation tof Ctha :*e

Litratiure nd Bitish aScholarsi, crackot f whomthi is ot ev ien a de ent
: biographys-ecauseIs I uspec shirewdly teBtish eoleaeashaedof Carlyle:{i -o
.(laughte "it pis 'in in d be .ashamed ofdthe ma.: We v ould e.ashamed too"""
tYOU Ewill beiashamedowheio trad what I*di dam ong d tor h c p
SBut at the same time Laies, and Gentlemen this isthe sdrtof phiobsophy*
thisisthesortofintellectual direct w ichin c ormin moepote
".languageg ,in lJessoBffesiy mainner,. has dominated .Brtish univBersityactivity e.eY:a:.i and

of'the United Kingdom to.the WestTh... sday.. -Andafter all .say can spealp-., a 'k ^^^.:'.
m two capacities When I wat' I a be' _Prie Minist (la :4ter) and if that '
migh" t t poiically embarrasn : thenI.can al avs put bn' m. y academic robe
-- d ". ..J
.. L. ",i'' =' 8n- =, 't, s is t 'd s f )M OB
-'. h...'..... the;" '8.. '..A.",.,."f ".i:' ,'; d, ib. i l"l. ". s"[ .T>,m .,<: ,"a .< ..:k in, "o ",r "", !.: e -".

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area obught to be:to develop:'for lth b efit of u;oip le, t
.the soiology of dMr are:part m order th h
".-"'.i. order that they should have poitive gmdes .to ei f
Let me. readv tiB asage Yo ou
G. u.. 'W .ah oiu dh ave had ayaEt iyatt t oai omtIi;selle t
yearsag ;,'nd.if -it hlid received .ta attention Qw
.. .. ave been. r lt 1m : im re haritable.than *wha

or t h pa more th ne n r'r, ..
" ;. ; ,.:..:-yo n-t.a ex adt,;rea sona you.uoaut:

d1k dt
.y7:"er"l: n eri W af irA
di o. ithae anWes y workdies. t hi dca tiho:il ..e+. ti db B

sun eaing e m 'Int is
Ba: -,G: :ad.-er forenhoirmoousd^cuthaD onnt.s e.e4
s.. t. .n ,,. .e ..i u g tb'rlittler.. i
Iit ith ft ,b t
... ... a adid.hno edtithav o n y Nad o, t11t1n]d

sb P do ow it
-. ..;: ..,;- th dsun a f ylig y anump d,, wontero-+2.. : flA' &tt .AK.Ns .

S'. a p .w after all ti ua tb a;U6eniAo1

inValidiate oxshi de,'txeepV fodr-a' t tijhat

m al st :t p'.nu-paeado d ootto,,v i nof. ,; oa,, v ....1.....ans
.( .'. 'L ,'.: ,.':." a, :ma.. ??g;d.i. [,-. ..*. *-tiou.AId:.oh, ,-:l.W

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t perpehe r p

are b: .' -rnn.::'. '.1o.** B,'of -imtt, .aaorl.'. nl[wsf.yiftt kge aiif
*.- ad.. b e i fsla ce qomr., as Ala saervad 1A

*..- ... f fy; kH. t R .4-.-m...patWa 1
:e aen4e-.of th-- .. .henow ho o .

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San be-done i a da', or a single generation, qr a single century ; but I do srmise ,
or oeive That it will by straight hd or by crcitous, neeto be done (,ot
in the '.. st Indian 1egio alone) Beg.un it-must be, t1 perceive, and carried on in
all regions,,,hereservants ate born. and masters and .are not.. prepared to .become
Distressed -1eedlewomen ior Demerara Niggers but to live in some human manner
.with. onA oe '. .No ;,.the gods wish besides .pumpkins, that spices and Vluab le
product begr6own in their West Indies thus much they have declared -i. so mak'6ig'
the W'est Indies infinitely more the wisb, that manful industrious mene occupy
their West Indies notidolent twoIeged cattle however happy over their
abundt pumpiJ .Not a pumpkin Quahee, not a.square yard- of soil, till
you agreeto do the'state 'so 'many days a.of service. Annual that 'oi. will grow
you pumpkins but aniually'also without fail shall ou, for the owner thereof,
do' your appointed days'of labour. The State has plenty of waste soil but 'the
.State will religiously give yo id, e of it oh other teril., The Stati wants sugar
from these Islands, and must aveit.' The^ State demands or you such service as
will] bin thesere'ultas this. latter result which includes all. Not, a Black Ireland,
by i nmigratio-and foundlesslack supply "for the demand; not that,-nma the. :-
G -ods forbdi!- ut a '-eguflated West' Indies;with blaek workiiig -opulation in
adequate number: .'ou a.renot slaves now; ,nor do I wishif it can be avoided,
'to^see you slaves again; but'-decidely youwill have tobe servants to those that
are boai, n' p t -1iaUyo;. thatpare-born.:ords ofou; servants t. the Whites, if they
are. (as what .icall: dob they are .) born wiser: t an you. ....
.:b.?uashe if he .willnot hel in bringing out the spices will get himself
aslave agin(which tte' will be little less ugly than hi present one), and with
beneficent whip" since :other m.eth'ds" availnot will be"-i el. e or" '. :
Ladie'and Gentlemen I have rio hobbies, and it occurred to me a few months
ag Vithiat I could develop aobby^ and athe hobby that I ae devlobed in-after
ha vut 'down hthe.Government work inthe evening, the mltciplity of files whicha.,. ;
a Parie Ministe br or Premier has to deal with sit downt atid try to write-for,
tfrwohours. three ho~rs-, mietims whenIam t oky aver the weekeIdsI -get in four.'
b6urs some of the -history of the-West ldiet I am noifaiting this. ',And then: :
wehavesome' ucelittlVe feast ldays ad holidays;when everybody 'is enjoying them-
selves so I can.v ork peacefully. I begin to. wite this book ng Carnival
n aight in Trimidad-I stayed horin&, everybody wa&tred I ould be left alone-- '.on
the attirtude o 6Btsh historians, Britsh tinkers i e no the Wdies and the West.'. '

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as part of. our jobs every day, or some ofus who ,are justintelligent itizens d
-' read the daily papers,; what we have learnt and: have been taught the past
-few years in particular about our position ihn the world, whether we gei any assist
ance from. the outside, what interest thepeople outside take in us a:'andso onii '
'. I believe that. thie Federationvwas one method. f political orgaiston.for..,
getting rid of these moral obligations as cheaply as pOs ibld,- moral obb"gations'#.lhich:
Shad been for the whole of the 19th. century totally disregardedi'ad '.which d
produced to influence British, students, 'to influence Briti'iadiIfiaistatbrs ito
influence British legislators-t he 'bbarbism .o'f ah intellectual li e; Tqmasar lyle ,.
Th6. second.reason why I believe that the disappearanceo thlie Fedetion was.,
.ultimately in" the best interest of:.the West Indian people aid Ihe people of. Guyana is
S thatlthe West Jrndian Federation-and cI.c speak with authority on.this poi t-
S-: :. threatened: to become nothing more thani aii: obrgaasationi Thri-, ugh wi were'
transferred British responsibilities' t the 'United Sttee of" Aeric Befoie the.
.. West Indian Federation was established there was all thetalM before. the second
World War of transferring, the West Indian colonies to the UmteStatesen
.. f Bhitain's *ar debts inthe.first war, But their Un edStates didino see i6 that.. "'
and did not'want to take..ver thes.Tesponsibilifi.s Dl t '
were nothing-b ut wo million headaches i e(laughte F tandp is jus .. th
he did not take them on then i 1939. because b' 1963 he dwoud ae adte a
a half million headaches (la e. The headache 9 e e
perhaps nowhere mo-ire -rapidly thana m Guyana' itleff I ud5r and re domg
quite well (la ut r). The:United: Ste ci
headachlies people'with a different way of lif hie o woi at th
: UnitedStats of America, andso aid her aggr they
saw them and ethe could just cotro6 the. a t ou Nay Bases, c.
.'.I can speak, Ladies and Gert.lemeriof thegrea ea r e t edi r a
.... .... I*'..., .. ............, ..... .. .... .. ............ ..... ...'.*-. ..... *,.:

We hi Trnidad and Tobago members of the Trinidad andToago Caw ve
.. .. which. I wasPe.mi, rhad to fight toothian ai dad indy o to.prvet
rights of the people of. Tridad bagepect
respect e fe ith istiLd ii Veiezuela 'isse nrtf o sec
: :poi' cy the foreign policy-that wouldinevitably have. faced .,itiideend
country taere we iae going onstart 'thati -hene t ab
c : ..... t.T ategorly .thatwe did ac e
'peod when we had no ,say whatsoever mour affairs. OnewasyCh.guaraiasnd

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u. ..:. : "' ., ..-, < i .:"h r w.'. b.,,:,r l b nr.-... Jb: ... ....., ta ,rt,.,,,, .. .,.,.. ,:'1!.ibg6..'. F." :,-
t"t. n t fi b .6 ".",.-: .'"j.', e .y.' ::...% i.:.,.aii"q,9., .. "E' ......
... 0..0 .,.",.. ,.. .." .. ....... .. ..A n .; :.*fi ,) .: ( : : .: :!:,.: ':''S{ :!: i'

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". ..% '..o .= .. .*. .: ., .,..,,.:.. ,, ii.c? ;97e;`y5.t ;"h6 .: 9/ `& 1' .-o: :" ""l";" ..I.. ....i'.h i. ...

.the. other .was the enezuelan30, per ceunt urtax imposed on al11 products today from -
noh- iddep enet co utries:in.t.el hemi pherethatllwere form erl lniesof European
.: cn tr;Vie.. .. a" : .i: ... ,'* .. .. ,. .;

.. that Ido.not believe that 'e should grieve too much about, the failure of that
particular form of association the Federation .of the ,. est Idie et, up almost,
one ight::y;.b'United.: Kigd6m dictationn and i'or which we, that is to say
AMr. -Pierre atid ITand the political associates of ours in Trinidadand. Toago, had no
responlbbilit- betause:the ce.tiral featreswere-drawi uip befTore .we. had-any political'
responsibility;for the Gover ment of Trinidadaud Tobago and we came onthe .".
politicalscene .repudiatimg- before .we got o.ur'power, all that had' been decided in the
Sears gone'by in .respet of Federation'We did n6t do lik British Guiaa. .We did.
not walk out.- We staved ir. there, w.e bought, we took our licks, -&c, and then the
whole thin brokeup.-.
Now that it hasbroken up,.h lithen 2 I that tie end of association between .
the territorie's 'If the Break a to involve the' fragmentation of -the area into a.
number'ftd'dendent :overeign states s it not then possible to envisage, is it not. .
thenripossible to d t:: and ,s it no' tien possible to work for some form of association
of these soverei.state matte& common concern .
-.I'believe, Ladies ad Gentlemen. tat there are: threeparticular forms wi ch
consultation can take andwhich'onsultation-oughtto take'nd the first one is ....
consultation j etweengovernments o the various ountries- My colleague, Mr. Pierre, .
and I were'in Jami aic a month ago anid we went to see the Government of Jamaica.
SSirAlexander Bustainan-te ;.the'Prime Mifister of an indeende cOuntr, and we :
said o-'h i' .Look here e have represent lives Trinidad and Tobag, in
Canada, in Washigtonin the hinted Nations, in London. We are about-to set up
-in Venezuela and weiprobabl-aitave to haye som e elsewhere. t is quite absurd that
you.have two independent countries in.the former.Federal area.Jarica and Trinidad ..
and' Tobago and we do not exchange representatives; 4andit, is not possible for me
as Prime- inistereof Tri idad anddTobago to send a private communcatibn to the
Prime Minister of hJamaica 'because I have nomeans of doing t. We have th .'
means to London we have the mieanst Washington e have the means to Ottawa,
anda wedo not'havIeit toJamatica
I need not ,sy he totally agreed with us that he Sir Alexander ,ustama ,t
said we as two independent countries 'had a distinct responsibility i this Caribbean
.area for getting together .and helpmg to' bring the: er .ountries.together.. So .we:. .
... ided that we would. exchange High Commis'sioners High Conimissioner of Trinidad
anidTobago in Jamaica;, Tgh Commissioner ofJamaica i'Trinidad and Tobago,
and we would set up soine sort of informal machineiry,either ato Civil Service level or
at miisterial level depending upon the particular stage that the analysis had

.:;.;',3- 1;%~. .:"j^ i i.. ,.. "'...' : : :: :".. ', '. .: .-.

