Removing stains from fabrics

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Material Information

Title:
Removing stains from fabrics home methods
Series Title:
Home and garden bulletin ;
Physical Description:
30 p. : ill. ; 24 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
McLendon, Verda I ( Verda Irene ), 1906-
Publisher:
U.S. Department of Agriculture
Place of Publication:
Washington, D.C
Publication Date:
Edition:
Rev. ed.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Spotting (Cleaning)   ( lcsh )
Textile fabrics -- Cleaning   ( lcsh )
Genre:
federal government publication   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Statement of Responsibility:
by Verda I. McLendon.
General Note:
Cover title.
General Note:
"Issued June 1959 ; Slightly revised April 1965"--P. 2 of cover.
General Note:
"U.S. Government Printing Office: 1964"--P. 30.
General Note:
Includes index.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 004953315
oclc - 659758812
System ID:
AA00012217:00001


This item is only available as the following downloads:


Full Text
Ho1 n Gade Bull No.6
Ho an / No. 6 ./
Home and Garden BulletifNo. 62


REMOVING
STAINS
FROM
FABRICS
home methods


U.S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


J


N 4











Contents
Page
Stain removers and how to use them .......................... 3
Absorbent materials .................................... 3
Detergents ............................................ 4
Solvents .................. ........................... 5
Bleaches and other chemical stain removers.............. 9
Directions for removing stains ............................... 16
General stain-removal directions ........................ 16
Directions for removing individual stains ................. 18
Index to stains ........................................ ... 29







This is a 2O 4e g etAkce' of USDA





By Verda I. McLendon, Textile Chemist
Clothing and Housing Research Division
Agricultural Research Service



This bulletin supersedes Farmers' Bulletin No. 1474, "Stain Removal From Fabrics: Home
Methods."



Issued June 1959
Washington, D.C. Slightly revised April 1965







REMOVING
STAINS
FROM
FABRICS
home methods


Learn the simple methods for re-
moving stains at home. Then act
promptly when a fabric is stained.
M;llny slainil that can be removed
easily when they are frc-hl are diffi-
cult or impossible to remove later,
particularly after they are set by
heat.

Selecting the method of re-
moval
Successful stain removal starts
with the selection of a imetlhod of
stain removal that is suited to both
stain and fabric.
Kind of stain.-Idrnti fy the stain,
if possible. The treatment for one
kind of .-tain may set another. If
you can't determine what caused
the stain it will help if you can tell
whether it is a greasy stain, a non-
greasy stain, or a combination of
the two.
Directions for removing these
three main types of stains and for
removing individual stains are
given on pages 16 to 28.
Kind of fabric.-Before using any
stain remover be sure it will not
harm the fabric.
In general, the stain removers
recommended in this publication
will not damage the fibers in fab-
rics or most slpeeial fabric finishes.
There are exceptions, however,
which should be noted. Exceptions
are listed in the description of the
various kinds of stain removers
and, where necessary, in the direc-
tions for removing individual
stains.


Some stain remov-ir. that do not
(dli,1 ge fibers may chlaiige the ap-
pe;in i'e of the treated area so that
it looks ;ia bad as or worse than the
original stain. They may, for ex-
ample, cause fading or bleeding of
dyes, loss of luh-d r, shrinkage or
stretching of the fabric. They may
remove nonpermanent fini-ies-l or
designs. It is often difficult to use
any stain remover on such fabrics
as satins, crepes, taffetas, silk and
rayon moires, gabardines, and vel-
vets without causing some change1-
in appearance.
To determine whether a stain re-
mover will change the appearance
of the fabric to be treated, t.st. it
first. Tet- on a sample of the ma-
terial, if possible, or on a hidden
part of the article-a seam allow-
ance, hem, in-idle of pocket, or tail
of a blouse or shirt.
If the substance needed to re-
move the stain will d;111;a ge the
fiber or change the appearance of
the fabric, send the stained, article
to a prnfet<.-ional drycleaner. He
has the skill, the spe,'ial equipment,
and the reagents that enable him
to handle many of the more diffi-
cult stains and fabrics.

Treating the stain
Find the specific directions for
removing a stain in the section of
this publication that begins on page
18. If you need more detailed in-
formation about the remover rec-
ommended, including complete di-
rections for applying it, find this


Si






in the section beginning on page 3.
Follow directions a.-iuraitely.
Use solutions only in the strengths
recommended and for the length of
time given.
Work carefully and patiently.
Often results drpendl as much on


I I
I^ l(ll l


the way the job is done as on the
remover us11d.
Observe all precautions given for
the use of removers that are flam-
mable, that give off poisonous va-
pors, or that, are poisonous if
swallowed.


COElew
SPClARid


VIQUif


INE41A


C- RMV


.4


N-29804, N-29806


Stain-removal supplies.


A, assorted stain removers.
used in removing stains.


B, miscellaneous supplies






Stain Removers and How To Use Them


To be prepared to remove all the
different, kinds of stains, you will
need to keep four types of remiovers
on hand-alb.-,)irbeit, materials, de-
tergents, solvents, and cli iii ical
stain removers, -sIcl as bl(c:irlis.
Althoinjh some tii.-tai can be re-
moved with only one type of re-


mover, more often removi-r of two
or more types are needed.
You will also need miscellaneous
supplies, such ;a, bowls, medicine
droppers, alnd a small syringe.
Keel staiin-n'l,,mval suppllies in a
place that is convenient bu ot out of
the reach of children. Label clearly
pois-, nous and flanmmiable removers.


Absorbent materials


Useful aibo)rbl'eit materials are
abl.-orbent powders, absolrbent cot-
ton, sponges, and white or f:st-
color paper towels, facial tissues,
and soft cloths.

How to use absorbent powders
Cornstarch, cornmeal, talc, or
polwdered chalk will remove some
fresh stains, such as grease spatters.
They are also used with solvents
(p. 8).
Spread absorbent powder over
the stain before it dries. Remove
powder as it absorbs the stain by
shaking or brushing it off; or use
the upholstery attahilimeint of a
vacuumiir cleaner.
After surface stain has been re-
moved, work fresh powder into the
stain, then remove as before. Re-
peat with fresh powder until as
much stain as possible has been
absorbed.
It may be difficult to use this
method successfully on some dark-
colored articles that cannot be
washed. If the white powder can-
not be completely removed it may
be more conspicuous on dark mate-
rials than the original stain.


How to use other absorbent
materials
Absorbent cloths, absorbent cot-
ton, absorbent paper, blotters, and
sponges can be uiied to soak up
staining liquids before they soak
into a fabric. If much of the liq-
uid can be absorbed quickly, the
stain will be smaller and ea;ieir to
remove than it, would be otlierwise.
This technique will work only on
fabrics that :alorb the st lining liq-
uid slowly. It is often useful on
such articles as rugs, upholstered
furnitu re, and heavy coats.
To use these absorbents, hold the
material so that the liquid is ab-
sorbed rather than fori-,ed into the
fabric. If the stain is not greasy
you may be able to remove some of
the liquid that has .so.kel into the
fabric by adding a little water to
the stain and absorbing this imme-
diitely with the absorbent mate-
rial. Repeat as long as any stain
is absorbed.
These mniterials are also used to
absorb stains as they are loosened
from fabrics by liquid stain
removers.






Detergents


Dtf ergentk-soaps and sy nthetic.
deterg,..nts (.,Synelts)-will removee
many nontgreisy stains and some
greasy stains. They act as lubri-
cants, coat ing insoluble particles of
staining nriaterial (such as carbon
and colored pigments) with a
smooth, slippery film. The par-
ticles can then be rinsed out of the
fabric.
Liquid detergents are especially
useful. They are in the conceln-
trated form needed to remove
stains, and can be easily worked
into the fabric and rinsed out of it.

How to use detergents on wash-
able articles
For surface stains, rub a deter-
gent lightly into the dampened
spot or rub in liquid detergent.
Rinse the stained area or wash the
article as usual.
If a stain is deeply imbedded,
work the detergent thoroughly into
the fabric. One way to do this is


Applying


to rub detergent lightly into the
stained area, then, holding the fab-
ric with both hands, work the
stained area back and forth be-
tween your thumbs. Bend the
yarns sharply so that the individual
fibers in the yarn rub against one
another. It is this bending of
yarns, rather than rubbing the sur-
face of the fabric, that. is effective
in removing the stain. Go over the
entire -tained area in this way.
Then rinse thoroughly.
On articles such as rugs, on
heavy fabrics that cannot be bent
easily, or on woolen fabrics that
might be felted by too much bend-
ing of the yarn, work the detergent
into the fabric with the edge of the
bowl of a spoon.

