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BUREAU OF AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
PRODUCTION AND CONSUMPTION OF ALL MEATS. EXCLUDING LARD,
AND POPULATION. UNITED STATES. 1899-1941
( MILLIONS I
1900 1905 1910 1915 1920 1925 1930 1935 1940 1945
EXCLUDES RELIEF DISTRIBUTION OF MEATS IN 1934 AND 1935
DATA FOR 1941 ARE PRELIMINARY
ILS. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
NEG. 35742 BUREAU OF AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS
MEAT PRODUCTION DURING 1941 WAS THE LARGEST ON RECORD. BECAUSE OF
THE SHARP INCREASE IN THE NUMBER OF PIGS RAISED DURING THE P A S T FALL
AND SPRING, A ND THE PROSPECTIVE LARGE MARKETING OF SLAUGHTER CATTLE,
THE 1942 TOTAL MEAT OUTPUT IS EXPECTED TO BE EVEN G R E A T E R. THIS
INCREASE MAY BE A LITTLE MORE THAN OFFSET BY THE L A R G E PURCHASES OF
PORK FO_ LEND-LEASE, HOWEVER. THE MEAT NEEDS OF OUR ARMED FORCES ALSO
ARE GREIT, BUT PER CAPITAL SUPPLIES OF MEAT AVAILABLE F R CIVILIAN
CONSUMPTION IN 1942 PROBABLY WILL BE LARGER THAN THE 1931-40 AVERAGE,
ALTHOUGH LESS THAN IN 1941.
( BILLIONS )
..... ..... .. -
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STHE LIVESTOCK AND WOOL S I TUAT ION
i,.. '-- Summary .
Total meat production in the United States during 1942 is expected to
S be much the largest on record, and it now appears that the goal figure of
about 21.7 billion pounds may be reached. Mar
S' were stepped up sharply during the first 4 months of the year and the total
output of federally inspected beef and veal was over 20 percent greater than
in the January-April period last year. This rate of increase probably will
not be maintained for the year as a whole, but it is fairly certain that the
year's total will be considerably greater than that of 1941. Total pork
output will depend, of course, upon the final outcome of the large 1941
fall and 1942 spring pig crops, revised estimates of which will be avail-
able in late June. Production of lamb and mutton in 1942 probably will be
only a little greater than it was last year.
Large quantities of meat will be needed for lend-lease and military
S requirements, but the combined per capital supply of meats remaining for
S civilian consumption is expected to be at least as great as the 10-year
S (1931-40) average, and materially larger than that of the short supply years
of 1934 and 1936.
Prices of the upper grades of slaughter cattle have declined in
recent weeks and now are well in line with highest March prices. Increas-
ing military requirements for beef apparently is an important factor sup-
porting prices of the lower grades above the late March level. Cattle
losses during the winter and spring are reported light, and prospects for
the 1942 calf crop are good. Present indications are that even though the
S JUNE 1942 \ ...
1942 goa-for total cattle And calf slaufghter ray be approached, some furt
increase in cat'le nunb-.rs may occur. .
: rOather and feed conditions affecting the lamb crop have been less :
favorable this spring than la&t. Although the number of stock sheep on
farms and ranches is a little larger than in 1941, the.1942 lamb crop may
not differ greatly from t.ie record large crop of last year. The outlook fo:,:
lamb prices continues fstoprable, although the advance in recent weeks has. .
liftedd prices above the level at which a price ceiling could be imposed.by ':
the Office of-Price Administration.
Hog prices have fluctuated moderately during the past 2 months at
what appears to be the highest level that can be expected under prevail-
ing ceiling prices for pork and lard. On the basis of average market
quotations, the spread between live-hog and hog-product values is narrow,
with hog prices around 50 cents higher than normally rould be expected at
the current level of pork and lard prices.
Domestic wool prices weakened a little in late May, reflecting markettl
uncertainty in regard to consumption quotas and price ceilings for civilian
goods in the new fall season and the application of price control to Army
orders. Mill stocks of wool are believed to be quite large. Mill con-
sumption of apparel wool reached a new high in April of. 11.1 million pounds
a week (scoured basis). Restrictions on mill use of wool for civilian
fabrics are being offset by increased consumption of wool for military use.
Beginning July 1, authorization to import wool (and other commodities) will':
be required by the War Production Board. This action is being taken to
allocate shipping space to the.best possible advantage in filling war need
-- June.18, 1942,.
REVIEW OF RECENT DEVELOPMENTS
Hog Prices Continue Strong
During May and Early June
Hog prices have fluctuated moderately during the past month or so at
about the highest level that can be expected under the prevailling'maximum
prices established by Office of Price Administration for pork ard,lard. The
average price of butcher hogs at Chicago for the week ended June S1 was
$14.10, compared with about $14.00 a month earlier and around $9,60 in mid-
June 1941. Prices for packing sows have declined a little relative to
prices for butcher hogs during the past 2 or 3 weeks, but the spread be-
tween prices of the heavy and medium weight hogs is still quite narrow.
Since there is a separate ceiling price for each seller of hog prod-
ucts, it is difficult to make a direct comparison between the price of live
hogs and the ceiling prices for pork and lard. However, from statistics
that are available it appears that the spread between live-hog and hog-
product values has been unusually narrow in recent weeks, and that hog
prices have been around 50 cents higher than normally would be expected at
the current level of pork and lard prices.
Changes in both corn and hog prices have been small during the
past month, and the hog-corn price rstio has continued at a very favor-
S able level. The ratio based upon Chicago average prices for the week
ended June 13 was 16.5, compared with 13.0 a year earlier and the long-
time average of 11.6
Revised Ceiling Prices for
Lard Effective June 8
Maximum prices of refined lard (except in export boxes) for sale by
S processors were revised from the highest prices in March, as provided in the
general price order recently issued by the Office of Price Administration,
to the highest prices charged in February. The revision became effective
June 8 under Amendment No. 3 to Revised Price Schedule No. 53. Although
S precise data as to actual ceiling prices for refined lard are not available,
it is estimated that this downward revision amounted to not more than one
half cent per pound. This reduction iwas partly offset by a slight increase
in the maximum price for prime steam lard. Packers normally sell about
90 percent of their lard in refined form, and the net reduction in the max-
imum price charged by packers.for all lard probably amounts to less than
S one half cent per pound. The average wholesale price for refined lard as
sold by packers at Chicago in early June was reported to be about 14.4
S cents per pound, compared with the peak price of 15.8 reached in late
4 April. Prices for live hogs do not appear to have been affected material-
S ly by this decline in lard prices.
