Coast Guard bulletin

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Material Information

Title:
Coast Guard bulletin
Physical Description:
4 v. : ; 25 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
United States -- Coast Guard
Publisher:
Treasury Dept., Coast Guard
Place of Publication:
Washington, D.C
Publication Date:
Frequency:
monthly
regular

Subjects

Genre:
federal government publication   ( marcgt )
periodical   ( marcgt )

Notes

Dates or Sequential Designation:
Vol. 1, no. 1 (July 1939)-v. 4, no. 1 (July 1948).
Numbering Peculiarities:
Issues for July 1939 to June 1942 numbered v. 1, no. 1-36; issues for July 1942-June 1945 numbered v. 2, no. 1-36; issues for July 1945-June 1948 numbered v. 3, no. 1-36.
General Note:
"CG 134."
General Note:
Title from caption.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 004847253
oclc - 01586958
lccn - sn 90034071
Classification:
lcc - HJ6645 .C6
System ID:
AA00012190:00005

Related Items

Preceded by:
Lighthouse Service bulletin
Preceded by:
Marine inspection and navigation bulletin
Succeeded by:
U.S. Coast Guard bulletin


This item is only available as the following downloads:


Full Text








BULLETIN~ist-5
ISSU ED` MV!ONTH LY

Volume 3 WASHINGTON, JANUAIRY 194~7 Numlber 19


,COAST GUTARD BOARD) CONSIIDERS ~illo~. is currently underway. Trhe pres-
SEADROIMES AS WTEATHER ent all-out drive began on January 1, on
STATIONS FEASIBLE a nation-wide: i,;lis, with additional per-
sonnel and a Ililgh priority av ~illene to
A board, appo~~inted by the Comman- the task.
danlt of the Coast Guard, to consider the Particular effort is being made to
feasibility of seadromes on the trans- reach all honorably dlischargedc ex-Coalst
Atlantic air lances, has recommended a. Gard' and Coast Guard Resaerve per-
trial of such a structure, and foresees sonnel and~ nequa~:inlt them with the bene-
no insurmountable technical diffculties. fits, both as Iwon ed. This board was nppotinlted following a future security, being offered in connee-
meeting of the Air Coocrdlilnating Coml- tion with this campaign.
mittee in October 1931;. atr wh~il-hl the
Treasury Department had representa- RUNNING OF ILNE FROMP S]HIP
tives. TO SHORE AhCCOMVIP~LISHED
At the meeting of the? Air Cloordinalt- BY HELICOPTER
ing Comymittee, there was considerable
discussion of the feasibility of m;inel sea- A recent standingll of a vessel on the
dromes in lieu of ships as ocean weather coast of North Ca~rolina demnonstrated-
stations. It was brought out that the the ease with wophich a line could be3 run
Coast Gua~rdl was looked upon as the from a vessel to the shore by a beli-
prclper agency to operate such a se~a- copter. This case was also the first
drome if one were conslitructedt anzd instance in which? such an operation
service tested. was performed under actual assistance
Thze board appointed by the Comman- conditions.
dant, aftlr due deliberation, concludedt WChile the S. S. D~aniel Drakce was
that no insurmountable technical diffi- being towed by the Coast Guard Cutter
culties were likely to be encountered in OhLerokee, it broke adrift, alnd the cutter
C'nI1trultiing a seadrome suitable for use was having dlific-ulty- in getting another
as a weather station. It further con- towline aboard because of the heavy
cluzded that pre~liminaryc estimates indi- seas. The o~flice of the district comu-
cate that over a period of years the use maander dli1patched~ a helicopter to the
of seadromes would probably be more senle, with lines made up rc-adlly for
economical than conventional type craft. running between the cutter and the dis-
The board considered the idea suff- tressed steamer. Upon the arrival of
clently practicable to justify the con- the bec-licanllter, it was found that the
struction of one seadrome for service steamer hlad grounded near the Caffeys
testing. Inlet Ltifeboa~t Station, and that the
cutter was standing off shore.
COAST GUARD NOWVI CONDUCTING The grounded steamer was lying only
INTENSIVE RECR'ITITING DRIVE about 125 yards from the beach, and
breeches buoy apparatus, which was
An intensive program for the securing en route to the scene, would have been
of new recruits and with a view to in- adequate for passing a line from shore
tPIrnating, as many former Coast Guard to ship. H-owever, the blicop~Ilter' bingil
and Coast Guard Reserve petty officers on the scene, it proceeded to run a line
in enlisting in the Coast Guard as pos- from ship to shore, an operation wh-ich
C. G. Distribution:
A, B, C, D, and List 102.
I Published writh appros al of the Director of the Budget. 301.
720273---17


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iY11E7


SOA ST


G UARD







302


COAST GUrARD BULtLETIN


some of the problems and progress in
matters connected with maritime safety.