How to use detergents on non-
washable articles
Work detergent into the staiiled
area in the same way as for wash-


BN-7222
detergent to a deeply imbedded stain. Work detergent thoroughly
into fabric by bending yarns sharply.





able articles. Dilute liquid deter-
gents with an equal volume of
water. Use as little deterlentt as
possible beraiise it is difTiiil, to re-
move excess detercgent without wet-
ting a large area of the fabric.
Rinse thoroughly by sponging spot


with cool waf er or by forcing water
through the stain with a syringe.
If alcohol is safe for the fabric, use
it to rinse out the detergLent. It is
e.:I-ier to rinse out the detergl~ent
with alcohol, and the fabric will
dry more quickly.


Solvents


Many common stains can be re-
moved with the right solvent. Dif-
ferent kinds of solvents are needed
for non'reisy and for greasy
stains. Water is the most u'-eful
solvent for many common non-
greasy stains, and it is the only
solvent that is neither flanunable
nor poisonlous. When using other
solvents, follow carefully the safety
precautions listed on page 9.
With the exceptions of acetone
and trichloroethylene, the solvents
recomnnellnded in this bulletin will
not dissolve or seriously damage
the fibers in fabrics. They may,
however, change the appearance of
the fabric so much that the article
is no longer usable. Solvents may
dissolve dyes and finishes or cause
other changes, such as dulling of
the luster and shrininig or 't retch-
ing of the treated area. Test to be
sure the solvent will not change the
appearance of the treated area.
To test, use a solvent on a swatch
of similar material or on a hidden
part of the article exactly as you
would to remove a stain.

Solvents for nongreasy stains
Water or water with a detergent
will remove many nongreasy stains.
Acetone or amyl acetate, alcohol,
and turpentine are needed for other
nongreasy stains. All are available
at drug and hardware stores.
Acetone is used for removing
such stains as fingernail polish and
ballpoint ink. It should not be
used on acetate, Arnel, Dynel, or
Verel.1 Flammable. Poison.


Alcohol (rubbing) is i-ed for a
nunll)er of stains if it is safe for the
dye in the fabric. It should be di-
luted with two parts of water
for ii-, on acetate. Flamninable.
Poison.
Amyl acetate (chemically pure)
is used for the -;inne stains as ace-
tone; it can be i~eid on fabrics that
are damaged by acetone. However,
impure (technical grade) amyl ace-
tate may dl:mti:ge the sainiI fabrics
as acetone. Flammable. Poison.
Turpentine is used on paint stains.
Flanmmable. Poison.

Grease solvents
Special solvents, such as those
1u-.e1l by drycleaners, are needed for
greasy stains. These are available
at drug, egroery, and auto-supply
stores.
No solvents are available that
will effectively remove greasy spots
without hazard to the iuer. Some
are flamiiniible. All of those com-
monly used are poisonous. Serious
illness or death can result from
swallowing the liquids or from
breathing too large an amount of
the vapors. Information concern-
1 Fiber trademarks are used in this pub-
lication solely for the purpose of provid-
ing specific information. Mention of a
trademark does not constitute a guaranty
or warranty of the product named and
does not *-iiify that this product is
approved to the exclusion of comparable
products.
Generic names for the trademarks used
in this publication are: Triacetate
(Arnel), modacrylic fiber (Dynel and
Verel). polyester fiber (Kodel), spandex
fiber (Lycra and Vyrene).






ing the degree of toxicity of the
different types of grease solvents is
given in the discussion below.
Bec;m'-e of the hazards of toxic-
ity and flammability the use of
large amounts of these solvents in
the home is not recommended. Use
only in small 'i,,unft and take the
"i ,,o ',,,ns listed on page 9.
Nonflammable.-Carbon tetra-
chloride, perchloroethylene, tri-
chloroethane, and trichloroethylene
are nonflammable grease solvents.
They may be sold under these names
or under various trade names. Tri-
chloroethylene should not be used
on Arnel or Kodel.
Carbon tetrachloride is the most
hazardous to use because it takes
less vapor from this solvent than
from the others to poison the user
and because the poisoning from it
is cumulative. However, exposure
to a. high concentration of vapors
from any of the nonflammable sol-
vents is dangerous; vapors of all of
tlieni are more toxic to persons
whose blood contains even a small
amount of alcohol.
Because carbon tetrachloride is
the most hazardous, the use of one
of the other nonflammable solvents
is recommended.
F I a m ma b Ie.-Petroleum naph-
thas are the most used of the flam-
mable grease solvents. The names
petroleum distillate and petroleum
hydrocarbon may be used instead of
naphtha. fMost of these products
are sold under trade names. Use
only a naphtha with a high flash-
point (the higher the flashpoint, the
less easily the naphtha can be
ignited).
Do not use naphthas near an open
flame or where there is a chance that
sparks from electrical equipment or
from static electricity may ignite
the solvent or vapors. Never use
naphthas in a washing machine or
put articles tliat have been cleaned
with naplitha in a dryer.


Although the vapors from these
solvents are not as poi-,onous as
those of the nonflammable solvents,
breathing large amounts of them is
dangerous.
Mixtures.-Many of the stain re-
movers sold at grocery and drug
stores under various brand names
are mixtures of two or more grease
solvents. They may contain both
flammable and nonflammable kinds.
The solvents used in these products
can be changed without a change
in the brand name.
Read the label to see which sol-
vents are u-ed in the mixture. Ob-
serve all pre-;i tions li-ted by the
I;11 i n11 fal t urler.

How to use solvents
Place the stained area on a pad
of soft cloth or other absorbent ma-
terial. Place stained side down, if
possible, so that the stain can be
washed out of the fabric, not
through it.
Dampen a pad of cotton or soft
cloth with the solvent. Sponge the
back of the stain with the pad. Re-
peated applications of only a small
amount of solvent are better than
a few applications of larger
amounts.
Work from the center of the stain
toward its outside edge, using light
brushing or tamping motions. Pro-
fessional drycleaners have found
that a fabric is less likely to ring
if worked in this dire'-tion ratller
than from the outside edlse toward
the center. Avoid hard rubbing
that might roughen the iuirf.lf;e of
the fabric. Sponge the stain ir-
regularly around the eldgce so that
there will be no definite line when
the fabric dries.
Change the absorblent pad under
the fabric and the pad used for
sponging as soon as they are soiled
to avoid transferring the stain back
to the fabric.





For hardened stains (such as old
paint or tar stains) place an absorb-
ent pad or blotter dampelned with
the solvent on the stain. Allow
time for the solvent to soften tlhe
stain; replace the pad a- needed.
Finish by sponging the stain.
For stains on delicate fabrlic'
that cannot be sponged without
challfin the surface or displA;inlr
the yarns, place an absorbent pad
or blotter dampened with the sol-
vent on the stain. Replace pad as
needed. Do not sponge.
Dry fabrics as rapidly as possi-
ble.
On fabrics that tend to form
rings.-If a fabric tends to form
rings when sponged with a solvent
use eitllher of the following methods.


(1) Use method previously de-
scril bed. with these variations.
Barely dampen the sponging pad
with solvent. Apply only enough
solvent to dampen fabric-not so
much that solveint spreads out be-
yond point of aplpHlialion. Take
extra care in sponging stain around
edl.-, to make sure there will be
no definite line when the fabric
d nris. Dry fabric as rapidly as pos-
sible. On iIIne fabrics the forma-
tion of rings can be prevented by
pl:, ing the treated a'r l on a dry
absorbent pad and rubbing it
lightly with the palm of the hand:
be sure the fabric is fl.- and free
from wrinkles before you rub it.
Or place it on the palm of one hand
and rub it with the other. Rub


BN-7226
Applying a grease solvent. Place fabric stained side down on a pad of absorb-
ent material. Sponge back of stain with pad dampened with grease solvent.
Apply only a little solvent at a time. Work from center of the stain toward
the outside edge, using light brushing or tamping motions.

727-35SO-64--2 7






with crosswise or lengthwise thread
of the material.
(2) Or use a solvent-absorbent
powder m1,ixture. Add just enough
solvent to corn.tarch, talc, or other
absorbentl powder to make a thick
crumbly mixture. To make sure
the mixture is dry enough, test it
first on a scrap of similar material.
The solvent should not spread out
on the clot h beyond the edge of the
mixtuirv.
Apply mixture over the stained
area and work it into the fabric
with gentle tamping or rubbing mo-
tions. Allow mixture to dry on
the stain. Brush off and repeat if
necessary.
It may be difficult to use this mix-
ture successfully on some dark-


colored articles that cannot be
washed. If the white powder can-
not be completely removed it may
-be more conspicuous on dark mate-
rials than the original stain.
To remove rings.-Once rings
have formed on a fabric they may
be difficult to remove.
If the article is washable, work
a detergent thoroughly into the
dampened ring as described on page
4. Then rinse thoroughly.
If the article is not washable you
may be able to remove the ring by
rubbing the fabric between your
thumbs, or scratching it lightly
with a fingernail. A solvent-ab-
sorbent powder mixture, used as de-
scribed above, may also remove
rings.


