Coast Guard bulletin

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Material Information

Title:
Coast Guard bulletin
Physical Description:
4 v. : ; 25 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
United States -- Coast Guard
Publisher:
Treasury Dept., Coast Guard
Place of Publication:
Washington, D.C
Publication Date:
Frequency:
monthly
regular

Subjects

Genre:
federal government publication   ( marcgt )
periodical   ( marcgt )

Notes

Dates or Sequential Designation:
Vol. 1, no. 1 (July 1939)-v. 4, no. 1 (July 1948).
Numbering Peculiarities:
Issues for July 1939 to June 1942 numbered v. 1, no. 1-36; issues for July 1942-June 1945 numbered v. 2, no. 1-36; issues for July 1945-June 1948 numbered v. 3, no. 1-36.
General Note:
"CG 134."
General Note:
Title from caption.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 004847253
oclc - 01586958
lccn - sn 90034071
Classification:
lcc - HJ6645 .C6
System ID:
AA00012190:00011

Related Items

Preceded by:
Lighthouse Service bulletin
Preceded by:
Marine inspection and navigation bulletin
Succeeded by:
U.S. Coast Guard bulletin


This item is only available as the following downloads:


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BULL ETIN ~~~



Volume 3 WASHINGTON, JULY 1947' Number 25


~II ;ItJ=


o~f the Unritdc Sitaltes Conress,~~ nwlt at
Niew Londfon on May 24. G~uided~r by
Admiral Joseph F`. Farley, Command-
ant of the Coast Guard, and Rear Ad-
miral James Pine, Superintendent of
the Academy, they toured the grounds,
the various buildings, and the training
facilities, having lunch with, the cadets
in the barracks mess ball. In addition
to the Commandant, three other officers
fromn headquarters were present. They
were Rear Admiral MRl'lin O'Neill, as-
sistant commandant; Commodore Hal-
ert C. Shepheard, chairman of the M~er-
chant Mar~inle Council; and Capt. A. C.
Richmond, chief, Planning a~nd Control
Staff.
The following comprised the Con-
gressional delegation : The H-onorable
Fredl Bradtley, Mlichligan; the Honor-
able T. Millet ]Hand, New Jersey; the
Honorable Aime J. Fe rlund, Rhode
Island; the Honorable Horace Seily-
Brown, .Tr., Connecticut; the Honor-
able Henry MI. Jackson, ~Washinlgton1;
and the Honorable John J. Allen, Jr.,
California.
Following their inspection of the
Academy, thre Board of Visitors met in
executive session. Business which camze
before this meeting was not compllll-eted,
and a second meeting is to be convened
in Walshineton in the near future. The
report of the Board of Visitors to Con-
gross will be released after this second
meeting.
COAST GUfARtD PRESENTS PAPERS
TO INTERNATIONAL~ LIFE-
BOAT CONJFERBENCE
Papers on a number of subjects con-
nected with life-saving were presented
by the Coast Guard to the International
Lifeboat Conference held in Oslo, Nor-
way, July 8--10, through its delegate
Capt. Harold C. 1Moore. A number of


PHILADELPHIA AND KiETCHI-
KAN OFFICES ABOLISHED IN
CONSOLIDATION
The Fourth Coast Guard District, com-
prising the eastern part of the State of
:Pennsyrlvanria, the State of Delaware,
and thte lower part of the state of New
Jersey, with headquarters in Philadel-
phia, has been abolished as a separate
operating unit. Control of Coast Guard
units in this area has been transferred to
and consolidated w\ith the Third Coast
Guard D~istrilct, having headquarters in
New York. This is a return to the op-
erating plan in effect prior to WC;orld Wmar
II, a fourth district having been created
for wartime plurposjes in order that Coast
Guard operations might more closely
pa rallel the NIavy's district organiza-
tion.
The dis;establishmenten of the Fiourth
District became e-ffrc~tive at mridnienit on
June .30. The district had first been es-
tablishled onl Novemuber 30, 1940.
At the same time, the Seventeenth
Coast Guarlld District, the headqualllrters
'of which was located at Kettchlikanr,
Alaska, wvas consolidated with the thir-
teenth district, with offices at S~eattle,
Wansh. In this consolidation, the shore
andi operational units serving in Alaska
will continue to serve the area, but
their administration will be in the hands
of the district commander at Seattle.
The Commandant also disestablished
the N~orth Atlantic Ocean Patrol, ef-
feet ive J une .30, the command of all units
operating under this desiginatio-n rnes-
inlg to the commander of the First
Coast Guard Distr~ic~t.
CONGRESSIONAL DELEGATION
MAKES ANNUAL INSPECTION
OF ACADEMY
The Con~gressionnI Board of Visitors,
which each year makes an, inspection


a PublisPD with the approval of the Director of the Budget.
C?. G. Distribution.
A, B, C, and List 102.
749310--47


367


)ull7'r't


C OA ST G UARD







3C)8


COAST GUARD BULLETIN


the subjects lu1ementedl suchl as airborne
lifeboats, rocket line-thlrow\\ing devices,
emelr~~lrignc radio ten;usmitters, and air-
craft in rescue work, we~cre the direct out-
come of wartime nltiv~ities, particularly
those of air-sea rescue.
FolkwingT~ll are the titles of the papers
presented:
Recent Developm~ents in Building
Lifeboats for the U., S. Coast Guard, by
M. R. Daniels, captain (]E), USCG.
Introduction of Amphibious Life-
saving Vehicles to the U. S. Coast Guard,
by S. H. Evans, captain, USCG.
Diesel ESngini Installations in Coast
Guard Motor Ltifeboats, by Alfred Han-
sen, principal naval architect, USOG.
Exposure Treatment, by Lt. Comdr.
~W. G. Budington,
The Airborne Lifeboat.
The Gliderborn~e Lifeboat.
Thle Rocket L~ine-Throin~l\i IL Gun.
TheL H~andie talkie, VHFI Emergency
Tranqmitter-Rieceiver.
The Gibson Girl ]Emergency Trans-
nutter.
Exposure Suits.
Solar Stills for Distilling Sea Water,
Ne~w Search Plans.
Open Sea Seerlaner~ Operations.
Pyrotechnics in Sea-Air Rescue.
Th'le Kytoon.
The Helicopter Applied to Search and
Rescue.
ThSe Hanks Rescue Basket.
Sound F~ixing and Ranging.
EXPERIMENTAL RADAR RIE-
PL;ECTORS FORE BUOYS
PROVE SUCCESSFUL
The Coast Guard has developed ald
successfully demonstrated an experimen-
tal device to improve thle usefulness of
buoys and channel mafl~trker as aids to
navigation for the rapidly growing num-
ber of vessels nowY using radar equip-
ment. The new device, termed a "radar
reflector," increases the strength of the
radar echo from the ordinary buoy struc-
ture and thus makes it detectable at
greater distances and through worse
conditions of interference, such as that
from rough, choppy seas, known as "sea;-
clutter" when viewed on a radar screen.
The action of the device is similar to
that of a good mirror, properly pointed
to reflect lighlt flashes back to thie ob-
server and can, be compared, in thzis
respect, to the familiar reflectors used
on automobile highway signrs and marki-
ers to m~ake them sh~ow\ up better wvhen
ln~iiuminate ed by automobile headlights.
Only in this case, of course, the reflec-
tion is thie r:larl beam sent out from the
ship, retitu Irned byT the reflector and made
visible to the uln\'ifator on1 the \ielving
screen of his radar eqluipmnent.