.numberof subjects, whether itis at the United Nations when the6'atter coin,
the vote, or whether it is atthe meeting of Commonwealth/ Ministers of Trade schediued
.to take place shortly, or whether it is.. a exammnatioi'df he problems that.we face'.
becausee of thb failure of the British, Government to:get iito' te Europea Com n .
Market and the necessity that' faces-the6 inow to fall i atck oi6nt'he f Ci'ommonwealth : b
which they had before been ready to repudiate, aid s.o on; .
Let us get together on this particular point Jamaica andTritmdad and Tbago
have begun'to get t..ogether.' And we.have, come here Mr Pieirre and I to British
Guiana .disciiasing.with your Government a rinumber of common problems and finding.
pout, as we kneb .we would findout when we. came here, that ybouhad something. that
you can teach us. Not in every field of course in some fields we teach you (laugkber)
It, is quite true that we cannot'stand up to ouin .cricket. (lauhter.);,ut s.til in th
;. old days we could and one of these das our turnwill come I was glad to see that
S' ne of the first'steps that you were able to take in the eIpansion ofbyour^elebtrification'
programme came from the, trainingand so on that wWe -wrable to provide for you
in Trinidad (applause).
But we saw this morning, Mr Pierre "and I, some'bf yyour ow ost oing and
whilst the6finih is 'different, your costs are much'lo&erthanioriirs Ti4adnd
Tobago, and it'6 occurred t6. both ofs thatt soie one of o urexperts.from TrinidaSd id
Tobago should come .over here for dscusioi.s and to look aroud3 / f.Yor house
probably costs half what our houses cost If w could bui.d"tyour prce e c6uld
do double th6enumber.of houses that we have een doingg.,- ..: ..
And in the tield' of Town iPlanning, I had aq.ok..tourthis morning adI F s
S qiteimpres~~ed with the plan that you all have been worki ot for Georgetow and
Greater. Georgetow.- I have a direct profession' interest in it becseth Mi
for which- I am responsible inaTrinidad'npidTd. bago h:~ charge of Town Planing
A. d we are now .getting down to that and it occurred toime thit'a contact bet" e
r. ou-Town Planners and yours would 1be benefit to ours and possi ao of ben fit
to yours.' And there are many other fields in which such contact and constation
can take pace .. .................. .
y. :-. .: : ,* .. : ';.-"" : .
,.And I.iave nodoubt that,.the same.would apply to .Brbado...
:-I would hobpe that I would be in a position verfyshortly to hay .iilar general and
... ....informal discussions with the;Premier of Barbados andto tlk items of ome
co:. .. .. nsultative. iachinery, whether it is to beformalorinforal but hate eer it is
i'volvi.g"at so:e time or o her fairly regular meetings of H "e.ds ofGovernments .
just as I have had the opportunity of meetie ithathe Head of th amaic overn
nt or ow with the Head of the Btsh an Goernment
d'........ ......

oe e:.%~.. -..j
r. Val .: '4. 4* -*'..:..-,. .,*:*;,*:.*i^..:.'...'^

". : : ,: ." : : ., : ".'7'

.L.. JLL. ... .. .. ... .... ... I UL.L -4 IA 'J.W ( .fl JJf tI 0. u no. I I J O V O......- LJ Uy CJLA.UU '- " High .Commissioers:' him.Send a ghCommissioner from.
rTinidad and(Tobagooqver here to'BritishB Giiana and oe fromi Britisli Guiaria over in.
Trinidad,.because-there is a considerable volume of trade between the two countries
We. would hope that our cultural relations inthe- University field and i other fields
voild contimueand you wold' .soe form, sme edium, of re ar communica-
tion between the two countries, And said Why don.' you hurry up with your. ...
md.pedenc- e to .'a.llw me to'ehd'.our" fellow.overi'?.. (apila-e. I think I know,
I think I could fui; a very good imaniiideed;-who would be very much apprepia ted
i. Brstish Guiana.,.:., .
SLast nigthifs' iExcellency e O4pveror ver kindly gave a cocktail party for me
"anid 'in l colleagues. and;he had' me there meeting the different people-he: was .
introducig them And then I saw therethe ConsulGeneral of the-United States:
Show do you do and~'the Consul of the United States, ow do you'do ."; and:
then another onsul of theUnited States," how do youido ,? (laughter); .and hen
l another Consul of th.e United States, how do you do. (mre laughter) .and then ..,
the'Consul 'for ankd'nd the Consul for Greece and the Conisul for Belgium, and..: ".'..,'..':
the Consul for France, an the: Con for Venezuela, and a representative of the High
C .ommissioner of the Governmeht'fJIndia the HighCoinussioer in Trinidad and :.
Tobagod Who9 e jurisdiction extends to British (Iuiana where he has, since it is not- an
independ ft. country, the title.of Commissioner. And'itsuddenly ,occurred t me.
.that I.d dnot have to wait for independence to exchange representatives (applause)
We h.adSir Leane. Constantine. as our Commissioner in the .U ,ted kingdomm .
before w got ou ilndepende hopethe P ier of British Guina agrees
Ihope talk to him about t:in tomrro.. e is concerned with publicity about
:BritishGaa r]sie tt i necessr. he cannot xplect 'the Tlndad Governmernt ..::. ,. .
.to di fo hi laaghter) And then. ,aare. conerned i'afbou ublty for whatever'. .::. :'
iit i oaeient or whatevrit isand we cannot ex. ect' .iheoverment of B!'.ritish

that the a 'Ine6 res.entatives; iich wouldbe bne eof .th: most: sigic .::

form fi. lco]laboration and consultation which would takeplace..etweei th& o. :'''
countries need awaitte']eieli e of British Guiana:.. A.far as I a: concern, e d :',
Lad and e. tlemen B.ishGuiana. is dependent. You go and settlethe... ...
details applause). '.' ... :
Bd ot ibis a little bit of a buisanrcen eelryno -and tihen to he reminded by my
... ..E.. .., ......

advirsers' a bo6uti prop3osalshia. g to go to the teX gdo and6say Pise
S'A '. tm i uo. i
". ? :"m'") *goi.ghtole s --&wnui:s 'dtanc: eve_.on'N !.theil,:- G o.rmmenind hy,'B y.,..':;.;;:;..:.."..;
T .
.:ads~s:ho ..o~oa~: g t',q..t~.. o-..m. o'~go..a~~a : ,:ee,. ..- R........
.. J.:,'A .,' f ,: ." ..,o :.'. m -gr ,:.,.:: ... V. ...., h:" .D-N,. .*' g : .:' .: '" ; ,..;,, '' f i- '. -<" 'i <:: ." .,' }.=:
."am .gmg~ro=.iseus % ,wt~ll"Br~ml Gmaa'#v'F~s: he~v~em~nt6f ~t~, [ -:,.42k2..-.,
6 ,.,::,L % :.;, -: ,:' : ::. ,- ,,% T ..:. ,:,. .,,.,::=, ?. h=-.. ,,4 ., .,..: :.,, ,- .: = ; ,.',.; :: ", : t,
-. ,. ..i ~ .% .I*,l i: ~;.l? I : ul: ~l~ 1 i.. :::.=i I.i'- i: 1 *u~.* % "ii i l ;:l"i .kl : .i I. `p:' :, ii
,":t : --.: 6,-" q_ -: ::' : :" i .." : ,.:.'" .' ': ;:" f : t'.*;'.:? '-' :. ( ," -:0 ":G t

Guiana your authority to deal with this particular issue ?" I agree with the .Gbv-.
eminent of British Guiana, then have to go and ask somebody. else whether they
agree. I understand the position, Ladies and Gentlemen. We passed thi-ough
this, Mr. Pierre and I,-and we know of the difficulties, and we know how it goes
against the grain sometimes. So whilst'you all are making up your minds we could.
go ahead and treat. you like an independent, country and establish the diplomatic
representation between the two countries. That is one' form of consultation.,.-
I believe, too, that consultation could be established-a regular form of con-
sultation-between the Parliaments of the area, between the members of Parliament
in the different countries who are all organised, following the Commonwealth pattern,
in some branch of the Commonwealth Parliamentary 2Aissociation. -I believe some'.
time ago there was talk about setting up a Caribbean Branch'of the Commorfwealth
Parliamentary Association; to. which would belong all the separate parliaments or.
legislative councils of the area. And I believe that this would be a'good opportunity
for getting Members of Parliament to meet, discussing parliamentary procedure, or
just simply discussing. Members of Parliament in different countries would have .
a great deal to do when they meet. .
Every year I believe there is a meeting of the Commonwealth Parliamentairy
Association held in the United Kingdom ; one was held in Nigeria, one. held in
Australia, and we send our representative. .And we constantly keep going outside
to thi. country, that country, the other-count.ry and rejecting what is right under
our very noses, in our backyards, sometimes in our frdnt. yards, and .we'pay no.
attention to it. ,1 think that it will be quite-appropriate inn an audience. meeting- -
under the auspices of a University if I could give to all the politicians and all the '
members of Government in the area I take it a.philosophy which I take from Milton's
Lycidas, as the philosophy for. the future.. "Look homeward, angel" '(applause)..
Do not look outside so much. Look hbineward, angel--with all apologies' to those
in the room who regard a Government of the people as devils instead of angels.
laughterr. .
The third form of association or consultation that I think we could conveniently:
develop in the future and with'great profit to-everybody is consultation and asso(ia-
tion between the political parties of the area. They are all over:the, lace, two in
a territory or three perhaps, and so oin.' They fight each other in. the territory;
because one: isi power and one is out of power, and then the-6 de.that is out iight
come in, .&c., and then the fight goes on in the new .form and so on. ThatL is:the
parliamentary game .that is .the political life of a place. but I'do not believe that.
it interferes with the possibility, of the representatives of. tlhe different parties getting
.together, for discussing matters of national concern as distinct from the. day tto ,
day routine about whether you attack a Budget .or whether this second reading of.

the Bill ybu are going to oppose at every clause in committee in order to prolong
it., &c. .All that is parliamentary procedure, parliamentary techniques, quite
legititimate political game which all political parties play, and must play.
I believe, Ladies and Gentlemen-I do not know. whether my presence on the
University platform makes me more idealistic than I usually am-but I believe,
Ladies and Gentlemen; that it is:. possible, it ouglit to. be possible, to set ouit, so to
speak, a creed to which allpolit.ical parties in the countries that We are concerned with
tonight could subscribe. I have attempted to detin6 such a' creed and put it down in
five. articles; and when : go back to Trinidad and Tobago-this was an .idea that
occurred tome from mnydiscussions here in Guyana-I intend to take it up with the
political party to which Mr. Pierre and I belong, to see whether we could initiate-this.
and, so to speak, be' the hosts-because this is not a governmental matter, it is a
matter of party organisation, and one. of the great forward steps made in the West
Indies in the past. few years has been in this field of party political-organisation and
gettingrid6fMr.X, who used to say whatever he used to say fourteen or fifteen years
ago, thoughh there are st.ill.some who behave as if the voters. of 1963 are as immature
and as inexperieheed as they. were of-'political issues. 15 or 20 years ago.
I think I would like to-read out, to yodu the five articles of.the.political creed to
which I,.believe *al1 parties in the-West Indies could subscribe unless, of course, one is.
to suspect them of some 'ulterior motive.
The is this,-: .
That all thefiparties are. pledged to the develirnment of the respective national.
econo ~iisand to the raising of the standard of living.of the peoples in the-rea T i
which they function.:. : '
What political party would coine up and say it isggoing to reduce the dailywage ?
What political partyis going .to dare.get up in public and say theNational Income is
SX per ci aitaarid.litintends to reduce it to half of X in five years'? What. political
party ,i the West Indies could:ever hope .to 'achieve porter unless its. electorate was. "
satisfied 'that b it would really secek to improve the housing situation or. build :inre '
houses whichh it bbviously says it would do in its election manifesto.
The second article of. the creed :
Ec. h party would. pledge itself, to theainteancead .promotion of demo .
cratic orga isation and: procedures, democratic:.rights.and democratic obligations; :
arid above 'all, to: the -promotion .and..encouragement of respect for our .elected
parliaments and for the traditions and conventions. of parliament.
If we are going tp :develop, in other words iiust be on the basis of parliamentary..
democracy, democratic rights and privilegesand freedoms and obligations, and if any.

