The livestock and wool situation

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Material Information

Title:
The livestock and wool situation
Physical Description:
52 no. : ; 28 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
United States -- Bureau of Agricultural Economics
United States -- Dept. of Agriculture. -- Outlook and Situation Board
Publisher:
Bureau of Agricultural Economics, U.S. Dept. of Agriculture
Place of Publication:
Washington, D.C.
Publication Date:
Frequency:
monthly
regular

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Livestock -- Marketing -- Statistics -- Periodicals -- United States   ( lcsh )
Animal industry -- Statistics -- Periodicals -- United States   ( lcsh )
Wool industry -- Statistics -- Periodicals -- United States   ( lcsh )
Genre:
federal government publication   ( marcgt )
statistics   ( marcgt )

Notes

Statement of Responsibility:
Bureau of Agricultural Economics, United States Department of Agriculture.
Dates or Sequential Designation:
LWS-1 (May 1942)- LWS-52 (Dec. 1946).
General Note:
Title from caption.
General Note:
Approved by: Outlook and Situation Board, 1946.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 004884702
oclc - 01780425
lccn - 46034600
Classification:
lcc - HD9414 .A121
System ID:
AA00012196:00006

Related Items

Preceded by:
Livestock situation
Preceded by:
Wool situation (1937)
Succeeded by:
Livestock and meat situation
Succeeded by:
Wool situation (1947)

Full Text
. HE


-- SITUATION
BUREAU OF AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

___ JANUARY 1943


SPRING AND FALL PIG CROPS UNITED STATES 1924-43


KEAI[ift~ l|


1924 1926 1928 19c I,:" 1 1, 19: Ic.) 1942 1944
P 4Sr4 C 'l fL' MB Lr C L ''L --, 'J-:e V rF .. ... '..; .-ERAGCE
*,NlMAlu F 1 ._-" ._ i '** r,,t ,. 'r- .


GL DEAIlKT ElfO. *L -..u MC-


-4 *, Art.- cr iiCtIu-UaKCbfOMics


Hog production in 1943 will greatly exceed that of any previous year. The
1942 fall pig crop totaled 43.7 million head, 23 percent above the preceding record
fall crop in 1941: the number of hogs more than 6 months old on December I, 1942 was
the largest on record: and the number of sows indicated to farrow this spring is 24
percent above the spring farrowings in 1942. If the indicated farrowings are
realized and an average number of pigs is saved per litter, the 1943 spring pig crop
will total about 75 million head.


4' f i!-


___ I _I









HOG-CORN PRICE RATIO. CHICAGO. SOWS FARROWED DURING
SPRING AND FALL. AND AVERAGE LIVE WEIGHT OF HOGS
SLAUGHTERED. UNITED STATES. 1924-43


MILLIONS


PRICE
So rroed i he spring
I Sow.s rrowed in the spring, 1R"TIO


1927 1930 1933 1936 1939 1942
* 12-MONTH AVtEr 4C E E.: ierlrit OC TOCBaER OF FREC ECt' C Y EAR
BASED ON BrFE C.,. ..- '-'.TE, TO PIra : ESCORTED IL &ECEM f ER PiG c.'RVEY


U S DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


rdE:. 407'a BULRA OF AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS


Figure I.- Changes in the hog-corn price ratio are important in determining hog
production. The size of the spring pig crop is associated with the hog-corn price
ratio during the preceding fall. The ratio last fall was the most favorable since
1924, and farmers have indicated a large increase in spring farrowings in 1943. The
average live weight of hogs slaughtered under Federal inspection during 1942 was the
heaviest on record, reflecting the favorable relationship between hog and corn
prices.


o 0
POUNDS



235



225



215
1924








THE L 1.7 TOOK LA-N D WO- L SITUATION'


Summary-

Slaughter supplies of hogs in 1943 are expected to be much larger than

in any past year. According to the December pig crop report, the 1942 pig

crop totaled nearly 105' million head, 24 percent more than the 1941 erop:

breeding intentions reported by farmers on December 1 indicate an additional

24 percent increase in the 1943 spring crop. This increase in farrowings will

contribute to increased marketing in the last quarter of the year. Despite

the prospective large increase in slaughter supplies in 1943, hog prices are

expected to continue strong through the year.

Inspected hog slaughter in December totaled 6S. million head, the large

est monthly total on record. However, hog supplies so far in the 1942-43

marketing year have been running smaller than appeared probable on the basis

of the record largo 1942 spring pig crop. Inspected slaughter in the Octoberh

Deseber quarter totaled only 11 percent larger than a year earlier. Some

factors which may account for the smaller than expected increase in marketing

include: Feeding of hogs to heavy weights, delaying marketing; and the hold

ing back of more sows for breeding purposes this winter than last.

Slaughter supplies of grain-fed cattle are expected to be smaller thar

a year earlier for the next 2 or 3 months. But with the number of cattle on

feed January 1 somewhat larger than a year earlier and the largest on recordf-

supplies during the late spring and early summer probably will be larger.

rice' ceilings recently revised by the Office of Price Administration allow '

only a moderate premium for the top grades of beef, and the number of cattle'

fed to a high degree of finish probably will be small, TRtal cattle alanghtr

in 1943, however, probably will be larger than in 1942. Cattle prices -i1. 90

WMe SPete&d to SpntiZne at or near recent high levels.
i% ;, .. ,. ".:." '. "


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than the record number a yeak eOalter. The nnber on feed. in the Corkh'

was larger this year than last, but this increase was a little more than

offset by decreases in several Western States, particularly in the importantA

feeding areas of Colorado, Slaughter supplies of fed lambs during the late.4i

winter and spring probably will not differ greatly from a year earlier,

Volume of marketing of sheep and lambs in the remainder'of 1943 will depaii*

upon the size of this year s lamb crop and upon-whether the heavy marketing

of mature sheep continue, :

Mill consumption of apparel wool for civilian fabrics in the first

of 1943 will be somewhat larger .tan in the latter 6 months of 1942. if .

make full use of civilian quotas for the new rationing period which begins.:'ii

February 1, Since early 1942, consumption of wool for civilian use has bebi

limited to specific percentages of consumption in the first half of 1941.

quantity of wool used for civilian goods during 1942 was roughly one-half

1935-39 average, Mill consumption of apparel wool for combined military and

civilian uses totaled 969 million pounds (greasy shorn and pulled basis) ina:,

the first 11 months of 1942, about 100 million pounds more than in the

corresponding period of 1941. Consumption has been at a record high level 3

during most of the past 2 years because of largo military orders. Prices .o

domestic wool were mostly unchanged through the first week of January,

Prospects are for little change in 1943, with prices remaining close to
'I
coiling levels,

January 18, 194 "i
:
S i
1
.. K'.E
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...! '" "', g Pritsi S'to:riethon Sinc' Earl Docember

Hog prices have fluctuated sharply i
January woro higher than a month earlier bi
early October. One of the most noticoablo
%; wooks has boon the widening of the price sp
I. For 'the week ended January 9 this spread w.
a month earlier, The average cost of all h
January 9 was $14,50, compared with $13.55
year earlier.

Although hog prices in early January
December, the advance was accompanied by ri
price ratio was little changed from a monti
S Chicago prices for the week ended January 9
.. month earlier.

H(g Slaughter Doclines in Late December

Weekly-rate of hog marketing declir
lowest level since mid-November. Although
unusually largo, the full increase in the 1
shown up on the market. Reports from farmer
number of hogs over 6 months old on farms c
year earlier, Hogs new coming to market az
Apparently a much larer than usual proport
.. on.farms,

m:r rInspected hog slaughter in December
; 6.8 million head, 35 percent larger than in
year earlier. Inspected hog salaughter'in 1
16 percent more than in 1941 and slightly a
Despite these large marketing, the capacity
yet been a problem in handling the winter r

Prices of Lower Grade Cattle Advance,
Marketingr s Decline

Prices of the lower grades of slaugh
early December. Prices of upper grade catt
past month but continue near the levels of'
S Good grade beef steers at Chicago for the w
b n ndredweight, compared with $14.95 a month
Y: Prices of feeder cattle have continued about
I i market receipts have declined in recent wee
steers at Kansas City in early January was
early December,

Marketing of cattle have declined s
slaughter has been reduced considerably sin
holiday period, the weekly rate of inspect


Ln recent weeks. Prices in early
it below tho high loVol reached in
trends in hog prices during recent
)read between butcher hogs and sows,
Is 60 cents, compared with 5 cents
logs at Chicago for the week ended
in early December and $11.30 a


were higher than in early
.sing corn prices, and the hog-corn
Earlier. The ratio based upon
was 15.2 compared with 15.3 a




led during the holiday season to the
hog slaughter during Deccmb.:r was
.942 spring pig crop has not yet
trs on December 1 indicated that the
in that date was much larger than a
*e sorjewat heavier than last year,
ion of the spring pig crop is still


reached a new monthly record of
November and 18 percent above a
.942 totaled 53.9 million head,
Lbove the previous record of 1923.
;y of slaughtering plants has not
un of hogs,


Alter cattle have advanced since
le fluctuated moderately during the
early December. Average price of
eek ended January 9 was $15.00 per
earlier and. $12.75 a year earlier,
t steady since mid-December, but
ks. The average price of feeder
$12,40 compared with $11.95 in


easonnlly since October and calf
ce early December. During the
d cattle and calf slaughter


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LI-UCL1Uf.L U UcLU.L .L LL mj:JU L =.JL.L.LUfl dyr 111LU Lua LWS yUag.*J4q VU 4 GWJuq;W::lVt
below a year earlier, Inspected calf slaughter 14l De6ombel total36ed
head, 5 percent less than in November but 4 portent. more than in-3ocember
The number of cattle slaughtered under .cderal inspection daring 1942 total a
12,3 million head, the largest yearly slaughter on,,record. This compares
the total of 10.9 million in. 1941, Inspected slaug+tei. of calves last year
totaled 5.8 million head, which was more than in 19 41 but below the 1937 Ir
record total of 6,3 million head.

