Some historical reflections on the Church in the Caribbean


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Some historical reflections on the Church in the Caribbean
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18 p. :port. ;22 cm.
Williams, Eric Eustace


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An address /by Eric Williams to the Synod of the South Caribbean District of Methodist Church at the Tranquillity Church, Port-of-Spain, on 24 Jan. 1973
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Subject-Top. Trm: Christianity West Indies Church and social problems

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University of Florida
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UF Latin American Collections
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oclc - 03053207
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Some Historical
on the
in the





An Address by Dr. the Rt. Hon. Eric/Williams, Prime Minister of
Trinidad- and Tobago, to the Synod of th 'South Caribbean District
of Methodist Church at the Tranquillity Church, Port-of-Spain, on
24 January, 1973.


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Dr. Williams speaking at Tranquillity Church, Port-of-Spain-24 January, 1973.

Some Reflections on the Church

in the Caribbean

I am very grateful indeed to the Rev.
Mr. Lyder for giving me this opportunity
of speaking on the occasion of the Metho-
dist Synod here in Port-of-Spain, not only
because, as he said, my principal concern
for most of my adult hfe has been the
history of our area, but also because (if I
may say this to modify any suggestions
that have been made about the time taken
in this and other commitments etc.) I
was actually at this moment engaged in
some further work on the West Indies
which revolved around this subject of the
Church. So this is a wonderful opportunity
for me to clarify my ideas, bring them
together, especially before such an appro-
priate audience. I would merely like to
say, if it is not already clear from what the
Chairman has said, that I come here as a
student of history, and as far as I am
concerned there is no Prime Minister
I would like to begin, as it is going to
become more and more important for
more and more of us to be paying attention
to the historical past that has us by the
throat whatever we try to do in the pre-
sent, I shall begin by indicating to you
what was the position as far as what we
call the Church collectively was concerned
on the discovery of the West Indies.
There was generally speaking only one
Church, the Roman Catholic Church, at
the time which governed directly or in-
directly a large part of Europe. It was not
only a Church, it was also a most power-
ful state.

Shortly before the discovery of America,
the Spanish authorities who were con-
nected with the discovery of America
were able to get rid of the last remnants of
Islamic influence and power in Spain itself.
But as the Church came to the West
Indies, the stage was already set in Europe
for the Protestant Reformation. So that
shortly after the discovery, 50 years, 40
years or so, there was the emergence of a
number of Protestant sects and powers,
particularly England and Holland, who,
looking at their Catholic rivals with all
their wealth from the New World, thought
that whilst they could get a share of that
wealth themselves they could also, in what
was then pre-eminently an age of religion,
have some say, this time a Protestant say,
in the salvation of souls.
So apart rom the mundane interest of
Queen Elizabeth of England in British
prosecution of the slave trade or piracy
against Spanish vessels, there was a power-
ful Protestant motif which was there with
the Dutch also and which was there with
the Puritan military dictator in England,
Cromwell, who worked out what he
called a western design for challenging
Spain in the New World out of which
came the British conquest of Jamaica.
That was the position within a century
and a half of the discovery by the
The Church came to the West Indies
with enormous powers naturally derived
from its pre-eminent position in Europe.
It had the Inquisition for rooting out

of heretics, and the Spanish regime in the
early years m the West Indies was
dominated by the determination to keep
out all Muslims and all Protestants from
the Catholic territories. Some of the most
powerful statesmen of the day were
churchmen. There was a time when the
entire Spanish colonial empire was domi-
nated by a clerical triumvirate: they
controlled, they influenced. The start of
the French colonial empire was associated
with one of the most powerful statesmen
of the time, Cardinal Richeheu, and En-
gland had its own powerful prelates though
they were a little more in the background.
With all these powers the Church acquired
a dominant position in the area, especially
in the Spanish territories where quite early
the King of Spain himself had to complain
that the Church was so powerful in the
Spanish colonies that the convents in
Lima, Peru, occupied more ground than
the rest of the city combined.
The conquest of the new land immedi-
ately brought into focus the whole ques-
tion of race relations. The Spaniards, and
then the others that followed them, came
into contact first with the Amerindians,
the aborigines, and, secondly, with the
Africans. The Africans came first histori-
cally, because it was about 1440 or 1450,
that the Portuguese came into contact
with the west coast of Africa. And the
chronicler of the Portuguese conquest of
West Africa, a man whose name is Azurara,
in writing of the conquest and their first
contact in the mass with black people
wrote of them (the Portuguese are still
under fire today in Africa) as "images of
a lower hemisphere."
The Spaniards had the responsibility, or
the misfortune, of coming first into con-
tact with the Amerindians and within 50
years of the discovery of the West Indies
a tremendous controversy had developed
in Spain about the character of the Amer-
indian. The two protagonists were the

leading Spanish jurist of the day, a man
called Sepulveda, and the most powerful
Roman Catholic missionary, if you like to
call him that, Las Casas. Las Casas said
that the Indians were men though they
were somewhat economically inferior to
what the Spaniards had produced; the
lawyer, Sepulveda, replied that the Indians
were to Spaniards as monkeys are to men
-an enormous controversy over-the whole
of Spain spreading inevitably, not as
rapidly as it would in the age of communi-
cation in which we live, to the rest of
Intercourse between the different racial
groups, especially between black and
white, produced mixed people, the mulatto.
You could read a very informative and
very valuable Catholic history of the
French West Indies about the middle of
the 17th century, in which the writer finds
the derivation of the word 'mulatto' from
'mule' as an indication, he said, that
mulattoes could not reproduce their kind.
And Las Casas himself, who fully deserves
his famous title 'Protector of the Indians',
sought to rationalise his policy for the
preservation of the Indians from extinction
by calling in Africans to do the labour,
his excuse being some absurdity that they
thought that the Africans would never die.
The Africans were not brought for their
looks or because they loved them; they
were brought to work and the only way
they could be made to work was on the
basis of slave labour. So the position of
the Church became of crucial importance.
You will find throughout this entire
period the active association of the
Church with the slave system in the
Caribbean, in quarters where perhaps you
might not anticipate it.
It is conventional to talk about the
Quaker opposition to slavery; that they
were the first in the British dominions
officially to propagate the view that the