Hog Slaughter Increased in May
The weekly rate of hog marketing picked up sharply in late April
S nd continued quite large during May. The total number of hcgs slaughtered
under Federal inspection during May amounted to 4.3 million head, 3 per-
cent more thg in April and 7 percent more than in May last year.
rt 'an cotne f t ag uig]ly Tettlnme fhg luhe
JUNE 1942 -6 .-
Marketings of packing sows are beginning to increase seasonally, and.i,
this will be reflected in an increase in the average live weight of hogs
marketed during the next 2 months. The peak of the packing sow movement i8,'
ordinarily reached in July or August. Because of the large increase in their '
1942 spring pig crop, total marketing of packing sows this summer will be
larger than a year earlier, although the proportion vbich packing sows will;"'
constitute of total marketing may be no greater than usual.
Storage Stocks of Pork and Lard
Reduced Moderately in Mar
There was moderate reduction in cold storage holdings of both pork.
and lard during May. Lord stocks on June 1 of 111 million pounds were less
than one third as greet as a year earlier and were below; average for that
date. June 1 pork stocks of 558 million pounds also were much smaller than,
last year, but they did not differ greatly from the June 1 average of
recent years. With pork and lard production expected to be very large
this fall ard winter, cold storage holdings of these products may be re-
duced more than usual during the out-of-storage season this summer.
Government Purchases of Pork
and Lard Reduced in May
Total purchases of pork and lard by the Department of Agriculture
during May, although large, were somewhat smaller than the exceptionally
large April purchases. Total May purchases of pork amounted to 162
million pounds, compared with 219 million pounds in April. May lard pur-
chases of 72 million pounds were 54 million pounds smaller than during
the preceding month. Regulations require that all lend-lease meat
products be purchased from packing plants having Federal inspection.
For purposes of comparison, May production of pork under Federal inspec-
tion may be roughly estimated at about 580 million pounds and inspected
lard production at about 130 million pounds.
Cenned pork meats have been among the most important products pur-
chased by the Department of Agriculture under the lend-lease program. As
shown in the accompanying table, output of this product increased sharply
during the several years prior to 1941. Production has been further
stimulated by lend-lease buying. The average monthly production of can-
ned pork in early 1942 was about eight times as great as in 1937, with
the greater part being absorbed by lend-lease and military requirements.
I' -----IL~--, _..,
Table 1,- Federally inspected production and Government purchases
of canned pork for specified periods, 1936-42
FecdeoaTlv inspWeot d he
* prod-L';.ti A
* ViT12ur p11nds
Contrasting Trends in Cattle
Prices During May
Prices of the upper grades of slaughter cattle declined about $1.00
from late April to early June, whereas prices of the lover grades advanced
50 to 75 cents. These contrasting trends in cattle prices in recent weeks
reflect the establishment of ceiling prices for beef in late April and the
unusually strong demand for the lower grades of beef cattle to supply ex-
panding military requirements. In early June prices of good to choice
grade beef steers were about in line with highest 'arch prices, the period
in lwich the ceiling level for beef was recently established by the Office
of Price Administration. Prices of common and medium grade steers and of
eews and bill were well above the March level.
The average price
was about $13.00, nearly
$2.00 higher than a year
are now well above early
of good grade beef steers at Chicago in mid-June
$1.00 lower than peak April prices, but about
earlier. Prices of all grades of slaughter cattle
suinrer prices lest year.
i' Prides of feeder cattle advanced along with prices of the lower
grades of slaughter cattle during April, due largely to the strong competi-
4I fro. i al l hterers for this class of cattle. Feeder prices have not
?;i :, ., t
- 7 -
JUNE 1942 8 -
changed greatly during the past several weeks* despite the decline in priem
of well-finished fat cattle. The average price of feeder steers at Kansas-i
City in rid-June was about $12.00, although scie good quality.types were j
purchased by cattle feeders at prices well above this avereg3. A year ago-
the Kansa3 City a-verage price for feeder steers was a little under $10.00.
Average prices for veal calves have remained steady during the past
month at Wvat appears to be about the maximum level, permitted by the cell- ;
ing price order for veal. The average price of good and choice vealers
at Chicago in mid-June was $15.00. compared with around .11,00 in June 1941
Cattle Slaughter Reduced Sharply in May
Marketings of slaughter cattle were reduced sharply in the first
half of May, following the announcement of the ceiling price order for beef
Marketings increased during the last half of the mon-h, but total May
slaughter was smaller than last year. In the preceding 4 months (January-
April) inspected cattle slaughter totaled about 20 percent greater than in
the corresponding period of 1941.
Inspected calf slaughter in May was 6 percent s:mller than a year
earlier, offsattir.g a part of the 4 percent increase over last year. dur-
ing the procedir.g 4 months. Most of the calves included in inspected
calf slaughter ere from dairy stock. The number of milk cows on farms
is abc.u 3 percent larger this year than last.
Lamb Prices Decline in Late
May and Early June
Spring lemb prices declined in late May and early Juno, after having
advanced sharply during the first several weeks of the nsw crop season.
Marketings of early lambs were delayed somewhat by unfavorable weather con-
ditions, and tids probably accounts for at least a part of the earlier
price rise. The average price of good and choice grade spring lambs at
Kansas City in mid-June was about $14.75. This compares with around $13.00
at the opening of the spring lamb marketing season in early April and
$11.50 in mid-June last year. Market prices of shorn, old-crop lambs in
mid-June were about $3.50 higher than a year earlier, and prices of shorn
ewes were about $2.00 higher. Ceiling prices have been established by
the Office of Price Administratinn for sheep and lamb pelts and for pulled
wool but net for lamb and mutton,
Sheep and Lamb Slaughter Reduced in May
Slaughter supplies of sheep and lambs have declined sharply since
March, ahen marketing of fed lambs from the 1941 crop mrre quite large.
