Selecting and growing shade trees

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Title:
Selecting and growing shade trees
Series Title:
Home and garden bulletin ;
Physical Description:
22 p. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
May, Curtis, 1897-
Publisher:
U.S. Dept. of Agriculture
Place of Publication:
Washington, D.C
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Shade trees   ( lcsh )
Tree planting   ( lcsh )
Genre:
federal government publication   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Statement of Responsibility:
by Curtis May.
General Note:
Cover title.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 004936707
oclc - 04337499
System ID:
AA00012205:00001


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Full Text
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CONTENTS


Pagn


; Characteristics of shade trees
C Selecting shade trees ----
Planting shade trees
",.. Cae, after planting
: Regional lists of trees


Washington, D.C.


Issued December 1973


For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Governrrent Printing Office
Washington, D.C. 20402-Price 30 cents
Stock Number 0100-02740


'1 '










Selecting and Growing

Shade Trees

By CURTIS MAY,' Northeastern Region, Agricultural Research Service.


This publication gives informa-
tion about shade trees that are
suitable for home planting in the
continental United States except
Alaska. Small ornamental trees
such as cherry, crabapple, haw-
thorn, and dogwood are not in-
cluded. More specific information


about trees that are adapted to
your local area can be obtained
from State agricultural experi-
ment stations, State universities,
county agricultural agents, ar-
boretums, parks, botanic gardens,
arborists, and nurserymen.


CHARACTERISTICS OF SHADE TREES


Shade trees may be divided in-
to two main groups-deciduous
and evergreen. Deciduous trees
produce new leaves in spring.
These leaves die and drop at the
end of the growing season. Ever-
green trees hold their leaves for
1 or more years.
Both deciduous and evergreen
trees may be either broadleaf or
needle leaf. Broadleaf trees bear
leaves that have broadly ex-
panded blades. Maples, oaks, and
magnolias are broadleaf trees.
Needle-leaf trees have narrow,
linear, needle-like leaves. Pine,
larch, and spruce are needle-leaf
trees.
Some kinds of trees have no
leaves but have green twigs that
function as leaves. Casuarina is a
leafless tree. Scale-leaf trees

'Retired.


have flattened, scale-like leaves
that lie flat against the twigs.
Arborvitae is a scale-leaf tree.
The size and form of different
kinds of shade trees vary greatly
and individual trees may deviate
widely from the standard. The
size and form of some common
shade trees compared to the size
of a house are shown on page 2.
Branching habits also differ
among the many species. Some of
the general branching habits of
shade trees are shown on page
3.
Deciduous trees generally grow
faster than evergreens, but the
growth rate varies among all
kinds of trees. Also, the rate of
growth depends on soil fertility,
rainfall, and temperature.
The life of shade trees varies
with species, climate, and soil. In
densely populated cities, and es-


























































Hackberry Redwood


Size of mature shade trees in relation to the height of a 2-story house. Each
horizontal line represents 10 feet.





2




















4'!
J I


;1/


Trunk Single,
Branches Horizontal
White Pine


Trunk Dividing,
Branches Spreading
Elm


Branches Pendulant Branches Ascending
Willow White Oak


Branching habits of trees.


^


P





pecially in some industrial
the life of many trees is
less than in suburban or


areas,
much
rural


areas. Diseases, insects, improper
care, and air pollution also can
shorten the life of shade trees.


SELECTING SHADE TREES


Cold hardiness is the primary
requirement to consider when
you select a shade tree. The cold-
est area (plant hardiness zone)
in which each species will nor-
mally succeed is given in the
regional lists of trees, page 11.
Some species are intolerant of
high temperatures. Heat and
drought resistance usually are
linked. By watering, however,
you can grow some species in hot,
dry climates where they would not
otherwise survive. In areas of low
rainfall, drought resistant spe-
cies require less care than trees
that must be watered.
You should consider the rate
of growth of different kinds of
trees. In general, trees that grow
rapidly have weak wood that is
easily damaged by storms and
decay. Slower-growing trees have
stronger wood. However, if you
want quick shade, the use of fast-
growing trees may be desirable.
Also consider the size and
shape of trees at muturity. A tree
35 feet tall at maturity is accept-
able on the average city lot with
a one-story house, but a tree 50
to 100 feet high would be too
tall. However, large trees may be
suitable for large yards.
This publication does not spec-
ify where you should plant shade
trees, but a few suggestions may
help you avoid certain problems.
Roots of elms, willows, poplars,


and maples, for example, can clog
sewers. You should not plant
these trees near drainage pipes.
Avoid planting trees beneath
telephone and power lines. Trees
that grow over the roof of a
house can fill the gutters with
leaves, but these trees also shade
the house from the hot summer
sun.
In general, you should not se-
lect a young tree with a divided
lower trunk because it might
split.
Some trees such as horsechest-
nut produce hard, poisonous
fruits. The thorny fruits of sweet-
gum and some other trees can be


.;,


. .N.il?^
* -

BN37433
The trunk of a young red maple that
has poor form. The divided trunk may
split.





a nuisance in lawns. Fruits of
ginkgo smell bad when they de-
cay. Plant only male ginkgo to
avoid producing smelly fruits.
Trees such as Siberian elm,
poplar, red maple, and mimosa
produce abundant fruits, seeds,
and seedlings that can become
a nuisance in lawns and gardens.
Some trees such as the black
locust sprout from the roots and


the sprouts often interfere with
lawn mowing. One species of
eucalyptus harbors rats in its old
foliage. Dry foliage hanging on
the trunks of palm trees can be
a fire hazard.
It is difficult to find a species
with no faults. Balance the faults
of trees against their good quali-
ties in deciding what kind to
plant.