Altho~ughl only Fxperimentalllt l models
of this device, one of: which is illust ra;ted~
mounted on top of a standard buoy, have
.so far been constructed, sufficient in-
formation, has been obtained from tests
andlc !lemlon;tration- s to prove definite
usefulness in some such forms or ;Ippli-
cations. Inlc~rc~ease distance ranges of
detection on the type of buoy pictured,
up to twice the range for an ordinary
buoy, were demonstrated at the recent
International Meeting on Marine Radio
Aids to Nul igation (IMMRAN) in NewP
London, Conn., during the' first week in
M\ay 1947. This meeting, which was
attended by delegates from most of tEhe
nations; of the world to consider the
latest developments in electronic aids
to ship navigation, concluded that the
radar reflector was a useful device and
recommended continued experimenta-
tion to develop suitable types for use
wherever needed. The Ul. S. Coast
Guard is therefore continuing work
along this line to develop more efficient
clesiigns,. meIr n~ica;lly1 adaptable to buoy
structures or other similar m~arkers
wherever they may be Irequired to in-
crease the usefulness of aids to radar
navigation by mariners.
COAST GUARD'S AUTHORITY
OVER ANCH-ORAGE AREAS
IS TEIRMINAED
Authority of the Coast Guard for the
establllikhmentll and disestablishment of
prohibited, restricted, and anchorage
ar~l. u.conferred by thle 'E~lio~lnag Act
(B0 U. S. C. 191) andl Proclamation No.
2412 of June 27, 104~,, has been termi-
nated by Proclamation "TE", signled by
the P~lreiden Ei on May 31.
Authority to control anchorage areas
is returned to the War Department for
administration under peacetime stat-
utes. En rformir~l1nt n of regulations by
the Coast Guard is in no way afetet~rd.
The War Department has adopted the
reg=ulatirlns promu~llan ted by the Coast
Guard and con~ltainled in part 6, chapter
I, title 33, CFR. Chang~l~es to onehoragelng
regulationsu now !en~dine at Const Gu;Iard(
headquarters will be forwarded to the
Wiar Departmenzt.
1YIESS MEMBERSHIP OPEN TO
COAST GUARD OFFICERS
Coast Guard ottheerls on activ-e duty
are eligible for membership in commis-
sioned and warrant officers' messes op-
er~ated ashore by the Nav'y. In addti-
tion to extending mnemblerrship to offi-
cers of the Coast. Guar~d, thle Bureau of
Naval Perrsol~nnel has anlnc.ounced that
Armoy and Coast Guard offircer~s on active
;duty do not have to be attachled to or







36i9


COAST GUARD BULLETIN


**Il\;rin at or` near2 thle activity furnish-

COIMMCODOIRE EUGENE A. COFFIN
IS AWTARDED) LEGION
OF MERIT
"'For ex~ep.tionallyS meritor'ious c~on-
rlui-r in thie perflormance of ()nistandllin-
serywer s t~o ther G~overnlment: of the U~nit-ed
States as D~istr~ict C~oast Guardt Cotice~r.
]'illfour Nava:l Distr'iCt, from11 ApilV 1!l-t'
to April 10 1."*, andt as D~istrict Conlst
Guardc Officer',- ]'ncoI.IInth1 I N~Val Dis-
trict, froml July to Septemuber 194tij,"
Conunlodore Eupone111 A. Coffin w-as awardl-
ed thle Lou-ina~ of' M~erit, which wTas pre-
sentedt to himt at thle annual meeting
of the Coast Guar~d district com-
manderss held in Wlashlington on June 3,
19471.
Commodore Coffin's citationl goes on
to sayr thlat he was "He pensl)iblp for
nwr~illtaining'~ the security of our ports, l
safeuaringthe uninterruplltte flow of
vessel traffic in port and on nav\iLathlf nllr ;7
routes andl ine-con.'sile the safety of the
men and property in the Mon-houl~llt. 31n-
rine, Commnodore (then Captain) ('ottin
rendered invaluable service in the! per-
formance of his vital duties. In addi-
tion, he aided in the successful prosecu-
tion of nuinly special wartime projects
assigned to the Coast Guard, some of
wYhich, included the protective patrol of
our coast line, the olrpganizationl of es-
corts for naval vessels, andt the man-
nline of naval transports. His profes-
sional skill, ]-llandershilp and devotion to
duty were in Ikeeping~ with the highest
traditions of the United States Naval
Service."

SCIAMESE REAR ADMIRAL VISITS
COAST GUARD TO LEARN OF
N\AVIGATI[ONAL AIDS
Rear Adm1. L~uang Jolbhan Brudhli-
krai, of thle Siamlese Na~vy, accompanied
by4 Capt. K~hantjitphol Ahhak..m..~,li l naval
attacefii of the Siamese! LTr- olon in
W.i':hlillionn visited Coast Guard head-
quarters on June 2 to confer1 with the
1Iersonnel1I' of the Aids to SNavic;ailr l D~i~
vision.Rerd Buhirisnh
country stuldyine- various naval matter '
and wished to acquire, for t he honen rt l
of his country, a knolledwllr~ of thec sys-
temn of aids to marine naviianthl~l main-
tainedl by thle United Statecs.
AN EARLY LIFESAVING
DIFFICULTY
An edict of Henry I, of Englandll. who
reigned from 1100 to 113... that if anly
person surv1ivedl in the foundl~eriin- or
st;randine~ of a v-essel it should not be
deied~ll a wree~k, while humane in one


r** le*''*' as nlot: to the lil;ing of those
whlo ma~de their liilng b~y Ibiking )osse'S-
sionl of" goodfs andlt earg'o whlich 110aItedt
shore. Thawrkrsei*Inty
411.1 whlat thley could to see thant thcrc!
were no survivors, r'i-llt dlown to lthe
beg'innling~ of) thef nineteen'lth CenlturI1y.
Thal~t wvas one of the L'l'ins't clillil.-llin.-
which. ]hadit-lic;l llldt the Britcish ~ifehout;ll
Insutitutio nl in its early dlays---F'romI the

SERVICCE AVIATCORS DEVELOP
EMERGENCY FL;OTATICON GEAIR
FOR HE;LICOPTERS
To increase the safety of he~licopter
operation over water by llatlinl pos-
sible enerlllncyl? IllaningC, the Coast
Guatrd's rotary wintg dfevelopmnent proj-
ect, which is headed by Comdcr. F'ranki
A. Erir ksnnil has des-ignedr and fabri-
cated emergency flotation gear for a
helicopter of the HOS-1 type. 'This
flotation L'(arL consists of an intiatable
rubber1 r~ing, greatly resembling a rub-
her liferaft, which is fitted around each
of the ]landlilL wheels. Fior normal
11iaht,. the flotation gear, in dlefatedi con-
dition. is housed within a canvas cover
in such. a manner thart it does not inter-
fere with the rub~ber-tired laningll~
w-heels e-ullet;tine~ the ground. 'When
an vina1rl goneI.\' landing on water is nee-
essary, the p.ilot, by operat.l fi ng- a suitable
v-alve, releazses carbon dtioxide gas
which flows to each of the flotation
units, inlflurling them with a. pressure
of 1%~L poundsll per sqluare inch. The
a-rea of the pads is uniti.-ient to support
the plane upon the water.
The flotation gear was des~ignedr by
the project commander andll intstalled
arnd tested at the E~lizabeth City Air
St:-it~lnn. being fitted to plane! CG 751605,.
Tests made in the tinin~ity ina~liln-atrl
that safe 10mrllinus~ could be made on
comparatively smooth water with this
gear. T.Llnalin-:* were also matde on
I1I1I.g1. pn. ..mnl 1 too soift to support the
weight of the beijlie..pltior when resting
on the standard ]landling wheels.
while? conceived oI~r~ilinally to facrili-
tate (nini-c il-r landlines,~ this nlew flo-
tation gear promises to havre distinct
value in manyII reSuelf situations. The
rescue of the survivors of th~e 17rllfilnn
plane at Gander off'ler such3 an example.
Ther points at which the helicopter hadt
to pick up its pesenger<1~'1' in that in-
stance was ground which w-as too soft
to pe~rmit a safe landing and take-off.
To make the operation possible, su~ffi-
cient lumber had to be flown in fromt
which. to build a tinyr "Ia~ndling field."
From the tests conducted to date it
appears feasible to operate a helicopter
with flotation gear fully inflated for