Except for Texas yearlings, the market movement of old-crop lambs is now
about over. The number of sheep and lambs slaughtered under Federal in-
spection during May totaled 1,475,000 head, 6 percent less than in April
and 5 percent less' than in May last year.
BACKGROUND,- Cattle numbers tend to fluctuate in cycles of
around 15 years in length. A low point in the cycle was
reached in 1938, but herds ha.v- been built up greatly since
then* The total number .f cattle epn cairns on farms and
ranches on January 1, 19'42 was slightly larger th.n the
previous peak number reached at the beginning of 1934.
In the 1942 goals for agriculture, farmers were asked to
Increase marketing of cattle this year rather than to
increase production by continuing to hold back breeding
stock. Strong consumer demand conditions hpve more than
offset increased marketing of cattle during the past 12
months, and.the general level of cattle prices is now the
highest in 6ver 20 years.
Cattle Conditions Good on June 1
The condition of cattle in the Western States improved during May,
" af..ter a rather slow start in some sections due to unfavorable spring weather.
Except fdr local areas, cattle are in good to very good condition. Cattle do
Snot show the high condition of early summer last year, but with this ex-
:eption the June I condition is reported to be the best in over 10 years.
i'RaIge conditions and prospects for summer feed on June 1 also were below a
S::year earlier but above average. Cattle losses during the winter and spring
'are reported to have been light, sind the prospects for the calf crop are
: very good.
The movement of cattle into the Blue Stem and Osage pasture areas of
i Eansas and Oklahoma was about 15 percent greater this spring th.n last and
..o 90 percent greater than in 1940. The number of cattle carried over during
the winter in these areas also was large, and the pastures are fully stocked.
Seed and water conditions are very good, and the cattle are making good gains.
Cattle Numbers and Slaughter Surplies
. uriTg 1942-
:"" The 1942 goal for cattle end calves calls for a total slaughter of
-28.0 million head. This recommendation was based upon the need for large
.meat supplies this year, the probable increase in cattle numbers during
1 T941, and other considerations. Present indications are that the slaughter
gigal may be nearly reached, but thrt there will be some further increase
,,zdrng the year in the number of cattle and calves on farms ?.nd ranches.
As shown in the accompanying table, the number of cows of breeding .
, o0L on farms and ranches at the beginning of 1942 was about 1.6 million
.. greater than a year earlier. Weather and feed conditions affecting' .
.9i-calf crop are reported to have been good this spring, and it is likely .
tA. .hte 1942 calf crop will be around 10 million head greater than the ,
t rop* With favorable prices in the United States, imports of cattle
4 alves,'from Mexico and Canada have been coming in at a more rapid rate
J..... "t.ears These imports also will add to the total slaughter supply
b ale for 191D2.
JE 1942 10 -
Inspected cattle slaughter in the first 5 months of 1942 wad 16'per-,-I
cent greater than a year earlier. At current high prices for the lower
grades, fairly large numbers of cattle which ordinarily would be purchased.
for further feeding are going to slaughter- If this situw-tion continues
during the lnte summer and fall, commercial cattle slaughter may be stepped j..
up considerably o;cr the large August-November slaughter last year. At the -:
present time, however, it does not appear likely that the 16-percent increase.'
in inspected cattle slaughter for J-auary-y4ril will be maintained throughout:
the year. But it is probable that total cattle sl-ughter for the year will "
be mn.terially greater than that of 1941 perhaps by as much as 8 to 10 pete'o
Most but not all of the annual calf slaughter consists of veal calves i
from dairy herds. So far in 1942 the number of calves slaughtered under
Federal inspection has been about 2 percent greater than in the correspohdingi
period of 1941. This increase is about in line with the 3-percent increase .i
the number of mil': cows on farms, and it appears likely that total csaf
slaughter this year will be only moderately larger than it was last year.
So far in 1942 death losses of cattle and calves are reported to have
been light. Assuming that the total death' loss for the year may be no greater
than in 1941, tot-1 dis-ppearpnce of cattle and calves in 1942 may be a little
smrllcr than the year's calf crop plus imports. Hence the number of cattle
and calGves on farms and ranches at the beginning of 1-9h3 may be a little
larger then the previous record number reached on January 1, 1942. With
range feed conditions again good this year, the tendency to hold back breed-
ing stock in the Great Plains nrea, where cattle numbers are considerably
below the 1934 level, mny continue fairly strong.
Teble 2.- Supply and distribution of cattle numbers
in the United States, 1940-42
IteLi 1940 : 1941 : 1942
: Millions Milliors Millions
Cattle and calves on farms Jan. 1:
Cows 2 years old and over .....: 35.6 36.7 38*3
Other cattle and calves .......: 32.6 34,8 36
Total .................... 68.2 71.5 74.6
Calf crop ......................: 29.8 31.0
Imports ......................'..; .6 .7
Tot.'l number ............: 98,6 103.2
Cattle .......... ........... 15.0 16.5
Calves ........................I 9.0 9.3
Calculated other dis.ppearpnce :
(mainly death losses) .........: 3,1 2.8
Totl disappearance ......: 27.1 28,62
Number end of the year ..........: 71-.5 74.6
CL-. ,*...*^ rl
F. *. 1 1 ",
S 11 -
F. OUTLOOK HOGS
AC"' MOEUOND- The 199 production of hogs was quite largo, and
the increased marketing of the following year were reflected
in the lowest prices since 1934. Indications in late 1940
pointed to a nnterial reduction in hog production during 1941.
S. IHowever, in April 1941, lend-lease purchases of hog products
were begun, and farmers were asked to step up their production
Ki| .. of hogs as rapidly.as possible. Hog prices advanced steadily
during most of 1941 and early 1942 until ceilings were
placed on pork products i March. .Hog prices are now the
I, highest they have been in over 20 years.
The outlook for hogs has not changed greatly during the past month.
Si:,il lowing is a summary of important points discussed in recent issues of
S1 The 1941 fall pig crop, now being marketed, wrs estimated to
". have been about S1 percent larger thpn the 1940 fell crop.
