REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR OF INFORMATION, 1940
UNITED STATES DEPAH IFMI..NT OF AGRICULTUI:.E,
OFFI'I OF INFORMATION,
Wfa.s;yngton, D. C., August 31, 1940.
Hon. HENRY A. WALLACE,
Secretary of Agriculture.
DEAR MR. SECRETARY: I submit herewith a report of the work of
the Office of Information for the fiscal year ended June 30, 1940.
M. S. EISENHOWER,
Dir,. /or of Inforl,;tf;on.
The effects of European war on agriculture and the development
of an accelerated program of national defense in the United States
in the past year altered the course and character of this Depart-
ment's information work during the fiscal year 1940. New tasks
were added to old ones. While carrying on the daily job of giving
to farmers and the general public the useful failt arising from re-
search, regulatory rehabilitation, iimirkttilng, price stabilization, and
land-use adjustment program, every person in information work was
called upon to keep abreast of changing world conditions and to help
farmers and citizens generally under-tanid the effects of these chang-
ing conditions on their own wvel f: are.
When war began early in September, farm and city people imme-
diately wanted information about supplies of farm products, prob-
able changes in world demand for farm products, probable effects of
the current world situation on the action programs for agriculture,
and a host of other possible consequencol. of war in Europe as affect-
ing American farming. The most a cci tate information available was
quickly assembled and disseminated. The tempo of activity then set
in motion did not decrease throughout the year.
In Washington during the first 2 weeks of Septel'mber 1939 factual
and interpretive releases were issued to the press. Radio broad-
casts were arranged. The news reels were supplied with appropriate
material. Simultaneously the field workers. of the Department and
the State extension services were kept informed, so that they might
int,,egrate information issued locally throughout the country with
thait. collning from Washington. Thus, the Nation was quickly reas-
sured with the facts about the albunda:nt food and fiber supplies
available. Farmers soon realized the differences between the world sup-
ply and demand situations in 1939 and 1914 and taw that it would
be unwise to plan future agricultural production on the assumption
that this time war would create great new ldem:.n(ls for farm prod-
7. ,7.- 41,
2 ANNUAL REPORTS, OF DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1940
ucts. The general public obtained the facts about the ability of the
conservation, adjustment, rehabilitation, and surplus distribution
pr'ogr ins to meet the new emergency.
Public apprehension over food supplies, which threatened at first
to lead to panic buying and artificial scarcity in some lines, was
citlmeie. Farmers were kept correctly informed on the true world
economic situation and its meaning for their production and market-
ing plans and operations. The necessity for continuing to protect
the b1,a.i soil and water resuires of the Nation was reported to the
farmers and the gent-ral public.
Thus the information machinery of the Department helped cushion
the first shock of European war to farmers, coinsumers, and the food
and textile trades, and to aid in avoiding needless derangement.
WAR EFFECTS ON AGRICULTURE REPORTED
But it was apparent that continued war meant sweeping change
in the whole economy of the Nation and that the first and most
harmful results might appear in agriculture unless the farm people,
the agricultural 1distribhtive and processing trade-, and the Govern-
ment Iagecies ser'lvig thlemi joined together to work out ways and
means of cooperating to meet the abruptly changed world situation.
The Secretary of Agriculture at once organized an Agricultural
Advisory Council composed of representatives of the general public,
farmers, processors, distributors, and labor. The Secretary also
chlirged that the administrative heads of the Department study the
1proiible course of national and international events, report the facts
as they e .megel to the farm people, and work with them in adapting
the Department progr-.n is to the needs of the times.
The Office of Information's part in the emergency program in-
cluded not only the operation of the Wa-hiiigtonr machinery for
issuing information by press, radio, and publications, but also leader-
ship in coordinating the information operations, Washington and
field, of the Department agencies. The first step was a 2-day con-
ference in the second week of September at which information heads
of the agencies charted out a Department-wide progran and agreed
on the phases of it to be carried out by each agency. Weekly liaison
meetings of these information heads kept them all informed on the
progress of each phase of the program and provided for adjustment
in the operations as necilel. Through this means, coiluplete and uni-
form information on agricultural effects of war went to farm people
attending the group ]Imetillng organized by each agency to effectuate
the programs for which it \v;is responsible. Furthermore the infor-
mation on these matters i--ied to the pre(s and by radio and publica-
tions on behalf on o:i ,h :gencry was closely coordinated.
S[.cial efforts were rho-iun during the year to coordinate the issu-
ance of information that origin: a.te outside Washington in order to
raise the efficiency of the service. Field information workers of the
Department agencies were brought together so that they could work
out coordinated programs of information, place by place. Where
rcional headquarters of several Department agencies. are loc.-alt-I in
the same city, the committee method of facilitating the coordination
of the information work of all ageinies is being tried, notably at
OFFICE OF INFORMATION
Lincoln. Nebr. To meet the peculiarly acute need for the coordina-
tion of information work in the Southern Plains, flowing from the
nece(-ity for very close coordination of all Department prgiam,, in
that region, a full-time information man has been added to the staff
of the Land Use Coordinatr for the Southern Plains at Amarillo,,
INFORMATION FROM ALL SOURCES COORDINATED
These -tepl point the way toward further integration of field
information work. To sp',-d the process, a commiittee compon) d41
of information men of the action and planning agencies is now at
work in W-hiiigton. .The report of this committee will soon be
At the interldepartmental level, the Depal ttlwiit. was relpre-'iited
throughout the year by Office of Information personnel o the Inter-
departmental Conmnittee on Printing and Pro.e--iig. This com-
mittee completed a report to establish uniform policies and procedures
for the improved and more efficient preparation, production, and
distribution of printed and duplicated materials. The Director and
his immediate staff spent considerable time and effort in at tendance
at meetings of the committee and its subcommittees to formulate
police, and plans and to help draft and edit the resulting reports.