Imort Quotas on Mexican Cattle Removed

Quota restrictions on all classes of cattle imported from Mexico will:
be removed effective January 30 under the new. trade agreement announced thi.S|.
month between United States and Mexico, An earlier agreement with Canada, r
which became effective January 1, 1939,'limited imports of heavy cattle
(700 pounds up) at the reduced rate of duty of 1-1/2 cents per pound from ..::I
countries other than Canada (chiefly Mexico) to not more than 8,280 head
quarterly or 31,050 head annually. All entries in excess of the quotas we:.:
required to pay the full duty of 3 cents per pound. Most of the cattleo..i::i
imported from Mexico are feeder cattle (200 to 699 pounds), however, on whiif
the duty has been 2 cents per pound. The now agreement will permit the
unrestricted import of Mexican cattle at the reduced rate of 1-1/2 cents
per pound, regardless of weight, N

For many years United States has been the principal foreign market fot
Mexican cattle, and during recent years exports to the United States'have ?0
about half as large as the commercial cattle slaughter in Mexico, Howevery:,.:iJ
exports from Moxico probably will not be increased greatly by the reduction
duty, because the United States has received nearly all of Mexico' s exportl.a1
surplus of cattle in recent years,

Table 1.- Annual exports of cattle from Mexico, 1934-2 -
-
Year Total Exports to United States
: Number Number

1934 : 60,413 59,739
1935 : 264,727 264,330
1936 : 176,787 176. 464
1937 : 192,928 192,764
1938 : 293.169 292,890 .
1939 a 541,187 50,893 .
1940 : 417,996 17,96
1941 a 543,705 542,701
1942 : I 450,000

If Preliminary estimate,






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..~ eP.d"L a ad ande; '.:
ter Large
S: b.. bpoe 6e' hbve advanced since mid-December to the highest level since
S.:. 'e ave a..nge price of Good and Choice grade slaughter lambs at Chicago .
i,;'& a~t Jauary was $15.70 per hundredweight, compared with $15.20 in mid-
December and $12,75 year earlier, Prices of slaughter ewes have advanced
seince.early December, when the original price ceilings were removed. In carly:li
a ,'..'fnia y'-priles of Good and Choice grade slaughter owes at Chicago averaged
':: about $,15, compared with $7.55 in-oarly December.

p. pctod slaughter of sheep and lambs declined in late Docember to the
.lowst eekly rate since last summer, but slaughter for the month was
m ax 3l large, totaling 2.2 million head, 2 percent larger than in November "|i
-.'.S g 3 trezent above a .year earlier. Inspected slaughter in 1942 totaled .'
23.!'.,6 mlion head, .3.5 .million.more than in 1941 and 4.0 million more than
.t6 ti9357-4 average, Although thp 1942 lamb crop was unusually large, the
"' a~~ .& s laughte; was accomplished by liquidation of many ewes and ewe lambs
6.' AP ordi'arily would have been retained as breeding stock. The proportion
ef. & peep in total slaughter accounted for a considerable part of the increased *'
Aig ~ter. 'Sheep made up over 20 percent of the inspected slaughter in
4o:n: ... emaer compared with 9 percent a year earlier,

A. fe' of eats and Meat Products by
^.\ -'VSmAjii 1_941 and 1942 ;

P lrchases of pork products. by the Department of Agriculture for lend-
a:.: e. b &od' Cross, and other distribution during-1942 totaled a little more
SlA 1'.5 million pounds, compared with the 1941 total of slightly less than
500 million pounds.. Converted. to a. dressed -weight basis, 1942 purchases were ;:
:l uivalent to approximately 25 percent of the por-: produced under Federal .
:: inspection daring the year..-

~.: About twice as much lard and rendered pork fat was purchased by the
.: Department of Agriculture last year as in 1941. As shown by the accompanying..:.:::
table inspected lard production was about 175 million pounds largest than in. '.
.. 19h1. this increase partly offsetting the 100 percent increase in purchases.

Practically ng beef, veal, lamb, or =mtton were purchased for lend-
lease, or bther distribution.by the Department of Agriculture in 1941. Pur- ...
^'; "O ^:eases of these meats.wore stepped up sharply in 1942, but they still
,. raenl.ed. a relatively small part of the yeart s production. More than half
i: e" the 4 beef purchases was included in the moat portion of canned rations,,'j,!

Meat products purchased by the Government for lend-lease must moot
f; federal requirements. HInco, procurement can be made only from plants
OpeO rating tder Federal inspection. Last yoarts purchases of meat and lard
r; prosonreod about.15 porcont of the federally inspected production of those '
:,.;4".;.:.' 3.b,",.o t t.hy wero equivalent to only about 10 percent of the total ::
Ou ctnt ilud ng tho prnAbjti.on from farm, local, and nnninspoctod whoiosalo's1



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uepartmenT agrigujeur, ... ". ..:' ".

Item 1941 19'


d Miljlo 1pounca1

Purchases, actual weight i/ ::
Pork Canned ................................: 224.8g 1,008.0:
Cured and frozen :
Hars and shoulders ..................: 94.1 105.
Loins ...............................: .0 17 -~:
Bellies and jowls ...................: 117.0 108 ;5i
Plates and backs ....................: 9 9.0 105.O
Wiltshire sides ..................-..: 24.7 3.13 i
Miscellaneous cuts ..................: .0 : 'i8.8|
Trimm-L: gs ............................: .0 4 0
r -.r .:c ::;


il. . . ...... ... ...
Total ........................... 7 .8
Beef Canned ................................: 0.0
Cured and frozen ....................: .7


Offal .........................
Total ........................


Veal, frozen carcasses .......................:
Lamb and r: ton. frozen carcasses ...........:
Canned rations ...............................:
Miscellaneous sausage products ...............:
Lard and rendered pork fat .................
Beef tallow products .........................:

Purchases, dressed weight equivalent/ :
Pork .........................................
Beef ......................................... :
Veal .......................................... :
Lamb and mutton ..............................
Federally inspected production (dressed weight)
Pork .........................................
Beef .........................................
Veal ...... ... ... ............................. :
Lanb and mutton .............................:
Lard ...................................... ...
Purchases as percentage of inspected production':
Pork .........................................
Beef ......................................... :
Veal ..........................................
Lamb and mutton .............................:
Lard and rendered pork fat ...................:


.0

0&1
.7
Oil

3
.0
326.2
2/


559.6
2.4
0.1
2/

6,344.6
5.739.2
599. .
750.1
1,525.9
Percent

2/

211


1
2.28:

32.70

654.0A.
* 21.5.11


1 898.0
42.2
2.2
39.2

'7,600.Q
'6,320o.0?
f 675.Q:3
' 880.0;

P.goerc0'"
25.0.

44

A


SBased upon unpublished data opmpiled4 by. the Livestock and Meatt i'S
Distribution Administration.
2 Less than 50,000 pounds.
31 Excludes miscellaneous products not ordinarily included in 4resem V.
production figures, but includes meat portion of manufactured prodeifte
to dressed weight basis.
4/ Preliminary.
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0AoW'-i i* f FPrk and Lard
.h.rea,.e esonally in Dece.ber

S The na't trstorage movement of pork during December amounted to 196
million pounds.,. raising pork stocks on January 1 to 488 million pounds.
Although the January 1 figure was slightly larger than the 469 million pounds
Sin storage. on that. date last year, it was smaller than the January 1 average
for 1931-40 and was small compared with the record December hog slaughter.

li?^: Cold-storage holdings of lard and rendered pork fat increased from 57
million pounds on December 1 to 91 million pounds on January 1. January 1
sii to'cks were only about half as large as a year earlier and were considerably
i:.'"below average for that date.