time had come to abolish slavery. They
did that rather late in the day. A recent
book, somewhat discursive, but of some
interest, Caribbean Quakers, produced in
the United States, gives a table of Quakers
in Barbados in 1680, about 30 years after
Barbados began its phenomenal develop-
ment under slavery. It lists 65 Quaker
names at this particular period. According
to the author, an important planter was
a man owning 60 or more slaves. Sixty-
five people (if my additions are correct)
owned 3,307 acres of land between them
(Barbados is a very small isand) with ten
of them owning over a hundred acres each,
a large figure for 1680; and between
them they owned 1,631 slaves, nine of them
over 60 slaves each, therefore, according
to the definition of the day, big planters.
And since this was the time when they
also had indentured white servants from
Europe working for three or four years
on conditions that were not easily distin-
guishable from slave conditions, they also
had 96 servants. The Quakers were spread
more thinly over some other territories,
the most important, I think, being what
today would be the British Virgin Islands
-especially Tortola, but also in Anguilla.*
We have the testimony of a slave trader
who was later converted who went in the
church to give thanks for his successful
slave voyage before his conversion and to
ask for good luck on the next voyage he
was to make; and he has left us a diary in
which he has stated that he never enjoyed
sweeter hours of divine communion (some
such phrase) than on the occasion of his
last two voyages in the slave trade. The
Society for the Propagation of the Gospel
in Barbados branded their slaves with the
word 'society' to distinguish them from
people who did not belong to the Society.
A powerful Bishop in London stated that
whether you made the slaves Christians or
* A survey of 54 Jewish households in Bridgetown,

preached the gospel to them, that made no
difference to civil property. The Catholic
Orders were heavily involved in sugar culti-
vation which would have been impossible
in those days without slave owning on a
large scale.
The Moravians held slaves quite easily;
we have a record of some of them in the
Danish Virgin Islands and in other parts.
Some of you might know of the publication
a few years ago of a comprehensive study
of the development of the Moravian mis-
sion in Surinam under the title Business,
Mission and Meditation. The book was
published on the occasion of the bi-
centenary of the arrival of. the Moravians
in Surinam in 1768. In the 200 years, the
firm (because I do not want to be rude to
my clerical audience and say the mission)
had become what must be the largest
enterprise in Surinam outside of the Ameri-
can companies in bauxite. Main stores,
department stores, hardware, consumer
durables, vacuum cleaners, washing ma-
chines, stoves, supermarkets, book depart-
ment, paper department, toys and sports,
tobacco shop well stocked (I wouldn't have
been out of place in this store), quick-
service store, lunch room, upstairs garage
to deal with the problem of parking, whole-
sale drug department, bakery, wholesale
drapery department, agricultural centre for
all sorts of tools, wholesale distribution of
Unilever products (commission agents),
separate sugar department representing the
local sugar plantations, bicycle and motor-
bike department, taxi service, agents for
Volkswagen, tractors, bulldozers, wood and
steel building construction, Canada Dry
factory, mattress factory, shoe factory; and
they were producing also cement, bricks,
tiles, factory flooring, etc. They spread out
into the interior and had general commis-
sariats and enterprises on the major plan-
Barbados, in 1680 showed a total of 163 slaves.

stations. They spread out also to CuraSao
and Aruba in the Netherlands Antilles.
When I read the book I could not help
thinking of the famous, some people would
say the infamous, remark of Cecil Rhodes
in South Africa, 'Pure philanthropy is all
very well in its way but philanthropy plus
five per cent is very much better.'
As you all know, with the abolition of
slavery the British Government agreed to
compensate the slave owners. They had to
send in their claims, which had to be
approved by Parliament. It is a huge vol-
ume, thousands of names for all the coun-
tries -where these compensation claims
originated. If you look through the list as
I did quite hurriedly over the last couple
of days, you would see the representation
of the Church: St. Vincent clergyman 208
slaves, Tobago 216 (one man, a big estate
in Tobago), St. Kitts 126, Barbados 105.
When I decided to stop with Jamaica I had
identified 22 clergymen who individually
or in partnership owned altogether 3,495
slaves for which the British Government
gave them compensation totalling 62,335.
The list of the 22 slave owners was headed
by the Rt. Rev. H. Philpotts, Lord Bishop
of Exeter. Nothing unusual about this.
I decided to look at the position in
another territory that was not in the West
Indies, Mauritius, an old French island
in the east that had been taken over by
the British, and I found, from the little
work I did on it, one particular clergyman,
the L'Abb6 Gaillardon, with 514 slaves and
16,558 in compensation.
The Amerindians by this time had dis-
appeared. There were not too many of
them in the West Indies, some in Haiti
and Santo Domingo, some in Cuba. The
Spaniards divided them up among various
military people and planters and church
people (Las Casas himself was supposed to
have owned an Amerindian who was allo-
cated to him), and they soon succumbed

to the diseases of civilization, tuberculosis
in particular, small pox, and so on. There
is very little record of them, not as we
have for example of Brazil where they
were in large numbers and where a study
of the question of the extermination of the
Amerindians has recently been published
under the title Green Hell.
It was not to say that there was no
missionary or Church influence, there was;
but what you had there was a concentrated
attack on the entire Amerindian population
using, according to the critics, the three
conventional techniques of small pox,
strychnine and arsenic for impregnating
sugar and salt; the old theory, going back
to the British in North America, that the
best Amerindian is a dead Amerindian
seems to have penetrated in Brazil. What-
ever it was the Church was able to do or
not able to do in that position, there exists
the situation where in recent years there
has been an influx of American missionaries.
According to the writer who is very obvi-
ously anti-American, they keep "a generator
for electricity... A struggle against sin and
microbes. Prayer and technology. The up-
shot is a disinfected, pasteurized Amazonia
over a few hundred square yards." Most
of all they are engaged on a very impor-
tant work. The author writes: "The essen-
tial thing is that Christ's words be brought
to these Stone Age savages. The result:
missionaries are translating the Bible into
over 100 Brazilian Indian dialects-lan-
guages that are as unknown as the savages
who speak them, or that consist of some
100 words at the most, or that serve no
more than a remnant of a tribe. This
enormous task is presided over by an
American linguistics institute. Millions of
dollars. Vast apparatus and technology.
America in her splendor... It is more than
the glory of God-it is the glory of the
American Bible."
So that I think we could end this first
section of the emergence of the Church in