370


COAST GUARD BULLETIN


moderate distances, the gear reducing
the cruising '~rtd by about 12 miles per
hour only. When once inflated, the
flotation pads can be lef;med~ alnd
housedt only by landingr the plane on a
solid surface.
BOARD IVIKES PRELIMINARY
REPORT ON TEXAS CITY
FIRtE AND) EXPLOSION
The Coast Guard board amus~cinlted to
inquire into the causes of the fire atnd
explosion. on the S. S. Granrdeamlp, at
Texas City, Texr., on April 1L6, has ren-
de-redt its plrelimninaryl report to the Con-
mandant. Admiral Fn rley, in making
thlis report public, has announced that
he has recommended to the Secretary of
thre Treasury the aIlppointmentl of an
interdepartmental board to make an exr-
haustive study of the characteristics of
ammonium nitrate and to make recom-
mendaltions looking to the adoption of
rules Iregrdnlgli its handling and trans-
portation,
'The pl'lilluion ry report of the Coast
Guard I..un rd has brought out the follow-
ing facts:
The explosion on, the S. S. G~aradeamp l
was preceded by a fire of undetermined
origin. Smoking by perilsolnnel in tle
area of No. 4 hatch was admitted.
The initial explllosion resulted in com-
plete destruction of the S. S. Gran~camp.
This caused major damagel~t to two other
vessels, the S. S. Il'ilson~ B. Kfeene and
the S. S. Iiphi11lcer. The Highfl~acr later
explodd, detroy,~ing~. itself and the
Krieen~e.
The S.S. Granzdcamp, a Liberty type
vessel built in Los Anleella-. Calif., T12i.
was owned by the Republic of F'rance
and operated by the Comnpagnie Gen-
erale T'r;a ns t ~lantique, commonly known I
as the Fren~c~h Line, of Paris, Fra nee. ~
The S.S. Wilson B. Kleene and the S.S.
High#7rllr were American vessels.
The on rgo involved (amzmoniumn ni-
trate) in the initial explosion orig~inaftr jl
from three ordnance plants of the U. S.
Army.
Samples of ammonium nitrate taken
directly from these three clrdnai~nce
plants have been tested and preliminary
results indicate nothing abnormal about
the material which was not previously
known. The quan~tities testeld did not
expslnd~e or significantly decompolllse upon
the use of rifle bullets, blasting cne .
b~lasting~ caps and 60(-percent dynlamite
booster, fire and oil, closed ironr pip"
and fire, contact with metals heated to
700" F'., impa).ct appa;ratfus, severe fric-
tion between metal surfaces and other
test variants.
The material, delscribe~d on an ol~riirl l
bill of ]lading~ as ''Ferttilizer Compound


(manufactured fertilizerr, NI~lBN', Dry,
in paper bags~ (fertilizer grade Am-
monium Nitr~ate),"' was packed in mois-
tureproof multi-ply paper bags of 100
pounds net weight, each. Thle bags were
maarkced **Fertilizer, Ammonium N~itr;te~,
Sitrclsan 32.5%0." The retgulaltionsll re-
quire~ that shipments should be billed as
ammonium nitrate and the bags specifi-
ceally marked "Ammoniumn Nitrate'"
aIlthoug~h other descr~iptiveo material may

All shipments of material moved by
rail from point of orligini to Texas City
termrinals. The shipments were stored
in a warehouse on pier O pending shi'p-
ment abroad.
The S. S. Gra~ndllrl)mp arriv-ed at Texas
City and berthed at pier O on the
morning of April 11, 1947.
Lo nli ne of the ammonium nitrate into
NS~,. 4 and 2 lower holds of the Grand-
caimp began about 1 p. ma. on the 11th.
Stevedor~inr: operations included han-
dling from thle warehouse to storage in
the holds. Loading continued in. No. 4
lower hold until 5 a. m. April 15, at
which time 880 tons were Stowed~ in No.
4 hold and some 1,400 tons in No. f2 hold.
No. 4 main hatch was closed and secured
for the night.
Loading operations were resumed at
No. 4 hatch shortly after 8 a. m. on.
Apri 16.At this time there was no
smoke visible in the hold. A draft of
bags remained unstowed from the
previous evening's shift. The port-side
gang of workmen of the morning shift
began to stow these bags while the star-
board-side gang sat dowFPn awaiting the
first draft of bags from topside.
Between 8:15 and 8:20 a. m. smoke
without flames was observed in No. 4
lower hold starboard side, center, be-
tween hull and cargo battens--an open
space about 8 inches wide. Portable fire
extinguishers were used and the smoke
stopped temporarily. It reappeaD~red, ac-
companied by small flames a~long the
starboard side of tlhe hold. An alarm
was sounded on the ship's whistle. All
persons wcere ordered out of the hold.
A ship's ~fire hose was partially lowered
into the hatch but at no time wras water
turned on. The second captain (first
officer) ordered thzat no water be used
although other ship's hose was avail-
able and the ship's fire pump was oper-
afing at full working pressure. The
hatch was then covered and a tarpaulin
put in, place and wet down. Vent cow\ls
were sealed. Steama was introduced
into the En-ld through the steam
smot~hering systemi.
Despite efforts to smoother thie fire, the
fire continued to spread and the volume
of smnoke, orange inr color, increased.
All crew members left thle vessel and






371


COAST GUARD B'ULLGTIN


assembly' l on plier~ O to assist members
of tne local~liredepazrtmlent. It was not
determ~llilld how malny hoses fromn the
(1lork1) wvere actually broughtt to bear or
how effective ilthe could ever 1ll.0 with
the greater portionlof ~~. 4 hatch covers
in phn:ie.
About 9:15i a. m. (uppll'~sroxininely --*.1
mlinulltes after dliscovery of thei liire'l, the
material in No. 4 hOld cxplliiil1.l This
explosion tlemolll-l-hed 1;1 percent of pier
O undt left the renat~illin.. 40 Il''cent be-
yond repair,
An undr.r mina~~llI amount of amino-
nium nitrate in' warehouse on pier O
remained intact in thle debris. This
material was water-wa~shed overboard
with fire hLose, except for certain samples
which were sent to four separate test-
ine laIboratories. The results of the tests
of' thlese samples have not yet been
received.
-F'ilms broke out at various pointts in
the marine terminal, inl.IndineL ware1(-
houses on piers O and A, petroleum 3
~tul'lrn tanks, oil lines, antd in the plant
of the Monsanto C'hemical Clomp~any.
P'ier A is next afTjlc.irwen to pier O. A
dlense blacki smloke carriedc o~ver an~d
blanketed the pilr area throughout the
dlay and Iialt~. The* fires in wa~re~house s
C and A carried fumes of jEarningl SUL-
phur, strcld~ in warehouse A, over and
across the S. S. Highfllor r andI the S. S.
II-ilnrrm B. K~eene.
?The High flyerl was moored to pier A, a
"d~endl ship" in that its main turbine
I;-.iw.l was lifted for purpose of inspec-
tiont. Prior to thte G;r;r,andr, sry exiplosion
but in views of the firel on t:hat vessel,
10m~lline~ of the Hlightlyer" was suspended,
ha~tells w\ere closed andli tal'lrpalinl laid
and wet dow\n, and fire? stations were
manned by the crew.
'Ilhr GI amcrr wplr explosion parted the
Hilhflyer's mooring lines cau~ine~ the
Hightly12er to drift over aIIIlngider the
Wtilson B. Kieene. There was major
IlilumlLI: to structure and machinery of
the Hlighflyer. No.r-irit of medical at-
tention for inljurn.1~l. the shock and
dazed condition of crew, and the pre ~-
ence of smoke rlnneth -rl with fumes of
Int~rningi sulphur made it m~andatory -
that all personnel leave? the --liip. BY
10: 30 a. m. (April 16) this was done.
Similar fire security action was taken
on board the K~eene, mooc-redl to pier B
on the south side of the slip in which
the Highflyler was berthed.
Ait about 8: 50 a. m., Aipril 16, two
tugs were dispatched from Galveston
for the pupose of assisting a vessel
reported to be on fire at Texas City.
E~n route, an exprlllosion was heard. Upon
arrival at Texas City turning basin at
9:50 a. mn., the tugsa found it imlpossible