PUERTO EICO CG AUXKILIARY
FLOTILLA ENROLL;S WOMEN
PLAbNE PILOTS
Claim to being the first aviation flo-
tilla in thle U. S. Coast Guard Auxriliary
to enlist women. members has been made
by the San Juan Puerto ]Rico Coast
Guardi Auxiliary Flotilla No. 3. This
claimn is based upon the enrollment of
111in Clara Livingston, and ZMrs. Emma
Coulter Ware.
Miss L~ivingston and MSirs. Ware were
sworn in at a special ceremony which
took place October 1, at Miss L~iving-
ston's private cleield~r~ in Dorado, a town
about 20 kilometers west of San Juan.
F~ifteen~l private planes were ~flown in by
auxiliary members who took part.

>Irl. Alfred Barnes, the British IMin-
ister of Transport, has put 10 years as
the limit within which every well-found
British ship will be lthtetl with radar
navj3; ignIiiul equipment.
HISTORICAL SECTION ISSUES
FIRST VOLUME OF WIIOMEN'S
RESERVE HISTORY

Therel~ has just been issued thel first
of twvovolumes of the Coast ~luard war
hlistorli'q, which will deal wvith the
Women's Reserves. This volume, which
is one of the "first narrativeS," and
chietly for distribution within the serv-
ice, contains 259 pages and about half
that number of illusjtrnticlns. It was
prepared in the Hlistorical Section. of
the Public Information Division.
In scope, the present volume covers
the establishment of the Womnen's Re-
serve of the Coast Guard, the recruit-
ment of its members, the Wpomen's Re-
serve training program, and the utiliza-
tion of the Women's Reserve.
Volume 2 of this Spar history, which
will be issued at a later date, will be
an administrative report made up of
reports from each of the Coast Guard
district.

TRAINING BEING EXPANDED
AND GIVEN NUMBER 1
PRIORITY

In1 order to offset the present shocrtage?
in certa~in. petty-officer ratings, brought
aLbout to some extent by expiration of
enlistments, the Coast Guard's11 enlisted
tra:inling_ p~~lrogra is just nowv being
rapidly e~xpanided. Nuimber~ 1 priority


took only 5 minutes. This wtas accoz-
plishes1l with no d~iffi-*ulty, and lthe run-
I.ilr: of 1,000 fathoniss of light line would
have presentedl no greater problem.
Thle helicopter used in this instance
was a small training machine not
equllipped~ for rescue wo~rk. Had a heli-
copter with an elevator' been available,
it could have removed the entire crew r
fromr the strandled vessel in less time
than `was required to get thie bJreeches
buoy appra~l~i;tus to the scene. A heli-
copter with. elevator could also have
landed a man or two and a portable
gasoline-dlriven windlass on the vessel
to handle a towline had all members
of the crew been disabled,

MvEETING OF MvERtCHANT~ MA~-
RfINE COUNCIL IS HIELD
IN NEW YORK

A mee~rtine of the Coast Guard Mer-
chant Marine Council was held in New
Yor~k, October 17i, under the auspices of
the Americanl Merchant;1I1 MrI;ine c'lnferl-
ence. Admiral J. F.` Fairleyp, USCG,
Commandant of the Coast Guard, pre-
sided aIs chlairmann of the panel, while
Commrodtore H. C. Shepheard, USCGR,
chairman, Merchant JIn rinle Council,
served as cochairman and discussion
leader. On1 th~e prarrain1 were the fol-
lowing f'l.lur speakrlers:
Capt. L. N~. Hai,:rlin. USCG, Chief,
ElectronliCS Emaineerine~l;, Division:
'*Pengltr. ew Report in the AI;I11rividian of
Radar andc 1Loran to AD~-reh~ant Ships."
Capt. Joseph A. Kerrins, USt~CG, Se-
retary, Merc~hanIt Murine Council: M-
ritimte Safety Laws and Regrulations."
Capt. R. T. Merrill, L':;COR, Execu-
tive Secretalry, United States Sa fety-
at-Sea Committees: "Ca itique~ of Inter-
national M(aritimne Conferences."
Capt. R. L-. RI n**.\, USCG, Assistant
Chief, Office of Merchant Marine Safety :
"'Safety-at-Sea, Wc'ar vs. Peace-Time
Standards."
After a word of --web-ome"lr from Ad-
muiral FEarley, thet meeting was turned
over to Cnmanadore1.~.1~ Shephouli ld~ who er-
plained the purposes of the Merchant
Ma~rinr Council. Commoducellli Sheph7lear~d
pointed out thant the "'Counceil" was an
advisory body ''cstabllished~ to provide a
I'olmuln in wh'tich all groups affected by
the navigation laws or by other actions
of the Coast Guardt could present their
views on such matterss.'' He Inentliines1,
htowevrer, tha;t this Irtines-ti was not an
executive session of the MRll.-houtll Ma-
r~ine Cllnw-f l. but an opportunity to come
before t-he miaritimet publlic and present
for its cocn~sid~erat11i n and Ii.uion i~ l