PLANTING SHADE TREES


You can obtain shade trees
with the soil held around their
roots by burlap, wire, or plastic.
They are known as balled and
burlapped trees. Trees that are
sold in containers are commonly
known as container-grown trees
and those without soil on the
roots are called bare-rooted
trees.
The chances of survival us-
ually are high for balled and bur-
lapped and container-grown
trees. Balled and burlapped trees
should have a root-ball of 1 foot
in diameter for each inch of dia-
meter of the tree trunk.
Nursery-grown trees are more
likely to survive than trees dug
from the woods. Root systems of
nursery-grown trees usually are
compact and less likely to be in-
jured seriously when they are
dug. Many arborists, nurserymen,
and landscape contractors guar-
antee their trees for at least 1
year after they plant them.
Trees with a trunk diameter of
1.5 to 3 inches may be planted
with bare roots. Larger trees
should be balled and burlapped
and transplanted, disturbing the


roots as little as possible. Gen-
erally, as trees get larger, they
cost more to buy and transplant.
Get a professional tree mover to
move large trees.

Planting Seasons
The most favorable planting
season for shade trees varies with
the region, kind of tree, soil,
source of planting stock, and
method of handling. The method
of handling is the way that trees
are grown, dug, stored, and trans-
ported.

Deciduous trees
In general, you should plant
bare-rooted, deciduous trees in
autumn after their leaves change
color and before the ground
freezes; or you can plant them
in late winter or early spring
after the ground has thawed, but
before buds start to grow.
Spring is considered the best
time to plant in areas where the
ground freezes deeply, where
strong winds prevail, or where
soil moisture is deficient. The dry-
ing effects of strong winds can





be reduced if you water the trees
and wrap their trunks and larger
limbs with burlap or special pro-
tective paper.

Evergreen trees
In cold regions, needle-leaf
evergreens such as pine, spruce,
juniper, and arborvitae usually
are planted early in the fall or
in spring after the ground has
thawed. However, you may plant
needle-leaf evergreens that are
balled and burlapped or in con-
tainers anytime the ground in
cold regions is workable, but you
must mulch and water them after
planting.
In warm regions, you may plant
needle-leaf evergreens anytime if
you water them regularly after
planting. Small needle-leaf ever-
greens will live in warm regions
if planted bare rooted but large
ones will survive better if they
are balled and burlapped.
Spring is the best season to
plant such broadleaf evergreens
as magnolia and holly; you can
plant them in autumn if you al-
low time for the roots to grow
before the ground freezes.
The best time to plant palms
is during warm, wet months but
you can plant them anytime if
you keep them watered after
planting.

Temporary Storage
Trees should be planted as soon
as possible after they are dug. If
you must hold them for several
days, keep the roots moist. Roots
die if they dry out.
Sprinkle the roots of balled and


burlapped trees as often as needed
to keep the soil from drying.
Sprinkle the tops on windy or
hot days. You may cover the tops
and roots of balled and burlap-
ped trees with plastic or canvas,
or with plastic over wet burlap.
Do not let the roots dry out.
Bare-rooted trees that cannot
be planted immediately after they
are delivered may be heeled-in.
To heel-in a tree, dig a trench
with one sloping side. Spread the
roots in the trench with the trunk
resting against the sloping side.
Then cover the roots with soil or
a loose, moist mulch of straw,
peat moss, or similar material.
Keep the mulch moist until the
trees are planted. Protect the tops
of heeled-in trees as much as pos-
sible from drying winds. Locate
the heeling-in bed in a shady
place if possible.

Spacing
Plant shade trees as far apart
as their mature limb spread is
expected to be so they can develop
fully without crowding each
other. You should plant most trees
at least 30 feet from a house.
On narrow streets and in con-
gested areas, use trees that are
relatively small at maturity.

Preparing the Planting Hole
Dig the planting hole for bare-
rooted trees wide enough to
spread the roots in their natural
position. Do not double back the
roots. The planting hole for a
balled and burlapped or con-
tainer-grown tree should be about
2 feet wider than the diameter





STEPS IN PLANTING
The steps in planting shade
trees follow:
Select the tree and decide
when and where to plant it.
Protect the roots from dry-
ing.
Dig a hole large enough to
hold the entire root system.
Make certain that drainage
from the hole is good.
Prune the top of the tree as
needed to compensate for roots
lost in digging and moving.
Put some fertile soil in the
hole.
Set the tree in the hole no
deeper than it was at its original
site.
Install supporting stakes.
Cover the roots with fertile
soil, tamping it or settling it with
water.
Wrap the trunk and large
limbs with a protective covering
such as burlap or paper.
Install guy wires.
Care for the tree after plant-
ing.


