Warner Arundell. The Adventures of a Creole ( Volume 2 )

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Title:
Warner Arundell. The Adventures of a Creole ( Volume 2 )
Physical Description:
3 v. : ;
Language:
English
Creator:
Joseph, Edward Lanzer
Publisher:
Saunders & Otley
Place of Publication:
London
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Social life and customs -- West Indies   ( lcsh )
Description and travel -- West Indies   ( lcsh )
Social life and customs -- Venezuela   ( lcsh )
Social life and customs -- London (England) -- 19th century   ( lcsh )
Genre:
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
individual biography   ( marcgt )

Notes

General Note:
" ... it is taken from a very voluminous manuscript, which partakes of the mixed nature of memoirs, a journal, an autobiography, and a collection of letters and essays. These bore, in their title-page the following inscription : "The life, adventures, and opinions, of Warner Arundell, Esquire"--Editor's Introd.
Statement of Responsibility:
edited and compiled by E.L. Joseph.

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University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
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Applicable rights reserved.
Resource Identifier:
oclc - 47961383
ocm47961383
System ID:
AA00012102:00001


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WARNER ARUNDELL











































LONDON:

PAINTiD BV JAMMB MOV8Y, CASTLE St R'T,
LMICEBTJR SQUARE.







WARNER ARUNDELL


THE


ADVENTURES


OF A CREOLE.


BY E. L. JOSEPH,

OF TRINIDAD.



IN THREE VOLUMES.

VOL. IL




LONDON
SAUNDERS AND OTLEY, CONDUIT STREET.


IMDCOC.IXXVIII.


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Stacif
Annex
501 004
V.A


TO

THE RIGHT HONORABLE

LORD BARON GLENELG,

HER MAJESTY'S PRINCIPAL SECRETARY OF STATE FOR
THE COLONIES.

MY LORD,
SHOULD your Lordship condescend to
honor these Volumes with a perusal,- their Author
a: tters himself they will direct your attention to many
Abuses in our West Indian Colonial System, which call
loudly for correction. The hope of bringing some of
-tlem under your notice, has induced me to take the
liberty of inscribing this Work to your Lordship.

I have the honor to be,
MY LOBD,
Your Lordship's humble Servant,

EDWARD L. JOSEPH.

Pi r OP SPAn, TatrIDAD,
AV. O, 1837.


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INTRODUCTION.


PREVIOUSLY to submitting the following nar-
rative to the reader, it is necessary to inform
him that it is taken from a very voluminous
manuscript, which partakes of the mixed
nature of memoirs, a journal, an autobio-
graphy, and a collection of letters and
essays. These bore, in their title-page,
the following inscription: The Life, Ad-
ventures, and Opinions, of Warner Arundell,
Esquire."
The Editor of these volumes thinks it
Shis duty to inform the Public under what
circumstances he came into possession of
these papers of Mr. Arundell. In giving
this information, he prefers speaking of
Himself in the first person singular, rather





Viii INTRODUCTION.

than assuming the right of Editors and
Kings,-viz. to talk of themselves in the
plural number.
Amongst a thousand and one literary
projects which I had formed, one was to
write a history of the war of the independ-
ence of Columbia, Mexico, Peru, Chili, and
Buenos Ayres. When I designed this Work,
I considered more what ought to be done
than what I was able to accomplish. The
paucity of materials for compiling a good
account of this most momentous occur-
rence, renders it necessary for him who
would undertake to become the historian
of this important revolution, to visit all the
principal cities on the great South American
continent; in order to inspect such few sct-
tered records as were preserved during this
most-sanguinary civil war, and to consult
with all the surviving chiefs who figured in
the contest, whether living in the New World
or in Europe. To do this required leisure

.,'8 i





INTRODUCTION.


and a fortune, neither of which I possessed.
Hence, I was obliged to abandon my pro-
ject--certainly for the present, probably for
ever.
During my various and generally fruit-
less attempts to obtain materials for my
projected history, a friend suggested that,
as Mr. Warner Arundell had spent some
years on the Main, during a most interest-
aig period of the wars of Columbia, he
might be able -to give me some informa-
tion on the subject; especially as it was
k~iown that Mr. Arundell had of late com-
menced journalising.
' My acquaintance with the Gentleman
who is the hero of these volumes, com-
menced twenty years since. I first met
him in London, in the house of Don
Ibili Mendez. After this, I became his
..mpaniion during a remarkable voyage
aioes the Atlantic, recorded in the second
voluioe of this Work. We separated on our





X INTRODUCTION.

arrival in Trinidad, and did not meet again
for some years: subsequently we both were
residents of this colony; but, living far from
each other, we seldom met.
During this residence of Mr. Arundell
in Trinidad, le was the subject of a most
disgraceful persecution. He left the island,
but returned in a few months, possessed of
a very large fortune, and here married a
most amiable and lovely Spanish creole.
But, notwithstanding our old acquaint-
ance, I applied to him for the information
I required with some reluctance; for, al-
though I was one of those who refused to
join in the frantic and disgraceful hue-and-
cry against him, yet fortune had placed us
in very different situations. He was in the
possession of great wealth; I, after many
years' residence here, was "in' an humble
situation. But I still took the resolution of
waiting on him. I sent my name to him:
he came to me. The instant I beheld him,





INTRODUCTION, xi

I perceived I had wronged him by my diffi-
dence. He did not receive me as some
rich men meet an old acquaintance, who
has been subject to harsh treatment from
fortune. No; he took my hand as that of
an old friend, who had dared to defend him
when he was assailed by calumny.
In Mr. Warner Arundell I perceived a
Sman who had been proud in adversity, un-
bending when suffering under persecution,
but affable and amiable in prosperity; one
jwo endeavoured to forget injuries, and
sacerely forgave insults, although he pos-
ss1ed "the memory of the heart,' as gra-
ileft.bePen beautifully denominated.
O. q(uLua making .im. acquainted with the
ase of my visit, he immediately offered
Stqojt me in possession of that part this
jigip4 Whicl related to his adventures in
be,,p4at,camp: and he informed ne,
flyby looking throng his papers,.amongst
J ,y4 ofFrp Is I might fnd some ore, from




INTRODUCTION.


which useful metal might be extracted.
He, however, added,-
I fear you will not have the phlegm
to inspect all my papers."
Never doubt that," was my reply;
" I have had perseverance to read through
the whole of Abb6 Raynal's historical ro-
mance."
That," said my friend, was rather a
trial on your credulity than on your pa-
tience: my voluminous manuscripts will
put your application to a much severer
test."
- On my persisting to request that he
would allow me to read his manuscripts,
he took from a chest a mass of papers of
truly alarming bulk and weight. They
consisted of thirteen hundred and seenty-
eight sheets of foolscap, closely written; to
compile which, he had employedtAe leisure
time of some years..
Lest the reader should wonder what





INTRODUCTION.


there was in the life of this worthy Gertle-
man that required so much time and paper
to record its incidents and reflections, I
must explain, that be possessed a most
powerful memory. Every thing he had
heard, seen, read, or thought, he seemed to
recollect, when compiling his voluminous
manuscripts. For example, he opens his
journal with an account of the first settle-
ment of his family in the West Indies.
This induces him to give a history of the
Bucaniers, and an immense number of
anecdotes of all the old families in the West
tidies; with a vast variety of traditional
.oE~s.. which relate to the Arundells, and
te dee endants of Sir Thomas Warnu,
the first English governor of St. Christo*
A#eT who was his maternal ancestor. In
.":ho.i.~;tMast p of the narrative which I
a.l~~f~4lId into th h first short chapter
t1hC1e tIt volume, t4ae up so much space
S..is mniumipscpu, that,if it were printed

a. ..


xi





INTrM#DTDUOON.


verbatim, it would be equal in length to the
whole of'that volume;
In the progress tof his Work he gives
the whole history of the two Maroon wars
in Jamaica; an account of the rise, pros
gress, and termination of the wars in the
West Indies consequent on the, French
revolatio : he: carefully transcribes every
letter that he ever received or wrote, and
al~Siremakable conversations that he ever
lide ~ the giveshis thoughts on a vast va.
riety of anbjedte,, a' relieves the narrative
with all kinds of essays on various matters
whih caine within the scope of his obberva-
tira; 'inih as, on the mode of education in
Ca;aceas; 'ion militia -training; on naval andi
fhili~ari affairs; on medical :Id8ltisnrvid
London; on the puasctes of.ip hysie i ti
Watin dies &. In salioa6tykib vi:naifous
joiunal embraces a lumber itvitreatite
which; h bwebr unft letieraybe4oarF~lsh
itaa atttabiograihjr, masy>one day printu
.'.i .. .; .,





INTRODUCTION.


under the title of the Arundell Papers;' as
this Gentleman has given up his Work to
me for my own advantage.
- But I anticipate. I kept the papers of
Mr. Arundell until I abandoned all idea of
writing my projected history. I then re-
turned them. At the same time I informed
the worthy autobiographer, that, if he would
take the trouble of extracting from his
MSS. that which might not be improperly
denominated the personal narrative, it would
forJ a moral, and, I believed, a not unin-
teresting production.
-:" Have you," said he, any inclination
te make .the abridgement yourself? it will
be an easier task than to write history, and,
during the* present age. of light reading, a
mire direct road to fame."
uloiaat first declined this proposition; saying
hat he might get others t~ do mo~ e justice
adbk papeai. To this be replied, that I
Siherualy person he had. met with in the


x#





INTRODUCTION.


colonies who shewed a disposition to pur,
sue literature as a profession; and that, if
he sent his manuscript to England, its bulk
would frighten any Publisher or Editor.
Perhaps a few scattered essays might
find their way into the periodicals of the
day, or a few stories would be trimmed and
dressed up by literary caterers for the
monthly appetites of readers of magazines;
these same purveyors being so utterly
ignorant of West India manners, feeling,
and. even climate, t'at the most egregious
blunders would be introduced into every
paragraph. In short, Mr. Arundell pre-
vailed on me to undertake the task which
I had suggested to him. .:
- I really believe that hih 4otiw ior
urging me to become the Editr~ of his -
duetion was, that he hoped its publication
would be productive of profit to me. This
with a delicacy of feelingvwhich has alwiay
oharacterised him, he never mentioned.





INTRODUCTION.


One condition alone he attached to the leave
he gave me to publish a part of his journal:
it was, that whenever I wrote of living per-
sons, or of those recently dead, I should,
instead of real, use fictitious names or
initials.
The above statement will account, if not
apologise, for many defects in this produc-
tion. When the reader observes some
parts of these volumes too much abridged,
and others too much extended, he will
please to take into consideration the diffi-
oulty one has to encounter who attempts to
condense into three small volumes the sub-
stance of a manuscript closely written on
more than three reams of foolscap.
Amongst the many errors in this Work,
I throw myself on the mercy of the reader
for one class in particular. Mr. Arundell's
papers are full of those peculiarities of lan-
page which may not improperly be called
'geolisms,' My wish has been to expunge


i:! ....


xvni





XVIII INTRODUCTION.

these, and substitute English words; or, if
the story required the creole words to be
retained, I have endeavoured to explain
them, either in the text or by notes. But,
having myself resided for nearly twenty
years in the colonies, it is very probable
that I have unwittingly copied into these
volumes many expressions which will be
scarcely understood on the other side of the
Atlantic, without having given the neces-
sary information. For this I entreat the
indulgence of the liberal. It is difficult to
live many years in a country without con.
tracting some of the peculiarities of its
dialect or idiom.
I have now a few words to address
not to the English Public in general, but
to my fellow Colonists in particular. Not
having used the real name of a single person
now alive in these islands, should any one
on this side of the Atlantic perceive, amongst
the numerous pen-andink sketches con-





INTRODUCTION N.


trained in this Work, any delineation which
should strike him as having an ugly re-
semblance to himself, let him not make me
accountable for caricaturing him. All I have
done has been to select a few out of many
of Mr. Arundell's sketches, reduce them to
a moderate size, erase the names they bore,
substitute other appellations, and fit them
for their frames.
SAfter this declaration, I hope no one
will give himself the unnecessary trouble of
calling on me for satisfaction for any re-
marks contained in the following pages:
for,; although I was once silly enough to
make a voyage to Lospatos,* to give a
young Gentleman, as the term goes, satis-
faction,-that is to say, to stand up while
be' twice fired at me,-I have, thank Hea-
O I ..*
I,?i A : snmll island, situated in the Gulf of Paris,
ween Trinidad and the Main, where duels used
: enily to take place. See the 7th chapter of the
.i tuaie Of thbi Work.


xix





XX INTRODUCTION.


ven, lived to see the folly and wickedness

of fighting duels to satisfy the caprice of

any one. I have now reached the age of

forty; a time of life when a man's fighting

days, as well as his dancing days, ought to

be over unless he be a soldier or a

dancing-master.


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WARNER ARUNDELL:


THE

ADVENTURES OF A CREOLE.





CHAPTER I.

SEngland, with all thy fults, I love thee still."
COWIER.

iaX whole of the pamengers of the Tickler re-
isbliid two-days in Falmouth, to recruit after
it voyage, s well as to see the few lions "f t6e
place, and to visit the surrounding country, T
greatest sights of Cornwall lie below its surface'
i being neither a geologistaor mineralogist,
t:is innd lead uiines were beneath my notice.
'..1 W red tio post-chaises, in which we went
F found myself, during my journey;
w.* d: the climate; the lofty hoses,
Vindow., and 4Eihneiys; the immen
*011 p
.,":T
; : : : .. =;; t:' .. ..





WARNER ARUNDELL:


population; the total absence of black, coloured,
and Indian people; the rosy looks of the women,
so different from the languid and lily complexions
of my fair countrywomen; the ruddy appearance
of the children; the masculine, and often corpu-
lent, figures of the gentlemen; the clownish
aspect of the country people, with their smock-
frocks, worsted stockings, and ponderous lace-
boots; the immense size and fatness of the horned
cattle; the noble figures of the horses; the sheep,
clad in thick woolly coats, so different from the
light hairy jackets in which Nature has arrayed
the sheep of the Caribbean Islands; the endless
variety of the costume of all the people I met,
so different from the eternal white jackets and
trousers of the Antilles; the dissimilarity of the
feathered tribe; the absence of the palms of a
tropical climate, and the total difference of all
vegetable nature for not a tree, shrub, fruit,
legume, leaf, flower, nor even blade of grase, was
,exactly like aught I ever before beheld,-ll, ar
I saw made me feel as though I was traported
into another planet. True, I had seen mosi
objects I looked on, delineated in wretched
pictures; but these gave me about as good an
idea of what I was a spectator of, as the miserable
images we see on Chiase caps. give us of the
Celestial Empire: for, excepting a few portrait,
.' il





THE ADVENTURES F0 A CREOLE.


I scarcely saw a good painting in the West Indies.
The only pictures popular in the Antilles, are
those of the King of Spain in profile, delineated
on an ounce of gold or silver, commonly called
doubloons and dollars.
The first part of our journey lay through the
sterile-looking hills and plains of Cornwall;
afterwards, the appearance of the country ame-
liorated. Towns, villages, farms, and cottages,
sprang up before my eyes in endless variety.
STrue it is, that, in Figland, I looked in vain for
the noble mountains and deep valleys of the West
Indies, or the more stupendous scenery of South
America; but, instead, I viewed a country ren-
dered pre-minently beautiful by cultivation,
where every hut and rustic gate seemed to me to
bepiheed to increase the picturesque effect of the
dlseape. Cowper has said, that
.. o ila ste the country, but man made the town."
After my long residence in Caraccas, I did not
think the poet's opinion was correct with regard
t. England; for, wherever I looked at the coun-
Sthrmugh which I passed, I lbeheld the natural
I T altered by the art of man. He who is
s fal of beholding the works of the Creator
lij their solemn magnifience, should visit the
Ssrina and savannahs of Columbia.



Wi'Ct





WARNER ARUNDELL:


When we stopped at an inn to refresh, or
lodge for the night, the extreme neatness and
comfort of all that could render our stay
agreeable, were, to me, remarkable. The civility
of the host and hostess, the activity and intelli-
gence of the servants, delighted me: this at once
shewed that I was in a land of freedom, where
the exciting hope of gain stimulates men and
women to exertion ten times more arduous than
the fear of the scourge of slavery. In the West
Indies there are not many inns and taverns, and
fewer good ones: there, as well as in private
houses, the black and brown domestics move
about as little as they can help. Every trifling
office you want a West Indian servant to perform,
must be repeatedly, and often peremptorily or-
dered, before it is done- if it ever be done: here,
the waiters, and well-called servants of all-work,
seemed to anticipate your wants, and, before you
can ask for a thing, it is at your command. lh
.the West Indies, a servant drawls asli.g te
house as though locomotion is pai n~fals ;
while the English domestic talks, acts, and ransi
as though he were doing it for a wager against
time. The free servant of Great Britain works
ire times as hard as the slave of the West Indies;
for the energies of the latter are weighed down
by bondage. I am aware iome-will say that di-*.





THE ADVENTURES 01 A CREOLE.


indolence of the slave is caused by-the climate;
yet, how is the following fact to be accounted
for-viz. at a negro ball, the sable dancers use
thrice as much exertion, and continue thrice as
long, as any set of dancers in England ? Notwith-
standing the oppressive heat of the climate, a
negro sportsman, when engaged in a pedeffibh
hunt in Trinidad, uses violent efforts from which
an English fox-hunter would shrink. The fact
is, our bondsman, unless it is for himself, works
like a slave-that is tb say, most indolently: when
MAilerts himself, he feels, for the moment, that
kbi free. By looking at the very slave's walk,
Aii6aCuainted with them knows if they are walk-
i nIi .their master's business,, or their own.
A. k'the post-chaise drew near'the capital, I
' nii~aired at meeting an immense crowd of
i descriptions,-from the light tan-
S.wslender bloods, to the ponderous
t ag. *ikh itwlong train of burly cattle; from
the splendid carriage of the nobleman, to the
highpiled cart of the farmer. As we entered
thit town, I was absolutely rendered giddy by
SSppBence: and grandeur of the shops, the
I~uming .of the population, and the deafen-
Y-fi;.l e; while the smoky atmosphere, unlike
eJvqrnAbetbre beheld,:weighed down my
..:l ", ; ;.. "% .





WARNER ARIfDELL:


On entering London, I took leave of all my
fellow-passengers with mutual good wishes, save
Dr. Grey. He invited me to remain with him a
few days at the Tavistock Hotel, Covent Garden,
until, by the advice of himself, and such friends
as my letters of introduction could procure me,
I should resolve where to fix my residence during
the time I was obtaining my medical education.
The doctor had not been in London two days
before he met with an old fellow-student and
correspondent, named Molesworth, who was in
extensive practice as a physician in the west end
of the town. He had been the preceptor to several
medical students from the West Indies, and,
many years since, knew my father. After in-
troducing me to him, Dr. Grey proposed to
place me under the tutelage of his old fellow-
student; to which Dr. Molesworth made no
objection. We agreed that I should become a
resident in the doctor's house during the prose-
-cution of my studies; and I arranged to pay him
150. per annum for my board and lodging.
He promised to assist me in my studies, to tak
me with him occasionally when he visited his
patients, and allow me the use of his valuable
medical library.
The next day I removed from the Tavistoek
Hotel to the doctor's house in Bedford Square:, I1.
"





THE ADVENTURES OP A tREOLE.


sent to the West India Docks and obtained my
luggage, and found myself comfortably located
with Dr. Molesworth, an excellent physician,
but an avaricious man.
After this, Dr. Grey set out to all the medical
springs and baths in England, to clear his inward
and outward man from the accumulated maladies
obtained during thirty years' residence between
the tropies,- a usual practice with old retired
West Indians. At Cheltenham, the doctor fell
in love with, and married, one of the water-
nymphs of the place: she had long been looking
far a suitable match. The lady verified the old
proverb about the gray mare," &c. This was
not to be wondered at: at the time when the
doctor wanted an old nurse he married a young
' wif. A year after his marriage he died, and
#e inherited his hard-accumulated property:
taee months after, the lady married Ensign
O'Vbnnehoo, of some marching regiment.
As few or no West Indians have ever given
an account of England, I will, for the informa-
tion of such of my fellow-colonists as have never
crossed the Atlantic, subjoin my recollection of
the impressions which England in general, and
ondon i~ particular, made on me. I wish not
aam my creole readers by heading the
loK i g desultory paragraphs, The Doaestic

4F.e





WARNER ARUNDELL:


Manners of the English;' I would rather they
should consider it as

A CREOLE's NOTIONS OF HOME.'

.Amongst the first things which struck me in
England, was the brief speech and rapid pro-
nunciation of all orders of people, save those who
aZv or affect to be, taught the haut-ton. It would
not. please the Bond Street loungers, or the
dancers at Almack's, to be told that, when they
lengthen their words, and speak in that drawling
tone which is, or at least was, fashionable when I
was in London, they merely imitate the lower
orders of people in the Caribbean Islands; yet
such is the fact.
Let two creoles, of the humbler classes of
society, meet in the West Indies, and something
like the following dialogue ensues. Each word
is lengthened as though the parties spoke by
musical notes, and each syllable were a breve.
- How-you do, my body?"
Pretty well, thank you, old fellow; how
yourself?"
Well, thank you; how your family do?"
All quite well-only Samuel, Daniel, Jona-
than, and Jacob, have the fever every night;
but their health is good, for all that." ;


.I.





THE ADVENTURES OF A CBROLB.


Thank you; but how is your negro boy,
that have mar d'estomac ?"
He is dead, thank you, body."
And so they continue the conversation for
about twenty minutes. But in London, two per-
sons of the lower order of society meet: each
nods to the other when they are about eight.
yards off; one says, How do?" the other
does not reply, but says, How do you do "
By this time a few rapid steps brings them to-
gether (for all, in London walk as though they
did it for a wager) : one says, Fine weather;"
the other replies, Yes; only a little foggy,
rainy, and cold." By this time the parties have
passed each other, and each turns his head round,
ab that his chin rests on his shoulder, to continue
the -peripatetic discourse; yet disdaining to lose
the by stopping -like two vessels passing each
Aber on opposite tacks, and asking their respec-
tive longitudes, without heaving to. Any
news" says one; Nothing strange," says the
other; Good-bye," calls one; Good-day,"
replies the other. Both nod like Chinese man-
darins; at the same time, they-look one way and
walk the other, until each runs against another
paseenger in the crowded street.
iShould a West Indian ask his way to Corn-
oaf passenger in London, he gets for answer,
2B
i : ,: o .. .

i. :: o.'.. i ..or.-





WABNER ARUNDELL:


"Turn to your right, and then take the second
to your left; take the third to the left, and follow
your nose along Fleet Street, and any fool will
shew you the way."
This is said so quickly that the informant
leaves the stranger to doubt if he ought to turn at
first to the right or to the left. But let an Eng-
lishman ask his way in the West Indies, and the
following dialogue is likely to ensue.
Can you tell me the way to Mr. Muscova-
doe's estate?"
What, sir! don't you know the way to Mr.
Muscovadoe's ?"
No; or I would not ask it."
You must really be a stranger."
I am a stranger; but will you please to
direct me?"
Why, let me see do you know the Dry
River?" ,
Yes, I do."
Well, it's not there." After a pause, your
guide adds, But you'll cross it, hearee (do you
hear)? and when you get to Cane Garden, you'll
strike across the pasture, till you come chock
against the fence; then keep up to windward,*
Eastward and westward is called windward and leeward, on
account of the trade-winds. Creoles are remarkably fond of mar.
timephraae.





THE ADVENTURES O0 A CREOLE.


till you meet up with the bottom of the valley;
you'll then cross the gully, and, when you get to
the cock-pit, any nigger will shew you Mr. Mus-
covadoe's estate."
The fact is, he first ascertains that you are a
stranger, and then gives you such directions as
none but a native can comprehend.
In the West Indies, most persons shew a.
desire to know how their neighbours get on;
in England, people are too much occupied with
their own business to think about that of another.
This may be attributed to the small communities
in the colonies, and the vast population of the
mother country: yet, with all allowance for these,
the coldness of Englishmen respecting the con-
aerns of their neighbours struck me as a remark-
ably general trait. A friend of mine, a retired
West Indian, who lived some years at the Hum-
mas, Covent Garden, told me an anecdote,
which strongly coincided with my conclusion.
It ran thus:-
Two gentlemen were in the habit, for some
years, of dining in adjoining boxes at that tavern.
After three years, by dint of -rubing their elbows
against each other, they became so intimate as
to nod, as they passed to go into their respective
i boxes. At the end of five years, they used to
I ~iaange brief how d'ye do's?" but, although



I~w.. .





WARNER ARUNDILL:


they, every day for seven years, dined at the
same hour next to each other, they were never
known to dine together, nor were ever seen to
shake hands. How different is this from the
continual shaking of hands in the West Indies
The following fact I can speak of-from my
own knowledge. I once, in company with Dr.
Molesworth, visited an old gentleman who lived
in Bloomsbury Square: he sent for the doctor
to consult him, he being slightly indisposed.
The doctor, among other questions, asked how
he slept the preceding night. Very badly,"
was the reply. I was kept awake by a racket
in the next house. I don't know the cause of
this merry-making of my neighbour; I never
knew the family to have any noisy party at their
house before."
Now, the fact was this: the old gentleman
had lived for thirty years beside his neighbour
without being intimate with him or his family;
and the merry-making which kept him awake
was caused by the marriage of his next-door
neighbour's only daughter.
In the West Indies, I often read of Old Eng-
lish hospitality: I suppose this term meant the
* hospitality of England in days of old, for the
englishh of the.present time do,not seem to unu
derstand the meaning of the word. I certainly




THE ADVENTURES OF A CREOLE.


did meet with some hospitality in London, but
it was in the apartments of retired West Indians.
These were generally located in and about Sloane
Street; they generally live in pairs, unless the
parties have families. I always knew where to
find them by these signs:-They generally have
a pair of green parrots hanging out of the parlour
window, and a monkey chained down the area;
have. the doors and windows carefully lined with
list, and a black porter or lackey to open the
door. When introduced to them, I found in the
room of audience a sideboard, laid out in the
West Indian style,-with much glass, and little
plate.; large glass candle-shades, a huge sangaree-
bowl, with an open bottle or two of madeira.-
for, in general, West Indians do not decant their
wine. One or both of the hosts lay swinging in
-. cotton hammock, from which they scarcely
emw to receive their visitors, who were desired
te,:lp themselves, or to call for what they
wanted.
If two persons in the West Indies live on
terms of intimacy, the parties never think of
giving each other an invitation-to dinner, unless
~;ispviter entertains a party, as an invitation
waiaM be-thought too formal. A friend is ex-
peoa .to drop in at meal-times, and partake of

* :.. :





WARNER ARUNDELL:


What is going on; to announce his intention of
taking coffee or soup with his friend,-that is to
say, coming to breakfast or dinner with him:
this he does with as little ceremony as he asks
for a pinch of snuff. All this is necessarily dif-
ferent in England : none there thinks of inviting
himself to take coffee or soup with any one;
and, as to an invitation, he who visits a friend
in England on the strength of one of them, will
find the party too formal to be hospitable.
One practice at dinner in England I must
protest against: an invited guest is not allowed
to do as he pleases. I felt this as a great annpy-
ance, after being used to the free-and-easy tables
of the Caribbean Islands. At every formal party
I Was at in London, I was pestered beyond my
patience to partake of things which were my
aversion, after having satisfied my appetite with
+ viands that I liked. The worst of all this was,
that, while the host and his family were per-
secuting me, in order to make me cram as much
ifto my stomach as though it were a ootton-pack,
the parties absolutely conceived they were ex-
ercising politeness and hospitality.
Nothing astonished me in England more than
the frequency of the repasts. In the West In-
dies two meals in twenty-four hours is all we





THE ADVENTURES OP A CREOLE.


think of; in England they consume four solid Ir
repasts per day, and a good supper at night.
Notwithstanding our abundance of turtle; the
endless variety and delicacy of fish; the venison-
like taste of dur lean, but delicious mutton; the
abundance and good quality of poultry in the
colonies,-yet the materiel of the kitchen in Eng-
land is infinitely superior to that of a West Indian
" cook-room:" but I think the cookery of the
West Indies much superior to that of England.
I have dined in houses that sported first-rate
French artists, but thought their compounds be-
yond comparison inferior to those of the black
and brown cooks of the West, whose culinary
system is a kind of composite order between the
solid Doric dishes of the British, and the Co.
rinthian cookery of their Gallic neighbours.
The few words employed in business in Eng-
iad is astonishing. In London, two merchants
will negotiate the sale of a West Indiaman, with
her whole cargo, in less time and with fewer
words than a storekeeper on our side of the
Atlantic would take to sell a demijean of rum.
This brevity is so remarkable, -that mercantile
business is more rapidly transacted in England
than in aay other country on earth. A mer-
chant in one of the Antilles wrote a most
elaborate and lengthy" epistle to a London.


r


i;4' ~~~~


15


?;g
rr





WARNER ARUNDELL:


house, and received for answer a letter running
thus:-

"SIR,
WRITE shorter letters, and draw for
your money.
Your obedient," &c.

When a West Indian wishes to express that
any business is set about, he says it is on the
carpet; an Englishman says it is on the anvil.
The latter certainly uses all his energies to strike
while the iron is hot.
This brevity in transacting business is carried
into English courts of law. When a wigless
colonial lawyer is retained, it is expected, whether
the cause in which he is engaged will admit of a
speech or not, that he will make one, to shew
that he merits his fee, to gratify his client, and
to amuse the party-coloured auditor"'vrho al-
ways loiter about a West Indian court of law,
who are as fond of hearing suits determined as
were the Athenians of old. With the perriwig-
pated fellows of Westminster Hall the case is
different: when nothing need be said, or nothing
can be said, the English lawyer wisely holds his
tongue. Eloquence in Westminster Hall may be
used to support argument, but the judges there





THE ADVENTURES OF A CREOLE.


would frown most awfully on any one who should
presume to use oratory for the mere purpose of
earning his fee, or of amusing the bystanders.
The apparent want of charity in the people
of England often shocked me. In the West
Indies, it rarely happens that any one complains
of hunger; when it does, the wants of the un-
fortunate are promptly supplied. If application
be plade -t to he hune of the opolent4or succour,
the distressed man is sent into the kiteinf, d' a
small table is laid out for him in an out-house;
if the party appealed to be of 41 humble order of
society, he is generally asked into the hall,* and
,auch provision as the house affords is given to
him,
"O often have I witnessed acts of benevolence
from persons in the colonies, who have a mul-
;. de of sins for their charity to cover. Many a
i j~rnnTxh1n wchn attacked at one and
Same tim by poverty and the jelow- ever,
has been succodted by poor mulatto women of
the.most unfortunate and degraded description;
Malny a houseless white .has been nursed into
helth by those women, or decently buried- by
iaft, although the names even of the parties
'* I the West Indies, the hal is the main room ofthe hose
r,~b is i lled in F gland, the parour. In Lonadea, th wrd
i Jgaminyt plped to the vetibnle.


-A.





WARNER ABUNDELL:


Sin whose behalf their humanity has been exerted
were unknown to them. It is remarkable that
this has been the common practice of poor mu-
latto women since the earliest days of colonisa-
tion in this part of the world, as we learn from
the oldest Spanish historians of these islands.
In the Antilles, even the poor slave allows no
child of want to solicit in vain, while he has
the power of relieving him. Often have I seen
sailors who had lost their way up a West India
colony, or who had been turned adrift for
misconduct-oftA have I seen such feeding out
of the calabash of the poor negroes.
When white men become incorrigibly bad,
and are deserted by all, they skulk about the
Uegro village of a plantation, and are maintained
by the slaves.
Having witnessed the above general bene-
volenee of the Caribbean Islands, I was fre-
quently shocked in England at beholding the
indigent solicit in vain the cold hand of charity.
Much of this apparent hardness of heart ii,
doubtless, owing to the poor-laws, and to the
number of impostors which a deme popalatiow
always possesses, who are ready to abuse and
deceive benevolence; yet, amongst the many
fortunes that were wrecked during my too brief
sojourn in England, I never heard of one that





THE ADVENTURES 0O A CREOLE.


was ruined by charity. I know that political
economy condemns the giving of alms and reliev-
ing of wants, as injurious to society; but, thank
God! I am not a political economist.
I more than once witnessed a greasy well-
fed magistrate bully and abuse a parcel of house-
less wretches, who had violated the vagrant-law;
in other words, had committed the sin of being
miserably poor. I felt as pleased with the well-
fed reprover of poverty as I suppose an English-
man would feel, on his first arrival in the colo-
uies, at beholding a negro-drver, with his cart-
whip, persuading a slave to work faster by
means of the argumentuw a posteriori.
That the English are not wanting in public
ehaeity appears by the fact of the existence of
an immense number of noble public institutions,
l~h ISleh all kinds of calamities are relieved,
and to where the unfortunate of all descriptions
en retire. The hospitals of London bear glo-
'rions testimony of national benevolence, and,
I hope, call down blessings on that province
covered with houses."
Often, when viewing those magnificent re-
ceptacles for the maitned and worn-out defenders
of their country at Greenwich and Chelsea, I
St the justness of the observation of a foreigner,


.:.
'.. 4.





WARNER ARUNDSLL :


who, alluding to the wretched-looking palace
at St. James's, and the splendour of the hos-
pitals for decayed seamen and soldiers, said,
that the English lodge their kings in a hospital,
and their beggars in palaces.
The women in England are, in general, beau-
tiful. The great advantages they possess. over
the fair of the Antilles is in having countenances
more expressive and animated, and complexions
more beautifully variegated. Nothing can exceed
the transparent skin of the women of England;
and the mingled white and red shewing through
Sit p jthel delicate i as of well-painted. p-po
'"ce appearing through he glaze which t4t
gives it, while the bluei veins being visible, ren-
der the whole so lovely, that it can be compared
to nothing so aptly as the fleecy pods of e5w-
opened cotton, wet wit the .padlpngB dews
morn ng;. ., ".., ..
SThe complexions of creele ladies, of unm.ied
European descent, are fair as lilies; .bt the ..
isseldom reflected on their counteo.nap e. 's i.
lipd are well formed, but waept .:t rufby. A.d~
fair Englishwomen. Their lack of :esprew ion and
animation is owing, doubtless, to thr sedentary
hshits and retired manners:, thai the elimiatp:.
alone .lauqt, account fon is s pfstlw*t


'.'. '.. .* :;





THE ADVENTURES OF A OREOLE. 21

the fact, that no women on earth have more
animated and expressive visages than women
of colour.
The women of the Caribbean Isles do not,
in general, carry the folly of tight-lacing to
the pitch that it is enforced in England; hence,
their torurne-is often better, and consumption
lees common among them. I know, a waist
pinched in like an hour-glass is, in England,
thought a beauty; so is a crippled foot in China,
a flattened forehead amongst the Cariabs, and
a tattooed face amongst most savages.
The Creator made women of the most lovely
form: what a mixture of folly and presumption
it is to attempt to alter that which came perfect
from HIz hands!
The eyes of the fair creoles are fully as beau-
tifMl w those of Englishwomen: the former are
laghishing and indicative of benevolence; the
latter, animated, lively, and expressive of every
emotion of their active minds.
The women of England-and, from what
I have seen, those of France-may learn one
thing of creoles: that is, to walk. The French
ismes trip as though they walked on sharp pebbles;
tl. Englia~ ~ ir marches with the long pace of
a 1"& ina&try man; the creoles walk grace-
My.