The Office of Infoirmation cooperated throughout the year with
the immediate Otlice of the Secretary, the Offil' of Foreign Agri-
cult illal Relations, and the Bureau of Agricultural EconomII ics in
keeping the Agricultural Advi -,iry Council informed on the increas-
ing gravity of the present trade crisis for agriculture. This Office
also cooperated with Department agencies in prepn)ring special ma-
terials for the information of farmer cooperators on the trend of
events and its implications for agriculture. On the motion of the
Bureau of Agricultural Economics, a special series of referenice
reports for ne\.-',paper editors carrying more data than are issued
in the usual press releases was begun. It is sent to the editors who
As the European war cut the exports of farm products from the
United States, new factors came to bear on the agricultural economy.
Efficient, abundant farm production, storage of reserves in the
ever-normal graniry, and the food stamp plan and other plans
for inn' .a;iig consumption of health-giving food among those who
needed it most, took on new meaning as primary factors in deft n!ie.
Overminliined agriculture became important as a reservoir of man-
p,(vter for industrial production and military service.
There were calls from all quarters for new types of inforillation.
Thli part of the farm people and the farm programs in the total
(lefnil-e program must be reported. Information must be issued
that would enable the farm people to meet their responsibilities.
The Secretary at the request of the Agricultural Coj(i!i--ioner of
the National Defense Advisory Commission directed the Depart ment
to help with its facilities in this iniifariii-tion job. Immediately,
the year's second 2-day conference of Department information heads
was held to organize the job to be done and assign the specific tasks.
This program now is under way.
4 ANNUAL REPORTS' OF DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1940
Broadcasts in the National Farm and Home Hour and on other
networks and stations will report the work being done by farm peo-
ple in the defense program. Press matter will report day-by-day
changes in Department programs of research and action to meet
the new nemed, of the times. Special issues of the Department peri-
odical, the Con-ii-iiiir-' Guide, prepared at the reque-t of the Con-
siin.er Coriniii-iii -r of the Defense Conmmission, will give by
text and chart and picture the facts about nutritional requireiiintsi
for health and strength that each homemaker needs to use in build-
ing a better family diet. The 1939 Yearbook of Agriculture, Food
and Life, is proving a gold mine of basic factual information for
the better nutrition (rii'. that is so important a part of the total
defense program. Special educational materials based on the data
reported in this Yearbook will be prepared.
DEPARITMENTAL PUBLICATIONS ISSUED
The 1940 Yearbook of Agriculture, Farmers in a Changing World,
is the source document for much educational matter. This will be
supplied to farmer groups for use in their meetings and to the
press and radio broadcasters who cooperate in the work of inform-
ing farmers about their new relationships to the world economy
and the clianges in farm plans, in olprations, and in programs
that these new relationships foirel.hadow. The Outlobok reports this
fall will bring down to the minute this reporting of new trends,
their probable consequences in the farm economy, and the change,
needed in State and Federal agricultural services and action
During the year State handbooks wNerc planned to give details
of all agricultural services available State by State. A handbook
for Maryland was the first prepared. Others are being printed or
prepa;red by the Office of Information in cooperation with the State
extend ion services. The Division of Special Reports completed
several over-all publications during the year. Notable among them
was Achieving a Balanced Agriculture which will be available for
distribution in the fall of the calenil'ar year 1940.
Thus, the Depart ient''s methods of informing farmers, consumers,
and the public generally are being adapted to servi the people of the
Nation in this new time of crisis. Many of our procedures in in-
fcrmation work, set up to effectuate emergency programs in earlier
tines, require no change. Some new procedures have had to be de-
veloped. Whatever is necessary in order to get the needed informa-
tion from the Departitiet to the people will be undertaken.
Advances in technique of information work and the record of the
year's output in quantitive terms are reported in the summaries
of the work of each division of this Office, which appear later.
The year also witiineed important imprllovemenits in the physical
facilities and organization of personnel of several units of the Office.
The duplicating" plant which provides .-.rvice for the whole Depart-
ment was completely reii'vat,-ld, and many improvements were made
to accomplish more effirilnt production. It was pos..iblle with these
improvements to irea-e the output of work delmianded by growing
D,.partment :i livities while decreasing the idnumber of employees.
OFFICE OF INFORMATION
Other units of the Office were improved, notably the photographic
service and printing procurement, following careful surveys which
led to the adoption of improved methods.
Printing and binding expenditures for the fi;.;l year 1940 totaled
$1,955,721. This included $1,078,250 for administrative forms and
binding; $313,511 for reports, regulatory notices, periodii:dls, and
other adlilini-tr;a ive publications; 0172,791 for technical publications;
and $391,128 for popular publications. Expenditures for salaries
rand expenses were $379,040. of which $89.291 was for the maintenance
of the duplicating plant..
Funds were allotted to the Office of Information during the fi- cal
year to provide for additional work on behalf of the action agencies.
A total of $104,030 was expended for this purpose.
DIVISION OF PUBLICATIONS
The scope of the scientific and economic activities of the Depart-
ment in the relationships to the f;wkirl, the home, and the improve-
ment of country life is reflected in the publications issued. During
the fiscal year 1940 the Department published in 5 of its regular
numbered series, 24 farmers' bulletins, 15 leaflets, 27 miscellaneous
publications, 35 circulars, and 42 techni>l.:l bulletins. These and some
of the more important unnumbered publications is-iuil are listed
LIST OF NEW NUMBERED PUBLICATIONS ISSUED DURING THE FISCAL YEAR 1940
F;I ii'ir-' Bulletins:
1',13 Prevention and Control of Gullies.