party, what sort of government. doyou plan ithisparticular cou
Article three '
Each pary wduld pledge itself itoquality opor/ity /t r :
Without reference to race,. to colour; to creed, to-ciuntry'of origin of. their anators '
o r: o the previous condition of sernitude that prevaiied'in the county (aFpplause)
Aricle four. .
Each party would pledge itself to the promotion', maintena ;e, pnd; aboveall
enforcement-of proper .and civilised indu.stri alrelations based on collective.
bargaining. : :.: ...
Ti. is .to stop all these idiots all .over the place who say-that Goyernment mus:.
..e' ep iin to the relations between employer :and employee or a Go:ernment
must pass'laws to ban strikes, &c. Let every .party ".mae J uite clear't.haiit ind
for the recognised principleof collective bargaining (pro o ed applause),as only the
principal aspect of the cultivation of proper and aconventionaliildustral re]ation
Article five :

dence against all forms of foreign interference (appiaasit y I
I do hot tell you, Ladies and Gentlemen that pobticasin -the West Ties will
', become a Sday school or ..ght to.becoie a Sud'lay bound to be
room for argu. .. meant You could e .i ev the itional economy' be iled to ha
but: you cold-argue quite legitimately on eitheride oto how are
going to proceed to .-develop it. We.have the argumentin Trinidad T yu tax
the community or do you borrow money outside j wh on boI oe
outside you-are not indirectly taxing the community in theplongr.un Or do o go
as fasts you want to go, or should yogo f sittloer ooa littl faster Aa d
u give prio .nty to industiW'al development or dioyou give 'itoagn iu .re
S agriculture isitthe old plantation agn culture -and the export.c:ps orisiit production
of :food? And ard.e you spending enough money i your I)evelopmento I ~h on
.:.secondary education as againstrpiniary or. tepical 2 A]l about
that niid ur arliamentswill continue toirgue about th. A Bilfvould c
giving partcl ar -power to hep.olice ad&the te1 Oppositiod o.uld get uiip and, say
thathisste police state-it has just happened jnTrinidad -and, Tobago-dr his
particular esu is i violationof the Contiution of Tnmdd' a"d' Toba:o And
we continue top rgue and then, if the poii4 has merit we studyfit and getiegal advice
ad tehen, of coursetthe Prhamentan majority carries the measure ig Oth
.s. e .': you have .o Parliament and otherwise you have no oveim"ent ~ t

i.."- '. .:.: "^" Z .
., ,: "' ,% ; '=: : ': .= 'i ) '." ... ".'. ".. ;.:t;p "=;:.,.- -.:-'.:. k~\ "'4.,


could argue about; techniques arid procedures and ways and means and quantities.
and targets and argue-about.a multiplicity of other things;.. But it seems to me that
if our societies are to proceed at all to make any progress, if the political parties are to
be the agents of that progress, then I do not see how we could have less than the
articles of the political creed which I have indicated, though it may well be that one
should have more. After all, I leave room for others to add to it and I do
not want to tie down my political party too much ; they have to approve and say,
" yes, we agree and we will issue invitations ". I believe nothing less than that
would stabilise our .community,. give some assurance of confidence as to where we-are
going, both at. home and outside, and satisfy everybody that, when you transfer
democracy from the advanced countries to' what they call the underdeveloped
countries, we in the West Indies can make and sometimes do make a much more
effective use of the democratic method and technique than some of the older countries
Isee, Ladies and Gentlemen, iiin consultation of this sort at governmental level or at
parliamrentatrylevel or at party level, the only salvation that we can look forward to
in the 'fade of the.enormous pressures that all our countries face-all of them. And
these pressures, Ladies and Gentlemen, will be greatly intensified in the next twelve .
months. I want to talk to :you tonight about some of these pressures. Obviously
what happens as a result of them vwillinfluence the future of you in this room or of
Guyana or of Trinidad, Tobago; Jamaica and the West Indian countries.
'The first pressure I want to deal .with concerns .our position in World Trade.
And as the students in the roomor the members of the political parties. or the citizens
who main taini a certain awarenesdbf. what is going on from day to day, as they would
understand, thisisa general problem; In the past 20 to 25 years it has become acute
and extreme .in. respect of all the developing countries. With all the talk of indepen-
dent countries and development, &c., the.ratio of wealth in the world between the
so-called developed countries and the so-called under-developed countries has in the
paat 10 to 15 years moved further and further in the direction of the industrial
countries and the developed countries, that is to say, the older established countries
are becoming wealthier and the under-developed countries, in respect to the total, are
getting less and less. The gap between one set of countries and the other :set of
countries, instead of narrowing with independence, has become wider in the past 10 to
15 years. .
All Governments in all. developing countries .are particularly concerned with
that. I heard Mr. Nehru from India and 'Mr Ayub .Khan from Pakistan in
particular speak forcefully and vigorously on this particular point at the
Commonwealth Prime Ministers' Conference in the United Kingdom. Withixi that
general framework the West Indies occupy and.the. West Indies enjoy, if I may say so
sarcastically, .special disadvantages (laughter). Because in. the Middle. East you


have the. goal, the objective, of Arab unity aid you never 'cantell when there is'going'.-
to be a revolution that pushes Arab unity a little.closer-though sometimes-the next"
day there might be one pushing it back a little. 'There is all over Africa the feeling .
'that they should have ah.organi ation of African States;.that Africa is a special area,.
removed from the *World with its special problems, with its special techniques, and
with its special capacity for handling these problems.
SWhen we look down south we get the.Latin.American.Free Trade Area;.:. When.
we 'look over to the west of Central America we see the..Central 'American Commiiorn:
Market. You .look to Europe and you see the European Common market. Every-"
where you look you see unity, attempts at. achieving unity, r the philosophy of unity.
Except- in the West. Indies -where ditnnity,. beginning as advice ; J has becomee tpday
almost one of the national virtues... Except in the West Ihdies ,whichalie still looking
to the.Commonwealth, the Commonwealth that is an-abstraction .or to Com'mbn-
wealth that have been ve t seriously eioedi over the last 10 to 15 Years
and to a Commonwealth where the leader .the United. Kingdom,; knew-where. it wa&
going and wanted to leave the Commionwealth. behind and-go to the, European.
Common Market, and now that it was not. able. to do so is'; so .o speak, forced .back
on the Commonwealth and gives the impression that she does not know where she is
. going. And we are still depending on the Commionwealth, we are .still thinking of the'..
Commonwealth, while everybody i4 doing his re-thinking in the new. world that is
taking shape. A very confused world,' not know-. what its major outline will-
be in the next five years. .And we'. still remaining disunited still looking, still
clinging, to the coat-tails of..the world which unmercifully 'repudiated, us. and vilified'.
us in 1849, and which has no use for the West Indies if even the Commonwealth>
"survive. ... "
There is going to be a World -Trade Conference rodanised by the Uriitedi oNations-
next. year ;I is about April of 1964. We are going to face that .conference"'-
disunited-Trinidad here, Jamaica there, British Guiana there-we do inot know'.
whether British Guiana would be there. (Taughter). If y ou are not there Ladies arid:
Gentlemen, it will 'not be a laughing. matter, I could assure you ofd-that ." ou'
would be there in your own right only if yo.u are independent. And if yo arethere'
you are in trouble ; if you are not, there you are going to have your throats cut,i nd
then you will be laughing from eai to ear laughterer): We do niot know today what is
going to happen to our sugar. The prospects are 'very doubtful. And then bne hears
talk from day to day about a quota in the Uniited States maiket.- We do not know:
I certainly do,.not know what your Government knows in British Guiana ,but I
certainly do not know as the Goverrment of Trinidad and Tobago anything'official
about this quota. They do not talk it over with me. I do not know whom they talk
to, I do not know how they arrive at ,the quota' but Ijust read that we have this quota

'Id .dda- . organized Lts industrial development very Largely around textiles: The
JiteStptes Governmetas put a quotamt the amount of forig textiles '
that colcome'in.Jamaica i absolutely cut in that. We do not. know
whee wtiWe have .been: told thatif bour production were to continue to
^ breow -, .' ^ .... ......; ont u t...
eKYinn 4n wcoilewpete uoa uiytem t to 'to us too.

T o-ag ..o B.i .i.-' .: .. e.v.e p .e d 't ri .o .i .e p Aover
Jereoqd opfsevere1 !en"ips.t produce sugar. ow nobody wants our sugar, You
a.ot.t int theti t wit. y.o asigar Ud mow e er.e where o iati shi .:.
-beaeaglit 'idad ceot next-has the market of ni. .ad rice att '. .ma co tri wic already have more thain .tlhey' a.ould
ppsiblyhavp lationto all tb ide r-devlopd easiald to geti nd ta
Y fraltte ty bjitish Guiana. Triidad ad Tobago smyas "No, .
ritih G ubjeptto riable negotiationss -which 're. now going on .
";A ra "rncithi-i whi e ga ed 'ion, .ureasonabhl negotiations. d '". '
e ea, "A;goiltoew in very reasonably F pjplaube) and e hop. ,

^.it .] go l6iit lehf S ir omoriow now that we have'a sent to Tnidad and
Anai.t Mk ie ticuarloceerned and some of his top adviserse;they; ..
t:,; 4 ..d .,*. ......o-.; ,... ...... .
Sth' i w a xpaed Te have j b w des
npp yn W-X:4i.n u'iti .tMd t'.,ingto limit tb& outlet tire. West
Ii ,.." g ..1 10i& yu, we reauy a uaoemed with that-.
b.t rscin 'ia.4-d ~ry 'e- 8,;e wit, Jami .,Diinie, and o on, we have been
fighting|unar omepeition to':yepr in the United Wiagdbm market fromn Isael
ontif toe 1ld
eoo roioo denied States of Amerioa.'.
*... .! '.A -" ..,',W'. : '

............ M. "..* j" ... """.
,n". ..................'.....'

that obviously:they should fix the qiiota where our limited prod!uc0ioninot covered,-
and they said', No, nothing doing I A few thousand bags can make"a lot of difference
S .to theworldprice," &c., and we got caught y -the;enormouspresSM.!or lueo tepok6 f,:
Latin 'American group,and o on. Anidthen, your products ad miie gbing iio
'.Venezuela, let us say our coffee, your rice or whatever it is have to pay over and above
the normal iariff imposed in. Venezuela on foreign products-whiatever=the "tariff
might be in respect of particular.produts--we have to pay a 30 per cenrit. urta -over
and above that.. If your rice competes with American rice then you pay th. 30 per
cent. surtax over and.ab6ovethe tariff on the.American rice ;-" -,.
Ladies and oGentlemen, what-on earth is going to happen to you and to e-to
Guyana and to the West Indies Everybody recognises-he British very late in the :
day that we have .to industrialist these., countries if we.eexpect to maintained i
population that we now have to carry,- and to avoid any. cut iit the already low
standard of living. Tri order' toindustrialise we must make efforts as all of us.are;
S .doing to attract:capital for investment.:(applause) And' if we: bae to dothat and

niot take. our sugar, wel m the ame, of all that is holy what is a government, what is
a people supposed to do? .You, the 00000opeople not allowed to speak for them
selves and we.-with 900,000 people able to speak for ourselves but sometimes6cannot
even get a bearing? You and I are very concerned about drawings up'deelopment
Plans arid raising the national domestic product X per cent h in the next fewyears
And. for heaven's sike we cannot even get a chance ta o enter their metropolitan
market with the most insignificant commodity and eyen ourilown local'arket is
threatened by the superior production of the larger countries.:
.Does tiat pressure mean anythingg to yo6ifib British -Guana 2 Th the next
S. twelve ini ths .every. Goverment'in rthe world L: l feverishly preparing or the
World Trade Conferience.- Well what is going to be done is a lot of .agreement and
S lobbying This one, "I agree. with' youi here cause you, agreed with me there ",
"* .I scratch your back here because you are going to scratch mine there &c and
poor Trinidad, nobody would scratch its back, and.ppor British G iana is eveuworse,
.it ain't got .any back to cratch'at all. protonge 'igteA)."
So that means, Ladies and Gentlemen, -we have tobe looking for newmarkets.
:We in Trinidad and Tobago think that some would be available 'in Europe Japan
is very interested.' We have had recent visits from Poland .The- Riussians came
to us at our. Independence and said they wanted to buy'citrus and as far'as I am
concerned if I cuild sell some citrus to Russia-'to help to keep the peace ;of th world
I have sold it already (appla.e). Anythingthat is necessary After all weave