2. Breeding intentions reported by farmers last December indicated
i that this year's spring pig crop would be around 25 percent greater than
That of 1941. The preliminary estimate of the 1942 spring pig crop and
the revised estimate of the 1941 frll pig crop will be released on June 26.
i 3. On the basis of .the December pig survey Pnd other indication,
V hog'marketings this summer (June-September) are expected to be around 15
to 20 percent greater than those last year* And slaughter supplies next
fall and winter are expected to be much the largest on record. These pros-
Spects for hog supplies may be changed somewhat after the results of the June
pig survey become known.
4. Hog prices advanced sharply during the first 3 months of 1942, and
Probably would have advanced further if ceiling prices for pork had not been
established by the Office of Price Administration in March. Consumer demand
for meats is much stronger this ye.r than lrst, rnd this together with large
'lend-lease requirements and growing military needs for pork and lard con-
Sstitute important factors affecting the price of live hogs.
5. In April the Department of Agriculture requested packers operating
r under Federal inspection to offer for sale to the Federal Surplus Commodity
I.:' Corporation at least 40 percent of their pork and two thirds of their lard
:? produced during the next 3 to 6 months. Lend-lese purchases are expected
Sto be correspondingly large during the f;ll and winter when hog marketing
will be increased seasonally. About two thirds of our total pork is pro-
Sdaced under Federal inspection.
OUTLOOK SHEEP AND LAMBS
S BACKGROUND.- Sheep production has increased moderately during
the past several years. The number of stock sheep on farms -
and ranches at the beginning of 1942 totaled 49.2 million
S head. Weather and feed conditions were very favorable in the
"a" :-, .; ".
., .. *. g
JUN4E 1942 12 -
Western Sheep States last spring, and the 1941 ltmb crop was
the largest in the 18 years of record. Lamb prices have
risen. during the past 4 years, and are now the highest since
1942 Lamb Crop May Differ Little
rom Theat of Last Year
Weather and feed conditions affecting the la.mb crop heve not been as
favorable this spring as last. And P.though the number of stock sheep on
farms and ranches is a little larger than ltst year, this increase may b.e
largely offset by a decrease in thu number of lambs saved per 100 owes.
Despite the unfavorable weather conditions in several of the Western Sheep
States this spring, lambs generally have made good gains. The condition
of sheep pnd lmbs in the Western Sl-eep States on June 1 w-.s below that of
a year earlier bu-t ebove vergee for that d-.te. The outlook for range feed
and pastures on June 1 was mostly favorable. The official estimate .of the
1942 l-mb crop will be released about July 26.
Outlook Continues Favorrble
For Lamb Frices
The outlook for lamb prices during the next several months is favor-
able. Consumer demand conditions are much stronger this ye'ar than last, but
slaughter supplies of sheep and lambs during the 1942 grass-lamb marketing
season (May-November) probably will not differ greatly from those of a
year earlier. Lpmb prices generally decline moderately during the summer
and fall, but prices are expected to continue well above thone of last year.
Lamb prices now are above Pll of the four minimum levels at which ceilings
may be applied under the terms of the price control law.
OUJTLOOK FOR MEAT PRODUCTION AID CONSUMPTION
Total meat production in the United St-tes increased at an averagee
rate of about 200 million pounds annually during the period 1899-1923.
During the next 10 yeers, production did not change greatly but later was
reduced sharply by the drouths of 1934 and 1936. Since 1937 meat production
has again increased. This time the increase was greater in the 5 years
1937-42 thn it was in the entire 25-year period prior to 1924.
The recovery of livestock production from the effects of the severe
drouths of 1934 ond 1936 was more rapid than appeared likely at the time.
Marked increases in livestock production in the States outside of the im-
portPnt livestock areas aided the upward trend, end by 1939 total livestock
production in the United States was larger thpn in the several years prior
The "Food-for-Freedom" program has been an important factor in the --
sharp increase in met production during 19941 end 1912. In April 1941,
farmers were urged to step up their production of hogs a-s rapidly as pos-
sible. Later in the year. production andma.rketing goals for 1942 calling
for sharp increases in the production of most food products were prepared.
Farmers responded to these requests and to rising prices with an 18-percent
S2 13 -
: Increase in the 1941 fall pig crop and on indicated increase of about 25 per-
Scent in the 1942 spring crop. Cattle numbers increased sharply after 1938.
1W.ith the number of cattle on farms and ranches at the beginning of 1942 at a
record level, increased marketing for slaughter rere urged, rather tnan the
holding back of the breeding stock for increased production.
On the basis of trends in commercial slaughter r.nd meat production
t. during the first 4 months of 1942, it appears that the 19! 2 meat production
i:!.goal established after Pearl Harbor may be reached. Marketing of slaughter
I.V cattle were stepped up sharply during the first 4 month of this year pnd the
I:' total output of federally inspected beef and veal w'.s 22 percent greater than
c." in the January-April period last year. This rate of increase probably will
,nbt be maintained throughout all of 1942, but it is fairly ccrt.in th.t the
4 ye&r's total output of beef and veal will be considcr~aly greater thnn that
Totnl production of pork and lard during 1942 will depend largely
Supon the final outcome of the 19 1 f11 pig crop (now beir.,i marketed) end the
S1942 spring crop. Information to date points to a total hog slaughter in
Si1942 of about 83 million head, the number that was called for in the revised
Production goal. This figure may h-veo to be revised when the results of the
June pig survey become available. Average live weights of hogs marketed in
.r1942 probably will be about as heavy as they were in 1941, The nveraEe yield
: of l.rd per hog this year has been only a little greater than a year earlier
Sand in recent months it h.s been lower, reflecting increased sales of salt
p. .ork and of canned luncheon meAt conta.iinng some fit. Total lard production
Sin 1942 probably will be less than the 2.8 billion pounds called for by the
g. oal .
.Inspected sheep and lamb slaughter during the first 5 months of 1942
totaled about 4 percent greater than a year earlier. Present indications
point to little or no increase in this year's larb crop and marketing for '
slaughter during the last half of the year m.y not differ greatly from those
Sof the corresponding period of 1i41. La.mb and mutton constitute about 5 or
6 percent of the totcl mept supply.