OUTLOOK HOGS

SBACKGROUND.- Hog production in 1943 is expected to be substan-
tially larger than the record 1942 production. In mid-October
farmers were asked to increase their 1943 spring farrowings by
.( 10 percent, but because of the increasing demand for hog prod-
ucts, 1943 hog goals .were revised upward in late November and
an increase of 15 percent over this year's record nig crop was
requested. At the same time a price-support program designed
to assure farmers a continued high price for hogs through
September 1944 was announced. Attainment of 1943 goals has
"been greatly facilitated by the favorable hog-corn price ratio
.': .. during the past year as well as by the large supply of feed
i. grains, especially corn, now available to hog producers. The
goal for hog slaughter this year calls for slaughter of
about 100 million hogs, compared with an estimated slaughter of
about 80 million. in 1942 and a 1936-40 average of 63 million.
Fi" farmers have been asked also to increase by at least 10 pounds
: the average weight of hogs slaughtered-

.142 Pg Crop Largest on Record

SThe 1942 pig crop totaled nearly 105 million head, 24 percent larger
:thanio the 1941 crop and about W4 percent above the 1931-40 average. Farrowings
in'bth the spring and fall seasons were larger in all areas than in 1941. .i
S The greatest increase (65 percent of the total) occurred in the North Central .
: .State., where 21 percent more pigs were saved than in 1941. The spring pig
r::p ~s estimated at slightly over 61 million head, 24 percent larger than in .i
1941 and the largest on record. The fall crop totaled 43.7 million head, 23
pei ".':.'Ce t laUger than the previous record fall crop in 1941 and 60 percent above .
Sthe 1931-4i average.

.. r 194-3 Soring Pig Cron Indicated

d. upon breeding intentions reported by farmers about December 1 and ;:
i" :. t, iationship'between breeding intentions and subsequent farrowings ,I
o ]:" o .l 8ye: ,-the number of sows to farrow in the sring of 1943 is indicated
;: Q b. o 1e 12 million head, 24 percent larger than the 1942 spring farrowings
a,!!' s 59:. pe~nat above the 1931-40 average.' If an average number of pigs is
ne a.er B.t er.. tter,-the 1943 spring crop would total about 75 million pigs. This
w^A4^ Buzcl the average combined snring and fall crops during the period
.. t of- the expected increase in farrowings is in the North Central
S ... j.






.JAJRAY iy U -.. "' ,., j"'" '.... ",::,a
States, particularly the western Corn Beit where morethan half f the 'tot4
increase will occur. Even with. the expected increaai:o ir:ovib eg in some o. ,
the West North Central States will be lower than In e-drought-y ar.s.

Table 3.- Sows farrowed during the spring seas, `br regi6oels ,
1931-40 average, 19~0-3 .

1943 as
Region :1931-40 1950 ; 1941 :1942 195 3 a s
: p 1cen4 : .94
Lave rage:. I
: ,Thou- Thou- Thou- Thou- Thou- 'i
: hands snds sands sand sands Percent

North Central States :
East ............. 1,886 2,303 2,120 2,467 2,965' 120
West ......... :--.780 ,791 3.06 4,86 5.905 126
Total ........ 5,.66 6,094 5,82 7,153 8,870 1*24 '
:- '.-~ ,- -- -- -- ~-- ---...
Other regions '
North Atlantic ....: 125 144 118 144 195 136 :
South Atlantic ....: 527 575 519 634 770 122
South Central .....: 1,001 1,083 959' 1.313 1.655 126
Vest ................ 288 347 34 424 5 12
Total ........: 1,91 2,149 910 2,515 3.157 125'
United States total :7,607 8,243 7,736 9,668 12,027 124 1i
--- 4
I/ Indicated December 1, 19.

Ho Slaughter in 1943 Erected to Set '
New High Record '

Hog slaughter under Federal inspection in 1943 may total more than' 70 :i
million head and total slaughter may reach the goal of about .100. million head iA
on the basis of the December.1 pig crop report. This compares with a. total.
inspected slaughter of 53.9 million head-in 1942 and the previous record 6f
53.3 million in 1923.
A forecast of federally inspected hog slaughter at this time is ,'
complicated by several factors. The meat limitation order now in eafe'et ',
restricts meat sales to civilians by commercial slaughterers dun.:lag t 'e fat|
quarter of 1943 to 70 percent of their deliveries in the. same"priod 6 .,l ..i
Since honinspected plants cannot sell to Government procurement agencies,.
slaughter by these firms is in effect limited to this percentage. As.stnJ : .
that this limitation or its equivalent .will continue'in effect for the'i"hti
year, a somewhat larger than usual proportion of the commercial hog dlaughtert
will be diverted to federally inspected plants. Recently there has. bee a
considerable shift of packing plants to the inspected category undar t,
'.Act which permits plants not ordinarily doing an interstate business 't, .i
Federal inspection. .
.* "* .. ::4'. '
The full 24 percent increase in the 1942 spring-pig ,c.r; ;
shown up at the market. The December 1 report from f"areris A-tQ s
then a much larger number of' hogs over 6 months old& on f..: ;
kA IL






jia~j~'0 :Coasidelrable unumiers of hogs apparently have been held on farms. The
ptstimate ob hog numbers o0 farms on JanuIry 1 (to be published in mid-February)
will give some indication of how much holding back has occurred and of the
..;* umber of hogs.to. be marketed during the late winter ar.& spring. An unusually
:. large pmunbbr of bogs probably will.be marketed in February and IMarch.

0... s iceiL a Placec on Corn; Provisions
S idet lncofrelase Con Su:y l

Co. prices advanced sharply during late December and early January.
S.. Jai;uay',i3 the Office of Price Administration established temporary ceiling
prices for corn at the highest prices prevailing o:n January 11 at terminal
Markets and at the highest prices paid during the perio6L January 8 to 12 at
local markets. With little prospect for higher hog prices because of ceilings
on pork and lard prices, increased corn prices would have resulted in a lower-
ing of the hog-corn price ratio. Within 60 days, a permanent regulation based
; on approximately $1.00 ner bushel for No. 3 Yellow corn at Chicago will be
issued.. With the. ceiling on corn prices and the support rice of $13.25 per
Shiadredweight for Good and Choice grade hogs weighing 2-O4 to 270 pounds, the
hog-corn price ratio, Chicago basis, probably will aot fall below 13.2. This
is moderately higher than the long-time average of 11.6, generally considered
the breaking n-oint between a favorable and an unf-.vornr-le ratio.

The Department of Agriculture has issued regulations which will permit
Corn Belt farmers cooperating in the Agricultural Adjustment Administration
.program to overplant their 1943 corn allotments without penalty, provided they
have planted up to their goals'in war crops. Corn loans in 1943 will be made
S at the full rate outside con:ercial corn areas, wherever farm storage is
:., feasible. -These change take into account the indicated increase in the 1943
ii,.'. -'":sApilng pig crop and th3 need for sufficient feed grains for a continued large
sij'fo .livestock production.

''Tabi: e ale 4.- Hog and corn prices and hog-corn price ratios at
S. .. Chicago, specified periods

rid:.. eiOd or assumed : Price of hogs : Price of No, 3 Yellow: Hog-corn price
.. ce level : per 100 pounds: corn per bushel : ratio
dollarss Cents

9::; 24-4 .........: 8.26 73.6 11.4
: 1911 ,..4........ 9: q.45 70.4 13.4
S1914........ 13.70 83.3 16.4
....,Sp1aber 94.2 ....: 1445 .4.1 17.2
c,;. tr .' ...... 14.98 77.3 19.4
: 6: mba 42 1 ......: 13.96 80.5 17.3
b .6... .'1. ......: 14.01 89.4 15.7
a, Weat' eded *' .
Jau. ary9,t.941 : 14.49 95.1 15.2
Hogsl at swport
.. mel, COrn at : :
I:': ... : 4 ...,..: 1 13.25 100.0 13.2
.. ...l.~.i.iDtra en of. Agrici tur has insured a price level of $1j.25 average,
i;":.. Ohi... E o ia4, for Good and Choice grade butcher hogs weighing 240 to 270
1 ,*a'&s W -t4 September 30, 1944.
,. ..:. .11:.. -:S,.









Although hog slaughter will be very large,.. time ae"ud is expetti
to prevent a large price decline, However, in rect weeks g prices ha
been rather sensitive to changes'in slaughter.supplip, and large incre
in marketing might result in somewhat lower price.,. i:j st (o;od and '
Choice grade heavy butcher oogs (240-270 pounds) at &:Ch: a;wllbe supported
at $13.25 by the Department of Agricultures Consequently~.,hog, prices duringgi
1943 are expected to fluctuate above this minimum level (oCtr3~i ar ets' may.
lower or higher, depending on maeret differentials) and~obelow the high level
reached last fall.