Caribbean Society by concluding legiti-
mately that the Church was an integral
part of, and a powerful instrument in, the
colonial system of the day and the eco-
nomic development associated with that
colonialism, the principal feature of which
was the depopulation and spoliation of
Africa of milhons of inhabitants which is
the only reason why Africa of today, alone
of the continents in the world, is not facing
a population explosion.
There were only two dissenting voices
against this general picture. Both came
from within the Church. Firstly, from the
Methodists in the Eastern Caribbean
principally, and secondly, from the Bap-
tists in Jamaica principally. They were the
spearhead of that tremendous campaign
for the abolition of slavery beginning with
the abolition of the slave trade and their
story is told comprehensively in a huge
book that has just appeared, believe it or
not in Sweden, from the best known
Swedish University, Uppsala. The sub-title
of the book is "British Missions and the
Abolition of the Slave Trade and Slavery
in West Africa and the West Indies, 1786-
1838." For the title of this book he used
the famous slogan which the dissenting
Church developed for this period. They
struck a medal, the Negro kneeling in
chains, and at the top 'Am I not a Man
and a Brother'. That's the title of the
book. The good Methodists in the audience
will immediately recognize the reflection of
their own familiar hymn, 'O brother man,
hold to thy heart thy brother.'
'Am I not a man and a brother.' They
could not expect to be too popular
with that in the slave society of the time,
and in fact, they were not. There is a
record of some of their activities in the
eastern Caribbean where one of the mis-
sionaries in Guyana was arrested for parti-
cipation in a slave revolt and sentenced by
court martial; the court martial sentence
was suspended and it happened that he

died in jail. British public opinion was
absolutely enraged. The Methodists were
in Trinidad, where they had to deal with
a governor (he happened to be Woodford)
who objected to their assuming to them-
selves the title of 'Reverend'. A com-
munication from Woodford to the Secre-
tary of State for the Colonies, objecting
to what he called "their encroachments
upon the Established Churches of England
and of Rome", requested permission to
deny them the authority to admmister
the sacraments and perform the office of
burial. In a further letter he claimed that
the Africans had not much faith in the
Protestant form of baptism and occasion-
ally presented themselves at the Catholic
Church afterwards for the same cere-
mony. And when the Methodists under
the constant persecution, as a result of
which they had to petition the Imperial
Government in Britain for protection, had
to close their mission, the Governor wrote
saying that now that they had not seen
anything of the Methodists for a long time
would the British Government please send
out a Bishop for them to help in the
The crisis developed with the Methodists
in the island of Barbados-perhaps the
most disgraceful, single episode in the
colonial history of the West Indian colonies
with the exception of the Jamaican re-
bellion of 1865. This is a handbill circu-
lated in Barbados; very short, I shall read
"Great and Signal T r i u mph over
Methodism and Total destruction of the
Chapel! !!

October 21st, 1823.
"The inhabitants of this island are
respectfully informed that in consequence
of the unmerited and unprovoked attacks
which have repeatedly been made upon
the community by the Methodist Mission-

aries (otherwise known as agents to the
villainous African Society [that was the
society for the abolition of slavery]), a
party of respectable gentlemen formed the
resolution of closing the Methodist concern
altogether; with this view they commenced
their labours on Sunday evening, and they
have the greatest satisfaction in announc-
ing that by 12 o'clock last night they
effected the Total Destruction of That
The missionary fled to St. Vincent, they
went on, "thereby avoiding that expression
of the public feeling towards him, person-
ally, which he had so richly deserved."
They expressed the hope "that all persons
in other colonies who consider themselves
true lovers of religion will follow the laud-
able example of the Barbadians, in putting
an end to Methodism and Methodist
chapels throughout the West Indies." A
combination of State, Established Church,
and landed aristocracy to prevent religious
toleration and to prevent the operation of
a particular mission in Barbados *
The second area is Jamaica with the
Baptists. I think perhaps that it would be
a little more satisfactory if I were to tell
you what the Baptists themselves said. I
don't think you know much in Trinidad
about the history of Jamaica anyhow, and
the Baptists were more important in
Jamaica than they were m Trinidad. One

of the most powerful missionary fighters
against slavery in the West Indian colonies
was a Baptist minister in Jamaica, Rev.
William Knibb. I want to give you an idea
of the quality of the attack of the man
and the depth and comprehensiveness of
the mission in a brief extract (I would like
to give it all to you but it is too long)
from a speech that he made to the Annual
Meeting of the Baptist Missionary Society
in London, on the 21st June, 1832, within
a year of the abolition of slavery.
He was talking to them saying he ap-
peared as "the feeble and unworthy advo-
cate of 20,000 Baptists in Jamaica," etc.
"Among this deeply injured race I have
spent the happiest part of my life. I plead
on behalf of my own Church where I had
980 members and 2,500 candidates for bap-
tism, surrounded by a population of 27,000.
Their prayers are put up for you; put up
yours for them. By prayer we have, by
prayer we must, by prayer we will, prevail.
God is the avenger of the oppressed, and
the African shall not always be forgotten.
I plead on behalf of the widows, and
orphans of those whose innocent blood has
been shed. I plead that the constancy of
the Negro may be rewarded. I -plead on
behalf of my brethren in Jamaica, whose
hopes are fixed on this meeting. (It is
within a year of the abolition of slavery.)
I plead on behalf of their wives and their

* The Methodists in the United States were most vehement in their opposition to slavery. A confer-
ence of Methodists in Virginia in 1784 resolved as follows:
"; We view it as contrary to the Golden Law of God on which hang all the Law and the Prophets,
and the unalienable Rights of Mankind, as well as every Principle of the Revolution, to hold in
the deepest Debasement, in a more abject slavery than is perhaps to be found in any Part of the
World except America, so many souls that are capable of the Image of God."
The early custom was for blacks to attend the same churches as the whites. But the Quakers, mili-
tant-as they were in their conversion policy, showed the greatest distaste and reluctance for making
Blacks Friends-that is to say, Quakers; and encouraged the blacks they had converted to go to
other Ichurches.' One Episcopal Church in Virginia painted certain benches black and reserved these
.only for Blacks. By 1790 of the Methodists in Virginia, one in five was black; the proportion among
Baptists was probably even higher. The result was that, with the active connivance and support of
whites and many of the churches, the African Methodist Episcopal Church was born in Phil-
adelphia, opening its doors in July 1794. The one institution which had been prepared to accept
black equality, the Church, now moved in the direction of separatism and segregation. (E.W.)

