Report of the director of information

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Title:
Report of the director of information
Alternate Title:
Annual report of the director of information
Running title:
Annual reports of Department of Agriculture, director of information
Physical Description:
v. : ; 23 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
United States -- Dept. of Agriculture. -- Office of Information
Publisher:
U.S. G.P.O.
Place of Publication:
Washington
Publication Date:
Frequency:
annual
regular

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Agriculture -- United States   ( lcsh )
Genre:
federal government publication   ( marcgt )

Notes

Statement of Responsibility:
United States Department of Agriculture, Office of Information.
Dates or Sequential Designation:
Began with 1927.
Numbering Peculiarities:
Report year ends June 30.
General Note:
Vol. for 1938 has title: Annual report of the director of information.
General Note:
Description based on: 1928/29; title from caption.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 004892080
oclc - 09611750
lccn - sn 86033859
Classification:
lcc - S21 .P33
System ID:
AA00012200:00001


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REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR OF INFORMATION


UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,
OFFICE OF INFORMATION,
W1ashgington., D. C., A ugust 31, 19.1.
SIR: I present herewith a report. on the information work of the
department for the fiscal year ended June 30.
M. S. EISENHOWER, )iector of Information.

Hon. ARTHUR AM. HYDE,
Secretary of Agd cultwue.


SCOPE OF WORK

The information forces of the department during the last fiscal
year not only performed the regular work of making available to all
groups that can use them, the great variety of data and knowledl ir
developed by the department's research, service, and regulatory )pro-
grams, but also contributed to the department's efforts to aid the un-
employed and the farmers inl drought-stricken areas. Many special
publications, such as Family Food at Low Cost. New Credit for
Farmers, small pamphlets on the prevention of pellagra, special out-
look reports, etc., were issued. The press of the country cooperated
in disseminating useful information on diets, food at low co-.t. and
availability of funds for seed, feed, fertilizers, and agricultural re-
habilitation. By radio many special messages were broadcast, includ-
ing a number explaining the possibility of communities organizing
new agricultural credit corporations and similar organizations, or
enlarging the capital stock of existing organizations.
EXPENDITURES
Expenditures for salaries, equipment, and supplies amounted to
$412,989. Of this, more than $89.000 was for mimeographing, multi-
graphing, and rotaprinting work, $79.500 for mailing lists and dis-
tribution, and $40,000 for business, personnel, filing, and janitorial
work. The balance, about $204.000, was for the preparation and dis-
semination of agricultural information by the various methods-
publications, press, radio, mimeographed leaflets, etc., including the
administrative, editorial, and clerical cost of writing, editing, index-
ing, and illustrating. In view of a rather prevalent mi.understand-
ing, I wish to point out that while the preparation of material for
radio broadcasts costs the department about $30.00) a year. broad-
casting facilities themselves cost the department nothing; radio time
79407-31 1



nliEgILiLE, FLOkICA





ANNUAL REPORTS OF DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,


is gl;aily contributed by the radio stations and networks. Nor does
the department pay for newspaper and magazine space; the prepara-
tion of material for such publication costs about $44,000 annually.
Printing and binding cost $942,000. This included the payments
for popular and technical bulletins, periodicals, job work, letter-
heads, and all other material handled by the Government Printing
Office for the Department of Agriculture, with the exception of a few
publications and jobs which were, by specific authority of Congress,
paid for from other appropriations.
DIVISION OF PUBLICATIONS

The practical contribution to agricultural and home economics
education and practice made by the many publications of the depart-
ment was enhanced during the year as a result of the enlarged print-
ing and binding fund granted by Congress. For many years there
has been a steady growth in the basic research, service, extension, and
regulatory activities; these activities are naturally producing much
socially and economically useful knowledge, which must be quickly
and efficiently disseminated. Publications comprise the permanent
foundation of the department's informational work.
The number of manuscripts sent to the printer increased from 1,702
last year to 1,737 this year. Included in this number were several
emergency publications designed to aid the department's drought and
unemployment relief work.
Nearly 32,000,000 copies of the various classes of publications, in-
cluding over 6,000,000 lists of publications, were distributed during
the year. Of this number, 12,446,528 were farmers' bulletins, and
2,058,538 were leaflets. These popularized publications were not, as
is frequently charged, foisted upon persons who did not desire the
practical information they contain, but were mailed only to those who
wrote the department requesting them. As was pointed out last
year, the department is able to supply only 60 per cent of the bulletins
requested by farmers and others. Indicative of the cooperation exist-
ing between this office and the congressional offices is the fact that
during the year Members of Congress returned to the department
1,352,577 copies from their allotments of farmers' bulletins.
The technical, semitechnical, periodical, and miscellaneous publi-
cations totaled about 17,000,000.
The increase in the number and variety of manuscripts naturally
added to the work of the editorial and printing sections. During the
last six months of the year, from 75 to 140 manuscripts constituted
the daily balance being handled in some stage of consideration,
approval, examination, or final preparation. More emphasis than
ever before is being placed by the editors upon the organization, style.
and brevity of all manuscripts, more particularly in the care of those
for popular publications.
Improvement in the presentation of material is dependent first of
all upon close cooperation between authors and bureau editors. Con-
sequently conferences of all department editors were held during the
year to discuss the types of deficiencies found and how improvements
may best be accomplished.