t-o enter Ilth harl1bor dlue to dlensei smoke~,
f1in11', andt dtebris. The11 in1~s sieltlmi
and removedl survivors f'romt thet flOat-
ine~ deb~r~is, thet-n returnedl to Galveston.
flrlmlldiately? falllat\i-ing theC G~randl-
ea31rny explosion all Coalst Gualrd crlf't
in thle GalVeStonl area?: pronI 1*Ind( tol
T'exaIs City. Thle CCO I-l:;:m~ arrived aIt
O:4.~. a. m., andi walS particu;larly bclor-
ful in fire and rescue c'nI~'1..i Clonst
Guardl auxiliary units also, parltictiparted.
The Coast Guardi cutter Ir~is arr'ivced
at Texas~ (lity about 10:40 n, mt. In-
jured anr-d dead were taken abloard' and(
the vessel, along with all otherr vessels,
was thten ordered to eva~cuate the aIre~.
The! Ir'is returned at 3 p. ml., but fou~nd
it imp~ossib~le to enter anyp slip for fire-
tirrhliine or ton\ine" because: of smoke,
ncidt fllmer', and debris in andl under
thle slips. At 7:40b p. m. the Ir-is was
:len~in ordered to eyncualte the area.
That cevenineri, about 8 p. m., because
of rumors of a possciblle explosion on the
HIightfluer (which had 5001 tons of aml-
monium nitrate in No. 3 hold), dispatch
of four Galveston tugs was .lrllquested.l1
D>;ill-llly in .getting~ proper equipment

etc.) delayed their arrival at ltexas C'it!
until 11 to 11: 20 p. m. Sparks and
burning embhers wvere observed mlinIng
from the Highlue Prl~. Personnel boarded
'the Highflyer and several attemptst~ were
made to mlove the vessel but were un-
successful due to parting towlines,
wreckage, smoke, fire, and fumes (there
was burning sulphur in No. 2 and 4
hl).A, white smoke was observ-ed
coming from No. 3 hatch. All rescue
wForkiers were transferred from the
Hilr/7.o r to onet of thle tugs and the
attempts to towi~ the ship fromu its berthi
was abandconed at 12: 55 a. mz., April 17..
The Hightflyer exploded at 1:10 a. m.,.
April 17. Thle dock area had been evac-
uated and only one life was lost due to
this explll in.~l This explosion com-
pletely des~troyedi the Hiohluer Iv, and that
portion of the T~tilson B. Keene abaft
No. 2 haltc-h, and wrecked the remi'n~ingil
portion of this vessel. The Kieene had
on board a, cargo Cr uns ~i ingi I only of flour.
Durline" Irl;ndineL operations on the
Grandamp, o specific instructions

spect to smrl...kin~e. There w~as genernI
ulnderstatnding~ that "'no snoklin-" on
deck: or in the holds was permitted, but
this restriction was not respected. Pro-
hibitions against ismokinlg were printed
in the French language on v-arious parts
of the exterior of the ship. No suchl
sirrnc in Enelish: were posted. Control
of: snlcking9 on deck and in the! holdls was
lax., There was smoking on the main
deck near No. 4 hatch.






372


COAST GUARD BUL~LrETIN


No specific instructions on the stowage
of the ammonium. nitrate material were
issued to the longshoremen. Broken or
torn paper bags were not refilled or re-
paired but were stowed in the holds in
violation of Coast Gtuard "Heiulations
Gove~lrnin~ ~Explosives anld Other D~an-
gerous Articles on Board Vessels.'"
Ammoniumn nitrate has been named a
dangero~~(us substance in Coast Guard reg-
ulations since April 9, 1941. The regu-
lations c~lassify' the nitrate as an oxry-
dlizingrL malteriajl subject to rap1id decomn-
position when exsposed~ to temperatures

Another ;rpplicab~le section of Coast
Guard Ireg~ulaltinusl requir'es that the
shippeltr give written notification in ad-
vance to the vessel regardcliine the char-
acteristics of a dangerous enrgo~~ being
hi Ie. his was not dlone in the in-
stant case.
No der~elictions in th~e performance of
s~tll1r were found on thle part of person-
nel of the S. S. H~ighflye/r or the S. S.
WiZlson B. Kheene.
Hardly without exception all persons
wrho testified before the Board and were
concerned wFith thre handllling. siterne, ~
and transportation of the ammonium
nitrate material displayed a lack of
knowledge of the provisions of reen"llla-
tions governing the safety of the opera-
tions either by land or water.
The preliminary report of th~e Board
is not looked upon. as conclusive from
the point of view of preventinelll similar
explosions of ammonium nitrate atnd is
incomplete pEnding receipt of the results
of certain tests. Further study is indi-
cated in view of the fact that ammonium
nitrate has been transported for more
thanl 25 years without any explosive
phenomenon, and Coast Guard investi-
gatory jurisdiction is limited to the
marine transportive phase only and in
disasters of this type other than marine
interests are involved,
Due to th~e unusual nature and seri-
ousness of the Tex~as City disaster and
as a means of exhfausing every possible
avenue of information regarding its
basic cause, Admiral F'arle~y has recomz-
mended to the Secretary of the Treasury
the creation of a committee consisting
of representatives from the Depart-
ments of State, Treasury, War, Navy,
Interior, Agriculture, Comamerce, and
the Interstate Commerce Comtmissiol,
the Maritimne Commission, and the Bu-
reau of Explosives. .
The committee, as recommended by
the Commandant, U. S. Coast Guard,
would seek to determine every aspect of
~the clharacteristics of ammonium ni-
trate, develop additional information
relative to its hazards in transportation,


evaluate suggestive proposals for assur-
ing safety in transportation, handling
and stowage~, and recommend a national
policy in conformity with these objee-
tives.
In the meantime, the Coast Guard has
notified all shipping agents in poc'rts
loading ammonium nitrate to properly
prepare shipx' holds in accordance with
existing regulations and take every pre-
caution to prevent fires. The Coast
Guard also has recommended that each
ship loa~dingr ammonium nitrate cargo
provide fire watches.
The Coast Guard establishes regula-
tions with respect to the general han-
dling ancd stowage of all materials that
are explosive or plotenltially dangerous
substances, and such re~gula~tion~ are
h-indline upon all shripple-rs. owners, mas-
ters andagentsl~~in char;1ge.
MERCHANT MARINE DETAIILS
INJ FOREIGN PORTS AR~E
BEING DISCONTINUED
Coast Guard merchant marine details
in foreign ports, established during the
war to facilitate the safety of life and
property at sea and for the purpose of
conducting inves~t-;tirention into merchant
shipping matters, have been. discontin-
ued. The~~se details wer-e located in the
following ports:
Antwerp, Belgium.
B3remerhaven, Germany.
London, England.
Cardiff, Wales.
L~e H-avre, Frvance .
Mlarseille, Fla nc~e.
Naples, Italy.
Piraeus, Greece;
Shanghai, China.
Manila, Philippine Islands.
Trieste, Venezia Giulia.
Coast Guard representatives will be
maintained for the time being in Londdon
and Manila, to facilitate the disestab-
lishment of the other offices.
During the war the Coast Guard aeti-
vated a total of 36 foreign Merchant
Marine details for the purpose of per-
forming "on-the-spot" services in cpn-
nection with, the preventive aspects of
safety of life and property of the United
States merchant marine.
In addition to limited vessel inspee-
tional services, shipment and discharge
of seamen1, and licensing and certificat-
ing, the Merchant Marine details per-
formed related funlctionls of marine
casualty investigations, and investiga-
tions and hearings of acts of incomupe-
tency, misconduct, negligence, unskill-
fulness, or willful violation of law by
licensed and certifticated members of the
Merchant M~ar~ine.