of the football or container so
fertile soil can be put around the
roots.
The hole should be deep enough
for the tree to be planted as deep
as it was originally. However, if
the soil is poorly drained, the
hole should be at least 4 inches
deep so a drainage system can
be installed.
Planting holes must be well
drained for most trees to grow
satisfactorily. Most trees will not


grow well and some will not sur-
vive if you plant them where
water stands for even a short
time. You can provide drainage
by putting one or two lines of
3- or 4-inch tile and a layer of
gravel or crushed rock in the bot-
tom of the hole. For holes 5 to 6
feet across, one line of tile us-
ually is sufficient. For holes more
than 6 feet across, at least two
lines of tile are recommended.
Slope the bottom of the plant-
ing hole so that excess water
will run to the side. Place the
tile across the bottom of the
hole and extend it beyond the hole
to a free outlet. If the ground is
level, the outlet may be a dry well
filled with gravel or a storm
sewer. If the ground is sloping,
the tile may be extended from the
bottom of the planting hole to
the surface of the ground farther
down the slope. Never connect
the tile to a sanitary sewer be-
cause tree roots can grow into
sanitary sewers and clog them.
After you lay the tile, care-
fully spread enough gravel or
crushed rock over the bottom of
the hole to hold the tile in place
and cover it. Put glass cloth or
roofing paper over the tile to help
keep soil out of the drainage sys-
tem. Then spread 2 to 3 inches
of fertile soil over the cloth or
paper.
If the soil is low in fertility,
mix fertilizer with the soil. Well
decayed leaf mold, steamed bone-
meal, or similar organic material
may be used. For trees 6 to 10
feet tall, mix about one-half
pound of 5-10-5, 4-12-4, or a




similar complete fertilizer with
each 4 bushels of filling soil. The
fertilizer will help stimulate early
growth.
Most shade trees tolerate a con-
siderable range of soil acidity but
for best growth, some require an
acid soil, some a nearly neutral
soil, and some an alkaline soil.
Usually, county agricultural
agents, State agricultural experi-
ment stations, or State agricul-
tural colleges will test soil to de-
termine acidity and the need for
fertilizer. Some States charge a
fee for the service.

Setting the Tree
A tree with a trunk 6 inches
or more in diameter should be
set with the trunk facing the
same direction it was in at its
original site. You may plant
smaller trees without regard to
orientation.
When you plant a tree with
bare roots, hold it in place while
you adjust the roots to their na-
tural position in the hole and
cover them with soil. If you re-
moved fertile loam from the hole,
use it to cover the roots. Loam
usually is sufficiently permeable
to air and water for good growth
of shade trees.
Heavy clay soil has poor perme-
ability. You can make it more per-
meable by mixing it with as much
sand as necessary to obtain good
percolation of water. You can
make sandy soil less permeable
by mixing it with loam, clay, and
organic material such as peat
moss. Do not use fresh manure or
fresh green plant material in the


planting hole because when these
materials decay they release com-
pounds that are toxic to tree
roots.
Work the soil around the roots
and pack it with a blunt tool.
Gently sway and shake small trees
in all directions to settle the soil
around the roots and to eliminate
air pockets. Continue to tamp and
pack the soil as you add it. When
the roots are covered, tamp the
soil so that it is settled firmly
around the roots. Do not tamp
wet soil.
Before you fill the hole com-
pletely, add water to settle the
soil. When the water has soaked
into the soil, add enough soil to
complete the backfill. Do not pack
this soil. Then put a ridge of soil
around the rim to form a low
basin to hold water over the root
area.
Set balled and burlapped trees
in the hole with the burlap around
the football. If the hole is too
deep, lift small trees and add soil
to raise the ball to the proper
level. If the tree is too heavy to
lift, rock it back and forth in all
directions and ram soil beneath
the ball until it is at the proper
height. Loosen the burlap and
drop it from the side of the ball.
Burlap does not have to be re-
moved from beneath the ball.
A hard crust sometimes forms
on the surface of the ball. Break
the crust before filling the plant-
ing hole. Pack the filling soil as
it is added. Settle it with water
the same as for bare-rooted trees.
If the tree is in a container,
cut away the sides of the con-
























BN37434
Watering a newly planted tree. The ridge around the tree forms a well to hold
water until it soaks into the soil.


trainer with metal shears and re-
move the football carefully. After
you remove the tree from the
container, plant it the same way
you plant a balled and burlapped
tree.
Newly planted trees usually
need support to hold them in
position and to keep the roots
from loosening and the crowns
from breaking. Unsupported trees
often lean permanently away
from prevailing winds. To pre-
vent this, install bracing stakes
before you cover the roots.
One to three wooden stakes us-
ually will support trees that have
a trunk diameter of no more than
2 inches. The wooden stakes
should be 6 to 9 feet long and
2 to 21I inches square. The stakes
should be strong enough to hold
the trunk rigidly in place.
Set the stakes 3 to 18 inches


from the trunk before you fill the
planting hole. Fasten the trunk
to the stakes with canvas tape or
loops of wire passed through a
section of rubber or plastic hose
or similar material. Bare wire
will scrape or cut the bark.
A tree with a trunk diameter
of more than 2 inches usually
needs three guy wires to hold it
securely in place. Fix the guy
wires so they can be tightened
as needed. Fasten one wire to a
stake driven securely in the
ground on the side of the tree
that is against the prevailing
winds. Fasten the other two wires
to stakes driven into the ground
so that all three stakes form an
equilateral triangle.
The stakes should slope away
from the tree at approximately a
right angle to the slope of the guy





wires. You may use a heavy log
or beam (deadman) instead of a
stake to anchor the guy wires.
Fasten the guy wires about two-
thirds of the way up the trunk


of the tree. Remove the stakes
and wires as soon as the tree
roots are firmly established in
the ground, usually in about a
year.