DIRECTOR OF INFORMATION


The voluminous analytical index of the department's publications
for the period 1901 to 1925 was completed and sent to the printer.
The material for this index required 204,142 cards.
The congressional distribution section and the miscellaneous dis-
tribution section were merged, and F. J. P. Cleary was placed in
S charge of the combined unit, (d-signnted the distribution section.
J. O. Riley, formerly in charge of the miscellaneous distribution sec-
tion, was assigned to the work of handling requests for agricultural
information that require special knowledge or study. The benefits
of the merger have been evident in the form of concentration of
responsibility for related work, in personnel flexibility making pos-
sible adjustments necessary to keep all phases of work as current as
possible during the rush periods, and in ease, efficiency, and con-
venience of administration.
The postage required for sending 308,554 publications to foreign
countries during the year amounted to $5,742.40, an increase of
$132.56 over the amount required the previous year.
The mimeographed, multigraphed, and rotaprinted work done by
the division amounted to 61,504,200 pages. The large assembling
machine has more than justified its purchase. During the year it
assembled 22,950,009 sheets or 36,209,232 pages.
The major personnel changes were as follows: Isabelle Smith,
assistant indexer, was transferred to the Bureau of Entomology on
February 16, 1931, and Bertha L. Zoeller was appointed March 25,
1931, to fill the vacancy. Amelia Allyn retired August 31, 1930, at
72 years, after 32 years of service in the department, 22 of which
were in this division. Norman L. Baldwin, draftsman, resigned
July 15, 1930, and Henry G. Stueler was appointed October 1, 1930,
to take his place. Corliss Cramer was appointed as a photographer
November 10, 1930, to fill the vacancy caused by the death last year
of E. F. Shipp. Three temporary employees were appointed for
,one month each to assist in the work of distribution during part of
the rush period in April.
Detailed statistical information covering various phases of the
division's work is given herewith in tabular form.
STATISTICS
TABLE 1.-Summary of manuscript and rEquisitions handled July 1, 1930,
to June 30, 1931

Number Number
Class of requi- Numer Cs qu umber
sitions of copies sitlons of copies

New publications........... 553 13,445, 633 Posters---------... --........ 15 268,000
Reprints and revisions..-... 789 17, 525. 278 Congressional documents-.. 20 13, 635
.Journal of Agricultural Re- Binding--.....-........-..- 285 18,641
search separates...----..... 121 151,225 Miscellaneous job work..... 2,952 162,597,017
Yearbook separates..--...- 24 40,200
Periodicals....----............ 219 3,537,410 Total.........-------------...... 4,978 197, 597,069








4 ANNUAL REPORTS OF DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


TABLE 2.-New nmlanscripts includingg revisions of publications requiring new
titles and numbers) for department publications handled June 1, 1930,
to June 30, 1931



Manu- Sent to
scripts Dis Govern On hand
Item on hand Received ap meant ith-
July 1, proved Printing drawn June1931
1930 Office