1814. Terrace Outlets and Farm Dr -;i!;'-:.
1 '12:'. Reseedii-g Range Lanids of the Inter
1824. The Black Hills Beetle a Serious E
1 '''.. Sand-Dune Reclamation in the Sout
1 ',2* Care of Ornamental Trees and Shru
1827. Culture and Diseases of Delphinium
1,2",. Grasshoppers and Their Control.
1829. Insects and Diseases of the Pecan ai
185:1'. Cooperative Dairy Bull Associations
1831. Judlaiii. Fabric Quality.
1832. Farm Fences.
1833. Crops Al:,iii-t the Wind on the Soi
1834. House (C..-iiiii, Ma.ioa-.it'n t and M
1s:-:.,. Growing Buckwheat.
1836. Saving Soil With Sod in the Ohio Va
1837. Cotton Shirts for Men and Boys.
1840. Kudzu for Ero-ion Control in the Sc
1841. The Feeding of Chickens.
1842. Production of Hops.
1843. Potato Production in the Western S
1844. The Culture and Use of Sorghums f(
1845. The Liming of Soils.
1847. Rural Library Service.
176. Strawberry Clover.
184. The Elm Leaf Beetle.
185. Elm Bark Beetles.
186. Domestic Mosquitoes.
187. Blight of Pears, Apples, and Quinces.
enemy of Rocky MNII
hern Great Plains.
id Their Control.
ithern Great Plains.
6 ANNUAL REPORTS OF DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1940
188. Protectiig Field Borders.
189. Psocids, Annoying House Pests.
190. Mulching to E'sr;lllih Vegetation on Eroded Areas of the Southeast.
191. Liquefied Gas for the Household.
192. Centipedes and Millipedes in the House.
193. Fir.cpi.l iinlg Christmas Trees.
194. The Oriental Persimmon.
115. Mi ilworms.
197. Powdery Mildew of Ornamental Plants.
198. Cottonseed Treatment.
336. The M,,quitiiiie of the Southeastern States
338. Soil Defense of Ri;niv, and Farm Lands in the Southwest.
2:-(I. Market Diseases of Fruits and Vegetables: Grapes and Other Small
341. The Species of Pantomorus of America North of Mexico.
344. Taxonomy of Some Scale Insects of the Genus Parlatoria Encountered
in Plant Quarantine Inspection Work.
345. Family Income and Exlpiilintures: Plains and Miiiiiin ii Region.
349. Use of the Rapid Whole Blood Test for Pullorum Disease.
.".2. Soil Conservation Survey Handbook.
:.-,:. List of Sires Proved in Dairy Herd Improvement Associations 1939.
355. Hart Mountain Antelope Refuge a National Wildlife Refuge in Oregon.
356. Family Income and Expenditures: Pacific Rti,,iin. Plains and M,,miintain
357. Southern Pines Pay. A Story in Pictures.
358. Use and Abuse of Wood in House Construction.
359. The Cow Tester's Manual.
362. List of Bulletins of the Agricultural Experiment Stations for the Cal-
endar Years 1I37 and 1938.
363. Hay Quality. Relation to Production and Feed Value.
365. Children's Body M.;-iirmn iits for Sizing Garments and Patterns.
367. Rural Population Density in the Southern Appalachians.
368. Federal Poultry Research at the Agricultural Research Center, Belts-
371. A Revision of the North American Aphids of the Genus Mvyzus.
372. A Survey and Discussion of Lysimeters and a Bibliography on Their
Construction and Performance.
373. State Fire.-ts for Public Use.
376. Directory of Organization and Field Activities of the Department of
377. Outlook for Farm F~iiily Living, 1940.
378. Workers in Subjects Pertaining to Agriculture in Land-Grant Colleges
and Exp\eriment Stations 1939-I-'.
379. The Farm Outlook for 1940.
:", i. Snow Surveying.
523. Toxicity of Certain Organic Insecticides to Codling Moth Larvae in
." -. Arificial Insemination of Chickens and Turkeys.
-26. Orach, Its Culture and Use as a Greens Crop in the Great Plains RPgiiin.
527. Large-Scale Organiizatinlii in the Dairy Industry.
.. '2. Food Habits of Prairie Dogs.
530. The Vegetable Weevil.
531. Variety Tests of Sugarcanes in Louisiana Duri:, the Crop Year 1936-
37 and Summary of Annual Results, 1935-37.
532. Production of Hogs Suitable for Wiltshire Sides.
533. Results of Tomato Variety T,-sts in the Great Plains Region.
534. Lespedeza Sericea and Other Perennial Lespedezas for Forage and
535. A Vascular Wilt of the Mimosa Tree (Albizzia Julibrissin).
5:.6. The Annal Lospedozna- as Forage and Soil-Conserving Crops.
537. Early Cheyenne Pie Pumpkin.
538. Some Factors Affecting Survival Growth, and Selection of Lambs.
)539. Trading for Others in Conmmodity Futures.
.541 Cotton-Tillage Studies on Red Bay Sandy Loam.
OFFICE OF INFORMATION
Ci r01.il. ri-Continued.
541 Estimating Weights of Lambs at a Constant Age.
542 Two New Varieties of Almond: The Jordanolo and the Harpareil.
543 Two Rapid Methods for E-.tinlatiun Fineness and Cross-Sectional
Variability of Wool.
544 Methods of Ventilating Wheat in Farm Storages.
545 Pecan Gr:ifting .Methods and Waxes.
5-4; Putting Down and Develipiil Wells for Irrigation.
547 Feeding Habits of the Adult Japanese Beetle.
548 Tih Farmi Real Estate Sittiatioll, ii ;-:7, 1937-38, and 1938-39.
549 Proximate Composition of American Food M;tiri;l-
550 S X P Cotton in Comparison With Pima.
551 The Basis for Treatment of Products Where Fruitflieo are Involved
as a Condition for Entry Into the United States.