".."" "g ..:.'"1 4"





WARNBR ABUNDELL:


From the pictures I had seen of John Bull,
1 was led to believe that all Englishmen had
that deformity of the abdomen called a corpo-
ration : this is not the case in general; although I
think, if Englishmen were less stout, they would
look less clumsy.
One of the first things that struck me in
viewing the people at home," was their extra-
ordinary cleanliness. This, in the houses of the
great, did not astonish me; although the extreme
neatness of every article of furniture, every do-
mestic utensil, and all the servants, both in and
out of livery, enhanced considerably the luxury
by which I was surrounded, during a few visits
I paid to the great. The very stable of an
English gentleman, and the cow-house of an
English farmer, shew the peculiar neatness of
the people. But what most surprised and gra-
tified me, was the scrupulous regard to clean.*
liness which the poor evinced. During my an
dical studies, I visited the indigent sick; amd ye
I could have eat off the weH-ecomrd .fleer,on
which lay a flock bed supportig the patient.
Often have I observed, with pleasure, a poo
woman with four children taking the air, on a
Sunday, in the Park the dresses:i the whole
were not worth half so muck a* S single mtlive
old button, two pair of which a negress m


I I





THE ADVENTURES OF A CREOLE.


manly wears in her sleeve; and yet the patched
and repatched habiliments were as clean as wed-
ding garments.
I was much edified by attending public wor-
ship in various churches of the metropolis. The
unostentatious devotion of the congregations, and
the eloquence of the preachers, gratified me;
but I felt as a drawback the wretched screeching
and hissing of
"'Sternhold's creeping lays;"

or the Psalms done into English by Tait and
Brady, which the parish-clerks call--" singing to
tie praise and glory of God." I would advise
aooe of the churches to send to Antigua for
Mro Methodists, who would form a much better
haoirthan these they possess.
S in f g a t~wanger, I, of course, went to see
tl ash alk mom of the town. I am no judge
oe al2hitette; hat mart of the buildings in
London appeared to denote that their erectors
bestowed more labour than taste on their works.
From this censure I, of course,.except Westmin-
er Abbey, Somerset House; the noble piles of
W n AInigo Jones, Gibbs; and the glorious
i k dge span the noble Thames. The
awgIi dplq' y more genius in eonstrunting


.. i. ... .,
..uM e e ,si.a ,4,





WARNER ARUNDELL:


war, than in raising palaces, public offices, and
churches.
I shall not attempt to describe my emotion
the first time I saw a play in London. True it is,
I had witnessed a dramatic representation, or
misrepresentation, in the West Indies; but these
were amateur performances. Some of the ama-
teurs possessed abilities; but ridicule was thrown
on the whole attempt by the ladies' characters
being acted by young men. Let tke reader, if
he can, conceive a tall youth of twenty, play-
ing Lady Randolph (' Douglas,' by the by,' is a
favourite amongst amateurs)! The young mah
will not consent to lose his whiskers: he there-
fore endeavours to conceal them under the lap.
pets of his cap; and, ever and anon, as he turns
his head, his favourites" peep out. Conceive
atpersdn so situated acting the part of Lady Ran-
dolph, and, with a full tenor voice, address 4nna
(represented by a tall, dunning clerk), and saying
to the said Anna,-

I found;myself
As women wish to be who love their lords."
t"
or let the reader suppose he witnesses the exhi-
bition of Otway's Orphan;' thepart of the tender
Monimia enacted by a short, :squat lad, with a
woolly head, a mask of paint over his dark face,



... ., f ;:; :





THE ADVENTURES OF A ROLEL.


and a pair of large ear-rings suspended by thread
from his unbored ears; suppose such a youth,
wishing to be pathetic, exclaiming, with the voice
of a bull-calf,-

Why was I born with all my sex's softness?"

Let the gentle or simple reader suppose all
this, and he will form a faint conception of a
West Indi dramatic exhibition, and have a
fipter idea at my feelings were at beholding
the bpernatural or preternatural' Macbeth' of
Sfjcespeare, while Kemble and his still more
jilAstrious sister, played the principal 'characters.
SUnused as I was to theatrical display, the
g~apracy of the scenery, the shadowy way in
S4bjeh the witches performed their incantations,
*qM the picturesque appearance of the plaided
lw m giW,. delighted me. But when I heard
*f* *04 deliver the immortal air-drawn dagger
oliloquy.; when I saw his daring lady tempting
him to blood, like an incarnate fiend; when I
witnessed the confusion of the guilty pair after
the murder of their sovereign; and, above all,
when, I beheld the conscience haunted sleep-
Salks endeavouring to wash from her hands the
I" a ~ued pot,"-I quailed with horror, and yet,
i: the same time, felt intense delight. This is a
S VOL. II. C





WABNER ARUNDELL:


paradox which I shall not attempt to solve: the
pleasure resulting from beholding a sublime tra-
gedy, well acted, has often been attempted to be
explained, but without success.
I must add, that the after-piece appeared to
please the million," better than the masterpiece
of Shakespeare, supported by the talent of Sid.
dons and Kemble; for the latter was sustainn.
by greater performers, viz. a stud of horses.
I had read, both in the West Jndies and *
England, of the open immorality practised in .
colonies. The censures, although a littleo4i
drawn, were true in the main; but, aQ;
perusing them, in the simplicity of my hbi
I conceived that the morals of England
pure as the unsunned snow of the climate.
error was removed on my entering the saloon o
a London theatre. I will venture to say, that
the profligacy I there beheld shocked me me4.l
than any Englishman was ever shocked by 0pt
templating any scene of libertinism in our part
Sof the world.
Creoles in general are well pleased with;
themselves, and consequently leased with al
around them. If a calamity ha to him, he
persuades himself that it was caused by no :ault
of his, and that another year will amend the mis-
fortune. The next year, in the West Indies, has


***-.





THE ADVENTURES OF A CREOLE.


become proverbial; the next year is to redress
aH grievances, and to compensate for all losses :
but the next year of the creole, like the to-
morrow" of the debtor, never arrives. The fact
is, hope is the consolation of mankind in general,
but it is often the evil genius of the creole. He
passively hopes for the best at the time he should
actively prepare for the worst. Such being the
failing of my compatriots, I could not but be
forcibly struck with the countless number of
toram I met with in England. The creole air-
&iSli 'builder is less prudent than the English
g9ithbler, but not a whit less wise. During every
ar Vfor the last two hundred years, our West
i~Ii a colonies suffered cruelly. Provisions were,
-Umer, so dear in the colonies, that wheaten
tvn were often too expensive to be seen on the
Smi. S dfthe he most opulent; and the mass of the
Pi' 4i.iwere obliged W' live on the crude vege-
ttl1s of the islands. Btt the creoles who suf-
frdd such privations consoled each other by
Saying, the times would change, and that flour
r. dd be at two dollars a-barrel. next year;"
while, at the samp time, if an English operative
ws deprived of the slightest article of Con-
emption, which we in the colonies consider as
he would be ready to rise in rebel-
-t the call of the first man of the people"
i :. .
; .* ... ..





WARNER ABUNDELL:


who should propose to attack the Tower or
plunder the Bank.
The disposition to grumbling is not confined
to the lower orders; but the pleasure of the well-
educated croakers in England consists in prew
tending to be miserable, and in the amiable
endeavour to make others as unhappy as they
wish to appear. When I first came to England4
the long wars afforded sufficient themes for croamk
ing: when I left it, the well-informed croakae
were predicting all sorts of misfortunes, b~epai
many persons were using their best endeavoas
to educate the lower classes of society. They pg
phesied that national schools would become ,1
tional evils; that, as the humble ranks of soCd
became well-informed, they would become dih-
contented; that all people would cease to obey
the laws when all could read them, and a revo~~k
tion would be the consequence. I regretted to
hear this; because I came from places w her Ith.
- labourng classes are illiterate, and I have b"lA
the evils resulting from the want of letterame..ug
the cultivators of the soil, the hewers of wood
and drawers of water.
Those who fear that education will cause a
revolution, know nothing of history, or trestilt
as an old almanack. Were the furious Qoutbre a
ings, during the middle ages in France,,.w hic

".'A.





THE ADVENTURES 07 A OBEOLE.


were called Jacqueries, caused by the diffusion of
useful knowledge? Were the riots of Wat Tyler
and Jack Cade brought about by national schools;
or the want of them? To come nearer our own
times-was the frenzy of the Parisian mobs,
during the Reign of Terror, caused by its members
being too well instructed? No, no; the rising of
the great unwashed" has often been occasioned
by want and oppression more often by their
ignorance, being misled by artful demagogues:
but never did men .rise, never will men rise in
Sevolt because the schoolmaster is abroad:
UtbelHon, generally, is the child of ignorance.
'Se insidious harangue of the factious orator is
i :| r :more dangerous than when addressed to an
berate mob.
i: -. That venerable monarch, George III., wished
M:t r*ry one of his subjects had a Bible, and
Iwe Mtiie to read it: a more benevolent wish was
tier expressed by any prince; a wiser saying
I wasnever recorded of any king since.the days of

One of the many things which-astontshed me
Is England, was the want of geographical inferam*
i.do tlhat pervaded all ranks of society, Otast
iti 'ruln uos l n*forth of the globe is all pake
Ithe world; she possesses colonies; her mer-
Siand manufactories supply every mart;





St WARNER* AICDVLt:

her ships crowd every sea; her travellers pane'
trate every inhabited and uninhabited county:
and yet the English, in general, know as mebh
of geography as a mole knows of longitude.
The ignorance I complain of was often taken
advantage of by the writers on both sides of the
controversy, during the long agitation of the ques-
tion of colonial slavery.
Some years since, a book was published, pur-
porting to be a description of the West Indies,
which placed Trinidad in the Gulf of Mexico.
This geographical blunder, and twenty others
equally gross, passed unobserved, although the :
book was reviewed by moat of the principal pea
riodicals of the day. Repeatedly, in the-Houn:
of Commons, the most Luished orators bate
talked of the Island of Demerara;" and I
myself heard a senator of some celebrity umy
he hoped to see the day when the negroes .i
the West Indies would peaceably enjoy tkeir.n .
-fireide I". Talk of a people enjoying their eF.'
sides in a climate where, in the month ofMi t li
the amm er stands at 92 in -d Ahlide Iire at a
fever in the very thought. I could, if I choe&
writer whole volume on the uajeat of the rvidf
culos geographical blunders whioe heard people
in England make.
Such ar the impresions made on mae .h



A ..
-l !iiB ;;-..






THE ADVENTURES O.L CREOLE.


English society: I describe them with some dif-
fidence, because I know from experience how
easily a stranger is led to make erroneous con-
aclsions. I have often laughed at the ridiculous
mistakes that tourists have made in the West
Indies.


Lw.
: :i-.: *







,tbat 'V" -

I '
q! 7 rS .

: ..

+..::


"*L





3 WA.RN ARER AnUWDELL :


CHAPTER II.

Oh! woman, in our hours of ease,
Uncertain, coy, and hard to please,

When pain and anguish wring the brow,
i. A ministering angel thou."
SCOTT.
I at last their miseries viewed
SIn that vile garret, which I cannot paint."
CRABni.


HAVING taken up much time to relate what I
thought in London, it is now time to tell what I
did.
On the sailing of the first West Indian. i-
,after my arrival, I wrote to my brother R:l
but received no answer by the reta rin
acket. Months elapsed, and no reply wn4
I wrote again and again, but no answer can .
At length I thought the faiail slighted me, an.t i
I wrote no more. My letters Wr&e intereeptei
the reader shall be informed due time, ir' 4
this occurred.





THE ADVENTURES OF A CREOLE.


Every quarter I received a brief letter from
Messrs. Keen and Leech, enclosing a bill of ex-
change for 621. 10s. on Messrs. Sucker and Sons,
Feachurch Street, at ninety days' sight, which was
duly honoured.
I became a pupil of Dr. Molesworth, attend-
ing with him whenever he had an extraordinary
case, and I could find time. Occasionally I took
instructions from his apothecary in the material
medical. I lost no time, but attended Brooks's,
Carpue's, and Bell's lectures: I walked the Mid-
dlesex Hospital, and became dresser to one of the
principal surgeons; studied chemistry and botany ;
read every book on medicine which Dr. Moles-
worth recommended. My knowledge of Latin
and French served me much in this respect. In
short, I displayed assiduity to gain a knowledge
tamy profession as a surgeon; for the gentlemen
ot Warwick Lane refuse to grant a diploma to
any one who has not washed his hands in the
(am or Isis. However, I cared little about t1iW,
bpeause I intended to practise in the West Indies,
~ee the obsolete distinction betweet-physician
iii'tSurgeon is little attended to: both branches
#Heia s they ought to be every where else, are
sii by the same person.
i progresB I made in my medical studies
thae little interest to the general reader
c2


*'
*o :: .. ."

" ,.':..:.. ,,E .....


V,


,,:, :,





WARNfR AlrUDELL:


will pass over them, and merely state, that my
application was noticed and praised by all whose
lectures I attended.
Nothing worth relating occurred until Janu-
ary 1815; when, during one miserable foggy
and snowy day, which 'is peculiarly unpleasant
to a native of the torrid zone, I went into a hair.
dresser's shop in Warwick Street, Golden Square,
to get my hair trimmed. The operator and his
assistant were both employed; I was, therefore,
obliged to wait until one of them was disengaged.
The barber observing, by my blowing my fingers,
that I was disagreeably affected by the cold,
asked me to go into his back room, where-there
was a fire. I agreed, to this proposition, aad
went in, took a seat before the grate, and warmed
myself, until the hairdresser despatched his cus-
tomers. On looking round me, I saw on a side
table a body of the most beautiful hair I erw
beheld. It was of a light-brown colour moaMt
-'elegantly curled, more than six feet in.aitj
Said of the most silky texture I evrStouched.
The man of the shop,Aalving s mishad with his
other customers, came teo s me. wHa. A short
dapper man, with a deep. prokmarked eountt.
nance, which looked ae though it had ote
sculptured with a rough lhieal oat of & maskri f
tallow rand yet his pale.Anmpit4ookinu&ageatur :


..A.. .. .
4.1
t-.j' i ,





THE ADYTNTURES OPF A OBOLE.


had the traits of good-nature and intelligence so
plainly written on them, that, ungainly as they
were, they seemed any thing but disagreeable.
Beal good-humour can throw a pleasant expres-
sion into an ugly visage.
You seem, sir, to enjoy the fire; you don't
like cold," said he.
I replied, that a clear frosty day was tolerable,
because I could brace myself with exercise; but
that I hated the foggy weather of his climate.
1, *' Pereeive, sir, you are a foreigner?"
a-:46 Notexactly: I am a West Indian."
wr.-.o Bless me, sir! you are a West Indian, and
lya:yoau are as fair as any Englishman! I
thagyht you natives of the West Indies were
6buted 4amlettoes)."
liaJmiled at the man's mistake; which, howe
i iA~ & Aoormmon in England, where most per-
s- e. eaeivae m.. eoes the pure descendants of
ihi taes, nadered dark by being born in a torrid
otiahnte.
You would prefer, perhaps, that I should
ni ywou hair here, to sittingiF-thereotrhopLI"
sitj consented to. this suggestion; aud6i ait
dtitdespatk remarkable to the trdesmeq4
..... o.lietid a napkin round my neck, ..
h:. ltiui dcig my superious hair.,
t f ai4. h.ave. oor hai .S:t;tE elsel


Aw/





WARNER ARINDlLL :


I would advise you against that, for one who
possesses so fine a head of flaxen locks."
I told him to operate as he chose.
There, sir, you shew your good sense: leave
the matter to me, and I'll set off your head to
the best advantage. A young man's prospects
are often influenced by his hairdresser: nothing
conduces so much to improve the appearance of
a youth, as having his locks skilfully trimmed;
it gives him a prepossessing appearance, which
often does him good service. A handsome look,
sir, is often more valuable to a young gentleman
than half a fortune. Having the head well trim-
med on the outside, does a youth sometimes
more service than having it well lined with
brains. I see, sir, you wince as the cold scissors
touch your neck: always know a man from a
warm country by that, sir. There, sir, I think
that will do. You look admirably, although I
say it that should not say it, inasmuch as. I
:contributed to your good looks with my onm
hands and scissors."
I peeped into a small mirror, and expressed
myself satisfied, for the man had really performed
kie operation well and quickly. I gave him a
billing.
Here, sir, is your chae," said the manof
the scissors; and he tendered me sixpenta:q


.. .





THE ADVENTURB8 OF A CREOLE.


Never mind the change," said I.
Bless mel I would not mind it were you a
few years older; but, sir, sixpence is my price,
and I could not think of taking more of a youth
than I charge a man."
Perceiving I still neglected the change, he
added,-
Well, sir, as you choose; but I'll give you
a piece of advice which will, perhaps, be worth
more Mtho sixpence. Never offer a tradesman
double what he asks, because he pays a compli-
ment to your appearance. Excuse me, sir,-ha,
ha, hal"
I thanked the man for his advice, which was
not bad, considering I paid for it. The loquacious
harbor received I fixed my eyes on the hair I
have spoken of: he said,-
*.> .: 44 Fine hair, sir: I have been in the trade,
sta..:and boy, thirty years, and never saw any
article so beautiful. It is the colour of your hair,
only half-adozen shades darker. It is lovely,
old it belonged to as lovely a young woman as
er I saw. She is, like yourwetifrom foreign
parts, because she has a blackamoor woman as
Mhr servant. Poor young lady! I gave her, last
pea, twice as much as it was worth in trade
beqase she appeared in distress: she took the
It eyraith a tear in her eye, which she tried to



Et V





WARNER ARUNDELL:


conceal. I got anxious to find out who she was,
and sent my boy, Bill,-a 'cute lad, sir,-to follow
her : she went to a butcher and a baker, where she
bought some provision, which her tawny servant
carried. Bill then followed them to a back
alley in Swallow Street, where she lives. Bill
asked all about her, and found she is the wife of
a poor sick officer, and mother of three children.
The good creature sold her beautiful hair to satisfy
the hunger of her sick husband, and famishing
babes- God bless her Why, love you, sir, you
have a tear in your eye! You need not hide
it: you should be ashamed of selfish tears, be.
cause they are unmanly ; but the tears that'are
shed for the distress of another do us honour."
Will you allow your boy," aske6 I, to
shew me where this lady lives?"
That I will," replied the worthy trimmer of
hair; and the more willingly because I believe
your visit will be one of benevolence."
He called his boy, and bid him shew me where
the distressed family resided; He to&e himiaside
ere we left the shop, and I heard him say to the
boy in a whisper,-
Now, Bill, if he offers you any thing+don't
accept it, and I'll give you what mw wantsqyi to
take."
.I tookleave of the kind barber, and followed



..





THE ADVENTURES OF A CREOLE.


his lad about four hundred yards: he took me up
a dark alley.
This is the house," said the boy; "' you will
find the family in the garret."
Up I went; but, before I got to the first
landing-place, I paused to recollect what I was
about. Affected by the story told by the barber,
I resolved, in the first impulse of my feelings, to
relieve the distress of the family. I possessed the
geans of doing this, having just returned from
the city with my quarter's allowance in my pocket.
But, would my visit be well taken ? The husband
So the lady was an officer in the army, and might
eoaent that as an insult which I meant as an act
So kindness. I recollected that the husband was
I!i4 a44I resolved to introduce myself as a
medical student, and to beg permission to preo
tliis fo r. the gentleman. Approving of this
t3elght I amended, and knocked at the door of
the garret.
Come in," aid a faint voice.
Ss lifted the latch, and a sight struck my eyes
witoh astonished me.
TU e garret had no covering but the tiles of.
Sht ou.qel; the light was admitted through a
.ii .ow, a leaden lattice, which held grent
ketted panes of glass, some brokh and
li.. paper. Through this; ~eW





WARNER ARUNDELL:


seen a vast mass of roofs of houses, thickly covered
with the discoloured snow of London; in a small
grate lingered the embers of a nearly extinct fire:
an ancient table, with two old-fashioned chairs,
were the only articles of furniture in the room.
Against one of the rafters hung a tarnished and
worn uniform of a lieutenant of infantry; and
beside the wall was a letter-holder, full of those
vouchers of poverty, pawnbrokers' duplicates.
In one corner of the room crouched a mulattoe,
with a blanket over her: she seemed to try in
vain to keep herself warm. As I entered, she
rose, and I at once recognized her to be my old
friend, Lucy. On a flock-bed in a corner re-
posed my fellow-passenger, Rivers, with two
children by his side: the three were covered by
a military great coat. The father was so worn
by misery, that, had I not known Lucy, I should
not have recognized him; beside his bed sat lhi
beautifulwife-for beautiful she was, despite hro
-wretchedness. Although famine had thrown his
pallid hue over her ceek, she suportMed i, -
fant in her arms; her dress bore marks of fa-i
gentility. Grim poverty seemed to pervade the
mold room.
Masa Warner !" screamed Lue.; Amd,
fter second, the distressed couple both .bc
S limndls, "Mr. Arundell" I
A.." !,i





THE ADIVETURBS OF A CREOLE.


1 knelt to embrace my old friend; after
which I exclaimed, looking round me, "Good
God! Captain Rivers- and checked myself.
I understand you, Mr. Arundell-you are
shocked at our wretchedness: and, truly, these
are not splendid apartments for the lieutenant
in his majesty's army-the heir-presumptive of
a large estate; nor is this furniture suitable to
the rank of the daughter of a colonel. But
what brought you here? I thought indigence
concealed me from all my acquaintance."
I stammered out something, not very coherent,
about my coming to visit a person I heard was
sick, in order to improve my medical studies.
Arundell," said he, grasping my hand,
" you are a worthy young man; but be advised
yme never attempt a falsehood. Nay, I
meat no offence. Never attempt dissimulation;
Ar, practise it as you will, your countenance is
too haoest for- you to become an adept in it.
So, Amelia, our young friend, who saved our
eldest boy, has paid us a. visit to try his hand
at storing on me: like P. P. the parish clerk,
to bleed adventures he not, except on the poor.
Bat, whatever brought you here, I am happy-
mOta happy-to see you."
- Mr. Warner could have no other motives
i iaiting us but those of kindness; he is, there*


,..





WARNER A.UNDELL :


fore, welcome," said the lady, extending her
hand; which I took. "Here, Robert; here is
your old acquaintance, who shot Jumbee. Nay,
don't cry so; the gentleman is a friend."
But the poor child wept on; and the other
two joined him, despite their mother's attempt
to quiet them. Their's was not the mere weep-
ing, of infancy; it was the wailing of famine
Each cry reverberated in the hearts of the ththlw
Vpd mother. Most agonising to the ears of the
parents are the cries of the children for fo o
vhen the latter cannot satisfy the cavirgs of
their offspring I
". How are you, Lucy?" said I.
: ".Pretty miserable, Massa Warner; hope yo.
tre the same."
You seem weak, Lucy. I hope you: 04
not sick?"
No, mama.; only a little weak and 1i4
This country cold for true ; and every body he4iW
jold like the country. I bave -no .o-.ther, i .
sicknesss) but hunger "
S"That is a disease I n ea l*o silye e
Rise, if you are able, and get omi.eting -to eat
for yourself ;. sld order some coals up instantly..
I am perishing with cold."
I put a guinea into her haid. She ande:
stood my meaning, which waw to mend her ::



..:. .** *.i ..lsi a c.... 2






THE ADVENTURES OP A CREOLE.


something to satisfy the cravings of the starving
family, without offending the lieutenant or his
wife.
Blessings on your good heart, Massa War-
ner I just tell missis, God Almighty go send
him angel to help us; and him send what is
more better than angel-him send a kind young
man to relieve us, and feed the starving child-
en," said poor Lucy, bursting into tears.
I hurried her out of the room, and, on the
Iadng, gave her directions what she should
p~lie for the immediate use of the hapless
family.
Arundell, this is most kind," said Rivers,
gapis mg my hand with all the strength that
I utkml left him-his felt deadly cold; but I
~i~taE lner be able to pay you. The poor half-
;' r'oif a lieutenant scarcely supports us when
a n..i heath; and now disease has reduced
i Ab ti state of misery. For the fet week
fIavebeen subsisting on my poor Amei habahr
and, just before you came in, she talked of selling
tteta to a dentist." -
SinaieaTvoured to divert the melancholy con-
nWi tioin by inquiring after his malady. ThiI
Ilb d mto be an inveterate tertian ever. Under
slijiae aof getting some medicine, I stepped out
iid prhaed a bottle of port wine. On my





44 WARBNER ARUNDELL :


return, l~ fnd that Lucy had been most ex-
peditioas: she had procured ready-dressed pro-
visions and fuel. In no place can all these be
obtained so readily as in London-for money;
but without it, a man stands a greater chance
of famishing in Fleet Market than on the rock
of Sombrero, or in the wilds of South America.
SThe children and Lucy ate so ravenously
that I was obliged to interpose. The lieutenant
aId his lady ate more sparingly. I, however,
caused them to partake of a little wine; and
divers explained the cause of his present mis-
fortune.
SPreviously to my acquaintance with him, he
had been captured by the French, and sent to
Cayenne. In the same prison with him was ;
colonel and his daughter, his present wife, whomt
he married; a chaplain of an English regi-
meat, also a prisoner, performing the ceremony.
Shortly after this, Cayenne was take by ;tle
Apgilsh. His father-in-law was seat home, atld
absequently, to Ceylon. Rivers remained th
West Indies, until ordered to England i f18182
On his arrival, his father was mortally oe ided
at his marriage, because he maintained an old
grudge against the father of his wife: he would
pet speak to him.
Rivers, having nothing to. depend upon bir



,1





THE ADVENTURES 01 A CREOLE.


his sword and his ensign's commission, joined his
regiment in Spain; his affectionate wife follows
ing him; and her old slave Lucy took service
in a West India family. Three years' hard fight-
ing, and two wounds, got him promoted to the
rank of a lieutenant. At the peace, in 1814,
he was put on half pay. His father now sent
for him, and made the following shameful pro-
posal: viz., as he was married in a French prison
by a clergyman now dead, without the necessary
formalities being observed, the father told him,
if he would take advantage of those circum-
stances, and deny the validity of his marriage,
he would give the lieutenant 10,000, and settle
an annuity on the lady. Rivers would not listen
jor one moment to a proposition so infamous,
-and upbraided his father in no measured terms.
SgI:. did man's wrath knew no bounds: he
b oiht up all his son's debts, and caused him
rbe arrested and thrown into prison. His wife
.-md all her little trinkets to free her bubamndj
Sand even Lucy (who had rejoined them) added
Sheer rings. He got out of gaol, butmas attack.
ed by a tedious malady. The expenses ocw-
S oed by this reduced them to their present

I remained with Rivers long after .ight ,at
and: the, ten my way through the saow, to





WARNER ARUNDELL:


my apartments at Dr. Molesworth's. The next
day, as I left my residence to visit Rivers, I
met the celebrated Dr. Baillie. He had re-
peatedly seen me with Dr. Molesworth, and was
condescending enough to pay me some attention.
Have you," said he, "ever seen a case of
Chorea Sancti Viti ?"
I replied in the negative.
If you have nothing better to do, step into
my carriage, and I'll shew you a most extra-
ordinary case."
I told the doctor I had a patient of my own to
visit.
"You a patient!" said the doctor, good-
humouredly. What, not being duly qualified,
you are going to kill without a license This is
downright poaching upon our manor."
I am," replied I, acting under peculiar
circumstances."
I have little time," rejoined the doctor, "to
Jisten to peculiar circumstances, in this cold wea
their, at the door of my carriage. jIam going-
towards St. James's Square; if youth ii t lives
in that direction, take a ride with me."
I entered the carriage, and begged him to
take Swallow Street in his way. This he ordered
the coachman to do.
Seated in the coach, he asked me about my





THE ADVENTURES OF A ORIOLE.


patient. I, as briefly as I could, related how I
became acquainted with Rivers, and in what state
I found him and his family yesterday. The doctor
seemed interested in the story, and asked me how
I intended to treat the sick man. I said that I
had ordered him to take a dose of antimony, com-
bined with the submuriate of mercury; and that,
if the medicine operated well, I intended to ad-
minister alternate doses of solution of arsenic and
Peruvian bark.
Not a bad method of treating a tertian,"
said the doctor; but will you suffer me to act
as your consulting doctor ?"
STo this humane and condescending proposi-
tion of the physician of royalty, I, of course,
eimslted; and, in a few minutes, we were at the
entrance of the alley in which lived the lieute-
niat the doctor readily mounted to the garret
with -me.
Rivers was surprised, and seemed rather
Chagrined, at receiving a visit from Dr. Baillie,
whbom, however, he did not know; but the
doetor'Akamd inquiries soon dispelled he cloud
from hi. brow. His displeasure, doubtless, arose
i*m being seen. under such indigent circoem
litiIe, .After inquiring into the patients symp-
eha gave me directions, in Latin, how I was
at him; begged that I would visit him at





WARNER ARUNDELL:


his house in the afternoon, and left me with
Rivers.
After the doctor went, I could'onot but observe
what an air of cheerfulness the trifling sum I had
given Lucy had diffused around the miserable
garret. Rivers inquired who the kind physician
was whom I had brought to see him? I told
him, and then went to a neighboring apothe-
.i cary, where I got the medicines recommended by
the doctor. The lieutenant's disease, which had
never been well treated, soon gave way to the
remedies recommended by the great Baillie.
On visiting the doctor in the evening, he,
after inquiring how the lieutenant got on; ad-
dressed me thus:
Look you, Mr. Arundell, just before I saw
you this morning, I visited a hypochondriacal
peer -one of those who, for ever, .
The doctor tease
To name the nameless, ever new disease.

Vexed at being sent for to tr9at elMAiuib~
Complaint, when I had mai;4)diilt)*l* k
than I could attend, his dal *ip dpercieivd my
impatience, and was offeided. I left hinr -i::
sent his valet after me with a note, which iap
formed me that he wid ~ diapense w~ iy
future visits; but it etic s a check :s. i



..,..... i ~~





THE ADVENTURES OF A CZROLB.


banker for fifty pounds. As I dislike pocketing
fees from people who are not sick, I resolved to
give the money to some charity. Now, Mr.
Arundell, I will thank you to give or send to
your poor friend the fifty pounds, without letting
him know from whom it comes."
I consented to aid the doctor's act of bene-
volence, and sent the money by a man belonging
to Middlesex Infirmary. I enclosed it in a letter,
and made a fellow-student write the address, lest
Rivers should know my hand-writing.
The next day I visited my patient: he chal-
lenged me with having sent the money to him.
I pledged my honour that the money had never
been mine. He asked me if I would declare
S I did not know who sent it. I declined an-
.ii. He rightly guessed whence it came.
id he would not accept it; but that he felt
tp tso much better, that he would receive it as
a a being convinced that he should be able to
repay ft in a short time.
In a week or two he was so far advanced in
; convalescence, that he was enabled to employ
:l~melf copying drawings for- a-pictuie-shop in
ithbone Place. The emoluments he received
E -"" ilbour were but trifling; but they helped
tas*ii. out the slender income of a haf-pay
e He removed to a more decent lodg-

&: "
": ":.*' "-E.. .
,:





WARNER ARUNDELL:


ing, whence poverty was banished : he had learnt
frugality from misfortune -that stern teacher of
the use of money.
In a few weeks after this, the wholesale hu-
man butcher, Buonaparte, having escaped from
Elba, set Europe once more in a ferment. Rivers
readily joined his regiment, and behaved so well
at Waterloo that he was promoted to a company.
The last time I heard from him in Europe, he
was with the army of occupation in France,
where he lived comfortably with his family on
the full pay of a captain.


,$






THE ADVENTURES OF A CREOLE.


CHAPTER III.

Ah! I am but a ball for Fortune's foot
To spurn where'er she lists."
The Two Citizens.

IN 1816 I studied hard, in order to pass exa-
mination as a surgeon; and calculated that my
next quarter's allowance would pay all the fees
of my license, as well as purchase a small case of
instruments. One afternoon I heard the post-
man's peculiar knock at the door. This was opened
:by the porter, and I heard the man of letters an-
Itounce, Mr. Warner Arundell, two shillings
M two-pence." I sent the money; and, on look-
in at the address, I recognized the well-known
writing of the head clerk of Keen and Leech.
The address was ominous; having a Mr. before
Smy name, instead of an Esquire after it. It was
a single instead of a double letter; consequently
mntained no bill of Exchange. The-eontents ran

Baseterre, St. Christopher's,
8 April let, 1816.
R referring you to London prices cur-
or low quotations of muscovadoes, and at


=., i
...





WABNER ARUNDBLL :


the same time to accounts current, hereto an-
nexed, exhibiting increased expenses and de-
creasing crops of your late father's estates (Arun-
dell and Clarence) in this island and Antigua,
we beg leave to advise the foreclosure of our
mortgages on the same, so as to save any further
loss to bur house.
Under these circumstances, it will not be in
our power to continue the remittance (per your
order) of 2501. sterling per annum. We regret
that the kind feeling of our senior towards your
late respected father's memory should have induced
him to advance (per your order) the several sumt
we have remitted since your departure for Eng-
land, with which your account now stands. doe
bited in our books,,and which, tqgeth.er with tih
old balance, we trust you will speedily liquidate.
Hoping to hear satisfactory accounts of yo
(post-paid or franked), we beg leave to assure Jou
of our readiness to forward your views, wi nevi,
you may be pleased to place us in funds.
0WL^.Sie.:s ....
Your obbcdte hii l Sertas,
"JEE~ ano LEECH,:;-,

To Ma. WARN$AR AavinanlL, LworoN. D
.. ... ("j^ te) o .. ;
.. ..



rir
.: 1






THE ADVENTURES OF A CREOLE.