BN-7227
Removing rings caused by incorrect application of grease solvent. Work
solvent-absorbent powder mixture into the fabric with gentle tamping motions.
Allow to dry. Brush off. Repeat if necessary.





PRECAUTIONS
When using any solvent except
water-
* Work out of doors or in a well-
ventilafed room (open several
doors and windows).
* Do not breathe solvent vapors.
Arnrange work so that fumes are
blown away from you, by a fan or
,breeze from an open door or win-
dow. Do not lean close to your
work.
Solvent vapors a:re heavier than
air and tend to settle unless there
is forced ventilation. 1)o not al-
low stma;ll children to play on the
floor in a room where solvents are
1heinii uIe1d.
* Use only a small quantity of
solvent at a time; keep bottle stop-
pered wlhen not in use. Unless you
are working outdoors, do not pour
solvents into an open bowl.
* If you spill solvent on your skin
wash it off immediately.


* Observe any additional warn-
ings givet on labels of solvelt, con-
tlailnlrs.
In addition, when using flammable
solvents-
* Do not ui-e near( open flames,
including pilot lights on gas equip-

* Do not uise where there is a
chance that sparks from electrical
equipment or from -iftic electricity
mnay ignlite the solvent or vapors.
Never use flanmmable -I vents in a
washi n'g machine. Never put ar-
tiis1-; that have b11nll dampened
with a fl tjint;lle solvent in a dryLer.
Store solvents in a safe place
When solvents are not in use,
keep tlhe(l tightly stoppered' in a
place out of the reach of children.
In addition to giving off poisonoiu-
fumes, sol\v'ets are also poisonous
if swallowed.
Store flammable sol\'vent where
they cannot be ignite by flames or
electric sparks.


Bleaches and other chemical stain removers


Chemical stain removers will
take out many stains that cannot
be removed by absorbents, deter-
gents, or solvents. The chemical
removers react with such stains to
form new compounds that are color-
less or soluble, or both.
Becaut-e some may react with the
fiber as well as with the stain, chem-
ical removers are more likely to
da mnag'e fabrics than the other types
of removers. Test before using
and follow carefully all directions
for their use.

Kinds of chemical stain re-
movers
Chemical stain removers include
bleaches, acetic acid, aminonia,
iodine, oxalic acid, and sodium
thiosulfate.


Bleaches.-Bleaches are the most
widely used of the chemical stain
removers. and the ones most likely
to dami;age fibers and fade dyes if
directions are not carefully fol-
lowed. Bleaches should not be used
in metal coitilner, s becam-e metals
may hasten the ar(t ion of the bleach
and thus increase the chance of
fabric damage l:e.
Three kinds of bleaches are rec-
ommended for home use-chlorine
bleaches, peroxygen bleaches, gen land
color relmovers.
The first. two kinds of bleacher
generally remove the same types of
stains and, if safe for the fabric,
can be used interchl:inge':tbly. If
one bleach is more effel.t i \ than the
others for a particular stain it is
reconlmmended in the directions (pp.
18 to 28) for removing that stain.






Color removers are generally
1i-ed1 for lypes of stains for which
the first two are not effe.,tive.
Chlorine bleaches are sold at gro-
cery stores under various brand
names. They may be in liquid,
granular, or tablet form.
Peroxygen bleaches include so-
dium perborate, pota 1si1um mono-
persulfate, and hydro 'ieni peroxide.
Sodium perborate is available as
pure sodium perborate powder at
drug stores. Powdered bleaches
contaiining sodium perborate or
potassium monopersulfate as the
active ingredient are sold under
various brand names at grocery
stores.
The 3-percent hydrogen peroxide
used for blea'hling is sold in drug
stores.
Color removers are sold under var-
ious brand names in drug and
grocery stores.
Other chemical stain removers.-
Acetic acid or vinegar is used for
neutralizing alkalies and for re-
storing colors cli;ilged by the ac-
tion of alkalies. Use 10-percent
acetic acid available f:ii,, drug
stores. Or ll-titlle white vine-
gar, which contains 5 percent of
acetic acid.
Ammonia is used for neutralizing
acids and restoring colors c!ihantged
by action of acids. Use 10-percent
allonia solution, or substitute
household annmonia. Avoid breath-
ing ammonia fumes. Poison if
swallowed.
Iodine is used only for silver ni-
trate stains. U-e- tincture of iodine
available at drug stores. Poison if
swallowed.
Oxalic acid is used for rust and
other metallic stains. Sold in crys-
talline form at drug stores. Poison
if swallowed.
Sodium thiosulfate is 1i-d1 for re-
moving ioline and chlorine stains.
Sold in crystalline form at drug
stores and, as "hypo" at phot(igr;L-
phers' supply stores.


How to use chemical stain
removers
Try a mild treatment first.
Dampen stain with cool water and
.-tretcll stained area over a bowl or
place on an absorbent pad. Apply
liquid remlovers with a medicine
dropper. Or sprinkle dry removers
over the dampelned spot. Or, if the
article is washable, the tailedd area
or the whole article can be soaked
in a solution of the remover.
Do not let the relmover dry on the
fabric. If it is necessary to keep
the remover on the stain for more
than a few minutes, keep the area
wet by placing a pad of cotton wet
with the remover-or with water if
a dry remover is used-on the stain.
Keep cotton damp until the stain
is removed.
Rinse remover from washable
articles by sponging area repeat-
edly with a cloth dampened with
water or by rinsing area or whole
garment in clear water.
To rinse remover from nonwash-
able articles, sponge repeatedly
with a cloth tl;ilpened with water.
Or place treated area while still
damp on a clean sponge or -tretrtl it
over a bowl, then f,,r e water
through the spot. The sponge is
preferable because it absorbs water
and so helps to keep it from spread-
ing to surrounding dry areas. Use
a syringe to force water through
the spot.
If stains cannot be removed by a
mild treatment, a stronL're treat-
nent may be successful. The tr,.it-
ment may be -tflmtiithened by
lengthening the time of treatment,
Iu-I Ig a more concentrated solution
of the remover, or raising the tem-
perature of the reaction. All of
these ways of -titlenthening the
treatment increase the danger of
d:iii :ige to the fabric.
Additional directions for using
each of tle chemical stain re movers
are given on p:; 'es 12 to 15.
