552 Seven N.w Peaches and a New Plum for the Western States.
;.i, Ha;lf lii i and St,,ri ng Small Lots of Dates at Home.
544 Honey and Pollen Plants of the United States.
.i, i.5i Fui~iraion of Vetch Seed for the Vetch Bruchid.
558 Pru',..-iir Seed of Grasses and Other Plants to Remove Awns and
560 Rate of Growth by Dairy Calves and Heifers on Different Rations.
,i;3 Relation of the Depth to Which the Soil is Wet at Seeding Time to
the Yield of Spring Wheat on the Great Plains.
568 F;rtors Influencing the Use of Some Common Insecticide-Dispersing
639 E'fft. r of Accelerated Erosion on Silting in Morena Reservoir, San
Diego County, Calif.
648 Comparative Susceptibility of Crop Plants to Sodium Chlorate Injury.
I.;'7 Plhysi.lhi.-ia1l Studies of Jerusalem-Aartichoke Tubers With Special
Reference to the Rest Peroid.
678 A Chemical Study of Some Soils Derived From Limestone.
680 Effect of St,,,ier- Temperatures on Peaches.
683 Effects of Fire and Cattle Grazing on Longleaf Pine Lands as Studied
at McNeill, Mississippi.
684 Butt Rot in Unburned Sprout Oak Stands.
f6 1 Cotton Prices in Spot and Futures Markets.
686 Weather and Plant-Development Data as Determinants of Grazing
Periods on Mu!.ntaIin R;in..
687 A Land Pr-,'rami for Forest County, Wisconsin, Based on an Analysis
of Land Use Problems.
688 Comparative Chemical Composition of Juices of Different Varieties of
689 Status and Relative Importance of the Parasites of the Hessian Fly
in the Atlantic States.
690 The Acidic Properties of Peat and Muck.
I;'ll The Glued Laminated Wooden Arch.
692 Chemical and M.hli;haiiil Methods of Ribes Eradication in the White
Pine Areas of the Western States.
;t;3. The External Anatomy of the Larva of the Pacific Coast Wireworm.
694. Differentiation of Egg, of Various Genera of Nematodes Parasitic
in Domestic Ruminants in the United States.
696. The Behavior of Boron in Soils.
697. Testing Vinifera Grape Varieties Grafted on Phylloxera-Resistant
Rootstocks in California.
698. Rainfall Characteristics as Related to Soil Erosion.
699. Cotton Prices in Relation to Cotton Classification Service and to
700. Costs of Tractor Logging in Southern Pine.
701. Alfalfa Experiments at Stoneville, Miss., 1935-37.
704. Bacterial Wilt of Lespedeza.
705. Differences in Growth Characters and Pathogenicity of Fusarium
Wilt Isolations Tested on Three Tomato Varieties.
707. The Vitamin B, Content of FodI.. in Terms of Crystalline Thiamin.
708. A Study of Rapid Deterioration of Vegetable Seeds and Methods for
8 ANNUAL REPORTS OF DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1940
709. Supply Responses in Milk Pridiu-tiin in the Cabot-Marshfield Area,
712. Mirlietiii-,, Commercial Lettuce.
713. Types of Vi".-- ati,>n in E-. hil;tv Valley, Utah, as Indicators of Soil
714. Stains of Sapwood and Sapwood Products and Their Control.
715. Keys to the Parasites of the Hessian Fly Based on Remains left in
the Host Puparium.
716. Investigations on the Physical and Chemical Properties of Beeswax.
717. Beef Production and Quality as Affected by MeI.rd of Feoding Sup-
plements to Steers on Grass in the Appalachian Region.
718. Fertilizer E]':xp imn-iits With Rice in California.
719. Prevention of D;iImi;-e' by the Seed-Corn M;lgg;:t to Potato Seed Pieces.
720. A Study of Methods in Barley Breeding.
721. Paradexodes Epilachnae, a Tachinid Parasite of the Mexican Bean
722. Production and Consumption of Manufactured Dairy Products.
724. Milk and Butterfat Production by Dairy Cows on Four Different
Planes of Feeding.
725. Nutritive Properties of Certain Animal and Ve.'-t-ibile Fats.
726. Physical and Chemical C('lages Produced in Bleached Cotton Duck
by Chaetomium Globosun and Spirochaeta Cytophaga.
SOME IMPORTANT UNNUMBERED PUBLICATIONS ISSUED DURING THE FISCAL
The Wholesale Fruit and Vegetable Markets of New York City.
Make or Buy a Mat1 ress.
Products of American Forests.
For>- 1 Outings.
Land Use Adjustment in the Spring Creek Area, Campbell County, Wyoming.
Land-Saving Plans for Conservation in the Pacific Southwest.
Erosion Losses from a 3-Day California Storm.
Land Use and Soil Conservation.
Compilation of Soil Conservation and Domestic Allotment Act, as Amended,
Agricultural Adjustment Act of 1938, as Amended, Federal Crop Insurance
Act, as Amended, Sugar Act of 1937, Apilrpriniti,,u Items Relating Thereto,
and Miscellaneous Laws as of the Close of the Second Session of the Seventy-
Sixth Congress, November 3, 1939.
Digest of the Rural-Urban Women's Conversations Held on the Invitation of
the Secretary of Agriculture, Washington, D. C., April 13, 14, 1939.
A Guide for Members of R. E. A. Cooperatives.
The Electrified Farm of Tomorrow.
Co-ops for the Small Farine.r.
Migrant Farm Labor: The Problem and Some Efforts to Meet It.
OTHER PUBLISHED MATERIAL
Much additional1 information of value to the public was made
available in other forms. The largest and most important single
project wA:; the propa ration of the material for the 1940 Yearbook
of Agriculture entitled "Farmers in a Changing World." This
depicts the various economic, social, physical, and scientific forces
impinging upon agriculture and their effects on the living conditions
of the people on the land.