little ones. I call upon children, by the
cries of the infant slave whom I saw
flogged on Macclesfield estate, in West-
moreland. I call upon mothers, by the
tender sympathies of their natures. I call
upon parents, by the blood-streaming back
of Catherine Williams, who, with a heroism
England has seldom known, preferred a
dungeon to the surrender of her honour.
I call upon Christians, by the lacerated
back of William Black, of King's Valley,
whose back, a month after a flogging, was
not healed. I call upon you all, by the
sympathies of Jesus. If I fail of arousing
your sympathies, I will retire from this
meeting, and call upon Him who has made
of one blood all nations that dwell upon
the face of the earth; and if I die without
beholding the emancipation of my brethren
and sisters in Christ, then, if prayer is
permitted in Heaven I will fall at the feet
of the Eternal, crying, Lord, open the eyes
of Christians m England, to see the evil
of slavery, and to banish it from the
I know of no comparable document in
the history of British relations with the
West Indies as this one at the level of Rev.
Knibb and the Baptists in Jamaica.
Within a year slavery had been abol-
ished partially, for they went on for
another five years with disguised slavery
called apprenticeship, and those who had
laboured in the vineyards for the dignity
of the man and the brother, immediately
struck another medal, 'Emancipation Aug-
ust 1st 1838' and above, 'We are men and
Unfortunately, nothing was done by the
Church in the economic field to deal with
the consequences of emancipation, except
perhaps by the Baptists who in Jamaica
went in for the encouragement of Baptist
villages, small farming, buying up aban-
doned estates which many planters refused
to sell, they preferred to leave them idle--

to such an extent that the Baptists were
powerfully blamed by the Governor of the
day for the Jamaican rebellion of 1865
which is beyond our scope today, but
which is undoubtedly the worst single
picture of British rule in the West Indies.
Apart from the Baptist attempt to en-
courage a small peasantry in Jamaica, in
the rest of the Caribbean, the British
Caribbean that is, the only part that at
this time had abolished slavery, very little
was done in terms of the material condition
of the men and the brethren that they had
helped to create. I suppose I should not
say that, because most of them had not
helped to create it, it was very largely the
English population plus two dissenting
sects in the West Indies. So that when the
huge movement developed for the impor-
tation of large masses of other workers in
different forms of subordination-Chinese,
Madeirans, Germans, Indians-no protest
at all, they just came and the men and the
brethren remained forgotten by the British
Government, neglected by the local gov-
ernment, an object of concern to the
Churches only to the extent that they
came into the churches for religious
Brazil and Cuba continued their slavery
and slave trade for 50 years after they
were abolished in the British West Indies.
There was very little activity against that,
very little activity in Brazil and in Cuba
and very little outside from foreigners. So
that with the abolition of slavery in Brazil,
varying the British pattern, a tremendous
wave of European immigration was offici-
ally encouraged in Brazil making the man
and the brother a minority in the country,
totally neglected (those of you who are
interested in reading it, there is a very
recent sociological study of the Negro in
Brazilian society), and left in such a
position that some of us outside of Brazil
are left to wonder whether the only ave-
nues left for the emancipated black in

Brazil was samba on the one hand and
football on the other.
In the British territories the 'emphasis'
was on education-the British Govern-
ment, which had paid 20,000,000 in com-
pensation to the slave owners, decided that
they would make a grant for education of
the emancipated slaves. The grant, begun
two years after emancipation in 1835,
amounted to 20,000, plus a further 5,000
for teacher training. After two years they
raised the grant to 30,000. By 1837, four
years after emancipation, there were about
29,000 day students in all the British
Caribbean colonies and 10,000 evening
students, and the parliamentary grant
voted by Britain had been paid in respect
of just about 15,000 day students and
3,000 evening students. I don't suppose we
could be too critical of that situation be-
cause it was only in 1833, two years before
1835, that the British Parliament, which
had just passed the First Reform Act ex-
tending the franchise, voted the first sum
of money for education in Britain. That
grant was 20,000, the same sum they gave
to the West Indies. I don't suppose we can
be too critical, especially because when
they voted 20,000 for education in Brit-
ain, the same Parliament voted 40,000 for
the upkeep of the Royal Stables. After
1845 the British Parliament abandoned
their grant and said education was to be
left to the local legislatures.
As the saying would go therefore today,
in our modern phrase, 'no big thing'-
except, again, the Baptists in Jamaica-
the clergyman's name this time was
James Phillippo. He produced a plan for a
University in Jamaica. Let me get the
passage. He knew it would cost a lot of
money, but he commended the plan, say-
ing "this would be the most glorious
compensation," the best reparation that
Britain could make to the Africans for the
generations of servitude. Give them a uni-
versity. He probably had a little more faith

in a university than some of us would
have, but that is neither here nor there. A
person who is talking about a proposal for
a university is obviously somebody of a
vastly different character from a Parlia-
ment voting 20,000 for colonial education.
He said that it should be for languages-
Latin, Greek, and Hebrew; to which French
and Spanish should be added, as essential.
He wanted it for logic and philosophy in-
cluding the philosophy of the human mind,
moral philosophy and political, 'the latter
of which involves the principles of political
economy and jurisprudence'. I have never
known any proposal that hid the impor-
tant fact of political economy and social
sciences under so much talk about philoso-
phy and jurisprudence. The British system
at the time was not vastly superior. He
wanted it for botany, chemistry and nat-
ural history. He had many ideas, he was
looking ahead, one of the ablest men who
had ever come out to the West Indies. "A
few lectures, also, on the useful arts, en-
gineering and manufactures, might per-
haps satisfy all the requisites of the
occasion," and undoubtedly he would have
been right in 1840 etc. He wanted profes-
sors (I presume that there cannot be a
university without professors), and then he
had to say something about the. salaries
of professors, I don't know whether he
made any provision for the raising of
salaries which comes up every pow and
then in university circles. Qualification of
the professors-"they should be men of an
orthodox creed, of high moral character,
and of liberal sentiments". (He. might have
kept out a lot of people in 1842 who are
there today). Persons of first rate quali-
fications in their respective departments.
Individuals who would have no other em-
ployment-build a university to employ
people-and so he went on. It is easy to