303


COAST GUARD BULLETIN


period of the Iemerge~t ncy.~
"In addition to their many normal
liabllcilums, durh-s,~i the keepers were re-
quiredl to c~arr~y out coasit-ivatching and
1raio-wat-ching~, duties, thus ;tlding~ to
the st'trinl to wrhich~ the reduction in
power~ of their lights hadl already placed
up~on thecm. hlIlv-onlh-ch:1 r!Iep)ortS and:
da~ta hadt to b~c pnr'epared~ and l~:insrnitllt(l
to thle ;IpllroJIi tate aiuthorities and de-
tails of ainy suspiciorus vessels noted and
forwardedi to thle Navy.
"All these durtirlM melant thast thre
w-atchk~eeper hadrt to be` continuarlly on
the alert and ready at any timle to note!
a~ny pecucliar c~ircumstaances which may
otr mayI~ not have been orf imnportance; in
adlditioln, ther stores position in some o-f
thea moreFC remoltcef StationlS at times caused
great uinxietY clving to thle nonavail-
ability of the Miatal and the lightt-
hou1Sr-S' -14. n-lellll. e on sullall craft for
the- 1rlcnveyance of ne~cessities.
"Whelrn thre Mlaitn was withdrawn from
the ligh~thouser~ service the Depaurtment
was faced with the job of servicing the
lights by other means, w~ith the result
that island lights were su~pplied by small
coastal ]lllrm vb -, wh;ilot the! land stations
weret surppliedl by roadlt. >In nly of the
landl stations we~re, bIy thle ver'y nature
sf their locationl, cut off fr~omr road trans-
port and supplie-s hlad to come in on the
backls o~f park~liorse~s, and at times for the
last p~ortionr of' th~e joiurney; heavy loads
wercle mananl:ndledc ove-r rough terrain by1
the keepe7crs.
"Fr~lom then on. as thie menace of sur-
face~ andlc submal Iri ra;~i ders bee"nme more
recmo~te, mo6re and mlor~e liglt~s and radlio-
beaC'OnlS were''( r'eest~:sllllwlcl 1 until inl

theltir fuill p~rc`war: power.
"Until all ther minlefields in the Hau-
raki Gulf aire c~learedl up it is possible
that the lighlts and radio beacons on
M~okiohinaux andl t'ny rI' Island will re-
malin ext;l,:nunishedl otherwise vessels
would be -: ii lldl into dome r ~~r by the light
insteadl of inlto safe channels.
"'With the tlIn ine- of thle a~pproaches to
Aucklalndl via the JMalllllhinan and Cuvier
c"'rll- """>. ltenate routes we~re lightred
so tha~t vessrel would be clear of the
minefields."'

NEWLY CONSTRT.CTIED) LtIGHiT-
SHIP TAKES STATION ON
POLL;OCK RIP

Lightship No. LG 196i, recently con-
struncted for the Coast Guard at Bay-
City, M~ich., wasr placed on the ]Pollock


for t:he filling~ of district quotas for ad-
vanrrced~ :ralininlg has b~een 1stab~iliard,
and, it is expected that t:he present total
of approximately .Too~ men. wal~ll~lvaing
Ipctty'-lffi(r training at the Coast Guarltd
Training Station, Grotonl, Connt., will be
increased to 1,500 by Mafy,
Fone11 adit~ionnl~l 6e10S hools wer opened
at Groton Tr'ainingX Stantion amrlillg De.
member 104I-I. Th'lese will trail p~ersonnel l
for the r t i ngs of radatrmnan, lli ip' cook,
ye~oman and electricianl's mate.

NEWT ZEAL;ANIV'S AIPDS TO NAVI-
~GATION BEING.RETURNIED
TO P]EALCETIME BASIS
E~l'ectc of the war upon the aids to
navigation is shown by the annual re-
port of the MR~ineil~ Department of the
Government of New Zealand,('l a copy of
which `has just been received at Coast
Guard headquarters. The following
statements are quoted~1 from this dlocu-
men t-
"New Zealandc, with its rocky, clif~f-
bound consist~ has many lighthouse*, i l.
some with resident keepers who live
within conll.l'ip-travely easy reach of
coastal towns and cities, while on. re-
mlote headlalnds and surf-bound isletts
,there are others who live als a small
comrmunity- in a solitude broken in peace-
time by the regular visits of the Go\-
ernmment lighthouse vessel with its -el-
come cargo of amenities and com-
forts. *
"At the outbreak of war some few
lighthousesll~~~ not connected within tele-
phone were supplied with radio re-
ceivers, while on some stations naval
:Ind army dtetachments were? eneimped
for the purpose of coast-walt(hing.
"On December 15, 19i39, the lights of
Suvca H-arbour were cextinanrishedl until
further oiles. and before long many l\
of the lights on the New Zealarnd coast
went out for anr?-ingper -tiodsl, whilemost
of those remaining were showcpn at about
half power (nly.
"Another light which would have been
of great assistance to anl enemy raider
in fixing his poslitilonl was the North Cape
Light, and instructions were givenll to
the F'iisher~il's Inspector of the Depart-
ment at Russell that this light must be
out on the night of December 23." *
'"A test of the blackout of coastal
l ights was carried out in Februaryg 1941,
and it was found that with few excep-
tions the lights could be extinguishers l
within 15 minutes. Those which took
longer wrere, when such action did not