Agricultural Situation...--...............-
Annual reports and reprints ---............
Atlas of American Agriculture-----.........
Circulars:
New.....-.. -- -------.................
Reprints and revisions-----............--
Climatological Data .....----------.
Section summary.......----..............
Clip Sheet.--..--..----- .... ----..------.
Crops and Markets---------.................
Department bulletins, reprints and revi-
sions-------------------------...........................
Department circulars, reprints and re-
visions---------------------------..........................
Experiment station bulletins and reports:
New-------.-..........................
Reprints and revisions............-----
Experiment Station Record- ----........
Extension Service Review.....------... .-
Farmers' bulletins:
New --.---------... ....-....----
Reprints and revisions..---------.. --..
Farmers' bulletin lists -......----------...
Forest Service recreational folders:
New............-----............------
Reprints and revisions---.....------.
Forest Worker-..------------.............
Indexes:
New-............- ....-------------...
Reprints and revisions .......-------.
Inventory of Seeds and Plants Imported..
Journal of Agricultural Research --......-
Journal of Agricultural Research separates_
Leaflets:
New ----------........................
Reprints and revisions ....-------....
Miscellaneous circulars, reprints and re-
visions-----.. ----.. -------------------.
Miscellaneous publications:
New-.................................
Reprints and revisions.....---------..
Monthly List of Publications-...----.....
Monthly Weather Review_.........-...
Monthly Weather Review separates......
North American Fauna.....- -------
Official Record -----......----------.--...
Posters .......--......----- ..............
Public Roads---.....----- ........-------
Secretary circulars, reprints and revisions..
Service and Regulatory Announcements
(including Notices of Judgments, Notice
of Quarantine, B. A. I. Orders)- .-----.
Snow and Ice Bulletin---- --...............
Soil surveys.. ------....... -...........----
Statistical bulletins
New-- -..........--- ..---............
Reprints and revisions.---. ---... .---.
Technical bulletins:
New..-..............-................
Reprints and revisions-'.-:--------..
Unnumbered publications and reports:
New...........-------- --.............
Reprints and revisions-.....-----. ---.
Weekly Weather and Crop Bulletin......
Yearbook..-...... ..- .....-...........
Yearbook separates---........... .......--

Total........


11











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2


14
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19
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12
23


55
23
13
5
52
12

28

12

11
1
21
12

41
510
6

33
10
6

14
1
3
23
119

14
52

13

34
25
12
13'
47

52
15
16
1


141
18
..... .. 66.

4
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58


28
8
52
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--- -- --
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---------.
........-.
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"1,737-


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140






DIRECTOR OF INFORMATION b

TABLE 3.-Summary of publications received and distributed by the Department
of Agriculture from July 1, 1930, to June 30, 1931


On hand Available Distrib On hand
Item July 1, New Reprints for distri- uted June 30,
1930 bution d 1931

Agricultural Situation................---------- 135,800 ..... 135,800 135,800 ..........
Annual reports-....... .---------..... 19,670 53, 500 500 73, 670 52,253 21,417
Atlas of American Agriculture ------. 5, 148 ..------. ---.-----.. 5, 148 152 4,998
Circulars----..........-...---------.. 283, 147 616,800 63,000 962,947 535,579 427,368
Climatological Data-------.. --.. -------.. ----.. 5,040 ....------ 5,040 5,040 .......
Climatological Data (section sum-
mary). -----........... ------.--- --- 4,800 ----.-----. 4,800 4,800 ..........
Clip Sheet.---..----.. ----.-----.-------------- 322,200 ..---.----. 322,200 322,200 ..........
Crops and Markets.-..-------------.... -------- 1,760,000 ------ 1,760,000 1,760,000 ..........
Department bulletins-- -..-------..-- 389,398 ---------- 49,000 438,398 111,452 326,946
Department circulars.........------------- 223,398 5,000 50,000 278,398 94,804 183,594
Experiment Station bulletins and re-
ports.----...-.--.- ......------------3,810 24,800 --.......- 28,610 25,495 3, 115
Experiment Station Record-..-------. 14,712 144,000 --..------. 158, 712 140,512 18,200
Extension Service Review ...----------. ----... 125,073 ---------- 125,073 95,065 30,008
Farmers' bulletins---- .-...-..------. 8,412,759 1,491,424 10,564,880 20, 469,063 12,446,528 8,022,535
Farmers' bulletin lists..--..--------. 1,494,450 -------. 5,260,200 6,754,650 5,925,900 828, 750
Forest Service recreational folders-... 87, 900 542,000 215,000 844,900 600,730 244,170
Forest Worker .....--------.-----.---....------. 6,000 -----.----. 6,000 6,000 -.------
Indexes.--......--...... --------....- 24,815 56,048 .--.------- 80,863 45,329 35,534
Inventory of Seeds and Plants Im-
ported---------........... 4,500 ..--... 4,500 4,500 ..........
Journal of Agricultural Research .. 21, 240 46,000 .---.----. 67,240 45, 154 22,086
Journal of Agricultural Research sepa-
rates.------.... ---........... -----. 224,910 149,575 2,500 376,985 147,211 229, 774
Leaflets---.................-----... -- 1,064,076 475,000 1,785,000 3,324,076 2,058,535 1,265,541
Miscellaneous circulars---------... --- 315,939 .....----- 69, 000 384, 939 138, 484 246,455
Miscellaneous publications .-------. 259,350 1,131,050 472,500 1,862,900 1,407,817 455,083
Monthly List of Publications------. ---------- 412,000 .. .----. 412,000 412,000 41 0 -.-...
Monthly Weather Review.....-----.-- --------- 18,000 .--------. 18,000 18,000 ..........
Monthly Weather Review separates -.---------. 14,200 .----.... 14,200 14,200 ---..-....
North American Fauna-----...----. 2,921 -----------.--------- 2,921 105 2,816
Official Record-......--------....--------..--- ..886,000 --.-------- 886,000 886,000 ----.....
Posters--..-----.........---------- 368, 079 130,500 57,000 555,579 172,161 383,418
Public Roads -......--------------.. 17,488 58, 00 -....-----. 75,488 57,319 18, 169
Service and Regulatory Announce-
ments---............--------------. 564,928 708,000 290, 500 1,563,428 953,609 609,819
Snow and Ice Bulletin-.---...----.----.. ----.... 37,005 ---------- 37,005 37,005 -.....--..
Soil surveys ----------.----------- 156,819 102,000 -----.... 258,819 46,724 212, 095
Statistical bulletins-..------------ ..39,753 26,200 1,000 66,953 19,274 47,679
Technical bulletins-----------------. 234, 073 351,800 31,000 616,873 359,654 257.219
Unnumbered publications.---------- 1, 156,456 1,679, 530 152,200 2,988,186 2,414,631 573,555
Weekly Weather and Crop Report.-- --------- 237, 655 .--------. 237,655 237, 655 ----........
Yearbook.........-----------...... 14,938 20,000 ----------- 34,938 25, 182 9, 756
Yearbook separates.---.-----------.. 128,651 56, 300 10,500 195, 451 62, 238 133,213
Total..--------.--.. ----------- 15,528,828 11,835,800 19,073,780 46,438,408 31,825,097 14,613, 311