criticise the plan. It was not too bad for
that time of the 1840s, at a time when
a British university with which I am most
familiar had a famous lecturer who lec-
tured for half a term on Plato's Republic
before the students who attended the
lectures realized that it was not lectures,
as they thought they were, on St. Paul's
Epistle to the Romans. The, important
point about it is that Phillippo alone, as a
result of the emancipation of the slaves
(not quite true about the "alone", because
it was also true in respect of the radical
democrat, Victor Schoelcher, in France,
with the French emancipation, who said
money should go to the slaves and not to
the planters; some Puerto Ricans when
they were abolishing slavery and talking
about compensation were suggesting the
same thing) in the British area the one
person who looked ahead, and the one
person who looked back in terms of what
slavery had meant was Phillippo with his
proposal for the university. Needless to say
the British Government paid no attention
to Phillippo at all, and the West Indies
had to wait for over a hundred years for
the university that had been recommended.
Thereafter the Church in the area goes
on the defensive-emergent nationalism.
The Indians had come in, Indian labourers.
The Canadian Mission developed ties with
the Indians and the position in respect of
this ,new section of the society was brought
out in a report by a commission in 1915 of
the Government of India (that is to say,
the British Government of India) which
was sent to the West Indies in 1915, and
the report in respect of Trinidad reads:
"Elementary education in Trinidad is
imparted in schools managed for the most
part by denominational bodies. The latest
annual report showed 52 government and
200 denominational schools assisted by

government grants were in operation".
Fifty-two Government, 200 denomina-
tional. Forty-three schools were special
schools for Indian students. Of the 43
schools, 40 were managed by the Canadian
Presbyterian mission, 2 by the Anglicans,
and one by the Roman Catholic Church.
With the emergence of India and Pak-
istan as independent countries, the Indians
brought to Trinidad from India were even
less prepared to turn to Christianity than
they were in the days of indenture. The
position thereafter remains as indicated by
the leading intellectual of Asian origin that
we have produced, Mr. Vidia Naipaul, in
The Middle Passage-the Caribbean re-
visited. Some of you, I'am sure, are fam-
iliar with it, but let us remind ourselves
of it. You get your Asian element staying
outside of the traditional church direction
which has developed over the centuries.
Mr. Naipaul:
"Everything which made the Indian alien
in the society gave him strength. His alien-
ness insulated him from the black-white
struggle. He was taboo-ridden as no other
person on the island; he had complicated
rules about food and about what was un-
clean. His religion gave him values which
were not the white values of the rest of the
community, and preserved him from self-
contempt; he never lost pride in his origins.
More important than religion was his fam-
ily organisation, an enclosing self-sufficient
world absorbed with its quarrels and
jealousies, as difficult for the outsider to
penetrate as for one of its members to
escape. It protected and imprisoned, a
static world, awaiting decay.
"Islam is a static religion. Hinduism is
not organised, it has no fixed articles, no
hierarchy; it is constantly renewing itself
and depends on the regular emergence of

teachers and holy men. In Trinidad it
could only wither; but its restrictions were
tenacious. Marriage between unequal
castes has only just ceased to cause
trouble.. .it was a world of its own, a
community within the colonial society,
without responsibility, with authority
doubly and trebly removed.
"A peasant-minded, money-minded com-
munity spiritually static because cut off
from its roots, its religion reduced to rites
without philosophy, set in a materialist
colonial society: a combination of histori-
cal accidents and national temperament
has turned the Trinidad Indian into the
complete colonial, even more philistine than
the white."
That brings in a new dimension for the
church with Islam and Hinduism. Mr.
Naipaul may not be able to say today what
he said when the book was written, with
the spread of Islam in Africa today. It is
not my business to quarrel with Mr.
Naipaul. Mr. Naipaul has just said what is
relevant for any discussion of the Church
in its historical aspect in the Caribbean.
From the United States, the sects closer
to the population started to come to Tria-
idad, the Adventists, the Spiritual Baptists,
Jehovah's Witnesses, and in more recent
months and years the new Black Church,
the Black Muslims, another indication of
the impact of Islam. Whether Islam recog-
nises these Black Muslims or not is beside
the point, that is no business of mine.* It'
is an indication of the appeal of Islam to
certain sections of the black population,
the Black Muslims with their own self-

contained community, particularly with
emphasis on social work, the rehabilitation
of convicts, dope pushers, prostitutes,
petty thieves, all sorts of people. You just
do not dismiss the Black Muslims like that,
as the Black Panthers realized in a recent
statement saying they never ought to have
attacked the Black Church in America.
These sects have been beginning to come
and influence the attitudes of our popula-
Then of course there has been the inde-
pendence of Africa with all that was fore-
shadowed, the African survivals here, three
prominent ones-independent Haiti cut off
for over a century and a half from Africa,
but still, not the people who became inde-
pendent in 1804 where many of them were
not more than 10 years removed from the
African coast; the Maroons in Jamaica, the
slaves who fought successfully the colonial
government and had their independent
community in the centre of Jamaica; and
the Bush Negroes of Surinam who ran
away from the plantations, formed a little
colony in the bush, and they were so
powerful that the colonial government had
to sign a treaty with them virtually recog-
nising their independence. There were these
little enclaves. There was the prestige
associated with particular groups in the
slave society in the West Indies, two in
particular : the Mandingos, and in
Jamaica for some special reason though
not in other parts of the West Indies, the
Coromantees from the Gold Coast who
were actually banned from entry into Bar-
bados but were very highly prized in

* Last year the Government of Libya made a loan of US $3 million to American Black Muslims to
purchase a $4-million church for use as a Mosque on Chicago's South Side, Chicago being the:
national headquarters of the Black Muslims. The Black Muslims, whose holdings are estimated
at $70 million, have now requested a second loan from the Government of Libya, interest free:
The Government of Libya has so far refused, under pressure from other Arab States and Arab
student organizations in the United States. (E.W.)

Trinidad was never a slave society to
the extent that the others were, a couple
of thousand slaves, most of them having
come in at second hand from the, smaller
islands with their planter masters. But
Trinidad continued to get genuine Africans
after 1833 because the British, in their
attempt to put down the slave trade to
Brazil and Cuba, stationed their squadrons
off the slave coast and in the West Indies;
they had an agreement with the Spanish
Government, and the Brazilian Govern-
ment, whereby one of the places that they
would send the captured slaves to would
be Trinidad, where they would come not
as slaves because slavery had been abol-
ished. So that while Trinidad was the least
African of all the territories in 1833, after
1833, Trinidad was the most African in re-
spect of the latest contacts with Africa in
the nineteenth century through these arri-
vals. Especially prominent in Trinidad
would be the Yoruba influence.
Then of course in Jamaica came Marcus
Garvey and his Back to Africa movement,
ending up with Rastafarians who want
nothing to do with Christianity or Jamaica
or anything, they just want to go back to
That is the new context in which the
Church operates in the West Indies. Add
to that the question of Cuba after Castro.
The Catholic churches have not been
closed. Relations continue to be maintained
with the, Vatican. There have been pin
pricks. A Church service is going on, but
the streets around are open for the children
to play and the noise of the games disrupts
the church services. Holy Week has been
abandoned and it has been converted
rather into a commemoration of the fiasco
of the American invasion some years ago.
Christmas has been abandoned. When
Castro the other day sent me a card at

this time of the year, I opened it and I
see "Happy New Year". He has nothing
to do with Christmas. No influence but no
attacks. What would happen in the future
remains to be seen.