304


COAST GUARD BULLETIN


Rip Li-btshipl- Station off the south
shore of Miassachusetts, in December,
Th'lis nlew lighlt-;hip is a sister ship of
LGQ 1.19, built at the same time anld place,
and designed for the Diamond Shoal
L~iubt~ship- Station off the North Carolina
coa st.
The two enew lightships are of all-
welded steel construction. They are
binglel-. crew ships, driven by six-cylin-
der D~iesel englines connected to the pro-
peller shaft through redluction gearing.
They were constructed by the Defoe
Sh i pb u ibl ine Co. of Bay City, Mich. The
Coast Guard's resident inspector during
the building of the ships was Com-
manderr J. B. Oren. Both ships were
launched by October 16, 1946, and were
accepted by the Government shortly
after.
Lightship LG: 189 is now at the Coast
Guard R~epair Base, Detroit, Mich., in
a reserve commissioned status, where
she will remain until spring when she
can be brought dow-cn the Great Lakes
and thle St. L-awrence River to the At-
lantic coast. This vessel was built to
replace Liah7~lplr l No. 105, which was
formerly the regular D~iamvond Shoal
Station ship and which was sunk in a
collision with a tug during the war
while serving as an examination vessel
in C'hI?;lesupeake Bay.

TWO 1YERCHANT 1VIARINE PUB-
LICATIONS ISSUED IN
REVISE I)FORC1YI

Two publications of interest to active
members of th~e merchant marine have
rcctntly been revised, these- are: Speci-
men Examuinationsll for Merchant Miarine
Deck Oriclkers, and Manual for L-ifeboat-
mern and Able Seamen. The booklets are
now available upon request to the Com-
mandant or anly Coast Guard field
1Marine Inspection office.
Each publication has been revised
several times in the past. In this last
revision all material has been brought
up to date. All material pertaining to
wartime procedures only, has been de-
leted.
The pamphlet Specimen ExamIinat ion I,
for Merchant M~arine Deckr Officer~s con-
formss with thle licensed officer eramnuna-
tions currently condoned~rt bv the local
Mar~l'ine~ Insp'ction offces.10 nvg-
tio.n pr'oblemss replace those f"all-ly L;
based upon t-he ill-12 nautical almanac*
andt other qulestion~s and problems have
been 1rl inl'fil. .1'here~ aIre four com~-
pleto spnInaI;I1' Sl examinations, on1e each
for master, chief mate, wI co nl ma~it r, and
third mate. Each examination is com-


Iairab~le in, length. and subject matter to
that actually given by the inspectors.
The ;Manual for Iifeboatmen and Able
Seamenl h~as been. revised to agree with
present requirements and the issuanlce
of Merchant Mariner's Documents. Cur-
r~ent peactime lifeboat and liferaft
equipment for vessels on all waters is
listed in alphabetical order, together
with a brief description of each item.
New text consists of descriptions of wa-
ter~lights (both carbide and electric
types), d~istr ess lights, spray nozzles, gas
masks, flame safety lamp, and fire ex-
tinguishing and alarm systems for cargo
holds. Many new illustrations, and new
questions anld answers are included. The
manual consists of six parts with all the
information necessary to qualify as life-
boatmnan and able seaman.

DEATH OF CAPT. IRVING- L. GILL;

Capt. Irvinlg L. Gill, USCG (Retired),
died on October 21, 1040, at his Wiash-
inlgton residence. H-e was 63.
A ve~cterlan of 37 years Government:
service, Captain Gill was born in
WTeat her~l-ild, N. Y., April 17, 1883, but
was educated in Michigan. In 1907 he
graduated from the University of Mlichi-
galn with a bachelor of science degree
in civil engineering. F'rom 1907 to 1908
he was a War Department office engi-
neer, surveyor, inspector, and superin-
tendent in charge of dredging, break-
watcr construction, and revetment workr.
f'r.. 1>10111 to 1911l he w~as a Lighthouse
Service field assistant engineer engaged
in construction and repair work. In
1911 and 1912 he was in private industry
as a superintendent of building con-
struction. In 1912 he returned to the
Lighthouse Service andi was through
19291 a L~ighthouse Service assistant
superintendent in charge of field con-
struction and repair work. In 1~92f9
through 1985 he was superintendent of
the fourth, and fiftetenth lighthouse dis-
tricts successively, at Philadelphia anld
St. Louis. In '11035 he was appointed
chief of the --iallil division of the Light-
house Service at W;u hindon.~ll D. C. In
13CH~IP~1 was commissioned a commander
in the Coast Guard at the timne of the
consolidation of the L~ighthouse Service
with t:he Coast; Guard, and subseqluentlyv
served as chief of the radio e~l~ncg~ineein
and communications eng~ll~Iinerine divi-
sions at headquarters, successively.
During recent years while 'Ipc-ializingf
in sign~i wo(rk, he made notable con-
tributionts to soundli- transmissiion crnd-
need~lilS and has; conlltributa~ll papers to
the Naval Architects and Marine Engi-
neer's SocietyT Prce~cdings~ andl to the