S On the basis of those indications, the total Unit ed States output of
Seat in 191;2 is expected to differ little from the 21.7 billion pounds A
called for by the 1942 production goals. As indicated by the .ccompp-nying
Stable, this production would be about 2 billion pounds greater than the 194 1
Production and much the largest rannuel total on record.
Precise estimates of the amount of meats that will be required for
lend-le-nse during 1942 Pro not nvaileble, but it is known that the quantities
will be large. The Agricultural Marketing Administr.tion has recently re-
quested packers o3rPting under Federal inspection to offer for sale to the
SFederal Surplus Commodity Corporation about 2/5 of the tot.:l pork production
this'summer. Purchn.ses will probably continue at a high rate during the fall
SPnd winter when production is scE.sonelly large. The total Prount of pork
.'remaining for domestic consumption, including military, probably will be a
.,little smaller thpn it wes in 1941, but it will be considerably greater than
t:the average amount consumed during the 10 years, 1931-40. So far only small
A:. -" ,.
k .".; ::
"=" ".::' "=.'k
amounts of beef have been bought for. end-leae,' aid th. d
beef and veal for civilian andi military co6awmption will be 'mach 0 g
on record.. '
Estimates as to the enaunt of meat that will be required for," arted :.
forces likewise are not 4vaJlable, To the extent that these requ rau .:E '
are greater than the amounts that would have been consumed by the. sil men.':
in civilian life, total domestic supplies will be'reduced. Per capital
civilian supplies of all meats combined for 1942, however, are. expect d .to :.
be at least as great as the 1931-40 avorage.
Although meat production in 1942 will b n nch the largest on record.i,|l
prospects are good -for some further increase in totol output in .1943. S hee.
the total slaughter of cattle ad calves in 1942 mny be a little less thaen' i:i
number of anim-ls raised during the year, no liquidation of breeding herds
will occur. Honce total cattle and calf slaughter next year could: easily.beWjt .
as large as in 1942 tnd might be larger. Moreover, roughly half of the',.lfg-ii
1942 spring pig crop will be marketed dUring early months of 194'3. No defi~4t$
indications as to the size of this yoar's fall pig crop (911 of which will 'bR
marketed in 19!3) are yet available, but the chances are good that :it.wi'll;,'. .
equal or exceed the record lerge 1942 fall crop. ;i
po o A.
Table 3.- Total United States production and consumption of meats '" '
and lard, 1931-42
: PProd uct on Consumption
SI pork : Fork :.
SBeef Lamb Beef Lamb
.Tear :.^ 'a : : A *ll : *(e- a ll a-
Year gad and : (x- All Lard and and (ex- ,ldn"et
al ; t:cluding: meats : :cluding: meat'
veal mutton veal mutton
Slrrd) : : lard) :
SMillion Million Million Million MillionMillion Million Million Million 1i
Sounds pounds pounds pound __ound s und pounds pounds pounds
averages 7,687 865 8,184 16.736 1.975 7,792 S63 8,027 16,62s .1
1941 /: 9,130 925 9.451 19,506 2,282 9,211 919 9,169 19,299 1I.
19422/1 9,800 950 11,000 21,750 2,650 9,600 950 8,6oo 19,150 .1
1 re liminary '
2 Indications, based upon marketing trends and. other information .
S. ... .6 ; ...- .
* *, "T..~ r.*"
J.r ; *<"
DLTEVOPkItTS DURING THE PAST TYER.- Stimulated by late
orders for wool goods for the armed forces and by in-
creased incomes of consumers, mill conuumr.tion of apparel
wool rose to a record level in 1941, Domestic wool pro-
duction also was of record size, but it w.as less then
half as large as mill consumption. Prices received by
farmers for wool shorn in 1941 were higher than at any
time since 1925. The outbreak of war in the Pacific was
followed by control mePsures relating to consumption of
wool, and maximum prices were established for wool by
the Office of Price Administration. These actions were
taken because of military requirements and because of
the uncertainty of importing large quantities of wool
undor war conditions.
I : Wool Prices Weaken Slightly in L.te Ma
Wool prices weakened sli-htly in the latter part of May. The weak-
Sness was chiefly in medium wools. The decline in prices reflected in part
the uncertainty concerning the application of the Gener-1 Meximum Price Regu-
5. lation to recent Army orders for wool textiles. This situation was clarified
S by Price Reagultion No. 157, issued June 4, which provides special methods
for computing maximum prices on textiles sold to military procurement agencies..
S However, uncertainty over wool consumption quotas and price ceilings for
civilian goods for the new fell season elso appear to have restricted pur-
S chases of wool by manufacturers. Indications are that mills now hold large
stocks of wool against current contracts and are in a position to await
further clarification of the manufacturing situation before taking on ad-
ditional stocks of wool. This stocks position has permitted some weakening
in prices as dealers sought to move wools.
t. Quoted prices for 3/8 blood combing bright fleece wools averaged 49
S cents a pound at Boston (grease basis) in the first week of June, compared
with 52.5 cents a month earlier and 46.5 cents in early June 1941. Quoted
prices of territory wools at Boston were generally unchanged at $1.20 -
S $1.23 a pound (scoured basis) for fine staple combing, and at $1.03 $1.06
. for 3/8 blood combing. Prices for territory wools are close to the ceiling
' prices permitted under present regulations.
S Prices received by farmers for wool averaged 40.2 cents a pound on
S 8ay 15, the highest price since early 1925. The My 15 price was a cent a
; pound higher than a month earlier and 4.3 cents higher than last yenr.
S Sales were reported at slightly lower levels in the latter part of May.
SMAdjustment of Maximum Price Order
for Military Items
Special provision has been made by the Office of Price Administration
Sfor calculating maximum prices of wool textiles pnd textile products destined
for war procurement Agencies of the United States Government. Under the
General Maximum Price Regulation, issued in April, the maximum prices on
JE 1942 16 -
all sales and deliveries to military agencies after July 1 would be de-
ternincd by the prices at which similar items were delivered in March 1942.'