The news contained in this rascally letter
came upon me unexpectedly, and threw a damp
upon my spirits. I was not much in debt; but,
on the other side, I had little money. At no
period of my life was I a good manager in pe-
caniary matters; and all the money my Aunt
gave, or rather paid me, together with my last
quarter's allowance, were nearly expended. While
VI I was reperusing the epistle of Keen and Leech,
Dr. Moleeworth came in. He asked me what
news I had received from the West Indies. I
pat the letter into his hand. He read it, and
said,-
I:' Sad news this, Mr. Arundell; more es-
peially ;at the present, when you most want
ilBaey. But, at the same time, I cannot help
.arSeving how admirably this letter is written.
What a business-like style!"
t Ml.M their style !" said I.
m finkh!" said the doctor; don't swear
iit is highly immoral. Learn to take matters phi.
Ileaphically. Young men are apt to be violent.
fI k pattern by me; see how cool Lamt."
S" Truly, doctor, you are as cool as Cooper,
tig a limb, and upbraiding the patient
Pagiing. But can you please to advise me
I had better do in my present diffietty?"
WWhyi in the first place, you are stopping


t ... .. mm
*mm ~: mlie:
mm m I mm~mm .mmm m





WARNER ARUDDELL:


with me at much expense, when you might live
at very trifling cost, at those cheap lodgings
kept by persons who, in the phraseology of the
bills they stick in their windows, take in young
men, and do for them.'"
SI will follow your advice to-morrow morn-
ing, as soon as I find any one who will take me
in and do for me, if you have no objection."
None in the least; because I expect two
pupils from the West Indies, and your chamber
will be wanted for the accommodation of one
of them. And then let us see what you had
better do. Were you licensed as a surgeoi.nI
could get you into an apothecary's shops Y1ar
pay would not be great at first; but, after a
time, it would be augmented; and, if yo .behave
yourself, you might become a partner in the
shop."
"A partner in an apothecary's shopl"-mad l
I, with some disdain; for I had the Adi*ba
prejudices of creoles against ehopke aper .;
"What!" said the doetor; "' yef.lbikto
degrading to turn shopkeepw : We 4b4~ I
seorn, been called a natu~i of hopkepe; yet
he who so denominated us is at us-e toopoweO p r
ful for the nation of coos a.. dancingmastesM
that for a dozen years ba ECinged and irwei
to his tyranny, and a doa years before that





THE ADVENTURES OF A CREOLE.


talked of liberating the world. But, as you
object going into an apothecary's establishment,
would you like to go as surgeon on board a
South Sea whaler? I could, I think, get you
that appointment..'
That would be more acceptable, doctor."
Or how would you like to go as surgeon on
board a vessel bound to Sidney with convicts? "
Or to go," added I, "as passenger on
board the same vessel at the charge of govern-
ment, with a letter of recommendation from the
'Reorder of London, written in a business-like
IStyle at the Old Bailey. But, on the whole, I
p refer going in a whaler."
S.:"I'l:,l see about it to-morrow. You can re-
a fla with me to-morrow, at all events, and I'll
lssi t no charge for the day's expenses. Let me
a.. how does our account stand? -You owe me
ha tWs:. board this day. True it is you are
Iotq q~ite of age; therefore, in one respect, ina
ei pa le of contracting debts; but then, you know,
I ar* demand by law from a minor any reason-
iblse expenses for his maintenance'.
itf..Drfi't Molesworth," said I, with a little
imamth I often heard you say that you knew
ar to be a gentleman in every sense of
t r: I have lived four years in your




4,AL





WARNER ARftlDbLI.:


house, and trust you have not found me de-
generate."
By no means," replied the doctor.
Then why talk to me of a legal demand ?
I fairly owe you some twelve or thirteen pounds.
Gentlemen pay their just debts because they are
just, and wait not for the law to oblige them
to do an act of common honesty."
Heyday! young man; I never before ob-
served you were proud."
Because you never before knew me poor."
I was getting angry: I had received bad
tidings enough to ruffle the temper of most mean
and I thought the doctor's selfish remark was
ill-timed. Fortunately, the discussion was cut
short by the arrival of company. Wine was inw
troduied, of.which I partook freely; but it filed
to elevate my' spirits. At an earlier hour than
usual I retired, taking leave of the doctor with
cool politeness.
S Arrived in my chamber, I looked over tkf
state of my finances, which I found. ather aboW
twenty pounds. I went to bed4 but une tr sleep.
b* IAer tossing and tumbling obr thee hours, I fell
Into a doubtful slumber: but. unpleasant dreams
tormented me. I thought 1 .. a in AntiPgws
on the Clarence plantation, an-d -m i o stood


;
C -: !nZi:






THE ADVENTURES OP A CREOLE.


beside me; that Keen, Leech, and their clerk,
Arnold, were in conversation with my parent.
The old gentleman, methought, upbraided them
with cheating me, when Leech threw an im-
mense ledger at my sire: it missed him, and
knocked me down. As I fell, I thought the
account-book lay on my mouth, so as to prevent
my breathing; while, at the same time, Keen,
aided by his clerk, rolled a hogshead of mus-
eovadoes upon me. In vain I attempted to roll
off the ponderous cask, and remove the heavy
ledger from my mouth. I could not respire,
while a ton-weight lay on my breast. I tried in
vain to shriek; and, at last, did so: until, with
a start, I awoke, and the incubus vanished. I
' found myself lying on my back; the bedclothes
| lodged over my month and nose, so as to
ielpede my respiration.
I could not sleep after this attack of night-
mare, but patiently listened to the information
iltempted to be given by the watchman: he,
Every half-hour, called past o'clock; what
the intermediate word was I could not catch,
lot he' always added, "a cloudy morning:" for
i1r watchmen in London* are paid for waking
|iepe to tell them the hour of the night and
A iafWt tbhe weather.
SThis was in 1816.
... D2





WARNER ARUTIDELL:


SDay at length dawned; and the watchman's
cry gave way to the sweep's wailing call, which
sounded like "Weep, weep To this succeeded
the dustman's annoying bell; then followed the
milkman's call. A hundred voices formed what
is called the Cries of London," mingled like
a Dutch medley, and proclaimed that the busy
metropolis was awake.
I arose, made my hasty toilet, sent the doc-
tor what I owed him, and set out to look for a
place where, according to cockney phraseology,
young men are taken in and done for." After
walking about.for half an hour, I found myself
in the Haymarket; when suddenly, passing Pan-
ton Street, I encountered my old friend, Captain
Trevallion. We warmly saluted each other;
and he asked me. to adjourn with him to. his
lodgings in Jermyn Street. Arrived there, he
inquired about my prospects. I briefly explained
my situation, and shewed him the business-like
.- letter" of Keen and Leech.
Very concise and satisfactory,"- said Trem
vallion; but I wonder, when they advised you
to pay postage of any letter to them, they did not
pay the postage of their letter to you. Well,
Master Arundell, what do you think of doing?"
I have not made up.my mind about that.":
Do you wish to make your fortune? I.
.. .: : ** *:





THE ADVENTURES OF A CREOLE.


suppose you do. I will tell how this can be done
hand over hand. You know what is going on in
South America: the whole continent is in a state
ofwar. An expedition is fitting out to assist the
patriots; amongst the rest, I go, with a recom-
mendation from Don Mendez for the command
of a ship in their service. You ought to know
their country; you have been there, and speak their
gibberish: that is the country for you. Bolivar is
carrying every thing before ihn. In a few months
after our arrival, the republicanswill be in posses-
sion of Peru and Mexico, where gold and silver are
more plentiful than tin and lead in Cornwall."
- "How am I to get there ?" asked I; "I have
not the means of paying my passage."
: '-Take no thought about that. You are a
surgeon-not licensed; but no matter, you are
dhwl to set a broken limb, or, if necessary, to dock
o~a that's all that is required. The Saucy Jack
sails in a- few days from Portsmouth: the agree.
ment with the passengers is, that a doctor shall be
provided for the voyage. You are the man;
you'll get your passage free. Take breakfast
Switch me, and then let us go together to Mr.
W---: he will introduce you to old Don Mean
I who will give you a commission as surgeon
* -:t* Cladumbian service; and as to the owners
tlie SaueyJack, I warrant they'll give you a


i;'K ';. .i~ i
Ala S





WARNUR ARUNDULL:


passage if you will consent to act as doctor during
the voyage."
I took breakfast with Trevallion; during which
repast, he seemed so enthusiastic about his future
prospects in South America, that I entered into
his views ere we swallowed our first cup of tea.
Half an hour's walk brought us to the house
of Mr. W- in a street leading out of Totten-
ham Court Road. I found him the very merchant
at whose house I took refuge during the night
after the earthquake at Caraccas. He did not
recognize me at first, but I made. him recollect
me: he received me with great warmth, heard
Treabllion's account of me, and proposed in-
afstuly to introduce me to Don Mendez. To this
we consented: the don lived close by, and. Iwas
ushered into his presence.
He seemed a little elderly man, with a sallow
complexion and hawk's-eye, which was liver
Enough to have belonged to a man thirty yekir
,younger; his room was crowded with solieitem
for the honour of bearing 'cormmRaions iih tAn
South American service. Hegarnabnsfxtri keti
toes- ch candidate in his turf, and always grant d
ids recommendation of the appMlidt i a corn
mission; which recommendation he addressed t:
the different insurgent chief-: none were rejejteed
I never saw so many heroes in one roomin-






THE ADVENTURES OF A CRBOLE.


cording to their own account. Each had seen the
most extraordinary services, and had been in all
the battles that bad been fought since their birth.
One sallow-looking, middle-aged man, who had
been in the East, and was dismissed the Com-
pany's service because he was too lucky at cards,
said that he, with a single company of sepoys,
had defeated the grand army of Raja Roul
Jo ler Rum Un. I am not sure that I am correct
in the orthography of that potentate's name, never
having seen it written; but that was the way it
was pronounced by Captain Curri, late of the
Erft India Company's service.
SThere were several Frenchmen in the room,
who were not a whit behind the Eniglish candi-
dates for commissions in bravery: not a Johnny
Srappmaof them but had been in all the scenes
d glory which were recorded on the Napoleon
$aniharis Paris. They proposed to eat all the
i Iliiltsd in South America Verily, they looked
k= nsgy enough.
SAll, both English and French, had cultivated
mct warlike whiskers, and some had extensive
sa mntachio. Perhaps, when they modestly pre-
Serded to 6 heroes, they feared that they should
iltrefaced; and hence encouraged the growth
on their countenances: or it might have
i done to conceal their blushes





WARNER ARUNDELL:


Many of them said they had been majors-who,
perhaps, had been serjeant-majors; and one or
two shewed the marks of drunken broils as the
scars of honourable wounds. Old Mendez ap-
peared to believe all, and granted every one the
commission he required, provided he could pay
his passage on board certain vessels. The fact
was, this patriot was league with a set of scoun-
drels, who were speculating on the credulity of
certain persons, by fitting out ships for the purpose
of carrying passengers to South America, making
them pay enormously high for villanous accom-
modation; hence, while the trumpeters of their
own exploits thought they were deceiving Mendez,
they were his dupes: this I afterwards discovered.
At length my time arrived to be presented to
the don. Mr. W- introduced me as an old
friend, a graduate of the University of Caraccas,
and a pupil in surgery and medicine to some oC
the first physicians of London: he added, that I
,was solicitous to obtain the appointment of snam
geon to the South American army, and willing to
offiiate as medical man on board the Saucy Jak.
Finding that, unlike my fellow-candidates for
promotion, I did not blow .my owk trumpet,
Mr. W-- kindly consented.to give a blast or two
of his own in my favour. The don spoke to mai i
in Spanish, and was pleased at finding I rep





THE ADVENTURES OF A CREOLE.


in pure Castilian: he asked under whom I had
studied at Caraccas, and who were my preceptors
in London. Being well satisfied with my an-
swers, he said to W-- in a low voice,-
This young gentleman will do well; he is
superior to the flock that apply for commissions,
although he does not sound his own praise."
He then wrote out my commission, with an
order on the Columbian government for pay, at
the rate of 150 dollars per month, to commence
from that day. He advised me to join the Saucy
Jack the evening of the following day, and he
would acquaint the owners that he had found a
surgeon; he further told me, that all the passen-
gIBr were already on board, and they only would
wait until I arrived. I promised to obey his in-
structions, and took my leave.
I went to Dr. Molesworth's, took a cold fare-
well of him, removed my luggage to Trevallion's
lodgings, and commenced taking leave of a few
friends. My time was too short to allow my
taking out my license as a surgeon: in this, as
well as in all I did since I received the letter of
Keen and Leech, I acted precipitately, and shewed
little knowledge of the world.
In the afternoon, as I was walking along
flee Street, I received a hearty slap on pmy back.
TarAing round to see who gave me this rough





WARNER ARUNDELL


salute, I recognized Mr. Holywell, the late
supercargo of the Tickler.
How are you, with your eye out?" said he.
This was his customary salute, for his lan-
guage was the same he used during our voyage
home. Four years' residence in London made
him appear more stout and rosy about the gills.
During the passage I often saw him naked, taking
a shower-bath, and used to admire his fine mus-
cular frame. He appeared to possess all the traits
of irresistible strength of the Farnese Hercules,
without the heaviness which characterises that
celebrated statue; but now, being dressed in
what he called his swell toggery," with his
enormous crop of cravats, huge bunch of seals,
red waistcoat, frock coat, and ill-cut duffle great
coat, he seemed a Hercules covered with the
skin of a new-slain bear. The people of London
seem to dress for three purposes: for warmth,
decency, and, lastly, to disfigure their forms.
How are you, my trump? You look in
prime twig!" said Holywell.
We in vain tried to enter into conversation.
We were partly hindered by the number of cant
phrases with which Holywell interlined his dis-
course, but principally by the abominable noise
of a thousand vehicles, many of them carts loaded
with iron bars: these prevented, with their noise,






THE ADVENTURES OP A CfREOLE.


our hearing each other. My companion seized me
by the arm, and led me up one of those retired
alleys which lead off from most of the noisy streets
of the city. We entered into one of those quiet,
cleanly, but dark houses of accommodation, some-
thing between a chop-house and a tavern.
Waiter 1" said Holywell.
Sar !" replied a voice; and immediately,
oit of a dark recess in the room, appeared a
smoke-dried-fiaced waiter.
A bottle of blackstrap," said my friend.
D' raeFtly, ear," replied the waiter, vanishing
into darkness, and immediately reappearing, as
if by magic, with a bottle, two glasses, and a
corkscrew. These he placed in a little box, un-
earked the wine, and once more left us. The
wine was superior to that Day and Martin-look-
big amPposition which, I believe, is a mixture of
oleojuise and gin, but which the inhabitants of
Loadon wallow for port, neat as imported!"
We entered into conversation. Holywell in-
formed me that, from having been the managing
clerk, and occasionally the supercrgo of Sucker
said Sons, he for the last three years had been in
mbpse for himself in Wood Street, and that he
Wot doing well. I, on my part, related all that
bhaoeourred tome since we parted, up to the hour
I "' -: k


hi.. ...





66 WARNER ARUNDELL:

of my receiving the letter of Keen and Leech.
He read it, and said,-
They are out-and-out coves, and up to the
time of day: they got you away until they were
able to trump up a Flemish account against your
estates, and then bilked you out of them. But
you don't intend to put up with all this?"
"What can I do '"
Get a license to use your lancet; cross the
herring-pond to St. Kitt's; live by physicking the
darkies; in the meantime, appeal against the
foreclosure of the mortgage, and bring the matter
before the chancery beak."
I have but one objection against following
your advice-I have no money."
It won't take much blunt to do what I re-
commend, and for that I give you tick, and you
may pay me when you are flush of skreens.*
I'll come down with the dust this moment.
Waiter! pen and ink. I'll give you a flimsy
-(check) on Raosom, Moreland, and Co. What
shall it be for? one hundred, or one hundred
and fifty ?- say the word."
The ready way that Holywell offered his assist-
ance astonished me; I never could have supposed

Bank of England notes, Ibeliee.




C)^






THE ADVENTURES OF A CREOLE.


that one who used such vulgar language pos-
sessed so munificent a disposition. After thank-
ing him for his generous offer, I told him that I
could not accept it, explaining that I was under
engagements to Don Mendez.
Cut the old cove, by all means," said Holy-
well, or you'll be spiflicated. He's a knowing
blade. Lord love your West Indian simplicity!
What a cake you are, not to see the rig! He is
playing into the hands of a set of cross ship-
owners, who are fitting out vessels to carry pass-
'engers (spoonies like yourself) across the Dolphin
River. The accommodations on board these craft
are on the cheap-and-nasty plan, and yet the
Sblunt for the passage is shamefully high. A set
of aoves apply to him for commissions, telling the
tld one long yarns about their service ; he seems
*I lobi all their crammers, and grants them
SibSriiwer commissions they ask,-captains, ma-
jespcolonels,-all the same to Mendez, and all
the same to those who get those humbug com-
SMiaiions. They think that they humbug the old
Sodger, and he well knows that they~ar-his gulls.
SMy Lord f Warner, I did not think you were
ijch a Johnny Raw !"
I tried to combat his disparaging ni
Iof Mendez, and did this with greater warn.'
a I suspected that they were true, and


." ..:..4
k: ,.' :,:, ,
N.. i .' ,:!:





WAINEI AtIrDtLL:


that I had been duped. I, however, told hitm
that I paid nothing fbr ny passage, because I
agreed to act as a surgeon on board the Saucy
JaLk.
So far," observed Holywell, a good:
you'll lose nothing, perhaps, except your time,
and will gain what I suspect you want,-tbat`i l,
experience. The patriots and royalits are W
iag like game-cocks: should the Spniarddht
the Americans, you're done up; bat if 1046SL-
publicanea eucek, they'll give you a large tro t
of ground, which will be like that of Teagne,-if
.ituave it for nothing, you can't make yoar owa
aioney of it." :
Sa There yoe ae mitak:a," fal I; ** t"
lbkdin South America i T .,cy ih "
: P So," replied he, "is the bottom-of theo si ..
hat how we are to get the riches out *fPit 4 i :
question that would puale a horse to taN1"fl:
sad he has a longer head the.a. s it i
PArandetl, don't gol" '* :
.I was, however, 6obgdenb .I.. I.
-'*, -, ...r lotg F indig r wt ed .^i ::.t ^
*he send persuatdig Sm *Witi mtuAl tb
Mt .anted any thing'i t~Jifl.i i. ,lh he
euetaMe I repi.il ia eigli 'Ie ...

r... .. A ....f .i... ...em a
a. ,.i ."

j. a g !:"i' .: ,.. : ,,,i .





THE ADVENTURES OF A CREOLE.


who would supply me, to be paid for when I
could. I answered, that I certainly wished for
the instruments of my profession, but could not
afford to buy them; neither would I take credit
for them, because I conceived it dishonourable to
Srun in debt without having any prospect of paying
for them.
After discussing a rump-steak, dressed in the
unrivalled London fashion, we separated with
mutual good wishes, but not until Holywel
asked me where my present lodgings were. We
parted about four o'clock.
The next morning, after I had breakfasted
with Trevallion, the servant of the house brought
ii p large parcel. On opening it, I found it to
contain a complete set of surgical instruments, in
thre qeeps, with my name engraved on each
aie, saPd a letter, written in a disguised hand,
which ated that the instrument were the pre-
.poqfalady,
It was easy to see through, Holywell's gene-
Sros device: I was intimately acquainted with
no lady, and surgical instruments wer-not pre-
aqqts that women would think of making. If I
:.!4 the lightest doubt as to who, with such
S sent me the cases, it was reaovedbp
g, the seal of the letAer. It 4ore tiheis,'
of z na ro supporting a cup, desig*s





WARNER ARUNDELL :


to represent the cup presented to the boxer Crib,
after his defeating an American negro. I had
noticed this impression on one of the large seals
worn by Holywell, and a lady was not likely to
have afac-simile of it.
My first resolution was to return the instru-
ments to my generous friend ; but, on reflection, I
thought it would be ungrateful. I recollected that I
possessed an old-fashioned and valuable gold watch
and appendages, which had belonged to my father,
and which had been in my possession ever since
my childhood: these I proposed to send to Holy-
well. As I looked at the last vestige of my poor
father's property, I shed a tear at the thoughts of
parting with it, and kissed the toy, as though it
possessed feeling. I consoled myself with the
reflection, that, if my sire's spirit hovered about
me, he would not be displeased at my sacrificing
this relic to satisfy a proud sense of honour.
Pardon me, dearest parent," apostrophised I;-
.- pardon your "orphan son, for parting with this,
your last relic: but my motives for so doing are
such as you, were you beside me, would approve.
Your mournful prophecy, made during my in-
fancy, is being fulfilled; but, though indigent, I
will never be despicable: oppression and mis-
fortune may weigh heavy on me, but they shall
never bow me down to dishonour or beggary."




...






THE ADVENTURES OF A CREOLE.


I wrote a letter to my friend, in which I took
no notice of the instruments, but requested him
to keep the watch until I should return; and, if
he never should see me more, to retain it for the
sake of our old friendship. I packed the watch
in a small case, directed it to Holywell, and or-
dered the landlord of the house to send it the
next day: this he promised to do, and kept his
word. That evening, with five pounds in my
pocket, I took my leave of London, and, accom-
panied by Trevallion, seated myself on the top of
the Portsmouth stage, to join the Saucy Jack.
As day dawned, the coach descended Postdown
Hill, and, after taking breakfast at the Blue Posts,
I went on board the Saucy Jack. The captain
aid he was glad to see Trevallion'and myself, as
we were the only passengers he had to wait for.
In the afternoon the pilot came on board, and,
th a light breeze, we worked out of Portsmouth
habour.


:"
iLii ": ~
*:.r;g.*: -;;;;.1
i:i.: ...
;?ii:

~;iii~i~:':;~i~?;lI ; !i:i
;;+;
.


... N .o.





WARNER ASUNDiLL:


CHAPTER IV.

While I have time and space,
Before I further in my tale do pas,
It seemeth me accordant unto reason,
To tell unto you al the condition
Of each ofAhem. d it Mia a
And who they wand4 what degree." S 5

A JAN
on the ves -t iu nd i a
And 1 OrM nrde in Biwssy aulg eeaiM lhy. .
f L BX. 4t QR

IT .wy evening before i'fairly got intQ ,t
British Channel. During the night we ,V aq
e coast of Devon, with a light but f vable
wind; the next morning ortorwras;
and the third day of our Iasge, the lam~ of
Albion anished from our view.
t It is igh time that I should say something
the vessel I sailed in, and the captain and pass-
piagers I sailed with. The first had been adver-
tised as the celebrated fhat-ailing American
.. .. i iA t

.;r.. .,
.: :. .. f. l ..





THE ADVENTURES OP A CREOLE,


schooner, Saucy Jack," which had been captured
during the late war, and had been fitted up with
superior accommodations for passengers to South
America: but, instead of being, as pretended, a
Baltimore clipper, she was built in the north of
England, and was as mere a tub at sailing as
ever fell behind a convoy. The accommodations'
were most incommodious, and the provisions
abundant, but execrable. She was about 100
tons burden; had on toard skipper, mate,
five seapen, two stewards, and a qook; and
Sied thiriy-seven regular passengers, besides
t females,-one the wife of the captain, and
il qher that of the cook.
,j'will describe the captain, and some "of my
l -Lpapseigers, as I did on a former occasion.
therewas Captain Canter. Never was a
matter named; fqr he was a hypocrite and a
..hM~ th the fear of the Lord for ever in his
| lti'r4 tiid the lowest scoundrelism in his hAart:
Ib wviai have been atrocious, but wanted ford
ofeharacter. He said he had been a master in the
navy: I hope, for the honour of thearvice, that-
this was not the case.
i.hBe had a wife, not altogether deficient in .
atl anetios; but she had a mouth-, '..
teauHath a used to be painted on a sitW.i': *
laii eha Bull learned French, when '



^(pW..". ..' :,.





WARNER ABUNDBLL:


Boulogne Mouth was represented by a bull, and a
human, or rather inhuman, mouth. As this poor
woman was not destitute of modesty, she confined
herself to her cabin, where her situation was most
pitiable; the other female was the cook's wife,
from the lowest order of Gosport.
The passengers were divided into two classes-
those who were going to South America to enter
the navy, and those who intended to join the
army. I shall give the naval gentlemen the pre,
cedence.
Firstly, there was Lieutenant Jenkins. .He was,
as.he used to describe himself, all as one asa
piece of the ship." His father was a purser.; e 1
.. had been born on shipboard, and had passed so
J ..much of his time afloat, that he was ignorant 41
the ways of the world to an incredibWle Ag '
Sever the expression of a man's having sailed round
the world without going to it, was.applielable p
any one, it was to Lieutenant JenhA Ian: iq
Ssaw a landsman, who had not. i~iAheRlw
completely unacquainted .withkEt hns-m nidIW
ferent parts of the ship, ias aenkiwe tct t&.
different parts of a hpase ,. : :
Jenkins's persona, appeatiS wa renaM 4
able. He was six feet three j Oae n height, t
his limb: Were out of l e proportim on e i..
benqce when he sat donnw im the extrMa *9



'. --.........". .AfK... ...v .....:. ..
-a..i.
:. .....> :.. :..';; .. ; :: :. : .. .. .




Full Text

PAGE 1

ifori >n
PAGE 2

"^RQAINIHtf^

PAGE 8

LONDON: PRINTKD BY JAMBS MOYBS, CASTLB STREET, LEICESTER SQUARE.

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WARNER ARUNDELL THE ADVENTURES OF A CREOLE. BY E. L. JOSEPH, OF TRINIDAD. IN THREE VOLUMES. VOL. II. LONDON SAUNDERS AND OTLEY, CONDUIT STREET. M.DCCC.XXXVIII.

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Stack Annex 501/?0 TO THE RIGHT HONORABLE LORD BARON GLENELG, HER MAJESTY'S PRINCIPAL SECRETARY OF STATE FOR THE COLONIES. MY LORD, SHOULD your Lordship condescend to honor these Volumes with a perusal,their Author flatters himself they will direct your attention to many abuses in our West Indian Colonial System, which call loudly for correction. The hope of bringing some of them under your notice, has induced me to take the liberty of inscribing this Work to your Lordship. I have the honor to be, MY LORD, Your Lordship's humble Servant, EDWARD L. JOSEPH. PORT OF SPAIN, TRINIDAD,

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INTRODUCTION. PREVIOUSLY to submitting the following narrative to the reader, it is necessary to inform him that it is taken from a very voluminous manuscript, which partakes of the mixed nature of memoirs, a journal, an autobiography, and a collection of letters and essays. These bore, in their title-page, the following inscription : The Life, Adventures, and Opinions, of Warner Arundell, Esquire." The Editor of these volumes thinks it his duty to inform the Public under what circumstances he came into possession of these papers of Mr. Arundell. In giving this information, he prefers speaking of himself in the first person singular, rather

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Vlll INTRODUCTION. than assuming the right of Editors and Kings, viz. to talk of themselves in the plural number. Amongst a thousand and one literary projects which I had formed, one was to write a history of the war of the independence of Columbia, Mexico, Peru, Chili, and Buenos Ayres. When I designed this Work, I considered more what ought to be done than what I was able to accomplish. The paucity of materials for compiling a good account of this most momentous occurrence, renders it necessary for him who would undertake to become the historian of this important revolution, to visit all the principal cities on the great South American continent ; in order to inspect such few scattered records as were preserved during this most sanguinary civil war, and to consult with all the surviving chiefs who figured in the contest, whether living in the New World or in Europe. To do this required leisure

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INTRODUCTION. IX and a fortune, neither of which I possessed. Hence, I was obliged to abandon my project certainly for the present, probably for ever. During my various and generally fruitless attempts to obtain materials for my projected history, a friend suggested that, as Mr. Warner Arundell had spent some years on the Main, during a most interesting period of the wars of Columbia, he might be able to give me some information on the subject ; especially as it was known that Mr. Arundell had of late commenced journalising. My acquaintance with the Gentleman who is the hero of these volumes, commenced twenty years since. I first met him in London, in the house of Don Louis Mendez. After this, I became his companion during a remarkable voyage across the Atlantic, recorded in the second volume of this Work. We separated on our

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X INTRODUCTION. arrival in Trinidad, and did not meet again for some years : subsequently we both were residents of this colony ; but, living far from each other, we seldom met. During this residence of Mr. Arundell in Trinidad, he was the subject of a most disgraceful persecution. He left the island, but returned in a few months, possessed of a very large fortune, and here married a most amiable and lovely Spanish Creole. But, notwithstanding our old acquaintance, I applied to him for the information I required with some reluctance ; for, although I was one of those who refused to join in the frantic and disgraceful hue-andcry against him, yet fortune had placed us in very different situations. He was in the possession of great wealth ; I, after many years' residence here, was in an humble situation. But I still took the resolution of waiting on him. I sent my name to him : he came to me. The instant I beheld him,

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INTRODUCTION. XI I perceived I had wronged him by my diffidence. He did not receive me as some rich men meet an old acquaintance, who has been subject to harsh treatment from fortune. No ; he took my hand as that of an old friend, who had dared to defend him when he was assailed by calumny. In Mr. Warner Arundell I perceived a man who had been proud in adversity, unbending when suffering under persecution, but affable and amiable in prosperity ; one who endeavoured to forget injuries, and sincerely forgave insults, although he possessed the memory of the heart," as gratitude has been beautifully denominated. On making him acquainted with the cause of my visit, he immediately offered to put me in possession of that part of his journal which related to his adventures in the patriot camp : and he informed me, that, by looking through his papers, amongst a load of dross I might find some ore, from

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Xll INTRODUCTION. which useful metal might be extracted. He, however, added, I fear you will not have the phlegm to inspect all my papers." Never doubt that," was my reply ; I have had perseverance to read through the whole of Abbe Raynal's historical romance." That," said my friend, was rather a trial on your credulity than on your patience : my voluminous manuscripts will put your application to a much severer test." On my persisting to request that he would allow me to read his manuscripts, he took from a chest a mass of papers of truly alarming bulk and weight. They consisted of thirteen hundred and seventyeight sheets of foolscap, closely written ; to compile which, he had employed the leisure time of some years. Lest the reader should wonder what

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INTRODUCTION. Xlll there was in the life of this worthy Gentleman that required so much time and paper to record its incidents and reflections, I must explain, that he possessed a most powerful memory. Every thing he had heard, seen, read, or thought, he seemed to recollect, when compiling his voluminous manuscripts. For example, he opens his journal with an account of the first settlement of his family in the West Indies. This induces him to give a history of the Bucaniers, and an immense number of anecdotes of all the old families in the West Indies ; with a vast variety of traditional stories, which relate to the Arundells, and the descendants of Sir Thomas Warner, the first English governor of St. Christopher's, who was his maternal ancestor. In short, the part of the narrative which I have abridged into the first short chapter of the first volume, ta^es up so much space in his manuscripts, that, if it were printed

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XIV INTRODUCTION. verbatim, it would be equal in length to the whole of that volume. In the progress of his Work he gives the whole history of the two Maroon wars in Jamaica; an account of the rise, progress, and termination of the wars in the West Indies consequent on the French revolution : he carefully transcribes every letter that he ever received or wrote, and all remarkable conversations that he ever heard : he gives Jiis thoughts on a vast variety of subjects, and relieves the narrative with all kinds of essays on various matters which came within the scope of his observation ; such as, on the mode of education in Caraccas ; on militia training ; on naval and military affairs ; on medical education in London ; on the practice of physic in the West Indies, &c. In short, his voluminous journal embraces a number of treatises, which, however unfit they may be to publish in" an autobiography, I may one day print,

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INTRODUCTION. XV under the title of the Arundell Papers ;' as this Gentleman has given up his Work to me for my own advantage. But I anticipate. I kept the papers of Mr. Arundell until I abandoned all idea of writing my projected history. I then returned them. At the same time I informed the worthy autobiographer, that, if he would take the trouble of extracting from his MSS. that which might not be improperly denominated the personal narrative, it would form a moral, and, I believed, a not uninteresting production. Have you," said he, any inclination to make the abridgement yourself? it will be an easier task than to write history, and, during the present age of light reading, a more direct road to fame." I at first declined this proposition, saying that he might get others to do more justice to his papers. To this he replied, that I was the only person he had met with in the

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XVI INTRODUCTION. colonies who shewed a disposition to pursue literature as a profession ; and that, if he sent his manuscript to England, its bulk would frighten any Publisher or Editor. Perhaps a few scattered essays might find their way into the periodicals of the day, or a few stories would be trimmed and dressed up by literary caterers for the monthly appetites of readers of magazines ; these same purveyors being so utterly ignorant of West India manners, feeling, and even climate, that the most egregious blunders would bs introduced into every paragraph. In short, Mr. Arundell prevailed on me to undertake the task which I had suggested to him. I really believe that his motive for urging me to become the Editor of his production was, that he hoped its publication would be productive of profit to me. This, with a delicacy of feeling which has always characterised him, he never mentioned.

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INTRODUCTION. XV11 One condition alone he attached to the leave he gave me to publish a part of his journal : it was, that whenever I wrote of living persons, or of those recently dead, I should, instead of real, use fictitious names or initials. The above statement will account, if not apologise, for many defects in this production. When the reader observes some parts of these volumes too much abridged, and others too much extended, he will please to take into consideration the difficulty one has to encounter who attempts to condense into three small volumes the substance of a manuscript closely written on more than three reams of foolscap. Amongst the many errors in this Work, I throw myself on the mercy of the reader for one class in particular. Mr. Arundell's papers are full of those peculiarities of language which may not improperly be called creolisms.' My wish has been to expunge

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XV111 INTRODUCTION. these, and substitute English words ; or, if the story required the creole words to be retained, I have endeavoured to explain them, either in the text or by notes. But, having myself resided for nearly twenty years in the colonies, it is very probable that I have unwittingly copied into these volumes many expressions which will be scarcely understood on the other side of the Atlantic, without having given the necessary information. For this I entreat the indulgence of the liberal. It is difficult to live many years in a country without contracting some of the peculiarities of its dialect or idiom. I have now a few words to address, not to the English Public in general, but to my fellow Colonists in particular. Not having used the real name of a single person now alive in these islands, should any one on this side of the Atlantic perceive, amongst the numerous pen-and-ink sketches con-

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INTRODUCTION. XIX tained in this Work, any delineation which should strike him as having an ugly resemblance to himself, let him not make me accountable for caricaturing him. All I have done has been to select a few out of many of Mr. Arundell's sketches, reduce them to a moderate size, erase the names they bore, substitute other appellations, and fit them for their frames. After this declaration, I hope no one will give himself the unnecessary trouble of calling on me for satisfaction for any remarks contained in the following pages : for, although I was once silly enough to make a voyage to Lospatos, to give a young Gentleman, as the term goes, satisfaction, that is to say, to stand up while he twice fired at me, I have, thank Hea* A small island, situated in the Gulf of Paria, between Trinidad and the Main, uhere duels used frequently to take place. See the 7th chapter of the second volume of this Work.

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XX INTRODUCTION. ven, lived to see the folly and wickedness of fighting duels to satisfy the caprice of any one. I have now reached the age of forty ; a time of life when a man's fighting days, as well as his dancing days, ought to be over unless he be a soldier or a dancing-master.

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WARNER ARUNDELL: THE ADVENTURES OF A CREOLE. CHAPTER I. England, with all thy faults, I love thee still." COWPEB. THE whole of the passengers of the Tickler remained two days in Falmouth, to recruit after our voyage, as well as to see the few lions of the place, and to visit the surrounding country. The greatest sights of Cornwall lie below its surface ; but, being neither a geologist nor mineralogist, the tin and lead mines were beneath my notice. We hired two post-chaises, in which we went to London. I found myself, during my journey, in a new world : the climate ; the lofty houses, with glass windows, and chimneys ; the immense VOL. II. B

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2 WARNER ARUNDELL : population ; the total absence of black, coloured, and Indian people; the rosy looks of the women, so different from the languid and lily complexions of my fair countrywomen ; the ruddy appearance of the children; the masculine, and often corpulent, figures of the gentlemen ; the clownish aspect of the country people, with their srnockfrocks, worsted stockings, and ponderous laceboots ; the immense size and fatness of the horned cattle ; the noble figures of the horses ; the sheep, clad in thick woolly coats, so different from the light hairy jackets in which Nature has arrayed the sheep of the Caribbean Islands ; the endless variety of the costume of all the people I met, so different from the eternal white jackets and trousers of the Antilles ; the dissimilarity of the feathered tribe ; the absence of the palms of a tropical climate, and the total difference of all vegetable nature for not a tree, shrub, fruit, legume, leaf, flower, nor even blade of grass, was exactly like aught I ever before beheld, all, all I saw made me feel as though I was transported into another planet. True, I had seen most objects I looked on, delineated in wretched pictures ; but these gave me about as good an idea of what I was a spectator of, as the miserable images we see on China cups give us of the Celestial Empire : for, excepting a few portraits,

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THE ADVENTURES OF A CREOLE. 3 I scarcely saw a good painting in the West Indies. The only pictures popular in the Antilles, are those of the King of Spain in profile, delineated on an ounce of gold or silver, commonly called doubloons and dollars. The first part of our journey lay through the sterile looking hills and plains of Cornwall ; afterwards, the appearance of the country ameliorated. Towns, villages, farms, and cottages, sprang up before my eyes in endless variety. True it is, that, in England, I looked in vain for the noble mountains and deep valleys of the West Indies, or the more stupendous scenery of South America ; but, instead, I viewed a country rendered pre-eminently beautiful by cultivation, where every hut and rustic gate seemed to me to be placed to increase the picturesque effect of the landscape. Cowper has said, that God made the country, but man made the town." After my long residence in Caraccas, I did not think the poet's opinion was correct with regard to England ; for, wherever I looked at the country through which I passed, I beheld the natural beauty altered by the art of man. He who is wishful of beholding the works of the Creator in all their solemn magnificence, should visit the mountains and savannahs of Columbia.