305


COAST GUARD BULLETIN


Acoustical Society 1Prc)('eldings~. on I hi -

EL;ECTRONI;CS ENGINEERING
OFFICER TALKIIS ON LORAN
ICN POLAR NAVIGATION
An, address on. "Loran for Prolar Nav~i-
galtion" wa;s delivered at the cu~lpo--l)inna


on. December 16, by L~t. Cointdr. G~uy L.
Ottinlgerl. U~SCO. This addlress reviewed
the limited experience with loran in
polar reg~ilons, and undertook to predict
the probable usecfulllne' of such signals
inl thle fut~ure. The folllinwin are ex-
cerpts fromt Lieutenant Conuuandcer Ot-

'l'Thr aplplicattion of loran to polar
nav~\ig:11icln promises a solution. to many
phases of this rexceedliigl tlitiicult prob-
lem. Trhe full possibilities of loan will
not b~e known without the installation of
mlore! gr~oundt staitio~ns favrorably located
withl Il L::ll to pol~r na\ ign lion a~nd coi-
tinuedi observations by navigabo wl and
scientists. However, in considering
pola\r na~vigation pro'lblems.~ it is left that
mnore use eun be made~ of the existing
loranl fac~iilitie.
"Actual obevtosof standard
loran iennisl in the polar regions have
he~en fl.w in number, but these generally
have not indicated any startling or ab-
normanl prPagt;lationl or reflection condi-
tions. On the contrary, normal sky-
wave nighttime service at the usual dist-
tancess of 1.3(1HII to 1.".ilks miles was:1 noted.
Daytime service over water wals excel-
lent, but daytime overland service wis
not effective beyond a fewr hundred miles.
It is interesting to note that signal
stl~rengths were good, noise levels low,
and that sk1;~-wave signals camet through
Iregulla fly upon. the approach. of nightfall,
and continued throughout the period of
darkness. Signals were received regu-
larly from distances exceedling the us-
able navigation. range. In this en~tegnlry
were the signals emnanatingr from the
U. 8. loran stations on rates 1H2, 181,
and 1LO, that is from3 Florida to Musso;-
chusetts. While such signals have no
practical use, their reception does indi-
cate favorable pr'quer~ntion conditions.
"'Fears have frequent tly been expressed
that sky-wave reception in polar regio-ns,
because of magnetic storms which are
more prlevnlejnt in the polar and subpolar
regions than at lower latitudes, would
be so uncertain as to render such service
useless. Such disturbances cause the
ionosphere to become unstable. Insofar
as loran is concerned the effects of the


storms vary withn the relative locations
of the observers, the ground transmit-
ting stations, andi~ the storm, area it--
self. E~rpors which might be exprc~tced
from the ionospheric variations are
minimized inl loranz, as measurements are
maderl~ only of the clifferclcce in arrival
times of the signals1. Inasmuch as the!
two simu;ms consisllris-ing any one rate aire
usually re.Hficeredl fromU the same lawyer,
ther'le is a Unlancll~ ingkr out of errors, as
both. signa~ls 4luffer' the same relative
length-ocf-path~l variation. Such errors
will be ;Iag; 1ravate in those cases in
which the observer is close to one sta-
tion andc far from the other. Other dlis-
turbances occur infrequently, which
may cause complete absorption of re-
flected Isignals1 andi thus sky waves are
not received at all. L~oran bIng.ll a
pulsed system with a visual type of
presentation, while Ibeine- effected by
noise, is capable of satisfactory perform-
ance long after reganr;11 communications
have gone out. In fact the operation
of loran anrin.:11 periods of highly noise
level enused by all typres of atmosphleries,
precipitation static, etc., is reenanizeiz, d as
one of the important points superior-
ity otf loran over nonpulsed systems.
This should be of definite value in polar
navigation where severe precipitation
static is friequiently encountered.
"DurIine- the paslt 4 years of operation
of loran stations the C~oast Guard has
found that there were very few in-
stances in which sirnls:l were unusable
diue to ma~gnetic disturbances. Usually,
in it votivating reports of such at con-
dition, it has1 been found that the re-
ceivelr wa;s improperly insrll~tall, out of
;I('ju-.r men1ll, or no(t operated properly.
"At present a larceL section. of th~e
Arctic a~nd sub-Arctic regions to the
north o~f Ca~nadla are covered by low fre-
quency loran service from three sta-
tions loented at Dawso~n Creek, Gimili,
and H-amlinl. O11en~tionall reports indi-
cate such service to be very useful and
essential to certain types of operations."
The fo~!rg-=ilng brief discussion indi-
cates th~e utility of lorazn for polar navi-
sations.l the ~uperriit vit of pulse navi-
rrationl~. and the fact that loran service
is now available over~ an appreciable
portion of the polar reg~irios of Northl
America. At the plrclsof time loir-fre-
ronewll.? loran is ebiefly useful as an atd-
junct to standard loran because of its
a un ityr to. provid-e a large amount of
additional dayltimel overland coverage.~pc
It is very~ probable that loran will be-
comze the primary radio aid for trans-
polar and transioeanic !raviga:tioln in the
not to distant future.