CARE AFTER PLANTING


Water trees as needed during
the first and second growing sea-
sons after you plant them. Water-
ing thoroughly once a week is
better than light daily watering.
Do not saturate the soil so much
that you can squeeze water from
it by hand.
Frequent light misting of the
tops of newly planted evergreens
in early morning or late after-
noon will help the leaves. Ever-
greens planted in autumn should
be watered frequently to provide
them with plenty of soil moisture
before the ground freezes.
To protect the trunk of a newly
planted deciduous tree from dry-
ing and from pests, wrap it spir-
ally with strips of burlap or spe-
cially prepared paper. You can
use strips of kraft paper but
special crepe paper is easier to
handle. Some wraps are treated
to increase protection against
trunk-boring insects.
Overlap each turn of paper one-
half the width of the strip. Rein-
force the wrapping with stout
cord wrapped spirally in the di-
rection opposite to that of the
paper. Tie the cord at intervals
as necessary to hold the paper
in place. Leave the wrap on the
trunk for 2 years. If it rots away
sooner, replace it.
Trunks of evergreens seldom
need wrapping.


When you plant trees in the
fall, mulch them when you plant
them. When you plant trees in
the spring, mulch them after the
soil has warmed. Place the mulch
over the entire root area and leave
it until it decays. Use 2 to 3
inches of peat moss, leaf mold,
pine needles, straw, or similar
material.
Trees planted with bare roots
usually have some roots missing.
To compensate for the loss of
roots, prune out about one-third
of the top. New roots usually
will grow within a few weeks
and restore normal water absorp-
tion. Balled and burlapped and
container-grown trees usually
need no pruning when planted.
Pruning is not necessary in humid
areas.
After trees are established,
you should prune them to shape
them and to remove dead, dis-
eased, or mutilated parts. Reduce
top growth by pruning whole
branches, if possible, unless the
tree has few branches and would
be mutilated if whole branches
were removed. Cut close to the
trunk or a branch fork so that
you do not leave short stubs. Do
not prune the central leader of
trees that normally have only
one. If the central leader of these
trees is removed, they will be dis-





figured and a new leader will not
grow for many years.
Diseases, insects, animals, and
lawn mowers or other tools may
damage trees. Use an antiseptic
tree wound paint on wounds 11/2
inches or more in diameter.
County agricultural agents and
State agricultural experiment
stations can provide information


on the control of diseases and in-
sects.
The wrapping on trunks of
newly planted trees may give
some protection against rodents
and dogs. Stakes and guy wires
around trees will help reduce
damage by lawnmowers and other
small mechanical devices. Some-
times a fence may be necessary to
protect a small tree.


REGIONAL LISTS OF TREES


In this publication, the conti-
nental United States is divided
into nine regions for convenience
in providing lists of shade trees
suitable for areas that have dif-
ferent climates. Overlapping the
nine regions are the plant hardi-
ness zones. The regions are
shown on the map on page 11
and the plant hardiness zones
are shown on the map on page 12.


The regions are based roughly
on climate, but within each re-
gion, there is a wide range of
temperature, rainfall, soil, and
other factors. All of these affect
plant growth.
To some extent, you can con-
trol soil and water requirements
of shade trees but temperature
usually is beyond control. If you
are not sure about the cold hardi-


Regional map.


























BN6914


Plant hardiness zone map.


ness of a tree, you can get infor-
mation about it from agricultural
experiment stations, colleges of
agriculture, county agricultural
agents, nurserymen, arborists,
botanic gardens, and arboretums.
In selecting a shade tree, first
check the maps for the region
and plant hardiness zone in
which the tree will be planted.
Next check the appropriate re-
gional list for trees that will
grow in that region and plant
hardiness zone or warmer zone.
Then select a tree that is suitable
for you from the list.
In the regional lists, the com-
mon names of the trees are listed
alphabetically under the fol-
lowing headings: Evergreens,
broadleaf; Evergreens, needle
leaf and scale leaf; Deciduous;
Palms; and Leafless. When a tree
is known by more than one com-


mon name, the less common name
is shown in parenthesis after the
more common one.
The lists do not include all the
kinds of shade trees that may be
grown in a region. Regional lists
usually are available from State
agricultural experiment stations
and departments of horticulture
at State universities or colleges.

REGION 1
Evergreens, broadleaf
Holly, American; Zone 6.
Magnolia, Southern; Zone 7.
Evergreens, needle leaf and scale
leaf
Arborvitae, Eastern; Zone
2.
Arborvitae, Japanese; Zone
6.
Cedar, Deodar; Zone 7.
Cedar, Eastern Red (Juni-
per) ; Zone 2.




Cedar of Lebanon; Zone 6.
Cryptomeria; Zone 6.
Fir, White; Zone 5.
Hemlock, Canadian; Zone 3.
Lawson False Cypress; Zone
6.
Pine, Eastern White; Zone 3.
Pine, Red; Zone 2.
Spruce, Colorado Blue; Zone
2.
Spruce, White; Zone 2.
Deciduous
Ash, Green; Zone 2.
Ash, White; Zone 3.
Aspen, Quaking; Zone 2.
Baldcypress; Zone 5.
Beech, American; Zone 3.
Beech, European; Zone 5.
Birch, Cutleaf European;
Zone 2.
Birch, Paper; Zone 2.
Birch, White; Zone 2.
Buckeye; Zone 4.
Catalpa, Northern; Zone 3.
Catalpa, Southern; Zone 5.
Cork Tree, Phelledendron
Amur; Zone 4.
Cucumber Tree (Magnolia,
Cucumber) ; Zone 5.
Elm, American; Zone 3.
Elm, English; Zone 6.
Elm, European; Zone 5.
Elm, Scotch; Zone 5.
Ginkgo; Zone 5.
Goldenrain Tree; Zone 5.
Hackberry, Eastern; Zone 3.
Hickory, Bitternut; Zone 5.
Hickory, Mockernut; Zone 5.
Hickory, Pignut (Pignut);
Zone 5.
Hickory, Shagbark; Zone 5.
Honeylocust, Thornless; Zone
3.
Hornbeam, American; Zone
3.