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4 WARNER ARUNDELL t When we stopped at an inn to refresh, or lodge for the night, the extreme neatness and comfort of all that could render our stay agreeable, were, to me, remarkable. The civility of the host and hostess, the activity and intelligence of the servants, delighted me : this at once shewed that I was in a land of freedom, where the exciting hope of gain stimulates men and women to exertion ten times more arduous than the fear of the scourge of slavery. In the West Indies there are not many inns and taverns, and fewer good ones : there, as well as in private houses, the black and brown domestics move about as little as they can help. Every trifling office you want a West Indian servant to perform, must be repeatedly, and often peremptorily ordered, before it is done if it ever be done : here, the waiters, and well-called servants of all-work, seemed to anticipate your wants, and, before you can ask for a thing, it is at your command. In the West Indies, a servant drawls about the house as though locomotion is painful to him ; while the English domestic talks, acts, and runs, as though he were doing it for a wager against time. The free servant of Great Britain works five times as hard as the slave of the West Indies ; for the energies of the latter are weighed down by bondage. I am aware some will say that the

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THE ADVENTURES OF A CREOLE. 5 indolence of the slave is caused by the climate ; yet, how is the following fact to be accounted for viz. at a negro ball, the sable dancers use thrice as much exertion, and continue thrice as long, as any set of dancers in England? Notwithstanding the oppressive heat of the climate, a negro sportsman, when engaged in a pedestrian hunt in Trinidad, uses violent efforts from which an English fox-hunter would shrink. The fact is, our bondsman, unless it is for himself, works like a slave that is to say, most indolently: when he diverts himself, he feels, for the moment, that he is free. By looking at the very slave's walk, one acquainted with them knows if they are walking on their master's business, or their own. As the post-chaise drew near the capital, I was confused at meeting an immense crowd of vehicles of all descriptions, from the light tandem, with its slender bloods, to the ponderous waggon, with its long train of burly cattle; from the splendid carriage of the nobleman, to the high-piled cart of the farmer. As we entered the town, I was absolutely rendered giddy by the opulence and grandeur of the shops, the thronging of the population, and the deafening noise ; while the smoky atmosphere, unlike aught I ever before beheld, weighed down my spirits.

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D WARNER ARUNDELL : On entering London, I took leave of all my fellow-passengers with mutual good wishes, save Dr. Grey. He invited me to remain with him a few days at the Tavistock Hotel, Covent Garden, until, by the advice of himself, and such friends as my letters of introduction could procure me, I should resolve where to fix my residence during the time I was obtaining my medical education. The doctor had not been in London two days before he met with an old fellow-student and correspondent, named Molesworth, who was in extensive practice as a physician in the west end of the town. He had been the preceptor to several medical students from the West Indies, and, many years since, knew my father. After introducing me to him, Dr. Grey proposed to place me under the tutelage of his old fellowstudent; to which Dr. Molesworth made no objection. We agreed that I should become a resident in the doctor's house during the prosecution of my studies ; and I arranged to pay him 150/. per annum for my board and lodging. He promised to assist me in my studies, to take me with him occasionally when he visited his patients, and allow me the use of his valuable medical library. The next day I removed from the Tavistock Hotel to the doctor's house in Bedford Square : I

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THE ADVENTURES OF A CREOLE. sent to the West India Docks and obtained my luggage, and found myself comfortably located with Dr. Molesworth, an excellent physician, but an avaricious man. After this, Dr. Grey set out to all the medical springs and baths in England, to clear his inward and outward man from the accumulated maladies obtained during thirty years' residence between the tropics, a usual practice with old retired West Indians. At Cheltenham, the doctor fell in love with, and married, one of the waternymphs of the place: she had long been looking for a suitable match. The lady verified the old proverb about the gray mare," &c. This was not to be wondered at : at the time when the doctor wanted an old nurse he married a young wife. A year after his marriage he died, and she inherited his hard-accumulated property : three months after, the lady married Ensign O'Donnehoo, of some marching regiment. As few or no West Indians have ever given an account of England, I will, for the information of such of my fellow-colonists as have never crossed the Atlantic, subjoin my recollection of the impressions which England in general, and London in particular, made on me. I wish not to alarm my Creole readers by heading the following desultory paragraphs, The Domestic

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8 WARNER ARUNDELL : Manners of the English ; I would rather they should consider it as A CREOLE'S NOTIONS OF HOME.' Amongst the first things which struck me in England, was the brief speech and rapid pronunciation of all orders of people, save those who are, or affect to be, taught the haut-ton. It would not please the Bond Street loungers, or the dancers at Almack's, to be told that, when they lengthen their words, and speak in that drawling tone which is, or at least was, fashionable when I was in London, they merely imitate the lower orders of people in the Caribbean Islands ; yet such is the fact. Let two Creoles, of the humbler classes of society, meet in the West Indies, and something like the following dialogue ensues. Each word is lengthened as though the parties spoke by musical notes, and each syllable were a breve. How you do, my body?" Pretty well, thank you. old fellow ; how yourself?" Well, thank you ; how your family do?" All quite well only Samuel, Daniel, Jonathan, and Jacob, have the fever every night ; but their health is good, for all that."

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THE ADVENTURES OF A CREOLE. 9 Thank you ; but how is your negro boy, that have maV cTestomac ? He is dead, thank you, body." And so they continue the conversation for about twenty minutes. But in London, two persons of the lower order of society meet : each nods to the other when they are about eight yards off; one says, How do?" the other does not reply, but says, How do you do?" By this time a few rapid steps brings them together (for all in London walk as though they did it for a wager) : one says, Fine weather;" the other replies, Yes ; only a little foggy, rainy, and cold." By this time the parties have passed each other, and each turns his head round, so that his chin rests on his shoulder, to continue the peripatetic discourse ; yet disdaining to lose time by stopping like two vessels passing each other on opposite tacks, and asking their respective longitudes, without heaving to. Any news?" says one; Nothing strange," says the other; Good-bye," calls one; Good-day," replies the other. Both nod like Chinese mandarins ; at the same time, they look one way and walk the other, until each runs against another passenger in the crowded street. Should a West Indian ask his way to Cornhill of a passenger in London, he gets for answer, B2

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10 WARNER ARUNDELL : Turn to your right, and then take the second to your left ; take the third to the left, and follow your nose along Fleet Street, and any fool will shew you the way." This is said so quickly that the informant leaves the stranger to doubt if he ought to turn at first to the right or to the left. But let an Englishman ask his way in the West Indies, and the following dialogue is likely to ensue. Can you tell me the way to Mr. Muscovadoe's estate?" What, sir! don't you know the way to Mr. Muscovadoe's ? No; or I would not ask it." You must really be a stranger." I am a stranger ; but will you please to direct me?" Why, let me see do you know the Dry River?" t Yes, I do." Well, it's not there." After a pause, your guide adds, But you'll cross it, hearee (do you hear) ? and when you get to Cane Garden, you'll strike across the pasture, till you come chock against the fence ; then keep up to windward,* Eastward and westward is called windward and leeward, on account of the trade-winds. Creoles are remarkably fond of maritime phrases.

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THE ADVENTURES OF A CREOLE. 1] till you meet up with the bottom of the valley ; you'll then cross the gully, and, when you get to the cock-pit, any nigger will shew you Mr. Muscovadoe's estate." The fact is, he first ascertains that you are a stranger, and then gives you such directions as none but a native can comprehend. In the West Indies, most persons shew a desire to know how their neighbours get on ; in England, people are too much occupied with their own business to think about that of another. This may be attributed to the small communities in the colonies, and the vast population of the mother country : yet, with all allowance for these, the coldness of Englishmen respecting the concerns of their neighbours struck me as a remarkably general trait. A friend of mine, a retired West Indian, who lived some years at the Hummums, Covent Garden, told me an anecdote, which strongly coincided with my conclusion. It ran thus : Two gentlemen were in the habit, for some years, of dining in adjoining boxes at that tavern. After three years, by dint of rubbing their elbows against each other, they became so intimate as to nod, as they passed to go into their respective boxes. At the end of five years, they used to exchange brief how d'ye do's?" but, although

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12 WARNER ARUNDELL : they, every day for seven years, dined at the same hour next to each other, they were never known to dine together, nor were ever seen to shake hands. How different is this from the continual shaking of hands in the West Indies The following fact I can speak of'from my own knowledge. I once, in company with Dr. Molesworth, visited an old gentleman who lived in Bloomsbury Square : he sent for the doctor to consult him, he being slightly indisposed. The doctor, among other questions, asked how he slept the preceding night. Very badly," was the reply. I was kept awake by a racket in the next house. I don't know the cause of this merry-making of my neighbour ; I never knew the family to have any noisy party at their house before." Now, the fact was this : the old gentleman had lived for thirty years beside his neighbour without being intimate with him or bis family ; and the merry-making which kept him awake was caused by the marriage of his next-door neighbour's only daughter. In the West Indies, I often read of Old English hospitality : I suppose this term meant the hospitality of England in days of old, for the English of the .present time do not seem to understand the meaning of the word. I certainly

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THE ADVENTURES OF A CREOLE. 13 did meet with some hospitality in London, but it was in the apartments of retired West Indians. These were generally located in and about Sloane Street; they generally live in pairs, unless the parties have families. I always knew where to find them by these signs: They generally have a pair of green parrots hanging out of the parlour window, and a monkey chained down the area ; have, the doors and windows carefully lined with list, and a black porter or lackey to open the door. When introduced to them, I found in the room of audience a sideboard, laid out in the West Indian style, with much glass, and little plate ; large glass candle-shades, a huge sangareebowl, with an open bottle or two of madeira for, in general, West Indians do not decant their wine. One or both of the hosts lay swinging in a cotton hammock, from which they scarcely rose to receive their visitors, who were desired to help themselves, or to call for what they wanted. If two persons in the West Indies live on terms of intimacy, the parties never think of giving each other an invitation to dinner, unless the inviter entertains a party, as an invitation would be thought too formal. A friend is expected to drop in at meal-times, and partake of

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14 WARNER ARUNDELL : what is going on ; to announce his intention of taking coffee or soup with his friend, that is to say, coming to breakfast or dinner with him : this he does with as little ceremony as he asks for a pinch of snuff. All this is necessarily different in England : none there thinks of inviting himself to take coffee or soup with any one ; and, as to an invitation, he who visits a friend in England on the strength of one of them, will find the party too formal to be hospitable. One practice at dinner in England I must protest against : an invited guest is not allowed to do as he pleases. I felt this as a great annoyance, after being used to the free-and-easy tables of the Caribbean Islands. At every formal party I was at in London, t was pestered beyond my patience to partake of things which were my aversion, after having satisfied my appetite with viands that I liked. The worst of all this was, that, while the host and his family were persecuting me, in order to make me cram as much into my stomach as though it were a cotton-pack, the parties absolutely conceived they were exercising politeness and hospitality. Nothing astonished me in England more than the frequency of the repasts. In the West Indies two meals in twenty-four hours is all we

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THE ADVENTURES OF A CREOLE. 15 think of; in England they consume four solid repasts per day, and a good supper at night. Notwithstanding our abundance of turtle ; the endless variety and delicacy of fish ; the venisonlike taste of our lean, but delicious mutton ; the abundance and good quality of poultry in the colonies, yet the materiel of the kitchen in England is infinitely superior to that of a West Indian cook-room :" but I think the cookery of the West Indies much superior to that of England. I have dined in houses that sported first-rate French artists, but thought their compounds beyond comparison inferior to those of the black and brown cooks of the West, whose culinary system is a kind of composite order between the solid Doric dishes of the British, and the Corinthian cookery of their Gallic neighbours. The few words employed in business in England is astonishing. In London, two merchants will negociate the sale of a West Indiaman, with her whole cargo, in less time and with fewer words than a storekeeper on our side of the Atlantic would take to sell a demijean of rum. This brevity is so remarkable, that mercantile business is more rapidly transacted in England than in any other country on earth. A merchant in one of the Antilles wrote a most elaborate and lengthy" epistle to a London

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16 WARNER ARTJNDELL : house, and received for answer a letter running thus : SIR, WRITE shorter letters, and draw for your money. Your obedient," &c. When a West Indian wishes to express that any business is set about, he says it is on the carpet; an Englishman says it is on the anvil. The latter certainly uses all his energies to strike while the iron is hot. This brevity in transacting business is carried into English courts of law. When a wigless colonial lawyer is retained, it is expected, whether the cause in which he is engaged will admit of a speech or not, that he will make one, to shew that he merits his fee, to gratify his client, and to amuse the party-coloured auditors who always loiter about a West Indian court of law, who are as fond of hearing suits determined as were the Athenians of old. With the perriwigpated fellows of Westminster Hall the case is different : when nothing need be said, or nothing can be said, the English lawyer wisely holds his tongue. Eloquence in Westminster Hall may be used to support argument, but the judges there

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THE ADVENTURES OF A CREOLE. 17 would frown most awfully on any one who should presume to use oratory for the mere purpose of earning his fee, or of amusing the bystanders. The apparent want of charity in the people of England often shocked me. In the West Indies, it rarely happens that any one complains of hunger; when it does, the wants of the unfortunate are promptly supplied. If application be made to the house of the opulent for succour, the distressed man is sent into the kitchen, or a small table is laid out for him in an out-house ; if the party appealed to be of the humble order of society, he is generally asked into the hall,* and such provision as the house affords is given to him. Often have I witnessed acts of benevolence from persons in the colonies, who have a multitude of sins for their charity to cover. Many a .wretched white man, when attacked at one and the same time by poverty and the yellow fever, has been succoured by poor mulatto women of the most unfortunate and degraded description ; many a houseless white has been nursed into health by those women, or decently buried by them, although the names even of the parties In the West Indies, the hall is the main room of the house ; or, what is called in England, the parlour. In London, the word is generally applied to the vestibule.

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18 WARNER ARUNDELL : in whose behalf their humanity has been exerted were unknown to them. It is remarkable that this has been the common practice of poor mulatto women since the earliest days of colonisation in this part of the world, as we learn from the oldest Spanish historians of these islands. In the Antilles, even the poor slave allows no child of want to solicit in vain, while he has the power of relieving him. Often have I seen sailors who had lost their way up a West India colony, or who had been turned adrift for misconduct often have I seen such feeding out of the calabash of the poor negroes. When white men become incorrigibly bad, and are deserted by all, they skulk about the negro village of a plantation, and are maintained by the slaves. Having witnessed the above general benevolence of the Caribbean Islands, I was frequently shocked in England at beholding the indigent solicit in vain the cold hand of charity. Much of this apparent hardness of heart is, doubtless, owing to the poor-laws, and to the number of impostors which a dense population always possesses, who are ready to abuse and deceive benevolence ; yet, amongst the many fortunes that were wrecked during my too brief sojourn in England, I never heard of one that

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THE ADVENTURES OF A CREOLE. 19 was ruined by charity. I know that political economy condemns the giving of alms and relieving of wants, as injurious to society ; but, thank God I am not a political economist. I more than once witnessed a greasy wellfed magistrate bully and abuse a parcel of houseless wretches, who had violated the vagrant-law ; in other words, had committed the sin of being miserably poor. I felt as pleased with the wellfed reprover of poverty as I suppose an Englishman would feel, on his first arrival in the colonies, at beholding a negro-driver, with his cartwhip, persuading a slave to work faster by means of the argumentum a posteriori. That the English are not wanting in public charity appears by the fact of the existence of an immense number of noble public institutions, in which all kinds of calamities are relieved, and to where the unfortunate of all descriptions can retire. The hospitals of London bear glorious testimony of national benevolence, and, I hope, call down blessings on that province covered with houses." Often, when viewing those magnificent receptacles for the maimed and worn-out defenders of their country at Greenwich and Chelsea, I felt the justness of the observation of a foreigner,

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20 WARNER ARUNDELL : who, alluding to the wretched-looking palace at St. James's, and the splendour of the hospitals for decayed seamen and soldiers, said, that the English lodge their kings in a hospital, and their beggars in palaces. The women in England are, in general, beautiful. The great advantages they possess over the fair of the Antilles is in having countenances more expressive and animated, and complexions more beautifully variegated. Nothing can exceed the transparent skin of the women of England ; and the mingled white and red shewing through it, like the delicate tints of well-painted porcelain appearing through the glaze which art gives it, while the blue veins being visible, render the whole so lovely, that it can be compared to nothing so aptly as the fleecy pods of newopened cotton, wet with the sparkling dews of morning. The complexions of Creole ladies, of unmixed European descent, are fair as lilies ; but the rose is seldom reflected on their countenances. Their lips are well formed, but want the ruby die of fair Englishwomen. Their lack of expression and animation is owing, doubtless, to their sedentary habits and retired manners : that the climate alone cannot account for. This is proved by

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THE ADVENTURES OF A CREOLE. 21 the fact, that no women on earth have more animated and expressive visages than women of colour. The women of the Caribbean Isles do not. in general, carry the folly of tight lacing to the pitch that it is enforced in England ; hence, their tournure is often better, and consumptions less common among them. I know, a waist pinched in like an hour-glass is, in England, thought a beauty ; so is a crippled foot in China, a flattened forehead amongst the Cariabs, and a tattooed face amongst most savages. The Creator made women of the most lovely form : what a mixture of folly and presumption it is to attempt to alter that which came perfect from His hands! The eyes of the fair Creoles are fully as beautiful as those of Englishwomen : the former are languishing and indicative of benevolence ; the latter, animated, lively, and expressive of every emotion of their active minds. The women of England and, from what I have seen, those of France may learn one thing of Creoles : that is, to walk. The French ladies trip as though they walked on sharp pebbles; the English fair marches with the long pace of a light-infantry man ; the Creoles walk gracefully.

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22 WARNER ARUNDELL : From the pictures I had seen of John Bull, 1 was led to believe that all Englishmen had that deformity of the abdomen called a corporation : this is not the case in general ; although I think, if Englishmen were less stout, they would look less clumsy. One of the first things that struck me in viewing the people "at home," was their extraordinary cleanliness. This, in the houses of the great, did not astonish me ; although the extreme neatness of every article of furniture, every domestic utensil, and all the servants, both in and out of livery, enhanced considerably the luxury by which I was surrounded, during a few visits I paid to the great. The very stable of an English gentleman, and the cow-house of an English farmer, shew the peculiar neatness of the people. But what most surprised and gratified me, was the scrupulous regard to cleanliness which the poor evinced. During my medical studies, I visited the indigent sick ; and yet I could have eat off the well-scoured floor, on which lay a flock bed supporting the patient. Often have I observed, with pleasure, a poor woman with four children taking the air, on a Sunday, in the Park : the dresses of the whole were not worth half so much as a single massive gold button, two pair of which a negress com-

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THE ADVENTURES OF A CREOLE. 23 monly wears in her sleeve ; and yet the patched and repatched habiliments were as clean as wedding garments. I was much edified by attending public worship in various churches of the metropolis. The unostentatious devotion of the congregations, and the eloquence of the preachers, gratified me ; but I felt as a drawback the wretched screeching and hissing of Sternhold's creeping lays ;" or the Psalms done into English by Tait and Brady, which the parish-clerks call singing to the praise and glory of God." I would advise some of the churches to send to Antigua for negro Methodists, who would form a much better choir than those they possess. Being a stranger, I, of course, went to see all the stone lions of the town. I am no judge of architecture ; but most of the buildings in London appeared to denote that their erectors bestowed more labour than taste on their works. From this censure I, of course, except Westminster Abbey, Somerset House ; the noble piles of Wren, Inigo Jones, Gibbs ; and the glorious bridges which span the noble Thames. The English display more genius in constructing bridges, docks, arsenals, hospitals, and ships-of-

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24 WARNER ARUNDELL : war, than in raising palaces, public offices, and churches. I shall not attempt to describe my emotion the first time I saw a play in London. True it is, I had witnessed a dramatic representation, or misrepresentation, in the West Indies ; but these were amateur performances. Some of the amateurs possessed abilities ; but ridicule was thrown on the whole attempt by the ladies' characters being acted by young men. Let the reader, if he can, conceive a tall youth of twenty, playing Lady Randolph (' Douglas,' by the by, is a favourite amongst amateurs) The young man will not consent to lose his whiskers : he therefore endeavours to conceal them under the lappets of his cap ; and, ever and anon, as he turns his head, his favourites" peep out. Conceive a person so situated acting the part of Lady Randolph, and, with a full tenor voice, address Anna (represented by a tall, dunning clerk), and saying to the said Anna, I found myself As women wish to be who love their lords." or let the reader suppose he witnesses the exhibition of Otway's Orphan,' the part of the tender Monimia enacted by a short, squat lad, with a woolly head, a mask of paint over his dark face,

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THE ADVENTURES OF A CREOLE. 25 and a pair of large ear-rings suspended by thread from his unbored ears; suppose such a youth, wishing to be pathetic, exclaiming, with the voice of a bull-calf, Why was I born with all my sex's softness ? Let the gentle or simple reader suppose all this, and he will form a faint conception of a West India dramatic exhibition, and have a fainter idea what my feelings were at beholding the supernatural or preternatural Macbeth of Shakespeare, while Kemble and his still more illustrious sister, played the principal characters. Unused as I was to theatrical display, the accuracy of the scenery, the shadowy way in which the witches performed their incantations, and the picturesque appearance of the plaided warriors, delighted me. But when I heard Macbeth deliver the immortal air-drawn dagger soliloquy ; when I saw his daring lady tempting him to blood, like an incarnate fiend ; when I witnessed the confusion of the guilty pair after the murder of their sovereign; and, above all, when I beheld the conscience haunted sleepwalker, endeavouring to wash from her hands the damned spot," I quailed with horror, and yet, at the same time, felt intense delight. This is a VOL. II. C

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26 WARNER ARUNDELL : paradox which I shall not attempt to solve : the pleasure resulting from beholding a sublime tragedy, well acted, has often been attempted to be explained, but without success. I must add, that the after-piece appeared to please the million," better than the masterpiece of Shakespeare, supported by the talent of Siddons and Kemble ; for the latter was sustained by greater performers, viz. a stud of horses. I had read, both in the West Indies and in England, of the open immorality practised in the colonies. The censures, although a little* overdrawn, were true in the main ; but, after perusing them, in the simplicity of my heart I conceived that the morals of England were pure as the unsunned snow of the climate. This error was removed on my entering the saloon of a London theatre. I will venture to say, that the profligacy I there beheld shocked me more than any Englishman was ever shocked by contemplating any scene of libertinism in our part of the world. Creoles in general are well pleased with themselves, and consequently pleased with all around them. If a calamity happen to him, he persuades himself that it was caused by no fault of his, and that another year will amend the misfortune. The next year, in the West Indies, has

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THE ADVENTURES OF A CREOLE. 27 become proverbial ; the next year is to redress all grievances, and to compensate for all losses : but the next year of the Creole, like the tomorrow of the debtor, never arrives. The fact is, hope is the consolation of mankind in general, but it is often the evil genius of the Creole. He passively hopes for the best at the time he should actively prepare for the worst. Such being the failing of my compatriots, I could not but be forcibly struck with the countless number of croakers I met with in England. The Creole aircastle builder is less prudent than the English grumbler, but not a whit less wise. During every war for the last two hundred years, our West India colonies suffered cruelly. Provisions were, at times, so dear in the colonies, that wheaten loaves were often too expensive to be seen on the tables of the most opulent ; and the mass of the people were obliged to live on the crude vegetables of the islands. But the Creoles who suffered such privations consoled each other by saying, the times would change, and that flour would be at two dollars a-barrel next year;" while, at the same time, if an English operative was deprived of the slightest article of consumption, which we in the colonies consider as luxuries, he would be ready to rise in rebellion at the call of the first man of the people"

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28 WARNER ARUNDELL t who should propose to attack the Tower or plunder the Bank. The disposition to grumbling is not confined to the lower orders ; but the pleasure of the welleducated croakers in England consists in pretending to be miserable, and in the amiable endeavour to make others as unhappy as they wish to appear. When I first came to England, the long wars afforded sufficient themes for croaking : when I left it, the well-informed croakers were predicting all sorts of misfortunes, because many persons were using their best endeavours to educate the lower classes of society. They prophesied that national schools would become national evils ; that, as the humble ranks of society became well-informed, they would become discontented ; that all people would cease to obey the laws when all could read them, and a revolution would be the consequence. I regretted to hear this ; because I came from places where the labouring classes are illiterate, and I have beheld the evils resulting from the want of letters among the cultivators of the soil, the hewers of wood and drawers of water. Those who fear that education will cause a revolution, know nothing of history, or treat it as an old almanack. Were the furious outbreakings, during the middle ages in France, which

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THE ADVENTURES OF A CREOLE. 29 were called Jacqueries, caused by the diffusion of useful knowledge ? Were the riots of Wat Tyler and Jack Cade brought about by national schools, or the want of them ? To come nearer our own times was the frenzy of the Parisian mobs, during the Reign of Terror, caused by its members being too well instructed ? No, no ; the rising of the great unwashed" has often been occasioned by want and oppression more often by their ignorance, being misled by artful demagogues : but never did men rise, never will men rise in revolt because the schoolmaster is abroad : rebellion, generally, is the child of ignorance. The insidious harangue of the factious orator is never more dangerous than when addressed to an illiterate mob. That venerable monarch, George III., wished that every one of his subjects had a Bible, and were able to read it : a more benevolent wish was never expressed by any prince ; a wiser saying was never recorded of any king since the days of Solomon. One of the many things which astonished me in England, was the want of geographical information that pervaded all ranks of society. Great Britain rules one-fourth of the globe in all parts of the world ; she possesses colonies ; her merchandise and manufactories supply every mart ;

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30 WARNER ARUNDELL : her ships crowd every sea ; her travellers penetrate every inhabited and uninhabited country : and yet the English, in general, know as much of geography as a mole knows of longitude. The ignorance I complain of was often taken advantage of by the writers on both sides of the controversy, during the long agitation of the question of colonial slavery. Some years since, a book was published, purporting to be a description of the West Indies, which placed Trinidad in the Gulf of Mexico. This geographical blunder, and twenty others equally gross, passed unobserved, although the book was reviewed by most of the principal periodicals of the day. Repeatedly, in the House of Commons, the most finished orators have talked of the Island of Demerara;" and I myself heard a senator of some celebrity say, he hoped to see the day when the negroes in the West Indies would peaceably enjoy their own firesides!" Talk of a people enjoying their firesides in a climate where, in the month of January, the mercury stands at 92 in the shade there is fever in the very thought. I could, if I chose, write a whole volume on the subject of the ridiculous geographical blunders which I heard people in England make. Such are the impressions made on me by

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THE ADVENTURES OF A CREOLE. 31 English society : I describe them with some diffidence, because I know from experience how easily a stranger is led to make erroneous conclusions. I have often laughed at the ridiculous mistakes that tourists have made in the West Indies.

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32 WARNER ARUNDELL : CHAPTER II. Oh woman, in our hours of ease, Uncertain, coy, and hard to please, When pain and anguish wring the hrow, A ministering angel thou." SCOTT. I at last their miseries viewed In that vile garret, which I cannot paint." CRABBE. HAVING taken up much time to relate what I thought in London, it is now time to tell what I did. On the sailing of the first West Indian packet after my arrival, I wrote to my brother Rodney, but received no answer by the return of the packet. Months elapsed, and no reply arrived. I wrote again and again, but no answer came. At length I thought the family slighted me, and I wrote no more. My letters were intercepted : the reader shall be informed, in due time, how this occurred.

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THE ADVENTURES OF A CREOLE. 33 Every quarter I received a brief letter from Messrs. Keen and Leech, enclosing a bill of exchange for 621. 10s. on Messrs. Sucker and Sons, Fenchurch Street, at ninety days' sight, which was duly honoured. I became a pupil of Dr. Molesworth, attending with him whenever he had an extraordinary case, and I could find time. Occasionally I took instructions from his apothecary in the materia medico. I lost no time, but attended Brooks's, Carpue's, and Bell's lectures : I walked the Middlesex Hospital, and became dresser to one of the principal surgeons ; studied chemistry and botany ; read every book on medicine which Dr. Molesworth recommended. My knowledge of Latin and French served me much in this respect. In short, I displayed assiduity to gain a knowledge of my profession as a surgeon ; for the gentlemen of Warwick Lane refuse to grant a diploma to any one who has not washed his hands in the Cam or Isis. However, I cared little about this, because I intended to practise in the West Indies, where the obsolete distinction between physician and surgeon is little attended to : both branches there, as they ought to be every where else, are, practised by the same person. As the progress I made in my medical studies can have little interest to the general reader, I c 2

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34 WARNER ARUNDELL : will pass over them, and merely state, that my application was noticed and praised by all whose lectures I attended. Nothing worth relating occurred until January 1815; when, during one miserable foggy and snowy day, which is peculiarly unpleasant to a native of the torrid zone, I went into a hairdresser's shop in Warwick Street, Golden Square, to get my hair trimmed. The operator and his assistant were both employed ; I was, therefore, obliged to wait until one of them was disengaged. The barber observing, by my blowing my fingers, that I was disagreeably affected by the cold, asked me to go into his back room, where there was a fire. I agreed to this proposition, and went in, took a seat before the grate, and warmed myself, until the hairdresser despatched his customers. On looking round me, I saw on a sidetable a body of the most beautiful hair I ever beheld. It was of a light-brown colour, most elegantly curled, more than six feet in length, and of the most silky texture I ever touched. The man of the shop, having finished with his other customers, came to me. He was a short dapper man, with a deep pock-marked countenance, which looked as though it had been sculptured with a rough chisel out of a cask of tallow : and yet his pale crumpet-looking features

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THE ADVENTURES OF A CREOLE. 35 had the traits of good-nature and intelligence so plainly written on them, that, ungainly as they were, they seemed any thing but disagreeable. Real good-humour can throw a pleasant expression into an ugly visage. You seem, sir, to enjoy the fire; you don't like cold," said he. I replied, that a clear frosty day was tolerable, because I could brace myself with exercise ; but that I hated the foggy weather of his climate. Perceive, sir, you are a foreigner?" Not exactly : I am a West Indian." Bless me, sir you are a West Indian, and yet you are as fair as any Englishman 1 thought you natives of the West Indies were molotoes (mulattoes)." I smiled at the man's mistake ; which, however, is common in England, where most persons conceive mulattoes the pure descendants of whites, rendered dark by being born in a torrid climate. You would prefer, perhaps, that I should cut your hair here, to sitting in the cold shop?" I consented to this suggestion ; and, with that despatch remarkable to the tradesmen of London, he tied a napkin round my neck, and commenced reducing my superfluous hair. You don't have your hair cut too close:

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36 WARNER ARUNDELL I I would advise you against that, for one who possesses so fine a head of flaxen locks." I told him to operate as he chose. There, sir, you shew your good sense : leave the matter to me, and I'll set off your head to the best advantage. A young man's prospects are often influenced by his hairdresser : nothing conduces so much to improve the appearance of a youth, as having his locks skilfully trimmed ; it gives him a prepossessing appearance, which often does him good service. A handsome look, sir, is often more valuable to a young gentleman than half a fortune. Having the head well trimmed on the outside, does a youth sometimes more service than having it well lined with brains. I see, sir, you wince as the cold scissors touch your neck : always know a man from a warm country by that, sir. There, sir, I think that will do. You look admirably, although I say it that should not say it, inasmuch as I contributed to your good looks with my own hands and scissors." I peeped into a small mirror, and expressed myself satisfied, for the man had really performed his operation well and quickly. I gave him a shilling. Here, sir, is your change," said the man of the scissors; and he teridered me sixpence.

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THE ADVENTURES OF A CREOLE. 37 Never mind the change," said I. Bless me! I would not mind it were you a few years older ; but, sir, sixpence is my price, and I could not think of taking more of a youth than I charge a man." Perceiving I still neglected the change, he added, Well, sir, as you choose ; but I'll give you a piece of advice which will, perhaps, be worth more than sixpence. Never offer a tradesman double what he asks, because he pays a compliment to your appearance. Excuse me, sir, ha, ha, ha!" I thanked the man for his advice, which was not bad, considering I paid for it. The loquacious barber perceived I fixed my eyes on the hair I have spoken of: he said, Fine hair, sir : I have been in the trade, man and boy, thirty years, and never saw any article so beautiful. It is the colour of your hair, only half-a-dozen shades darker. It is lovely, and it belonged to as lovely a young woman as ever I saw. She is, like yourself, from foreign parts, because she has a blackamoor woman as her servant. Poor young lady! I gave her, last week, twice as much as it was worth in trade, because she appeared in distress : she took the money with a tear in her eye, which she tried to

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38 WARNER ARUNDELL : conceal. I got anxious to find out who she was, and sent my boy, Bill, a 'cute lad, sir, to follow her : she went to a butcher and a baker, where she bought some provision, which her tawny servant carried. Bill then followed them to a back alley in Swallow Street, where she lives. Bill asked all about her, and found she is the wife of a poor sick officer, and mother of three children. The good creature sold her beautiful hair to satisfy the hunger of her sick husband, and famishing babes God 'bless her! Why, love you, sir, you have a tear in your eye You need not hide it : you should be ashamed of selfish tears, because they are unmanly ; but the tears that are shed for the distress of another do us honour." Will you allow your boy," asked I, ff to shew me where this lady lives?" That I will," replied the worthy trimmer of hair; and the more willingly because I believe your visit will be one of benevolence." He called his boy, and bid him shew me where the distressed family resided. He took him aside ere we left the shop, and I heard him say to the boy in a whisper, Now, Bill, if he offers you any thing, don't accept it, and I'll give you what he wants you to take." I took leave of the kind barber, and followed

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THE ADVENTURES OF A CREOLE. 39 his lad about four hundred yards : he took me up a dark alley. This is the house," said the boy ; you will find the family in the garret." Up I went; but, before I got to the first landing-place, I paused to recollect what I was about. Affected by the story told by the barber, I resolved, in the first impulse of my feelings, to relieve the distress of the family. I possessed the means of doing this, having just returned from the city with my quarter's allowance in my pocket. But, would my visit be well taken? The husband of the lady was an officer in the army, and might resent that as an insult which I meant as an act of kindness. I recollected that the husband was sick, and I resolved to introduce myself as a medical student, and to beg permission to prescribe for the gentleman. Approving of this thought, I ascended, and knocked at the door of the garret. Come in," said a faint voice. I lifted the latch, and a sight struck my eyes which astonished me. Tne garret had no covering but the tiles of the house ; the light was admitted through a single window, a leaden lattice, which held green and knotted panes of glass, some broken, and mended with paper. Through this window was

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40 WARNER ARUNDELL : seen a vast mass of roofs of houses, thickly covered with the discoloured snow of London ; in a small grate lingered the embers of a nearly extinct fire : an ancient table, with two old-fashioned chairs, were the only articles of furniture in the room. Against one of the rafters hung a tarnished and worn uniform of a lieutenant of infantry ; and beside the wall was a letter-holder, full of those vouchers of poverty, pawnbrokers' duplicates. In one corner of the room crouched a mulattoe, with a blanket over her : she seemed to try in vain to keep herself warm. As I entered, she rose, and I at once recognised her to be my old friend, Lucy. On a flock-bed in a corner reposed my fellow -passenger, Rivers, with two children by his side : the three were covered by a military great coat. The father was so worn by misery, that, had I not known Lucy, I should not have recognised him ; beside his bed sat his beautiful wife for beautiful she was, despite her wretchedness. Although famine had thrown his pallid hue over her cheek, she supported an infant in her arms ; her dress bore marks of faded gentility. Grim poverty seemed to pervade the cold room. Massa Warner!" screamed Lucy; and, after a second, the distressed couple both exclaimed, Mr. Arundell!"