OUTLOOK OATT.I

BACK~ROUID.- Cattle and calf slaughter in 1942 was the la t:; .. ~
on record, but numbers on farms at the beginning of 1943pro'i 3 ..
were larger than in any previous year. The wartime need for' T
mar.t is great. Taking into .account the probable supply of' ..
ca s.e, 1943 slaughter goal foj cattle and cal4es was'.~et 'at a' ::
little over 30 million head, In May 1942 beef price ceilingsi- ..:,.:
were established at the highest March prices. In Decenber the i...
price ceilings were changed to a .specific dollars and cents
basis, with regional and grade differentials. Uhe strong
demand for beef has held live cattle prices near the highest
levies permitted by beef ceilings, -

Cattle on Feed January 1'Largest on Record .

GC,:tle feeding operations during the 1941-42 feeding season will hbe-'";,
larger than in any previous year. According to reports received from farae
the number of cattle on feed in the Corn Belt. States on January 1 this year'i
was ,8 percent larger than a year earlier and the largest on record. The
increase in the Corn Belt was partly offset by a decrease of 11 percent ts.:o
11 Western States, but for the country as a whole the number. dh feed Jama
was larger than on that date in any previous year. Cattle feeding was
in all Western States except.California, but in other States where cattle
feeding is important the number on feed was larger than last year. .
the increase in the Corn Belt occurred in States west of the Missouri-.."i
where corn supplies this -year were up to levels of the pre-drought pe~sita

Reports from the Corn Belt indicate that the $ncpease in battle' f.e'
ing'this year result from an increase in the number 6d fqrms feeding E ottl";
rather than from an increase in feeding by regular cattle'f eeerp.P 'tipmOen
of feeder cattle into the Corn Belt during December were'smaller th4 a.y
earlier, but the movement during the last :6 months of 1946 was materia'r:
larger than in 1941 and about the same as in 1939 and 1940,

Large Cattle Slaughter Expected in 1943

On the basis of the reported weights of cattle on feed this .s .
compared with last, it appears that a much smaller number of fed oafltwt.
marketed in January and Yebruar than a. year earUlie, bat -iw will '


.... .. ... ... '.. ..'




S'- 13 -


.in March and later months. There was a relatively large carry-over of long-fed
cattle on farms on January 1, 1942, which resulted in heavy marketing during
the early part of the year.

Although the number of cattle on feed on January 1, 1943 was larger than
a year earlier, it appears that the number of long-fed, well-finished cattle
marketed in 1943 will be smaller than last year. Present beef price ceilings
permit only a moderate premium for highly finished beef, and the number of
Cattle fed to heavy weights probably will be small.

S' The 1943 cattle and calf slaughter goal is a little over 30 million
head, including more than 20 million cattle and 10 million calves. The number
S of cattle and calves on farms at the beginning of the year was probably the
I .'" largest on record, and the slaughter goal can be reached without impairing a
;large production in future years. The number of cattle and calves slaughtered
- :... this year will depend to a considerable extent upon whether the tendency to
h. hold back cattle and calves for herd-building purposes continues in 1943.

SW eatherr and range feed conditions may be important factors affecting
marketing from The Western States during the coming year. Ranges are believed
Sby some to ba stocked nearly to capacity. If weather conditions are less
Favorable than in the preceding 2 years, rather heavy marketing from this area
might result. Cattle numbers in the Corn Belt and many of the Eastern States
are much larger than any other year, and.with labor shortages and other
production problems becoming increasingly acute, heavy marketing from these
S States also may occur.

S Cattle Price Outlook Favorable in 1943

Catt.le prices in 1943 may continue near recent levels. Revised beef
price ceilings have been in effect long enough to give some indication as to
what live cattle prices the beef ceilings may reflect. On the basis of present
p:. rices, it appears that prices of lower grade cattle wiill average near or above
.* those generally prevailing last fall, but that prices of the upper grades may
continue near the December level. The strong wartime demand for all meats is
expected to hold live cattle prices during 1943 to near the maximum levels
permitted by beef price ceilings even though marketing should be exceptionally
Large.

OUTIOOE S,-3? ADM LAiBS

-BACKGROUND.- -umber of sheep on farms at the beginning of 1942
? was the largest on record. However, because of unfavorable
weather conditions during lambing time, the lamb crop vas a
Little smaller than the 1941 crop. lMarketings of sheep and lambs
were increased sharply during the fall and winter because many
ewes and ewe lambs which ordinarily would be kept in breeding
flocks were slaughtered. Sheep and lamb slaughter since July
has been by far the largest on record. Despite this large
slaughter, lamb prices in recent months have been maintained at
S the highest level reached in more than 10 years. Ceiling -prices-
-for lamb were established in Agugst 1942.

Mo "







Sheep nd Leabs on Feed JPnuary 1 Largo

lTumber of sheep and lambs on feed for market on January 1 totaled
about 6.8 uilion hoad, 2 purcl,,t snmller then P year earlier but larger
than any other year. The number on feed in the Corn Belt amounted to
about 4.2 million head, 8 percent lrrgcr than a yerr earlier, but this
increase -'Ps nore then offset by a decrcpse'in othur areas. Number on
feed in the Western States nrs smaller than a year earlier in all States
except C2liforni., the decline being especially sharp in Colorado.

Woethor conditions on J;nuary 1 in the Corn Belt States nere generally
favorable f-r limb feeding op .r.tions, but lrte December storms in the
Southern Gr-'t Plrins te' t.r orparily delayed n.rAeti ns. Excessive mois-
ture in Novc..bor and D--aiber in most of the Intermournt.in and North Pacific .
States r?.s unfavorable to pasture and open lot feeding. Reports from all
Western States indicate th-t the c..ndition of range sheep on January.1 was
slightly bclo-,' average for thrt date.

Trble 5.- Sheep and laibs on feed January 1, by regions, 1935-43

Ye.r Corn Belt Western States :New York : Total
:_: : United States
T'r henus ndE Thiusg.nd s Thulhids tusands i

1935 3,370 2,249 50 5,669
1936 : 3,262. 2,389 50 5,701
1937 : 2,793 2,754 50 5.597
1938 : 3,281 2,765 45 6,091
1939 3,201 2,639 45 5,885
1940 3,159 2,642 4o 5,841
1941 3: ,681 2,744 5 6,479
1942 3,898 2,985 45 6,928
1943 4,226 2,506 49 6,781


Sheep Slaughter in 1943 May 3e Largn;
Prices to Continue High

Slaughter of fed sheep and la.,bs during the next fe' months may be
smaller than a year earlier because of the smaller number on feed. Usually
there is a rather close relationship between the number of sheep and lambs
on feed January 1 and marketing for slaughter from January through April.
However, 'ith some liquidation of breeding stock apparently continuing
into 1943, total slaughter during this period may be larger than a year
earlii.r. -

Attain~nnt of the 1943 slaughter goalfor sheep end lambs of 24.1
million head vill result in some further reduction in sheep and lamb num-
bers. Apparently shortages, especially of skilled labor, have caused much
of the liquidation since last sumner,.and if such marketing continue dur-
ing 1943, slaughter nould be unusually large and sheep numbers would be
considerably reduced.

Prices nf sheep and lambs in 1943 are expected to continue near or
above the levels of last December. Sheep prices relative to the December ,







o*w.:s:'...::ragvr :*pro6'bitby' ill continue higher than lamb prices. But with the
prospective strong demand for meats, prices of both sheep and lambs should ".:
S continue near the maximum permitted by price ceilings.

THE WOCL SITUATION
%....
I Prices Mostly Unchanged in Past Month

.- Quoted prices for low 1/4 blood end coarser domestic wools at Boston
'LV dancedd 1 to 2 cents a pound (grease basis) in late December. Prices of
'other grades were mostly unchanged through the second week of JEnupr". The
'awarding of Government contracts from time to time resulted in sples of
&':.'' aestic and foroien wools, but quantities sold were r-.latively small.
up::" ted prices for fine staple ctbing territory wools remained unchPnced
'"at $1.18-$1.20 a round (scoured basis) through the first -'.-;< of Jrnuary
Compared with $1.16a pound a year earlier. Qpoted prices on .,/ blood comb-
ing fleece wools were unchanged at 53 ccnts a pound greasee basis) compared
with 51.5 cents a pound in Jenuary 1941. Market prices of wool h-ve been
under ceilings since December 13, 1941, ?nd prices heve been plose to ceil-
ing levels during e good part of this time.

Average price received by farriers for rool on December 1l w-s 35.7
cents a pound, unchanged since September. The December pric., rs 2.6 cents
,; :'e. pound higher then e year cerlii.,r. With prices of most wols close to
ceiling levels, prices in 1923 are not expected to cnr:'ngo gr~-tly.