This brings us, this last 60 or 100 years
in the Caribbean history of emancipation,
brings us to the position of the Church
today, where we must start off (obviously
we are part of the world) with the whole
question of the world revolt against the
Church, particularly severe against the
Catholic Church, but all denominations are
involved in it. The pill, divorce, even in
Italy, abortion-two days ago the United
States Supreme Court ruled that abortions
were legal-, illegitimacy-it becomes to-
day almost an indication of pride to say
that the child was born outside of wed-
lock-, four-letter words in public, most
venomous in respect of the abuse of the
mother-, pornography-people protest in
the society against the old civilisation and
the famous Italian paintings 'Madonna with
Child'; I don't know whether they would
prefer what has been coming in to Trini-
dad-irate mothers have come to show me,
-brought in from Scandinavian civilisation,
'infant sex', mother and son. I don't sug-
gest that you'll like it any more than I
do. But the fact of the matter is that is
the position of the Church today. That is
what it has to deal with, that is what
has grown up in the world. Adultery
almost completely erased from the diction-
ary with wife-swapping etc. Witchcraft,
the revival of witchcraft and socerery. One
wonders when we will see a total and com-
plete rehabilitation of the obeahman in the
West Indies.

The most serious problem of all which
has not yet been resolved affects partic-
ularly the Roman Catholic Church, the


celibacy of the clergy.* It is all developing
in the context of a growing feeling against
expatriates. One has to be a little careful
with that. When the Roman Catholic
Church shortly after the independence of
Haiti began to train black priests for
service in Haiti, the black priests were
rejected by the Haitian population and the
Roman Catholics had to use them in West
Africa. The population would not accept
the Blacks only 150 years ago. Today one
has to be a little careful.
I well remember the time when I was
in a public meeting speaking somewhere
and I suddenly got a message from the
Catholic priest in the area who was Irish
and whom I happened to know. I think I
was talking about Cyprus or something.
The message was: "what you talking about
Cyprus for? Tell them about Britain and
Ireland, and give it to them, give it to
them". That's a nationalist, and there have
been few more fanatical nationalists than
the Irish priest. I believe one of their
papers in Trinidad recently talked about
the problem in Northern Ireland and com-
pared it with the long stay in power by
a political party in Trinidad. Better not
show that to the Irish priest who knows
that this is 800 years old in Ireland! If the
Irish don't get their way there is going to
be no more Ireland. Eight hundred years,
and they have told you deliberately they
are going to sap the strength of the British,
which I think is a waste of time because
the British strength must have been
sapped a long time ago.
You could get the other expatriate now,
the head of a Church in Trinidad who, I

happened to know, wrote once to the Prime
Minister in respect of some problem that
had arisen with a child in a secondary
school, a child of under-privileged parents
-the question of the child going into the
sixth form. It was somehow thought that the
child's parents, and the occupation of the
parents, and the child's colour did not com-
port with the sixth form, and the students
started to give trouble. Then the matter
was referred to the Government, and the
head of the Church wrote to say that he
from his own experience, especially in
Rhodesia, knew how important it was to
take a firm line. If I were not in a place
of worship I would have said the expres-
sion that I used at the time. The Prime
Minister had then just come back from a
conference of Commonwealth Prime Min-
isters dealing with the Rhodesian question.
So there are expatriates and expatriates.

This brings up the. whole question of the
school system in Trinidad and Tobago
where certain things today apply that did
not apply before all. One is that the system
that has grown up, as I tried to indicate
to you, was the result of a nineteenth cen-
tury abdication by the colonial and impe-
rial governments of any responsibility for
education, which obviously can not be
transferred into the twientieth century
where you have a distinct responsibility for
education especially in the field of central
planning, the complicated scope of educa-
tion today, with particular reference to the
equalisation of opportunity for the chil-
dren between rural schools and urban
schools. Especially where you have. to deal
(in all parts of the world this arises but

* A Spanish Jesuit, the Reverend Jose Maria Diez-Alegria, Lecturer at the Pontifical Gregorian
University in Rome, has just published a book entitled Yo Creo en la Esperanza ("I believe in
Hope"). The author states that "celibacy for the realm of God becomes a factory of madmen". He
is loud in his praise of Karl Marx and suggests that the Vatican divests itself of all its wealth.

you find it particularly prominent in Trini-
dad and Tobago) not only with inter-
religious rivalry, inter-denominational ri-
valry, but rivalry between different orders
or different groups of a particular denomi-
nation. As you know under the circum-
stances of operations today, the Metho-
dists have asked to be relieved of some of
their schools; so have the Anglicans.
Especially in terms of the freedom of
worship guaranteed by Trinidad and
Tobago in the 1962 Constitution there has
been a tremendous upsurge of the smaller
denominations-the removal of the ban on
the Spiritual Baptists, the legalisation of
Hindu and Muslims marriages and divorces
which complicated and distorted the illegi-
timacy statistics in previous years.* The
requests that come up! One small denom-
ination, the help that they wanted was a
retaining wall, the church was collapsing.
Sometimes they can not afford to pay for
the price of land on which to build the
church. Sometimes they can not get a
marriage licence, as the Methodists in the
1820s in Trinidad were to be denied the
right to baptise and the right to administer
the sacraments. The smaller denominations
keep close to the people. Marriage is diffi-
cult in the world today without any gov-
ernment, as far as I am concerned, speak-
ing as a student, seeking to say who should
do the marrying. If it goes on like that
there would soon be nobody to marry any-
how. You come to the time when they
neither marry nor are given in marriage.
So we come to one of the points to which
I wish to draw the attention particularly
of the churchmen but also of the laity. We
have just had a tremendous study made by