CONGRESSIONAL AND MISCELLANEOUS DISTRIBUTION OF FARMERS' BULLETINS FROM
JULY 1, 1930, TO JUNE 30, 1931

On hand July 1, 1930------------------ ---- ------ 8,412,759
Bulletins issued-------------- -------------- 12, 056, 304

Total-------------------------------------20, 469,063
Farmers' bulletins distributed by Congress ----- -- 7, 683, 425
Schemes for new and revised farmers' bulletins-------- 203, 900
Orders from bureaus in department------- ------ 712, 075
Extension service orders -------- --------- --- 1,911, 760
Mi.iscellaneous distribution -------- ----------- 1,935, 368
12, 446, 528

On hand June 30, 1931---------- ---------------------- 8, 022, 535

Farmers' bulletins distributed by Congress-------------- ---- 7, 683,425
Leaflets--------------------------------------------- -- 771, 149
Miscellaneous publications--------------------------- 126, 387
Cookbooks ------ --------------------------__ 20, 226

Charged to Congress-------------------------- ------ 8, 601, 187






ANNUAL REPORTS OF DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

STATISTICAL R SUME OF PRINCIPAL ACTIVITIES IN THE DISTRIBUTION SECTION


Telephone calls received and handled --------
Letters received and handled---------------
Orders issued on Superiniteiident of Documents------ -
Letters referred to bureaus and departments ----
Forms addressed and mailed_--------------- --------
Index cards written ------------------------------- --
Letters dictated and written------------ --------- ---
Letters stuaiped and returned to Member-, of Congress__--------
Letters received inclosing remittances ($4,272.S-))-___
Visitors received and furnished with 40,S24 1publications-----__
c'(iiic, es.-ii.inal letters filed------------------------
Congressional documents filed----- -----------------_
Orders to send publications to foreign countries-----------
Publications sent to foreign countries--------------- --
Money ext.iinded in sending publications to foreign countries.---
Work sheets fiinrJisbhed to Memlber. of Congress--, _--
Publications received and stored in stock room----- ----
Publications issued through the stock room----------- -


21,965;
867,655.
598, 677
62, 150
63, 070
5,158
3,253
8,917
14, 432
5,037
16, 766
43,379
5,604
308, 554
$5,742.40-
70,400
29u, 019
264,914