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THE ADVENTURES OF A CREOLE. 41 I knelt to embrace my old friend ; after which I exclaimed, looking round me, Good God Captain Rivers and checked myself. I understand you, Mr. Arundell you are shocked at our wretchedness : and, truly, these are not splendid apartments for the lieutenant in his majesty's army the heir-presumptive of a large estate ; nor is this furniture suitable to the rank of the daughter of a colonel. But what brought you here? I thought indigence concealed me from all my acquaintance." I stammered out something, not very coherent, about my coming to visit a person I heard was sick, in order to improve my medical studies. Arundell," said he, grasping my hand, you are a worthy young man; but be advised by me never attempt a falsehood. Nay, I meant no offence. Never attempt dissimulation ; for, practise it as you will, your countenance is too honest for you to become an adept in it. So, Amelia, our young friend, who saved our eldest boy, has paid us a visit to try his hand at doctoring on me : like P. P. the parish clerk, to bleed adventures he not, except on the poor. But, whatever brought you here, I am happy most happy to see you." Mr. Warner could have no other motives in visiting us but those of kindness ; he is, there-

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42 WARNER ARUNDELL : fore, welcome," said the lady, extending her hand ; which I took. Here, Robert ; here is your old acquaintance, who shot Jumbee. Nay, don't cry so ; the gentleman is a friend." But the poor child wept on ; and the other two joined him, despite their mother's attempt to quiet them. Their's was not the mere weeping of infancy ; it was the wailing of famine. Each cry reverberated in the hearts of the father and mother. Most agonising to the ears of the parents are the cries of the children for food, when the latter cannot satisfy the cravings of their offspring! How are you, Lucy?" said I. Pretty miserable, Massa Warner ; hope you are the same." You seem weak, Lucy. I hope you are not sick?" No, massa ; only a little weak and cold. This coun.try cold for true ; and every body heart cold like the country. I have no other sick (sickness) but hunger." That is a disease I can easily remedy. Rise, if you are able, and get something to eat for yourself ; and order some coals up instantly I am perishing with cold." I put a guinea into her hand. She understood my meaning, which was to send her for

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THE ADVENTURES OF A CREOLE. 43 something to satisfy the cravings of the starving family, without offending the lieutenant or his wife. Blessings on your good heart, Massa Warner I just tell missis, God Almighty go send him angel to help us; and him send what is more better than angel him send a kind young man to relieve us, and feed the starving children," said poor Lucy, bursting into tears. I hurried her out of the room, and, on the landing, gave her directions what she should procure for the immediate use of the hapless family. Arundell, this is most kind," said Rivers, grasping my hand with all the strength that sickness left him his felt deadly cold; but I shall never be able to pay you. The poor halfpay of a lieutenant scarcely supports us when I am in health; and now disease has reduced us to this state of misery. For the last week I have been subsisting on my poor Amelia's hair ; and, just before you came in, she talked of selling her teeth to a dentist." I endeavoured to divert the melancholy conversation by inquiring after his malady. This I found to be an inveterate tertian fever. Under pretence of getting some medicine, I stepped out and purchased a bottle of port wine. On my

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44 WARNER ARUNDELL : return, I found that Lucy had been most expeditious : she had procured ready-dressed provisions and fuel. In no place can all these be obtained so readily as in London for money; but without it, a man stands a greater chance of famishing in Fleet Market than on the rock of Sombrero, or in the wilds of South America. The children and Lucy ate so ravenously that I was obliged to interpose. The lieutenant and his lady ate more sparingly. I, however, caused them to partake of a little wine ; and Rivers explained the cause of his present misfortune. Previously to my acquaintance with him, he had been captured by the French, and sent to Cayenne. In the same prison with him was a colonel and his daughter, his present wife, whom he married ; a chaplain of an English regiment, also a prisoner, performing the ceremony. Shortly after this, Cayenne was taken by the English. His father-in-law was sent home, and, subsequently, to Ceylon. Rivers remained in the West Indies, until ordered to England in 1812. On his arrival, his father was mortally offended at his marriage, because he maintained an old grudge against the father of his wife : he would not speak to him. Rivers, having nothing to depend upon but

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THE ADVENTURES OF A CREOLE. 45 his sword and his ensign's commission, joined his regiment in Spain ; his affectionate wife following him ; and her old slave Lucy took service in a West India family. Three years' hard fighting, and two wounds, got him promoted to the rank of a lieutenant. At the peace, in 1814, he was put on half pay. His father now sent for him, and made the following shameful proposal: viz., as he was married in a French prison by a clergyman now dead, without the necessary formalities being observed, the father told him, if he would take advantage of those circumstances, and deny the validity of his marriage, he would give the lieutenant 10,OOOZ., and settle an annuity on the lady. Rivers would not listen for one moment to a proposition so infamous, and upbraided his father in no measured terms. The old man's wrath knew no bounds : he bought up all his son's debts, and caused him to be arrested and thrown into prison. His wife sold all her little trinkets to free her husband ; and even Lucy (who had rejoined them) added her savings. He got out of gaol, but was attacked by a tedious malady. The expenses occasioned by this reduced them to their present misery. I remained with Rivers long after night set in, and then trod my way through the snow, to

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46 WARNER ARUNDELL : my apartments at Dr. Moles worth's. The next day, as I left my residence to visit Rivers, I met the celebrated Dr. Baillie. He had repeatedly seen me with Dr. Molesworth, and was condescending enough to pay me some attention. Have you," said he, ever seen a case of Chorea Sancti Viti ? I replied in the negative. If you have nothing better to do, step into my carriage, and I '11 shew you a most extraordinary case." I told the doctor I had a patient of my own to visit. You a patient said the doctor, goodhuinouredly. What, not being duly qualified, you are going to kill without a license This is downright poaching upon our manor." I am," replied I, acting under peculiar circumstances." I have little time," rejoined the doctor, "to listen to peculiar circumstances, in this cold weather, at the door of my carriage. I am going towards St. James's Square ; if your patient lives in that direction, take a ride with me." I entered the carriage, and begged him to take Swallow Street in his way. This he ordered the coachman to do. Seated in the coach, he asked me about my

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THE ADVENTURES OF A CREOLE. 47 patient. I, as briefly as I could, related how I became acquainted with Rivers, and in what state I found him and his family yesterday. The doctor seemed interested in the story, and asked me how I intended to treat the sick man. I said that I had ordered him to take a dose of antimony, combined with the submuriate of mercury; and that, if the medicine operated well, I intended to administer alternate doses of solution of arsenic and Peruvian bark. Not a bad method of treating a tertian," said the doctor; but will you suffer me to act as your consulting doctor ?" To this humane and condescending proposition of the physician of royalty, I, of course, consented ; and, in a few minutes, we were at the entrance of the alley in which lived the lieutenant : the doctor readily mounted to the garret with me. Rivers was surprised, and seemed rather chagrined, at receiving a visit from Dr. Baillie, whom, however, he did not know ; but the doctor's kind inquiries soon dispelled the cloud from his brow. His displeasure, doubtless, arose from being seen under such indigent circumstances. After inquiring into the patient's symptoms, he gave me directions, in Latin, how I was to treat him ; begged that I would visit him at

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48 WARNER ARUNDELL I his house in the afternoon, and left me with Rivers. After the doctor went, I could not but observe what an air of cheerfulness the trifling sum I had given Lucy had diffused around the miserable garret. Rivers inquired who the kind physician was whom I had brought to see him? I told him, and then went to a neighbouring apothecary, where I got the medicines recommended by the doctor. The lieutenant's disease, which had never been well treated, soon gave way to the remedies recommended by the great Baillie. On visiting the doctor in the evening, he, after inquiring how the lieutenant got on, addressed me thus : Look you, Mr. Arundell, just before I saw you this morning, I visited a hypochondriacal peer one of those who, for ever, The doctor tease To name the nameless, ever new disease.' Vexed at being sent for to treat an imaginary complaint, when I had more patients really sick than I could attend, his lordship perceived rny impatience, and was offended. I left him : he sent his valet after me with a note, which informed me that he would dispense with my future visits; but it enclosed a check on his

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THE ADVENTURES OF A CREOLE. 49 banker for fifty pounds. As I dislike pocketing fees from people who are not sick, I resolved to give the money to some charity. Now, Mr. Arundell, I will thank you to give or send to your poor friend the fifty pounds, without letting him know from whom it comes." I consented to aid the doctor's act of benevolence, and sent the money by a man belonging to Middlesex Infirmary. I enclosed it in a letter, and made a fellow-student write the address, lest Rivers should know my hand-writing. The next day I visited my patient : he challenged me with having sent the money to him. I pledged my honour that the money had never been mine. He asked me if I would declare that I did not know who sent it. I declined answering. He rightly guessed whence it came. He said he would not accept it ; but that he felt himself so much better, that he would receive it as a loan, being convinced that he should be able to repay it in a short time. In a week or two he was so far advanced in convalescence, that he was enabled to employ himself copying drawings for a picture-shop in Rathbone Place. The emoluments he received for his labour were but trifling ; but they helped him to eke out the slender income of a half-pay lieutenant. He removed to a more decent lodgVOL. II. D

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50 WARNER ARUNDELL : ing, whence poverty was banished : he had learnt frugality from misfortune that stern teacher of the use of money. In a few weeks after this, the wholesale human butcher, Buonaparte, having escaped from Elba, set Europe once more in a ferment. Rivers readily joined his regiment, and behaved so well at Waterloo that he was promoted to a company. The last time I heard from him in Europe, he was with the army of occupation in France, where he lived comfortably with his family on the full pay of a captain.

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THE ADVENTURES OF A CREOLE. 51 CHAPTER III. Ah I am but a ball for Fortune's foot To spurn where'er she lists." The Two Citizens. IN 1816 I studied hard, in order to pass examination as a surgeon ; and calculated that my next quarter's allowance would pay all the fees of my license, as well as purchase a small case of instruments. One afternoon I heard the postman's peculiar knock at the door. This was opened by the porter, and 1 heard the man of letters announce, Mr. Warner Arundell, two shillings and two-pence." I sent the money ; and, on looking at the address, I recognised the well-known writing of the head clerk of Keen and Leech. The address was ominous ; having a Mr. before my name, instead of an Esquire after it. It was a single instead of a double letter ; consequently contained no bill of exchange. The contents ran thus : Basseterre, St. Christopher's, SIR, April 1st, 1816. Referring you to London prices current for low quotations of muscovadoes, and at

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52 WARNER ARUNDELL : the same time to accounts current, hereto annexed, exhibiting increased expenses and decreasing crops of your late father's estates ( Arundell and Clarence) in this island and Antigua, we beg leave to advise the foreclosure of our mortgages on the same, so as to save any further loss to our house. Under these circumstances, it will not be in our power to continue the remittance (per your order) of 250/. sterling per annum. We regret that the kind feeling of our senior towards your late respected father's memory should have induced him to advance (per your order) the several sums we have remitted since your departure for England, with which your account now stands debited in our books, and which, together with the old balance, we trust you will speedily liquidate. Hoping to hear satisfactory accounts of you (post-paid or franked), we beg leave to assure you of our readiness to forward your views, whenever you may be pleased to place us in funds. We are, Sir, Your obedient faithful Servants, KEE;N AND LEECH." To MB. WARNER ARUNDELL, LQNDON. (" Per Packet.")

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THE ADVENTURES OF A CREOLE. 53 The news contained in this rascally letter came upon me unexpectedly, and threw a damp upon my spirits. I was not much in debt ; but, on the other side, I had little money. At no period of my life was I a good manager in pecuniary matters ; and all the money my aunt gave, or rather paid me, together with my last quarter's allowance, were nearly expended. While I was reperusing the epistle of Keen and Leech, Dr. Molesworth came in. He asked me what news I had received from the West Indies. I put the letter into his hand. He read it, and said, Sad news this, Mr. Arundell ; more especially at the present, when you most want money. But, at the same time, I cannot help observing how admirably this letter is written. What a business-like style!" D n their style !" said I. "Hush!" said the doctor; "don't swear: it is highly immoral. Learn to take matters philosophically. Young men are apt to be violent. Take pattern by me ; see how cool I am." Truly, doctor, you are as cool as Cooper, amputating a limb, and upbraiding the patient for groaning. But can you please to advise me what 1 had better do in my present difficulty?" Why, in the first place, you are stopping

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54 WARNER ARUNDELL : with me at much expense, when you might live at very trifling cost, at those cheap lodgings kept by persons who, in the phraseology of the bills they stick in their windows, take in young men, and do for them.' I will follow your advice to-morrow morning, as soon as I find any one who will take me in and do for me, if you have no objection." None in the least ; because I expect two pupils from the West Indies, and your chamber will be wanted for the accommodation of one of them. And then let us see what you had better do. Were you licensed as a surgeon, I could get you into an apothecary's shop. Your pay would not be great at first; but, after a time, it would be augmented ; and, if you behave yourself, you might become a partner in the shop." "A partner in an apothecary's shop!" said I, with some disdain ; for 1 had the ridiculous prejudices of Creoles against shopkeepers. "What!" said the doctor; "you think it degrading to turn shopkeeper? We have, in scorn, been called a nation of shopkeepers ; yet he who so denominated us found us too powerful for the nation of cooks and dancingmasters, that for a dozen years had cringed and fawned to his tyranny, and a dozen years before that

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THE ADVENTURES OF A CREOLE. 55 talked of liberating the world. But, as you object going into an apothecary's establishment, would you like to go as surgeon on board a South Sea whaler? I could, I think, get you that appointment." That would be more acceptable, doctor." "Or how would you like to go as surgeon on board a vessel bound to Sidney with convicts ? Or to go," added I, as passenger on board the same vessel at the charge of government, with a letter of recommendation from the Recorder of London, written in a business-like style at the Old Bailey. But, on the whole, I prefer going in a whaler." I'll see about it to-morrow. You can remain with me to-morrow, at all events, and I'll make no charge for the day's expenses. Let me see ; how does our account stand ? You owe me a month's board this day. True it is you are not quite of age ; therefore, in one respect, incapable of contracting debts; but then, you know, I can demand by law from a minor any reasonable expenses for his maintenance." Dr. MolesAvorth," said I, with a little warmth, I often heard you say that you knew my father to be a gentleman in every sense of that noble word : I have lived four years in your

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56 WARNER ARUNDELL : house, and trust you have not found me degenerate." By no means," replied the doctor. Then why talk to me of a legal demand ? I fairly owe you some twelve or thirteen pounds. Gentlemen pay their just debts because they are just, and wait not for the law to oblige them to do an act of common honesty." Heyday! young man; I never before observed you were proud." Because you never before knew me poor." I was getting angry : I had received bad tidings enough to ruffle the temper of most men, and I thought the doctor's selfish remark was ill-timed. Fortunately, the discussion was cut short by the arrival of company. Wine was introduced, of which I partook freely ; but it failed to elevate my spirits. At an earlier hour than usual I retired, taking leave of the doctor with cool politeness. Arrived in my chamber, I looked over the state of my finances, which I found rather above twenty pounds. I went to bed, but not to sleep. After tossing and tumbling for three hours, I fell into a doubtful slumber : but unpleasant dreams tormented me. I thought I was in Antigua, on the Clarence plantation, and my father stood

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THE ADVENTURES OF A CREOLE. 57 beside me ; that Keen, Leech, and their clerk, Arnold, were in conversation with my parent. The old gentleman, methought, upbraided them with cheating me, when Leech threw an immense ledger at my sire: it missed him, and knocked me down. As I fell, I thought the account-book lay on my mouth, so as to prevent my breathing ; while, at the same time, Keen, aided by his clerk, rolled a hogshead of muscovadoes upon me. In vain I attempted to roll off the ponderous cask, and remove the heavy ledger from my mouth. 1 could not respire, while a ton-weight lay on my breast. I tried in vain to shriek ; and, at last, did so : until, with a start, I awoke, and the incubus vanished. I found myself lying on my back ; the bedclothes had lodged over my mouth and nose, so as to impede my respiration. I could not sleep after this attack of nightmare, but patiently listened to the information attempted to be given by the watchman : he, every half-hour, called past o'clock ; what the intermediate word was I could not catch, but he always added, a cloudy morning :" for the watchmen in London* are paid for waking people, to tell them the hour of the night and the state of the weather. This was in 1816. D2

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58 WARNER ARUNDELL : Day at length dawned ; and the watchman's cry gave way to the sweep's wailing call, which sounded like "Weep, weep!" To this succeeded the dustman's annoying bell ; then followed the milkman's call. A hundred voices formed what is called the Cries of London," mingled like a Dutch medley, and proclaimed that the busy metropolis was awake. I arose, made my hasty toilet, sent the doctor what I owed him, and set out to look for a place where, according to cockney phraseology, young men are taken in and done for." After walking about. for half an hour, I found myself in the Haymarket ; when suddenly, passing Panton Street, I encountered my old friend, Captain Trevallion. We warmly saluted each other ; and he asked me to adjourn with him to his lodgings in Jermyn Street. Arrived there, he inquired about my prospects. I briefly explained my situation, and shewed him the business-like letter" of Keen and Leech. Very concise and satisfactory," said Trevallion ; but I wonder, when they advised you to pay postage of any letter to them, they did not pay the postage of their letter to you. Well, Master Arundell, what do you think of doing?" I have not made up my mind about that." Do you wish to make your fortune? I

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THE ADVENTURES OF A CREOLE. 59 suppose you do. I will tell how this can be done hand over hand. You know what is going on in South America : the whole continent is in a state of war. An expedition is fitting out to assist the patriots ; amongst the rest, I go, with a recommendation from Don Mendez for the command of a ship in their service. You ought to know their country ; you have been there, and speak their gibberish : that is the country for you. Bolivar is carrying every thing before him. In a few months after our arrival, the republicans will be in possession of Peru and Mexico, where gold and silver are more plentiful than tin and lead in Cornwall." How am I to get there ?" asked I ; I have not the means of paying my passage." Take no thought about that. You are a surgeon not licensed; but no matter, you are able to set a broken limb, or, if necessary, to dock one : that's all that is required. The Saucy Jack sails in a few days from Portsmouth : the agreement with the passengers is, that a doctor shall be provided for the voyage. You are the man ; you'll get your passage free. Take breakfast with me, and then let us go together to Mr. W : he will introduce you to old Don Mendez, who will give you a commission as surgeon in the Columbian service ; and as to the owners of the Saucy Jack, I warrant they'll give you a

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60 WARNER ARUNDELL: passage if you will consent to act as doctor during the voyage." I took breakfast with Trevallion ; during which repast, he seemed so enthusiastic about his future prospects in South America, that I entered into his views ere we swallowed our first cup of tea. Half an hour's walk brought us to the house of Mr. W in a street leading out of Tottenham Court Road. I found him the very merchant at whose house I took refuge during the night after the earthquake at Caraccas. He did not recognise me at first, but I made him recollect me : he received me with great warmth, heard Trevallion's account of me, and proposed instantly to introduce me to Don Mendez. To this we consented : the don lived close by, and I was ushered into his presence. He seemed a little elderly man, with a sallow complexion and hawk's eye, which was lively enough to have belonged to a man thirty years younger ; his room was crowded with solicitors for the honour of bearing 'commissions in the South American service. He gave a brief audience to each candidate in his turn, and always granted his recommendation of the applicant for a commission ; which recommendation he addressed to the different insurgent chiefs : none were rejected. I never saw so many heroes in one room ac-

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THE ADVENTURES OF A CREOLE. 61 cording to their own account. Each had seen the most extraordinary services, and had been in all the battles that had been fought since their birth. One sallow-looking, middle-aged man, who had been in the East, and was dismissed the Company's service because he was too lucky at cards, said that he, with a single company of sepoys, had defeated the grand army of Raja JKoul Jowler Rum Un. I am not sure that I am correct in the orthography of that potentate's name, never having seen it written ; but that was the way it was pronounced by Captain Curri, late of the East India Company's service. There were several Frenchmen in the room, who were not a whit behind the English candidates for commissions in bravery : not a Johnny Crap|aiu(of them but had been in all the scenes of glory which were recorded on the Napoleon column in Paris. They proposed to eat all the Spaniards in South America Verily, they looked hungry enough. All, both English and French, had cultivated most warlike whiskers, and some had extensive mustachios. Perhaps, when they modestly pretended to be heroes, they feared that they should look barefaced ; and hence encouraged the growth of hair on their countenances : or it might have been done to conceal their blushes.

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62 WARNER ARUNDELL : Many of them said they had been majors who, perhaps, had been serjeant-majors ; and one or two shewed the marks of drunken broils as the scars of honourable wounds. Old Mendez appeared to believe all, and granted every one the commission he required, provided he could pay his passage on board certain vessels. The fact was, this patriot was leagued with a set of scoundrels, who were speculating on the credulity of certain persons, by fitting out ships for the purpose of carrying passengers to South America, making them pay enormously high for villanous accommodation ; hence, while the trumpeters of their own exploits thought they were deceiving Mendez, they were his dupes : this I afterwards discovered. At length my time arrived to be presented to the don. Mr. W introduced me as an old friend, a graduate of the University of Caraccas, and a pupil in surgery and medicine to some of the first physicians of London : he added, that I was solicitous to obtain the appointment of surgeon to the South American army, and willing to officiate as medical man on board the Saucy Jack. Finding that, unlike my fellow-candidates for promotion, I did not blow my own trumpet, Mr. W kindly consented to give a blast or two of his own in my favour. The don spoke to me in Spanish, and was pleased at finding I replied

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THE ADVENTURES OF A CREOLE. 63 in pure Castilian : he asked under whom I had studied at Caraccas, and who were my preceptors in London. Being well satisfied with my answers, he said to W in a low voice, This young gentleman will do well; he is superior to the flock that apply for commissions, although he does not sound his own praise." He then wrote out my commission, with an order on the Columbian government for pay, at the rate of 150 dollars per month, to commence from that day. He advised me to join the Saucy Jack the evening of the following day, and he would acquaint the owners that he had found a surgeon ; he further told me, that all the passengers were already on board, and they only would wait until I arrived. I promised to obey his instructions, and took my leave. I went to Dr. Molesvrorth's, took a cold farewell of him, removed my luggage to Trevallion's lodgings, and commenced taking leave of a few friends. My time was too short to allow my taking out my license as a surgeon : in this, as well as in all I did since I received the letter of Keen and Leech, I acted precipitately, and shewed little knowledge of the world. In the afternoon, as I was walking along Fleet Street, I received a hearty slap on my back. Turning round to see who gave me this rough

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64 WARNER ARUNDELL : salute, I recognised Mr. Holywell, the late supercargo of the Tickler. How are you, with your eye out?" said he. This was his customary salute, for his language was the same he used during our voyage home. Four years' residence in London made him appear more stout and rosy about the gills. During the passage I often saw him naked, taking a shower-bath, and used to admire his fine muscular frame. He appeared to possess all the traits of irresistible strength of the Farnese Hercules, without the heaviness which characterises that celebrated statue ; but now, being dressed in what he called his swell toggery," with his enormous crop of cravats, huge bunch of seals, red waistcoat, frock coat, and ill-cut duffle great coat, he seemed a Hercules covered with the skin of a new-slaiu bear. The people of London seem to dress for three purposes: for warmth, decency, and, lastly, to disfigure their forms. How are you, my trump? You look in prime twig!" said Holywell. We in vain tried to enter into conversation. We were partly hindered by the number of cant phrases with which Holywell interlined his discourse, but principally by the abominable noise of a thousand vehicles, many of them carts loaded with iron bars: these prevented, with their noise,

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THE ADVENTURES OF A CREOLE. 65 our hearing each other. My companion seized me by the arm, and led me up one of those retired alleys which lead off from most of the noisy streets of the city. We entered into one of those quiet, cleanly, but dark houses of accommodation, something between a chop-house and a tavern. Waiter!" said Holy well. Sar /" replied a voice; and immediately, out of a dark recess in the room, appeared a smoke-dried-faced waiter. A bottle of blackstrap," said my friend. D'ractly, sar," replied the waiter, vanishing into darkness, and immediately reappearing, as if by magic, with a bottle, two glasses, and a corkscrew. These he placed in a little box, uncorked the wine, and once more left us. The wine was superior to that Day and Martin-looking composition which, I believe, is a mixture of sloe-juice and gin, but which the inhabitants of London swallow for port, neat as imported!" We entered into conversation. Holywell informed me that, from having been the managing clerk, and occasionally the supercargo of Sucker and Sons, he for the last three years had been in business for himself in Wood Street, and that he was doing well. I, on my part, related all that had occurred to me since we parted, up to the hour

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66 WARNER ARUNDELL : of my receiving the letter of Keen and Leech. He read it, and said, They are out-and-out coves, and up to the time of day : they got you away until they were able to trump up a Flemish account against your estates, and then bilked you out of them. But you don't intend to put up with all this?" What can I do?" Get a license to use your lancet ; cross the herring-pond to St. Kitt's ; live by physicking the darkies ; in the meantime, appeal against the foreclosure of the mortgage? and bring the matter before the chancery beak." I have but one objection against following your advice I have no money." It won't take much blunt to do what I recommend, and for that I give you tick, and you may pay me when you are flush of skreens.* I'll come down with the dust this moment. Waiter pen and ink. I'll give you a flimsy (check) on Ransom, Moreland, and Co. What shall it be for? one hundred, or one hundred and fifty? say the word." The ready way that Holywell offered his assistance astonished me ; I never could have supposed Bank of England notes, I believe.

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THE ADVENTURES OF A CREOLE. 67 that one who used such vulgar language possessed so munificent a disposition. After thanking him for his generous offer, I told him that I could not accept it, explaining that I was under engagements to Don Mendez. Cut the old cove, by all means," said Holywell, or you'll be spiflicated. He's a knowing blade. Lord love your West Indian simplicity What a cake you are, not to see the rig He is playing into the hands of a set of cross shipowners, who are fitting out vessels to carry passengers (spoonies like yourself) across the Dolphin River. The accommodations on board these craft are on the cheap-and-nasty plan, and yet the blunt for the passage is shamefully high. A set of coves apply to him for commissions, telling the old one long yarns about their service ; he seems to swallow all their crammers, and grants them whatever commissions they ask, captains, majors, colonels, all the same to Mendez, and all the same to those who get those humbug commissions. They think that they humbug the old codger, and he well knows that they are his gulls. My Lord Warner, I did not think you were such a Johnny Raw !" I tried to combat his disparaging notions of Mendez, and did this with greater warmth because I suspected that they were true, and

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68 WARNER ARUXDELL : that I had been duped. I, however, told him that I paid nothing for my passage, because I agreed to act as a surgeon on board the Saucy Jack. So far," observed Holywell, so good : you'll lose nothing, perhaps, except your time, and will gain what I suspect you want, that is, experience. The patriots and royalists are fighting like game-cocks : should the Spaniards floor the Americans, you're done up ; but if the republicans succeed, they'll give you a large tract of ground, which will be like that of Teague, if you have it for nothing, you can't make your own money of it." There you are mistaken," said I ; the land in South America is very rich." So," replied he, is the bottom of the sea : but how we are to get the riches out of it, is a question that would puzzle a horse to answer, and he has a longer head than either of us. Arundell, don't go!" I was, however, obstinate, because I suspected I was wrong. Finding I was resolved on going, he ceased persuading me against it, but asked me if I wanted any thing for the voyage to which he could assist me? I replied in the negative. He inquired if I had a set of surgical instruments : if not, he could recommend me to a friend of his

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THE ADVENTURES OF A CREOLE. 69 who would supply me, to be paid for when I could. I answered, that I certainly wished for the instruments of my profession, but could not afford to buy them ; neither would I take credit for them, because I conceived it dishonourable to run in debt without having any prospect of paying for them. After discussing a rump-steak, dressed in the unrivalled London fashion, we separated with mutual good wishes, but not until Holywell asked me where my present lodgings were. We parted about four o'clock. The next morning, after I had breakfasted with Trevallion, the servant of the house brought in a large parcel. On opening it, I found it to contain a complete set of surgical instruments, in three cases, with my name engraved on each case, and a letter, written in a disguised hand, which stated that the instruments were the present of a lady. It was easy to see through Holywell's generous device : I was intimately acquainted with no lady, and surgical instruments were not presents that women would think of making. If I had the slightest doubt as to who, with such despatch, sent me the cases, it was removed by looking at the seal of the letter. It bore the impression of a negro supporting a cup, designed

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70 WARNER ARUNDELL : to represent the cup presented to the boxer Crib, after his defeating an American negro. I had noticed this impression on one of the large seals worn by Holy well, and a lady was not likely to have a fac-simile of it. My first resolution was to return the instruments to my generous friend ; but, on reflection, I thought it would be ungrateful I recollected that I possessed an old-fashioned and valuable gold watch and appendages, which had belonged to my father, and which had been in my possession ever since my childhood : these I proposed to send to Holywell. As I looked at the last vestige of niy poor father's property, I shed a tear at the thoughts of parting with it, and kissed the toy, as though it possessed feeling. I consoled myself with the reflection, that, if my sire's spirit hovered about me, he would not be displeased at my sacrificing this relic to satisfy a proud sense of honour. Pardon me, dearest parent," apostrophised I; pardon your orphan son, for parting with this, your last relic : but my motives for so doing are such as you, were you beside me, would approve. Your mournful prophecy, made during my infancy, is being fulfilled ; but, though indigent, I will never be despicable : oppression and misfortune may weigh heavy on me, but they shall never bow me down to dishonour or beggary."

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THE ADVENTURES OF A CREOLE. 71 I wrote a letter to my friend, in which I took no notice of the instruments, but requested him to keep the watch until I should return ; and, if he never should see me more, to retain it for the sake of our old friendship. I packed the watch in a small case, directed it to Holywell, and ordered the landlord of the house to send it the next day : this he promised to do, and kept his word. That evening, with five pounds in my pocket, I took my leave of London, and, accompanied by Trevallion, seated myself on the top of the Portsmouth stage, to join the Saucy Jack. As day dawned, the coach descended Postdown Hill, and, after taking breakfast at the Blue Posts, I went on board the Saucy Jack. The captain said he was glad to see Trevallion'and myself, as we were the only passengers he had to wait for. In the afternoon the pilot carne on board, and, with a light breeze, we worked out of Portsmouth harbour.

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72 WARNER ARUNDELL CHAPTER IV. While I have time and space, Before I further in my tale do pass, It seemeth me accordant unto reason, To tell unto you all the condition .-. Of each of them. eo it seemad.-to ra,e.; And who they were,' and of what degree." '' _"* :' CHAUCER. f On, on the vessel flies the land is gone, And wi^Hs are rude in Biscay's sleepless bay." : '*> '.<, BYRON. IT wa evening before w^/fairly got into the British. Channel. During the night we passed the coast of Devon, with a light but favourable wind ; the next morning we were off Cornwall ; and the third day of our voyage, the land of Albion hi^ : vanished from our view. It is now high time that I should say something of the vessel I sailed in, and the captain and passengers I sailed with. The first had been advertised as the celebrated fast-sailing American

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THE ADVENTURES OP A CREOLE. 73 schooner, Saucy Jack," which had been captured during the late war, and had been fitted up with superior accommodations for passengers to South America : but, instead of being, as pretended, a Baltimore clipper, she was built in the north of England, and was as mere a tub at sailing as ever fell behind a convoy. The accommodations" were most incommodious, and the provisions abundant, but execrable. She was about 100 tons burden ; had on iifoard*. a skipper, mate, five seamen, two stewards, and a cook ; and carried thirty-seven regular passengers, besides twd females, one the wife of the captain, and the other that of the cook. I will describe the captain, and some "of my fellcrvv-passengers, as I did on a former occasion. Firstly, there was Captain Canter. Never was a man better named ; for he was a hypocrite and a knave, with the fear of the Lord for ever in his mouth, and the lowest scoundrelism in his heart : he would have been atrocious, but wanted force of character. He said he had been a master in the navy : I hope, for the honour of the service, that this was not the case. He had a wife, not altogether deficient in personal attractions; but she had a mouth such a mouth as used to be painted on a signboard, ere John Bull learned French, when the VOL. II. E

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74 WARNER ARUNDELL : Boulogne Mouth was represented by a bull, and a human, or rather inhuman, mouth. As this poor woman was not destitute of modesty, she confined herself to her cabin, where her situation was most pitiable; the other female was the cook's wife, from the lowest order of Gosport. The passengers were divided into two classes those who were going to South America to enter the navy, and those who intended to join the army. I shall give the naval gentlemen the precedence. Firstly, there was Lieutenant Jenkins. ^He was, as he used to describe himself, all as one as a piece of the ship." His father was a purser ; he had been born on shipboard, and had passed so much of his time afloat, that he was ignorant of the ways of the world to an incredible degree. If ever the expression of a man's having sailed round the world without going to it, was applicable to any one, it was to Lieutenant Jenkins. I never saw a landsman, who had not seen the sea, so completely unacquainted with the names of different parts of the ship, as Jenkins was of the different parts of a house. Jenkins's personal appearance was remarkable. He was six feet three inches in height, but his limbs were out of all proportion short ; hence, when he sat down, from the extraordinary

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THE ADVENTURES OF A CREOLE. 75 length of his body, he looked as tall as ordinary men standing. He had a most indescribably comic visage : the countenance of Liston, beside his, would look awfully tragic. He generally smiled, or, to speak more correctly, grinned ; but when he tried to look serious, it seemed an effort against nature, for it -was evident that his heart was almost bursting with mirth. His laugh was droll ; but his attempts at screwing up his features to three sharps, in order to look grave, was enougli to convulse with cachinnation a whole Quakers' meeting. I have spoken of his ignorance of the ways of the world : this I will illustrate by an anecdote. One evening we were talking of the inhabitants of London, when, unexpectedly, Jenkins wedged in his opinion of the people of that capital. He said that the Londoners were the greatest set of cheats alive. Several persons disputing his judgment, Jenkins was called on to explain the cause of his sweeping censure. Because," said Jenkins, '* they took me in." How were they cunning enough to do that?" asked several of us. On which the lieutenant told his story thus. You must know, when I was laying at Yaarmouth (he pronounced the last word ore

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76 WARNER ARUNDELL : rotundo}, I heard two or three fellow -middies say as how in a tragedie they always spoke the best English. Now, you know, I don't speak the best English, be cause why? I've been all my life at sea : and so, said I, how can I hear a tragedie? And so Jack Phillips, our master's-mate, says, says he, You may hear and see a tragedie in Lunnun.' Well, I axed liberty to go up to Lunnun to see a tragedie. I took a quarterdeck passage on board a stage-coach. We bowled along, at the rate of eight knots an hour, until we got to a large house in Lunnun, with a board before the door, that had a picture of a large pig with a long snout and a fort on its back." The Elephant and Castle," said several voices. That's the name of the ship house, I mean. I axed the way to a play-house. They told me to keep before the wind for half a league, and I'd meet with one, beside a stone bridge over the Lunnun river." It was Astley's," said several voices. I dare say it was, "replied Jenkins. Well, I got there. They had lights all round the house, bow, midships, and stern ; and I heard the band sawing away at their fiddles inside. I was going in, when a man, in a little box, called to me, Pay here, sir.' How much,' said I, do

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THE ADVENTURES OF A CREOLE. 77 you ax to let me in ? Four shillings/ said he. Won't you take less ?' said I. We never make any 'bateraent,' says he. But I axed him, suppose I paid him four shillings, whether he would shew me a tragedie? The man in the box looked at me, and, with a purser's grin, said, To be sure, we will shew you a tragedie, or any thing else you like.' Well, I paid him a crown, and would not take the change ; so much did I wish to see a tragedie. In I went. Now, instead of a tragedie, what do you think they shewed me ? What ? asked a dozen persons. A pony-race!" said Jenkins, striking the table with his fist, so as to make all the glasses on it rattle. A'nt I right to call the Lunnuners a set of scoundrels? I paid my money to see a tragedie, and they shewed me a pony-race He was promoted, at the late peace, from long services as a midshipman, to the rank of lieutenant, and put on half-pay. This was humanely done by the Admiralty to many a friendless midshipman, who otherwise would have been turned loose on the world, without the means of subsistence. The second was Lieutenant Jack a handsome, dapper little fellow, who would have been an agreeable companion, but for one monomania. He took it into his head that he could sing with

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78 WARNER ARUKDELL : an ear so accurate, that if he heard Tally high O the grinder, played in slow time, he would guess it to be the Dead March in Saul ; and a voice as agreeable, though not so flexible, as that of a turkey-cock. Lieutenant Jack imagined he could sing. He had an astonishing memory, insomuch that, I believe, he knew every song in the English language, and sung them all to one tune if tune it could be called that tune had none. Not contented with torturing regular songs by his manner of gabbling them, every fine piece of poetry that struck him in Wolfe (the Death of Moore' was his favourite), Byron, Moore, Scott, Campbell, and Coleridge, he committed to memory, to be sung by him. He even used to attempt passages out of Milton's 'L' Allegro,' and II Penseroso,' set to his own music ; and, while he had the atrocity to mangle the most beautiful poetry ever composed, he absolutely held our taste in great contempt, because we did not admire his singing. The third was a Lieutenant Britton a large, raw-boned, hard-featured man; a native of Shields, and what is called in the navy a northcountry Jock. Seldom have I seen a better sailor, and, at the same time, never one less calculated to make a good officer. He was repeatedly turned back, as the term goes, when he wished

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THE ADVENTURES OF A CREOLE. 79 to be passed as a lieutenant ; and was at length promoted on account of many acts of personal bravery in boarding and cutting out. Like Hamilton, Britton was single-speeched : he seldom said more than two or three words at a time, unless when any person or thing provoked him. When the former was the case, he clenched his bony hand, which formed a fist that might have done honour to Front du Boeuf, and address the offender thus : Look you, mate, if you do that again, I won't box you no, I'll only give you one blow, that shall make you smell hell and it shan't be between the eyes neither." Britton used -t^ sleep in a hammock, out of choice ; and, if any one played him the stale trick of cutting down his suspended bed in the night, his roar would awake all of us. He would exclaim, Look you, my hearties, if I lay my grip on the mackerel-faced son of a marine as cut me down, he had better have hold of the moon with his fingers greased I'll not box him no, I'll only give him one blow as shall make him smell hell and I'll not bit him between the eyes, neither." This threat of avenging himself by means of one blow, which was not to be given between the eyes, was used, with little variation, not only

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80 WARNER ARUNDELL : when persons annoyed him, but when things displeased him. If we found any part of the provisions bad (no unusual thing) he'd exclaim, I wish I had the owner of this craft here ; I'd not box him no, I'd give him only one blow," &c. The same threat was issued against the maker or purchaser of every article that displeased him; he menaced to make them smell the sulphureous regions by means of one blow, which was not to fall between the eyes. All on board became anxious to know where Britton intended to aim this mysterious blow ; but, he being a powerful man, no one wished to ascertain it from personal experience : in fact, the mystery of the threat awed all the turbulent spirits on board the Saucy Jack. I, one day, asked him in what part of the body he intended to strike some one he was using his old threat against. Why, doctor," he replied, being, as I believe, the strongest man on board this craft, it would not be fair for me to attack any one ; but I 'd advise no one to mislest (molest) me, or, by I'll not box him, because he couldn't stand against me all I'd do would be to give him one blow no more ; he should smell hell ; but I 'd not hit between the eyes, neither."