a man called James Gollin who is supposed
to have a lot of experience, on the finance
side in the life insurance industry in the
United States, in a book called Worldly
Goods, the sub-title being "The Wealth and
Power of the American Catholic Church,
The Vatican and the men who control the
money." It is a very useful book by a non-
Catholic but one who is extraordinarily
sympathetic and I found him reasonably
fair, reading him as a student. Remember
he is dealing with 48 million Catholics-one
in every four or five people in the United
States is a Catholic. Remember he is deal-
ing with one of the wealthiest of Catholic
churches throughout the world. Their
wealth runs into billions-it is a great em-
barrassment for several of the more prom-
inent younger churchmen who are coming
up especially in the United States.
He deals particularly with the question
of the school. This is no mean problem at
all. In 1970 there were 9,271 Catholic ele-
mentary schools in the United States, plus
335 operated by religious orders; that
makes it about 9,500 primary schools. The
student population is about 3,400,000.
That's a lot of children. Just understand
that the church is paying for this itself, it
is church property, church expenditure.
High schools-about 1,900; a total enroll-
ment of over a million. A lot of children
to deal with. The total operating expenses
for all Catholic schools in the United
States in the year 1969 to 1970 was $1.4
billion US. Even this expenditure and this
scale of operation only covered 41 per cent
of Catholic youths; and others either did
not want to be in or could not get in.
This is a tremendous achievement on the
one hand, responsibility on the other, with

* The National Evangelical Spiritual Baptist Faith was incorporated by Act of Parliament in 1964.
Parliament dealt with Muslim marriages and divorces in 1961 and with Hindu marriages in 1962.

in between a great dilemma. They also run
universities and hospitals. Do not imagine
these are second rate institutions at all.
Some of the Catholic universities in Ameri-
ca would rank among the best in the whole
of American society which has a lot of
good ones and very many more bad ones.
A place like Georgetown University, St.
Louis University, the University of Day-
ton, Fordham, which when last I heard of
it was in serious financial difficulty, and
above all what has always been considered
by many people the leading Catholic Amer-
ican university, Notre Dame University.
We are not dealing with second rate or
third rate institutions. I am not as familiar
with the high schools as I am with the
universities but in the universities you are
dealing with top flight ones in many cases.
They have been building at an enormous
rate which only a wealthy society can
afford. For example in 1968 the American
Catholic Church completed 1,350 construc-
tion projects at a cost of more than
$900,000,000. This included 450 new
churches, 304 parish halls, 190 rectories, 95
convents, 108 elementary schools, 39 high
schools, 38 other diocesan buildings. A lot
of buildings! But the pressures are so
great-increasing salaries, increasing costs,
in one way or another-that they have
been closing Catholic Schools at the rate
of about 400 a year.
First and foremost because they get no
federal and state aid; it is supposed to be
contrary to the constitution of America to
give public funds for sectarian purposes. I
think twenty-six of the states give no aid
at all and some of those that give aid for
transportation of pupils put it on the basis
of using the school bus system which is free;
if there is space they could take on the
child from a private school on condition

that the child pays. There has just been
quite recently a Supreme Court decision,
this matter was tested, that any grant
made by the state or by the federal gov-
ernment for text books and transport of
pupils is not contrary to the American
Constitution. So that one problem has
been removed.
There is a tremendous political opposi-
tion to this. A great election was fought
in New York State in 1967 on the question
of state aid. The Catholics intervened
openly in the election led by the Cardinal,
and the result was an enormous defeat for
the Catholic forces. Still, that was 5 years
ago. Most important of all, there is tre-
mendous opposition among the Catholics
themselves to the continuation of these
schools. A highly articulate minority wants
the church to get rid of all of its schools.
One of the top protagonists of this point
of view is an American Catholic lady from
New Hampshire-Mary Perkins Ryan.
This is her argument in a book called
Are Parochial Schools the Answer; they
call them 'parochial schools' in the. United
"To be in the work of education at all
today means providing a specialised profes-
sional service. It cannot be done on the
side. If the Church itself, through its basic
diocesan and parochial structure... re-
mains in the field of education... that
work cannot help claiming a great part of
the Church's effort. But mass education in
the United States cannot help being 'big
business'. Can the Church in our country-
with or without public support-continue
to provide this auxiliary service and, at the
same time effectively, pursue Jer first and
true objective?"
She sees education as not the chief mis-
sion of a "people of God." She claims that

the schools are. "an obstacle to the pursuit
of today's aims," which, in her words, are
those of "putting ourselves in as close
contact as possible with the Christ who
speaks to us and on us in His Word."
There is a powerful association of Catholic
laymen in Maryland totally opposed to
any state grant to Catholic schools. The
author emphasises the fact of the disparity
between parishes, between dioceses; some
cannot afford the money the others can,
and so there is an uneven development. The
opposition to these formal activities of the
past has gone so far as to extend to hos-
pitals. The Catholics operate 871 hospitals
in the United States.
The author (I commend the book to
the clergymen) himself comes up with a
proposition that I would like to read to
He suggests that the federal government
should give assistance in respect of
teachers' salaries and in some form or other
for school buildings. Sqme little arrange-
ments have developed in certain places
where the Church leases the building to
the state and the state operates it, but
the Church has certain rights with which
he is somewhat in favour. The Supreme
Court in 1971 ruled that a federal grant
arising out of cases where four Roman
Catholic colleges in Connecticut had
received grants for library, language labs,
science, music buildings, was not contrary
to the American Constitution. But in a
further case involving Rhode Island and
Pennsylvania grants for teachers salaries
in private schools in the same year 1971
were ruled unconstitutional by the Supreme
The author who has made this analysis
suggests this that I would like you to hear.
"Before any sums of money are contri-

buted to the schools of the church, the
church itself must change its ways. To
qualify for state aid, or federal or local
aid, every diocese must make public its
financial condition. Its balance sheet must
be complete, its properties-in particular,
its schools properties-must be indepen-
dently appraised and its financial state-
ment must be, both detailed and compre-
He suggests that there should be a
survey by each diocese of the, schools and
this should be made public. He goes on to
support the views of several Catholic edu-
cators and prominent Catholics about the
identification of the Church with welfare
projects especially in the light of closing
some of the schools (the schools in what
they call the inner city, especially in New
York, the people in the inner cities are
Blacks and Puerto Ricans, so that the
younger members of the Catholic church
are saving, you are now leaving the blacks
and the Puerto Ricans and going out to
the suburbs to follow affluence). Thev are
proposing welfare projects, particularly:
low income housing corporations, clinics,
credit unions, small business investment
corporations, emphasising that "these ven-
tures are aimed at helping the poor, and
especially the Black poor."
So it is obvious that we. have reached a
situation in terms of the international
society that affects Trinidad and Tobago
where we see the whole, relationship is
being presented in a new light especially
in terms of some of the people involved
in the process itself. I am well aware of
the fact that it has started in Trinidad
and Tobago; there are Church hospitals,
the Churches operate youth camps, trade
centres. So far they have not yet gone in
for drug addiction and venereal disease.