English Elm.


BN37438


Hornbeam, European; Zone
6.
Hornbeam, Hop; Zone 5.
Horsechestnut; Zone 3.
Horsechestnut, Red (Buck-
eye, Red and Horsechest-
nut, Ruby); Zone 3.
Japanese Pagoda Tree; Zone
5.
Katsura Tree; Zone 5.
Kentucky Coffeetree; Zone 5.
Larch, European; Zone 3.
Linden, American; Zone 3.
Linden, Littleleaf; Zone 3.
Linden, Silver; Zone 5.
Locust, Black; Zone 3.
London Plane; Zone 6.
Magnolia, Sweetbay; Zone 7.
Maple, Norway; Zone 4.
Maple, Red; Zone 3.
Maple, Sugar; Zone 3.
Maple, Sycamore; Zone 6.
Mimosa; Zone 7.
Oak, Black; Zone 5.
Oak, Bur; Zone 3.
Oak, Chestnut; Zone 5.
Oak, Northern Red; Zone 4.
Oak, Pin; Zone 4.




Oak, Scarlet; Zone 4.
Oak, Shingle; Zone 6.
Oak, Turkey; Zone 6.
Oak, White; Zone 5.
Oak, Willow; Zone 6.
Oak, Yellow; Zone 5.
Pear, Bradford; Zone 5.
Sassafras; Zone 5.
Silverbell; Zone 5.
Sourgum; Zone 5.
Sweetgum; Zone 5.
Sycamore; Zone 5.
Tamarack; Zone 2.
Tulip Poplar; Zone 5.
Willow, Weeping; Zone 6.
Yellowwood; Zone 4.
Zelkova; Zone 5.

REGION 2
Evergreens, broadleaf
Bayberry; Zone 7.
Camphor Tree; Zone 9.
Holly, American; Zone 6.
Holly, Chinese; Zone 7.
Holly, English; Zone 7.
Laurelcherry; Zone 7.
Magnolia, Southern; Zone 7.
Oak, Laurel; Zone 9.
Oak, Live; Zone 8.
Wax Myrtle; Zone 9.
Evergreens, needle leaf and scale
leaf
Arborvitae, Eastern; Zone 2.
Arborvitae, Oriental; Zone
3.
Cedar, Atlas; Zone 6.
Cedar, Deodar; Zone 7.
Cedar, Eastern Red; Zone 2.
Cedar, Incense; Zone 6.
Cedar of Lebanon; Zone 6.
Cryptomeria; Zone 6.
Hemlock, Carolina; Zone 7.
Pine, Eastern White; Zone
3.
Pine, Loblolly; Zone 7.


Pine, Longleaf; Zone 8.
Pine, Shortleaf; Zone 7.
Pine, Slash; Zone 8.
Spruce, Colorado Blue; Zone
2.
Spruce, Red; Zone 7.
Deciduous
Ash, White; Zone 3.
Baldcypress; Zone 5.
Beech, American; Zone 3.
Beech, European; Zone 5.
Birch, Cutleaf European;
Zone 2.
Buckeye; Zone 4.
Catalpa, Northern; Zone 3.
Catalpa, Southern; Zone 5.
Cherry, Black; Zone 3.
Chinaberry (Umbrella
Tree); Zone 7.
Chinese Tallow Tree; Zone
7.
Crape Myrtle; Zone 7.
Cucumber Tree (Magnolia,
Cucumber) ; Zone 5.
Elm, American; Zone 3.
Elm, Cedar; Zone 7.
Elm, English; Zone 5.
Elm, Winged; Zone 7.
Ginkgo; Zone 5.
Goldenrain Tree; Zone 5.
Hackberry, Eastern; Zone 3.
Hickory, Bitternut; Zone 5.
Hickory, Mockernut; Zone
5.
Hickory, Pignut (Pignut);
Zone 5.
Hickory, Shagbark; Zone 5.
Honeylocust, Thornless;
Zone 3.
Hornbeam, American; Zone
3.
Hornbeam, Hop; Zone 5.
Japanese Pagoda Tree; Zone
5.
Katsura Tree; Zone 5.





Kentucky Coffeetree; Zone 5.
Linden, American; Zone 3.
Linden, Littleleaf; Zone 3.
London Plane; Zone 6.
Magnolia, Sweetbay; Zone 7.
Maple, Norway; Zone 4.
Maple, Red; Zone 3.
Maple, Silver; Zone 3.
Maple, Sycamore; Zone 6.
Mimosa; Zone 7.
Mulberry, Paper; Zone 6.
Oak, Black; Zone 5.
Oak, Bur; Zone 3.
Oak, Chestnut; Zone 5.
Oak, Pin; Zone 4.
Oak, Post; Zone 7.
Oak, Scarlet; Zone 4.
Oak, Southern Red; Zone 7.
Oak, Water; Zone 8.
Oak, White; Zone 5.
Oak, Willow; Zone 6.
Pear, Bradford; Zone 5.
Pecan; Zone 7.
Persimmon; Zone 7.
Redbud, Eastern; Zone 6.
Sassafras; Zone 5.
Silverbell; Zone 5.
Sourgum; Zone 5.
Sourwood; Zone 7.
Sweetgum; Zone 5.
Sycamore; Zone 5.
Tulip Poplar; Zone 5.
Yellowwood; Zone 4.
Palms
Palmetto, Cabbage; Zone 8.