S Aistrsli.n Wools Sold Pt Boston Auctions;
S Prices Slightly Below Ceilings

&;, Two auctions of -,F.trr Lamiagci Austrplirn Trool -':re held at Boston
J- during the past :.icnth for .-ccount of th.ie Dlfe3ns- Supplies CorpoTrtion.
S. -Al"out 4.6 million pounds were offer-d onf Dcc.uibe-r 18 and 3.8 million pounds
-: on January 5. All ools re solsure so; r feo lts passed up on first bidding Q4
:. weree renffered ar nd solid t the close of the Puction. Wools ur?.dinr 64s
i:- I. .dnd finer solid mostly p.t ceillr. r.rices, figured pt present British Control
prices plus inrorting costs pnd 10 poerc nt mark-up for protection of
Y -. .de le rs. Prices on -ool s grpding 60,-64s -.nd 53o-60s pverrgcd 4 cents and
S 2 cents per pound, roso--ctively, belor ceilings Pt the JPnupry sal?.

Un ited Status Will Purchase Wool Cariry-Over
.to Bolster Uruguey Fconony

v.*... ". The United .States Government will purchas.- the unsold bal-nce of "
bout 30 million pounds of Uru.guy wool from the 1941-42 clip anc' will :
also take a portion of the 1942-47 clip if the wool remains uinsol on
June 30, 1943. The purchase is b.in,7 hrzdTdled by the Defense Suoplies
-Qorpidation. It is being made to strengthen the eccnony of this South
aeten'. :' ie country. 'Wool is. one of Ur'guey's chief experts and sources of
&::i.'. 'fr'-:g."einge. "Before the war mnre then four-fifths of the vool clip
': an :sexported t't continental European countries, Japan, and the United
ingdom. With thess markets lrrz-ly cut off, disposPl of the clip has pro-
ented a diaficult problem. United States dealers and nmnufacturers took


4' : "" : .: ,







bY ... ---" 'j-d, -" ....- --
sharply in 1942, and large stocks remained on. handle in Uruguay at.the begin
ning of the new season on. October 1, 1942.

Mill Consumpti-n Continues at Near Record
Rate ir Noveuber

Mill cornsum.ption of apparel xwo)l averaged 11.1 million pounds a
week (scoured basis) in November, coupered with 11.3 million pounds in-
October nrd the record July average of 11.5 million pounds. The November
rate of consu-pti-n -vPS 9 percent higher than in November 1941.. More than
half of the :-w11 con;ur.ed in N-veanber was domestic wool, the highest pro-
portion sinco J-nupry 1941. The requirement that Army orders placed in
September and October be filled with domestic rools probably accounts for '
the increased use of these rools.

CGnsunption of epprel rool on a greasy shorn and pulled basis
totpled 969 nilll in pounds in the first 11 nmnths of 19 2, about 100 mil-
lion porunrs lr.rer then in 'he corresponding period of 1941. About 478
million pounds of domestic ',ool were used. C'nsunption for 1942 was well .
over a billion pounds, a no-' record.

Consiu.mption of carpet nool totaled 55 million pounds (grease besis)
in the first 11 months of 1942, less than one-third as large as in the same..
months last year. Carpet vorl is not used extensively for military pur-
poses and. 3nr.unption for civilian use is limited by conservation orders
if the W'r P;rod:.uction EBoCrd.

19L2-43 CIVILIA.IT TOOL CONSUPTIOIN QJOTAS I/

Mill CnnsLr..pti. n fnr Civilian Use tLIy Be
Ir.croa.sc in First Half of 19 .7

Mill consumption of woo;l for civilian fabrics will be somewhat
larger in the first half nf 1943 than in the second half of 1942 if mills
make full use of civilian quotas for the new rationing period which begins .
February 1. The increase is limited to the worsted section. Quotas for
the_i'oolen section and for the manufcture of floor coverings remain un-
changed.

In the 6 nr.nths FebruAry 1-July 31, 1943, a worsted manufacturer
nay use an pj.inunt of '703 equal to 30 percent of his basic quarterly pound-,I
pge v/ in the production of fabrics for civilian use without restriction
as to fiber content, and in addition he may use 40 percent of his basic
poundage in the production of blended fabrics containing not more than 65
percent of new -'ool. In the 6 nrnths, August 1942 through January 1943,

1/ Wool is defined by the War Production Board for the purpose of Conserva-:i
tion Or.-er M-73 to include fiber of the sheep or lanb, or hair of the cash -
mere coat ',r c o-rl, or the alppca, llana, vicuns and related fibers, but ,.
does nit include niils or reworKed or reused wool or mohair. Until Angust,::
1942 mohair '-as included.
2 Basic quPrt,-rly poundage equals one-half the quantity used by the manU-I'-.-
fecturer in the first 6 months of 1941.






RlktiW % WWiZI a eretit of the basic poundage for unrestricted use and
:" .... per et to llended fabrics. The 6-months quota for woolen mills re-
'' ains changed at 5 percent of the basic poundage for unrestricted use
and 25 percent for production of blended fabrics. These percentages may
be increased by the use of coarse wools (not finer than 44s) and certain
special fibers. It is estimated th-t the quantity of wool used for
civilian goods during 1942 was roughly one-half the 1935-39 average.

I civilian Quotas Based on Mill Consumption
in January-June, 1

Mill consumption of apparel wool has been at a record high level
L|P' throughout most of the past 2 years because of large military orders.
S.Since early 1942, consumption for civilian use has be'n limited tV specific
,,; percentages of consumption in thu first half of 1941. During the first
quarter of 1942, consumption by the worsted section was limited to 50 per-
Scent of the basic quarterly poundage and consumption by the woolen section
was limited to 40"percent.


Consumption of wool was at a relatively high levnl in.194l. A com-
parison of mill consumption of apparel and carpet wool for the 1941 base
period tth that 'f 1935-39 is shovn in table 6. The 1941 rate -as 71 per*
cent higjner than the 1935-39 average for the worsted section and 81 percent1
higher for the woolen section.

Table 6.- Mill consumption of apparel and carpet wool, scoured basis,
United States, average 1935-39, Jpnuary-June 1941

: 1935-39 wcr.g : J Y- n e 71 .- 'l :PFrcent 1941
Class and system :Yearly Qurterly: Tt.=l Iuarterly: rate is of
S :. : aver: -e : 1935-39
:1,000 b. 1,000 lb. 1,000 lb. 1,000 lb. Percent


t


S Apparel wool
Worsted system .....: 191,170 47,792
Woolen system ......: 89,60 22,490
Total .........: 81,130 70,262

Carpet wool ......... 95,960 23,990


162,990
81 61,0
244,b20


81,495 171
40,815 181
122,310 174


S68,610 34,305


Compiled from wo-l consumption reports of the Bureau of the Census.

Table 7.- Estimated basic quarterly poundage by systems 1


Item


Worsted .............:
Woolen / ...........:
Flo-r coverings ......:


: Derived from consumption of
S Wool : Mohair and other : T tal
:(sheep and lamb): animal hair 2/ :
1f. lb. i- Ib. Mi.


81.5
4o.3
30.3
h.1 .


87.5
42.3
36.,


One half the quantity consumed in the first half of 191.
SEstimates based on Census of ManufPctures and other information.
5j Includes cotton and felt systems.


......t


_I/









.b.




l b = ....'
i=. ":


..i
041
:4 .














'"-
= ii













.;


S2'


-.ii



"' '








of 1942 and through January 1943 the quotas wet:,o ratherr reduced, 'but .. 'i"
through bonuses provided for blending other fibej~i.tS ith wool the total
quantities available were inc:'eased slightly ever those of the.previous
period. The percentage for the several rationing periods are shown in
table 8, as reported in Conservation Order M-73 and also converted to an
equivalent quarterly basis.

Table 8.- Wool: Mill quotas for civilian use, 1942-43, expressed
as a percentage of basic quarterly poundage iJ/

: Quota for period 27 g ;artrly rate approimat
A Vollen, ; Woolen, :
Period Floor F oolen, loor:
: Worsted : cotton, : : Worsted: cotton, i
: or felt :ove rings etc. :Coverin
: Percent Percent Percent Percent Percent Percent
1942 :
Jan. L-Anr. 4 / ....: 50 40 50 50 40 50 :
Apr. 5-J.ly 4 / .... 20 10 25 20 10 25
July 5-Aug. 2 6/ .....: 6 3 7 20 10 23
37 3: '."'! ,


Aug. 3-Jan. 31, 1943 :
Quota ..............: 20 5
Bonus 5/ ...........: 25 25
Supplementary 6/
Quota ............. : 5
Bonus 5/ ........... : --
6 months total 4/ : 55 30


50
---


10
12.5


--- 2.5

50 27.5


2.5
12.5


25 :


15 25


1943 -
Feb. 1-May 2
Quota ............. : 15 2.5 25 15 2.5
Bonus 5/ ...........: 20 12.5 --- 20 12.5
May 3-July 31
Quota ..............: 15 2.5 25 15 2..5
Bonus 5/ ............ 20 --- 20 12.5
6 months total / : 70 30 50 35 15


25
2-5

25.*
25 4i
25-


1/ Basic quarterly poundage equals one-half the quantity used for all purposes dut
ing the first 6 months of 1941.
2/ As stated in Wool Conservation Order M-73 and amendments.
3/ The order for the first 3 months of 1942 provides that aggregate of defense and:,
nondefense orders should not exceed 80 percent of basic poundage unless specifi-
cally authorized by Director of Priorities. But unlimited production was permitted
to firms working only on defense orders.
i For all systems except floor coverings quotas maybe increased in proportion "t
the amount of coarse wools used (wools grading 44s and coarser and coarse alpaca"
and llama).
/ May be used only in blended fabrics with a maximum wool content of 65 percent.
6 Consuiption Order M-73 as amended December 10, 1942.
,1


> ..':a :









. \


>** +*'.*.