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THE ADVENTURES OF A CREOLE. 81 I need not describe Captain Trevallion ; but shall only state, that, when he found out the deception practised on the passengers in passing off the Saucy Jack as a Baltimore clipper, and beheld the shameful want of accommodation and badness of the provisions, he saw into the scoundrelly tricks of old Mendez, and augured badly of the expedition. This preyed on his spirits. Hence, he took to the bottle : after the first ten days of the voyage he was seldom sober. The rest of the naval passengers were midshipmen and masters '-mates, discharged at the peace, and young students who were dismissed the naval college. A wilder set of youths could not be found. Be it recollected they had no one to command them ; every one on board was as good a man as another if he could box as well. The Saucy Jack was a complete floating republic : the captain had no authority. Twice or thrice Canter told them to behave better, for fear of the Lord. He was laughed at. Once he attempted to enforce order, by threatening to put some riotous young men in irons ; but he was frightened from his purpose by being threatened to be cobbed. Before I speak of the military gentlemen, I must state, that we had a person on board, by E2

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82 WARNER ARUNDELL t the name of Price, a lieutenant of marines, who said he intended to take service in either the Columbian army or navy. In one respect, Lieutenant Price had a stronger constitution than most men I have met with : he could eat more and sleep longer than any one I ever saw. When not engaged at one or other of these diversions, he used to amuse himself by practising, on a single-keyed flute, an air which he intended for "God save the King" as he kindly informed us. The first in years and rank of the military gentlemen was Major M'Donald Glenlyon. He had seen much service in various parts of the globe; but his fortune and prospects had been ruined by a love of the bottle. His features, arid especially his eyes, gave indications of his unfortunate propensity. Yet they bore marks of having been handsome. His fine brow, covered with curled, but gray locks, and the whole contour of his physiognomy, shewed the veteran of twenty campaigns, and the toper of six bottles. If the heathen deities existed, Bacchus would have been propitious to the Saucy Jack. We had two German gentlemen on board ; soldiers of fortune that is to say, soldiers without fortune. Both had titles in their own coun-

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THE ADVENTURES OF A CREOLE. 83 try, which they prudently dropped on board the Saucy Jack. When not persecuted by the ruffianly part of the passengers, I used to spend my time teaching these gentlemen Spanish, and taking instructions from them in German. The next I shall notice was one who called himself Dr. Beadle ; a delicate lad, and a warmhearted simpleton. He had been an apothecary's shopman, in Islington, and solicited and obtained the appointment of assistant-surgeon to the Columbian forces at least, Mendez told him so. I will not weary the reader by describing the rest of our motley collection of passengers. Some had been officers in volunteer corps ; some went to join the South American army, to avoid going into the Fleet. Several were sent by their friends to Columbia, in the hope of their getting settled in that republic; and thus saving their families the disgrace of hearing that they had died of a sore throat, occasioned by their being kept in a state of suspense while cooling their heels, for an hour on the stretch, before the debtors' door in Newgate, by the recommendation of the Recorder. One had run away from a scolding wife ; and one because, according to Serjeant Kite, he had disobedient parents. Two or three exceptions must be made to the above censures.

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WARNER ARUNDELL : Amongst those was Mr. a person attached to the belles lettres.* Such, were the men who, early in the struggle between Spain and her colonies, went out to take service with the latter. Their behaviour, during the protracted passage of the Saucy Jack, made me disgusted with my species. In the early part of the voyage, the military part of the passengers were mostly sea-sick. In mere joke, they were treated most inhumanely by the naval people. When the sea-sickness passed, the pipeclay aristocracy, as the soldiers were called, prepared to retaliate ; and a serious fracas was about to take place. This happened near the Bay of Biscay ; when hostilities were suspended by the occurrence of a most tremendous storm, which blew with awful violence for four days. At the commencement of this blow," it fortunately happened that Trevallion was sober ; and the skipper, knowing the superior skill of the Cornishman, gave him temporary charge of the vessel. The event justified the deference paid to Trevallion : we escaped as violent a storm as ever was remembered, with little or no damage. When the weather moderated, a peace was The Editor of tbe present Memoirs.

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THE ADVENTURES OF A CREOLE. 85 effected between the belligerent passengers ; and a set of rules were drawn up for the maintenance of good order. We all signed them ; but they were broken before the subscriptions were well dry. I have already stated, the captain had no command over the ship, and the sailors refused to interfere with the gentlemen : the whole of the passengers used to drop their own disputes to unite against the skipper when he dared to interfere : in fact, we were in a complete state of mutiny. Practical jokes, of the roughest and most dangerous kind, were continually being played off. These brought on fights not duels, but boxing encounters which generally terminated in favour of the naval gentlemen ; because the sailors had their sea legs, and the landsmen were less steady on board of a little vessel like the Saucy Jack, while under weigh. But it was not an uncommon event to see a landsman beaten during rough weather ; and, afterwards, the vanquished would attack the victor in a calm, and beat him in his turn. I escaped these blackguard encounters until we got beyond the latitude of Madeira, when I was one day addressed by a youth of the name of Purcell, a ringleader in most of the horse-play on board. He was a stout-made man, with a

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86 WARNER ARUNDELL : ruddy complexion ; hair the colour of a gravelpit, and extensive whiskers to match. He asked me to lend him a nameless implement out of the medicine-chest, for the purpose of playing off some abominable practical jokes. This I refused to do. He called me a loblolly-boy : I took no notice of the insult. My forbearance imboldened him : he then said I was a coward : this my Creole blood could not brook. As they say in dinner-speeches, Unaccustomed as I was to public" boxing, I rose with considerable reluctance," but with great fury. I had made up my mind to have the first blow at the first one who should force me into an ungentlemanly combat. J did not follow the intention of Britton in not aiming between the eyes ; I precisely struck Purcell in that part of the index of his mind." The blow was given with such force that it made him, to use Britton's elegant phraseology, smell hell." Down he went, and rose again to come to the scratch. His eyes had two black rims round them, which contrasted strongly with his arnotto-coloured eyebrows. He possessed science, but I had superior strength, and fought with a violence he could not resist in so confined a space as below the decks of the Saucy Jack. I fairly beat down his guard by main force : I then adopted Creole tactics ; I caught hold of both his

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THE ADVENTURES OF A CREOLE. 87 flaming whiskers, stooped my head, and beat his visage against it by drawing him towards and pushing him from me alternately, until his features became undistinguishable, being all mixed up together and run into each other, until his human face divine" was, as the Barbadians say, mashed up like a sour-sop."* I did not let him go until he called for quarter. Purcell did not recover the beating for three weeks. This event gained me some respect : I had overcome one of the best boxers on board. As we advanced into warm latitudes, the jokes became more frequent. We had two or three pigs on board ; these the jesters would not allow to be killed, as they aided their bestial frolics. They were continually introduced into the berths of the passengers ; and if the party in whose dormitory the quadruped members of the swinish multitude were placed complained of the nuisance, a dozen buckets of salt water were flung into his berth, over bed and bedding, to cleanse it. No one at night could venture on deck without the certainty of getting a duck for his supper. The mate and crew used to join in these skylarkings." A sour-sop is a soft kind of fruit.

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88 WARNER ARUNDELL: But it was when the naval part of the passengers used to remain up at night to take a lunar observation, that there was, to use their own expressions, the devil to pay, and no pitch hot." For us to get sleep when a lunar was to be taken, was a Lunatic hope. On those occasions, the mirth and fury grew fast and furious. Shark-hooks were affixed into the mattrasses of those who attempted to go to sleep, and just as they were dropping into what Jenkins called the arms of Murphy" (Morpheus), by means of a line and a block or two, the mattrass was dragged from under the dozer, who was thrown out of his berth ; and the next morning a dozen mattrasses were found hanging high up the masts or rigging. Little Beadle, who considered me in the light of a brother chip, had a berth right over mine. We contrived to make our respective mattrasses fast to each other's berths, and so to secure them with small tacks that they could not be easily dragged from under us. The next night a lunar" was to be taken (of the correctness of these lunar observations, 1 shall have occasion to speak anon), but by this time the word lunar had become synonymous with a mad uproar ; insomuch that the two Germans, who knew little of

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THE ADVENTURES OF A CREOLE. 89 English, believed that the words to take a lunar," really meant to get intoxicated for the purpose of committing outrages. On this occasion, a shark-hook was let down into little Beadle's berth ; but, in consequence of our precaution, his mattrass could not be dragged on deck. Down went one of the gentlemen lunarians ; and, not daring to attack me, he slipped a cord over the heel of poor little Beadle, while we were asleep. At a given signal he was inhumanly dragged out of his berth, had his head severely cut during the execution of this shameful plan, and was suspended down the hatchway by the heel, like the infant Achilles being dipped by Thetis into the Styx. I was awoke by the cries of murder. I hastily rose ; and, by the light of the full moon, perceived the poor little apothecary hanging by one leg down the hatchway, his other three limbs and his body wriggling in all directions to relieve himself from his torturing state of suspense. Blood was dropping from his forehead ; and his shirt, from his reversed situation, thrown over his head. Murder! murder!" vociferated Beadle; I am murdered you'll all be hanged if you don't cut me down!" I got the poor man relieved from his un-

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90 WARNER ARUNDELL : pleasant situation, dressed his wounded forehead, and put him to bed. After this I declared aloud, that, whoever was the scoundrel who practised such an atrocious act against so delicate a young man, he was unworthy being called a gentleman; nevertheless, if he possessed the spirit of a man, I hoped he would declare himself, and that I would meet him with pistols as soon as we went ashore. If he did not declare himself, in addition to his being cruel he was cowardly ; and if I, at any time, should discover who he was, I would publicly horsewhip him. This speech produced a buzz of applause from those who were not lunar observers, and much murmuring from those who were : no one, however, seemed inclined to accept my challenge. During the preceding day, the German gentlemen and myself had been practising at a mark with duelling pistols, and my proficiency in the use of those arms astonished all on board ; I having hit a penny-piece fourteen times running, at ten yards' distance, although the schooner was in motion at the time I fired, which I did at the word of command. The apothecary sent for me, and said, I thank you, doctor : you are a genuine gentleman,

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THE ADVENTURES OF A CREOLE. 91 without any adulteration or admixture ; but, please God, I shall find out who the scoundrel is, and then his heart's blood shall pay for this night's frolic." I thought this the mere ebullition of impotent, but excusable rage. I have subsequently found that Beadle expressed his fixed determination : he was delicate and nervous, but not a coward. I told him, however, to compose himself, and not to think of revenge. The next morning I found him much better than I expected, although I saw that he would bear to the grave the scar of the wound he had received on his forehead. Several of the naval passengers declared to me at dinner their determination of taking another lunar observation, as their sextants were adjusted, and the moon was within observing distance. Look you, gentlemen lunar observers," said Major Glenlyon, I give you fair warning that I have arms in my sleeping-place : therefore, if, during your nocturnal rambles, you should pay a visit to my berth, you'll meet your death and there's a pun without intending it. But, seriously, twice within this week has my mattrass been dragged from under me ; and, if this stale trick be again tried to be played off, he who makes the

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92 WARKER ARUNDELL : attempt may expect an ounce of hot lead, or a foot of cold steel, in his breast. I'll drill a hole through the body of the first man who disturbs my rest." Several of the lunarians got together after this, and said they were determined to get the major's mattrass on the top -gallant -mast -head that night. I advised them not to attempt it ; I bade them recollect the major was a veteran, and not at all likely to make an idle threat. They laughed at what I told them. The result proved no laughing matter. Glenlyon prepared to make good his word. Price, the marine officer, was a kind of parasite of the major; they slept in contiguous berths, in a narrow passage opposite the bread-room. The lieutenant offered that night to keep guard over Glenlyon ; the latter took into his berth a loaded pistol, a skean dhu, or Highland dirk, and a bottle of whisky. The first part of the night he was undisturbed. Finding his arms to be useless, he applied his mouth to sip the mountain dew. In a few minutes after tasting his darling beverage, the whole of it was transferred to his stomach ; and, shortly after, his nose gave intimation to the lunar observers that he slept soundly. On this, Britton descended the companion ladder, and made towards his bed, with a shark-hook in his hand.

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THE ADVENTURES OF A CREOLE. 93 Who comes there?" called the vigilant marine officer. Britton stood aside ; on which, Price rose to seize the man who, with a shark-hook, tried to murder sleep. But, like most persons leaving their beds in the dark, he knew not which way to turn; and, groping about, he unfortunately ran the index finger of his left hand into the mouth of the snoring major. This partially awoke the sleeper, who was dreaming of whisky and shark-hooks. Being but half awakened by the finger's entering his mouth, he was confused : he, however, concluded that it must belong to a hand that intended to bowse up his mattrass, and his jaw closed on the finger with such force as to bite it off at the second joint. The major then struck out with his dirk : it passed through the muscles of the upper arm of the unlucky marine, and was stopped by one of his ribs, or the thrust would have been mortal. This was not all. The blood of the Glenlyons was roused : the halfdreaming, but enraged and whisky-inspired veteran fired his pistol in the dark, with a better aim than he used his skean dhu : the ball passed across the breast of Britton, and inflicted an ugly flesh-wound. All this was done between sleeping and waking, drunkenness and sobriety. So much

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94 WARNER ARUNDELL : for taking lunar observations, and bottles of whisky to bed. A bowl and a deep moan from Price were the first sounds we heard of this affair. To these succeeded a brief flash, and the report of a pistol ; and the next moment, we heard an exclamation in the dark, of Oh, I am shot, by If I find out the man who fired at me, I'll give him only one blow, that shall make him smell hell ; and I'll not hit him between the eyes, neither." This was enough to tell us that one of the wounded parties was Britton : lights were called for, and brought. Suspecting what had happened, I hurried to the narrow passage near the bread-room. The first object which met my eye was poor Price, seated on the companion-ladder. He was, indeed, an object; his left hand was minus a finger, and the arm fairly pinned to his rib by the dirk, which was still in his flesh: I hastily drew it out ; he moaned most ludicrously. Against the bread-room stood Lieutenant Britton, with a wound in his breast. The ball had passed right across it, carrying the whole of the wadding. and a piece of the waistcoat, into the flesh, for he was only three feet from the muzzle of the pistol at the time of its discharge : his shirt, when I looked

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THE ADVENTURES OF A CREOLE. 95 at him, was still on fire ; he stood, swearing to finish the man who wounded him, with one blow, which, as a matter of course, was not to be aimed at between the eyes. I caused the lantern to be brought to Glenlyon's berth, whence, I rightly guessed, all the mischief proceeded. What the devil have I in my mouth?" said the now fully awake and sober major. I looked, and beheld it was the missing finger of the poor marine officer, which the major bit off at the commencement of the tragedie, as Jenkins called it. With as much despatch as I could I dressed the wounded men. I was obliged to probe the wound of Britton deeply, in order to get out the wadding and piece of cloth carried into it. I, however, got them to bed ; and, just as I was putting up my instruments, a deputation, consisting of Lieutenants Jenkins and Jack, and about ten other naval passengers, came to me to ask my opinion of the state of the wounded men. I told them I saw no immediate danger from the wounds ; but unpleasant consequences might result from locked -jaw: fever might also be occasioned, by the circumstance of the men being wounded during a transition from

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96 WARNER ARUNDELL : a cold to a warm climate. This indirect danger O might, in some measure, be obviated by their being kept quiet, as any disturbance in the vessel might bring on fatal consequences. This I said in order to get a little peace on board the Saucy Jack. I might as well have preached peace to a hurricane. Lieutenant Jack said, that they wished to know if the parties wounded were likely to do well ; in which case they would not 'peach the major, but they intended to cob him. I protested against such an indignity being put on a veteran who had served his country honourably for twenty-five years. They said they would cob him, despite of me. We will see that," said I, taking out a pair of loaded pistols. The Germans, who only partially understood what was going on, asked me about the matter : I briefly explained it to them. In an instant they drew their sabres, and swore to stand by me in protecting Glenlyon. Poor little Beadle, wounded as he was, left his bed, took a blunderbuss without a lock, and swore to stand by me, whether I was right or wrong. The apothecary did not know the occasion of the quarrel. Others of the military passengers appeared armed : the lunar observers also armed themselves. The captain's wife shrieked in her cabin ; and the

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THE ADVENTURES OF A CREOLE. 97 skipper told us to keep the peace in the name of the Lord. All was instantly confusion and uproar below the deck of the Saucy Jack. At this juncture the major left his bed, with a pistol in his hand, and called out for a parley in a clear voice, which was heard above the loud affray. There was something so marked and impassioned in his manner, that he instantly commanded attention. He spoke thus : Gentlemen, however I lament the accidents of this night, I blame not myself. I warned you against disturbing my rest ; you disregarded my caution, and must take the consequence. I deeply regret having, unintentionally, wounded Lieutenant Price, and am ready to make him every reparation in my power, and to offer him every apology an officer should demand or a man of honour give. As for Lieutenant Britton, I am not sorry for wounding him ; my only regret is, that when I fired my pistol in the dark, he did not receive the ball in front, instead of in an oblique direction. If he feel himself aggrieved, I will give him satisfaction ; but my weapons are those of a soldier and a gentleman. I fight not like a costermonger or a coal -porter: I am too old to receive a box, even if it be not aimed between VOL. II. F

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98 WARNER ARUNDELL : the eyes.' I will not submit to what you term cobbed. Look here said he, throwing back his shirt, and exhibiting his almost naked frame. Old as he was, it was evident that nature had modelled him in perfect manly symmetry. His skin was as white as alabaster ; but it bore many a deep scar. He pointed to those marks, and said, Look here! This wound I got at Alexandria, in the forty second, when that regiment annihilated the invincibles ; this was given with a French musket ball at Maida ; these two in Spain; and this sabre -cut in France. Think you, gentlemen, with these vouchers for having done my duty, I will tamely suffer insult and degradation ? No ; rather than that shall take place, I'll send this schooner to the devil! I am not in jest. Just below me are eighteen barrels of powder, consigned by the owners of this vessel to the patriots : on the first assault on my person, I'll fire amongst the ammunition, and up we'll all go together; thus finishing the voyage with eclat, by paying a flying visit to the upper regions." He cocked his pistol and depressed its muzzle, ready to make good his awful threat that instant. If there was any doubt of his resolution, his appearance set this doubt at rest. His body was

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THE ADVENTURES OF A CREOLE. U9 projected forward, so as to rest principally on the right foot, while his left toe touched the floor ; his right finger was on the trigger, just touching it, without the slightest tremor ; the pistol was pointed downwards towards the magazine ; his left hand clenched ; his nostrils distended ; his look directed, like the pistol, downward ; and the spirit of the great, devil gleaming in his eye. I never saw so complete a picture of calm desperation. Major! for God's sake, major, 'twas a joke!" shouted a dozen voices. Be it considered a joke," said he, letting down the pistol to half-cock ; but do not carry the jest too far, if you do not wish to visit the upper regions." Give up the pistol!" said several naval passengers, advancing on him. Instantly he recocked the pistol, held out his left hand, and said, Stand off!" with a voice of thunder. Again his looks became as stern as those of Satan, and the lunar observers stood back overawed. I now interposed. I hope, Major Glenlyon, you do not suppose that these German gentlemen and myself would put an indignity on you, or voluntarily suffer others to do it?"

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100 WARNER ARUNDELL: No, Dr. Arundell," said he ; you, and those German gentlemen, are men of honour." Then why play Guy Fawkes, and send us up into the air? We, perhaps, have no wish to go to the next world with the present respectable company. I am sure you must be aware that we have journeyed sufficiently long together on this globe. Come, come, uncock that pistol, and retire to your bed ; we will pledge our honours to protect you." Again he uncocked his pistol, took it in his left hand, placed his right in mine, and said, Doctor, you are a gentleman : nothing better can be said of the Prince Regent ; nothing worse shall ever be said in my hearing of Warner Arundell, while M' Donald Glenlyon can hold a sword, or draw a trigger. Good night. I'll carry this with me to bed, but will only use it defensively." Saying this, the major went to his berth, and the rest of the passengers moved off, either to rest or to talk over the events of the night. As Jenkins went to his dormitory, he said, This looked more like a tragedie than a ponyrace." I have related at length the above events, because they were the most serious in their consequences of any of the practical jokes played off

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THE ADVENTURES OF A CREOLE. 101 on board the Saucy Jack ; but, unless during a storm, not a day, and seldom an hour, passed without the occurrence of similar pieces of buffoonery.

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102 WARNER ARUNDELL I CHAPTER V. And then we cotcbed the trade-winds, and over the line we runs ; When Neptune cummed on board, to shave his younger sons." Sailors' Song. Fue por luna y volvio trasquilado." CERVANTES. AT length we approached the tropic of Cancer. It has been the custom for centuries to shave, as it is termed, those who cross for the first time the tropic, unless the vessel is to pass the equator, in which case the shaving is deferred until the equator be traversed. This absurd custom originated with the bucaniers. These men pretended that, when they passed the tropics, they were no longer subjects of any European power. Hence their proverb, No peace beyond the line." But the freebooters called themselves the children of Neptune : they had a ceremony, over which they supposed that deity presided. One of the free-

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THE ADVENTURES OF A CREOLE. 103 booters came on board, dressed ludicrously as Neptune, and baptised his children. I have seen a manuscript, written in 1609, in possession of the descendant of one of the bucaniers, which describes this ridiculous and somewhat impious ceremony in such a way as to leave no doubt that the modern nautical saturnalia were derived from the old bucaniers. The oath administered by the freebooter, Neptune, not to eat biscuit while the party swearing could get wheaten bread, unless he preferred the biscuit ; of never kissing the servant, when he could kiss the mistress, unless he liked the servant better, &c. &c., were, according to this manuscript, just the same as the oath administered by the representers of Neptune of the present day. During the last century, the sailors have kept up this mummery ; Because," say those excellent geographers, while the ship is crossing the line the captain has no command, it being in neither latitude nor longitude." This idea reminds me of the prayer of the Irish emigrant in Canada: Lord have mercy on me, a miserable sinner three thousand miles from my own country, and seventy-five miles from any where else !" On the occasion of the Saucy Jack crossing the tropic, much preparation was made ; but these saturnalia were to differ from all others of the

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THE ADVENTURES OF A CREOLE. 105 and such of the naval passengers as had not crossed the tropic, promised to aid me. Trevallion, who in most disputes stood neutral, now took my side, so that I was well supported ; while Neptune's party could muster but eleven hands, including Britton, who was too recently wouncled to be of any assistance to them. By my advice, we all secretly sent trifling presents that night to the seamen and stewards, telling them $at certain passengers had taken the shaving iftto their own hands, but that we did not wish to deprive them of their accustomed perquisites. The men were thankful ; and I, by this manoeuvre, succeeded in gaining their neutrality, if not their friendship. The next morning, at breakfast, I called the attention of the whole of the passengers ; and said, as it was customary that passengers should be shaved when they first crossed the line, or pay a forfeit, we preferred the latter. I said, for my own part, I was born southward of the tropic consequently, must have passed it ; nevertheless, I was willing to pay the forfeit. No forfeits shall be accepted," said Purcell ; you shall all be shaved, by G d !" We shall see that," said I. He who lays hands on me may meet with keener usage than he expects. Once more I caution you against F2

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106 WARNER ARUNDELL : molesting us, or you'll get lathered and shaved yourselves." My caution was laughed at ; and the captain advised me to submit, for the sake of the Lord. Captain Canter," said Major Glenlyon, let me advise you, in the forthcoming affray, to stand neutral, unless you wish to be made accountable for the acts of these men. If you interfere in the slightest degree, the moment I get ashore, you must meet me as a man of honour." And me, also," added I, "should the major fall." This threat had the effect of securing the neutrality of Captain Canter. Noon arrived ; and several of Neptune's party stuck a hair across their spy-glasses, in* order 'v. to make the lubbers who looked through them ^ \ believe tbat the line was visibfe
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THE ADVENTURES OF A CREOLE. 107 to South America, with passengers to liberate Columbia." I took you," said Neptune, for a transport, going to Botany Bay with a cargo of convicts." This sally of Neptune caused a laugh. It was, however, a calumny on those Who left their country, for their country's good." 11 Rule Britannia" was now struck up by two flutes; and his godship appeared on deck. The flutes then played one of Dibdin's songs, commencing Daddy Neptune one day;" and I recognised Lieutenant Jack's turkey-cock gabble, trying to sing The tight little island." I^Teptune was rigged out with three sheep-skins, had a. swal| over his head,by way of a wig, and looked sublimely ridiculous. This part was played by that* most ludicrouslooking man, Jenkins. The Tritons were dressed with equal elegance. "Can you give me something to drink?" said his godship. Canter gave him a square case bottle, which held three pints of rum. Neptune held it to his lips, and emptied a third of it at the first pull. He drew a long breath, and then renewed his draught. The Tritons now interfered, in order

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108 WARNER ARUNDELL : to get their share. Neptune resisted their claim : in about two minutes he drank the whole. The effects of this were instantly visible : he squinted awfully ; looked, as we say, nine ways for Sunday ; talked thick, and hiccupped every third word. This act of inebriety afflicted him for five days with delirium tremens. Have you (hiccup) any of my children on board ?" said the staggering Neptune, in a falsetto voice. 11 Here is a list of them," said the captain, handing him a paper. Let's have a squint at your list," said Neptune. In truth, he did squint at it. After a hiccup or two, he said, in two voices one bass, the other high falsetto I see you have plenty of (hiccup) cockneys on board. I don't like them (hiccup), because they took me in. They made me pay (hiccup) four shillings to see a (hiccup) tragedie, and shewed me a pony -race. And who have we here? one Dr. Arundell (hiccup). Why, he's a Creole : one of those (hiccup) who live by eating (hiccup) crabs ; and when they die, the (hiccup) crabs eat them. Bring up the (hiccup) doctor, to begin with." Down came three of the Tritons Purcell was one and seized me.

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THE ADVENTURES OF A CREOLE. 109 Hands off, gentlemen," said I, "or you'll repent it." They were hurrying me towards the companion ladder, when, at a signal agreed on, my party rushed on them, overpowered them instantly, forced them into three chairs, gagged, and well bound them. Immediately, their hair was cut close, and their heads lathered. We now cautioned the Tritons not to stir, or the razors would cut them. In the course of a few minutes their heads were shaved so clean, that they looked like gigantic billiard-halls. All this time the hatchway was closed by our own party, to prevent succour being afforded to the barber's clerks. At a given signal, four buckets of water, provided for the occasion, were, emptied 11 on the Tritons ; and they were sent up* with our compliments to Neptune arwj his party, and a message to. the effect, that 'we had set up a new shaving establishment, on our own account, below ; arid if any one wished to descend, we would give them a shave free, gratis, and for nothing." Your amateurs of horseplay seldom like to have their jokes turned on themselves. Purcell and his companions, according to Sancho, went abroad for wool, and returned shorn. I never saw men so crest-fallen as they looked.

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I ] 10 WARNER ARUNDELL : As soon as the hatchway was opened, Neptune himself staggered down, and endeavoured to seize the major. To overpower Jenkins was no difficult matter, far gone as he was in liquor. We forced him into a chair, but his head was even then too elevated to be operated on, by reason of his unnatural length of body : he was laid on the floor, his body supported, and we clipped his locks, not liking to shave him for fear of accidents, he being too drunk to keep his head steady. He struggled hard, and, at length, lay exhausted on the floor, and I ordered his cravat to be loosened. He was completely helpless. Those on deck called on the crew of the vessel to assist them ; but the latter refused, finding that we were too numerous for them, and not wishing to get their heads shorn. The rest of Neptune's party desisted from their abortive attempt ; and thus ended the shaving on board the Saucy Jack. I took advantage of this event, and organised a society for the suppression of practical jokes, called, Tar and Feathers" We kept a bucket of tar ready in terrorem, telling the admirers of sky-larking that the first person who should practise any improper jest should be tarred and feathered. This kept them in awe for three days; the fourth, Purcell stole some cowhage

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THE ADVENTURES OF A CREOLE. Ill out of the medicine-chest, and attempted to place it in the berth of one of the Germans, which would have tortured the foreigner at night. He was caught in the fact, and told he would be tarred and feathered. To avoid this, he carried a loaded pistol about him. In the evening, as he was descending the companion-ladder, three buckets of water were thrown on him. He drew his pistol ; but, being wet, it would not go off. We now overcame him, stripped him naked, painted his body with tar, and emptied a whole pillow of feathers on him ; at the same time informing the rest of the naval passengers, that we would serve all in the same way who should attempt any improper joke. This act had the desired effect : it put a complete stop to taking'lunars." A culinary proverb says, Too many cooks spoil the broth : in our case, too many sailors spoiled the voyage. At the beginning of the passage, the naval gentlemen formed themselves into watches, to assist in navigating the schooner ; hence the crew had little to do that little they neglected. The mate was as careless a young man as ever skulked from his duty ; the captain was generally locked up in his state-room with his wife: hence, the schooner was managed, or mismanaged, by the passengers. How we arrived safely is wonderful, considering the way the Saucy

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112 WARNER ARUNDELL : Jack was navigated. Often, in the Western Ocean, have I gone on deck in the night when not a sailor was to be seen, the gentlemen kept watch by caulking the deck (sleeping on the deck), save the steersman, who, being drunk, was keeping the schooner's head due north, at the time when our course lay south-west ; in other words, going to North America, when we wished to go to the West Indies. The mate came to me one morning, and asked if I had been on deck in the night? I said I had. At what rate," inquired he, was the schooner going?" I replied, I had no opportunity of knowing, having had a bucket of water thrown on me, which immediately obliged me to go below to change my dress. He asked another, who said, when he was on deck, he thought she was going at the rate of six knots. I'll give her six all night," said the careful mate The fact was, he had slept during his watch, and, of course, never hove the log. To those who live at home at ease, it may be well that I inform them that the log is a small piece of wood, by means of which, a knotted line, and a minute or half-minute glass, the rate of a ship's sailing is ascertained. At the beginning of the voyage, the mate reported the schooner

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THE ADVENTURES OF A CREOLE. 1 13 to be going eight knots, or miles, an hour. Trevallion looked at the sea with an experienced eye, and declared his doubts of the vessel's going so fast. He hove the log himself, and found eight knots run out. Notwithstanding this, he persisted that she was not going so fast, but said the line must be too short, or the glass too long, or both. He was right in the last surmise both the line and the glass were defective. A vessel navigated with such shameful negligence as was the Saucy Jack could not be where the dead reckoning made her, unless by wonderful chance. Her latitude was easily to be found, by means of a solar observation with the quadrant ; but, as we were without a chronometer, her longitude was attempted to be taken by lunar observations. Now, whether those who took the lunars really understood observing the angular distance between the moon and a fixed star, or not for it is a nice operation; or, whether they did not make the voluminous calculations necessary, I cannot say. Perhaps they possessed the requisite skill, but thought more of skylarking than observing the planets, and of rum-drinking than of consulting the Nautical Almanack. Certain I am, that their lunar observations gave the same longitude to the vessel as the captain's dead reckoning. He praised their skill, because it

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114 WARNER ARUNDELL : ^' cpincided with his calculations; they complimented his accuracy, because he agreed with their lunar observations ; and all parties were two hundred and eighty-seven leagues from the mark, owing to bad steering, short log-lines, and long minute-glasses. Were these memoirs to be read by nautical men as mere fiction, the above statements would be pronounced too improbable for romance. All I need say on the subject is, that there are alive, at present, three persons in Trinidad who can vouch for the accuracy of my statement. I should have paused before I related these facts ; but, lately, I was told that a vessel crossed the Atlantic, with the intention of going to the West Indies. She ran, passed the whole of the islands, and never stopped until she crossed the. Gulf of Mexico, and went to Louisiana ; but I suppose she bacj. not any of the Saucy Jack's lunar observers 6n board. On the seventy-seventh day of our voyage, the dead-reckoning was -up, and our longitude was run down, according to .1th e naval passengers ; but alas for the credit of their, skill no land appeared. We had certainly run more than the distance between England and the West Indies ; but we had not run the right way. All day we sailed on, and in the evening land was

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THE ADVENTURES OF A CREOLE. 115 announced a-head. Trevallion, who happened to be only half-tipsy, said, That is such land as you may shove your thumb through. It's Cape Fly-away.'" The others remarked, that it must be land, because it agreed with the dead-reckoning and lunar observations. Night set in, and the cautious captain hove the vessel to for fear of running past the island in the night ; hence, we lay to 800 miles to the eastward of land. Morning came, and the land of the preceding night melted into thin air. The schooner was again sped on her way. We ran all day, and at night another cloud acted the part of Cape Fly-away.' Again we lay to for land, which vanished as morning dawned. A third time was this most ridiculous farce repeated. In the morning the land was not to be seen. The lunar observers, and the skipper, looked crestfallen ; and the military passengers. asked them if the^.moon was within observing distance. In
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116 WARNER ARUN DELL : thorough English logic to convince rne he was right he offered to lay a wager. So confident were the naval passengers that they were but a few miles from land, that they let down a boat. Eight of them got in, taking a compass and, of course, a quantity of grog ; but when they had pulled about eight miles from the vessel, what Captain Canter called the land-calm ceased, and a violent succession of squalls blew. They were glad to hurry on board the schooner, where they arrived at midnight, worn out with fatigue. The next day, we wished to speak several vessels we saw ; but, conceiving, I suppose, the Saucy Jack was a suspicious-looking craft, they ran from us, and our schooner was too dull a sailor to come up with them. The following day, however, we spoke an American brig, who gave us the right longitude ; although, I dare swear, the ignorant Yankees had not one on board capable of taking a lunar like the passengers of the Saucy Jack. Finally, on the eighty-fourth day of our eventful voyage, we passed the Angeda passage. That night, with the Virgin Islands full in view, the candidates for commissions in the Colombian navy took several most beautiful lunar observations ; and fairly demonstrated that the rock of Sombrero was precisely in the same Ion-

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THE ADVENTURES OF A CREOLE. 117 gitude that it was at the time every chart on board was engraved. At the end of our voyage to St. Thomas's, the captain measured the logline, and, as Trevallion surmised, found it too short. He compared the minute-glasses with his watch, and found a great deal too little sand in them. This precaution of measuring the line and ascertaining the inaccuracy of the glasses, after we were in sight of land, will be applauded by nautical men. The next day we entered the port of St. Thomas, where old Mendez told us we should meet with a Columbian agent.