DRAFTING WORK
Drawings---------------- 95-
Graphs and charts---4--------------------------- 461
Maps------------------------------------------------------------ 47
Lttri ----------------- ------------------------------- 485
Retouching --------------------------------- ------ -- 219
Layouts-------------------------------- ----- -----370
Air brush-------------------------------------------------------- 22
Cover pages------------------ ----------- 79
Posters ---------------------------------------- 5
Placards-------------------------------------------------- 188
Miscellaneous-----------------------------------------------129
Engrossing --1----- --- ------------------- -- ----- 17

Total ------------ 2,117

PHOTOGRAPHIC WORK
Photographic prints----------------------------- ------86,71
Negatives-- ------------- 15,655
Negatives developed ------------------- ---------------1, 792
Rotaprint plates------------------------------- 1,061
Lantern slides--- ------------------------------------- 9, 341
Lantern slides bound--------------------------------- ---- 5,393
Lantern slides colored------------------- ------686
Enlargements ----------------- ----------------- ----2, 529
Enlargements mounted- ------------------- 3, 203
Enlargements colored------------- ------------------- 322
Solar bromides----------------------- 1, 121
Prints dry mounted----------------- -------------- -- 4, 608
Transparencies ----------------------------------- 67
Transparencies colored------------------------------ 40
Photostats ------------ ---------------------------- 15, 215

Total_--__--------------__--------_ 147,754
Photographers in the section made 376 field trips.
Reimbur-eiijeits from bureaus for material --------------- $8, 712.27
Number of-
Prints sold to public ___--------- -- --- 893
Bromide enlargements sold------------------------------ 6
Lantern slides sold------------------ 8
Photostats sold --------------26
Reimbursement from sales --- ----- ----------- $117. 57





DIRECTOR OF INFORMATION


MIMEOGRAPHED AND MULTIIGRAPHED WORK
Sr.gniits of type set for multigraphing----- ----------- 9, 399
Stencils cut-------------- ----------------- 13, 576
Multigraplie'l pages------------------------- 22, ., 157
Mimeographed lll pages--------- ---------------- 35, '"-:" :-):'3
Rotaprinted pages---------------------------------- 3, 710
Total pages---------------------------------- 61,504, 200
PRESS SERVICE

The press. service, like the other divi-ions of the Office of Informna-
tion, has been in its new quarters in the Administration Building for
a little more than a year, in which time the advantages of the ltbtter
accommodations for representatives of the press have been well l:,ii-
onstrat(d. The room set aside for representatives of the press has
)proved a great convenieire to corresp(oninllts and has been a factor
in increasing the direct attention the press has decvnted to the (lepart-
ment. As a result of these better and more freoqunt direct contacts
with a part of the press, telephone reque-st- from WallIiington corre-
spondents and other writers have also increased greatly, and more
writers have a-kedl help of the press service in getting special articles
from individual scientist, and administrators throughout the deplart-
ment. The National Press Club recently asked to have the number
of each of our daily releases delivered there, increased from 10 copies
to 30.
AGRICULTURAL INFORMATION NOT PROPAGANDA "

During the last fiscal year several magazine writers and edi-
tors have shown a critical interest in the press service ; they have
publi-hled widely their belief that agricultural information is essen-
tially propaganda and "ballyhoo to increase the pres.tige of the
department. In view of this mistaken idea, it seems well to point
out again that agricultural information work is not carried on to
secure publicity for the department, but to make public the results of
the department's manifold activities and to give the widest possible
distribution to valuable fact.s. The department is, fundamentally,
a great educational institution, and the knowledl e it develops must
be widely and quickly disseminated if it is to make its full contribu-
tion to the social and economic progress of the country. Adult edu-
cation was all but neglected until recent years. To-day no other
institutions or group of institutions anywhere play so vital and
effective a role in adult education as do the State agricultural col-
leges and the United States Department of Agriculture. From the
very beginning, Congress has placed the dissemination of knowledge
on a par with the acquisition of knowledge as functions of the de-
partment. Only to the extent, that the useful information developed
by agricultural scienti-ts is given to those who can apply it is the
institution justified. In agriculture there was never a time when
need for adult education was so imperative as it is now. We may
suffer some slight delay in teaching better breeding practices, or
improved fertilizer practices, but if economic information is to be
of any value at all, it must have an almost instantaneous and wide-