For many mills, this regulation would- establish contract prices of last
January or earlier vas the highest possible price for sales and deliveries
of wool items to military agencies. The new Regulation, No. 157 issued
on June 4, provides for adjustment of maximum prices to cover increases
in material and labor costs between the time at which the previous contract
was placed and March 31, 1942. Prices of domestic combing wools at Boston
had advanced about 5 cents a pound, scoured basis, between January and
April 1942. The new order permits the use of the higher level of raw wool
costs in pricing wool fabrics for Army orders. As purchases of wool are now
being made principally for use in Army orders, this should be e. supporting
factor to domestic wool prices.
Maximu.m Price Schedules Issued for
Ecoured Wools and Other Items
A uniform scale of maximum prices by grades for scoured domestic shorn
wools was issued by the Office of Price Administration on June 5 in Amendment
No. 5 to Price Schedule No. 58. The Amendnent also establishes schedules for
South American wools scoured in the United States, for certain grades of
processed noils and for additional types of worsted yarns and provides
pricing formulas for woolen sales yarns.
The specific maximum prices established for scoured domestic shorn
wools were dctermired by adding to the applicable ceiling for domestic shorn
wools, clean basis, a margin to cover the scouring charges, transportation
to the scouring plant and the cost of sorting. The allowance for scouring
of worsted type wools, average to good character, is 3 cents per pound on
456s (low 1/4 blood) and coarser grade, 4 cents on 48s and 50s, 5 cents on
560 and 58s end 6 cents on 60s and finer grades. Allowance for sorting
(in addition to scouring costs) is 3 cents a pound on all grades. The
scheduled prices are f.o.o. Eastern Seeubord to bring them into proper re-
lation with maximum prices for greasy domestic shorn wools which are on a ,
The maximum price schedule for greasy shorn domestic wools, by
grades, was published in The Wool Situation for March.
Consumption Continues at Pecord Level
on i.ilita--y F&brics
Mill consumption of apparel wool in April averaged 11.1 million pound
a week (scoured basis), a new high record. The rate of consumption in April
was 3 pierce it higher than in March and 19 percent higher than in April i94140
Consumption of eppr:rE;l wool on a gre-.sy shorn and pulled basis totaled 344-
million pounds in the first 4 months of 1942 compared with about 292 million
pounds in the corresponding T-riod l.st year. Although restrictions.on mill
use of wool for civilian fabrics will continue in the last half of 1942,
the reduction in civilian consumption is being offset by increased consump-
tion for military use. Consumption of apparel wool is likely to continue
at a record level through most of the yerr.
SiiW-2 17 -
Mill consumption of carpet wool in April averaged only 631,000 pounds
!i.a week, scoured basis, compared with p. weekly rate of 1,311,000 pounds in
.: March and 2,674,000 pounds in April 1941. This sharp drop in April reflects
S.the reduced consumption quotas for carpet wools in the second quarter of the
":. year, and the special order issued April 17 halting all processing of raw
i. wools for floor covering except for Government-orders.
... Amendment to Conservation Order
Permits Wider Use of Mohbir
i: An amendment to conservation order M-73, issued June 1 by the War
SProduction Board, includes kid mohair with grown mohair, special fibers,
--.and coarse wools which may be used in increased quantities for civilian
-,...fabrics. The order provides that for each pound of mohair, either kid or
adult, or wool of grades 44s and lower (including carpet wool) or coarse
,'ealpaca or llama, which is put into process within quota limits, the user
shall be entitled to process in addition to his wool quota, 2 pounds of
:such special fibers if operating on the worsted system or 5 pounds of such
fibers if operating on the woolen system. The order also permits resumption
; ::of wool processing for floor coverings, draperies and upholstery fabrics
i under certain restrictions as to kinds of fiber to be used. The use of
i .mohair, both kid and adult is now permitted for the manufacture of all ..
.: civilian products except floor coverings,
i Second- uarter Consumption Quotas.
SExtended Through July "
_,1, .. -- 9 .^
--: The second quarter's quotas for the use of new wool for civilian
;. .fabrics have been extended to August 2, A new order for a longer period, .
still to be announced, will begin with August rather than July under an
amendment to the Wool Conservation Order issued June 11. The amendment
. provides that new wool use for civilians in July shall be as follows:
i*. (1) On the worsted system 6 percent of the manufacturers' basic
(2) On the woolen system 3 percent of the besic quarterly poundage. i
(3) floor covering manufacturers are permitted to use 7 percent of
their basic quarterly poundage in July but can use only coarse
S.. carpet wools in the manufacture of flaor coverings.
(4) On all other systems 3 percent of the basic quarterly poundage.
These quotas are at approximately the rate provided for the second
Quarter which permitted 20 percent for worsteds and 10 percent for woolens '
S' for a 3-month period. The order continues the more liberal use of wools
"of grades 44s and coarse and of mohair and special fibers.
:. 'Basic quarterly poundage means one half the quantity of new wool
u:.used by a manufacturer in the first half of 194. ..
M: A :.4
....* "... t. ....-.*. *.' :
More Than Halof of tl1 for Government Use' .
Unfilled orders for wool cloth reported by 119 mills on arch. 28 .-
to-taled 90 million- linear yards according to statistics published-b tlie. ,
National Association of Wool Manufacturers. This backlog of orders was
20 percent larger than a year earlier. More then half of the orders re-:'".:
ported on March 28 were for Government Account. Orders were sharply i i
creased in April and May as a result of Army awards on. more-,than 75 million n
yards of wool textiles and 10 million blanicets. Production of textils6-by'
reporting mills in the first quarter of .1942 was at the rate of-about : '5
million linear yards per month. -
Table 4.- Wool cloth: Unfilled ordersreported by 119 mills,
United States, beginning of each quarter. 1940-42 -
Quarter M: -n a wear : Women's : Auto -
beginning Governmeut: Oher : Totpl : wear cloths-: 2 Otal .*i
: 1,000 1,000 1,000 1,000 1,000 000.
: linear linear linear linear linear linea:..
: yads yards yards yards yards yerd.
Jan. 1,376 23,43S 24,814 9,204 2,005 36,;023.
Apr. 748 21,297 22,045 4,429 1,136 27.610
July : 9,436 17,564 27,000 12,933 3,064 42.997.