.thousands of farmers growing this citrus. Our development plan includes con-.
-tribuion of so much in one form or another to the citrus producers. We just have
to sell it, because the alternative is to have the population starve.or to whip them
,back into slavery.-. They: said that in 1849. And then that means the poor slaves
"willif there is any work to be done,,get licks, and if there is no work to be done get
licks. Maybe that; is one. way of dealing with the situation, but it is not the way
t-liat 'you and I will.bed expected to-support, I independent and you proceeding to
inldefendence. It is not the way that you. and I could be expected to show any
appreciation ...- .. .
hat is pressure number one.. The problems of world trade, outlets of produc-
tibn We see immediately :the difficulties. What is the point of making frantic
efforts to establish industry X to employ Y number of people and then to.find that
ypu cannot sell these .products, it .depends on,.a quota that might be imposed at
:.the whim of a particular power, &c., and of course, we cannot retaliate because
what.-sort of quota retaliation could you all impose, in British Guiana when you
are only satisfying 600;000 people'. Your small market might appear very large your own: eyes and no doubt it is; It- is not, in the eyes of those who produce
or millions ofpeople- and have a surplus wheie they could knock out, any industry
ofyours atiy tie by dumping, unless you have adequate legislation to protect
S;iirorwn mdui s,_t.c.." The .position that you are in without independence is
the same position Trinidad is in with independence or Jamaica is in with independence
Iand a lot ofothercobunfries .The- fight-is shaping. up between the developed
;countries of the world and.tlie develoing.or under-developed. -Arid you are involved
tha fight as i.'am involved in that fight.
The.secdnd question I want .to deal with involves the subject of economic aid.
:Th avedealt with it at some length on previous occasions, to the Economics Society
hof'the University of the WVest Indies in Jamaica very recently, and we thoiight
that,:we, should have the statement published. It, gives a lot of information which
is perhaps not available to you here.:. One of the worst consequences of. your presezit'
.sittus, Ladies andd.Gehftlemen,. is tihe fact that you do not have access to .certain
..types' 'of .information, governmental anid non-aovernmental. I was discussing the
v -.anrouls issuess with. your Premier the last two to .three' days and I found that, in
I repectof many a .matter we were raising he was not aware of the latest information'
sof fome particitlar point raised--they do niotgive access to it. As an independent
country hie would have.; I was able to supply him with .'some of the information
nd we can supplyy him with. more, some respects the information that .we
do inot have he can supply that to is, &c.. This gives a lot of information oni economic
id that I do not. want. to reproduce tonight, and then in our Budget debate I dealt
: with the subject t and gave some more information, that I think students might be

: I :,i :ii,% ?: ^: ^ '.' :; :'- :* *" '*'. '* ''' ,. '

1 Wo .f dd Just leave- thbe&fo, partiolar-do-ennets/ E-h thth E
De"-prtreut that.cani .nake any anagens itlikes -f theird.istbition Th
matrt-.. there; I d n t want toA g ,v6r it .toight. 'Bt I wan to deal wihb
some. aepeftes of that matmrialt'that are not there, some new maternal to show yoi
just what you. aire up against. *
Sst'qpydse a lot of rot lthve heard of the C6lCmbo Plan, a pf'Werkdmot fo
Ae6nmndle daist9ee aftetheat th t he ouflieT4i6foithest Asiag ThYdr
and Pakistan and the rest of them. And the oiim(ionwealth .countrie.lra* been'
brought in-United aKingdom, Canada-it was.a Comminowealth plan -'Australi- au
so onu, and the Um-ited States of Ameriai. has come i- ,'io;w Ladies and Gentlemen,
-I do not have absolutely the latest, information buti this woul he 'good, &iiugh
Prom the.time thiis Plan started -abott 1651.I' think o theedbuts- l the
middle, of 1959, these. countries of South-east Asia ihave received eo
totalling 2100 'million. thate is about ,000 million ofa which the Ute Stles
"ha's .contributed about .two-thirds the United Kingdom about', 'per-'aent."-150
:-illion- and Australia has' contributed so may miillions ,t ':-., .
We asked our high Commissio'ner in Canada to.give us some inornstlowoh-this
.e r o. a p... -.. oht Oromerm .ff, p leid ovff.e -,fr F9iMl ,p
1 .st- of last year a total of cispL$3 llio (CaG'naia'). ln ce- t t6a'e t ont ib ..
.has averaged $'. $ millN) ion ear (Canadsati) .doubtev Oan en&. us~itn
Can.ada, with all, the eooonnmic and .`finircial. diCdulties tat it ,hs fe re1eA t
:.-. s $381' rmBia went rom Canada, tte C olombo i co'tnes, as againt;..
Ladies andGentMemenin this period less than I$1 i tg the tdie n
: he-Canada West ThdiesAid. Programtfe .
The Middle Eastern countries have been getng a Fn. amon f aid 6. hai e
not, be h able to acecaiulate all the figures. thatarearvaile u e that I ve
will gi've a slight- indication of what hs- been hapenn 6Mhe he the
United Kig'dom and the United tates Det'ee 95 a 95 tt itle
out of dAte,- bit even se it vwiould be adequate 6to show you te'^ eopt.e Intensity
the. interest develop in these Middle a-tern Cours t e t tsitesin theie
years haagivetn:61 million; to the IJnited Arab R i t &t e K .,
r. :..:. ..: g .. illio ran $10 ion- t ia.j .4'.l ofl 2 .e Iel :I.
:. ,,: :::. develop theIsraecase xtolie more full-v m one ofi tehee-t I atpssei ote.
to the U~niversit&-$35 million to Joi'dan $19 nikonl to LstIoe $47 Rinlion to
Libya O: abbut"2 t million to Saud'- Arabia id so o`1 Brii hGoveienat' hse
giea $1-S million in loans mnthose ye's- to ran $51 Alion loan.4- to' Jordan,
$41 million in gr~asits to Libya I do not sy that the Ute ir Igdo hlj dnwet
----toLib oe t rtd

.to. E.. ; rr ...&.."..;' :
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Wet Ifldia W It to Jdtdanr -You 6cotfd ontiftte to say, -wbat is it, Roll, Jordan
ii (a.iwghie)h-t I do not heiar them say Roll,:West Indies.-oll". We want to
^roll a well as JordaM Anid *hat is Libya to the Ultited Kiigdotn that GuIyana aid
-the West Indies arnet', after the centuries of ctopulsory collaboration bet ween the.
..-West Indies and the United Kingdom in the 'frm. of producing dco nodities under
icOditions -that v"tiiately: our.. people revolted against and could no longer. be.
It isamost as"if to say with ouir fiend Carlyle, who is the Rector of Edihburgh
: Ituivermity who it'the get British essayist sad historian, that the only way we are-.
going to shot n'iy intrest in youpeople you "Demerara Niggers ", as he called yon
ta Indian migration had i ot started yet-is if jou are, whipped baok into.
v ',r ; Is that the conclusion that you. and I.must draw. when 'we have not been
getti what these te untrue a been getting I have here some figures
eh nted Stes which i the great door giving ort all this. oney all.over the
p -'he Half the '.a.ld t ree- q, rters of the world has been:living for the past.
-fiftetef earson A~.nei-a generitost. everywhere except the West.TIndies, and eioept

"La A .;Caf,. over ,the.rea a, Ladies and t entlenen, these figures are
troniical ve tia total amount of aid in military aid,. economic aid; nofn-
nttwal edit prgrae, &e between 1946 and 1961, the total aid given out per.
head of popdatiodfiakiig the 1961 population. Do you want to :hear the Latini
Men~o4!trks.? Argr.t na$24.8 per head th, th. .in espet. of the total eid,
th averainnal rataoun toabout $1 50 a ea., Bd0ivia $63, aveaging
out rhedpet that is for 15 to 16 yearsCos Rica $65 per head of
ptilatio t tot ai over the period. .The. Dominicai Reipublip, then under the
Dictatorshi gets less thana dollar, Chil gets 5.06, Haiti, still der dictatorship,
Set$2 .00 Panan $6800 e And' then all thbe dountrie in thr Far East, Buriia, .
Ca6Mbodia', Jj South Korea.'everybody is getting. Near East--Greeoe, Iran,
Ira lb Fkey, lII Ceylon Pakiatian Africa-Ethiopia, Ghana, 'Liberia, Libya,

aglin wlete the total avAerage aniza4rMt of aJgld per head of population from the
S-s96apart from' the figures
have already quote forritai the United S -They have got and what
hare 'we got 2
u "h d got., o.i. ; Qi:da,. bit Tri.idad and T6N..go did not fi.g .'... a :ny ..
lge extent m this .have it. fo.o ilytwo.orthre ye'a4. I,d1 olot have the amni... ,..
t total from 1 '6 whe it stairtd. But evei in three .ot fou ,ears, you.... .. :
igi I d atle t6 fte U the pi cture. Where i uant .Total gr n s8 llioI ..;, .

:.. ... ." ". "..; .: :

WLUIUL I D UMLlb O.U, U LULLa IA 5A .y..U uL AL .** ... .,.
with THinidad and Tobago: total of $1.8 .million, bot *loans .andgrants as again-st.-
$22 million for Kenya., :12 for Uganda, $10 for Tanganyika a total of $59 for iast.
and Central Africa,- about $3 million for West Africa and so on.
We :hate worked out what this means in terms of conbtribution per head pf
the United Kingdom population, whih- i roughly about 50,000.000 and, the figure
for the Caribbean territories, which 'in that sense includes British 'Guiana,,.works.-
out at, as I said 36 million. Apparently I .dbn't have the whole Caribben area'
I have it for Trinidad and Tobago -. ..
'In order to provide financial aid for :the .people of Trinidadand Tobago the
50 million people inBritaineach had to bear extra buden of 1 cehts spread
over a period of 39 months [laughter). Of tlie lS cents seven c nts waas gift and
11 cents wias'loaiwhich -is to be'reovered:,(laugly fer). .The total aid meant a nt
of:28 cents pefitionth for thirty-nine month's to each of the '25,000 people of Trinidad
*and Tobago. .It would not even buy me a package'of Anchor t the inew
ta xation rate (laughter); .: I thought I .had British Guiana there but.I find that do
not. But that's .an indication Guana got more than T.idad bu that was
Trinidad's figure.. It is not possible for any Government tolplan developm ent on
those cont-ributions, ith 2-100 million. ($10000 million) to 'the -olombo P]an
couiiutries of Aia, &c.
A .. nd then we ha e thepositionas it is developin today you:country will
find it vhen it becomess independent -t-hat the United States aid that its aid .for
LatinAmerica is only ailable for countries whichaire memjiers of the Orxganiaion
of American States.'. But there is some opposition to Jamaica be onina ::member:
S of the Orgarmsat ion of. American "States, so what is the point'if yu '. y tha aid is
" ."only available :to the OAS, and you lieep .mJaaica a.nd. iii;ida d ut the OAS ?
Therefore you have no aid. British Guiana is goig to be out. as we..
In respect of the Caribbean, area, the West Indies theUnted States Govern
ment has taken the:view that it channels its aid only through an organisation called,
.the Carilbbean Organiisation. We are .not memibersof that. I think your G:vern
merit is, but I do not believe your Premier is very happy with the Caribbean Organi-'
sation so.l do riot..know whbat.he will do.. about'it.inthnextfewmonths Buit
means that we:do riot have anything to say about the "Caribbean Organsation
.I used to know. something about them .in the diand dismal past before .entered;"...
politics in the..'et Iridie. A lot of people picked up from everywhere The four
metropolitana governments were at the time deciding' what was .to'happ.e We had.
'no say about the problems .at all. .. ..
There.i onlyone way, it seems to me, tha6 you. and:. canproceed in the future,
and I hope -that you would understand. I have met here and heard outside a