5 ANNUAL REPORTS OF DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

spread distribution. Consequently, with the very willing cooperation
of most of the newspaper editors in the country, the department plans
to increase its agricultural-information efforts.
COOPERATION OF THE PRESS
Most branches of the press have been suffering heavy cuts in ad-
vertising, and as a result many publications have much less space
than in normal time; but, in so far as we are able to judge, releases
from the department have been used about as widely as formerly.
Our daily mail indicates an increase in requests from editors to be
supplied with our various services. Most of these applications are,
of course, from daily and weekly newspapers. There were more
requests than ever before from syndicates for series of articles or
for material to be used in preparation of features. For example,
the Newspaper Enterprise Association ran two special series on
vegetable gardening and flower gardening, and the Central Press is
now running a weekly feature which goes to about 500 papers. The
Western Newspaper Union, which serves 2,900 weeklies and semi-
weeklies, continues to be one of the largest users of practical articles
on agriculture and home economics.
The Associated Press, which had been using a weekly wire article
on grain markets and one on the livestock situation, recently made
arrangements for a similar weekly article on cotton. These articles
are prepared by a member of the Washington staff of the Associated
Press and are well received by the member papers.
The Market Basket, a weekly article on food at low cost, prepared
by the Bureau of Home Economics, has done very well in the news-
papers and is often quoted elsewhere. One factor in its widespread
use is our new mailing list containing names of 500 editors of house-
hold pages.
NEWS PHOTOGRAPHS
The demand for photographs illustrating department activities
has been growing steadily for several years and during the last year
we have been able to give this branch of work more systematic at-
tention. The result has been a much wider use of news photographs
and photographs for illustrating department articles, and those writ-
ten by outsiders. The availability of interesting pictures based on
current activities has, no doubt, made much of our information more
appealing to the editors and to the public. One man devoted about
half his time to making arrangements for taking pictures and to
filling the picture needs of the press from our files and from those of
the various bureaus. About 360 negatives were added to our files
in the year and about 2,000 prints were made. The press service
also used 400 prints of photographs made in various States by the
Extension Service, 200 from field offices and experiment stations of
the department, and 400 from the photograph files of the ,bureaus in
Washington. This makes a total of about 3,000 pictures used.
A hirge proportion of the photographs are sent out on request,
but a display rack for new pictures has stimulated the interest of
free-lance writers, correspondents, and photographers. Our pic-
tures frequently have been used by syndicates, resulting in wide re-
production throughout the country at an extremely low cost to the
department.





DIRECTOR OF INFORMATION


STATISTICAL SUMMARY
A total of 1,254 mimeographed releases, including 235 bulletin
reviews, was issued during the fiscal year. The total was slightly
greater than for 1930, partly because of releases on drought condi-
tions, drought relief, and the weekly Market Basket series. There
were 113 special releases, not mimeographed. These figures do not
include the many home economics articles, most of them illustrated,
,that were supplied to a group of magazines and newspapers.
PERSONNEL CHANGES
Robert L. Webster was appointed to the position of agricultural
writer on May 18, 1931, to fill the vacancy caused by the transfer
of John R. Deatherage from the press service to the office of per-
sonnel and business administration.
RADIO SERVICE

Important changes and advances in the work of the radio service
,during the year were as follows:
A new network program, originating in San Francisco and broad-
cast in the Pacific and intermountain regions by eight stations
associated with the National Broadcasting Co., was started on Jan-
.uary 1, 1931.
The series of network broadcasts by the chiefs of the eastern and
western districts of the Food and Drug Administration was suc-
cessfully concluded. This series of 52 weekly programs brought
widespread attention from the radio audience and launched the
read the label idea with the general public.
A radio extension specialist was assigned to the Extension Service.
Through him the radio service and the office of Cooperative Ex-
tension Work have commenced an effort to establish a Federal-State
program of broadcasting to farmers and home makers, this program
to be carried by 250 cooperating radio stations which serve virtually
all parts of the country.
Studies were conducted to determine farmer preferences in style
of presenting agricultural information by radio.
These new developments, of course, were in addition to the con-
tinuation of the work previously carried on by the radio service.
WESTERN NETWORK PROGRAM
The new network program in the Pacific and Intermountain
States is known as the Western Farm and Home Hour. Its sched-
ule is 12.15 to 1 p. m., Pacific standard time, daily except Saturday
and Sunday. Ralph H. Lamb was appointed manager of the pro-
gram. He presides over the programs, schedules speakers from
among the department personnel in San Francisco and near by,
prepares and delivers four weekly programs from information con-
tributed by the extension services of seven Western States, and
handles all other regular activities in connection with the new proj-
ect. In the programs emphasis is laid on interpretation of the
factors making the markets for western products, conservation of
the region's resources, detailed weather reports, and the service