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118 WARNER ARUNDELL : CHAPTER VI. Repelled from port to port, they sue in vain, And track, with slow unsteady sail, the main." LEYDEX. SCARCELY had we entered the harbour of St. Thomas's before the harbour -master came on board. He was a Dane ; but, like most welleducated men of his nation, spoke English. He informed us that the Columbian asrent had left >~j the island, and that the cause of the Republicans was desperate ; insomuch that it would be madness for us to join them. This was heavy news for us : most on board were destitute of the means of returning to England. The harbour-master, however, told us that there was a resident of the island, although at that moment absent, who was a Jew merchant : he had lent considerable sums to the Columbians ; he was momentarily expected to return ; and, doubtless, would assist us, and give us counsel how to proceed.

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THE ADVENTURES OF A CREOLE. ] 19 The Dane further informed us, that a brig, with volunteers for South America, had arrived a few weeks before us ; and the passengers, having landed, behaved so badly, boxing, duelling, rioting, drinking, and getting in debt, that the governor would not allow us to land. In vain we pleaded that St. Thomas's was a free port, and that the Saucy Jack was under British colours, from a British port, with British papers : the harbourmaster said, such were the imperative orders of the governor. He further told the captain to anchor between Blackboard's Fort and a large Danish frigate, the Minerva. He told us our motions would be watched by the frigate, and cautioned us against going ashore, unless we wished to be fired at by the man-of-war. The captain said that, in consequence of the length of the voyage, we were short of water. The harbour-master wrote a note, and sent it by his own boat on board the Minerva. In halfan-hour, two boats, rowed by a set of stout, redhaired Danes, came alongside, with six puncheons of good water, which the captain caused to be pumped into our own casks. The captain of the frigate came on board, and we, in vain, remonstrated with him about the injustice of not allowing us to land. Our skipper

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120 WARNER A.RUNDELL : said we were all well-behaved gentlemen, and would act differently from our predecessors (God forgive him for the assertion !) Canter's anxiety to land us proceeded from a desire to get rid of us, in order that he might carry the schooner away and sell her, before she had performed her engagement of landing us in South America. This I afterwards learned. But his lie was thrown away the Danes would not allow us to go ashore. The fact was, the authorities at St. Thomas's, finding the cause of the Republicans desperate, wished to propitiate the Royalists, by whom they were, not without reason, suspected of favouring the opposite party. The harbourmaster, having heard several persons give me the title of doctor, inquired of me if I was in the medical profession ? I answered in the affirmative. He told me that the yellow fever was raging ashore, and amongst the neighbouring islands ; therefore, if I applied to land, my application would be granted, as the want of sufficient medical men was sorely felt ashore, and that I should meet with great encouragement in St. Thomas's. All I had to do, was to submit to a few questions from the medical society ; and, if my answers were approved, they would grant me a license to practise.

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THE ADVENTURES OF A CREOLE. 121 I desired a few moments to think about his proposition, and walked aside. Purcell now stepped up to me, and said, You cannot go ashore, doctor." What is to hinder me ? Honour, sir; that is, if you have any. You have beaten me you have caused my head to be shaved you got me tarred and feathered. Go ashore on this island ; you know I cannot follow you : go, and thus skulk from giving me the satisfaction my injuries demand." Enough, sir," said I ; "I will continue with the schooner until the end of the voyage, although she should sail to the regions of the damned." I immediately went to the harbourmaster, and told him I declined leaving the vessel. Many will blame me for my conduct ; I now blame myself. I owed Purcell no satisfaction ; he had behaved like a blackguard, and I merely treated him as he deserved : but, to be accused of skulking from a duel through fear, was not to be borne by a man of my age, spirit, and education. From my infancy I had been taught to believe that none but poltroons feared duelling, and that cowardice was more disgraceful even than murder. The inculcation of such maxims on my young mind was not to be wondered at ; VOL. JI. G

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122 WARNER ARUNDELL : for, according to a tradition preserved in our family, an Arundell was the first who brought into fashion duelling with pistols. The tradition alluded to ran thus. Early in the seventeenth century, Andre de Rossey, a French freebooter of dauntless courage, used to associate with Dutch and English rovers, for the purpose of plundering their mutual enemies, the Spaniards ; but he seldom sailed long in company with any of their vessels before he contrived to quarrel with, and kill, some of his associates. His practice was to challenge the parties to meet him at the first place of landing, leaving the choice of arms to the challenged ; but, such was his dexterity in the use of all sorts of steel weapons employed by the bucaniers, from the long boarding-pike, to the short poniard ; from the light rapier, to the common matcheti ; from the French epee, to the Spanish espadron, that, choose what arms his opponents would, De Rossey always killed them. He slew, in single combat, more than thirty men. My ancestor, Christopher Arundell, having incurred the anger of Andre, the latter challenged him to go on shore at Tortuga, and decide their difference by mortal combat, leaving the choice of weapons to the Englishman. Arundell went on shore, and brought, a pair of pistols, as the arms with which

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THE ADVENTURES OF A CREOLE. 123 he chose to decide the combat. The Frenchman demurred at this innovation of the ordinary rules of duelling; for, up to that period, fire-arms had never been used on such occasions. Christopher threatened De Rossey to put the greatest indignity on him if he refused to fight with pistols. Finally, pistols were employed. At the first discharge, Arundell shot the terrible Frenchman through the heart ; hence, in most private combats amongst the freebooters, pistols were the arms afterwards resorted to, as being less unfair than any other weapons. Finally, this mode of settling affairs of honour was adopted in most civilised and Christian countries. I mention this family tradition, because it influenced my determination of meeting Purcell. The harbour-master left us. As evening set in, the moon rose, and shed her placid light on the beautiful bay, crowded town, and sterile hills, of St. Thomas's. How different was the scenery, compared to the broad and monotonous face of the ocean, which I had viewed for the last three months! I enjoyed the change, as I walked the deck. I went to bed late ; and, notwithstanding my bad prospects, slept soundly. In the morning 1 was awoke by a gun, fired from the Danish frigate. Scarcely were my eyes opened, before

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124 WARNER ARUNDELL : I heard the cocks crowing on shore. I instantly recollected where I was, and felt the bad tidings of the previous day more deeply than before : this sensation I have often experienced. When calamity first comes on us, it stuns us like a heavy blow ; it is after a night's sleep that we feel the effects of evil news. Early in the morning a boat left the shore, and made towards our vessel ; she was intercepted by one from the Danish frigate, and ordered alongside, so narrowly were we watched. After being detained by the Minerva, the boat approached us. A passenger was seen in her, who was rightly conjectured to be the Jew merchant spokenof by the harbour-master. Half-a-dozen spy-glasses were levelled at him to catch what they called the cut of his jib. He was pronounced a handsome, dark-eyed little man. As he came within pistol-shot of the schooner, I thought 1 knew the person. I was right : he was my old fellow-passenger, Moses Fernandez. Our astonishment and joy at this unexpected meeting were mutual. Fernandez gave us information that old Don Mendez was not the recognised agent of the Columbians, but, as he (Fernandez) suspected, a mere adventurer, leagued with the owners of the Saucy Jack and other vessels. But, he

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THE ADVENTURES OF A CREOLE. 125 added, if we went to the Main, our services would be acceptable to the republicans ; and, although Mendez had no right to grant commissions, yet, in consequence of our shewing a willingness to serve them, the insurgent chiefs would, doubtless, give the appointments which Mendez had promised. Fernandez seemed to think the cause of South America by no means so bad as the harbourmaster described. The domination of Spain over her colonies might linger on for a few months, perhaps for a year or two ; but the great South American continent must and would be free. At the same time he candidly admitted, that hope might somewhat influence his opinion, as he had embarked his fortune in the cause. He counselled our beating up to Trinidad, and obtaining the beet advice and assistance we could from an agent of the Columbians we should meet with there; and whence we might easily get up the Orinoco, the Garapichie, or down to the island of Margarita, which were pointes d'appui of the insurgents. o After having given this information to the passengers in general, he took me aside and asked me in what capacity I came. When I told him, he seemed quite pleased ; because he said the South Americans were more in want of

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126 WARNER ARUNDELL : surgeons than naval and military adventurers, who came out to avoid a prison. He said this in a low voice, for he seemed somehow to guess the characters of my fellow-passengers. He gave me, in detail, much the same account of the progress of the revolution which he had given to the rest. He added, I feel confident that the Lord of Hosts has ordained that the sun of America shall rise, while the blood-red star of persecuting Spain is setting. Yea, the proud Castilians, once so haughty that they would suffer none but themselves to navigate these seas, will, in a few years, be here destitute of a harbour to shelter their vessels from a storm. Brion, who, like me, is a Jew of Curac,oa, has already driven their fleet out of the Caribbean Sea. Spain, I say, will sink : the curse of the Twelve Tribes weighs her down. Arundell !" said the Israelite, in an impassioned tone, I bear a Spanish name, and my fathers possessed rich and broad lands in Grenada, which bore the blessings of the earth, corn, wine, and oil, until, instigated by the rancorous priests, those preachers of humility, yet children of pride ; those tongues of mercy, yet hands of blood instigated by these bigots, she seized our lands and drove my ancestors from her soil, in the vain hopes of ending Judaism. Vain, vain

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THE ADVENTURES OF A CREOLE. 127 hopes! What, though in all her idolatrous temples a list of martyred Jews is exhibited ? yet, even in the days when the flames of the Auto da Fe gleamed like the element of hell, could a Jew travel from the south of Spain to its northern extremity ; and in every town, village, university, and even monastery, could he meet with his persecuted brethren, who held fast in the faith in w r hich his fathers, for four thousand years, lived and died. Spain end the religion of Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, and the prophets No the children of Israel shall be gathered by the Messiah into the land which Elohim gave to their sires, and will give again to them ; and they shall worship Him in the third temple, the splendour of which shall surpass that of the first, although built by the wisdom of Solomon. At a time when the bears shall descend from the Pyrenees, and prowl in the deserted cities of Iberia, and when wolves shall howl in the ruins of the Escurial, Spain shall be what Tyre and Sidon are ; when the Holy City shall rise into glory from mournful ruins, and when the curse of barrenness is removed from Judea! Yes," continued Fernandez, in an impassioned tone his speech partook more of soliloquy than dialogue, insomuch that he seemed scarcely conscious that any one was listening to him, so

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128 WARNER ARUNDELL : i far had his feelings abstracted his reason yes, '\ continued he, "thanks to the Lord of justice, Spain is falling! Already she is like a seeming goodly tree, whose heart is rotten. She persecuted the children of the covenant ; she drove the learned Moors from her soil; she exterminated a whole race of God's creatures in this western world. But she prospered not. She brought gold into Europe, like as an ass carries precious metal : the richer were her galleons, the poorer became her children. She depopulated her mountains and valleys, to send her offspring to the New World ; and she imported disease in return : and now her colonies turn against her, like as the children of the wicked rise against their parents ; while a bigot an embroiderer of petticoats sits on her throne, to misdirect her energies during his life, and bequeath to her the curse of civil war at his death." After saying this, Fernandez walked the deck hastily for some minutes, ere his emotion subsided. At length, he said, Pardon me this abstraction, Mr. Arundell ; but, since iny youth, hatred of Spain has been my ruling passion. I have long plotted her downfall in this hemisphere, and I now see a prospect of my darling hopes being realised." After this explanation he became calm. He

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THE ADVENTURES OF A CREOLE. 129 promised to send me, in the course of the day, letters of introduction to all the insurgent chiefs ; with the whole of whom he was in correspondence. He then inquired into the state of my finances. I told him these were low enough ; all I had was about nine dollars, which I got exchanged for a trifle at a shop of one of his tribe, at Common Hard, Portsmouth. Well," replied Fernandez, when I send you off the letters, I will also remit you one hundred dollars, by way of a loan. No words of refusal or thanks ; you will be able to pay me shortly, as I intend visiting the republican army. Remember, it will be a loan ; although I will not take a Shylock-like mortgage, or a pound of your Christian flesh. One day or another you will be able to pay me ; but, should I die before that day arrive, give the sum to the first poor despised Jew you meet, and tell him to place it in one of the boxes kept in all synagogues, to relieve the wretched Israelites who still, like ghosts, haunt the ruins of Jerusalem. Is there any thing else I can serve you in?" I suggested that, from the length of our voyage, a little fruit would be acceptable. He made a note of it, and then took a formal leave of my fellow-passengers, and a friendly one of me, saying, G2

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130 WARNER ARUNDELL : "The Lord bless and preserve thee ; the Lord make his face shine on thee, and give thee peace Three hours after this, his clerk arrived on board with the promised letters, one hundred dollars, a large box of oranges, limes, shaddocks, and other kinds of citron, and a smaller box of pine-apples and other West Indian fruit. As this acceptable present was sufficient to last the whole of the passengers until we should arrive at Trinidad, I made a general distribution of the fruit. After having lived for three months on salt provisions, fruit is most luxurious : hence, my sharing the two boxes among the passengers got me into more favour with them than if I had given them a thousand dollars. Even the lunar observers said I was not a bad fellow after all ; and I am told that Britton declared, that the first man who said I was not a gentleman, he would give him one blow," &c. After obtaining two more puncheons of water from the frigate, we, that afternoon, left the, to us, inhospitable island of St. Thomas's. We came alongside of a small uninhabited island, on which, we were told, the governor of St. Thomas's kept hogs. Several passengers volunteered to go ashore and shoot some. The schooner was hove to, a boat lowered, and pulled

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THE ADVENTURES OF A CREOLE. 131 to the island. In about an hour it returned, loaded with swine. I was not concerned in this robbery, but I partook of the pork ; soothing my conscience with the reflection that my not eating the stolen meat would not benefit the owner of the pigs. I was a bad casuist, but I had a good appetite. We had a long dead beat from St. Thomas's to Trinidad ; but the behaviour of the passengers, in general, was comparatively orderly for three reasons : first, the doubtful tidings we heard at St. Thomas's threw a damp on their animal spirits ; secondly, the existence of the tar-andfeather club overawed the lunarians ; and lastly, but not the least cause of tranquillity, the large quantity of bad rum we had was finished ; so that, of necessity, we had what is now called a temperance society on board. We were thirteen days beating up to Trinidad, so contrary was the wind, and so badly the schooner sailed. This length of passage did not displease those whose heads had been shaved, as it allowed their hair to grow ; it being now more than .five weeks since this operation was performed. As we came to anchor off 7 Port of Spain, a person named Ilervey came on board. He had come out on a similar errand to the one which

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132 WARNER ARUNDELL : brought us across the Atlantic, but had settled in the island. He gave us far more gloomy accounts than we heard at St. Thomas's. The agent we expected to meet had left the island, a ruined man. Angostura, up the Orinoco, had fallen into the hands of the royalists, and Margarita was now the only rallying point of the insurgents. The governor of Trinidad (Sir R. Woodford) sent us word that the cause of the rebels, as he called the patriots, was so desperate, that he thought it his duty to dissuade us from going to join them. And, if we promised not to do this, all those of the passengers who chose to remain in Trinidad, and were capable of exercising any trade or profession by which they might gain their living, should have all his interest to get employment. Such as chose to turn planters, he could easily obtain situations for ; and for those who wished to return, he would endeavour to get them cheap or free passages to England. In the mean time, the government possessed a large unoccupied building, called Cumberland House, which Sir Ralph Woodford offered as a temporary dwelling. The governor only kept his word so far as related to Cumberland House. As soon as the mass of the passengers came ashore to reside, the governor took no further notice of them. But,

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THE ADVENTURES OF A CREOLE. 133 in justice to his memory, I must here observe, that the conduct of my fellow-passengers was sufficient apology for the neglect of Woodford. A daily repetition of such scenes as took place on board the Saucy Jack occurred at Cumberland House ; with this addition, the unfortunate inmates were often without food : hence, they commenced a system of marauding on the neighbours for provisions. So many fowl robberies were committed, that poultry became scarce in that end of Port of Spain ; until yellow fever and new rum thinned, most awfully, the passengers of the Saucy Jack. But I anticipate. The passengers, before they would accept of the governor's proffered aid, desired to consult on the subject. We held a council of war on board the Saucy Jack. Gloom presided over our consultation ; adversity seemed to weigh down the spirits of the whole, but particularly those who, during the passage, had been most turbulent : all looked and spoke with gravity. This was not the gravity of wisdom, but of disappointment and despair. Much was said, but nothing resolved on, until Trevallion spoke thus : As we have been duped by the owners of the Saucy Jack, let us start with her to Margarita, and there get a privateer's commission,

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134 WARNER ARUNDELL : and trade on our own account. There are plenty of arms and ammunition on board : these were intended as a speculation, but let us profit by them. We have six bull-dogs (pieces of ordnance) in the hold : these will be sufficient to rig out this schooner as a rover; and all the spare small arms we'll sell to the people of Margarita for provisions. We are enough of us to navigate and fight the sloop ; and we are, thanks to old Mendez, men of desperate fortunes. There are enough of prizes to be found in this part of the world : if not, away we start to the South Seas, where we shall find plenty of Spanish ships, or vessels which look like them. True, the Saucy Jack is but a tub of a sailer; but the first better ship we take we'll sink the schooner. There is booty enough in the Pacific to make our fortunes in six months. True, we run a small chance of being taken ; but who would not rather risk being shot, or strung up at a yard-arm, in obtaining a fortune, to remaining here as an object of charity ? The yellow fever, or the yellow boys, for me! Hurra for a hundred-weight of gold, or an ounce of lead Who say a rover's life, hold up their hands." The address of Trevallion was suitable to the desperate fortunes of most on board. All, even the mate and regular crew of the vessel, held up

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THE ADVENTURES OF A CREOLE. 135 their hands, except myself. I begged to decline going with them, not wishing to introduce a gibbet into the escutcheon of the Arundells, by way of bend sinister. True, the first of my race that came into these seas was a rover ; but he was so in different times, and with different men ; for I foresaw that on board the Saucy Jack there would be too many officers, who, with the exception of courage, possessed not one quality necessary for an enterprise such as Trevallion proposed. Having expressed my dissent, several persons asked me if I wished to discover their enterprise to the governor of Trinidad. Before I could reply, Trevallion said, That the doctor does not, or he wouldn't openly and fairly express his determination not to join us ; however, I am sure he is too honourable a man to betray our secrets." I pledged my word not to do this, and went on deck, leaving them to settle the minor arrangements of their wild undertaking. It was agreed that Trevallion was to command, and Canter was to be the first-lieutenant, if he chose to accept of the post. A deputation went to his state-room to consult with him, but he was not to be found. In a few minutes after this, the collector of his majesty's customs came on board with a picquet

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136 WARNER ARUNDELL : of soldiers, and informed us that the schooner was seized for having arms on board contrary to law. Her anchor was taken up, and she was moored right under the guns of the old Spanish fort, whence escape was hopeless. This, in a moment, put an end to the notable scheme of Trevallion, took away the enthusiasm from the passengers, and restored their despondency. The history of the seizure of the vessel was this: Canter, as soon as he heard the proposal of Trevallion to carry off the schooner, went ashore unseen by us, and offered a custom-house officer a small bribe to allow him to land certain arms and ammunition he had on board the Saucy Jack, confessing, in pretended confidence, that he had no legal title to have them. Sir Robert Walpole said every man had his price. The truth of this axiom was known to Canter, for he knew all the weak points of human nature ; he, therefore, was aware, that if you offer a man much less than his price, he feels it as an attack on his honour and dignity. Thus, one who, for ten thousand pounds, would betray his friend, would resent, as a deep insult, an offer of one hundred pounds as the price of his honour : hence, the commander of the Saucy Jack promised a bribe to the custom-house officer much less in amount than the said officer could

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THE ADVENTURES OF A CREOLE. 137 obtain as his share of the booty, were the vessel seized. The result was, that the officer promised Canter to wink at his landing the contraband arms ; but, a few minutes after, he caused the schooner to be seized. He did his duty because it coincided with his interest. By the humanity of the collector, the passengers of the vessel were allowed to go ashore with their luggage. No sooner were we out of the Saucy Jack, than, as if a sudden recollection had occurred to Canter, he went into his cabin, and produced the copy of an order in council, which fully authorised the schooner to carry arms and ammunition. The custom-house gentlemen scrutinised this paper, and were obliged to confess that they had no right to put the broad arrow on her. That mark was taken off, and the disappointed collector missed his prey. The fact was, the whole seizure was a manoeuvre of the captain to get quit of the passengers, and prevent their committing the villany of carrying her off, by performing the meditated robbery himself. He started with the vessel that evening, sold her, together with her cargo, to the patriots, pocketed the money, let the crew shift for themselves, and went to the United States To add one freeman more, America, to thee."

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138 WARNER ARUNDELL : Thus the owner took in the passengers, the passengers wished to retaliate, but Captain Canter was too keen for both parties. What became of this respectable character in America I never heard. Brother Jonathan is no advocate for capital punishment, or I'd wager, that before Captain Canter dies, he will be an exalted character. Should he ever return to England, he will not die in a horizontal position.

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THE ADVENTURES OF A CREOLE. 139 CHAPTER VII. Read thou tbis challenge ; mark but tbe penning of it." King Lear. Ducunt ad seria nugae." HORACE. ON going ashore, I found that my old friend Dr. Lopez had left the colony. Not wishing to join the assembly at Cumberland House, I took up my residence at a tavern kept by Fanny Nibbs, in Port of Spain. The first morning of my residence there, I had a visit from Beadle. His request astonished me : it was, that I should stand his friend in a duel between himself and Lieutenant Jenkins, whom, it appeared, little Beadle discovered to be the person who was the principal in the disgraceful transaction of dragging him out of his bed, and suspending him by the heel, on board the schooner. I thought this delicate youth, with his girlish face, the last person who would have recourse to fighting. Often, when practising with a pistol during our passage, he used to quit

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140 WARNER ARUNDELL : the deck, declaring himself too nervous to hear fire-arms go off without starting ; and, I believe, up to this moment he had never exploded an ounce of gunpowder in his life. But, notwithstanding his feminine appearance and weak nerves, he was not a coward, as the result proved. I informed him that I would have been his second, but that, from some expressions which fell from Purcell, I myself momentarily expected a hostile message from him. Beadle left me, to seek old Major Glenlyon. About two hours after this, as I expected, I was waited on by Lieutenant Jack, who handed me a written challenge from Purcell ; a postscript of the letter containing the challenge, stated that the lieutenant was to attend as his (Purcell's) friend. I asked Jack about the time and place of meeting. He told me that the laws of Trinidad were most severe against duelling ; but that, in the Gulf of Paria, and about thirty miles from the Port of Spain, lay an islet, called Lospatos, which, being neither in this jurisdiction nor owned by the Spaniards,was commonly made a place of hostile meeting by persons living on both sides of the Gulf.* He proposed that the next It is now considered as part of the colony of Trinidad.

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THE ADVENTURES OF A CREOLE. 141 morning we should go thither in a sailing-boat : further, that Jenkins and Beadle, who also were about to turn out," should accompany us. Thus we should form a hostile parti quarrt. To this I agreed ; and, having appointed the place where the boat was to start before daybreak next morning, the lieutenant left me. I called on Trevallion, who consented to act as my second. I had an excellent pair of Mortimer's pistols in my trunk, which we agreed should be used on the occasion. Trevallion dined with me ; and, after dinner, we walked out together. Gloomy as were my prospects, I could not but admire the noble scenery by which we were surrounded, and the marked improvements which had been effected in the appearance of the country by the present governor. We walked into the country until we came to the plantation that, a few years since, was the property of Don Thomaso and my uncle George. We were kindly received by the present proprietor, who shewed us all over the estate, telling us what a bad planter his predecessor was, and what improvements he had made ; above all, he tried to impress us with a magnificent idea of what an extraordinary crop he was going to make next year. He did not know me, for, since the death

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142 WARNER ARUNDELL : of my uncle, the plantation had passed through a dozen hands ; but every proprietor was ruined by purchasing it, although every merchant that negociated its affairs got rich. At a late hour in the evening we arrived at Mrs. Nibbs's tavern. I persuaded Trevallion to sleep in the same chamber with me, lest he should be visited by an evil spirit, which often haunts Europeans in the West Indies, called tafia. As the name of this spirit is not to be found in King James's book on demonology, I must acquaint the English reader that it is better known by the denomination of new rum. A little before daylight next morning, we were at the place appointed for embarking to Lospatos. Early as we were, I found the companions of my voyage waiting for me. These were, Purcell and his second ; Beadle and his friend, the major; Jenkins was attended by Britton : finally, there were Trevallion and myself. We got into the boat hired for the occasion, hoisted sail, and, with a light breeze, steered towards Lospatos. We were a mile or two from shore ere day opened. During the first part of our little voyage Purcell slept ; but sudden starts and mutterings rendered it evident that he enjoyed not tranquil slumber. From the relation in which I stood to

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THE ADVENTURES OF A CREOLE. 143 him, I could not appear to notice him minutely ; yet, now and then, as I cast a glance at him, I could not hut observe that his ruddy features appeared flushed, and were quivering, as though he suffered extreme mental or bodily pain ; and now and then a deep sigh escaped the sleeper. Lieutenant Jack once shook him : he opened his bloodshot eyes, and, with a bewildered stare, looked around him. What is the matter with you?" said his friend ; have you been drinking?" Did you not see him?" said Purcell. Him! who?" "Why, my father! How he shook those gray locks at me, which I brought with sorrow to the grave !" Lie down, my good fellow, and, if possible, sleep off this ill-timed intoxication." Again Purcell lay down on his back in the bottom of the boat, and soon commenced snoring, as though he were stifling. I whispered Trevallion that it was necessary to untie his black cravat, turn him over on his side, and raise his head, as he lay in an uncomfortable position. My advice was followed ; he ceased snoring, but commenced muttering in his perturbed sleep.

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144 WARNER ARUNDELL : His murrnurings were, at first, inarticulate ; he paused for about half a minute, and said plainly, "That curse again! Is it not enough the old man died cursing me, but he must come over the great ocean, after he is dead, to repeat his curse, now he knows I am about to die?" He started violently, and opened his eyes. After looking wildly around, he said, "Is it not strange the old man won't let me rest ? But both he and I never forgave Lieutenant Jack shook his head ; he appeared under an impression that Purcell was the worse for liquor. I perceived that he was under the influence of fever, which caused a determination of blood to the head, and consequently he was delirious : in fact, he was attacked with that disease which, for want of a better name, is called yellow fever. He was just such a subject as this demon would mark for his victim ; he being plethoric, sanguine, and of intemperate habits. Such were my speculations ; but I was obliged to keep them to myself. While I was looking intently at him, Lieutenant Jack observed me, but misconstrued my thoughts. I fear," said he, that my friend will not be in a fit state to meet you ; and therefore, to

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THE ADVENTURES OF A CREOLE. 145 prevent disappointing you, I shall be obliged to take his place that is, if you have no objection to me as his substitute." I bowed courteously low. Gentlemen should be extremely polite to each other when arranging their amiable plans to blow each other's brains out. The sun had risen high in the heavens, and was intensely hot, as we neared Lospatos. Purcell slept, muttering continually : now and then we caught a word or two of what he articulated. His sleep seemed to be disturbed with the recollections of his father's having cursed him. As we were entering the little harbour of the islet, he woke and called for drink. You seem to have had too much drink already," said his friend, Give me water! cried Purcell. I don't want your cursed grog, which tastes like a river of hell Give me clear, cool, blessed water. Oh, would to God my gullet were the channel of the Thames A large calabash of water was given to him, which he could not be sa i to drink : he swallowed it with such avidity, that the glucking noise caused by his throat sounded louder than that of a thirsty horse. The boat was run aground and secured : we VOL. II. H

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146 WARNER ARUNDELL : went ashore. Purcell asked what we came here for, but immediately replied to his own question, Yes, yes, I now recollect ; I came here to be shot by that fellow, Arundell. I see now the cause that made the old man appear three times to me in the boat. However, you will allow me to say my prayers before you shoot me, doctor : no one kills a man without allowing him to pray. Those who are run up at the yard-arms are allowed to see the chaplain before they die." Saying this, he walked, with an unsteady step, until he got under a sand box-tree, where he kneeled and repeated various snatches of supplication ; running one part of the Book of Common Prayer into another. His friend watched him intently. It was evident that he now saw he was not drunk ; but the lieutenant believed his principal insane. While he was at his wild devotion, the seconds proposed that the duel between Beadle and Jenkins should be decided. Ten paces were the distance agreed on. While this was being measured, Jenkins commenced to draw the outlines of a ship on the sand, with a cane he held in his hand. The pistols were loaded and placed in the hands of the parties. Just before the word fire was to be given, Beadle, as if suddenly recollecting himself, cried out,

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THE ADVENTURES OF A CREOLE. 147 Hold, for one minute !" He then took out of his pocket a letter. Send this," said the young man ; it is addressed to my poor mother. Inclose it in a letter of your own ; and I beg of you to say that I am no more. But don't, for God's sake, tell her the disgraceful death I am to die. Poor old soul she will not long survive the news of my death But don't break her heart suddenly, letting her know that I died in a drunken broil. I am her only, her darling son : she sold all her trinkets to provide me with a passage ; and I came on this accursed expedition because I hoped to make a fortune, in order to render her old age and widowhood comfortable. But God's will be done or rather the devil's! for we are here on an unblessed business. But no matter." Tears were stealing down the poor little fellow's cheeks, when I interfered, and said, For the sake of Heaven, gentlemen, .proceed no further in this business Lieutenant Jenkins, I am sure, will make an apology for his bad joke, which Mr. Beadle, for the sake of his widowed mother, will accept; and" Here Jenkins interrupted me. He was still employed drawing his ship on the sand. He looked up, and said,

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148 WARNER ARUNDELL : None of your slack-jaw, doctor ; I did not come here to make apologies." Nor I to receive them," firmly replied Beadle. It was agreed that Britton should give the word to fire. I stood aside, to observe the appearance of the parties. The ludicrous features of Jenkins had a trait of doggedness, otherwise they were of the same comic cast. I saw that those of Beadle seemed pale, and I could even observe a slight blue tinge on his lips ; but he seemed firm and collected. He appeared conscious that he stood on the brink of eternity; but he still stood firmly. He exhibited a strong instance of constitutional timidity conquered by moral courage. Britton gave the word fire!" Both pistols were discharged the same instant ; both pistols fell to the ground together ; and, at one and the same moment, Beadle fell forward on his face, and Jenkins sprang up high, and came down on the sand : his ball had passed through the temple of the apothecary, while the ball of Beadle had passed through the aorta of the lieutenant. A brief pang of agony, and Beadle was no more : after a violent, but short tremor, the heart of Jenkins ceased to beat. Scarcely an ounce of blood stained the sand of Lospatos, on

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THE ADVENTURES OF A CEEOLE. 149 which lay the corpses of the late enemies, who were both sent, at the same moment, to answer to their Creator for their enmity. Thus fatally ended a dispute originating in a cruel joke. We all stood astounded at the awful, unprecedented, and unexpected result of this affair. It was known to us all that Jenkins was one of the worst shots on board the Saucy Jack ; and, for the little apothecary, I believe the shot which sent his adversary into eternity was the only one he ever fired. Lieutenant Jack, the major, Trevallion, and Britton, stood paralysed at the dreadful result of the duel. I staggered, and should have fallen, if I had not caught hold of a mangrove-branch. All visible objects the sun, the Gulf, the clouds, the sands on which I stood, and the trees, seemed to whirl rapidly round with me ; until I shut my eyes, and felt a cold perspiration oozing out of every pore of my frame, a deadly sickness of stomach, a difficulty of breathing, and a dimness of vision. Gradually my senses returned, but I was confused : a vain hope arose in my mind, viz. that all I had witnessed for the last five minutes was a horrible dream. I let go the branches of the mangrove-tree, and passed my hand across my

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150 WARNER ARUNDELL : eyes to wipe the big sweat-drops that had fallen on them from my brow. This done, the accursed objects, the bodies of the slain men, who, but a few moments before, were in life and health, came on my vision. Oh, how I wished that I had been drowned ere I reached the hated shores of Lospatos Long minutes fled, and we scarcely changed our position. Now and then we gazed on the two corpses, and then looked at each other and shuddered. Suddenly we were aroused from our lethargy by Purcell, who, with the looks of a demoniac, rushed amongst us. Ha, ha!" said he, "both fallen! both at the same time have finished their voyage, and know in what latitude hell lies The old man told me this would happen, the last time he appeared in the boat. And look aloft, there Do you not see that?" He pointed above, and we cast our eyes upwards to the clouds to which his finger was directed. Do you not see," said the delirious man, do you not see my old father's frowning features, and his hand pointing upwards don't you see it?" We all remarked that one of the noon-tide clouds of the tropics, which hung over Lospatos,

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THE ADVENTURES OF A CREOLE. 151 had assumed the form of a gigantic profile of a human face ; and, just above it, another fantastic roll of vapour had curled itself into the delineation of a hand, with a finger pointing upwards. Of course, imagination aided this vaporous formation ; yet so remarkable was this cloudy portraiture, that it struck us all, at the same moment, as bearing a striking resemblance to a human visage and hand. See see how the old boy frowns on us all and see, where his finger points aloft, to where, in fiery letters, is written his curse I never knew that a vindictive old father's curse would be logged in the sky. Oh, that my poor mother had not died before him Would she not, think you, have dissuaded the old man from having his malediction against her favourite child written in heaven ? An enraged father knows not pity ; but a poor mother will plead at the throne of heaven, like an angel, for an erring child. Oh, my poor mother! would that I could lay my head on your bosom : a tear from your eye would quench the hell-flames burning on my brow He pressed his hands to his burning temples, as a flash of lightning rent the clouds which had acted upon his imagination, and glared on the dismal, ill-omened island. At the same instant a

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152 WARNER ARUNDELL : long peal of thunder roared over Lospatos, and was echoed from the Gulf. Hark! said the delirious man, how the old fellow howls at me! I'll hide myself in the sea!" He made two or three hurried steps towards the water ; but, his strength failing him, he fell on the sand. We carried him into the boat, and covered him with a sail, by way of awning. I moistened his lips with a little water, and he became less turbulent. He yet muttered about his father's curse ; so terribly had it taken possession of his imagination. I felt his pulse, and found he had so violent a fever that its beating could not be counted. The appearance of several vultures, winging their gloomy way from Trinidad, and approaching to where the bodies were lying, called our attention to them. Silently we drew near, drove off the carrion birds, and turned the face of the dead upwards. Both the countenances of the slain men bore the marks of extreme agony : their cadaverous looks were sickening to behold. We cut a few mangrove sticks, with which we made a deep hole in the sand, above high-water mark, in which we placed the bodies of Jenkins

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THE ADVENTURES OF A CREOLE. 153 and Beadle, and covered them with the sand we dug from out the grave. Now and then, a short ejaculation, or brief supplication for mercy, broke as it were involuntarily from us. Our prayers were not for the dead : our devotion was selfish. None of us had that day tasted food. Our little store of provisions, laid in for this inauspicious voyage, was now produced. Some of us ate a little, but complained that the viands had no taste ; they, however, drank less sparingly. I could swallow nothing but water. Few words were spoken, none wasted. We seemed, to use the expression of Wordsworth, All silent, and all damned." We rose to depart. Lieutenant Jack addressed me thus : From the unhappy state of my principal, Mr. Arundell, custom might require that I should stand in his place as his second ; but I hope the awful termination of one duel He paused. I replied, Enough, sir ; there is sufficient blood on our hands already." I hope," said the lieutenant, that our courage will not suffer in the opinion of the world." Curses on the opinion of the world!" I reH 2

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154 WARNER ARUNDELL : plied ; behold the result of the influence of that opinion pointing to the mound of sand that lay over the grave of the duellists. We launched the boat with some difficulty, in consequence of Purcell being in it. The afternoon breeze wafted us soon from the hated shores of Lospatos ; and, from that time to the present, I have never been able to look on its gloomy, unpeopled shores, without shuddering. We arrived in Port of Spain that night at nine o'clock : we landed secretly. No one saw us depart for, and none saw us return from, our unblessed voyage : we quitted the island with the caution of fugitives from justice ; we came to it as stealthily as murderers. Medical assistance was that night procured for Purcell. We informed the physician of what was the fact, that he was attacked with fever while sailing on the Gulf. The doctor's look at once bespoke despair: the disease had already got beyond the management of science ; for that mysterious forerunner of death, black vomit, had made its appearance. Through the night, and the next day, he raved about his father's curse ; and the third morning after the attack commenced, he was borne to a hasty grave.