.I ?.- .,.,.











.* ,
;*;i:. [.





"r'; i^ ", ,








, i .


LtS-9


With data on mill consumption during the base period (January-June
1941) ?nd maximum percentages to bc used during each consuziption p riod
it is possible to 'estimate nsximu, civilian consumption quotas for rw
wool for 1942 and the ePrly part Tf 1943. These estimates arc shown in
table 9. The quotas for the various periods are shrvn in three pprts:

(1) The basic quota.

This quantity may bo used without restrictions as tn
.grades or fiber content of fabrics produced.

(2) Bonus for blending.

This quantity is in addition ti the basic qul-t-. It
may be used only in the production of fabrics in thich r.ew
vnol i-s blended nith re-or:Kd .nd reused wnol ar.d rith
theirr fibers, .ith a r.pximu., nom wrool content of 65 p.-rcr-nt.

(3) Bonus for-use of course. ool.s.

W8n1l conserva.ti -n order M-73 provides that with the
use of each pound 'f v'rl grading 44s and coerser and coarse
alpeca and llmma, the mill 2hall be ontitl.d to use in addi-
tion to its quota 2 pounds of such material if operating on
the worsted system and 5 pounds of such material if operating
on the woolen system. This bonus does not vpply to quotas
based on wool used'in the production of floor coverings.


- 19 -


I





". 1

i*
\":::.



; *






Table 9.- Wool, scoured basis: Estimated maximum
civilian quotas, 1942-43

Period: rorsted. : Woolen : Floor
___ __ __ system : sY stem : covering
: Mil." ib.'MiL.TbT. Mil. lb.


1942
January 4-April 4 I/ ...................:


April 5-July 4
Quota .............
Bonus (Co3rse rool)

July 5-Aug"-t 2
QaL t .............
Bonus (Coarse wool)


.................:
.l .............:



/ .............:
,,.,, lqe~m .,,e *


Auieust 3-Jnuary 31, 1943
Quota ...................
Bonas (Blending) ........
Bonus (Coarse vwool) .....


43.S


17.5
4.6


5.2
1.2


17.5
21.9
5.4


16.9


4.2
2.9


1.3
1.1


2.1
o1.6
./ 5.3


18.2


2/ 9.1



2.5


18.2
s--


Sunrlementary
Quota ..............................: 4.4
Bonus (Blending) ................... : 4.4
Bonus (Coarse wool) ................: 1.2
Total January 4, 1942-January 31, 1943 ...: 127.1


1943
Febr,?ry 1-May 2
Quota ......
Bonuz (Blend
Bonus (Ceers


........................:
ing) ...................
e wool) ................:


13.1
17.5
3.0


May 3-July 31
Quota ..............................: 13.1
Bonus (Blending) ...................: 17.5
Bonus (Coprse wool) ................: ..0
6 months total ................: b7.2


-- -Y--9


1.1
5.3
2.0


1.1 9.1
5-3
2.0
Ib.g Y 18.2


If Quantity used for civilian consumption may have fallen below quota
due to provision that mills could not use more than 80 percent of basic
poundag.e for combined civilian and military consumption. Actual con-
sumption of apparel wool for 3 months totaled 139.3 million pounds, some-
what lrccr than the basic quarterly poundage for the woolen and worsted
system of ?bout 129.8 million pounds.
2/ Use of rool for floor coverings, draperies, and upholstery fabrics
except for war use was halted April 17 and not resumed until June 2.
However consumption of carpet wool reported for quarter was in excess
of basic poundage: so it appears that mills were Pble to process most of
quote during time allowed.
Continued -


'I:1


.I







Ftr'' l V ri ;e 9.-' Wool, scourcd basis Estimated maximum
":i. civilian quotes, 19L2-43 Continued

: B.oginniig June 2 mills having a quote based on production of floor cover- i
i. ing were permitted to use a part of such quota to produce other fabrics, .:
.. but the tools so used could'not be finar than 44s. Wools grading 44s and
0i. coarser and course alpaca and llame used by carpet mills under above pro-
vision would not entitle mill to bonus awarded worsted and roolun systems :
*. for use of such -ools. It scims li.ccly th.t the quantity of such ',ool used
i.. ^by crpet mills in the final month of rationing period was relatively small.
SHence total use of 44s end corrscr, pnrarol class, is credited to '-orsted
S and woolen systems for this period.
/ RIeportqd consumption of carp.-t 'Yool exceeds quota for period, and totnl
consumption of 36s-'44s is credited to -orsted and -oolcn sections as in
,.. previous p-riod (seo note 3/).
:. Assumes that about 2 million pounds of 36s-44s of reported consumption
wore processed in carpet mills nnd did not carry bonus of 5/1,
,I6/ This is the maximum quota based on quarterly poundage for floor covcr-
.ings. 'The quantity actually used for floar coverings nould be reduced to
the extent that carpet mills produced "other fabrics" from ,ools not finer
than 44s.

.EStimetd Maximum u Qotas for 1942-43

The quantities in table 9 ruorcscnt the naximunu quantities '-hich
mills could process for civilian us: under Conservption Order !-73. The
qantities shorTn .s bonuses for blending pre the epproyim.te quantities
S. mills would use if they took full Pdvantage of the bonus The bonus for
course -ools is brsed on the reported consumption of grades 36s-h44 and
fine carpet rool from April through o-ovcmbor 1942. Estimates nere made
for later months. Here, too, the estimates Fre based on tih ?ssunption
i:. that mills tacc full advpntPgc of th. bonus provisions. The bonus sho'rn
for the use of coarse -'ools does not include P-prca pnd llna fibers as
i -consumption date. are not ..v.il.ble for those fibers.

S*" .Estir.tod ma:imum civilian quot? for the 13-nonth period ending
S January 31, 1943 is about 170 million pounds (scoured basis) for the
I woolen and worstud industries and 44 nill'ion pounds for the n.inufacture
of floor coverings. It is doubtful that this quantity was used. So:.e
mills iore employed almost entirely on Governrient orders in 1942. Labor
Shortage and other operating difficulties probably prevcted full use cf
the civilian quotas in these mills. Worsted mills also reported diffi-
,. culties in preparing and selling blended fabrics during the early months
-H of the program. In the carpet industry, mills which converted to the
tanufMcturo of blencets for the Prned forces, or cotton ducn and. other
.:-. military fabrics, probably did not use their civilian wool quotas.

- UndLr the percentages rnounccd December 10, the estirnted :.laxinun1
civilian quota for the 6--onths period, Februa.ry-July 194-, is 84 million
|:," pounds (scoured basis) for the woolen -nd worstcd sections and 18 million
:; pounds for the carpet section. This is at a quarterly rate of about 58
-percent of the 1935-39 average in the .ppPrel section and '8 pcrcont in
Sthe carpet section. The Doconbor 10 order provides that any part of a


........ :1 .:' '.:!








mill's quota nhich is not used during one rationing-period may be carries
over to increase the quota for the following pertd..i Government order,
for worsted fabrics have been relatively small'inAthe last few months and.
it seems likely that worsted mills having an uriud.lbalance will be able
to increase their production of civilian fabrics in the first half of 19 0'..

Blending Materials Used by thb Wool
Manufacturing Industries

To produce adequate yardage from curtailed wool supplies, ills
will be obliged to resort to a greater production of fabrics in rhich new
wool is blended ,-,ith re-orked end reused vool and with otlcr raw materials '
Adequate supplies of blending fibers arc available, according to the War
Production Board. The woolon system al'-ays has used a largo quantity of :|
blending materials. The -rorsted system on the other hand has produced.
chiefly all Tool fabrics and ras hesitant in introducing blending on a w4e.j
scale.