373


COAST GUARD BULLEIN 'II~


future date a more comph-~l~tr ely satis-
factory system m~iglt be install lles.1
"A complete technical anzd operational
discussion of thle Decca system hats beenl
pllr.esentedl by re)prefSentativeS Of thie
Uniited K~ingdm. t apers hatth
Il.ll-r;tion:l) testsr conducted in the vriiin-
ity of the 1:r~it ish Islitsr have been highly
successful anrd that some plrogn---~c h~s
Feenl madle in resovI \ine I thec lane idlentill-
c~ation problems inhecrent in this systemn.
There seems to be nlo question as to Ithe
;I.-1-I;1-.- of this system once this prob-
lemn hals been resolved.
"We in the Unieted Stattes hlavet c;.ret-
fully studliedl the apyplien~tion of this
system~ to our needs anld hlave met with
some questions w-Phich sholnd be neni-
tioned for further thought by those
members of this meeting wh~lo ]inI;Ihl be
Ill(,.r..., to consider these samne questions
dul-e to a1 similar order of things in their
home countries. WIe hav~c law.;~ coast
lines, Illrder'[ing~ in most caIes upon)I t~he
open ocea~ns. Flhips arriving at. our
ports f~rom other countries and in many
cases from, port to port within. the
Unitedl Startes must enter our naviga-
tion systems from fixes determined well
out at sea. On thle other hatnd the area
w-here thle Decca system has been used~i
lies in the center of a series of shipillg
routes fromu northern aind north~west-
er~n Europe.l"' Ships cent.-rlne the British
radio nalvigational aid systems from
these areas are able to do so from highly
accurate departures on ~fixedl visual aids.
Much of our coast line and surrounding
areas wecll out to sea are covered with
one~ for days at a time during certain
seasons of thle year. WGe cannot use a
medium distance system that cannot be
positively entered from a dead reckon-
ing position well out at sea. Further,
a critical examination shows that a con-
siderable number of medium range navi-
gational systems is required to give? com-
plete coastal coverage. This is exem-
plified by the large number of radio
beacons in use in the Unitedt States.
Some of the critical requirements of the
Decca ~Sytemsl are that the system must
be in continuous oper f lonn-that is, it
cannot be used on a time-shared basis
as is the case with radiobeacons, and it
cannot tolerate int~r~frrrenlc on the same
freqluencey. In the case of radliobeacons,
mal;ny of these are placed on the same
frequency by making a careful choice
of areas and radiated powers and even
though some interfrrenie miight occa-
sionallyv occur, it is not fatni ~to the
system as is the case with Decca. F'or
these reasons it appears that we in the
Urnitied States must choose the somewhat
less accurate radiobeacon system to


The above functions will nowr revert
to continental Unitedl Staites ports in
which there are loonted.1~ Coast Guard
maarine inspeec~lionr cllile~.
COAST GUARD PRESENTS NINE
PAPERS ATP IVARINE ]RADIO
AID)S CONFERENCE
Coast G~uard. 1 rep~~reentati \ive presented
ninety papers on electronics subjle-els at
the recent Interna~tional 311.-, ing on Ma-
rine Radio .\lds to N;I\igaltion, held in
New~ Yorkr and Newc Lonttdon (reported in
the June issue~of the CohSTr GU~innI B3UL-
LETIN). These speakers andi writers ald
their subljr-cts, were as follows:
Commander O'. C. Rohlnke--United
States Anti-Collision and N'aviga-
tional Radars.
Lt. Comar.GC:u y L. Oitin 11L -Utilization
of Radar Bea2cons and R2eflectors-
Lt. Comdr. C. M3. Daniels--U. S. Marine
Radliobeacons.
Capt. Lawrence MI. Ha~l rdine-Pralctical
PIrogress~ in Loran for >I;n rine~ nalviga-
tion,
Commander P. V. Colmanr--Improv-e"
ments inz Loran Eynipown:ll't for Ship-
borne Use.
Commander E. KC. Rhodes-Ma~lrin~e Aids
to Navl\igltion Broadlcasts.
Capt. Hatrold C. RAllane--Oean St-ati~n
Vessel Mlarine Services.
Rear Adm. Earl G. RosCI--Pro~I re-s~c in

Electronic Na~vigational Aids A
Coast Guard ininplellrt.
Rear Adm. Earl G. Rose, Chief, Office
of Operat;ilnow, discussed the progress
which had been made in radio Inavria-
tional aids, first Ireviewning the history of
the radiobeacon system, the shore-based
radio direction finders, and then the
wartime developments such as hligh-
frequalou-y~ direction finding, radar, Lo-
ran, and the European electronic sy-s-
temns. He succinctly summiarizedi the
position -of the United States with re-
gard to a standardized international
system. of radio aids to navigation in
the following words:
"In summary, a world Loran system
is in existence; the war has provided
many of us with experience and tralinilg
on how to use this system: onerinleerine
and technical lrnowledge if not already
on hand is available for the ask;Zine;
there is already inl existence equipment
for reorientation. and rrnrljustment of
the system for peacetime use; and a
great part of the world is already
charted fo~r use of Loran. It is my own
opinion Pha~t we would be unwise indeed
to deny ourselves th~e use of these exist-
ing facilities in the hope that at some






if#


COAST GUARD BULLETIN


serve our medium distance aid require-
men~lt, well knoingiilL thiat in doing so
w~e are sueril'fiingL the extremely high ac-
curacy that rllighlt be obtained wFith the
DIeccal system. *
"It applears to me, fromr a plurel\ op-
erational and practical standpoint, that
Pr1ovidlence ha s set a limit on. the amount
of over-all ndnt ionalllr; usefulness which
we catn extract us.In~ any1~ radio naviga.
tional-aid system. Inl the end it is at
best a compromise as to which choice
wec make. In the case of Loran we in
even!:se the amount of s~hipboanrd equip.
mlent to obtain additional accuracy, re-
liablility and I'.-Ince,. whereas inl Consol
we reduce the amount of shipboard
equipment at a sacrifice of nlecuracy
and acecepta~nce of the somewhat daln,
gerous practice of us~ing2 commlunication
r1ceivers, 1cremoved from~ the brIea~ of
the ship and not under the direct control
of navi-;r lne personnel. In the case of
~ecca, we obtain. high accuracy at the
expense of irlllimlumin lanze identifica-
tion, which aga;inl requires additional
shlore! stations equipment and shipboard
comlponentss to resolve the dlifficulty. In
the case of radiobeacons we sacrifice
somue accuracy to gulin a wide use of the
system on Ilslle shore lines by means of
shared time and frequency. I believe
that this clearly indicates the way that
we must proceed in the consideration
of World nadio Aids to 1av~-i Lat fion. We
must at best reach a compromise.
Ab'tove all we must bear in mind that
should we fail to agree w~e will ilny
marine and air transportation an op-
portunity to utilize the tremendous tech-
nical developments that have been made
in this field."
Cap~t. L, Mi. Harding's pn pwI' entitled
"Practical Progress in Loran for Ma-
rine Naviention."l. briefly summarized
some of the practical experience in pro-
vidling Loran service and in actual op-
erational use of Loran byT merchant ships
and civil aircraft. Of particular inter-
est were his remarks on the new Loran
ground station equipment with expected
greater i:coverage~i and reduced personnel
requirements. The following are ex-
cerpts from this portion of his paper :
"N~ew Loran ground station transmit-
tin-l equipment is now under construc-
tion for installation in the near future.
It provides considerably higher power,
narrower band-widths, and increased
radio-frequericy stability. Stanldar Id Lo-
ran now occupies a nominal 0.1 mega-
cycle band-width but the new equipment
is expecrted to reduce this band-width by
about one-third with little or no detri-
mental effect on system accuracy or aly
change in the basic sys~teml except for