6-


----- c-

- ~--o- .4


J%*.r AcE4
~~~~~~'1,


BN-7224, 1N-7223

Treating a stain on a nonwashable article with sodium perborate bleach. A,
apply a solution of sodium perborate. B, rinse well, using a small syringe
to force water through the spot and a sponge to absorb the water.


1;









DIRECTIONS FOR BLEACHES

Chlorine Bleaches

Do not use chlorine bleaches on fabrics that contain silk, wool, or spandex
fibers, polyurethane foams, or on a fabric with a special finish (such as those
used to improve such properties as wrinkle resistance, shrinkage resistance,
crispness, or sheen, or to produce durable embossed and sculptured designs)
unless the manufacturer states on the label that chlorine bleach is safe. The
resin in some of these finishes absorbs and retains chlorine, which weakens, and
sometimes yellows, the fabric. Some fabrics are not weakened or yellowed
until they are ironed; then damage may be severe. See page 20 for directions
for removing retained chlorine from such fabrics. Test all dyed fabrics for
colorfastness. Do not use in metal containers.


Washable articles


Mild treatment

Mix 2 tablespoons liquid bleach
with 1 quart cool water. Apply to
small stains with a medicine dropper;
soak large stains in the solution.
Leave on stain for 5 to 15 minutes.
Rinse well with water. Repeat if
necessary. For bleaches in granular
or tablet form, follow directions on
package.


Strong treatment


Mix equal parts liquid bleach and
water. Apply solution with medicine
dropper to small stains. If stain is
large, dip stained area in solution.
Rinse immediately with water. Repeat
if necessary. Be sure all bleach is
rinsed out of fabric.


Nonwashable articles


Mild treatment

Mix 1 teaspoon liquid bleach with
1 cup cool water. Apply to stain
with medicine dropper. Leave on
stain for 5 to 15 minutes. Rinse well
with water. Repeat if necessary. For
bleaches in granular or tablet form,
follow directions on package.


Strong treatment


Not recommended. However, if
stain cannot be removed in any other
way, strong treatment given above for
washable articles may be used.






Powdered Peroxygen Bleaches
These include sodium perborate and potassium monopersulfate bleaches.
Do not use strong treatments on fabrics that contain wool, silk, or Dynel
because these treatments call for hot water. Hot water shrinks Dynel; hot solu-
tions are not safe for silk and wool. Test all dyed fabrics for colorfastness. Do
not use in metal containers.

Washable articles


Mild treatment

Mix 1 to 2 tablespoons powdered
peroxygen bleach with 1 pint luke-
warm water (for wool, silk, and Dynel)
or 1 pint hot water (for other fabrics).
Mix just before using; the solution loses
strength on standing.
Cover stained area with solution or
soak entire article. Soak until stain
is removed. This may take several
hours, or overnight. Rinse well.
If wool or silk is yellowed by the
bleach solution, sponge with 10-
percent acetic acid or vinegar to re-
move yellowing, then rinse with water.


Strong treatment

Sprinkle powdered peroxygen bleach
on stain. Dip stain into very hot or
boiling water. Stains should be re-
moved in a few minutes. Rinse well.
Repeat if necessary.


Nonwashable articles


Mild treatment

Sprinkle powdered peroxygen
bleach on stain. Cover with a pad of
cotton dampened with water. Use
lukewarm water for wool, silk, and
Dynel-hot water for other fabrics.
Keep damp until stain is removed.
This may take several hours or more.
Rinse well.
Or mix 1 to 2 tablespoons powdered
peroxygen bleach with 1 pint luke-
warm water (for wool, silk and Dynel)
or 1 pint hot water (for other fabrics).
Mix just before using; the solution
loses strength on standing. Apply to
stain with medicine dropper. Keep
damp until stain is removed. Rinse
well.
If wool or silk is yellowed by the
bleach solution, sponge with 10-
percent acetic acid or vinegar to re-
move yellowing, then rinse with water.


Strong treatment

Dampen stain with cool water.
Sprinkle powdered peroxygen bleach
on stain. With spoon or medicine
dropper, pour a small amount of boil-
ing water on stain. Use a sponge or
absorbent pad under the stain to ab-
sorb the water. Rinse well. Repeat if
necessary.






Hydrogen Peroxide
A 3-percent solution of hydrogen peroxide is safe for all fibers; it acts slowly
on stains. This solution loses strength on storage. Test all dyed fabrics fur
colorfastness. Do not use in metal containers.

Washable and nonwashable articles


Mild treatment


Moisten stain with a few drops of a
3-percent solution of hydrogen perox-
ide. Expose stain to direct sunlight.
Add hydrogen peroxide as needed to
keep stained area moist until stain is
removed.
If above treatment does not remove
stain, add a few drops of household
ammonia to about 1 tablespoon of
hydrogen peroxide. Moisten stain
immediately with this mixture, and
cover with a pad of cotton dampened
with the same mixture. Keep damp
until stain is removed; it may take
several hours or more. Rinse well.


Strong treatment


Cover stain with a cloth dampened
with a 3-percent solution of hydrogen
peroxide.
Cover with a dry cloth and press
with an iron as hot as is safe for the
fiber. Rinse well.


Color Removers
Color removers are safe for all Fibers, but fade or remove many dyes. If
test of color remover on fabric shows that the remover causes a distinct color
change rather than fading, you may be able to restore the original color by
rinsing immediately, then drying article in air. If color remover fades the color,
original color cannot be restored. Do not use in metal containers.


Washable and nonwashable articles


Mild treatment


Dissolve 1/4 teaspoon of color remover
in 1/2 cup of cool water. Wet stain
with a few drops of the solution.
Cover stain for 1 to 15 minutes with a
pad of cotton dampened with the
solution.
Rinse well. Repeat if necessary.


irong treatment

For large stains on white or colorfast
fabrics, follow directions on the pack-
age. For all other stains, dissolve 1/4
teaspoon of color remover in 1/ cup of
boiling water. Drop hot solution on
stain with a medicine dropper.
Rinse immediately. Repeat if nec-
essary.





DIRECTIONS FOR OTHER CHEMICAL STAIN
REMOVERS

Treatments are the same for washable and nonwashable articles. Unless
otherwise indicated, treatment is strengthened by increasing the time the remover
is left on fabric.

Acetic Acid, Vinegar
Moisten stain with 10-percent acetic acid or vinegar. Keep fabric wet until
stain is removed. Rinse with water. Safe for all fibers, but may change color
of some dyes. If dye changes color, rinse stain with water. Then try to restore
color by moistening stain with ammonia (see below).

Ammonia
All fabrics except those that contain wool or silk.-Moisten stain with 10-
percent ammonia or household ammonia. Keep stain wet until it is removed.
Rinse with water. If the color of a dye is changed by ammonia, try to restore
color after rinsing by moistening with acetic acid or vinegar. Rinse with water.
Wool or silk.-Dilute ammonia with an equal volume of water. Moisten
stain with this solution and keep it moist until stain is removed. Rinse with water.
Add a small amount of vinegar to the last rinse. If the color of a dye is changed
by ammonia, try to restore color after rinsing by moistening with acetic acid or
vinegar. Rinse with water.

Iodine
Directions given under silver nitrate (p. 27), the only kind of stain for which it
is used.

Oxalic Acid
Safe for all fibers, but may change color of some dyes. If dye changes color
after treatment, rinse stain with water. Then try to restore color by moistening
stain with ammonia (see above). May cause fabric damage if not rinsed out
of fabric. Poison.
Mild treatment.-Dissolve 1 tablespoon of oxalic acid crystals in 1 cup of
warm water. Keep stain wet with this solution until it is removed. Rinse
thoroughly with water.
Strong treatment.-Dissolve 1 taklcspoon of oxalic acid in 1 cup of water
as hot as is safe for fabric. Use as for mild treatment.
Or, for all fabrics except nylon, sprinkle crystals on dampened stain and dip in
pan of very hot water. Rinse thoroughly.
Sodium Thiosulfate
Directions are given under chlorine (p. 20) and iodine (p. 23), the only stains
for which it is used.







Directions for Removing Stains


iM:nfy common stains can be re-
moved by following one of the
three general methods given below
and on the next page. These meth-
ods are for removing greasy and
nongreasy taiinsl and stains that are
a combination of the two.
Also given in this section are in-
dividual directimlns for removing
all common stains. These are
]i-led alphabetically. The individ-
ual directions tell whethtier to treat
a stain as a greasy, nongre11;y, or
combination stain or give addi-
tional directions for stains that can-