Other material was printed as statistical bulletins, erosion and soil
surveys, announcement. about the regulatory work the Department
is required by law to do, periodicals, and other types, the distribution
of all of which is shown in table 1.
Another channel through which the published inforini tio'i flowed
out to the public is writings by Department. workers prepared for
OFFICE OF INFORMATION
papers, scholarly and scientific journals, and books. In this category
were 2,372 articles. Forty-four thousand and twenty copies of 259 of
the articles wvere purchased for ofi',i:ll use at a cost of $2,525.70.
During the year 23,813,344 publications and 1perliodicals and
S,583 ,4)00 lists of Farmers' Bulletins and Leaflets \\wee distributed
free in response to spIpcifi' requests, and the Superintendent of Docu-
inients sold 70(0,! ~i0 copies of the former for 1;07,679.52. This is an
increase of 6,291,860 copies of the Depart mlent matlri:il distributed
to the public in 1940 :-, compared with 193I9.
A total of 1,737 manuscripts for printing were received, as com-
pared with 1.578 the previous year. The drafting work on charts,
halftones, and posters totaled 2,876 jobs, and 267,424 prints, nega-
tives, plates, slides, photostats, and enlargedi photographs were made.
Altogether, 6,866 requisitions were drawn on the Government Print-
ing Office, and 174 jobs were released to lit-ide printers. One thou-
sand and thirty-one mailing lists comprising 603,789 stencils were
maintained in up-to-date condition in order to supply publi-lled
I l;1m:rial promptly to libraries, institutions, and individuals request-
ing this service. From the duplicating plant were issued 151,323,975
pages of material. This plant is imiiiiaiied for the issuance of
material of a temporary or administrative nature which does not
have to be printed. The total issued repre-vint an increase of some
10,000,000 pages over the plant's output in the previous fiscal year.
Table 1 shows by -ei ies the publications received and distributed
during the year.
TABLE 1.-Report of publications reccived and distributed by the Ofi ;l of
Information, July 1, 1' "', to June 30, 19'i0
Agricultural Situation -...-----------
Annual reports ----------------
Atlas American Agriculture ..-------
Climatological Data --.- ----------
Clip Sheet --------------------------
County planning series ----------
Crops and Markets -----------------
Department bulletins ------..-------
Department circulars ------..--.---.
Erosion and related land use condi-
Experiment station bulletins and
E.\lrinr.i-wni t ri;on record.. --------
xtEll n:.I,.n -,r' n. Review --. --_.--_
Farmers' bulletins ------------------
Farmers' bulletin lists ....------.-.--
Fire Control Notes -----------------
Forest Service recreational folders-.
Indexes __---- _.-... ....._---.--
Inventories of seeds and plants im-
Journal of Agricultural Research ----
Journal of Agricultural Research
Land Policy Review--------.....-.
9, 206, 700
Copies of ies c, ,i- Copies C'..r-ie
reprints or able for distribu- on hand
revisions distribu- ted during June 30,
received tion during year 1940
----------- 3,197,225 3,197,225 '
-87, 630 71, 10S 16, 522
S 2,487 103 2.384
115,800 892,592 359,199 533,393
--------- 8,330 8,330
...----- 279,950 279, 950 ----------
70, 000 150, 000 105, 094 44, 906
--- 135,975 135,975
5,000 20,657 8,126 12,531
29, 000 50, 625 18, 300 32, 325
..--------- 24,000 24,000 ......
---- -- 2,750 2,750 -- .-
78,300 78,300 --------
8, 309, 500 18,596,200 10,300,300 8,295,900
9, 665, 000 10,915, 100 8, 583, 400 2,331,700
16,000 16, 000
285, 800 285, 800 _----
-- 71, 006 52, 237 18, 769
..- 8,400 8, 400
- -------- 35,925 35,925 ..... ..
604 56, 809 55, 574 1, 235
...-------- 30,000 30,000 !-......-
10 ANNUAL REPORTS OF DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1940
TABLE 1.-Report of publications received and distributed by the Ofice of
Information, July 1, 1999, to June 30, 1940-Continued
Copies on Copies of Copies of ies avail- Copies Copies
Item hand July new pub- reprints or able for distribu- on hand
locations revisions distribu- ted during June 30,
1, 1939 received received tion during year 1940
Leaflets -..-- .------- 2,613,176 530,000 1,804,500 4,947,676 2,312,929 2,634,747
Miscellaneous circulars ------------- 30,419 ._... ..-. ..--..---- 30,419 8,175 22,244
Miscellaneous publications.---------- 841,689 696, 300 880,700 2,418,689 1,360,211 1,058,478
Monthly List of Publications ------- ---------- 356,850 ----------- 356,850 356,850 --- ..-...
Monthly Weather Review----------- ---. 20, 400 ------- 20,400 20,400 ---
Monthly Weather lri rvw separates_ 15,850 ---- 15,850 15, 850
North American fauna ..------------- 903 ..-- ..--------- .--. 903 270 633
Posters._ _-----------------_ 309, 151 191,100 238, 142 738, 393 380, 573 357,820
Public Roads.. --------------------.- ------- 5,000 ---- 5,000 5,000 --------
Service and regulatory announce-
ments .---------.-............ --- 128, 731 852, 175 85,000 1,065,906 966,084 99, 822
Soil Conservation ....... 71, 750 71, 750 71, 750
Soil surveys--- 162,741 70, 340 11,488 244,569 33, 963 210,606
Statistical bulletins --. ..-- .. 23,935 12,500 36,435 13,115 23,320
Statistics ----- _--------- ..- .. 677 13,000 13, 677 13,271 406
Technical bulletins .------..-------- 237, 759 158,300 54, 379 450, 348 180, 902 269. 536
Unnumbered publications----------- 2,226,570 1,219,750 2,176,732 5,923,052 2,566,150 3,356,902
Weekly weather crop report and
snow and ice bulletins. 260, 000 ---- --- 260, 000 260,000
Yearbooks .--...----. ---- 2.575 15,000 .17,575 16,880 695
Yearbook separates -.--- 116, 524 198,000 3,000 317, 524 41,825 275,699
Total ------ 17,735,719 10,512,753 23,748,845 51,997,317 32,396,744 19,600,573
The Press Service was called on to provide newspapers and maga-
zines with a large volume of information reporting the effects of the
European war and the United States national-def.n-e preparations
on agriculture. This was in additionl to the usual routine of re'port-
ing departmen ital work to the Nation's press. No major changes in
functions or organization were required to handle the increased load,
but progress was made in stren-gthening the news photograph service,
improving the di4-strilbtion of news material, and ilnleasing the
amount of service to State extension editors.