(llanl 11 ide ?ht increased Loran ser-vice ra-
dius, improved\'ii signal to noise ratio, and
a reduction in interference to and fromlll
other services, all nern~ingr fromH the
reduced bl;11-\\iath. Thllroughl use of
Ili'-:herl poCwer 'the present nominal day-
time avera';gl' service radius of 750 nau-
tical miles will posiblly be iextenlded to
around LoanII miles but the most dis-
tant night service would probabtly re-
main at the present nominal 1,400-mile
radius. There are ev-en remote possi-
bilities, through ald\ i nneed receiv~er-ind~i-
cator d.esign. of exterralin-4 the daytime
service to as much as 1,200( mliles. These~t
seem to be the immediate o pend:; i li Ite
Unull-dli4(h1Ine, limits of exploitation of
the standard Lor~an system without ex-
tended researchl.
"'Lor~an transmuitting stations in w~ar-
time w\ere often overn t;led withl a per'-
sonntel complement I.lliistine~ of 9 to
13 technical people plus .;111 ll ia rille memH-
hers sucht as cooks, base maintenance
men, etc. This comparatively lar-.-el
complement wavs typical of that required

undcer warttimue conditions. Since the
conclusion of the w-Lar the further per-
fection of automatic equipment, accoml-
panied by studies and tests as to howv
these inn ly be safely lt il ima~l with a min-
imumu of operation p~eoplle,l has resulted
in the planl to employ onlly- 4 technicianls
to operate each new station or old sta-
tion as it becomes completely modlerl-
izedX. The number of supporting people
will be collrc~-rresponinly~l reuclned so that
it is exp-ected that the total staff wTill b~e
similar to that used- at an ordinary light-
house, radiobeacon, and fog signal sta-
tion. Where a Loran station can be inl-
stalled at an existing activity such as,
for example, a lighthouse, the extra
personnel required wYill be very small.
--simuilar~ treatment of Loran monitor
stations is expectedl to result in the a~s-
sigrnment of not: more than onc or two
technicians, and where the station may
be combined with another activity, such
as a lighthouse, it may be unnecessary to
supply any additional personnel for
L~oran purposes. Monitor stations are
normally located so that they may serve
two or more Loran rates. TChe new
equipment will not be cllnataatly super-
vised since it is fully automatic, but it
is equipped with alarm devices and w~ill
be attended.
"In comparison with older types of
radio aids to navigation the cost of Lo-
ran service operation may at first appear
to be high. HEowFever, when the factors
of range and accuracy are conside~lred
Loran applear's to be economical. ForI
example, a comparison with radiobeacon.









installations followYs in the table belowv.]?sthat required for tal untientoalln
The number of stations of each 1type( is Ipsto ln osa ra


1 1


375


COAST GUARD BULLETIIN


Square
1l.11
(dlay area)

r2,",500
644, 000


mriles
(night nrm~)

(i2, 500
52;, 27, 00


Accu~racy (night)


2.010 it, 200) mrile~s.
0.30 at I ': 1 rn1! '.


Py+ m


Class A radliobeacon (1 station)__.~. ....
Loran 100 kwe. (2 stations) ._..~-. ....


Capt. H~arold C. MooreII prme~ntedt a
pape1(r on Oeann Station Vessel nlunrinl
Services, fro~nl which the following has
been abstracted: -
"Ther'~e had1( been. consll;iltrablec dis-
cussion duringb this mee~rting2 regardl'ing
radio aids to marine nav1\igalt ionr pcint in,--
direc~ltly to certain systems and methode llc
for nl<*. Iupili shingi the specific funcl~tiion
of position fixing with some mention of
anlticollision devices. .Actually marine
unv ligationn includes a much broader field
than that of position ~fixing alone. In
addition, radio aids to marine I1;-,via-
tion includes such thin>l~ as distress
and alerting communications, weather
broadcasts, mzedical-aid communea-
tions, safety and warning= broadcasts,
communications regardingjll routing of
vessels and in some cases direct radio
communications between, vessels on the
high seas. *
"Fortunately for marine interests, the
requirements of ocean air transport
have forced the issue? for a proper ocean
wYeather reporting system, and hand in
hand with this sys~tl us 11as come a wind-
fall for the marine hipplinglij industry
in the form of a proper rescue-vessel
dispersion on the high seas, these ve~s-
sels being completely equipped with
modern. telecommunication facilities*
This places in the hands of those con-
cerned with, safety of life and propeIICrty
at sea the most potential tool for dis-
tress prevention and relief that has ever
existed.
"In the most Irestric'tl'dsense an ocean
weather~l station is merely a floatinig
weather observation post. Thle station
is equipnped and manned as are the
hundreds of other ~Weather Bureau
stations throughout the world. The
p.urpocse of all these stations is to ob-
serve, periodically, the? various meteor-
ologil~al elements, surface and ulllyrer air,
and transmit this information to a cen_
tral WVenther Bureau for dlistribution,
evaluation, and use. In this manner the
ocean station vessel is p~roid\iin:: a plat-
form, in a fixed location in the ocean,
from which weather observations can
be made.. *
"The first steps to establish ocean
weather stations on a permanent peace-


time basis were taken at thle N~orthl At-
lazntic Rouxte Conlference ofI PI"CAlO inl
Dub11lin, Ir.*1mull, inl Ma rICh 10l-11:. w'ih(!
it was recommended th~at 13 ocea~n sin~-
tions he establishled at 41pe.-i lil.-sIi ctionIS
in, the North Atlantic area. Thlis recomn-
mendation of th~e Dublin conference wvas
approved'''i by PICAO at MnutIII~1 real, a a
conference of the Norlth Atlantic Stattes
to implement this plaln wa:s called in
Londn i Setembr 140.At thris
Ocean Weather Observation Sta;tionl
Conference, the full..wn~ine Gov~er~mcntnt
:iLIEII to par1ticip~ate inl f~:;linancn and1
operating the 13 recommended stations:
Belgiuml, Ca~nada, Firance, Irelandc, the
Nethlerlantds. Norwa~y, Swedeln, the
United Kin.10mllr. and1C the United States.
Thle agreements calls for the U~nited
States to operaLte 7 of the 13 stations
and 1 additional station jointly with
Clanadla. Th'lis :.lonoment~L is an example
of international cooperation to promote
safety, reen11;~ lari y, a nd econlomy in inter-
continental commerce. It provides a
pattern for such cooperation by which
nations could participate in furnishing
other vitally needed facilities, likre long-
ranl-ce aids to navl\i-;tionl in accordance
with their use of such facilities. TIhese
facilities of general use need never comet
out of one nation's pocket.
'"As previously stated, the primary
function of the ocea~n-station w--wels~1 is
to observe andi tralnsmit weather infor-
ination. B~rietly, the observations con-
sist of routine surface observations anld
obtaining thte trmpsar~tlre, Emn~lini\',
and pressure in upper~1 levels by radio-
sondel ob~serva~tions, also determtining t'he
force andc direction of upper-level winds
by tratl~lingL with radar a free balloon
crri ng!.II a radar tu~r:P-t or reflector.
"It is understandable that thle oceanl
weather stations are located p~~u~rimaril
to falltini meteorological nee~~ds. In p~rac-
tice, this requlllireiS that the vessels be
placed some 600 to 700 miles apart.
Such arrangement, fortunately, estab-
lishes an almost perfect listening net for
dlistress traffic on the international ma-
rine distress freqluency of 500 kilocycles.
TcLoden1l. then, is their additional fune-
Stion as search and rescue units. Ocean


Ac'curalcy (daiy)


2.00:I at. 200iles_..
0.20 at X00 mliles_.