not be removed by one of the three
general methods.
Whenever necessary, separate di-
rections are given for walsable and
nonwashable articles. Directions
for nonwashables are for articles
made of fabrics that are not dam-
aged by the application of small
amounts of water. If water cannot
be used on a fabric, only those
stains that can be removed by ab-
sorbents or by solvents that do not
contain water (acetone, amyl ace-
tate, or grease solvents) can be re-
moved satisfactorily by home
methods.


General stain-removal directions

GREASY STAINS

Washable Articles


Regular washing, either by hand or
by machine, removes some greasy
stains.
Some can be removed by rubbing
detergent into the stain, then rinsing
with hot water.
Often, however, you will need to
use a grease solvent; this is effective
even after an article has been washed.
Sponge stain thoroughly with grease
solvent. Dry. Repeat if necessary.


It often takes extra time and patience
to remove greasy stains from a fabric
with a special finish.
A yellow stain may remain after
solvent treatment if stain has been set
by age or heat. To remove yellow
stain use a chlorine or peroxygen
bleach. If safe for the fabric, the
strong sodium perborate treatment is
usually the most effective for these
stains.


Nonwashable Articles


Sponge stain well with grease sol-
vent. Dry. Repeat if necessary. It
often takes extra time and patience to
remove greasy stains from fabrics with
a special finish.
A yellow stain may remain after
solvent treatment if stain has been set


by age or heat. To remove yellow
stain use a chlorine or peroxygen
bleach. If safe for the Fabric, the
strong sodium perborate treatment is
usually the most effective for these
stains.






NONGREASY STAINS
Many fresh stains can be removed by simple treatments. Stains set by heat
or age may be difficult or impossible to remove.
Washable Articles
Some nongreasy stains are removed If stain remains after sponging or
by regular laundry methods; others soaking, work a detergent into it, then
are set by them.
Sponge stain with cool water. Or rinse.
soak stain in cool water for 30 minutes If a stain remains after detergent
or longer; some stains require an over- treatment use a chlorine or peroxygen
night soak. bleach.


Nonwashable Articles


Sponge stain with cool water. Or
force cool water through stain with
a small syringe, using a sponge under
the stain to absorb the water.
If stain remains, rub detergent on
stain and work it into fabric. Rinse.
A final sponging with alcohol helps
to remove the detergent and to dry


the fabric more quickly. Test alcohol
on fabric first to be sure it does not
affect the dye. Dilute alcohol with
2 parts of water before using it on
acetate.
If stain remains after detergent is
rinsed out, use a chlorine or peroxygen
bleach.


COMBINATION STAINS
Combination stains are caused by materials that contain both greasy and
nongreasy substances.
Washable Articles


Sponge stain with cool water. Or
soak in cool water for 30 minutes or
longer.
If stain remains, work detergent
into the stain, then rinse thoroughly.
Allow article to dry.


If a greasy stain remains, sponge
with grease solvent. Allow to dry.
Repeat if necessary.
If colored stain remains after fabric
dries, use a chlorine or peroxygen
bleach.


Nonwashable Articles


Sponge stain with cool water. Or
force cool water through the stain
with a small syringe, using a sponge
under stain to absorb the water.
If a stain remains, rub detergent on
the stain and work it into the fabric.
Rinse spot well with water. Allow
article to dry.


If a greasy stain remains, sponge
with grease solvent. Allow article to
dry. Repeat if necessary.
If a colored stain remains after the
fabric dries, use a chlorine or per-
oxygen bleach.


Grease solvents.-For information on kinds of grease solvents, technique
for using them, and precautions to observe when using them see pages 5 to 9.
Fumes from all grease solvents are poisonous. Use these solvents only with
adequate ventilation. Keep flammable solvents away from Flames and
sparks.
Bleaches.-For information on using bleaches see pages 9 to 14.






Directions for removing individual stains


Acids
If an acid is spilled on a fabric,
rinse the area with water immedi-
ately. Then apply ammonia to the
stain (pp. 10, 15). Rinse again
with water.
Strong acids, such as sulfuric
(used in batteries) and hydro-
chloric (used for cleaning brick),
may damage or destroy some fibers
before the acid can be rinsed out.
The amount of damage depends on
the kind of fiber and acid and on
the cor i-ent ration and temperature
of the acid solution. Often, how-
ever, thorough rinsing before the
acid dries on the fabric will prevent
serious daminage. Dilute solutions
of weak acids such as acetic (vine-
gar) will not damage fibers.
Both weak and strong acids may
change the color of some dyes. The
use of ammonia after rinsing with
water neutralizes any acid left in
the fabric and sometimes restores
colors that have changed.

Adhesive tape
Scrape gummy matter from stain
carefully with a dull table knife;
avoid damaging fabric. Sponge
with grease solvent (pp. 6 to 9).

Alcoholic beverages
Follow directions for nongreasy
stains (p. 17).
An alternate method if alcohol
does not affect the color of the
fabric is to sponge the stain with
alcohol (pp. 5, 6). Dilute alcohol
with 2 parts of water before using
on acetate. If a stain remains, use
a chlorine or peroxygen bleach (pp.
10 to 14).
The alcohol in these beverages
will cause blveiliiig of some dyes,


which results in loss of color or for-
mation of a dye ring around the
edge of the stain. When either
lce nge occurs, the original appear-
ance of the fabric cannot be re-
stored.

Alkalies
If an alkali is spilled on a fabric,
rinse the area with water immedi-
ately. Then apply vin-egar to the
stain. Rinse again with water.
Strong alkalies, such as lye, may
d;iIn:agie or destroy some fibers be-
fore they can be rinl,',d out. The
amount of damage depends on the
kind of fiber and alkali and on the
couic'enltration and temperature of
the alkali solution. In many cases,
however, prompt rinsing will pre-
vent serious danlage. Silk and wool
are the fibers most easily damaged
by alkalies. Dilute solutions of
such weak alkalies as ammonia will
not damage fibers. Both strong and
weak alkalies may change the color
of some dyes. The use of vinegar
after rinsing with water neutralizes
any acid left in the fabric and some-
times restores colors that have
cli'anged.

Antiperspirants, deodorants
Wash or sponge stain thoroughly
with detergent and warm water.
Rinse. If stain is not removed, use
a chlorine or peroxygen bleach (pp.
10 to 14).
Antiperspirants that contain such
substances as aluminum chloride
are acidic and may cause fabric
(daiage and change the color of
some dyes. You may be able to re-
store the color of the fabric by
sponging it with ammonia. Dilute
ammonia with an equal volume of
water for use on wool or silk.
Rinse.






Argyrol
Wash stain with detergent. and
water; this will remove most fresh
stains.
If stain is not removed, follow
directions for silver nit raii (p. 27).

Blood
Follow directions for noiiTlrT': Vly
stains (p. 17), with one variation.
If stain is not removed by deter-
gent put a few drops of amminonia
on the stain and repeat treatment
with di fe-1-2lit. Rinse. Follow
with ble;tih treatment if necessary.
Blood stains that have been set
by heat will be difliciilt to remove.


Bluing


Follow directions
stains (p. 17).


for nongreasy


Butter, margarine
Follow directions
stains (p. 16).


for greasy


Candle wax, paraffin
To remove as much wax as possi-
ble, pl:ir the stain bt \\rni clean
white blotters or several layers of
facial tissues and presss with warm
iron. To remove ,.,:,iiiiiii .-i iin,
sponL)011 with a g.I';i,-, solvent (pp.
Sto 9).
Or, if safe for fabric, pour boil-
ing water through the spot. Re-
move any remiiriiiing stain with
grease solvent.

Candy, sirup
For chocolate candy and sirup
follow directions for combination
stains (p. 17). For other candy
and sirup follow directions for non-
greasy stains (p. 17).


First step in removing candle wax stain. Place stain between clean white
blotters, then press with warm iron.






Carbon paper
Regular.-Work detergent into
stain; rinse well. If tainl is not
removed put a few drops of am-
monia on the stain and repeat treat-
ment with detergetnlt; rinse well.
Repeat if necessary.
Duplicating.-Sponge stain with
alcohol (pp. 5, 6). Dilute alcohol
with 2 parts of w-ater for use on
acetate. If stain remains rub deter-
gent into stain; \wah and rinse
well. Repeat if necessary.
If needled, follow treatment
above with a chlorine or peroxygen
bleach (pp. 10 to 14).


Catsup, chili sauce