REGION 3
Evergreens, broadleaf
African Tuliptree (Bell
Flambeau); Zone 10.
Brazilian Pepper; Zone 9.
Cajeput; Zone 10.
Cocoplum; Zone 10.
Fig, Fiddle Leaf; Zone 10.
Fig, India Laurel; Zone 10.


Fig, Lofty; Zone 10.
Geiger Tree; Zone 10.
Holly, American; Zone 6.
Holly, Chinese; Zone 7.
Indian Rubber Tree; Zone 10.
Jacaranda; Zone 9.
Laurelcherry; Zone 7.
Magnolia, Southern; Zone 7.
Mahogany, West Indies
(Mahogany, Swamp);
Zone 10.
Oak, Laurel; Zone 9.
Oak, Live; Zone 8.
Oxhorn Bucida; Zone 10.
Pigeon Plum; Zone 10.
Silk Oak; Zone 10.
Silver Trumpet; Zone 10.
Wax Myrtle; Zone 9.
Evergreens, needle leaf and scale
leaf
Pine, Longleaf; Zone 8.
Pine, Slash; Zone 8.
Pine, Spruce; Zone 9.
Deciduous
Baldcypress; Zone 5.
Bo Tree; Zone 10.
Crape Myrtle; Zone 7.
Cucumber Tree (Magnolia,
Cucumber); Zone 5.
Fig, Benjamin; Zone 10.
Goldenrain Tree; Zone 5.
Linden, American; Zone 3.
Maple, Red; Zone 3.
Mimosa; Zone 7.
Mimosa, Lebbek; Zone 9.
Oak, Water; Zone 8.
Orchid Tree; Zone 9.
Pecan; Zone 7.
Redbud, Eastern; Zone 6.
Royal Poinciana; Zone 9.
Sweetgum; Zone 5.
Palms
Palm, Coconut; Zone 10.
Palm, Cuban Royal; Zone 10.
Palm, Fishtail; Zone 10.




Palm, Florida Royal; Zone
10.
Palm, Manilla; Zone 10.
Palm, Washington (Palm,
Mexican Fan); Zone 9.
Palmetto, Cabbage; Zone 8.
Leafless
Casuarina (Beefwood,
Horsetail); Zone 10.
Cunningham Beefwood;
Zone 10.
Scaly Bark Beefwood; Zone
9.
REGION 4
Evergreens, broadleaf
None
Evergreens, needle leaf and scale
leaf
Arborvitae, Eastern; Zone 2.
Arborvitae, Oriental; Zone
3.
Cedar, Eastern Red (Juni-
per) ; Zone 2.
Cedar, Incense; Zone 6.
Douglas Fur; Zone 3.
Hemlock, Canadian; Zone 3.
Juniper, Rocky Mountain;
Zone 3.


BN37439


Douglas Fir.


Pine, Austrian; Zone 3.
Pine, Ponderosa; Zone 3.
Pine, Scotch; Zone 3.
Spruce, Colorado Blue; Zone
2..
Spruce, White; Zone 2.
Deciduous
Ash, Black; Zone 3.
Ash, Green; Zone 2.
Ash, White; Zone 3.
Birch, Cutleaf European;
Zone 2.
Birch, Paper; Zone 2.
Birch, White; Zone 2.
Catalpa, Northern; Zone 3.
Cherry, Black; Zone 3.
Cottonwood, Plains (Poplar,
Plains) ; Zone 3.
Elm, American; Zone 3.
Elm, Siberian; Zone 3.
Hackberry, Eastern; Zone 3.
Hackberry, Western
(Sugarberry) ; Zone 5.
Honeylocust, Thornless;
Zone 3.
Katsura Tree; Zone 5.
Larch, Siberian; Zone 3.
Linden, American; Zone 3.
Linden, Littleleaf; Zone 3.
Maple, Silver; Zone 3.
Oak, Bur; Zone 3.
Oak, Northern Red; Zone 4.
Oak, Pin; Zone 4.
Oak, Scarlet; Zone 4.
Zelkova; Zone 5.

REGION 5
Evergreens, broadleaf
Oak, Live; Zone 8.
Evergreens, needle leaf and scale
leaf
Arborvitae, Oriental; Zone
3.
Cedar, Atlas; Zone 6.






















BN37444
Pin Oak.
Cedar, Eastern Red (Juni-
per) ; Zone 2.
Cryptomeria; Zone 6.
Cypress, Arizona; Zone 7.
Juniper, Rocky Mountain;
Zone 3.
Pine, Austrian; Zone 3.
Pine, Loblolly; Zone 7.
Pine, Ponderosa; Zone 3.
Spruce, Colorado Blue; Zone
2.
Deciduous
Ash, Green; Zone 2.
Baldcypress; Zone 5.
Beech, European; Zone 5.
Buckeye; Zone 4.
Catalpa, Northern; Zone 3.
Catalpa, Southern; Zone 5.
Chinaberry (Umbrella
Tree) ; Zone 7.
Desert Willow; Zone 7.
Elm, American; Zone 3.
Elm, Chinese; Zone 5.
Elm, English; Zone 6.
Elm, European; Zone 5.
Elm, Siberian; Zone 3.
Goldenrain Tree; Zone 5.
Hackberry, Eastern; Zone 3.