37(}


COAST GUARD BULLETINJ


weather-station vessels also provide
0.1kmI\ -landl~ data to atircraft and ships,
m~ake cl Iean..lraphimallI andIC other~1 SCienl-
tific observations, and perform such
other functions as may be prescribed.
-- W~in-i(dedlly, the services performed
by thle ocean weather-station vessels
which are useful to maritime interests
(anl be listed briefly als follksys: Im-
IIr't1\*al weather forecasts; use of radio-
b~eacon signal for both position fixing,
anld IlMlining; radio relay service (ships
business andi weather reports) ; medical
advice anid assistance; inspenve.1(jl diS-
tress watch on 500 kcs. plus additional
distress watch on bcbLi kes.; radar
wetathler detection; ice information and
adv~rice as to other ships in. the vicinity
inl case of distre~ss. All or most of these
-1ri ic, useful to surface vessels, are
parlt of the tradition of thle sea and ex-
ptected fr'om~ a Coast Guard vessel wyher-
ever found. *
"It canl reailly3 be seen, therefore, that
thle ocean station vessels fit smoothly
into the comprehensive problem of ma.
rine Ilat i-;til..n and constitute an im-
portant partP of an illtcgental system to
promote increased safety of life and
pen''lrl=* vy at sea."

COAST GUARD) OFFICERS PAR.
TICIPATE IN INSTITUTE O1F
NAVIG;ATION IVIEETING

Tlhe Coast Guard wacs 1.1Lr'psented'i at
thle recent meetting of the Institute of
Navrienionilr by Lt. Comudr. A..11'. Wue1~r-
ier, USCG, deputy executive aw--ista ut.
Sear~1ch and Rescue Auency,.~. as well as
by other Coast ( Ma rd'c officers who are
members of the organizations., The in-
stitute meeting wpas held in WTashington
on ,June 23 and 24.
CanIane Wllr~lr~~ ;uerker's talk dealt with
search and rescue, and from it the fol-
lowing extracts have been made:
"ii-:l:reh and rescue! as a military op-
oraltion is an established fact. Ml-
inlry services amongll themselves attempt
to provide adequate mneasures for search
:Il.l rescue to meet their own needs.
"The needs and requlirements of the
scartlch and rescue pr**urinLI;I for ovcer-
walter transport, hot hl for aircraft and
sur~f~cac vessel, are well established and
are I'niitilliml by the Coast Guard.
"'TheII nteed for a sea~rch and rescue
I'rogI~r.= na for dtomestic civil aviation was
realizsed over 2 years wI~n. at which time
a special draliftingC ('nonIittlll, including
repllc~cltres nt\ath's of the Ar~my Air Forms. ~i
War.\!, Coast Guard, andi Civil Aeronau-
ties .\sinsinitriilt'iion prepared Mnual r in
for the Contr~ol olf Instrumnent Fliglt
Rul Trfil. Selction 4 of this


manual is entitled 'Procedures for
Alerting; Search anld Rescue FueC~l11tles.'
"The purpose of including a part on
search and rescue in. this manual was to
aIssure standard search and rescue alert-
ing procedure. *
''9The~ search and rescue subcommittee
of the air coordinating committee cur-
rently is makrling~ a rltudy of the require-
mec-nts of al search and rescue Int..ernin1
to meet the needs of domestic civ-il avia-
tion as well as the international obliga-
tionts of the United States. This study
hlas Isnuausedt' l to a point wrher~e certain
fundameutntals are relllinanize. F;irmsl, a
ci nlirletr search and rescue peneman~li
mrust beg~inr withl the indoctrination in
search and rescue practices and tech-
niqiues of pilots and crews as well as of
all operational personnel. Such indoc-
trina~tion app~lies equally to the poten-
tial survivors as it does to the? rescuers.
Proper indloctrination may even include
Itrocedlures for briefing aircraft passen-
getrs as to the location :mell operation of
.-raceency1('~ t'.s.-up.= hatches,. just as you
would expect to be told in a passenger
sur~face vessel thfe location and, opera-
tionI of yocur lifejackret andC' the location

miost I~in~l.etant, effective search and
rescue requires coordination. This is
hased on the well-established fact that
no single organization can set aside for
search and rescue purposes alone all of
the facilities required to e~ff'ect a search
or re~scue. Protection for public emler-
-ent-cins~ requires certain. minimum facili-
ties, to be sure, as sh1own; by the need
for city police and fire dep~artments.
ITlniverl. r when the expense of main-
tanining a full-time, fullyT equippei d fire
tlelarltment cannot be justified, as in
many rural communities, you will find~
volunteer fire departments established.
(Cilll~nl~in che is derfina~l as the act of
brling~inL into common and clllpeliratlv\,
nation all available -T.acilitices. both pub-
lic and private, in the conduct of search
and rescue. The search I-a nd-rescue
I'l.'granll also includes the r~equire~ment
of standrdntization of inr~lrc voryl-! proce-
been ;Ilc** nilishellI by neiisitine~ a dis-
tressecd airborne aircraft to a safe land-
ingr. F'ina-lly, wheln an aircraft has
actually cl1lrashe or is presumed. to hlavec
crashed, a search-and-rescue prc~g-;rnin
requires that facilities he provided to
physically search for and return the
sur~vivor~s to safrty; such as r'escue par-
tils. Holic-opll~tor.<.: or crash boats. *
"Tnur'ing. the war it was foundli alnh
proven that disasters called for coopesr-
atioon between all 1In et icipnt fin neaInrc~i es
wlhichI had fnrilitires at their dlislla. to render aid. Thec coordination of







3'77


COAST GUARD BULLET'IN


these in.-ilities called for (xperi' nce 't
andc tliraining. FIroml this current search .
and rescue practices were evolved, in
tha~t the single agencyI~ with. primary ~
I~~lresponibility for rendering aid is the
one to coord~ina~te the e~rffort of the other
F'edern1 or private nc'lr~ir's having fa-
cilities in the pa~rticulalr area. *
.'Th1us we arIrive at the international
importance of search andt rescue. Al.
though the U~nite~d States participated
in and signarl the 1929 Convention on
a;rfli? of Life at Sea, it was not until
the 1/orro Castle and7 Mohawk; disasters
precpitter a cverssinalinvestiga-
tion that the Unitced States in 1936 rati-
fled this convention, being the last
signato~lry to ratify.
"It hlas nowN been many years since
the provisions of the 1929 convention
were clraftc.dt, and spurred'cl byI the war
mnany due\c~~ll~llopment Il1-e takien. place to
point up dliscrepancies between present-
day glood~ practices and t-he existing in-
ternlational treaty standards. With
thi~s situation before it, a special ship
Iiner committee recommended in a re-
port, dlated 3La r~ch 11, 1944, that imme-
dtiately Ilponr the conclusion of the war
an international conference on safety
at sea should be heldt. FoIllowing up
the recommnendaction of the special ship-
ping committee, a meeting was called
of the representatives of the various
Government departments whose inter-
est might be affected, and as a result
the Commandant of the Coast Guard
wacs designated to urlle~rtake;~ the task
ear' !Irolrine~r for subm~ission the U~nited
States' proposals to such an interna-
tional conference. In the preparation,
now talking place, the functions of a
group committee on "!(-I1-ro *-no pen-edures 11
includes instructions to a subcommittee
in search and rescue '* consider
the establishment thronehl~l mutual ef-
fort or contribution of facilities for the
rescue of surface vessels and aircraft
flying over the oceans. It should also
coln-ider the responsibility of merchant
ships to go to the aid of aircraft in dis-
tress and vice versa.'
"Paralllelingc the accent on interna-
tional mar~itime sa fe~t1, the Interna-
tional civil Aviation Oran:-nizat~ion, be-
came a reality on April 4, 1947. The
preamble to the Conv~ention on Internla-
tional Civil Aviation states, in part:
'Therefore the undersigned' govern-
ments hlaving agreed on certain princi-
ples and arrangements in order that
international civil aviation mayn be de-
v-eloped in a safe~ and orderly man-
ner' "* **
"As a matter of record, article 2;5
states: 'Ench contracting State under-