get. Would some of you, lease, tell me why we do not get ? Because we do not
.h.e;Ir.,X. obriwe-do not have your Premier as Premiier. of Trinidad and Tobago.
;:And would you tell me why Jamaica is not getting ? I asked Busta, I said, '". What's
-happening .man ? and he said NNothing ". I said, "What do you mean nothing?"
and. h' said, "Nothing". I said, "Is so?" he said es, is so" (laughter). I said
'" .what are.we going to'do about it?". He said Well let us:talk," So I said Well,
all right then.-" That is the first step, to do something about it. Everybody else
is gett1ug. .
I can tell "bou why we are .not getting. It is because they are so accustomed
to.: tgivin dita'tion. to Tri fidad anid' Tobago,, and Guyana and Jamaica. They
.hav"e'bee' accustomed for so maiy years to trading ini he bodies of people, in the
WesIndies- just like cattle. We. do not count. They look on you as somebody
: uite different, and ourr first job is to fight. for. recognition in the world outside
; And one of the ay' s i which think we' could fight this issue-though I am
u-".ite tac0nseious ofits limitations and your Premier is quite conscious of its limitations,
e .ha aohat -about it-is that we sh. uld utilise the United Nations more than
i:ndividuai'cputries and call, as so mi y other countries are calling, for an exten ion
'f multilateral.. aid, .,that is .aid ..througr h the Ufited Nations with officials and
technicians; drawn from" all arts of the world. .The United Nations is relatively
.:. impersonal and seeks to interfere much, less in the foreign policy or in the domestic
affairs of.the particular country.
I .,have been .ery struck by the extent to which your Goveriment has apparently
-eei making use of the. United Nations aid its agencies. I met representatives from
UNES.. here, miet one. from .the. Food and Agriculture Organisation tonight
(FAO-)-ahd what hurtsis. the :FAO ian that you have is from Trinidad (laughter)..
Iam very glad to see that: Trinidad is helping. British Guiana however indirectly. '
There is a United Nations Comnission for Africa, one fot Asia, one for Latin America.
.:... believe, Ladies ad Gentlemen, that from now on, all of us in the West Indies
:have got io fight for this., .That is the West Indian area, in which I include the.
Guyaias, is ariarea with a separate.and special identity. It must not. be pushed aside,
Switli any other area anid then lumped in as: a committee of some group of larger
S'.countries. Ouir: countries are small;:excluding: Brifish Quianaof course, but in: terms
of the developed and.populated area,:. British Guiana is. as small as any other West
.dian titory. ..There are ecial historical, traditional peculiarities which dis-
tinguish ur civilization, so to speak, froni-:civilisation as it ,has developed in Latin
'.enca. Therefore we must get. our own separate, United Tations agency, which

haye the Caribbean area pushed ., de' fr tihe Mi3d&Wa Eayt hMi W .pu fai^d.
-east. Asia, pushed aside for, Lati Ameri.a. Ij d:sot 4sa respect thotes
Swelkote them, I am glad to see.the sudes tbt they rae tioboyul
S.epect South-east Asia .to plead hease f ia rya todd
expe. the.. fam Americand obsessed wit.h their 'own oe ohlns 'to pa*y
attention to our problems. And they aegetting togther-and eae geigpajt.
A nd tho fi rst thing that we have to do is to get. together inrepect to4f6his
question of economic aid, to mak greater use of the United Nations and- hStage e es
and to demand separate treatment from the UfitedNationsJ.: A.d y .ou see i how muh
better we could *do t at if Ja aica aad Tr'inid'd have ritish Owa-a wEtjtem -
bothj tpo support them instead. of havuig you 4" fooling 'a0und ieIi yu doMat
: "know whether yo comin. g or going- 'ou 4 iot kow where you a (1e.. '"
not interfermng qn o t affairs, j am speakig aboit my p em. fyou nt o
MeA. .. -.
mess yourseIlves up, .K do t hut o not ,.e:- me uizp i' .he .rgai, (,.' 4h"t'.
.,' And our case wold be greatly strengthened if wehad a powerful independent

And if you had three votes that you 'could ':coo.a d,then it..""ow a1' lli'. e h:
ca,:: "A bloc in Africa might be t aneteenr cop ttrie a, bl.'-i '.a Alnc:rg
might betwt tuy a bloc i Europe is six iBritami wibeed -jo imaketevpt D 4vWl
said No, it is just siix" (laughter) Lot us Jfart o4 hti jree 'exe
could get. We are now jst tfwo and if er were to have epedt we
would be .. a posi.tio. to d soMOiething about third: pjeasiue ihatIipi
:.-.. :*.,: :, We are just getting:' l, : 'in .enec inT i.. .
When you are independent you hAave to he repesepted abroad. an ople.l will.
come here to be represented aiong 3u o say
S .... :people coming m to interfere .in yo dgiaestica fais Teiarefl.rfe.g ike .b ush
in. Tinidad today nughter)^ Just kke that# Whenr rfeiows develop Ait$e
facility we are going to 5art sntefring too {ajier).
But you havfe the United' Nations, a poerfl fourn i hasU of
c."'...: : ourse-hbutthere are' possbiltieK that the United Natioifs co econW ;'
valuable agepcyv in the world'*Ad, in any case, youiaregoing.o soeek adi- n'
the United Nationst And to get there, where yoa haVe to5jyli yourw weiht, o yaie
to say something &ik. you have to have epreentatiii, qd it ls ggoig to be 'very
costly. They have i lot of conrinittees wi4 ipekitis4 agencies, ad &o m -SrMAih'
SCGuiana will npt; be able to afford esther the ,mahipob4er4titpx oieBy^ to do tue job

There are thg vanous blocs 3ou have to move about 4n4 t o l oR yd
cannot just 4o abo.t the plac an i ever ti me eo y to a prt

'' :: .'h' "& C, .tU"; d" ", :: h.",.'Y .:: '.." d:" ...:,,",'', 2" "=,z ,. 4;, .k ;,.'= : :,.: :".'-. ,,.a.,'q ," ,. rs "s.h -. .r :,'

,TW .WJy y3--S .m UL A.-. .L.LIUW 0, IU UL VVVCa.LHnJUzH
;livethaiitway- a "htr ) And. I gathe(rthat Trinidad could hold its own in' that
t t). B u caot do that in the diplomatic field. Itis going to
cost yi money Ad yqu have to go and talk to people who have ideas
about us*- .1.'-h u
e:ati e6ricans 'that. Trinidad and Jamaica are not independentt
cun'tzes Yatal.. A"dyou ask them why; they say, because you are:fi. the Common-
welth .ou .are not indepeudeht. They are going to adopt the, same attitude to.
; uyana;. And a t., of. ese Latin American countries say that. they haye boundary.
: .ispu es -with omi country, and ..they.d not. want to admit them. One country
:goes about open ly itei-ala-and says, Jamaica and Trinidad are not to be .
:aditted to the United Nations; because that might mean the admission of British
I Honduras indue course; and Guatemala doei not recognise.British Honduras, becauns
it satyst ritish Hondujras is Guat.emnlan territory. But then, supposing they were
tocom oaay that no country should be admitted into the Organisation of American
States which has any border dispute with. any Latin American State, then what ?
When is your dispute with Venezuela going to come up:again, and when is Venezuela
i:goi"gto begin to claim Trinidad territo'. '
:. ,"ou' to,.ove. abo i in -that atmaosphere,.you have got. to. be in the Uniteda:"
.at.ions That is.where all the 'ta lk and the baigaii inhg and.the discussion take place.'
L-,"Andten y.ou will .Ihave to be represented elsewhere, .undoubtedly, and, Ladies and ..
entle thecostof.e rnal representation s.irightful. ..We ,have had to buy
housesb or ourAi bbassado rs We own a house now in London, Not a wonderful
house but'nice.: Itfas ione great advantage for its occupant, who. is Sir Learie
'"Qonstitit ne.Frdim the- op of the house he' could -see the Test& match at Lord's
(laugh i hea' rey hrewd. suspicion' that is wh Sir Learie Constahtine
recommended it (ghter)'.. The Governmentof Trinidad and Tobago owns a house..
imn w"hington now We oi n a house in Ottawa. I don thiik we have actually
purchased, but w.e are working oni a house in Caracas, we have to hhaive aih embassy
theree and I think ive have decided or.have' soine: idea, of the house .we are going to
Sibuy .i1nJama.ica aad-I would: be^ only too happy to sign th6 voucher to say, buy
".. i'Georetown vlaughIte'.: V 'ery happy tobuy a house'in' Georgetown for our High
iCoi missioder bit .then you live got one; in :Tinidad (laughter).. And you
a..- ot go andput' a man in a hotel to represent you :at'. theInited Nations.. And
wo 41 ays that the hotel voi:d cost you. les than a 'hose..? .
I am talking 'ablut te Ambassador's house, but haitaboii the Embasisy, the
S:High Conission the offices; Whai about the tiff you send over there?
Youa canno recruit iocal staff. Wha are you going to have in the Guyana E.mbassy
*-in hi gtou' 'Will you. have Aineicans workingj- You- may have at the lower

": 'Ur --. .- "- .- "-, -, .l. 'U s '. 1L ?*"..' .4 ".' ." L, '. :' ''.', ] ,I.."J -L f L:V::^".O', : 'I '"
." -.t from here and send over there'and they would haveo et- allow nices Itiig^lt
be an entertainment allowance, it ight be-'waarm clbothi ''al wace-; i g .
a 'housing- allowance, it might be some' sort offmil: allowancenc, distuini &c:,
to leave one place and set up in another. And wihentyou go ter oi migh -haveA
to shift that person from Washington ov:er,':if ~you h-ave an Em sy P usel
and -ou move.. the,' about. or bring them back: forfamiliaris"ti i "turs 'and end
somebody else The allowances cost m'ore than the-sa And o cannt x
S. themonthe.allowances. The allowance e Ti paid only 'beoaiT thei i^divr
there.: It is to enable:themn to maintain some decent stanidardusi that you-do not
look at some little girl and see. the hoes on. hierfe- t oi a day Washgo
.nd say,,"Lool at that diplomat, that is sure to bafro BtilOi.i la )
.. If anyone bshquld 'say. that :'a out-your.' rep;sentativet.broad yofould r ke it
at .. .al And ,you' have :to buy .4 ca, for themani the nasador, a.,b
probably have to.have -oar for th office andallthesealoa s
-We are. going through' this -now.: And we hape o y just
have to put some somewhere else..' We have to defend oirtbeleve
thatwe6 would have to seti up d fairly-substanfial .estabblunietnese
of... .. he Eur oea.n coun ectione W `ar inember ` J6 skid' O il A ee to iff
., and Trade whose' headquarters are i -.Geeva, ani too6 mnni i 'happe4nge iAM
.. .- .. terms of- world- trade for 'us to leare tliat.outpostatted ~.. We dinyiae
* ." ., *' .0 g '.. _. W d. *'. ,.. ,=t Lb=;:...,, ',9..' i;--- %, :.. :
Sput somebody there. and Geneva-is one of'the modsteena ies t&
S .You lave to, maintain the people 'y-o^iu- sit a st-at' s cozisistwth :h~e di y
of an overseas representative of your country. You hae ;gotto and yt pv.e
got to l ike it, and you dare' not go and leave these ma.te uiatteeadeuthey
::out your throatsa We. could do. witwh, representv n.-usta no.
West Indies buy f-m A ustrali. and thy deoi no. i6t Aitr1i t.
cultivate hat.
I s it possible for us in some way to share soine of these expenses' Jamai:s.hca.Z-
t :. he problem, Tiinidad has the problem. Guya nhas the problem. r goihn
:'.. :to' have three houses owned by the th ee Govern'meitp.'. as egto t .ehodae
Owned by 'thie three Governmentsin Ottawa. grant-you that Wafiagton is t-
; ::':: : o.ustae akm h T
i;',por:.nt. Britia h Gniana .iustspeak.witl its ow.. oigceih Wsi .gr.on. Ti .didad
.....must spea.R..hh'.fns .voice in tbhenined Nati~d~o i R'ds iii'st Ja.m .i.a..d.. :
minut British Quiia" But 1n Auatia 'via' it 'uot'.oasible tbet' mneb where..-
Guyai would- support and pay part and Trindad woud yA pa
'part I .Ikn6W,,e tly how w& .6ould'all.gree Iould', n'ightow .hw. thb
,:. man who ahoulifbe made High ,ConBssioner, fr T .Triidd and. Tobagao'.
and Britih (ifiaa down in Austaa Tel h Jat