306


COAST GUARD BULLETIN


LATEST WAR HISTORY COVERS
LORAN CONSTRUCTION IN
PACIFIC AREA
"Coast Guard Construction Detach-
ments in the Pacific T'heatre" is the
title of the latest of the war histories
issuedl by headquarters. This ne~w vol-
unle of over 200 pagesI and clearly 100
illust rn t ions, describes the civil en-
gineering phases of the loran construc-
tion progant111 from the buliblingb of t'he
Berinlg Sea lorarn chain to the landing
upon the Japanese mainland. It is the
story of the "cf'llnde~ts," of several of the
advance bases, of the Mtrenkar, and of
other vessels which tengaged in loran
construction in the Pacific.
As stated in the foreword to the new
volume, the monograph lays greatest
emlphasis upon thle civil engineering as-
pects of this work, leaving~ to others the
task of preparing a history of the elec-
tronics features of.the work. Following
a brief description of the value of loran
as aIn aid to navigation, the development
of loran is traced, and then mention. is
made of the ~first experimental inlstal-
la~tions. Next comes brief mention of
the over-all plans of the Joint Chiiefs
of Staff for the use of loran, and then
a description of the formation of the
construction detaclu~nents and the de-
velopment of the? headquarters groups
which carried out the higher level ad-
ministrative work.
Following the general descriptive
chapters, the construction of each of
the following loran chains is described
in considerable dtl:Bering Sea
chain, Western Aleutian chain, Ha-
wailan chain.` Phoenix chain, Marflhall1-
Gilbert chain, Marianas chain, Palau-
Moratai chain, Japan chain, and the
China Sea chain,

Direction-finding gear has been fitted
into nearly eight times as many British
ships as are bound by law to carry it,
according to the Nautical Magazine of
Glasgow.

TIREND)S OF THE INTERNATIONAL
AIDS TO NAVIGATION CONFER-
ENCES AR'E SUIWMMARIZED
The action and trend of thought at
recent international conferences on
radio aids to navigajitionl, was the sub-
ject of an addlrlrc delivered by Lt.
Comdr. L. E. Brunne~r, of the Coast
C.une dI Elrset ron i es Engineering Division
before the American Institute of ]Elee.
trical Englinee~trs at New~ York, on De-
cem~ber 4i. Commander Brunner pointed


out thle usual difficulties of securing in
ternational accord on matters of this
type, where national interests were often
at variance with international con-
Isiderations. His comments covered the
Following meetings:
Provisional International Civil Avia-
tion Orpnnization,~ North Atlantic
Route Service Conference, Dublin,
JIn rch 19346.
Provisional International Civil Avia-
tion Organization European and
Medlibrr~~nanea Route Service Con-
ferenlce, Paris, April 1944)i.
International Mee~ting on Radio Aids
to Marine Nav\igatlionll Iondonl M~ay
1946.
Provisional International Civil Avia-
tion Organization Caribbean Re-
glonal Air Navigation Meeting,
Washington, August 1946.
Provisional International Civil Avia-
tion Organization Middle East Re-
glonal Air Navigation Meeting,
Cair~o, October 19461.
JIn-cow\\ F'ive-Power Telecommunica-
tio~ns Conference, September 1945j.
Provisional International Civil Avia-
tion Organization Conference in
Montreal, Novemnber 1946.
The report of the Communications
Committee of the North Atlantic Route
Service Conference favored standard
loran for the present but expressed the
hope that consol or high frequency and
mledlium frequency radiobeacons could
be developed to provide satisfactory
service azt a lower cost with less aircraft
(.inipni( .Lt
The- 1Mediterranean ;7dr European
Conference considered principally over-
land navigatioon, with emphasis on
shorter ranges. Its communication com-
mittee report recommended that very-
high-frequency direction finders be ge~n-
erally used for short distances owing to
its accuracy, speed of operation, freedom
from atmospheric static interference,
and protection from other transmissions,
particularly at night. Lowc-power low-
frequency and mredium-frequency radio-
beacons would be continued in use and
the service exp~n rdrd. Exristing "Gee"
chains in Europe woulrld, where possible,
be retained in operation. Installation
of the corresponding air-borne equip-
ment on aircraft mainly cengalgled in fly-
ing the congested areas of western Eu-
rope wtoulld be eneu-r~ll;aged for the? purP-
pose~1 of comprehensivet service tests.
T~he conun ri~tt Pe. having considered the
-ecihnicill information c~onlcelrnin the
consol system of Ilat ignlt innr and a pro-







307


COAST GUARD BULtLETIN J


poljtwd plan for a European networks of
consol stations presenztedl by the U~nited
K-ing~doml delegation, recommended that
consol stations at several locations m
Europe be maintained in operation or be
~constru'lc~teI.
The International Meeting on Radio
Aids to Marine Nav\iga~tilon held in Lont-
don last May ini general, took the posi-
tion that shipboard radar with some
form of radarv beacons wa~s a valuable
aid to the mariner for anlticallision and
p~illdn7-c use. The United States derle-.~-a
tion stressed the need for installations
for trial and evaluation with both 3-
anid 10-em. equjipments.l.; The British
stressedl compulsory azdherence to stand-
ar~d .spcific;nt ionsl for 3-em. eqruipme~nt.
There was no agreement on position-
findng ystms.The Britishl favored
Decca as a short-to-medi um-ra nge aid
mairl saw no need of a 1..ne--ru;nge aid.
Thie Uniirrte States supportedc~r the claim
for a need for a long-rangerl aid, recom-
men'ldingr radioicbeacons for mledlium orange
and lora:n for long ra ngeCI. There was
;Igreementr l thaLt, so far as is possible and
expedlient, radio aids to navigation
shlouldl be~ usedl in conunlon for civil
aviation and sh~lippline~. Temei
was unanlimouslyr of the op~inionl that