Follow directions for nongreasy
stains (p. 17).


Chewing gum
Scrape gum off without damag-
ing fabric. The gum can be scraped
off more easily if it is first hard-
ened by rubbing it with ice.
If a ta;iil remains, sponge thor-
oughly with a grease solvent (pp.
6 to 9),


Chlorine
Use one of the treatments given
below to remove yellow stains
caused by the use of chlorine
bleaches on fabrics with some types
of resin finishes (p. 12), or to pre-
vent such stains from appearing.
Use the treatment before the fabric
is ironed.
On some fabrics the yellow stains
form before ironing; on others,
after ironing. In either case, iron-


ing before the chlorine is removed
weakens the fibers.
Yellow t:ailns caused by the use
of chlorine bleach on wool and silk
cannot be removed.
White or faded spots canned by
use of chlorine bleach on colored
fabrics cannot be restored to the
original color.
Treatment for any fabric.-Rinse
fabric thoroughly with water.
Then soak for one-half hour or
longer in a solution containing 1
t;l-lspoon of sodium thiosulfate to
each quart of warm water. Rinse
thoroughly.
To strengthen treatment make
sodium thiosulfate solution with
water as hot as is safe for fabric.
Treatment for white or fast-color
fabrics.-A more effective treat me nti
for fabrics that color removers will
not fade is to rinse the fabric thor-
oughly with water, then use a color
remover. Follow directions given
on the p:acka-ge for removing stains
from these fabrics.


Chocolate
Follow directions for combina-
tion stains (p. 17).


Cocoa
Follow directions for nongreasy
stains (p. 17).


Coffee, tea
With cream.-Follow directions
for combination stains (p. 17).
Without cream.-Follow direc-
tions for nongreasy stains (p. 17).
Or, if safe for fabric, pour boil-
ing water through the spot from a
height of 1 to 3 feet.






Correction fluid (mimeograph) Egg


Sponge stain with acetone or
amyl acetate (pp. 5, 6). Use amnyl
acetate on acetate, Arnel, Dynel,
and Verel-acttonet on other fab-
rics.


Cosmetics-eye shadow, lip-
stick, liquid makeup, mascara,
pancake makeup, powder,
rouge
Washable articles.-Apply undi-
luted liquid deterg'ent to stain. Or
dampen stain and rub in soap or
synthetic dete(lrgeint until a thick
suds is formed. Work in until out-
line of stain is gone, then rijnIe well.
Repeat. if necessary. It may help
to dry fabric between teat,;imiints.
Nonwashable articles.-- Sponge
with a grease solvent (pp. 6 to 9) as
long as any color is Ieinoved. If
stain is not removed, use method
given for waihable articles.


Crayon
Follow directions for cosmetics.


Cream
Follow directions for comlibina-
tion stains (p. 17).


Dyes
Follow directions for noingreasy
stains (p. 17); if bleach is needed
use chlorine bleach or color re-
mover. A long soak in sudsy
water is often effective on fresh dye
stains.


Follow directions for nongreasy
stains (p. 17).


Fingernail polish
Follow directions for correction
fluid.
Nail poli-I rIemovers can also be
11-.1 to remove stains. Some types
are more effit iv \ than others. Do
not i-e, on ;i',.i.te, Arnel, Dynel,
or Verel without first lIe-t ijg on a
.,r.;p of imilerial to be sure it will
not damage the fabric.


Fish slime, mucus, vomit
Follow directions for nongreasy
stains (p. 17).
Or treat stain with a lulkewarm,
solution of salt and water--/4 cup
-:1lt to each quart of water. Sponge
stain with solution or .-oak stain in
it. Rinse well.


Food coloring
Follow dirlrctions for nongreasy
stains (p. 17).


Fruit


Follow directions for noigreasy
stains (p. 17).
Or, if safe for fabric, pour boil-
ing water through spot from a
height of 1 to 3 feet.
When any fruit juice is spilled
on a fabric it's a good idea to
sponge the spot immediately with
cool water. Some fruit juices, cit-
rus amliong them, are invisible on
the fabric after they dry, but turn
yellow on aging or heating. This
yellow stain may be difficult to re-
move.






Furniture polish


Follow directions for greasy
stains (p. 16).
Or, if polish contains wood stain,
follow directions given for paint
(p. 25).


Glue, mucilage, adhesives
Airplane glue, household ce-
ment.-Follow directions for cor-
rection fluid (p. 21).
Casein glue.-Follow directions
for nongreasy stains (p. 17).
Plastic glue.--Wash stain with
detergent and water before glue
hardens; some types cannot be re-
moved after they have hardened.
The following t iretment will re-
move some dried plastic glue stains.
Immerse stain in hot 10-percent
acetic acid or hot vinegar. Keep
acid or vinegar at or ilear the boil-
ing point until stain is removed.
This may take 15 minutes or
longer. Rinse with water.
Rubber cement.-Scrape gummy
iimatter from tainn carefully; avoid
damaging fabric. Sponge thor-
oughly with grease solvent (pp. 6
to 9).
Other types of glue and muci-
lage.-Follow directions for non-
greasy stains (p. 17), except soak
stain in hot water instead of cool.


Grass, flower, foliage


Washable articles.-Work deter-
gent into stain, then rinse. Or, if
safe for dye, sponlge stain with a -
cohol (pp. 5, 6). Dilute alcohol
with 2 parts of water for use on
a ei:l te.
If stain remains u-e a chlorine or
peroxygen bleach (pp. 10 to 14).
Nonwashable articles.-Use same
methods as for washable articles,
but try alcohol first, if it is safe for
dye.


Gravy, meat juice


Follow directions for combina-
tion stains (p. 17).


Grease-car grease, lard


Follow directions
stains (p. 16).


for


greasy


Ice cream
Follow directions for combina-
tion stains (p. 17).


Ink, ballpoint
Sponge stain repeatedly with
acetone or amyl acetate (pp. 5, 6).
Use amyl acetate on acetate, Arnel,
Dynel, and Verel-acetone on other
fabrics. This will remove fresh
stains. Old stains may also require
bleaching (pp. 10 to 14).
Washing removes some types of
ballpoint ink stains but sets other
types. To see if the stain will wash
out, mark a scrap of similar ma-
terial with the ink and wash it.


Ink, drawing
Black (India ink).-Treat stain as
soon as possible. These stains are
very hard to remove if allowed to
dry.
Washable articles.-Force water
through stain until all loose pig-
inent. is removed. Unless loose pig-
ment is removed the stain will
spread when you try to remove it.
Wavh with detergent, several
times if nec~-ary. Then soak stain
in warm suds containing 1 to 4
table-poons of ammonia to a quart
of water. Dried stains may need to
be soaked overnight.






An alternate method that will re-
move some stains: Force water
through stain until all loose pig-
ment is remove, wet the spot with
ammonia, then work deltrgelnt into
the stain. Rinse. Repeat if neces-
sary.
Nonwamshable articles. Force
water through stain until all loo-e
pi!giiieit is removed. Unless loose
pilgm'ent is removed the stain will
spread when you try to remove it.
Next, sponge stain with a solu-
tion of water and ammonia (1 table-
spoon of ammonia per cup \\;ufer).
Rinse with water. If stain remains,
moisten it with ammonia, then work
detergent into it. Rinse. Repeat if
llne'e,-:l Iry.
If ammonia changes the color of
the fabric, sponge first with water,
then moisten with vinegar. Rin e
well.
Colors other than black.-Follow
dilretions for nongr':asy stains
(p. 17). If bleach is needed, use a
color remover if safe for dye. If
color remover is not ,:lfe for dye,
try other bleaches.

Ink, mimeograph and printing
Fresh stains.-Follow directions
for greasy .-f;inw (p. 16) or sponge
with turpentine (pp. 5, 6).
Stubborn stains.-Follow direc-
tions for paint stains (p. 25).

Ink, writing
Washable articles.-Follow direc-
tiois for nongreasy stains (p. 17).
Because writting inks vary greatly
in collpositioll it ilmay be necessary
to try mIore than one kind of bleach.
Try a chlorine bleach on all fab-
rics for which it is safe. For other
fabrics, try peroxygen bleach. A
few types of ink require treatment
with color removers.
The strong treatment of any of
these bleaches may be needed. It


will not be p)(--ilble to remove stains
that require strong bleaches from
some colored fabrics without leav-
ing a faded spot.
If a yellow stain remains after
blea,;hinig, treat as a rust stain (p.
26).
Nonwashable articles.-If pos-
sible, 1ii- a blotter (for -i:nll stains)
or absorbent powder to remove ex-
c'-s ink before it soaks into the
fabric (p. 3). Then follow direc-
tions for washable articles.

Iodine
Washable articles.-Three meth-
ods for removing iodine stains are
given below. If the method you try
first does not remove the stain, try
another.
Tater.-Soak in cool water until
stain is removed; some stains re-
quire s, ki iig overnight.
If stain remains, rub it with de-
tergent and wash in warm suds. If
stain is not removed, soak fabric in
a solution containing 1 tablespoon
of sodium thiosulfate to each pint
of warm water, or sprinkle the
crystals on the dampened -f,iin.