: '1:%'... "..
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::Theyi ay si hat h is there to represent Agricultute, but whenever e' gets into
;-di.oul.esm' agriculture with the.Government, he could always .say he is "there to .
re-presnt ticket leatherr) So we -Zcould go on using the cricketers-I suppose
SBritih Gmana eels jealous Well, et somebody, but for God s sake do not touch
KiL (la hie). The man. must hae too. man. runs the bat to give the .
W t In.dias 'for you to go and push himin any High Coimmrsioner's Office to sell:
some BiBitish Guiana erice Sendsomebody else to sell riee. Let Kanhai bat!
.. M:t':. it sound -foolis does it not' I am :fooling around,. But after all it .is
tviy serious. Ca(,u'-Vewith British Giuianas'beading .towards independence, envisage

aai done fective .by person.
e too'iiit ~s iis too biGig~i~iyana could never afford the number. of::. ::.
.eoplneede tip'there.. We cannot afford it, Jaaica cannot afford it. -But if ..
.,,-ei'h had a .ermaneut Mission up there and a representative with so many peoplee1,
Sit tie i uld'we decide haBritish Guiana takes this committee and represents. :...::
i a andJana Trinidad takes this conmitteeanid. represents British Guiana. :: .::.
amai Ja 'mpa takesthat committee and represents Trinidad and British .... ::
Gu S w pit oiur limf resources-limited, remember, in termsof quantity, ..
butter poerfulitems.ofquahty ... ..... ,. .
"n' "Wreould'hold our own 'wthan lody. Our limitations are not of our making
Tooi and produce something for600000 people in British Guiana, you cannot do it;
Y6ua iot o:it for900,000 peopl.' e mTridad and o.u cannot. do it for a mfllin
anfa haWpeople in amsica We are finding that but in respect of our internal
de el opmenrit. The ovnment has to step~in because if there is onethigthat
Souand thave llea-rnt in these years ofself-governmn : it is that you cannot depend ., :i".
'on p ateenterprise. They do n.otcome in here to share your view? Some of the
ocal fllowts might go'along with you but they are concerned *ith developing: .
snething,.and if the hi hk that they should take two stores. and make ther.oni .v...
ft.: -,.-:., .,;. ,::
eymakehenonaii n thersome^people are just out of jobts, and the people who:

-an. en a ,ti old so abou tteris of asBistfer rcprotidfd
'f.or dk.boblie that some of te people appeie tht we:.;i"':
a :'.' : ".... ..." ". '...: .:: .i ":
RIP -_ .#.:': .: v '' .". .. : ..' -

'T A nd ,.; v ou .. can n o .oi ..t ,, ., : : ;.. : .. .... .. .: .- -
'.-.,79 .D:b "d ,:: !..:.. a:..: : i n-.

.what fie. told me. :We" have" our dow problems iiFTrnidad ofo.i. e O ; ome of
.-that really took the cake The outide gve ii e cm te
depend oi private enterprise-they are always el lig us that i rndd ndthn
private enterprise comes tb, Look here, maiin;eave to mke i ro
therefore we have to retrench here Ad theni to threpeoplewho. ar te
theyay, s 'Gooand tell your Goveriiienti and let tnii ~wee afterei'
t .. : ........... ...... -
The outside Governimenti tells you dependon private enterprise, a : prvate
enterprise tells you, ell boy we know what is bes for adidBwe arie din :it
.thisway &., &c; and if there is any difficult go and see heoverment What'
is the Government going; steal tlie money .That'iith oiti6n that you
face today. XWe'have. faced tfis quite:cons ciusly in Trmi dad he aft of du
.Second Five-Y ear Plan. that is mow beg disoassed General e ate t e
public sector, the-; Go.vernienut;. has Ato: intevyeneoreoand mdre to j t.
'because it is necessary fo the social development of' the people ii e) because;.
it necessary to provide.emploment-ia particulararea'th overmenthas
.to step in to say. that isu~nt'- be.donen ordei osafeg" a du
S ... against foreign compel itionu ..-- -.:, .;.--,-:'.,:-
S We ae-facing a lot of difficult norea diilti he Btsh ls
... iterest in the ninet.enfthcentury in ;est.Indies sugar three co tres
.producing sugar there was a;lari scale evac nion o Bnht awen
instead;to India, it went to Canada It 'went to fE
days of slavery, done, Britain nb,lnge itRiirested,'gon They," did not go for good
others came in, and wemanaged i iv That eio ne
.. 'hundred .years ago, and iiow I wiik ae:a g fr
: ,. Ladies and Gentlemen, Il ow of bu essmen. ibee old
by representatives. of their GCvoeinlentth tt oihe. shol not nestn
." all.. They said Trimndad .unstable, they sad Trmidad'd icoT et i .
*I was told tKat bsonmeone two days ago here i Georg po sen-
S tatious ade to hi lm the representativef icou T dad
-we ae up against YI ou get a lot of peoplee wlfo aretellectuall f or-tos
w'ho .e in. po. in. the West Itdies i(t e), th a lge .d
.. .. they go about-.:scdalismg: usan i.:lad ifyi us
to .Mr ar and. 1849, to slavery r -
Well what is it?. Are. yo a I go tota tt is .eas n
it..:.,., it.eay toanaly, ts not se -tt
W ...... 7-

W'; ,-a al I d6&rfii.,
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rieMi str am cliairmad, 'get the authority of the Cabinet to issue a draft outline
i"miicatin ti broad feature of the Plan for the neit five years. Every *word in
it is te.ntatie It suggests'thi; and it indicates this. is where we are strong, this
iswhere were weak.: The next day the newspaper--a single newspaper with a
moonopoly the Trinidad r al uts .a big. headline-"Prime Minister Tables.
.Deelopmeinnt PlanT Resoures Low-- Economy Precarious." (laughter), A papert.
.iat is Engush ,paper, subsidiary of a. big English paper, and whose editorials '.
look iifthey are '.rittedailin the offices off bthe United Kingdom and the United
S.tatesrepresentatives.:: I don .say they are because. I was not there, I did not-
ee(a ghe~~)~.but'if', they were written tliere they. could not be. different in what
ey present;:Ido not sa that tht isnecessarily wrong. I do hot, exactly say
thyshould nobd6 it. I jist saxy ,eae fremng the pressure because they do it and
we do"not have any means t least we do noting Trinidad, I do not know what:
you hae ere-f dealing with that in terms of oie's population.
Ha:I a id. anything Ladis and Geilemen inall the tine I have been talking,
a i nyaterna pi le British GUiiia .Not at all. The pressures that
e aj ly to Trinid they. aply to Jamaica they will apply to Barbados,.
ani they apply hIere do-;d no want to interfere :i British' Guiana's problems.
I woul reent ainy iitference rinidad loaproblems But this much I 'tell% .
Shat theexten. that youilocal probIems.cQtinue Ien Trinidad and Tobago
has a greater responsibility to.carry tin.the Uted Nations. We are only.there with
Jamaica and it is votes that, count; it is lobbying that matters it is the presentation
of d o t..of view -chich is niew 'and which is distinct arid which iA different to as "
n' y p ope as p 1.0 We are nly twono. Another one. will help a great deal .
: ThiIsecal 'problems on aid, our problems on aid are almost certainly your problems
.-'on : .nomic aid-"; :. ; : .. .. ,'. '
S Te-li World Trade Coniference;. we are going to heard They might all move
out'and go for a dr henweare speaking. We have to pt up with that.. But
te- eipntis.thasli'. you aregoing now you will not be. heard at all. In .our own.
interetyowninterest, we urge you to proved and get something dorie aboixt it.
Ironotkw e av f~ed situation aail o y rs I d nIot kno -
.erhaps if- Iwere to gi a indication. ofur exerience speaking as a fiend, spea ki
'awellwisher ,itmighftnt be helpfull fo the cites :of British Guiana.
hayoarefacing is not different from what' .ve haye faced. I hear:.a lot
here : eali withthe rs abot Btish Guiana being totally dissatisfied
'ith Umers it-ha is ver fineWhatiwoud 6 be: a tragedy isif British
G a iastisfied wiSth the U ivert Allo s are thoroughly disssfiifed

th&L U

British'Guiana how, the- UiverIsity wadeeled.. :I arond
,..- '.. ulting me I know how hey tried to railroad itt
thaAt id the other. I sid Nothing dig!1 Wb hy l
.thdt thought shouldbedone. Theyrdid not follow th adie
cro. only- to.make s-ure .thatit"-was-ino done ."-''o tha, t (Za..
v.Um. .,- iveraity I. t fought it .when aot of theta m aking .lotf oi
were' -. : ,not.eve around o the seene. :But w at ,to .'y.d .Wen',ilrn
.. .. '" did anot' like it. Wi e il ininue .' e ko that there h dan
thig into, .lot o .mall parts : .

S., niverities arau ghe at!i, w o re moiethane nt lA -i.vs::. teAm ,iot t l ehoiteA-et.i'-au eo;- :'
.;. i anvy iepects t 'e'" superior o 1fcltof. univerites olde
You a togo to Ameca the mericabti numo ,:
S, .:,."perhaps in so me: Britisah subjects 'ike s:aySaeper.. .
the..d.- auene &atho ,tiesoay. S a rn, thiot
-: r'- ^ :: L

.: :, ve'ie that are notaike- ..-
..".h .'o..'e~s a s -a-'s he.'.t, *upau:as gieo lo Jof"noue'-r .fl
.'; a.:ll f::' *, ;':" :goos- 4, : p a v ia'a

they vt up a urnveity t a(callitaf
,:..:.- 'r. .,. ..,: ,.'sg' t..:i t "a hit er,'i
that -they hav*e l i n the united Statei wheie-von*cotila- vat
..that i.e. o.
-absurd asthat TThs has be ri tte d

i t h ba th ver e t

hvachersi atd -d et ,ir utmt.:., h d

e": "Sairf 0 ",

wr .ote ock-. th fle io dy an li
l,,..a f..:.:b
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ago, Ihftathe4y^'
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eryshot Jlni

men.Tily.aollows somieonetowrite a Ph.D.. thesis on lavatory series inr the-Senior.