One of the most serious problems that has
emerged in the last few years in New
York City (and I hope that nobody is so
stupid as to say that it would not come
here), the child of the mother who is a
heroin addict. It tears your heart apart
to see the pictures and to read about the
problem and to envisage the possibility of
an enormous group of sub-standard people
within the next 20-25 years. This is not
a matter for bureaucrats now, it is a matter
calling for a lot of human kindness and
human compassion. Orphanages, they do
now, the aged poor and so on. One parti-
cular problem becoming more and more
acute in our society is the teenage mother,
and perhaps even that is outdated since
we now have, to talk about the child-
mother. It is not only the child you have
to watch, you have to watch the mother,
because what sort of training and educa-
tion could you get in the home where the
mother is herself not of the age to have
had that training?
I am very happy that it was possible
to be able to give you some ideas on the
subject in terms of the historical aspects
especially because you all come from the
very many territories of the Caribbean. I
particularly want to say this in the
presence of my good old friend, Sir Garnet
Gordon from St. Lucia, and to suggest that
what is going on the Church might
have an important role to play in this
development of the regional movement in
economic terms, abandoning one of the
worst reasons for the failure of the pre-
vious federal experiment. It is a pity that
people do not understand it. We do not
live in a world of sentiment today. If
somebody has an economic interest, espe-
cially a territory of 100,000 people, what
do you want to do, take them by the scruff

of their necks and put them into some form
of association? All you are doing is laying
the groundwork for secession.
I was very sorry, Mr. Chairman, to see
a religious paper in Trinidad and Tobago
a few days ago talk about a 'Shocker from
Montserrat' in terms of CARIFTA, talking
about something decided three months ago
and saying what was this long-winded
document about. If you make provision
for the protection for the rights of the
smaller territories etc. there is nothing
long-winded about that. You have to be
concrete and say what it is. The necessary
discussions are going on with Montserrat
and to come and say this. This now for
now philosophy in Trinidad and Tobago,
coupled with the intellectual poverty of
the place, is going to be the greatest handi-
cap facing us in the next 10-15 years.
The British applied for the European
Common Market in 1962. They got in at
the end of 1972 after two powerful vetoes,
No! This idea that some people think that
something of enormous proportion can be
dealt with as if just working out a costume
for a carnival band. That carnival mental-
ity is going to be the reason for the des-
truction of the society. I am sorry to talk
like a preacher, but I mean that very, very
I will give you an example. Just a little
over three years ago, August 1969, the
Pope paid a visit to Uganda. I don't know
what he saw but he came back and worked
out very quickly a proposal for the esta-
blishment of a private international syndi-
cate with an original capitalisation of
$50,000,000 US to invest in Africa. I have
not heard about it recently; the one place
that I would not expect to hear of it is in
Trinidad or the West Indies, but perhaps
I have been a little slack in following up

my foreign newspaper contacts to get the
news that is of importance to the world.
But it is clear that the Pope had a lot of
difficulty getting the corporation off the
ground. He did manage to get the support
of the Ford Foundation, the International
Bank for Reconstruction and Develop-
ment; as I heard it some 18 months ago
thirteen American commerical banks had
agreed to come into the project and four
American corporations.
You see the problem. The American cor-
porations today are under fire; anybody
getting money from any American source
today, with the disclosures of the last two
to three years, people would want to know
where is the money coming from.
A lot of the grants to Catholic univer-
sities are being queried by some of the
Catholic educators themselves: what is
this money? what are we getting ourselves
attached to? They have to be extremely
careful. Uganda was 1969. Look at what
has happened since 1969. What would the
Africans say about this? They have heard
this sort of thing many times in the past
few years.
A West Indian, Dr. Walter Rodney, has
just made a trenchant analysis of how
Europe underdeveloped Africa. You may
not agree with all he says, I don't, but the
fact is it is an analysis and it is positively
incisive, and one wants to know what this
fifty million investment plan is going to
mean in terms of this analysis. There are
lots of people who are not going to be
impressed with this thing at all. Again,
Islam is provi-ing a lot of money to
African countries today as part of their
political campaign against Israel. But the
fact is that the Pope made the proposal in

August 1969 and we are now in January
1973 and, subject to correction, I have
heard of no further developments since
what I have told you about the four cor-
porations, about the 13 banks, and about
the Ford Foundation and the IBRD.

Three months and you come to talk
about Montserrat. For heaven's sake
nothing will be built on the basis of that

So, as we go forward, I would like to
urge upon the churchmen, the Methodist
Synod in particular, because, this is their
synod, that the question of providing some
greater inspiration to the young people,
who sooner or later (I believe that they
are feeling it now) will have this world
developing around them, they just have
nothing, they need some faith, something
to inspire them, always on the, basis that
it is positive, concrete and representing a
consensus and not the imposition of its
will by one country or two countries on

It has been a great opportunity to speak
to you. Perhaps life would be easier if I
had other such opportunities to test out
particular contemporary difficulties in the
context of all that has gone before at home
and abroad. I would like with the permis-
sion of Rev. Lyder and the Methodists to
close my statement with something that I
believe would be extremely appropriate in
this ecumenical age and this period when
we all must be considering the new pros-
pects perhaps available to the Church in its
attempt to improve the lot of humanity.
I select with your permission, the per-
mission of the Methodist Synod, one of
your well known hymns:

Brightly beams our Father's mercy
From His lighthouse evermore;
But to us He gives the keeping
Of the lights along the shore.

Let the lower lights be burning!
Send a gleam across the wave!
Some poor fainting, struggling seaman
You may rescue, you may save.

Dark the night of sin has settled,
Loud the angry billows roar;
Eager eyes are watching, longing,
For the lights along the shore.

Trim your feeble lamp, my brother!
Some poor seaman tempest-tossed,
Trying now to make the. harbour,
In the darkness may be lost.

Printed for the Public Relations Division, Office of the Prime Minister, by Trinidad and
Tobago Printing and Packaging Limited, O'Meara Industrial Estate, O'Meara Road, Arima.

+ Bi; b4iU lJ54


Some historical reflections on the C lac
BR 640 W5S

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