finders, with associated radiobbeacons,
was a valuable aid to navigation and
should be~ ma;`inltained,(~ improved and
extended. There wvas prolonged dlis-
cussion of consol, Deccai, Gee, loran,
and ship-horne radar. In sulnmary,
the British favored conlsol for long
range, Decca for medium range, and
rdrfor short range, while the
United States favored loran for long
ranllge, radiobeacons for medium Irange ~
and radar for short range.
Thze Provisional International Civil
Av-iation Organization Caribbean Re-
grional Air Navigational IMeeting was
h~eld in Washington. last August.
The committee considered that a sys-
tem of long distance radlio navigational
aids was not essential to the safety and
reglarllity of aircraft operations in the
Caribbean Region. The Caribbean Re
gion will be served by numerous short
distance radio aids to navigation which
will be adequate for the short distances
to be covered. In considering the navi-
gational requirements i~n general, the
committee kept in mind that in most of
the committee region, weather condlli-
tions aire predominantly good. Conse-
gallrntly,. recomlmendedl navigation facil-
ities we~re based on radiobeacons. Ria-
dlio ranges were recommended only at


those lo ((lulitionsl- necessitate.
The Middle Eas~t Rl'gicalll Air N\avi-
L'ntionl Mieeting conununication conunrit-
tee, after rev\ilw;in the available mate-
rial alnd operational requirements, ree-
onunendled thant thle policy of provisions
of radio aids to air navigation-both
enroute and for approach--should be
based on the combinedtc use of the f-ollow-
ing fatcilities: medium frequency non-
dlirectional razdiobeacons and directional
radlio ranges~c.c; hlighl frequern-y11~ andt very
hhigh frequency radio direction finders;
mlediuml frequmency dtirection findters;
andi radar responders. While these fa-
cilities are largely~l those installed for
mnilitarly use, they will no doubt, he conl-
tinuedl for some time in this area.
At the >I1In.-ow\ FIive-P)owerel IeIJ.-II)-
lnmnicat~ions Con~ference there was :Id-
tation for cllllelnge in, the radciobeacon
band, the United K~ineanmlll recommend-
i n;: a b ii tl upward in the! marine beacon
and d~irection-finding band. This recomr-
mnendied shift, however, does not change
the direction-finder pictur~e. There was
a difference of opinion, on. loran frequen-
cies, parvticula'l~y from the Unzitedl King-
domn. They ]'~~lrefus to consider more
thaln a 5)-ke. allocation for this system.
China t(Ippo(rh-s11 the United States with
the Union of Soviet Socialist Riepublies
and ]France Ilainta~inrine~ a neutral atti-
tudle. Th~le request for a 3,000-me., 5,000-
me., and I0,000sl-m.c~ band for radar bands
was unopposed. H-owever, full ag~lree-
ment could not be reached on the precise
frequencies for radarbeacons.
WAL;TER P. HARIVEMAl\ RETIRES
WCalter P. Harman, technical assist-
ant to the chief counsel at H-eadquarters,
oldest in point of service of the em-
ployees who came into the Coast Guard
at Washington from the Bureau of
lighthousess. retired from service at the
close of D~ecember 31, 1946. Mi3r. H-arman3
was bornI at new'llingj~ton, Vt., January7l:
12, 1881, graduated from Phillips Exeter(l
Academuy in 1900, received the dt'gree~ of
A. B. from Havard Ulniversity in. 1904,
wh~ere he was a classmate of the late
President Roosevelt, and also received
the dooml'e of L. L. B. from Georgetown
University in 1911. H3e entered the of-
fice of th~e Lighthouse Board (as it was
then knowFn) in June 1906, and serv~ed
with that organization and its successor
until his retirement, with the exception
of about a year during W;Porld War I
when he served with the armed forces
as a YP. XI. C. A. secretary.
Mr. Harman became assistant chlie~f of
the finance division of the ~ighlthouse~r







308


COAST GUARD BULLETIN


agency in 1908, and was subsequently
promoted to chief of that division, to
chief clerk and finally to administrative
assistant to the Comlmissioner of Light-
hlouses, which position he held at the
time of the consolidation of the Light-
house Service with the Coast Guard in
193~91. As administrative assistant, Mr.
Har~man's dlutiesi dealt largely with mat-
ters of law, legislation, and regulations.
At Coast Guard Headquarters, Mr.
Hlarman at first occupied the position
of office manager but with the expan-
sion of administrative functions was
transferred to the Legal Div-ision as
technical assistant to the chief counsel.
In that capacity his familiarity with tze
history and legal precedents of the Light-
house Service was of material assistance
in problems affecting the integration of
the former Lighthouse Service and its
personnel in the Coast Guard. '
Mr. Harman's son, Ensign Henry V.
Hatrman, USCO, was graduated from the
Coast Guard A~cademy inz June 1946.