Principal npterials consumed in the roolen and worsted industries ;...
in 1935-39, as reported in the biennial Census of Manufactures, are shbov:..
in table 10. In 1939 mills used 63 million pounds of mill waste and noil U's,
and 98 million pounds of recovered fiber nith 316 million pounds of wool '"
and mohair (scoured weight) end 27 million pounds of other raw.fibers
(cotton, silk, etc.). In addition to the relatively small quantities of
cotton sho'm here, however, cotton ap.s consumed in the form of yarns pur-.
chased from cottonimills. Woolen and worsted mills reported the consump-
tion of 42 million pounds of yarns spun on the cotton system in 1937. Date
are not available for 1939.

Data on sales and production of rool cloth by 119 mills reporting 'tO:
th,. National Association of Wool Manufacturers show a sharp decline in
production of fabrics for civilian use in 1942 compared with the high rate..
of 1941, end 1942 production also was. considerably smaller than in other
recent years. See table 11.








Table 10.- Principal materials, consumed in the woolen and
worsted and carpet industries, United States,
Siennial-Cenaus of Manufactures, 1935-39
-~ ~ ~ ~ ~~~' a' --- --- -- -
S. : Vobleh and worsted :Wool carpet and rug
SItem manufactures / manufactures 1
.m


-I -1935 193T 1939 : 1935
---- _-_--. M i l.
: lb. Ib. Ib. Ib.


305.5
27.7
4.1 .
12.5
0.2
0.7


51.3
2.3
13.3
7.9
3.5


271.5
17.0
6.3
19.5
15.6

2.7
27


49.3
2.3
12.9
9.9
1.5
1.7


2 fibers, scoured weight
orn and pulled wool 2 ..........:
l16hair .................... .:
4Other hair .......................:
CGotton ............................
I ayon staple ....,,................ :
'Silk ..............................
.QOther fibers ......................:

~her materials
,:Nails and mill waste '
SH wool ...... ............. .....
S Mofhair ........... ...... ..'...:
S.; ayon ...........................:
Cotton ..........................:
.Slk ...... .....................:
i" Other ...........................{
*:*' :


. 1937 ; 1939

lb. lb.


296.8 97.7 106.1
19.3) 0.6
6.s) 3.7
9.3) 11.6 3/
10.6)
0.1)
0.1) 1.2


45.7)
1.6)
5.4)
6.5)
1.2)
2.6)


1.5

0.3


0.8


110.5

6.7
3.7
0.2
4/
0.1


1.4
01
0.9


RBeeOvered fiber, clippings and rags
l or'part wool .................:) 100.6 87.0)
Ra on ....... .....................:) 5 5 5 10.6) 1.4 4.4 .3.7
;Other' ...........................:) 4.9 --- )
-.-:...
Totals do not include raw fibers and other materials contained in yarns and
Itops produced in other manufacturing systems and purchased by mills in the woolen
|,ad worsted industry and carpet industry., e. g., cotton yarns and rayon yarns
ibpun in the cotton and rayon industries and jute yarns from'the jute goods indus-
.tries. In 1937 woolen and worsted mills reported consumption of 42 million pounds
of yarn spun on the cotton system. Such yarns would be entirely or in chief part
:cotton. Data are not available for 1939.
SIn addition to the raw wool consumed in the woolen and worsted and carpet
industries the following quantities were consumed in other textile industries:
SIndustry 1935 2 3 1939
It" Mil. Mil. Mil.
i' "lb. lb. lb.
Cotton, rayon and silk ................................ n.s.r. 5 3.2
lEnit goods ........................................... 5 9 5. 3.5


SNot reported.
i/ If any, included with other fibers.
f Less than 50,000 pounds.


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oaDle iav1, wool -c.i.otnl et sales aM
119 mills, United Utateli Weekai eava

Y-ar and : MenTns ear fabrics.
month Net sales : Production
: Government : Civilian : -1/
: 1,000 1,000 1,000
: linear linear linear
: yrds yards yards


lpdoauction oy-
'agos, 193S-4 ..

:W'omens' wear fab ics,. :
: Net : Production
: sal'es--. -
1,000 1,000
linear linear
yards yars.


W.ecly averages :
19s 3 1,6s9 1,519 1.268 1,193
19t39 :7 1.976 2,204 1,430 1,h55
1940 867 1,725 2,025 ... 1,.3ll. ... 1,272
1;4l : 1,589 2,213 3,377 .1,481 1,526
1.4 4 2/
Jru:-ry : 856 1,064 4,294 ..1,278 1,375
F .bru ry 3,421 1,217 4,026 941 1,398
Marc h : 07 2,e15 4,096 1,170 1,29P
April : 10,412 1,616 4,314 1,483 1,074
May 1,142 426 4,315 41 1,084
June 2,349 277 6 292 1,011
July 3/ 790 645 4.278 621 911
August 834 4o00 4.24 731 977
Serptoerj/: 2863 2 4,4142 1,001 896
Jan.-Scrt. :
1942 : 2__ .727 9 4,2 89__ 1,102 9
Compiled from Monthly Statistias of Wool Menufacture Published by the
National Associetion of liool Manufacturt-rs. The 119 r porting mills were
equipped with 2b,009 looms, about 60 percent of all looms in the 7ool-.n and
worsted irdustri.s.
j Includes Govcrnme.nt and civilian fabrics. No separate figures available.
SFigures for 1942 are ppnroximate.
Anril, July, and September are 5'-w v perriods, other months are lt-w.-ek
periods.


hi
sq;ii







S December 1942, with comparisons

" :, I Jan.-ov. :141 1942
SItem : Unit 1
S. t 1940 13 1 1942 Dec.. Nov. Dec.
g--,- ---- ---- --------- -------


P and calves -
ber slaughtered under
deal inspection:
SSteers ......................:Thous. :
t.Cows and heifers .........: "
41 cattle .................: "
jPlrcentage cows end heifers :
are of total cattle .......: Pet.
Calves ......................:Thous
rage live weight: :
Cattle ......................: Lb.
Calves ...... .........: "
Metal dressed weiglit :
U Cattle .......................:Mil.lb.:
SCalves ....................: "
ipments of feeder cattle and :
calves to seven Corn Belt :
States / ................. :Thous. :

ber slaughtered under : :
Illeapral inspection ............: "
rage live weight .............: Lb.
prcentage pacr-ng sows are of :
fa1 ll'purchases at seven markets : Pet.
bal produ-tion under :
4e1sderal in-pection: :
',. ork ................ .... :Mil lb.:
Lar. 2 .....* ................. *
CI.: erage yield per hog: :
rk .......................: Lb.
tard ,,/ ...... ............... : :
,itorate stocks end of month:
Pork ...........................:Mil.b.:
ILrd / *.......... .........
and lambs :
ribe s'aughtered under :
Geral inspection .............rThous.
rae live weight ............: Lb :
al dressed weight ..........:Mil.lb.:
pmnta of feede. lambs to :
Ov:en Corn Belt States 1/ ....:Thous. :
dressed weight of live-
sk .gaaterad -.nd.r
aral inspection ............ .:Mil.lb.:


4,496
4,022
8,898

45.2
4,922

941
191

4,548
522


4,986
4, h94
9, 941


L
5,


5,612
5.310
11,365


473
498
1.004


15.2 46.7 49.6
oo4 5,284 457

959 953 976
196 208 196


.5,212
550


5g"I
61N


527
49


1,946 1,708 1,872 189


44,335
233


40,753 47,119 5.767
2 1 245 239


352
628
1,018

61.7
501

932
230

486
63


314


5,023
245


12 11 13 7 10 8


5,843
1,345


5,563 6,608
1,336 1,506


782
190


52.6 137.7 1hl.l 135.9
50.4 32.9 32.0 33.1

- --- 469
-- -- -- 187


15,935
86
643


16,554
88
684


19,450
89
792


1,571
91
66


3,221 3,081 3,352 122


13,401 13.838 15,934 1,684


722
146

144.0
29.0

292
57

2,126
87
83
452


1.553


otatl shipments direct and from public stockyards to Ohio, Indiana, Michigan,
adsi.-n, Minneseota, Iowa. and Nebraska.
UI6xi3ang rendered pork fat.
I~elalary


982


476
476


6,778


3/48
31/9

2,17


'

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: 94 ec. :. :
Item :annual 192- 29r a -
: a e 1 1941 Oct. Nov.
_averageaverago
: Do ~ol. Dol. D61. D6i. Dol.