ANNUAL REPORTS OF DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


work of the department in various fields. Recommendations of im-
proved farming and home-making practices come largely from the
State extension services of the region. The response from listeners
has increased rapidly. For the first six months of the program
it totaled 2,560 letters.
READ THE LABEL BROADCASTS
W. R. M. Wharton, chief of the eastern district of the Food and
Drug Administration, during the year concluded his series of 52
weekly talks under the general title Safeguarding Your Food and
Drug Supply." These talks, first scheduled on a network of 13 east-
ern and mid western National Broadcasting Co. associate stations,
were carried by a network of 32 stations before the close of the series.
They brought letters from 25,871 listeners who requested more than
a million copies of "read the label" excerpts from the talks.
W. W. Vincent, chief of the western district of the Food and Drug
Administration, consolidated his Safeguarding Your Food and Drug
Supply series with the Western Farm and Home Hour program
when the latter was started, thus increasing his network from three
to eight western stations. Listener response to his talks also was
exceptional, totaling 5,643 letters, to the writers of which went more
than 200,000 read the label" excerpts.
This series probably will be resumed when the pending bulletin on
how to read the label is ready for distribution, providing a printed
publication for the further information of listeners interested by
the talks.
CORRELATING FEDERAL AND STATE BROADCASTING
The effort to correlate Federal and State broadcasting of informa-
tion for farmers and home makers was barely started at the end of
the fiscal year. In outline, the plan involves decentralization of
broadcasting for purely extension purposes. Broadcasting is not a
complete educational method. It is unsurpassed as a means of bring-
ing listeners into the circle of influence of extension. But the lis-
tener's attention, if we are to make fruitful the interest inspired by
broadcasts, must be directed not only to the department, but also to
the State extension service which can give him further assistance
toward the knowledge he requires in order to adopt on his farm or
in his home the practices advocated by the extension service. There-
fore, the department proposes to share with the State extension serv-
ices responsibility for extension broadcasting in cooperation with
some 250 radio stations. The program in each State should be
developed by the State extension service, written partly by the exten-
sion service and partly by the department, and delivered by the
county agent or the home-demonstration agent located in the city in
which the cooperating radio station is situated.
Alan Dailey, formerly agricultural writer in the radio service,
was appointed radio extension specialist March 1, 1i:1. He started
in April upon an itinerary that will take him into every State for the
purpose of helping to set up a correlated Federal-State system of
extension broadcasting. The system is to be based upon the present
Federal and State cooperation with radio stations within each State
in broadcasting information to farmers and home makers. Three





DIRECTOR OF INFORMATION


States, Arizona, Massachusetts, and New York, had adopted modified
versions of the proposed arrangement at the close of the fiscal year.
These were in operation. Some 14 other State extension services
planned to start the correlated broandeat prograin by January 1, and
some 20 States remained to be visited by the radio extension specialist.
The showing is distinctly enc.ourtlaging in vi,\w of the fact that not
many extension services have the funds to hire editorial personnel
necessary to operate their part of such a service.
WHAT DOES THE FARM AUDIENCE WANT?
A small-scale experimental conducted in cooperation with station
WGY at Schenectady, N. Y., during February and March was de-
signed to investigate the various technics that might be employed in
the presentation of agricultural subject matter. The standard farm
flash method of the department releases was checked agnai ist eight
other methods of presentation. ThIe common-sensce judgimelnt from
the responses of 38 cooperating farmers-the number was too small
to be statistically significant--was that farmers want their informa-
tion straight, without much sugar-coating.
LAND-GRANT COLLEGE COOPERATION
The chief of the radio service has met with the radio committee of
the American Association of Land-Grant Colleges and Universities
at each of its sessions during the last two years. He joined with the
Director of Information and the Director of Extension Work in pro-
posing to the association late in 1930 an extensive survey of the land-
grant college broadcasting situation in order to mark out the wwisest.
line of future development in broadcasting by these institutions and
the department. The proposal was accepted by the association, and
the chief of the radio service was asked to serve on the organizing
committee for the survey.
While the radio-service work expanded during the year, as has been
described, the former activities of the organization were maintained-
and without increase in personnel. In fact, the writing personnel
was lessened by the appointment of Mr. Dailey as radio extension
specialist, for his place as a radio service writer was not filled.
NATIONAL FARM AND HOME HOUR
The department's pioneer network program in cooperation with:
the National Broadcasting Co. continued to expand during the year,
increasing from 39 to 44 associate National Broadcasting Co. sta-
tions. The time of the program was lengthened from 45 minutes to
1 hour, and the schedule fixed at 12.30 to 1.30 p. m., eastern standard
time. In all, 259 members of the department staff took part in the
"National Farm and Home Hour" broadcasts. The emphasis con-
tinued heavily upon economic analysis, and upon the news of the
special relief work and emergency recommendations that followed
in the train of the drought of 1930. The "National Farm and Home
Hour" continued to be an effective means of sending "rush" in-
format ion to rural people throughout the country east of the Rockies,.
and of making vivid and understandable the department's recom-
mendations of farming practices.