Oct : 12,806 19,200 32,006 10,919 2,927 45,052:
Jan. 2 8,457 25,799 54,256 11,403 2,494 68,153:
Apr. : 20,148 4o,256 60,404 12,170 2,675 75,2499'.
July : 23,018 49,315 -72,333 18,961 5,605 96,S99,.
Oct. : 29,010 48,546 77,556 17,805 3,097 98,458
Jan. g 54,126 34,19 es,315 12,470 1,508 102,293.
Apr. / : 51,519 27,243 78,762 10,357 672 89,791,
Compiled from Monthly Statistics of Wool hMnufaeture, published by the
National Association of Wool Manufacturers. Statistics are for cloth con-
taining by weight over 25 percent of yarns spun on the woolen and worsted
system. Cloth less than 50 inches wide reported in equivalent 54-inch
. Rerprts are for specified dates near the beginning of each quarter.
SExziuldes cloth with pile or j.cquerd design.
/ March 28, 1942.
Wool Imoorts Now Under Control of
the WF.r .- :...i.ction Board
Imports of wool, rmong other items, will require authorization from ,
the War Production Board after July 1, under a revision of General Imports
Order No. 63. The purpose of the order is to promote the allocation of
shipping space to the best advantage in filling war needs. The Order
specifically provides for the importation of apparel class wools which weroe']i
.. :. y ,
SS ....^ I
'4. inder contract prior to the date of order, but prior contracts for carpet
p. wool are now subject to approval of the War Production Board.
In addition to the'control of importation, the order provides
Srpotrictions on the disposal of apparel wools imported under the Generel
:': fIporte Order. Such wools may not be sold, transferred, or processed
i without authorization of the Director of Industrial Operations of the
,:, lar Production Board. The restrictions on sales and processing do not
apply to carpet wools,
Australian Grower. Will Receive Higher
F Prices for 1942-7' =lin Wools
The British Government will pay higher prices to Australian wool
ri:g.'owers for their 1942-43 clips. An increase of 15 percent in the contract
:'.'*"ptturchase price has been agreed to and will be put into effect on the new
.'clip beginning July 1942. The current average price to growers for
Aktiatralian wool, of 13.4 pence (Australian) per pound, grease basis, equiva-
I;. lent to about 18 cents in United States currency, has been in effect since
the purhcase agreement was mode in the latter -art of 1939. The British
b v'. ernment .as contracted to purchase the entire production of three Empire
i:.. 'countries, Australia, New Zealand, and the Union of South Africa for the
durationi of. the war end one clip threrefter. Sales of these wools are
.'. .made to United States buyers through the British Wool Control Board at
.: "prices established by the Control Board. No announcement has been made
regarding prices which will apply to sales of the new 1942-43 clip to
United States buyers.
"., ." '.
Narketings and slaughter statistics, by species,
.ay 1942 with comparisons
: : Jan.-Apr. : 1941: 1~94
Unit 1940 *A
Snit 1940 1941 19942' May Apr..
* *. .Z
Cattle and calves -
liurber slaughtered under
Federal inspection: : Thou- :
Steers .............*........: sand : 1,639
Covvs and heifers ............: : 1,289
All cattle ................. t :3,037
Percent cows and heifers
are of total cattle ......*.: Pct. : 42.4
.Calves .....................: Thou- : 1,714
Average live weight: : sand
Cattle ....................: Lb. : 958
Calves *....................: : 176
Total dressed weight:
Cattle .................. ...:il. lb.: 1,594
Calves ......................: 169
Shipments of feeder cattle and :
calves to seven Ccrn Belt : Thou- :
States / .....................: sand : 279
Hogs : :
Number slaughtered under
Federal inspection ............: :17,224
Average live weight ............: Lb. : 232
Percent packing sows are of all
purchases at seven markets ....: Pet. : 5
Total production under
Pork .................. ...... :il. Ib.: 2,223
Lard 2/ .....................: 563
Average yield ner hog:
Pork ....................... : Lb, : 129.4
Lard 2 / ....................: : 32.8
Storage stocks end of month:
Pork ........................ *:il. Ib ---
Lard ..m .............. ...: ---
Sheep and lambs :
Number slaughtered under : Thou- :
Federal inspection ............: sand : 5,531
Average live weight *..........: Lb. : 91
Total dressed weight ...........l:1il. Ib.: 235
Shipments of feeder lambs to : Thou-
seven Corn Belt States I/ .....: sand : 359
Total dressed weight of live-
stock slaughtered under :
Federal inspection ..............:Mil, Ib.: 4,993
960 975 959.
181 182 180
1,653 2,043 487
178 187 52
368 381 90 126
15,954 18,053 4,023 4,196 4,32
236 236 239 235
5 6 5 5
134.5 153.8 132.7 135.6
32.2 32.8 34.8 30.3
-- --- 366
418 403 90 118
4,925 5,719 1,327 1,376
STotal shipments direct and from public stockyards to Ohio, Indiana, Michi
Wisconsin, I!innesota, Iowa, and Ilebraska.
2/. Including rendered pork fat.
Livestock prices per 100 pounds (except where noted) by species,
May 1942, with comparisons
: annual:124- i
:average:?9 iv. :
: Dol. Dol. DPol
i>le and calves,-
a sFeers si out of first
i;aamdea at Chicago:
fc.Choice and Prime ..........: 12.23
I Good *..mmm................: 11.36
Medium ......... ....* : 10.02
.Commo-n .....,.........,,: 8,64
-pAll grades o.m.............: 11.33
i4oo grade cows at Chicago ...: 8.43
e~lers. Good and Choice at :
Chicago *............. ae...... 12.17
3Stocker and feeder steers at
Ki:tahnsas City ........mim.....: 9*93
;Average price paid by packers
i All cattle ................: 9.14
:: Steers m.,....,.......... : 10.67
. Calves .,...............,: 10.12
ri. age market price at
i Barrows and gilts .m....,..: 9.47
S'Sows .....m.... .......... ...: 9.34
SAll purchases ..m........m.: 9.45
:Average price paid by packers : 9.42
'Average price Ho. 3 Yellow
Scorn at Chicago 3.......,: 70.4
:1Hog-corn price ratio at
Chicago 4/ .................. 13.4
Sheep and lambs -
Slategbteirrlte, ..aood and
SChoice grade at Chicago .....: 11.32
Spring lambs, Good and
Choice grade at Kansas City :
es, Good and Choice grade
tf4Ego..m. ......... ..... .: 5.43
rageae price paid by packers :
for sheep and lambs *........: 10.16
Iadex retail meat prices 5/ ..: 92.4
Ipdex income of industrial
workers m ................ ..: 127
S1941 M ar. Apr. : May
Dol. Dol. DolR 5o3,
11.66 14.41 14.08 14.92
9.18 10.06 11.47 11.93 12.00
1925-29 average; not available prior to 1925.