Rinse well as soon as -taini is re-
moved.
'Seam .-3? roisten stain with wa-
ter then hold it in the steam from a
boiling teakettle.
AlcohJol.-If alcohol is safe for
dye, cover stain with a pad of cotton
soaked in alcohol (pp. 5, 6). If nec-
essary keep pad wet for -\'veral
hours. Dilute with 2 parts of water
for luse on acetate.
Nonwashable articles.-Try the
steal or alcohol methods given
ablove first.
If these niethods are not safe for
fiber or dye or if the stain remains
after using them, cover -i i,1! with
a pad of cotton (lanienled in a so-
lution of sodium thiosulfate (1
tablh-loon sodium thiosulfate to
each pint of water) for about 15
minutes. RIini-e well. Repeat treat-
nmeit if nece --






Lacquer
Follow directions for correction
fluid (p. 21).



Mayonnaise, salad dressing
Follow directions for combina-
tion stains (p. 17).


Medicines. (See also Argyrol,
Iodine, Mercurochrome, Silver
nitrate.)
Because so many different sub-
stances are used in inm-dieiiies it is
not possible to give methods for re-
moving all such stains.
Medicines with an oily base,
gummy and tarry medicines.-Fol-
low directions for greasy stains (p.
16).
Medicines in sugar sirup or in wa-
ter.-W-ash stain out with \\a t er.
Medicines dissolved in alcohol
(tinctures).-Sponge t a in with alco-
hol (pp. 5, 6). Dilute with 2 parts
of water for use on acetate.
Medicines that contain iron.-Fol-
low directions for rust (p. 26).
Medicines that contain dyes.-
Follow directions for dyes (p. 21).



Mercurochrome, merthiolate,
metaphen
Washable articles.-Soak over-
night in a warm detergent solution
that contains 4 tablespoons of am-
monia to each quart of water.
Nonwashable articles.-If alco-
hol is safe for the dye, sponge with
alcohol (pp. 5, 6) as long as any of
the stain is removed. Dilute alco-
hol with 2 parts of water for use on
acetate.
If a stain remains, place a pad
of cotton saturated with alcohol on


the stain. Keep pad wet until stain
is removed; this may take an hour
or more.
If alcohol is not safe for the dye,
wet stain with liquid detergent.
Add a drop of ammonia with a
medicine dropper. Rinse with wa-
ter. Repeat. if necessary.


Metal
To remove stains caused by tar-
nished bra;s, copper, tin, and other
metals use vinegar r, lemon juice,
acetic acid, or oxalic acid. (See
pp. 10, 15 for directions for using
these removers; use lemon juice ac-
cording to the directions given for
vinegar.) The two acids, because
they are -t rlonler, will remove stains
that cannot be removed by vinegar
or lemon juice.
As soon as the stain is removed,
rinse well with water.
Do not use chlorine or peroxygen
bleaches. These bleaches may cause
damage bec(.ale the metal in the
stain hastens their action.



Mildew
Washable articles.-Treat mildew
spots while they are fresh, before
the mold growth has a chance to
weaken the fabric.
Wash mildewed article thor-
oughly. Dry in the sun. If stain
remains treat with a chlorine or
peroxygen bleach (pp. 10 to 14).
Nonwashable articles.-Send ar-
ticle to drycleaner while stain is
fresh.


Milk
Follow directions for nongreasy
stains (p. 17).






Mud
Let -'tin dry, then brush well.
If stain remlainl-, follow directions
for nongre.asy stains (p. 17).
Stains from iron-rich clays not re-
moved by this method should be
treated as rust st ains (p. 26).

Mustard
Washable articles.-Rub deter-
ogent into the dampened stain; rinse.
If stain is not removed, soak ar-
ticle in hot detergent solution for
several hours, or overnight if nec-
Cssai ry.
If stain remains, u-e a blea.rh
(pp. 10 to 14). Strong sodium per-
borate tre:latment, if safe for the
fabric, is often the most effective
bleach.
Nonwashable articles.-If safe
for dye, sponge stain with alcohol.
Dilute alcohol with 2 parts of water
for use on acetate.
If alcohol cannot be used, or if
it does not remove stain completely,
follow treatment for washable arti-
cles, omitting the soaki i g.

Oil-fish-liver oil, linseed oil,
machine oil, mineral oil, vege-
table oil


Follow directions
stains (p. 16).


for


Paint, varnish
Treat stains promptly. They are
much harder, sometimes impossible,
to remove after they have dried on
the fabric. Because there are so
many different kinds of paints and
varnishes it is impossible to give
one method that will remove all
stain.. Read the label on the con-
tainer; if a certain solvent is recom-
mended as a thinner it may be more
effective in removing stains than
the solvents reconiimuenuded at right.


Washable articles.-To irevnve
fresh stains rub detergent into .-tain
and wash.
If ;la in has dried or is only par-
tially remove\l by washing, sponge
with turpentine (pp. 5, 6) until no
more paint or varnish is removed;
for aluminuaium pint :i, trichlo-
roethylene (pp. 6 to 9) may be more
effective than turplentine: do not 11-c1
this solvent on Arnel or Kodel.
While the -;t:il is still wet with
the solvent, work detergent into it,
put the article in hot \\:if r, and
o:ak it overnight. Thorough wash-
ing will thull remove most types of
paint stains.
If stain remains, repeat the trea -
1ient.
Nonwashable articles.-- Sponge
fresh stains with turpentine (pp. 5,
6) until no more paint is removed;
for aluminum paint stains, trichlo-
roctliylene (pp. 6 to 9) may be more
effective than turpentine. Do not
iu-, trichloroethylene on Arnel or
Kodel.
If ne,'e-ary, loosen more of the
paint by covering the stain for 30
minutes or longer with a pad of
cotton dampened with the solvent.
Repeat sponging.
If stain remains, put a drop of
liquid detergent on the stain and
work it into the fabric with the
edge of the bowl of a spoon.
Alternate sponging with turpen-
tine and treatment with detetirgent,
as many times as necessary.
If alcohol is safe for dye, sponge
stain with alcohol to 1retilve tur-
pentine and delorgent. Dilute al-
cohol with two parts of water for
use on acetate. If alcohol is not
safe for dye, sponge stain first with
warm detergent solution, then with
water.

Pencil marks
Lead pencil, colored pencil.-A
soft eraser will remove these marks
from some fabrics. If mark cannot






be erased follow directions for reg-
ular carbon paper (p. 20).
Indelible pencil.-Follow direc-
tions for duplicit ing- carbon paper
(p. 20).


Perfume
Follow directions for alcoholic
beverages (p. 18).


Perspiration
Wash or sponge stain thoroughly
with deter.'ent and warm water.
Work carefully because some fab-
rics are weakened by perspiration;
silk is the fiber most easily dam-
aged.
If per-piration lhas changed the
color of fabric, try to restore it by
treating with ammonia or vinegar.
Apply ammonia to fresh stains;
rinse with water. Apply vinegar
to old stains; rinse with water.
If an oily taiin remains, follow
directions for greasy stains (p. 16).
Remove any yellow discolora t tion
with a 'chlorine or peroxygen bleach
(pp. 10 to 14). If safe for fabric,
the strong sodium perborate treat-
ment is often the most effective for
these -tains.


Plastic
To remove stains canied, by
plastic hangers or buttons that
have softened and adhered to the
fabric, use amyl acetate or trichlo-
roethylene (pp. 5, 6). Test colored
fabrics to be sure dye does not bleed.
Do not use trichloroethylene on
Arnel or Kodel.
Sponge stain with a pad of ab-
sorbent cloth or cotton moistened
with the solvent. In using these
solvents, observe precautions listed
on page 9.


If the plastic has been absorbed
in the fabric it may be necessary to
place a pad wet, with the solvent on
the spot and let it remain until the
plastic has softened. Sponge with
a fresh padii moistened with the sol-
vent. Repeat until all plastic has
been removed.


Rust
Oxalic-acid method. Moisten
stain with oxalic acid solution (1
tablespoon of oxalic acid crystals in
1 cup warm water). If stain is not
removed, heat the solution and
repeat.
If stain is stubborn, place oxalic
acid crystals directly on the stain.
Moisten with water as hot as is safe
for fabric and allow to land a few
minutes, or dip in hot water. Re-
peat if necessary. Do not use this
method on nylon.
Rinse article thoroughly. If al-
lowed to dry in fabric, oxalic acid
will cause damage.
Precaution: Oxalic acid is poison
if swallowed.
Cream-of-tartar method.-If safe
for fabric, boil stained article in a
solution containing 4 teaspoons of
c.Leili of tartar to each pint of
water. Boil until stain is removed.
Rinse thoroughly.
Lemon-juice method.-Spread the
stained portion over a pan of boil-
ing water and squeeze lemon juice
on it.
Or sprinkle salt. on the stain,
squeeze lemon juice on it, and
spread in the sun to dry. Rinse
thoroughly. Repeat if necessary.
Color removers (p. 14) can be
used to remove rust stains from
white fabrics.


Sauces, soups
Follow directions for combine.
tion stains (p. 17).






Silver nitrate


If article is washable follow di-