tackles to provide such measures of as-
sistance to aircraft in distress in. its
ter'ritory as it maly find practicable, and
to permit, subject to control by its own
authorities, thle owners of the aircraft
or authlorities of thle States in which
t he aircraft is registerede c to proid\~e such
measures of assistance aIs may be nle-
cessitated by thne i*ilclrrcunat in.-. ~acth
conrctlll'l'ing Sta~te, when u'inder~taking
search for missing aircraft, will col-
laborate in coordinattedl measures which
muay be recomnmendedi from time to time
pursuant to the convention.'
"'As a result of the groundwmork laid
by the Provisional International Civil
Aviation Organization, certain interna?-
tional standards and recomumendled
practices for search and rescue, as
wvell as for the establishment of certain.
minimumr search and rescue facilities,
have been recommended to P'ICAlO.
P'IC'.1 also has Irecouln~izedl in the reec-
ommended standards the need for and
value of coordination. Among the
recommended search and rescue facili-
ties are rescue coordination centers, de~-
fined as: 'A center es~tabh-heelr l by thle
appropriate authority to initialtl coordti-
nate, and terminate search and rescue
within a designated area.'
"The Coast Guard's Rescue Coordinat-
tionn Center at 42 Broadwvay, N. Y.,
which covcers the Atlantic andl Carib-
bean coasts of the Uunitedl States, hann-
diles an averneo:I= 20 distress cases per
day. In the month of April 1947 alone,
pir-ke~d at random, there were 104 cases
involvine a ircrarft, and 511 invll\'l-ine'
vessels or minor mishaps, all of which
involved assistance to over 1,rilSII
persons.
"Those~~ who have worlkeii for the ad-Fi
v~ancement of search and rescue have
been aware of (Iotwll~linpp li'in requ~irlemts
as regards maaritime, telecommnunica-
tions, and aviation. Such overlapping
occurs particularly in standardization
of cemergencyl~ procedures and equip-
ment. As a result of concerted effort,
current proposals contemplate the es-
ta~blishment of a Clonlllini'tto on Inltterna-
tional MRI;1itim.c Telecommunlnicationls
and Aviation Coordinatioon, or C'I ITA\C.
Discussions on this proposal currently
are pmen'' dingu in the Internationacl
Telecommunications Union Clonference
at Atlantic City, in the Provisional
:Alari t imel Consultative C(unlcil at Paris,
in the International Civ~il Aviation Or-
unniizaltio-n, and in the Eiconomnic and
Social Council of the United RNations.~."
"In closing, I should like to point out
some of the more serious problems of
the search and rescue picltur~e of civil
aviation as it exists toiday: Theret is no








378


COAST GUART


Fedeml~l aIgency Iresponsciblet~ to prov\isll
search andl rescue facilities for civil air
crashed on land. Enslup~lrs are the re-
cent airline c~ru~shes in ~Maryland and
West V~ir'iia; there is no Federal
agency responsible for the coordination
of search and rescue for civil air
crashed on land, for either commercial
or private fly-ing; there is no Federal
ugencyI. responsible for prescribing min-
imuum standards or inspectingll local
crash facilities at civilian. airports;
there is no Federal agency responsible
for the dli em~inatioi~ n of information for
the indoctrination of civil pilots and
pos~enger~s, or of local civil crash-truck
or crash-boat crews in rescue and sur-
vival procedures; there is no standard
high or very high distress frequency for
civil aviation. With most civil aircraft
not equllipped~l to transmit onz the stand-
atrd international distress friequeuey-? of
.~10, kcs. the result, by way of compari-
son, is getting the busy signal on th~e
telephone whlen you are trying to report
a fire; there is no FIederallyl~ required
pIl-.r ".-ne biietfinea as to the location of
einclll~'rl.n exits and the operation of
;lfty belts or other safety devices, as
is now traditional in marine transport."

DECORATIONS AND) AWARDS
MADE SINCE MA-Y
LEGION OF ERIUT
Der~by, W~ilfrid N., rear admiral.
COMMENDATION RIBBON
Ayers, Kingdlrel N., lieutenant.
P.:l-lia. John S., commodore (wpt.).


La REaia, NCic "o asC~ .1);12 ji 2 F

Parsons, Rob ~rt 1..e

Peicllegrinelli. iG.gyvi. -



PRES TDEN ~L~T *1~-i TP'T.TO
Smith, Seward S., CBM.
Matlack, Jr., Cha~rles P. T., Sic.


UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

II ll I ll l illlII lllllII UI
3 1262 08748 2625
D BUJLLETL_.

COMMAr.~NDANT'S CITATON
K~urth, Donald J'., CY (R).
Zarrlilli, Reuben A., senior surgeon,
USPHSR.

CHANGES IN ASSIGNMENT

Capt. Vernoln E. D~ay, cutter Tam~pa to
Yard.
Capt. Floyd J. Sexton, from comlmander
Fourth Coast Guard District to coom-
mander First Coast Guard District.
Commander Victor F`. Tydlacka, cut~ter
Mojav~e to Tam~pa, as commanding
officer.
]Lt. Comdr. Cornelius G. HEoutsma, from
First Coast Guard D~istrict Office to
Massachusetts Institute of Tec~hnol-
ogy (naval construction and engineer-
ing course).
Lt. Comdr. Louis H. Hirschy (R), com-
mnissio~nerl Maye 15 and assigned to
active duty, marine inspection, Seat~-
tie, Wash.
Lt. CoILude1. James J. Mad~digan (R),
marine inspection, Buffalo, to marine
inspection, Chicago.
Lt. Cond~lr. Charlesr P. nIlFatull (R),
marine inspction, Pa scu ouin, to
marine inspection, Mobile.
Lt. Comr.~lr George W. Walker (R), ma-
rine inspection, Manila, to marine int-
spection, Long Bteach.

HOME PENDING RETIREMENT

Commander George A. Piper.
L~t. Comdr. Christie T. Ch~ristiansen.
Lt. Comdr. Osmond Faulkinghiam.
Lt. Comdlr. Charles I. QuitigSanrd (R).
Chiifi Carpenter Lloyd L. Dough, physi-
----l Usbility.
ch'lief ~';y Clerk James E. D~evitt, physsi-
enl disability.
.iip's Clerk Spencert' l L. Mlidgett, 30
ynrservice.
L.110 ry Y. Clhinents.
in A 1. H~imel.


Lt. C<.mldr. Jesse L. Melrver (R), at
Jackshonville, F~la., 1May ~25.
Gunner Kacr~l Johansson (ret.), at
Mliamui Beach, Fla., Mayr 31.


U. S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 1947




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