Daily newspapers, through the press associations or their own
special correspondents in Was]hington, aiaitiltined their intterest-
reflecting their readers' interest-in the work of the Departlentt.
The three major press associations and one newspaper kept reporters
at the Departmient part or full time each working day. Many other
Washlinlgton correspondents frequently covered Department activities
by nmlaking telephone calls or personal visits. Their ,pecifiic inquiries
and requests for background were handled by the Press Service either
directly or by putting the reporters in touch with the proper officials
in the bureaus or agencies concerned.
The Press Service issued 1,531 mimeographed press releases, in-
cluding the texts of speeches that had news value. It also distributed
copies of 523 reports prepared in the various bureaus. Most of the
news releases were written by the information staffs of the bureaus
and agencies concerned. The Press Service staff offered editorial sug-
gestions in connection with many of these releases and endeavored to
make them of maximum usefulness to the press through convenient
timing of i,-slance da:tes and distribution. In addition, it arranged
initerbull'rea clearallce of releases from a single bureau when the work
OFFICE OF INFORMATION
concec lited one or nore other bureaus. In some iintanils where news
developments \wre of Del artment-wide significance rather than of
particular interest to any one agency, I member., of the Press Service
staff initiated and \wrote the releases and cleared them with the
Di.tr ibution of releases receive, ~ speoia; attention during the year.
The releases are sent only to editors and writers who have asked to
be kept posted on news of the Department, but since the Depart-
jIent.'s work extends into many li nes exitrne care is necessary in
determining what relea--e. go to whom. Renewed efforts have been
made to see that newspapers, imagazine-, and writers receive all of the
releases in which their readers might be interested but that they are
not flodled with releases reporting work not of interest to their
As another means of protecting Washington newsmen and at the
same time avoiding unnecessary distribution of releases, the practice
of porting announcements in the ,pre- room wa; used increa-ingly.
This method, is used in connection wvithl administrative actions taken
here which primarily affect some small area of the country. The full
details are sent out to the State or States involv,.dl, for release to
papers which will be e-pecially interested. A brief typed summary
is posted here simultaneously for press-association men and is brought
to the attention of any correspondents of papers in the areas affected.
Service to State extension editors was continued, and special em-
phasis was placed on getting advance information to the editors in
time for them to use the facts in news releases of special local inite-ret.
A total of ,20I stories was mailed to ex i tliiin editors as part of the
regular weekly news service. In addition the Press Service pre-
pared some special material at the request of individual editors and
planned to continue such special coverage upon request in the future.
As the trend toward news pictures in newspapers and magazines
continued, reIuests for Department photographs increased. The cen-
tral photographic file was further enlarged and improved during the
year. Special emphasis was laid on series of pi,.cture essays, several of
which were widely used in the press during the year. The addition
of a photographic editor to the Press Service staff greatly facilitated
production of these series. and of other news pictures. The position
was left vacant through resign.;ition before the year closed, but plans
to refill it are now under consideration.
During the year plans were made for duplicating the weekly Clip
Sheet to reduce the interval between preparation of the material and
the time it reaches editors, and also to make possible extra distribu-
tion whenever one of the articles had special interest for groups of
publications not on the regular Clip Sheet Inailing list. The pro-
jected change was made just after the fiscal year closed.
Broadcasting of information arising out of the services and activi-
ties of the Department of Agriculture continued to increase during
this fiscal year, as nmre stations set up regularly scheduled programs
for special service to farm people. As of January 1940, a total of
605 radio stations in the United States were broadcasting information
12 ANNUAL REPORTS OF DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1940
from the Department and cooperating State land-grant colleges on
The Department continued to cooperate 5 days a week in the
National Farm and Home Hour broadcast over stations associated
with the Blue network of the National Broadcasting Co. As of
May 1, 1940, a total of 90 stations carried this program. The num-
ber of stations receiving the Department's Farm Flashes reached an
all-time high of 461 this year; the Hoiniii.akers' Chats were broad-
cast by 201 stations as of May 13, 1940. Ten stations this year estab-
lished farm departments under the direction of full-time employees
and called upon field officials of the Department to supply informa-
tion for their farm progr'.i,-. The Department contril-btedl 8 broad-
casts in a series arranged by the Office of Government Reports for
broadcast on local stations under the title. "United States Govern-
ment Reports." From 300 to 600 words of current Depa ,rtmnent
information was supplied daily except Sunday for the On the Farm
Front feature of United Press Radio News Service supplied to about
450 local stations. Nineteen interviews between Grady Cole, farm
director of station WBT (Charlotte, N. C.), and officials of i.lvn
Department bureaus vwere train-cribed for broadcast on that high-
powered (50-kilowatt) station. The weekly program, Problems of
Plains and Mountains, arr:niv'd' by the Denver regional office of the
Farm Security Administration, was continued on station KOA,
Denver. The three-times-a-week Farm Features program presenting
cii l 1errnt Departm fint and State agricultural college information for
radio listeners in North and South Carolina was continued on sta-
tion WBT, Charlotte, N. C., through April 28, 1940. The Western
Department of Agriculture Program arranged in cooperation with
State agricultural colleges of five Pacific Coast States w:s continued
5 days a week over stations a-'liated with the NBC Pacific Coast
Blue network. A daily-exc(pt-Sunday early-morning program of
the Department and the State agricultural college information was
begun October 16, 1939, over station KGNC. Amarillo, Tex., under
the direction of Edwin R. Henson. Land Use Coordinator of the
Southern Great Plains, with headquarters at Amarillo. The Con-
sumers Counsel Division of the Department continued its cooperation
with the General Federation of Women's Clubs in a weekly broadcast
over the NBC Red network fe:ii ulrilg information useful to con:iumners.