Hackberry, Western
(Sugarberry) ; Zone 5.
Honeylocust, Thornless;
Zone 3.
Huisache; Zone 9.
Japanese Pagoda Tree; Zone
5.
Katsura; Zone 5.
Kentucky Coffeetree; Zone 5.
Maple, Silver; Zone 3.
Maple, Sycamore; Zone 6.
Mesquite; Zone 9.
Mulberry, Paper; Zone 6.
Mulberry, Russian; Zone 5.
Oak, Bur; Zone 3.
Oak, Chestnut; Zone 5.
Oak, Pin; Zone 4.
Oak, Post; Zone 7.
Oak, Scarlet; Zone 4.
Oak, Spanish; Zone 8.
Oak, Texas (Oak, Shumard);
Zone 5.
Oak, Yellow; Zone 5.
Pecan; Zone 7.
Pistache, Chinese; Zone 8.
Redbud, Eastern; Zone 6.
Retama; Zone 9.
Sassafras; Zone 5.
Soapberry, Western; Zone 6.
Sycamore; Zone 5.
Zelkova; Zone 5.
Palms
Palm, Washington (Palm,
Mexican Fan); Zone 9.

REGION 6
Evergreens, broadleaf
Olive, Common; Zone 9.
Olive, Russian; Zone 5.
Evergreens, needle leaf and scale
leaf
Arborvitae, Giant; Zone 6.
Arborvitae, Oriental; Zone
3.
Cedar, Atlas; Zone 6.





Cedar, Eastern Red (Juni-
per) ; Zone 2.
Cedar, Incense; Zone 6.
Douglas Fur; Zone 3.
Fir, White; Zone 5.
Juniper, Rocky Mountain;
Zone 3.
Pine, Austrian; Zone 3.
Pine, Ponderosa; Zone 3.
Spruce, Colorado Blue; Zone
2.
Deciduous
Ash, European; Zone 3.
Ash, Green; Zone 2.
Ash, Modesto (Ash, Ari-
zona) ; Zone 7.
Beech, European; Zone 5.
Buckeye; Zone 4.
Catalpa, Northern; Zone 3.
Cottonwood, Plains (Poplar,
Plains); Zone 3.
Elm, American; Zone 3.
Elm, Chinese; Zone 5.
Elm, European; Zone 5.
Elm, Siberian; Zone 3.
Ginkgo; Zone 5.
Goldenrain Tree; Zone 5.
Hackberry, Eastern; Zone 3.
Honeylocust, Thornless;
Zone 3.
Horsechestnut; Zone 3.
Horsechestnut, Red (Buck-
eye, Red and Horsechest-
nut, Ruby); Zone 3.
Japanese Pagoda Tree; Zone
5.
Katsura Tree; Zone 5.
Kentucky Coffeetree; Zone 5.
Linden, American; Zone 3.
Linden, Littleleaf; Zone 3.
London Plane; Zone 6.
Maple, Bigleaf; Zone 8.
Maple, Norway; Zone 4.
Maple, Sugar; Zone 3.
Mulberry, Russian; Zone 5.


Oak, Bur; Zone 3.
Oak, Northern Red; Zone 4.*
Oak, Pin; Zone 4.
Oak, White; Zone 5.
Sweetgum; Zone 5.
Zelkova; Zone 5.

REGION 7
Evergreens, broadleaf
Carob; Zone 9.
Eucalyptus (Gum); Zone
10.
Olive, Common; Zone 9.
Olive, Russian; Zone 5.
Palo Verde, Blue; Zone 7.
Evergreens, needle leaf and scale
leaf
Cedar, Atlas; Zone 6.
Cedar, Deodar; Zone 7.
Cedar, Eastern Red (Juni-
per) ; Zone 2.
Cypress, Arizona; Zone 7.
Cypress, Italian; Zone 7.
Douglas Fur; Zone 3.
Fir, Silver; Zone 5.
Juniper, Rocky Mountain;
Zone 3.
Pine, Aleppo; Zone 9.
Pine, Austrian; Zone 3.
Pine, Canary Island; Zone 8.
Deciduous
Acacia, Baileys (Baileys
Wattle); Zone 9.
Ailanthus (Tree of Heaven);
Zone 5.
Ash, Green; Zone 2.
Ash, Modesto (Ash, Ari-
zona) ; Zone 7.
Chinaberry (Umbrella
Tree); Zone 7.
Cottonwood, Fremont; Zone
5.
Cottonwood, Plains (Poplar,
Plains); Zone 3.
Desert Willow; Zone 7.





Elm, Chinese; Zone 5.
Elm, Siberian; Zone 3.
Ginkgo; Zone 5.
Goldenrain Tree; Zone 5.
Hackberry, Eastern; Zone 3.
Hackberry, Western
(Sugarberry) ; Zone 5.
Honeylocust, Thornless;
Zone 3.
Huisache; Zone 9.
Linden, Littleleaf; Zone 3.
Locust, Black; Zone 3.
London Plane; Zone 6.
Maple, Silver; Zone 3.
Mesquite; Zone 9.
Mulberry, Russian; Zone 5.
Oak, Pin; Zone 4.
Oak, Southern Red; Zone 7.
Pecan; Zone 7.
Pistache, Chinese; Zone 8.
Poplar, Bolleana; Zone 5.
Poplar, Carolina; Zone 5.
Sweetgum; Zone 5.
Wattle, Sydney; Zone 10.
Palms
Palm, Canary Date; Zone 9.