12 ANNUAL REPORTS OF DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

Development of the special monthly farm-and-home-hour programs
proceeded during the year. The monthly 4-H club program, pre-
sented on the first Saturday of each month, was strengthened by the
addition of a monthly music-achievement test period, played by the
United States Marine Band and announced by Ray Turner of the
Federal extension staff. With the approval of the Land-Grant Col-
lege Association, plans were laid to transform the monthly land-
grant college program into a specifically extension program with
adequate attention to research in agriculture and home economics.
The first program of the new series was broadcast after the close of
.the fiscal year under review.
SYNDICATE PROGRAMS
In 1930, for the first time in the history of the Radio Service, the
-syndicate programs were carried throughout the summer. Cooper-
ating radio stations were much pleased with this change of policy.
Radio now is a year-round communication medium.
The total number of stations assigned syndicate services on June
-30, 1931, was 234. Of these, 171 were broadcasting the daily House-
keepers' Chat;" 136, the daily "Farm Flashes;" 105, the three-
times-a-week "Farm Reporter" at Washington; 115, the weekly
"Uncle Sam at Your Service;" 99, the weekly "Primer for Town
Farmers;" 86, the biweekly "With Uncle Sam's Naturalists;" 121,
the biweekly Chats with the Weather man;" 115, the weekly Farm
Science Snapshots;" and 121, the monthly "Agricultural Situation
'Review."
Despite the fact that the radio cookbook was out of print for
nearly half the year, the mail from listeners to the syndicate pro-
:grams showed a great growth. During the year letters handled in the
office of the radio service alone in response to syndicate programs
numbered 103,892, while letters in response to network programs
totaled 47,174. Fully 725,000 came direct to the department mail
:room, not being referred to the radio service.
FURTHER ORGANIZATION WORK NECESSARY
It becomes apparent that we need closer contact with cooperating
radio stations than can be maintained by correspondence from Wash-
ington. The first trip of the radio extension specialist (not yet
completed) has so far revealed a few instances of sponsorship of
department syndicate programs, which have been immediately cor-
rected. The extension specialist has also found a disposition on the
part of some station managers to put department programs into the
less desirable hours of the broadcasting day. This situation can be
corrected only by having a local check on delivery of the programs,
such as is involved in the county-agent-cooperation angle of the plan
for correlation.
On the subject-matter side, there are two reorganizations needed
and they are partly in progress. One is involved in the correlation
plan, whereby the States will contribute much valuable subject mat-
ter not available anywhere in the department. The other is reorgan-
ization in order to codify and' make more easily available the infor-
mation from the bureaus and offices of the department itself.
Nowhere is there an index of department publications giving the





DIRECTOR OF INFORMATION


regional application and the timely value of information contained
in these publications. We have found it desirable to make such an
index ourselves. A blank is being prepared to be submitted to divi-
sion leaders for their use in classifying publications of their divisions.
for our purposes.
These two things-organization for better relations with the radio
stations, and organization for better distribution of applicable, timely
subject matter in the releases and the network programs-are prime
essentials to progress in agricultural education by radio. A third is
research into effective methods of presenting agricultural and home-
economics subject matter to the radio audience.
PERSONNEL CHANGES
Dana D. Reynolds was appointed agricultural writer on November
3, 1930, to fill the vacancy caused by the transfer of Solon R. Barber
to the Food and Drug Administration. On December 3, 1930, Helen
B. Crouch was appointed to prepare the radio housekeepers' pro-
grams formerly written by Josephine Hemphill, who resigned on
October 18, 1930, to enter commercial radio work. Helen Behringer,
secretary to the chief of the radio service, died on May 8, 1931.
BUREAU INFORMATION WORK

All information, of course, originates in the several bureaus of the
department. Some of the bureaus give information direct to the
public without clearing it through the Office of Information.
Weather reports and market news reports are examples of this type
of information. In my annual reports for 1929 and 1930 I gave in
detail the informational activities of the bureaus. There have been
no conspicuous changes in the arrangement explained in those two
reports.


U. S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 191h




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