Particip;ition in the National Farm and Home Hour continued to
be a major part of the Department's radio activities. This plogramii
entered its twelfth year October 2, 1939. During the current fiscal
year 22 ,bitanll offices, and agencies were represented. There were
4 talks by Secretary Wallace and 1 by Under Secretary Wilson,
Other special features this year included the special eli.rgelncy broad-
casts connected with the outbreak of the European war, and develop-
ment of the United States defense program; a documentary series of
16 broadcasts under the title, "Today's Soil for Today and Tomor-
row," in which farmers coolprafitig in the Triple-A farm p)1,rram
told how this program assisted them in conserving soil and increas-
ing their income; a series of 7 broadcasts in which dairymen, dairy
speciali-ts, and officials of the Department's Bureau of Dairy Industry
(i.(1ii-~d the work that farmers are doing to improve the efficiency
of their dairy herds through dairy-herd-improvcienii t a--ociations;
OFFICE OF INFORMI..TION
a series of 6 broadcasts describing the efforts of poultrymen to im-
prove their chickens within the aid of the National Poultry Improve-
ment Plan; a series of 17 broadcasts by the editor of the Yearbook
of Agriculture, based on the 1940 Yearbook, Food and Life, and
Importing in a popular vein the contributions iii lde by scientists to
better nutrition of lhunan beings amn farm animals; a series of 21
lbroahdcasts on land use that discussed problems 11 in individual counties,
the impact of those problems(- oil both rur al andll urban people, and
steps being taken by farm people to make adjustmniiit- in land use
with the assistance of State agricultural colleges and agencies of the
Departm ,'i-t; a series of 7 broadcasts reporting on the contributions
made by scieilce to the colli-ir\ation of forest resources including
timber, grass. water, anmd soil, in addition to the regular weekly
Forest Ranger1.' dramatic skits that ei.nph:l-izze fore-i conser\;vtion;
a series reporting on the supplies of foods officially declared "in
surplus," and methods of utilizing these foods. In addition to these
special series and the day-h)-day reporting on a wide variety of
services to farm people and the public gigenirally, -ip',ial attention was
given to information for consumers and homemakers, including 42
broadcasts reporting research by the Bureau of Hor i, Economics.
"1'Thi regular monthly pr',giats from the campuses of State and land-
grant colleges, the monthly programs prepared especially for the
1.400.000 4-H Club members, and the monthly pro'gramiii built around
home economics extension work (the home demonstration series) were
A total of b*:,' Farm Flashes vwr-( distributed for use by local
radio .tations. In 41 States these flashes, are routed through the
offices of State agricultural extension editors, who c, 'nl line them with
information available from the State land-gi ;mt college and send
them on to the stations, to be lpri-eited by staff announcers, or to
county extension agnit, who use the Flashes in addition to more
completely local information in their regularly scheduled local pro-
grams. Each Flash prepared by the Departiment is sent only to
the State where that information applies. The maximum number of
Flashes sent to any one State was 526; the minimum, 405. The total
number of Flashes released for national distribution \N: 296.
The number of stations to which Homemakers' Chats aw' sent w:,s
reduced to 201, effective May 13, 1940, as a result of a questionnaire
sent to all users of this syndicated manuscript service to obtain sug-
ge-tions for the improvement of this service; to ascertain whether
the station addressed wished to continue receiving it; and to learn
how the Chats were being used. The returns showed that 13 stations
were using the Chats in commercially sponsored programs; and 32
stations were using them in the so-called "partiipatin-type" pro-
grams that is, programs containing spot commercial an-
nouncements relating to several different products or firms. Because
of tlhe Department's policy that its information prepared especially
for Iroad'a;lst cannot be used in commercially sponsored progra Ims
these 45 stations were asked if they could arrange to pre 'entf the
Chats as a mnoincoumercial public service. Where that arrangement
could not be made, the Chats were withdrawn. Effective April 29,
1940, the number of Chats released was reduced from 6 per week to
14 ANNUAL REPORTS OF DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1940
5, plus fortniightly Food Shopping Tips (cotniining information for
,ltin.-Iemakeris on supplies of seasonal foods coming to milarkets.
As of June 15, 1940. a total of 35 -tatillns ai -ci;ited with the
NBC Red network were broadcasting a weekly program of infor-
mation for collllumers in which the Coilnl-suers Counsel Division of
the Department cooperates with the General Federation of Women's
The farm features program broadcast since 1935 over WBT,
Charlotte, N. C., as a cooperative unldeitaking between the Depart-
ment and the extension services of the State agricultural colleges of
the two Carolinas was discontinued, effective April 29, 1940, when
the station could not continue to broadcast the program in a mid-
day period. Leon Si-,k. who had been detailed by the regional office
of the Soil Con-ervation Service at Spartanburg, S. C., returned to
that office; and information f'rom Dlepirtmin-lt agIl'itie and the
State extension services was thereafter supplied direct to the station
for broadcast, in its early-morning farm program.