' Cents -per bushel.
N iunber. of bushels of corn equivalent in value tc
t: Bureau of Labor Statistics, 1924-29 = 100.
Suseau of A cultural Economics, 1924-29 = 100
11.00 1.40 14.20
8.51 12.93 13.96
8.96 13.37 14.18
8.84 13.23 13.84
71.7 81.7 82.3
12.5 16.4 17.2 16.5
[7 11.14 -12.03 12.63 14.42
i7 11.14 13.06 14.55
.5 5.78 7.26 7.64 8.19
)4 9.66 11.39 11.78
89.6 103.6 104.5
6 123 /152 158 '
S100 pounds of live hogs.
JUE 1942 22 -
S Wool: Mill consumption and machine activity, United States,
selected periods 1940-42
SAggregate Weekly average ..
Item 1941 :Jan-Apr. 2 Apr. Mar. Apr.
: 1940 : /' 1941 1942 1941 J2 1942 V,. 1942
: 1,000 1,000 1,000 1,000 1,000 1,000 1,000,6
Pounds pounds pounds pounds .pounds. pounds pounds Z
Grease basis 6/ :
Apparel wool- : 639,618 967,685 308,755 343,796
Domestic ...: 486,756 493,934 157,260 158,961
(duty paid): 152,862 473,751 151,493 184,835
(duty paid): 138,746 199,453 66,862 29,675
Apparel wool .: 309,163
509,014 162,076 183,844
Carpet wool ..: 98,708 138,917
Hours per a-
Worsted combs: 55.1 86.7
Bradford ...: 43.5 74.9
French .....: 79.4 110.6
des .......: 37.7 61.0
Woolen : 43.2 63.8
Broad .....: 39.0 61.4
Narrow ....: 13.6 31.7
Broad .....: 37.9 50.8
Narrow ....: 21.9 30.8
VJeekly average in
17,028 19,912 20,4569
7,008 8,369 8,49?
10,020 11,543 11, I6
Compiled from reports of the Bureau of the Census. I/ Machinery activity figures
for 1941 have been revised. 2/ The January-April periods cover 18 weeks in 1941l
and 17 weeks in 1942, hence the totals are not comparable. 3/ 5-week period. :
44-week period. 5/ New basis adopted by the Bureau of the Census in January .
1942. Apparel wool includes all domestic wools and all duty.paid foreign wools0A,
Carpet wool now includes all domestic wools and all duty paid foreign wooqa.
Carpet wool now includes all foreign wools entered free of duty. In this tabW~4r
data for 1940 and 1941 have been adjusted to the new basis. f/ Total of:t ~op L IF
and pulled wool. Pulled wool, grease basis, is in condition received from
leries and is mostly washed. .:
LW -2 23 -
Prices per pound of wool and other textile raw materials in
the United States, selected periods, 1939-42
.' : Aversage : 191 : 142
I_______ tem___9 Mar. : Apr, :May
Territory, scoured basis-
7 64s, 70s, SOs (fine)
Staple ..................: 82.7 96.3 108. 107.0 119.6 121.5 121.5
S56s (3/8 blood) combing ..: 69.3 79.7 91.2 90, 102.6 104.3 104.5
46s (low 1/4 blood) ......: 6.6 76.1 82.3 80.0 90.0 91.2 91.5
:Beright fleece, greasy-
648, 70s, 80s (fine)
Sdelaine .................: 32.9 38.0 43.1 L2.8 47.0 47.9 47.5
S56s (3/8 blood) combing ..: 36.2 41.2 46.8 6.1 52.4 52.5 51.4
S46s (low 1/u bloo) ......: 35.5 41.0 46.5 44.2 51.0 51.0 50.4
-.Foreign wool in bond
at Boston 1
Sydney scoured basis :6
S 64s, 70s; combing ....... 5.6 67.9 72.7 74.0 75.5 79.0 79.0
Cape scoured basis
12 months, combing ......: 53.7 62.9 70.9 72.5 73. 76.5 76.5 :
Montevideo grease .
Merinos (60-64s) ........ 26.1 31.2 40.4 41.0 43.0 43.0 43.0 "
Is (56s) ............... 28.3 32.4 3S.6 37.s 42.2 42.2- 42.2
.& Prices received b:- farmers,
grease basis, 15th of
month .................... 22.3 23.3 35.5 35.9 38.3 39.2 40.2 :i
LTextile fibers: '
Wool, territory fine :.
k. staple 21 ............... S2.7 95.3 0los. 107.0 119.6 121.5 121.5
SCotton, 15/16" Middling : 9.30 10.17 13.92 12.44 19.55 20.23 20.01 .
Rayon yarn, 150 denier : 51.6 53.0 53.6 53.0 55.0 55.0 55.0 -
Rayon staple fiber/ :
S Viscose 1-1/2 denier .... 25.0 25.0 25.0 25.0 25.0 25.0 25.0
Acetate 5 denier ........: 46.0 43.0 43.0 43.0 43.0 43.0 43.0
Compiled from reports of tne agricultural liar!:eting Administration except as
SBefore payment of duty. Compiled from the Boston Commercial Bulletin.
Scoured basis, Boston market.
:Average at 10 markets.
Domestic yarn, first quality, Bureau of Labor Statistics.
'-P.,o.b. producing plants, Bureau of Labor Statistics.
After five days return to
UNITED STATES DyPARTMENT OF AGRICULT~JRE
BUREAU OF AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS
WASHINGTON, D. C.
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
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