rections for noiigreasy stains
(p. 17).
To remove light scorch on non-
wa,,Iiaible articles use hydrogen
peroxide (p. 14). The strong treat-
111t'it may be iiceded. Repeat if
necessary.
For surface scorch on heavy fab-
rics you may be able to remove
ldall;ged part of the fibers with
very fine sandpaper.
Severe scorch cannot be remo\vd ;
it daml;;ages the 'fabri,.


Shellac
Sponge stain with alcohol, or
soak the stain in alcohol (pp. 5, 6).
)ilute alcohol with 2. parts water
for use on acetate. If alcohol bleeds
the dye, try turpentine (see paint.
p. 25).


Shoe polish
Because there are many different
kinds of shoe polish no one method
will remove all stains. It may be
necessary to try more than one of
the methods given below.
1. Follow directions for cos-
metics (p. 21).
2. Sponge stain with alcohol if
safe for dye in the fabric. Dilute
alcohol with 2 parts of water for use
on acetate.
3. Sponge stain with grease sol-
vent or turpentine (pp. 5 to 0). If
turpentine is used, remove turpen-
tine by sponging with a warm
detergent solution or with alcohol.
If stain is not removed by any of
these methods use a chlorine or
peroxygen bleach (pp. 10 to 14).
The strong sodium perol)rate treat-
ment, if safe for the fabric, is often
the most effective bleach.


Dampeni stain with water. Then
put a few drops of tincture of
iodine on the stain. Let stand for
a few miinit-. Then treat as an
iodine stain.
Unii*-; stain on silk or wool is
treated when fresh a yellow or
brown di'.-cloration will remain.


Soft drinks
Follow directions for noii gl_..-y
stains (p. 17).
When any soft drink is spilled
on a fabric it's a good idea to spol ge
the spot immediately with cool
water. Some soft drinks are in-
visible after they dry, but turn yel-
low on aging or heating. The
yellow stain may be ditlictilt to
remove.


Soot, smoke
Follow directions for cosinme i.
(p.21).


Tar


Follow direct
stains (p. P1).
If stailn is not
mIethod, sponge
(pp. 5, 6).


ions


greasy


removed by this
with 1Iurpenltine


Tea. (See Coffee.)



Tobacco
Follow directions for gil:-i (1p.
22).


Scorch






Walnut, black


for


greasy


Typewriter ribbon
Follow directions for regular car-
bon paper (p. 20).



Unknown stains
If stain appears greasy, treat it
as a greasy stain (p. 16). Other-
wise, treat it as a nongreasy stain
(p. 17).
See also yellowing (p. 28).



Urine
To remove -tains cau-ed by
normal urine follow directions for
no1,greasy stains (p. 17).
If color of fabric has been
changed, sponge stain with am-
monia (p. 15). If this treatment
does not restore the color, sponging
with acetic acid or vinegar may help
(P. 15).
If stain is not removed by method
given above, see directions for
medicines (p. 24) and yellowing.



Vegetable
Follow directions for nongreasy
stains (p. 17).


Transfer patterns
Follow directions
stains (p. 16).


Wax-floor, furniture, car
Follow directions for greasy
stains (p. 16).


Yellowing, brown stains
To remove yellow or brown
Stlailn that appear in some fabrics
during storage or unknown yellow
or yellow-brown stains, use as many
of the following treatments that are
safe for the fabric as necessary, in
the order gi ven.
1. Wash.
2. Use a mild treatiiient of a
chlorine or peroxygen bleach (pp.
12 to 14).
3. Use the oxalic-acid method for
treating rust stains (p. 26).
4. Use a strong treatment of a
chlorine or peroxygen bleach (pp.
12, 13).
For removal or prevention of yel-
low sta ins caused by use of chlorine
bleach on resin-treated fabrics, see
page 20.


These stains are very difficult to
remove.
Washable articles.-If safe for
fabric, boil w'asllable articles in
soapy water. This will remove
fresh stains.
If stain is not removed, use a
strong chlorine or sodium perborate
bleach treatment (pp. 12, 13).
If stain remains, treat as a rust
stain (p. 26).
Nonwashable articles. These
stains cannot be removed by home
methods. Send the article to a dry-
cleaner.












Index to Stains


Acetic acid-----------
Acids ------------
Adhesive tape ---------
Adhesives _
Airplane glue ---------
Alcoholic beverages -------
Alkalies _----------
Ammonia -----------------
Antiperspirants ----------------
Argyrol_---- --------
Ballpoint ink_------ __
Beets. (See Vegetable.)
Berry. (See Fruit.)
Beverages:
Alcoholic ---------------
Chocolate--------------
Cocoa--------------------
Coffee ------------
Fruit juice ----------------
Milk ----------
Soft drinks_--------
Tea -----------
Black walnut--------------
Blood --------------
Bluing____________
Brass -------------
Brown stains _--------


Butter ----
Candle wax-__
Candy-----
Car grease_--
Car wax-___-
Carbon paper
Casein glue -_
Catsup ------
Cement:
Household-
Rubber----
Chewing gum -
Chili sauce--


Chlorine -------------
Chocolate -----------
Cocoa_---------_----- _---
Coffee-___ ------- -
CombinI tionj stains ---_--------


Page
18
18
18
22

18
18
18
18
19
22




18
20
20
20
21
24
27
20
28
19
19
24
28
19
19
19
22

20
22
20


22
22
20
20
20
20
20
20
17


Copper ---------.. ------- __. 24
Correction fluid. Inimneograph.. 21
Cosmetics ... ..______--- 21
Cranlbrry. (See Fruit.)
Crayon ---------.___ -____--____ 21
Cream --n-----________________ 21
)Deodorants ------_----- 18
Drawing ink__ __ ____ 22
Drinks, soft--- ------------______ 27
Duplicating carbon paper -...____ 20
Dyes -------------..._________ 21
Egg_ ------------._.. __------_ 21
Eye shadow-__------- __________ 21
Fil-:- rli.ui polish_ __________ 21
Fish-liver oil ----..____-------- 25
Fish slime --------______------ 21
Floor wax _----_--._____------ 28
Flower_ -------------___....__ 22
Foliage---------------___-.____ 22
Food coloring -----_______--.._ 21
Fruit -----------.____..._ ..__ 21
Furniture polish .---__.._______ 22
Furniture wax -- ________ 28
Glue -- _.___ .. ._____________ 22
Grape. (See Fruit.)
Grapefruit. (See Fruit.)
Grass ------------._....._____. 22
Gravy ------------------------- 22
Grease ---- ------__ 22
Greasy stains --------- 16
Gum, chewing__ ____ ____ 20
Household cement -------_____- 22
Hydrochloric acid--______ 18
Ice cream___ __________ 22
Indelible pencil---------------_ 26
Ink--__--- ------_- 22
Iodine ------------------------ 23
Iron. (See Rust.)
Juice:
Fruit_ ------------------- 21
Meat___--------------------- 22
Lacquer----___---------------- 24
Lard-------------------------- 22
Linseed oil_-------------_---_ 25
Lipstick ---------------------- 21
Liquid makeup ----------------- 21


--------------
--------------
--------------
--------------
--------------
--------------
--------------
--------------


1111'




UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

I3 1262 lll 0885I ll 3 IlII
3 1262 08856 1344


Lye _-------------------------
MAI:cthilei oil __---- -----------
M.lk. up::
Liquid ____---------------
Pancake _----------------
Margarine ----------------
Ma I ra__---------------------
Mayonnaise ----------------
Meat juice------ -------
Medicines --_ --------
S[,.rcurochrome -------
Merthiolate _-----------
Metal-----------------
Metaphen ----------
Mildew__ ------ ----------
Milk --------------------------
Mimeograph correction fluid- __-
Mimeograph ink ---------
Mi ileral oil -----------
Mucilage __---------
Mucus_ ----------------
Mud--------------------------
Mustard ___________
Nongreasy stains --------
Oil------------------------
Orange. (See Fruit.)
Paint------ -----
Pancake makeup -------
Paraffin ________ ____
Pencil marks -
Perfume- --
Perspiration ----
Plastic -- l _---- --- -__ ----.
Plastic glue --------------
Powder, face ---------
Printing ink --------------
Rouge _----_------__
Rubber cemeIa _------


Page


S USt ---------------------
25 Salad dressing ---------
Sauces------------
21 Scorch-------------
21 Shellac------------
19 Shoe polish__--------
21 Silver nitrate_----------
24 Sirup-----------------
22 Smoke---- --------
24 Soft drinks -.---------
24 Soot--------------
24 Soups-------------------
24 Spinach. (See VL't.iahlt.)
24 Sulfuric acid------ ----
24 Tar----------------
24 Tarnish stains___-------
21 Tea---- ----------
23 Tin_--_---------------
25 Tobacco_-------------
22 Tomato. (See Vegetable.)
21 Tomato sauce. (See Catsup.)
25 Transfer patterns--------
25 Typewriter ribbon__-----
17 Unknown ___- __--
25 Urine-------------
Varnish-______- ---_-----_
25 Vegetable___---------
21 Vegetable oil----------
19 Vomit---------------------_
25 Walnut, black --_ --------
26 Wax:
26 Candle_---------
26 Car----------------
22 Floor-------_ _____
21 Furniture --__------_--
23 Par:lfiniii --
21 Writing ink ----------
22 Yellowing---------_-


U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE:1964


For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office
WV Ir, .gtr, D.C., 20402 Price 15 cents




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