C. A. Bond, information assistant to the coordinator of the south-
ern Great Plains region, on May 1, 1940. took charge of the local
Department of Agriculture-State Extension Service program on
KGNC at Amarillo that had been started October 16, 1939. This
prog.rali, broadc.-t daily, except Sunday, in an early-morning period
(6:45 to 7), features information arising from the coordinated efforts
of the Department and the land-grant colleges of Kansas, Colorado,
Oklahoma, Texas, and New Mexico to as.i-t in the farm problems
peculiar to the southlern- Great Plains.
During this fi.-,al year the following stations established farm
programs under their own management, appointed men to direct
them, and sought the n-sistance of Department field offices in sup-
plying current information of special interest to farm listeners within
their coverage areas: WWL, New Orleans; WSB, Atlanta; KOA,
Denver; WEEI, Boston; KIRO, Seattle; WKRG, Cincinnati;
IESFO, San Francisco; KMBC. Kansas City, WHAS, Louisville.
The use of radio by county extension agents has been steadily
increasing through the years. At le';-t 200 local stations are now
presenting cc ity extension -ervice program ms regularly on a weekly
or oftener ba is. In many of these programs agents from several
counties partiiip;ite, so the total number of agents broadcasting is
several times 200. The Department's radio-extension "pecialit, has
spent a large part of his time during the past year in conducting
ladio schools for State and county extension agents who broadcast.
These schools are devoted to lpractical experience in writing and
delivering radio talks. Forty-five of them were held in 10 States,
with a total attendance of approximately 1,075. About two-thirds
of those who attended were county extension agents.
Developments during the past ye;ir have emphasized the importance
of adhering to the Depart meant's policy of looking to the broadca-te'rs
Iather than to adverti-er. for the opportunity to present information
to radio li-tc ers. There has lben a noticeable increase this year in
commercially -ponlored broadcasts to farm people. This trend has
blIve accelerated by the ci.n-tanltly increa;ingi number of farms with
radio receivers and the improvement in farm inriim-,nr- during the past
few years. In s, mil cases stations requested information from the
OFFICE OF INFORMATION
State extension services and the Department for broadcal-t in these
commercially sponsored programs, but in practically every in.-tace
station managers have cooperated in the observlance of our policy
when it was explained to them. In view of the growing numllberl of sta-
tion-organiizeed-and-operate d farm programs of the "participating"
type, the Radio Service has realced an understanding with several; sta-
tions whereby official information prepared especially for broadcast
be used in such periods. This arrangement acknowledges that the
Delpal rti iint of Agriculture and cooperating land-grlint colleges. con-
tinue to look to broadcasters and not to advertisers for the dissem-
ination of information by Ieal;ns of radio and that information from
these public agencies will be supplied if the following stipulations are
agreed to: (1) The information from the Department to be pre-
snllted regularly and at the same time in the prog'ramI each day; (2)
the program to be introduced with this statement: "This is a public-
service feature-priesented with the cooperation of the United States
Department of Agriculture (and other coop>ir'ators) ;" (3) this part
of the program to be -eparated from commercial advertising by at
least 2 minutes of music, both before and after, or by a station
break; (4) nothing to be said to give listeners the impression that
commercial sponsors present this part of the program, or that the
United States Department of Agriculture, the land-grant college
officials, or the extension~ workers endorse a commercial product.
DIVISION OF SPECIAL REPORTS
The work of the Division of Special Reports during the last
year has been centered on reporting and interpreting for farmers,
consumers, and Department employees the total program adminis-
tered by the Department of Agriculture.
In cooperation with all agencies of the Department, the Division
of Special Reports has prepared comprehensive summaries of the
various phases of the work of the Department in relation to prob-
lems of farmers and of the general public.
Among the publications of this nature issued this year were the
Achieving A Balanced Agriculture, dealing with pr;n:ti';ally all of
the Federal and many of the local and State public aids to agri-
culture, the problems to which these aids are applied, and the events
which led to the authorization by Congress of the Federal aids.
The Farm Ha:ndbook seri.-, outlining agricultural services of
Federal and State Governilents directly available to fuirnirs. The
first of this series to be published was the Maryland Farm Handbook
and, as the year ended, similar handbooks for California, Iowa, North
Carolina, and Minnesota were in process of publication, and prepara-
tion had been started on handbooks for additional States.
Miscellaneous Publication No. 88, entitled "The United States
Department of Agriculture, Its Structure and Functions," reporting
admini rat i e organization and functions of the Department.
The Negro In American Agriculture, reporting services of the
Department of Agriculture and cooperating agencies.
Functions and Publications of the United States Department of
Agriculture In the Field of Rural Housing, outlining the services
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
16 -ANNUAL REPORTS OF DEPARTMENT OF 3 1262 08332 364 1
and information available on this subject through various bureaus of
Deep Roots for American Agriculture, outlining the total pro-
gram of the Department.
Directory of the Department Field Offices in Chliiago, to enable
employees of these offices to better meet inquiries for information
on Department services. This directory is being used as a basis for
similar directorit s in other cities.
In preparation is a publication reporting the operation of unified
larm program in Ross County, Ohio, in which Federal and State
agricultural agencies are following the recommendations of the
county land-use planning coil Ii ;tt -e.
Numerous articles were prepared for publication in magazines,
and articles on the total program of the Department were pre-
pared for le:iding encyclopedias.
During the last year, data on the operation of the various phases
of the National Farm Program have been compiled for each State
as well as in summary form for the entire United States. Special
information materials and reports have been prepared to supply infor-
mation for Department personnel and for special needs of farm
Reports on situations affecting agriculture and on over-all efforts
of the Department as well as significant individual bureau activities
have been supplied during the last year to Department personnel
both in Washington and in field offices.
U S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICEi 194