Cattle and calves -
Beef steers sold out of first
hands at Chicago:
Choice and Prime .............:
Good ......................... :
Medium ...................... :
CommTon ......o..... ... ... ..S.:
All grades ....................:
Good grade cows at Chicago ......:
Vealers, Good and Choice at
Chicago ..... .......... ......... :
Stocker and feeder steers at
Kansas City ...................:
Average price paid by packers :
All cattle ...................:
Steers ......................:
Calves ..*..................:
Hogs -
Average market price at Chicago:
Barrows and gilts ...........:.
Sows ....... ....... ..........:
All purchases ...............:
Average price paid by packers *..:
Average price 1o. 3 Yellow
corn at Chicago j/ .............:
Hog-corn price ratio at
Chicago 4/ ....................:
Sheep and lambs -
Slaughter lambs, Good and
Choice grade at Chicago ......:
Feeding lambs, Good and Choice
grade at Omaha .................:
Ewes, Good and Choice grade
at Chicago "....................:
Average price paid by packers :
for sheep and lambs ...........:
Index retail meat prices 5/ .....:
Index income of industrial
workers 6/ .....................:


12.23 13.84 13.92
11.36 11.97 11.86
10.02 10.39 9.62
8.64 8.76 7.83
11.33 11*09 11.85
8.43 7.92 7.25

12.17 12.24 10.56


9.93 j/ 9.04
9.14 8.04
10.67 2/
10.12 9.84


9.47
9.34
9.45
9, 2

70.4

13.4


2/

9.70
9.66

88.2


8.76

7.97
10.45
8.09


6.37
5.53
6.27
6.11

61.5


11.32 14.o4 9.43

--- 13.03 8.5.

5.43 6.45 .4.35


10.16 12.99
92.4 99.?'


129.6


8.6,
83.7'


99.8 106.5


13.42' 16.32
12.-41.15.07
11.04 13.10
9.17 10.78
12.57 15.21
8.69 12.21

12.84 14.50

10.46 11.83

9.72 .10.79
11.82 13.30
10.38 11.57


10.75
9.89
10.65
109.55


14.97
15.00
14.98
14.67


75.9 77-3


15 2.16 14.32

7 11.25 12.20

S6.07 5.78
5 10.93 10.98
95-5 112.8

150.1 195.6


L6.:77'
1 5.40 1.
13.-1 '
10.6.
15.30 1


14*5 j



13.73
11.66



13.96-
13;66

80.15 .

17.0



12.3.5 1

64-2
11.6- -21
1136 .. 4

205.6.


I 1925-29 average; not available prior to 1925.
Not available. .
SCents per bushel.
Number of bushels rf corn equivalent in value to 100 pounds of live h'ogs. .,
SBureau rf Labor Statistics, converted to 1924-29 base. .s.
b Bir-.aa of Agricuiltural Economics, 1924-29 = 100. Revised December 19l*. :W :

hi J.
j 2., : J L : ;" k %V: ...


11.4 10.2 14.0 19.4






selectedJu G" aLULL CLU periods 19 AJ- ,
selected periods' 1941o-42!


r ;: ::' ? *. .. .. ,
ggregats : Weekly average
190 Jan.-Nov. IT ov. ; Oct. : Nov.
S.. e : '1940 141 : 19 1 1942 1941 : 1942 : 1942
-: O______0_ 10 10 1 1 2/ 2/
: iC000 .1,000 1,000 1,000 1,000 1,000 1 6 ,
S : pounds p pounds pounds pounds. pounds pound,


t"Itonsumption
saed basis) 4/
l badi R/ I
Pael wool ....: 639,6.8 967,68~
estic ........: 486,756 493,934
oreign
.(dty paid) ...'.: 152,862 473,751
carpet wool -
I'oreir..
(duty free) .....: 138,746 199,453
oured basis -
Ipparel wool ......: 309,163 509,014
Oarppt wool ........: 98,708 138,917


Ihhne activity
ouirs per available
aaachne -
$,torsted combs .....:
:"Bradford ........:
i::ench. ..........:
Jorated spindles ..
:'Doolen spindles ...:
I'orsted and
.fmv~ lv l :^f


5. 1

79.4
37.7
43.2


86.7
74.9
110.6
61.0
63.8


882,591 969%100
444,563 478,319

438,02o .490,781


183,158 55,351


19,822 21,574 21,524
11,482 12,224 13,035

8,340 9,350 8,489


3,817 1,oso80 1,o39


465,344 514.981 10,165 11,275 11,101
127,214 39,940 2,675 810 761
Weekly average in hours


86.1
74.0
110.7
60.5
63.5


89.6
76.7
114.3
58.9
74.4


87.2
76.9
107.7
62.4
66.0


84.3
68.8
114.1
60.9
76.9


80.3
67.8
104.0
59.6
74.9


SBroad ..... ....: 39.0 61.4 60.7 70.8 63.7 70.9 67.
Narrow ..........: 13.6 31-7 31.7 34.5 36.2 39.0 33 :
-' Carpet and. rug i
i looms :
SBroad ...........: 37.9 50.8 50.9 41.3 51.6 39.4 37-'.
SNarrow ..........: 21.9 30.8 30.9 22.8 29.3 20.0 19.5

ospiled from reports of the Bureau of the Census.
SThe. Jauary-November period cover 48 weeks in 1941 and 47 weeks in 1942. Hence
ie total are not comparable.
! 14-week period.
Revised. .
Sevw basis adopted by the Bureau of the Census in January 19112. Apparel wool
1i.l'udes all domestic wools and all duty paid foreign wools. Carpet wool include -.
ihOly foreign wools entered free of duty for the manufacture of floor covering, pre
.loth, knit or felt bobts or lumbermen s socks. In this table data for 1940 and. .
Si4l have been adjusted to the new basis.
Total of shorn and pulled wool. Pulled wool, grease basis, ti in condition
tiiveil from pulleries and is mostly washed.

t..>


1''
I,
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.1,









Aerge 1941 *
Item-
I 1940 1941 : 1942 : Dec. : Oct.: Nov.
: Cents CCentes ents etse Ceas ntsr

Boston market :
Territory, scored basis :
64s, 70s, 80s (fine) staple
combing .......................: 96.3 108.8 119.1 115.5 119.0 119.0 11
56s (3/8 blood) combing ....... 79.7 91.2 102.6 96.8 103.5 1035 103
46s (low 1/4 blood) ........... 76.1 82.3 90.7 86.5 91-5 91.5 92
Bright fleece, greasy -
64s, 70s, 80s (fine) delaine .: 38.0 43.1 47.2 45.3 47.0 47.0
56s (3/8 blood) combing.......: 41.2 46.8 51.8 51.2 53-5 54'0
6s (low 1/4 blood) ........... 41.0o 465 49*8 50.0 49.5 Z9.5
Foreign wool in bond .
at Bostcn 1_ :
Sydney scoured basis :
64a, 70s, good combing ......: 67.9 72.7 78.1 74.2 79.0 79.0 7$
Cape scoured basis -
12 months, combing ..........: 62.9 70.9 75.6 .72.0 765 76-5 6I
Montevideo grease basis- :
Merinos (60-64s) ...........:. 31.2 4o.4 43.0 43.4 43.0 43.0 4
Is (56s) ..................: 32.4 38.6 42.5 5 42.2 42.2
Prices received by farmers, .
grease basis, 15th of month ..: 28.3 35.5 2/ 37.1 39.7 39.7

Textile fibers: .
Wool, territory fine staple 3/: 96.3 108.8 119.1 115.5 119.0 119.0 11g9.
Cotton, 15/16" Middling 4/ ..: 10.17 13.92. 19-29 17.26 18.89 19.27 19
Rayon yarn, 150 denier .... 53.0 53.6 55.0 55.0 55.0 55-0 554
Rayon staple fiber 6/ I "
Viscose 1-1/2 denier ....... :25.0 25.0 25.0 25.0 25.0 25.0
Acetate 5 denier ............: 43.0 43.0 43.43 3.0 43.0 43.0 43'

.Compiled from reports of the food Distribution Administration except as oteirvise
acted. "
Before payment of duty. Compiled from the Boston Commercial Bulletin.
SNot available at this time.
S/ Scoured basis, Boston market.
Average at 10 markets.
SDomestic yarn, first quality, Bureau of Labor Statistics. *
SF.o.b. producing plants, Rurewi of Labor Statistics.




.f .
*.. :,





S...,. ... ..., ;:: i,.









WOOL. SCOURED BASIS: TOTAL MILL CONSUMPTION AND
ESTIMATED MAXIMUM QUOTAS FOR CIVILIAN USE.
BY SYSTEMS. AVERAGE 1935-39. AND 1940-43
(WEEKLY AVERAGE FOR EACH MONTH)


WORSTED SYSTEM
-Ir


S, ,1 I 1 ,


AV. 1935-39


1940


1941


1942


1943


U. B. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


NEG 42828 BUREAU OF AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS


Figure 2.- Mill consumption of apparel wool has been at a record high level
throughout most of the past 2 years due to large military orders. Since early 1942,
consumption for civilian uses has been limited to specific percentages of consump-
tion in the first half of 1941. The wool quotas for use in the manufacture of
civilian goods shown in this chart are the estimated maximum amounts permitted by
the wool conservation order of January, 1942, as amended. The quantity of wool used
for civilian goods during 1942 was roughly one-half the 1935-39 average.


POUNDS
(MILLIONS)


8


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UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

lilillIII J 0 0 10 lll1 I I I II 111IIII i ii i
3 1262 08861 6700
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