REGION 8
Evergreens, broadleaf
Cajeput; Zone 10.
Camphor Tree; Zone 9.
Carob; Zone 9.
Cherry, Australian Brush;
Zone 8.
Coral Tree; Zone 10.
Eucalyptus (Gum); Zone
10.
Fig, India Laurel; Zone 10.
Fig, Moreton Bay; Zone 10.
Jacaranda; Zone 9.
Laurel, California; Zone 7.
Laurelcherry; Zone 7.
Laurel, Grecian; Zone 6.
Magnolia, Southern; Zone 7.
Oak, Canyon Live; Zone 7.


Oak, Coast Live; Zone 9.
Oak, Holly; Zone 9.
Oak, Live; Zone 8.
Palo Verde, Blue; Zone 7.
Tanoak; Zone 8.
Erergreens, needle leaf and scale
leaf
Arborvitae, Oriental; Zone 3
Cedar, Atlas; Zone 6.
Cedar, Deodar; Zone 7.
Cedar, Incense; Zone 6.
Cedar of Lebanon; Zone 6.
Cryptomeria; Zone 6.
Cypress, Arizona; Zone 7.
Lawson False Cypress; Zone
6.
Norfolk Island Pine; Zone 10.
Pine, Aleppo; Zone 9.
Pine, Canary Island; Zone 8.
Spruce, Colorado Blue; Zone
2.
Deciduous
Ash, Modesto (Ash, Ari-
zona) ; Zone 7.
Chinaberry (Umbrella
Tree) ; Zone 7.
Chinese Lantern Tree; Zone
6.
Cottonwood, Fremont; Zone
5.
Desert Willow; Zone 7.
Elm, American; Zone 3.
Elm, Chinese; Zone 5.
Elm, Siberian; Zone 3.
Ginkgo; Zone 5.
Goldenrain Tree; Zone 5.
Hackberry, Eastern; Zone
3.
Honeylocust, Thornless;
Zone 3.
Japanese Pagoda Tree; Zone
5.
Locust, Black; Zone 3.
London Plane; Zone 6.
Maple, Bigleaf; Zone 8.





Maple, Norway; Zone 4.
Maple, Red; Zone 3.
Mimosa; Zone 7.
Mulberry, Russian; Zone 5.
Oak, Bur; Zone 3.
Oak, English; Zone 5.
Oak, Northern Red; Zone 4.
Oak, Pin; Zone 4.
Oak, Scarlet; Zone 4.
Oak, Valley; Zone 9.
Orchid Tree; Zone 9.
Pistache, Chinese; Zone 8.
Sweetgum; Zone 5.
Tulip Poplar; Zone 5.
Palms
Palm, Canary Date; Zone 9.
Palm, Washington (Palm,
Mexican Fan); Zone 9.
Leafless
Casuarina (Beefwood,
Horsetail); Zone 10.

REGION 9
Evergreens, broadleaf
Holly, English; Zone 7.
Madrone; Zone 7.
Magnolia, Southern; Zone 7.
Tanoak; Zone 8.
Evergreens, needle leaf and scale
leaf
Arborvitae, Giant; Zone 6.
Arborvitae, Oriental; Zone
3.
Cedar, Atlas; Zone 3.
Cedar, Deodar; Zone 7.
Cedar, Incense; Zone 6.
Cryptomeria; Zone 6.
Lawson False Cypress; Zone
6.
Pine, Austrian; Zone 3.
Pine, Ponderosa; Zone 3.
Spruce, Colorado Blue; Zone
2.
Deciduous
Ash, European; Zone 3.


Ash, Green; Zone 2.
Ash, White; Zone 3.
Beech, European; Zone 5.
Birch, White; Zone 2.
Cork Tree, Phelledendron
Amur; Zone 4.
Dogwood, Pacific; Zone 7.
Elm, American; Zone 3.
Elm, Chinese; Zone 5.
Elm, English; Zone 6.
Elm, Scotch; Zone 5.
Elm, Siberian; Zone 3.
Ginkgo; Zone 5.
Golden Chain Tree; Zone 7.
Goldenrain Tree; Zone 5.
Honeylocust, Thornless;
Zone 3.
Hornbeam, American; Zone
3.
Horsechestnut; Zone 3.
Horsechestnut, Red (Buck-
eye, Red and Horsechest-
nut, Ruby); Zone 3.
Japanese Pagoda Tree; Zone
5.
Kentucky Coffeetree; Zone 5.
Linden, American; Zone 3.
Linden, Littleleaf; Zone 3.
London Plane; Zone 6.
Maple, Bigleaf; Zone 8.
Maple, Norway; Zone 4.
Maple, Red; Zone 3.
Maple, Sugar; Zone 3.
Mimosa; Zone 7.
Oak, Northern Red; Zone 4.
Oak, Oregon White; Zone 6.
Oak, Pin; Zone 4.
Oak, Scarlet; Zone 4.
Oak, White; Zone 5.
Silverbell; Zone 5.
Sourwood; Zone 7.
Sweetgum; Zone 5.
Tulip Poplar; Zone 5.
Yellowwood; Zone 4.








UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

II Hl I I llllllll I l III r I i I lll l ll NIl H IA
3 1262 08584 2440








For more detailed information on shade trees, see Agriculture
Handbook 425, "Shade Trees for the Home," which is available
at 750 per copy from the Superintendent of Documents, U.S.
Government Printing Ofice, Washington, D. C. 20402. Include your
ZIP Code in your return address.











V..
I..
WAL ':



.2


a U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 1973-491-288




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