'' Anyb dy whoa b a .fdailiarit \,it.h a University. would know that-you bave
'bea little .careful''en' you. aredealin with these'matters. You have .to establish
titadards,&c. ..There wa. a time wien TIas appointed a consultant to the United :
SfatesFeederatOfficeof Eduicatidi, to-try :and advise them oii'n themultiplicity.of

uiriersitieNsiii theU.nited States- And o.e dy I caught a fello fromn Tiidad
|subimitigig.asi-the;b ot .,his quhlfication f6o entry into. a schoollin the United
St of:mericaa S.choolVeaving' Certificate rom the Primary School, standard .... .
eve : n ihe fellows in America did not, know at itwas all aboutand, I must: ...
'yperhapsinrespectf thecollege he was trying to ente it did not matter whether-
e ..1 per paper' (laughter)..We have to be particully carefull,. bt 'that
i.pnot to saytbatwB ar satisfied aWe are -totally dissatisfied:. '.' ".
Ad wesiitdoi and agree that the,uiversity...ould decentr-aise its acibties' ..
at ofsional sool lev agriculu engineringandthere are a lot. of
'oth ers tbe decided ja perhaps pha -acy &,.'---, maUking hospitalss in the'.Eastern-
S n g hospital t hospitals i. Porof-pai a Bridgetownhave ..........
ected -putt the general leges. Liberal ArtBs 'colleges, one .to: go in ..
Barba os, net go in Trinad providing genet edctioi to the type of people
trwegive priority to in Trinidad :the 'p ar school teacher the social worker
the;plicemia, ti.rinci;pa officer in the Civilbervice,' soebod who would. ..
norinay ,see i a iniv t at all He had nogo the opportunity Some would
ie y gand ie yo eight taken ses after eir d daily work &'.
givethe ir owi a break to get a bette.citizenand aboe a to introduce
h to t di-.iplines eand ideas, &c th at ou get though association with a university.
have nofbeeni satisfied but we staved inide and fought and now we hav6e
to reappraise th whole thing It;was not our umniversityvwe are taking it over nowM.. -
Tidadad Tobago has simply laid the Jw down Asan independent couty
.Trinidad ad Toibago iot;. going to accept the colonial istida ds imposed by the.
United Kigdoi 15 eas ago, ad that is that. We say, Analyse and reapprase
Westay i i~ii we'd :i'f We6did not grumble and secede as you did. Where does
at!t get anybody So tat 3, is our e ,ence there .:
We .see th wile field' of air colim. icatio.s threatening to fall into foreign
ds a say ithhe breakup of Fedeati, nothidoing. Hold i ie
unil the- esinda.nsS .get together* nd decide what sort*of airine they ant .:
4 ",,.:.: ; ^"" ..." '. ." : : *.." : .
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.I # ... :'::% ..2-.':.',' % .,:'.: : ... : '' : : $ .,, .. : / : .- : .; ." : :...
... -" ..'. ". ii-'. "'. .. ..:. : ,,:.:',::. :' '. .. .. ,.: .. ., "o.:: ,: .,

and b the airline. Otherwise you today.wouild be entirely depeudeit upo
powers for your air services. We havt nt -plainnedi the ser -
Wedo not ant to do that beca usewe belie- tl t showed
governments of the areas. tat.t.he airline serves. onmetig e must sart .Sonig,
othlierwise we arehbt. e.ven going to. uh. .roundon wliich ealk 'n.ouir
territories.- Arid ioiebod. must the lead. :;
S.And if you have. problems, we haef he pi dliemi too The problem: of :racia
disharmonyy, we know allay about.that.m i :Tridad Wead4.-th problem ofa
Independence Consiitution. :Before that 1 dephndenMc -eonstutio u
:Ladies and Gen tlenie,. people o pobed .to us T'say people..oppoed 'to t a
not the political Opposition in tieParliament puit-out proposals as f
How nmany-opf you- kInow ..Trimdad'? :Can ,,you i agimne an6 d rvr ni
in two?. ( ughter) o.. co fld divide it:in fiwo' ,perhaps4.sag" Tng ii.oe.a
one is Tobago, but that wold rnot getou :,er vfar;:lbecause'Totago has
'- people ".:::'.:.. :. ,.,,. .:'."... .." :';: : :- ."^

S' ,:. d the proposal. came., p adies rid GentlemenA h.t 'e !udadopn
Trinidad and Tobago. the co nstitutio ofCyp-sTatroposI''
presented-- o the Government of Tn udad.and Toago..
cormi ttee of Pirliamenit called themm in d qbie e hai
....... ..... .....:.............-..... ...........,....
... (k e :field-day" witlt.hem man"e' "W-e.. iih thi t :- .
S ... talked- lightere) .I -I.asked the some qlesons---.e.ueon I.asked
I said "To what extent does y our proposal ,dra :dians d.he
"Come again, please. Dravidians i the po eoFow did t n at
this was a tendency a disintegrating tende ncy ,(hat d e'i
the separation of a certain ectioin of hat t'is f ..o yhee tb
organised'in a new state call Dravidistan
.,. -So there was the poor feowpreaing paritioln:ai he.-vwasn.not
most significant and important illustration of the pri ple opa iti t
developed. he' said th .... fhey wanted so iany people from is-rceinte-Police
Force and so many:- in mthe Civil Service .They put a propi d and
.. Geitlemen for aCabinet chw~ .uld ave a Pri Mii.. ster'of ne re d
Deputy. Prie .Miuster of another aid soi iany:ifrom ac s nyfr
another. ewent through all xf th.A It stere Weargu i t
They said use the: Const itutionrf Jamaica, which rites in iha.te
'Minister ftas to dnsult te Leader of the Opposition c nf e said a
is,: : lot of foo lishess What do you mean en u donosutonhis
subject wha apps? Are yo gong, to writei atesuectsl he yo
S:..e out oi doit mei, do ot onst hi one A ond
,. ; .= .. .. ; : .._ -, .,: ,. .: ., :& .. .,' ; -,. ,.,; :). ,... = :p.
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.f Wl.C Wtflh'l UJL Ji..V %, U!tflL U :Jk C L' L UVI J ,LU JLV VL kJbCUU 1J UJAO .U.ULU E ". -
to present a petition" against the control of the Police Force by-a minister, or against'
the .control of the Defence Force in independence by a Minister, some: protesting
against independence.
All that we ha e been through. We took it. in our stride. I woIder if it can
helpp you: I am not suggesting that ourpractice night be followed by you,: but
..I thinkitqais'always good. for yo'u toiknow .that in these .'atter you are not alone.
..LadiesandGenitlempen all this talk.about division in the West Indian society,.-.
I sat downA inBrus'sels in my hotel, Brussels,:the centre of European. civilisation, .
the capital of theEiropea. Common Marketwhere for a hundred and thirty years
you hought'that tlhe differentf racial national strains and the religious strains .today
i'lidellinBrusselsincluded from the. beginning of the State .m the 1.830's, had ..
beenlari onise.d d-:.itegated into a single ;patteri',and that there was only one,.
Belgiu..And we a, my.col1eagues ai.a demonstration :of one section of the .
gi"a"n o .iatioii' sa- i they -were different i language" they were different in
religion they er'dfferent i- raceand they wanted particular representatn, .. in '.
Parliament bas that We street fights breaking out and bottles being;
ith i pioh re:end dkn k de;d picemen knocking. down people, & Man if : .
hadi :.oke t thaton th escreen .ou. would say,. "Oh God, that is British. Guiana"

That ias Brussels the entiree of cdisatio. I was".iere with the. .Leader of :
the OppoAition in'm rinidad. Isaid" :Boys this thing looks like Trinidad old mask"..'
This soT of foolisiess wsgoing on there and a representative of the European
uniycomesto me ad tells me one day Well it is unfortunate about
tishGuiana: I conference ha broken down, &.,&c :I said,;. Well,.: ..
boyitloo1 like thAey have just decided o behave like thepeoplein the streets of...
Busela k W6He said Well weU wellthat is strange, isat it?" (laughter) Isaid,.
Well weI ell, as strange. as EB tish Guiana". These fellows over. there are
alway 'casting stonesat us.' I doa not tell you that .you are to be proud of it. I do .
loCtellIou t 'hatit ma.kes.any differe-nce thatrit happened in Brussels Foolishness .
is fooislne~s'whether'min'Brusssorlsesher,(luh"eaw havet'i rnide;.d in .. Ad,.:
Ladies'and Gentlemen. Please do not think that w are such a wonderful people.
Stle saw this thing'hat dur own Independence Conference I ote letter,
Ladies andGentlemen,: after discussing wit my top iarty leagues, to the Secetary .:.
ofAtate for:the Colonies asking hin, please would he use'his good office-s to try and
ringthe to sides together. .Thiswas .towards the end.of the confeieence.: The: ; .;.'
conference has fin ished. We -were agreed onone thing 'i Trinidadtha perhaps:;
yo agreed to here Istate it.just for the record shall we say'? All

V~'L A '

agreed.:that Trinidad's future iwasrnot to be decided at the'.Comnionieslth Prine
Ministers' Conference in .London in the absenicepf of Trdad We- almlknew what
wvasgoing to happen to our oil even if. we were perhaps 'there, and our sugar,'ad
we :.were: agreed on that. We were proceeding. with a lot, of difficulties soi.
legitimate, some. not soegitimate, and a' lot 'of apprehensions and doubts. I had.
S" his letter--the Conference was coming.'to andendfready there' signed lfy part
colleagues had agreed. And something was said Ladie"s and :entleme.n,'I forget
S wliat: I would not tell you what I said to myself-too many ladies in the room
But I said, "This thing stops. And'I .turned to the Leader of the Opposition an.d
said-we were adjourning for tea or something-I said "Look, let'fusi have a talk.
And. he said, "O.K.' -I told him I had this letter and I said, ..Mani.I caiuot-submit',
a!y letter. I am not going to invite anybody to come and settle our affairs He
said Agreed, I go along with you And I said, Iam going to ak.e statement
He. said, I will listen-to-the statement .. '-- ',.. -. .?. ,
:And I went in there; 'Ladmies 'and.Gentlemen, and in mhlpresepnceof the Se ary
S". State..for the Colonies I said I wanted to ake a,'statemeit at the d f the
Conference. I' did not want to.speak particularly'for the-record butI wanted td
.: ...mae a statement. And in his .:presence I said, :I laye writt -r youa:letter here
aslking-you to intervene. I want to say now dIdo not wat you to i vene Look
I tear lip.the letter". AndfI tore'the letter in'his acei the resenceofevervb
and.fI said 'It s"ftis tu tliatand the .other: We. e, going settle e own affairs
I:: do:notisee is possible tat youcan talk in Trinidadai i r s of newtrad
; rrangementai without consultmgthe Opposition' "
There.was Europe the EuropeanCommion Market. I did n-dt ow Ct as
* putting -my foot into it, Ladies and Ghentlemen.i e. wet bac ore ad we
consulted the Opposition on major appomtments One of them thy did notice
andI aid Wellthis one is soimprtant let me think it over I will getin touch
with you again". And we were able by' further .thought to make anappointment
that satisfied everybody in the community and every bodya be g the
Government for it and.saying what a wonderful Governmenti:.:
S. ha been able to agree that no elections reto be held pt de cta
conditions: and until those conditions arefilflled elections e postpone
We appoint a Member of Parliament as the THighCommissiner;in.Jamaica `bsi
seat will not be.:filled. 'We postpone-localelections at lower levels. It doe no ha
: :to have a little peace and quiet in the community ad no serious issues are involved
-But I did not know the trouble I was putting myself nto. We decided thaton
question: of Eurroe we would consuti the Opposition and'; theGovernment decided
.. te th. .Lader of the Opposition to go to Europe

',d. .-:, ..." :/5".:' .:-, .,..;. ':i::. ;. ` ;:...;* .:.;.. ./ (}5i. .:: (.: : ` 4..i ` ` ).. `.: %Yi