COASTI GUARD MAKES TESTS OP
IROCK~ETS TO DETERMINE LINE-
CARRYING POSSIBILITIES

Tests of various types of rockret-pro-
pelled projectiles are being made by
Coast Guard research and development
Itersonnel, at ~Fort Belvoir, V~a., to de_
termine the practicability of using such
equipment for line-throwing purposes.
In the tests already madae, the rockets
demonstrated a hli-ll degree of accuracy,
and also were able to carry a line much
heavier than. any used with existing
line-throwing devices.' In one test, a
line 3 inches in circumference was car-
rled a distance of 600 feet by a rocket,
clearing a 50-foot-high obstacle en
route.

CHAIN GESE IN ASSIGNMENTPS
Comnmodore Laouis L. Bennett, desig-
nated Commander, Eleventh Coast
Guard District, effective IMay 31, 1946.
Capt. Richard L. Burke, from Eastern
Area to H-eadquarters as Chief, Avia-
tion Division.
Capt. Donald E. Mc~ay, designated
Chief, C~omm~unications Division,
Headquarters.
Caplt. George O. WFChittlesey, from Yard
to Third Coast Guard District for
temporary duty at IMerchant Marine
H-earing Unit, thence to Merchant
IMar~ine ]Hear~ing Unit, Manila.


Commander Marius DeMartino, from
Search and Rescue Division, Head-
quarters, to sion, Hea~dquarters.
Commander Preston Vr. Mavor, from
~Mendote to Academy.
Commander William E. Sinton, from
Headquarters to Coast Guard Air Sta-
tion, St. Petersburg, Fla., as com-
manding officer.
Commander Joe G. Lawrence, from
Nn Ty Department to Coast Guard Air
Station, San Diego, Calif., as com-
manding o~fficer.
Commander Robert E. McICaffery, from.
Coast Guard Air Station, St. Peters-
burg, F~la., to Headquarters for liai-
son duty Deputy Chief of Naval Oper-
ations, Air, a~nd Bu~er.
Commander D~onald B. MacDiarmid,
from Coast Guard Air Station, San
Diego, Calif., to ~Eastern Area as op-
erations o~fficer.
Commander Watson A. Burton, from
Commander, Coast Guard Activitiers,
Naval Forcees, Philippines, to Foure
"teenth Coast Guard District.
Lt. Comdr. James H. Coe, from Marine
Inspection Office, Port Arthur, Tex., to
Marine Inspection Office, Corpus
Christi, Tex.
Lt. Comdr. K~arl A. E. Lindquist, from
Laurel to Argo as commanding o~fficer.
Lt. Comdr. Isaac R. Boothby, commis-
sioned in Reserve and assigned me~r-
chant marine inspection duty, Monbile.
Ala.
Lt. Comzdr. Gordon E. Howell, USCGR,
commissioned in Reserve and assigned
merchant marine inspection duty,
Chicago, Ill., the~nce to seventeenth
Coast Guard District as Marine In-
spection Officer anzd Officer in Charge,
100 rine Insplection, Ketchikanz.
Lt. Comdr. Lynn Parker, from Andlro-
scoggin to Academy.
LJt. Comdr. William F. Cass, from Head-
quarters to Mlackhinaw as commanding
officer.
Lt. Comdr. John WT. Lozier, USCGR,
from Marine Inspection Office, Point
Pleasant, W. Va., to Hreadquarters for
temporary duty for release and dis-
charge fr~om Reserve due to age limit.
Lt. Comdr. John M. Clark, USCGIR, from
Marine Inspection Office, K~etchikan,
Alaska, to Marine Inspection Office,
Seattle, Wash.
Lt. Comdr.toAdCianolde teeeu~w, ftt
Coast Guarlld District.
Lt. Comndr. Ltawrence W. Croteau, orde~r
to W~loodbine canceled.







309


COAST GUARD BULLETIN


RETIREMENTS EFrFECTlIVE~ DECEMBER; 1, 1!M6
Capt. Paul Wri. Collins.
Lt. Comdcr. Lrouis J. Armustrong. g
Lt-. C'Indr.1. James Blake.
L-t. Comdr. Arved E. WVikandler.
Lt. Comdr. Benjamin B. 1Brown, UJSCGR.
ZLt. Comdr. John Culver, USCG;R.
Lt. Comdlr. John N. M~cAfee, UJSCGR.
L~t. Comdr. Sheldon A. Russell.
HOME P~N.DING RETIREMENT T
Lt. Comdr. William H. Jackrson,
L~t. Comdr. Sverre Halvor~sen.


RETITNED TORETIREDLIT

Commodore Edins rdI M. Wiebster (Ret.),
December 1, 1946.
onEAlsI

Commander Lemuuel S. ]Burgess, USCGR
(Ret.), Nevell\ciber, 15, 1!140.
Mr. E. S. Lanphier (R~et.), formerly su-
perintendlent, Eigh thl Ligrhthouse D~is-
trict, died October 5, 1!111;. at New


U. S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 1947












































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