7 fO.t .J uL.tuf A IugU Muu. I ay, jOOK nere-
.Ihavmy delegation'. *I had allmy-top people, Chamber of Coimerce men, fellows .
who are always grumbling at the Government as if the only reason you have a man
ii.'the Chambe.rof Commerce at al is thliohwl and gruble We say, take him along
and give his .advice:.We took ome boys from agriculture, some from the trade
inmous, someonD ro oil, &c, and a ople of other'fellows. And we had the Leader
;?of the. Opposition. i- .'".".. i .. : : .:. .. -
id I: tell the Prne MinLister of the United. Kingddm.. I say,. ''Look here,
I hav: deleg io .. What .is your arrangement in the room?" &c., &c And he .
;.ay, "Well.'hey av .the-Prime Ministers;- and .they are putting chairs for two and :
A.hlen theyare.havimg iarow behind, chairs for there or our, &c" .
I said ''We a have- agreed in Trinidad that such matters are to .be dealt with
joimtly bs both' prtie. : haYe the-.eadero6f the. Opposition with me, I *ant him
Sthe room .He says, "'N that -is:iiposible, man I say "But. how. do you
.nean? (laughter) Th is.. our democracyy" And"I did not want any sort of foolishness ,
-that ou could go as a Government :land arrange something and then have an
O ppoition, saying that, they1 'vill repudiate it when:they get.'into power.
": iYl, hisexactly what is happening in Britain-in teris of the European Common.
':Madie Tlibabour- Paity has threatened to repudiate, and the mere threat messed.
up e hole thing on the Chontineht long before the. decision was taken, If only .
:-hieyhiad fllowe"otir ad'ice about Britali n :the. Continent, Ladies and Gentleme, ..
tis would not have.ha'pened.. We saw it coming in rinidad. We went all about
Europea beingwell intentioned you know ho e WestIndias are-, we put.
'l.upa umpr.oise iat would have settled the whole problemn... Since there was no
,.iiesioix of ifficuity-.about 'Tritidad- except a little diffictover oil, bt good
friniedsctculd settle that-thehi adiiit Trihidad. as a full: member of the. European
Common i aike Cbecause it was dificult to agree to Britain and then Trinidad would.
undertake to 1 eits good offices mi the European:Economici Community to persuade
theo rs to Bitain in a associate men .ier l gh''er) .
A lob of them laughed: when sai it. nd a' a:lot of you laugh wheii Isay. it.: .
Butwe ant i sei ously and lodk at the situation that a developed What are
ou all laughing at now? Because we were so. rigWht lighterer. We saw this
cming nEurope arid we took tk lead We said: the Ceader of the Opipositioi
mus fpar-icipatie i this issue :We presd md a mora du He was.i Ldd : ...
at .:th !'tie and I asked hin. to come. across to Brussiels: We;gave him the draft and.
,fve or six of us sa- dow there and le said, 'Lok at' this :pin I do not think yoi .. ...
Sofar enough 'We said, 'Buit.ou. aregoig oo far,.man' So we compromise,
aidwe have a statement no which the Oppositidn: repudiate, a poli .
.presented that i the ipolic3 of tihe Nafiorn, But we go and get into trouble with :. ,. ...
.. .. : ': ':? .:7 : ."F ; '.. :',/ ,. ',, '. .' ." -' :' .' "5 ? .'. : ," : ." .. ,,, ...: -'. .. % .. .: ... : '". .;'FT" "

.... ", ..... ." .. .. ::" :.',. '.. : .. ; : .,i ., ? : :: ,.; .. ." : .! .. : ,: .: : .. "

". '-they .asked us, "What sortI fellows ae ou Tidad? id
.' .. And they said; You 6come- over here to; thesedisc.issins and you .brmi hedr
ofi.he Oppositlon? We said ere doou lea. r
Tis is a national; matter .'Aidthi dd yuaig.1ho d
leave him liehindbut none of our coutrieseerithoughtot o w?
We are much better democrats thair6yu -are..jker)Ad eremapi iJn
.to go teaching p:.iel o j e are lo ge t leog ply
copy,,: .
cop. .. ...... ;':....'. .-. ....;c ..,.***..., .......... ..... .f.,., ,%...-. ..._.. ,.*7:, ..:. *; : ,7 :: -***; "
.a......... ... ..... ........... .........

a, e been able to bring ome peace and order to the pcopu .,4a .d.restre confidence
i the ahiol pop ulation aL.P ole r did,-.iot.doi le i dh.e. .rfo Wh.4 ti
Sdid. it: together and the whle ourienong so resd w e
satisfaction in the co6i-umt at'ftehave wode t e old -
bate hippeed .if te had not tee -ablet'o:ettle t'fii London be
;*: d tb.appalled tthe conequenc.. ..
What knw todaywith stthsofdepndencel .cd v
": ...' ,:. .. '.... ..." .'...... ...... .... ... .. .., ..... ..... .. .
kinowni I do not have to take ibullyi ng f ae be lied
: after da'y emTudadiand Tobaieo tWe opose. ttake if `by- andlarge
gnr, we have o o luty wth s There wlleeierenes e opposed

t o. that- four emembersofthe'erument'a ef4.
-. thhat wb e should and disce'.mattT.oer.o"f. fqoreignI rffaao ,b"ienmos

ltis not ony there that we have to tryi mong
the economic interest Laesand Genlemencme ereafte forstraighdays

s .'" .. .ection and said oThi isi a l1ot o: foolish e t each
t se arafel and f eth ednte a sk me i meeting
: ""'. : ...',.-will you om t And the :said s a"nd e hd our days f conerenc e best
,:.. ":: ;.,confereceI haYe ever attended u The pople thereroad ac.ntibution o *.lk
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eight or nine different groups now, with the aim of getting business representatives
-and union representatives. into.a. National Economic Advisory Council to advise the
...Nationial Planning Commission on all fimdamental mattersi beginning with the
Second Five-Year Plan.
How else. cani we do it?- It takes an infernal amount of time. It is tedious;
You. are tired after .eight. hours of discussion. Either you go the totalitarian way
.and you gi-ve the instructions from above or you do it, the democratic way and you
take tiUm. (applause) And I. believe ultimately you get a better result. I was quite
astonished -at some of the proposals that came from the trade unionists, way beyond
the proposition put up tentatively by. the. Government.
At,.all levels you can do .that. I am going about the country meeting the young
"people in .the Sixth Forms. 'Are these young people in the Sixth Form going to
come out into. the outside world all demanding, demanding, demanding, my rights,
iy, rights, mmy rights,, from. society and is society not entitled to demand anything
from.therM .! Thesoceiety :that. has fought to put them in the privileged position in
which -they are today. These- young people, eighteen, nineteen, coming out into
he world tomorrow, have not caught the hell you all caught in this room. You
all had to do the suffering and they are just coming up, 'brought up on comic books
Sand television and all the rest of-it, and then saying, "Well, you did not. make the
prld as well as youn-should have.made it':. They have life ten times easier than
.you and. Ihad it when .we were their age. Would they come only for self with no
conception. of service? ..Can something be done to help them as the future voters
in the hext- two or three "years,. the people. that might be sent at public expense to
`.universities to ge. further. training? Further. training for what.?. To help the
community or to help themselves?.
Everybody I meet in British Guiana quarrels about the amount of money they
sperid on sending-people to t.he West Indian University and they have not come
:'"back, So what do you think? 'In Trinidad they come back? (lvagkht6r). They are
.nirunning away. You find West' Indians all about the place serving.. In many cases-
'not all-in many cases they aie goiiig because they are getting a higher-salary than
:-.'we can afford to pay themi. 'We are a- .natioil of individualists. We have not yet
learnt to sink our differences.: We have hot yAt:leamrnthe. concept of dedication to
the public service for' the :i-blio'godod. applausee)} Some of 'us have. You have Ito
.start in the schools. It takes me a lot of time. I go around with the Minister and
I talk to the Sixth Form in the. school'.. I told the Minister that I will try to see if
A could arrange my programme so that once a month perhaps, or at least once a
'uarter; I speak to all of the Sixth Form students in all of the schools 'in Trinidad
:and Tobago, and give them a lecture on the development of Civilisation. It gets
:.;youi away from the wretched files and statistics and the personal problems that

: : ." .'..

you. have You] are dealing with vital section of the community. the
sectionof the community that, two to three .years from now, fiveyears perhaps will-
"be coming in wi:h'theiit ideas, 'with their talents, ..with their degrees, with their.
S responsibilities, and- ,ththeir claimE on-: the society which 'we say .is now their
-I '- .Indipendeit Society for them "to control and for them to goer' ,
SWe have theproblem on have. ":Viht will-happe to it' .I do notf
S... .. whether hat I have said will help .you. I do .iot tell you thit-what we have:.
done is much. But. I do. suggest to you that:it is' not:necessary and'
S overcome by the difficulties however serious they night appear to.'be... And you
must liok atodme goa. I knoiv-what-I am working towards.. can see n future
for this:area, including Giiyana, exdept a future ihaitinvolves Aisoie sort of association.
of independent :sovereig, states-I do riot challenge their-:idependence, nbt -
challenge their, sovereignty--collaborating on.. all sorts of. mistters, formally or.
informally, extensively or not so extensively, on the Uniiversity., we 'hope, on
communications perhaps, on external trade, ifi the field of external repsentation,
on this common voice at the "Unit.d Nations, regularly, 'and' our.
.,..people some sort of hope and. some. sort-of guidace-tid-the. guidance is, that we
Scannoti possibly hope to develop'don our limited pbopuiiation resources, oh our limitedd,
'-". economic resources, all the services which our good hearts aspire to.- knd oh., Lord;
our hearts :re .good_ We :are a- people .with wonderful ideas. The only', thMig...
restrainifig us is the capacity to carry them 6ut.- We c'ul'd.o morid ofithat, rthps
in collaboration' than we could ,.do in isolation or separation .
S. do not know..if-I have. given you any-ideas. If Thad iany advice to give. ou-.--.
and I have' tried' to keep away from that, but perhaps I oould do that now speaking
S.. the.Prime 'Minister of Trinidid,.and Tobago-, if I had a.ny.advice" would give
it to you iwi-two forms, two priorities f6r a country like yours. I could speak with
assurance because they are .priorities for. me, slightly different "-because we are
independent and you are yet. to be -independent.. Two priorities face you in the
.' next twelve months.. .. .. '.
: "'' .Numbeir one is direct representation for Guyana at the WorldTrrade Conference,
otherwise you are dead. As they say in Trinidad, "You 1 E D". (laughter): And I
'do not in'ean that you will survive if you go in independence with an independent
voice to the Trade Conference. But you have a.chaiioe. '
And the second one: we have settled it; that.mhins that we will have to maintain
it' you will have-to face it for the first time. You are going 'to want one of your
best men, Ladies and Gentlemen, one of your top men as your spokesman at the
United Nations. .. .
If you delay either of these points or both of them' much longer. whatever the
reason or the alibi that you might give, -then-I understand that every- now and


coli efyoursea defen oliav ey are-al w o are as ulnrae;5ble '!

es3 or ysea. de (lau D layeillr of th6 r boih ofkAthe and then-
wh'ere;a 't l .e' .B 'o. ry'. c." o id ue' .
^-.Bac to colonilismi 1obody wn oi ascolodyThey don*o.&vanityo -they
just; want oej dicrdyr lk:..rsl9th has. r y e
serveit.si1yp~rspose; s c' boluaycal oearlt aorwtay's e hra ega-tivre. .You rcan-ble .
.as your seto defenes1.ogo wh ere. .eoay,, either of thgr bot, l.of the and heno, gong. to2 Back vtosla. i ..,very' Bal:. k Yto j.aryle a.. g tohe de ntuere

B or colomalsm ,N oodvY.gwants qyou as a olony .e- dono wan you they

S"s wt onlyu toe, Las'Aiio a'Gleyjust-wan. to disard you ike ia e able to workhas.

out it own salvation. I wishall of you well.t w you'allgoed luck. Nothing'
,will please me as in;mdindual better tffd to hea~f voh all have settled your:
, problems and, sent .letter to the Secretar ofstae saying Agreement reached
Indepenidenlce date so-andso ~leas fprer .nege~sar oCon-ithtion". (applause :
,d .; Iedreall.ik.e t feon nte., Id.0not' knw if it can be ranged .
:Even if it caI otf wlpulj 1e )e press the hope thfat iran bea iI would like all
`of you in.i` is. d ad`ll the pi eopie of BnitiahG'a bto know, that;, if it ,can b .
arranged there isin mmy op.ujno greOtger honor that could befall the People ani.
:th Government of Trhidad and Tobago tan .the linor of taking Brtitsh Guiana
.,up the aisle. ofIdeenience and'of Trudad. ani, Tobago presenting Independent
S- to ,tfthe family 6of thdeUnited, Natio, in New York. (prolonged pplae).

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