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THE ADVENTURES OP A CREOLE. 155 CHAPTER VIII. Sent in this foul clime to languish, Think what thousands fall in vain ; Wasted with disease and anguish, Not in glorious battle slain." GLOVEU. ABOUT this time, i.e. in 1817, the demon of civil war was distracting South America ; and, as if this curse were not a sufficient visitation, yellow fever infected the air of the whole continent. Soon the pestilence reached the West Indies. Whence this disease came, or whether it be importable, are questions that need not be mooted in this work : sufficient it is to observe, that the same kind of fever circulated round the entire tropical parts of the globe. In most of the southern, and some of the northern states of America ; in many parts of India lying without the tropics; and even in Europe, an epidemic prevailed, which, if not what is here called the yellow fever, was a malady very like it in its

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156 WARNER ARUNDELL : general character, but rendered less violent by a more temperate climate. Nothing could look more gloomy than the capital of Trinidad, during the prevalence of this malady. Business seemed to stagnate : many fled into the country, vainly hoping to escape the disease : nothing was heard but the tolling of funeral-bells, and little seen but the long processions of the showily arrayed Catholic priests, and their red-habited choristers, acolytes, and crucifers, going to administer extreme unction, or singing funeral dirges, and carrying the scarcely cold, yet already putrid, victim of the epidemic to the house appointed for all. The tolling of the funeral-bells became so O incessant and disheartening, that Sir R. Woodford ordered their discontinuance. A great misfortune in the colonies was, the supply of Peruvian bark ran out ; insomuch, that it was sold as high as forty or fifty dollars the pound. This is disgraceful to the West Indies, which possesses a soil and climate well adapted for the culture of the tree which produces this bark : nor does it speak much in favour of the botanical knowledge of the Trinidadian ; as in that magnificent island are to be found, growing wild, substitutes for that valuable drug, little, if at all, inferior to the best cinchona.

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THE ADVENTURES OF A CREOLE. 157 Several persons were attacked with the disease in question at the tavern at which I put up. On one or two occasions I ventured to give my opinion to the medical man in attendance : he thought something of my skill, because my views of the case coincided with his own. Most men think highly of the judgment of those who judge as they do. He inquired if I were a regular member of the profession : I told him under what circumstances I left England without a license : he advised me to call on the governor, and explain this matter; and he would, doubtless, give me a note of introduction to the medical board, who would examine my qualifications, and if these were found respectable, that body would give me a license to practise. Pursuant to this counsel, I waited on his excellency. I went to Government House, and announced my name : I was instantly admitted into the presence of Sir R. Woodford, who, unlike most governors, was neve'r absent from his post during hours of business, and at all times and places accessible. I was struck with the majestic appearance of the governor. He wore the Windsor uniform ; his eye was penetrating, his brow capacious, and all his features regular, handsome, and even noble, but indicative of a haughty disposition.

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158 WARNER ARUNDELL : He was most unlike the portrait which, some years subsequently, Sir Thomas Lawrence painted for his excellency. The cause of this was, his countenance had two distinct kinds of expression, the most unlike each other that any set of features ever could assume. The one might properly be called his official face, which had, in an extraordinary degree, an air of hauteur, mistrust, and penetration : but his non-official countenance was affable and amiable ; insomuch that, if Sir Thomas wished to paint the beau-ideal of a finished gentleman, he could scarcely have chosen a better study than Sir Ralph Woodford while entertaining his guests at St. Ann's. The painter copied the features of the private gentleman ; and the portrait, therefore, bore no resemblance to the governor of Trinidad. His excellency received me with a haughty politeness ; but, in one sense, his manner was not distant for he came so close to me that, at one time, I thought he wished to salute me in the New Zealand fashion, by joining noses. The cause of this was, Sir Ralph possessed the sense of smelling most acutely, and had a mortal detestation to the odour of strong drink. No priest ever hated toleration more intensely than Woodford hated drunkenness. Hence it was his custom, on receiving a visit from any one who

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THE ADVENTURES OF A CREOLE. 159 came to pay his respects to the governor, to approach him sufficiently close to catch the scent of the breath of the party. If the visitor had drank the smallest quantity of spirits within many hours of the visit, Sir Ralph would detect it, and write him down in his powerful memory as one accustomed to indulge in ardent spirits. Few of those ever obtained favour from his excellency. Having been submitted to this singular scrutiny, he retired a foot or two, and then deliberately viewed me from head to foot, when his haughty features relaxed into a smile of condescension and approval. He asked my name. 1 told it. He at once said, Ah! Mr. Warner Arundell I recollect now. You came out as surgeon to the Saucy Jack *. I bowed assent. I regret," continued his excellency, that a gentleman of your appearance should have come hither on so fruitless an enterprise, and am more sorry that your fellow-passengers should have been persons so wild in their conduct. I am told," said the governor, looking into my eyes as though he were fencing with me, I am told that, not satisfied with the ravages created by the present insalubrity of the climate, your fellow-passengers are committing rapid suicide on

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160 WARNER ARUNDELL : their reason, and slow suicide on their health, by continued intoxication. And I am further informed, that already two of the inmates of Cumberland House have disappeared in a mysterious manner. Now, sir, I have strong reason to suspect Here the governor was interrupted, fortunately for me, or he would have observed my confusion. The interruption proceeded from a Portuguese servant, who had followed Sir Ralph from Madeira. The man spoke to the governor in Portuguese, and announced that Dr. Chicano waited on his excellency. Admit him," said the governor. I was now about to retire, when Sir Ralph motioned me to remain. "He is only a Spanish lawyer that waits on me. Our conference will be very brief," said his excellency. Dr. Chicano was admitted. He was a middleaged South American, with a form inclined to corpulency, a bright twinkling eye, and a humorous Cervantic cast of countenance. The governor addressed him in Castilian, which, in common with almost all European languages, Sir Ralph spoke fluently. It was evident the governor, supposing me a stranger, conceived I knew not the language he spoke ; consequently, he ad-

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THE ADVENTURES OF A CREOLE. 161 dressed the lawyer as though he were holding a private conversation with him. I, of course, did not seem to notice what he said. I have sent for you," said Woodford, Doctor Chicano, to consult you as a lawyer: the question I shall put to you will be brief, and I know you too well to suppose you will give me a complicated answer to a simple query. You are aware that the illustrious board of cabildo* has of late been shewing some signs of contumacy to my will : in fact, it is trying to imitate those petty but turbulent bodies in the old English colonies, called houses of assembly. Now, my question is this : what power does the Spanish law allow me as governor and president of the cabildo ; and what are the duties of the rest of the members of this illustrious body?" Sir Ralph," replied Chicano, I will define your legal powers, and their duty, in a few words. You have the power, by Spanish law, of ordering the illustrious board to do whatever you please ; and it is the duty of the rest of the members to say, Si, senor.' Saying this, the doctor of laws bowed politely low ; and the governor bowed still lower, in approval of this short but significant advice. The cabildo is a kind of town. council.

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162 WARNER ARUNDELL : I had resolved not to seem to understand what took place ; but the laconic, yet complete definition of the authority which the Spanish law gave to a governor took me by surprise, and I smiled involuntarily. Sir Ralph's eye caught my countenance, and his penetration instantly informed him that he had erred in addressing Chicano before me, under the presumption that I did not understand the language spoken. You understand Spanish?" said he to me, in that language. Si, senor," was my reply, bowing lower than either. A flash of displeasure passed over the brow of the governor ; his lips curled, until, with his fine teeth, he bit the under one. He drew up his form, and addressed me with greater hauteur than he had yet used. Pray, Mr. Arundell, to what cause am I to attribute the honour of your visit?" With as few words as I could condense my sentiments into, I informed him of my motive for waiting on him ; which was, to solicit a letter of introduction from him to the medical board, in order that I might be examined, and, if found competent, licensed to practise as a medical man : politely reminding him of his promise to aid any one of the passengers of the Saucy Jack who

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THE ADVENTURES OF A CREOLE. 163 chose to remain in Trinidad, instead of joining the insurgents on the Spanish Main. Have you, sir, any diploma or surgical license?" said the governor. I replied in the negative ; explained how I hastily left England when on the point of being examined; at the same time shewed him certificates of having attended lectures, walked hospitals, and studied under eminent men, who all wrote handsomely about my assiduity. In fact, I possessed more vouchers of having received a tolerable medical education, than did most of those who practised the healing art in the West Indies. The governor looked over my papers carefully, but coolly. Humph!" said he, as newspapers observe, very important if true" He said this in a tone which made me understand that he doubted the authenticity of my papers. He added, I never knew any one who came out to join the rebels on the Main, but could produce unexceptionable testimonials as to character, as advertisements state." I felt displeased at his remarks. From my infancy I abhorred falsehood, and never could tolerate any one's throwing a slur on my veracity.

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164 WARNER ARUNDELL : The governor continued, I fear, sir, I can be of little use to you in recommending you to the medical board. It meets to-morrow. You may apply to be examined, and it is in their power to license you ; but, so far from recommending you, I will caution them to examine you with the greatest rigour, and, if you are not found to possess knowledge which shall bear out these fine certificates, I will advise them to reject you." And I presume," said I, according to that gentleman," pointing to Chicano, you have the power of ordering them to do just what you choose, and it is their duty to say, Si, senor.' This ill-timed retort brought a frown on the brow of his excellency : it made Dr. Chicano smile ; which, when Sir Ralph observed, his face grew red, insomuch that, passing his hand down one of his cheeks for a moment, the white marks of his fingers were visible. I have a duty to perform, sir," said the governor, with warmth, *' in guarding his majesty's subjects from trusting their health to the care of ignorant persons. If you have received the education you pretend to, you need fear no scrutiny of the medical board ; but, if it shall be found that, like many who come to this part of the world to turn doctor, you are merely from the counter of an apothecary

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THE ADVENTURES OF A CREOLE. 165 To prevent such a discovery," interrupted I; "to prevent the medical board's licensing a mean, ignorant apothecary, I decline being examined." I took my papers, bowed, and was taking my leave, when he said, in a milder tone, Pardon me, young man I meant not to offend you : you seem susceptible, and rather proud." My pride, Sir Ralph, is defensive pride." All pride is sinful," said his excellency. Then what a sinner you must be!" thought I. But I replied, I cannot help my pride ; I am of a proud race, who, until the last five minutes, never suffered any one with impunity to question their veracity." Saying this, I bowed again, and left Government House. During this interview I was much to blame, nor was the governor's conduct very commendable ; he roused my anger, by more than hinting his doubts of my veracity. I know I have a reasonable stock of vices; but mendacity, I believe, is not of their number. I hope I am not destitute of virtues ; but in the brief catalogue of them humility is not to be found. Sir Ralph, as I was subsequently informed, regretted his harsh treatment of me ; more especially when Dr. Chicano, who, it appeared, knew

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166 WARNER ARUNDELL : me, informed him that I was nephew to an old and respectable colonist of this island. He made inquiries about my character : these satisfied him, and added to his regret of having offended me. He proposed reconciling me at his supper-table the following night ; and no man knew better to gain the good-will of his guests than Sir Ralph Woodford. But, just as his invitation arrived the next day, I was on the wing for the island of Margarita. An independent schooner that afternoon arrived from the Main, bringing news that Angostura was recaptured by the independents ; that Bolivar, assisted by M'Gregor, had given the royalists a defeat; and, finally, the independent cause was flourishing. The schooner was despatched by Bryon to Trinidad, where, it was supposed, many persons were waiting to join the patriots. I did not hesitate to embark on board the schooner, which was going to Margarita. Glenlyon, the two Germans, Trevallion, Britton, Jack, and several passengers of the Saucy Jack, went with me. The rest were discouraged from proceeding, and found employment in the island, or were provided for by new rum and yellow fever. Just as I was embarking, the governor's Portuguese servant put a note of invitation to supper

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THE ADVENTURES OF A CREOLE. 167 into my hands. I returned a pencilled answer, politely declining the intended honour, as I, at that moment, was embarking to pay a visit to General Arismendi, the commandant of Margarita, and the enemy of Sir Ralph Woodford The governor of Trinidad hated all the insurgent chiefs, and their cause. Our voyage was pleasant : the next day I was in the populous, but arid island of Margarita.

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168 WARNER ARUNDELL : CHAPTER IX. Avansar, avansar, companeros Con los armas al numbro avansar ; Libertad pora sempre clamenos ; Libertad, libertad, libertad Patriot Song. THE island of Margarita, considering its size and want of fertility, possesses a dense population, which is, perhaps, the most industrious and energetic of any people that speak the Spanish language. The Margaritans were more devoted to the cause of freedom than the inhabitants of any part of the adjacent continent : hence, this island was repeatedly the last stronghold of South American freedom, wherein the defeated, but undaunted, patriots retreated, and whence they sallied forth to liberate the New World. There being as yet no history of the South American revolution, the following brief sketch of it may not be unacceptable to the reader of these memoirs. It may serve to give him such an

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THE ADVENTURES OF A CREOLE. 169 idea of this strangely neglected, but most important event, as a rough map, drawn by a pen, without scale or compass, may give a man of the general outlines of a country. In the present advanced state of knowledge, it is, perhaps, superfluous to remind the reader, that whenever a colony gets too strong for the parent state, she will shake off her dependence : for, let a colony be however well governed, it will still contain some discontented spirits some disappointed men, who are ready to magnify every trifling, real, or imaginary grievance, into tyranny on the part of the parent state, But, so extraordinarily misruled were the Spanish dependencies, that, had not the bulk of the colonists been the most loyal people that ever breathed, they would have revolted a century ago. Every article imported into the New World was made a monopoly. In short, the whole Spanish colonial system was one of monopoly, and of that sort of tyranny which is founded on the ignorance of those whom it oppresses ; and is, consequently, opposed to permitting any political knowledge to the people. In English "colonies, lying about the same distance from the metropolis as those of Spain from the Peninsula, the produce and manufacture of the parent state may, in general, be bought in the wholesale at the rate of from 25 VOL. II. I

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1 70 WARNER ARUNDELL to 60 per cent above their first cost ; but in the Spanish Main, from this practice of monopoly, few goods, unless smuggled, could be bought for less than 500 per cent above their European price, and often 5000 per cent profit on certain articles was exacted by the purchaser of the monopoly. This state of things caused discontent, and, as a matter of course, a wish for independence. Again, Spain, by a degree of infatuation to which history can scarcely find a parallel, encouraged the North Americans to throw off their dependence on England, on account of a dispute about a trifling duty on tea and stamps, while she herself was exercising the most cruel system of taxation on her colonies ever recorded. Had Washington not succeeded, Bolivar had remained a mere amiable, but indolent Creole; and Paez, a wild tamer of scarcely more wild cattle. Whatever were the grievances of the insurgents of North America, the conduct of the Bourbons of France and Spain, in assisting the rebellious subjects of England, was as foolish as it was wicked; aud their folly and wickedness recoiled on their own heads. The spark which set France in a state of conflagration, wherein Louis XVI. lost his crown and life, was brought by his subjects from America. The King of Spain sent partisans

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THE ADVENTURES OF A CREOLE. 171 to liberate North America ; and, amongst these, Miranda, the father of South American liberty, learned the art of war, which he used to free his oppressed land. But the greatest cause of the South American revolution was the shameful partiality shewn by Spain to her native population, in preference to her transatlantic subjects. A Spaniard quitted his country with a barren title of nobility, and in some provinces of the Peninsula all are noble : he came to the New World, made a large fortune, which his descendant, born in America, might inherit ; yet was the latter considered as an inferior to the parvenu who came out yesterday a penniless and illiterate adventurer. The Spaniard was considered noble because he was a Cachupin.* South America had her native aristocracy; but Spain looked on them as a race inferior to her native plebeians : hence, the Marquis del Toro, the Marquis de Berroteran, Count Xavier, and the Marquis de Casa Leon, were refused offices which were trusted to clerks of Cadiz. Although Spain attempted to keep her colonists in utter ignorance, yet occasionally know* This word was taken from the Mexicans, who called white men Cachopines. The Spaniards applied the term to any one of their countrymen who settled in the New World during the war of independence. The word Cachupin was used to designate a Royalist.

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172 WARNER ARUNDELL : ledge would find its way into South America. She could not prevent them from paying occasional visits to North America, where they beheld a people, who had thrown off their dependence on the mother country, without having a millionth part of the complaint against England which the southern division of America had against Spain. These, although not all, were the principal causes which rendered South America the soil of independence ; but England has the honour or disgrace of sowing the seeds of revolt in this soil. Spain, at the end of the last century, found herself unwillingly obliged to join France in a war against England. Great Britain cast her eyes on the colonies of Spain ; these she could not spare an army to conquer, but she supposed she could easily revolutionise. To do this, Spain had set her the example. The year after war was declared, Trinidad was taken an island, from ifs situation, of great importance to further the plan of aiding a revolt in South America : hence, Dundas sent to Governor Picton orders to promote an insurrection on the Main.* These orders the governor executed with such zeal, that Don Jose Autolin del Campo, notary-public to the See Pictou's Proclamation, June 26, 1797.

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THE ADVENTURES OF A CREOLE. 173 government of Margarita, offered, by proclamation, a reward of 20,000 dollars for the head of Don Thomaso Picton. To this proclamation the governor humorously replied, by offering a reward of 20 dollars for the head of Don Jose Antolin del Campo. Truly, the head of the hero of Badajos was worth a thousand times as much as that of a Spanish escribano. The result of these efforts to revolutionise South America was a conspiracy by Gual, and two other state prisoners, who were shut up in La Guayra. This conspiracy was detected and suppressed by the Spaniards. All the time England was at war with Spain, she encouraged the insurgents ; but, when the latter was overrun by the French, the relation of Great Britain towards South America became changed : she could not aid her to throw off the yoke of the mother country, and at the same time preserve her faith with the imprisoned Ferdinand, whose cause she had espoused. She could not, in policy, assist the royalists in Columbia, because it seemed more than probable that Napoleon might eventually succeed in establishing his brother Joseph on the throne of Spain : hence England preserved a kind of wavering neutrality. This was hard on the insurgents, who continually looked to Great Britain for assistance.

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174 WARNER ARUNDELL : All was now confusion in South America : the enlightened part of the Creole population wished for independence ; the Cachupins wished to remain loyal, but knew not to whom to be loyal. Joseph Buonaparte commanded them to obey him as king ; the junta of Seville, the regency of Madrid, and the junta of the Asturias, sent their respective commands to America ; and each ordered the colonies to submit to and acknowledge their authorities, and deny the authorities of the others : while each important city in South America set up a little junta of its own. All this time, Miranda was making progress in rendering his native land independent. This patriot was a native of Caraccas. He had served in North America, where he formed the plan of liberating his country. In furtherance of this design, he entered into the French army during the early part of the revolution. Disgusted with the atrocities of the Reign of Terror, from which he narrowly escaped, he for years wandered about Europe, soliciting by turns each power to aid his design. In 1806, he sailed from North America with a small private expedition, and came to Trinidad, where he got many recruits ; for, since the conquest of that island by the British, it always afforded an asylum to the discontented on the Main : hence

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THE ADVENTURES OF A CREOLE. 175 Miranda found there many men of desperate fortune, not altogether unacquainted with the smell of powder, because in Trinidad almost every man is obliged to be in the militia ; and since the government of Picton, Trinidad has possessed the most respectable militia in the West Indies. There can be little doubt that Miranda would have finally succeeded in his many and persevering attempts to give liberty to his country, but for the occurrence of the earthquake in 1812, which I witnessed. This event happening on Holy Thursday, and on the anniversary of the declaration of independence, the priests, who by the new constitution were deprived of many privileges, persuaded the mass of the people to believe that the awful convulsion of nature was a Divine visitation for their having thrown off' their allegiance to Ferdinand. Miranda suffered now considerable reverses ; and, after labouring for thirty years for the deliverance of his natal soil, he surrendered to the Spaniards, under a promise of amnesty. This was violated, and he died in prison at Cadiz. Yet was not all lost to the patriots : still they made head, and fought for years. Santiago Marino brought an expedition from Trinidad, and joined the great Simon Bolivar, who liberated

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176 WARNER ARUNDELL : and armed his slaves for the deliverance of his country. Jn 1815, Morillo arrived in Columbia, with a well-appointed army often thousand men. He was joined by all the Cachupins, by the Islanos (Canary Island men), and by many of the loyal Creoles. The cause of the patriots now looked desperate : they possessed many a bold partisan chief, but no soldier whose knowledge of tactics could compete with the new Spanish commander. He, however, committed one error, or, more properly speaking, crime, which ruined his cause. After his arrival in America he informed his king that the only way to conquer Venezuela was to exterminate two-thirds of its inhabitants. His acts corresponded with his atrocious advice, or rather exceeded it in atrocity. It soon became evident that his aim was to exterminate or reduce to ruin every man, woman, and child, born in Columbia. When weak insurrections arise in a state, the government may, in policy, treat all the insurgents as rebels : when a rebellion is dangerous from its strength, the first object of the government should be its suppression, and, when that is accomplished, the punishment of its chiefs : but when the insurrection is so general that it is doubtful if the state can conquer it, policy die-

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THE ADVENTURES OF A CREOLE. 177 tates that the horrors of civil war should be alleviated by treating prisoners captured from the insurgents in the same way as ordinary prisoners of war are treated by civilised nations. Every execution of an insurgent, while the insurrection is unsuppressed, calls for retaliation; each act of inhumanity engenders another sanguinary measure, and lessens the chances of conquest on the part of the government, by making the rebels desperate 'as most men would prefer dying in the excitement of battle, wherein they can sell their lives dear, to perishing by the hands of the executioner. An army, like that of Morillo, which attempts the conquest of a country by the indiscriminate massacre of its inhabitants, places itself in an awful dilemma : if it be defeated in its object, the vengeance of the country will annihilate it; if it succeed, it gains a dear triumph over a land of desolation. Until repeated disasters had endangered the existence of his army, Morillo wished to be a second Pizarro, but he had not a set of naked Peruvians to slaughter. The atrocities of the Spanish general disgusted the Americans, and called forth retaliations; until acts of inhumanity, at the recital of which nature shudders, became common in both camps. Soldiers in war are, in general, pitiless beings, despite the severest disi 2

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178 WARNER ARUNDELL : cipline ; but the discipline of Morillo, Boves, and Morales, commanded the indiscriminate slaughter of the aged, the infirm, the mother, and infant at her breast. This naturally caused abhorrence to the Spanish name. Spain warred on old men and women ; the aged and females of Columbia warred on the Spanish murderer in self-defence. While the Creoles were partly Royalists, the war was doubtful : when the whole of the South Americans joined against Morillo, his army melted away like ice, imported from Europe, exposed to a tropical sun ; and the remains of the people of Columbia, reduced to a sixth of their number, became independent. Such is the brief outlines of the South American war of independence. The Spaniards never possessed any party in Margarita. On their landing they sacked Assumpcion, the capital of the island : the men fought while they could, and then retired to the mountains. The aged, infirm, the women and children, took refuge in the churches and convents : here they were slaughtered by the Royalists. I saw the blood of the murdered near the altar of one of their churches ; Arismendi, the patriot commander of Margarita, would not allow it to be washed out. Behold," said he, men of Margarita, the

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THE ADVENTURES OF A CREOLE. 179 church of your God stained by the murderous Spaniards with the blood of your fathers, wives, sisters, and infants Swear on the altar of the eternal God, which the slaves of Ferdinand have strewn with the gray hairs of age, and the tresses of the maidens of this island swear on it to avenge this outrage And the Margaritans swore vengeance against the Royalists : well, too well, were their oaths fulfilled. Repeatedly the Spaniards landed at Margarita to exterminate the inhabitants of this last fortress of independence ; but as often they retreated, baffled, from this island, leaving one half of their numbers to feed the vultures. These attempts were so often repeated, and so uniformly defeated, that the inhabitants used to hail, with stern joy, the arrival of the Royalists in the Bay of Parnpatar. Men, women, and children, would exclaim, Hurra! the Cachupin dogs come!" Uttering an untranslatable oath, they would retreat to the mountain of Macanon ; which being covered with prickly pears, they could not be pursued with success. From this height they continually rushed down on the invaders, who were allowed no rest night nor day ; until, from the incessant attacks of the Margaritans, the Spaniards retreated from the island, baffled and

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WARNER ARUNDELL : disgraced. A people resolved to be free cannot be conquered. Morillo, and his ten thousand men, were insufficient to subdue an island which contained a surface of but thirty square leagues, although the islanders were obliged to oppose stones and clubs to his muskets and artillery. When I landed, I was introduced, by the captain of the vessel I sailed in, to Colonel Arismendi, a man of middle age, whose straight and glossy hair indicated that he was a mestezo, i.e. of mingled Spanish and Indian blood. He received my fellow-passengers and myself cordially, and advised Trevallion, Britton, and two others, to join Brion's fleet, at that time in the Oronoco. This they agreed to, and that evening we took leave, and they went on board a sloop. Glenlyon, the two Germans, three other passengers, and myself, he proposed to send in a launch to Cumana, in order to join a small party that were going to cross the Sierra de Bergantia to join Bolivar, who was about to make an attempt for the relief of Maturin, which was closely invested by the Royalists. We consented to this arrangement, and Arismendi invited us to dine with him. We went with the commandant to his dwelling. Passing a sentinel at his own door, Arismendi asked the soldier for his cigar : the latter

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THE ADVENTURES OF A CREOLE. 18J thought he wished it to light his own, and gave it to the colonel ; but, perceiving the commandant coolly put it in his mouth, smoke it, and enter at the door, the sentinel followed his officer, exclaiming, Caramba !* commandant, you are not going to steal my cigar!" He spoke in anger; the commandant swore at him ; and he returned the compliment with compound interest. Arismendi told him he would send him four other cigars, and walked into the house. This was the first scene of republicanism I beheld : it gave me a poor opinion of the discipline of the army I was about to join. Trifles often indicate great political changes. For three centuries the parrots of South America were taught to speak a rough couplet, indicative of the hatred between the Spaniards and Portuguese. It ran thus: Lorita real For 1'Espana, no por la Portugal." The parrots of Margarita were now taught to say, Lorita patriota por I' America, no por VEspana." The heads of all the poor birds that persisted in uttering the old cry were mercilessly wrung off. An exclamation equivalent to indeed !'

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182 WARNER ARUNDELL : I slept that night at the quarters of Arismendi. The next morning, an Independent privateer, commanded by one Captain Griffiths, entered the Bay of Pampatar. She brought a Spanish brig, which she had captured ; and a lady, whose arrival excited universal joy. Some months previous to this, the commandant's second wife, a most beautiful woman, while bathing at night, was captured by a party of Morillo's army. About the same time her husband attacked an advanced post of the Spaniards, which he cut to pieces, save one Colonel Monter, and about one hundred and fifty men, whom he made prisoners. This colonel was one of the most merciless of those concerned in the massacre in the church. Morillo knew his worth, and sent a messenger to Arismendi to say that, if Colonel Monter was spared, he would restore the lady; if not, she should be slain. This threat would have placed an ordinary patriot in a trying situation, for the commandant was tenderly attached to his wife ; yet, the blood of his slaughtered countrymen called out for vengeance on the infamous Monter. But Arismendi possessed the stern feelings of a Spartan : on receiving the message, he caused his own son to sever the head from the body of the blood-thirsty colonel

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THE ADVENTURES OF A CREOLE. 183 before the messenger of Morillo, and sent him back with a threat that, if his wife were slain, he would hang up the hundred and fifty prisoners he had captured. Nothing could exceed the rage of Morillo at this : he ordered Arismendi's wife to be killed ; but several officers, fearing the vengeance of the patriot, interceded for her. A solitary act of humanity was now performed by Morillo: he sent the lady prisoner to Cadiz, whence she escaped a few days after in man's attire, and got on board a Spanish ship bound for the Havana : this was captured by a privateer off the Azores, and th lady was brought safely, by Captain Griffiths, to the arms of her husband. A general joy pervaded the island of Margarita on the debarking of the lady. Nothing was heard but Viva lapatria!" long live our noble commandant and his lady!" She landed under a salute of artillery. All the inhabitants were mustered on the beach to receive her. A car was procured, in which she was placed the men dragging and the women strewing flowers in her way ; while the aged and children invoked blessings on the beautiful wife of the patriotic Arismendi. The car was dragged to the house of the commandant, more than a league

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184 WARNER ARUNDELL : up the country ; after which she walked, in solemn procession, to the church, the floor of which was stained with the blood of the Margaritans. She knelt, and returned thanks to the Supreme Disposer of events, for her happy deliverance, while the solemn edifice was filled with people, who joined in her devotion.

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THE ADVENTURES OF A CREOLE. 185 CHAPTER X. Along the banks of Oronoc, The voice of freedom 's heard at length ; Thy Sambos, Maturin, are woke With dauntless hearts, and arms of strength. 1 Columbian Song of Liberty. THE next morning I took leave of Arismendi, and went on board a Patriot launch, with the two Germans, Major Glenlyon, and three other of my fellow-passengers of the Saucy Jack. The commandant told us to be sure and keep our fire-arms loaded, as the coast between Margarita and Cumana was infested with Royalist launches. This advice we, fortunately, did not neglect. We (that is, the late passengers of the Saucy Jack on board the launch) elected the major as our commander; and the patron of the launch, a gigantic Sambo,* a sullen man, but brave A man of mixed Indian and negro race.

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186 WARNER ARUNDELL : and cool took charge of the rowers, and eight volunteers, of mixed Indian and European race, who were going with us to join the Republican army. We were half the day pulling over to the Main ; we then wound round the various points of land, in a westward direction, towards Cumana, until evening, and then anchored all night. The next morning we took up our wooden anchor, and proceeded on our voyage ; the Sambo patron cautioning us to keep our arms loaded. This caution was not needless. As we approached a point of land, we heard, on the other side, a voice exclaim, in Spanish, Pull away, my boys \" and a great number of men replied, Viva el Rey Fernando!" To arms!" exclaimed our patron, in a low voice. Instantly every musket we had was cocked, and all our loaded pistols were in our belts. We had fourteen muskets and two blunderbusses in the boat, besides a number of pistols : we also had a swivel in the bows of the launch, which was loaded with musket-balls. The exclamation of the Royalists gave us warning of their approach, ere we could see each other, .being on different sides of a projecting tongue of land. This circumstance allowed us a precious minute

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THE ADVENTURES OF A CREOLE. 187 for preparation, which we failed not to improve. We rowed to the point, and ran into the mangrove-branches, which skirted the shore and hung over into the sea. The rowers took in their oars and seized their arms. This was not done a moment before it was necessary, for a large launch, having twice our numbers, shot round the point ; and the first notice they received from us was a discharge of great and small arms. One of the Germans levelled and fired the swivel with murderous precision, using a spark from his meerschaum for the latter purpose. The great arms being discharged, we did not remain to load again ; the Sambo ran us on board ere they had time to recover from their surprise or fire a single gun at us. Our pistols completed the confusion : a shot from one of mine laid low one of their rowers. Major Glenloyn reserved the fire of one of the blunderbusses, which he now discharged at the Royalist patron, a white man. He killed him, and wounded another. Several of the Cachupins jumped into the sea. We boarded a brief struggle took place and the launch was ours. I regret to say, that one of the Germans and Major Glenlyon were killed in boarding. Besides these, we

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188 WARNER ARUN DELL : had two rowers and three Margaritans badly wounded. I am sorry to say, that, after the capture of the launch, our patron made his people fire on the wretches whom we had driven overboard. Few of these escaped. The prize was valuable on account of its freight, being loaded with arms and salt. She had belonged to the patron, a European, who had a plantation of indigo, near Barcelona ; and the crew were his own negro slaves. This capture was mainly owing to their exclamation of Ramos muchachos Viva el Rey Fernando!" which caused us to surprise them. Four of the poor negroes were allowed quarter, by the intercession of the passengers, on condition that they would volunteer to join the Patriots, and help to row the prize. All the Margaritans lent their aid to do this ; and in the evening we arrived, without accident, at Cumana. Poor Major Glenlyon, after escaping twenty glorious campaigns, was killed capturing a miserable launch; and Miiller, the German, who expected to die a Columbian general, was slain before he reached the Patriot army. As we entered the Gulf of Cariaco, we admired the magnificent scenery, the noble harbour,

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THE ADVENTURES OP A CREOLE. 189 the beach, on which vegetated gigantic specimens of cocoa-trees. Date, and other palm-trees, raised their elegant forms, and mingled their graceful fronds amid the dark and thick foliage of the tamarind. The tall flamingo flew about the coast, while the winged jackals of the south, the galinazo, vulture, or turkey-buzzard, hovered above for prey. War, horrid war, had too well fed these gloomy birds. We landed, and were hailed with joy, in consequence of our capture. Colonel Rocio was the commandant ad interim, and he made us as welcome as his confined means would admit. Arismendi had given me a note of introduction to him, and this procured rne tolerable quarters. The town of Cumana, before the revolution, had 20,000 inhabitants ; but scarcely 500 were now in it. I slept in a cotton hammock ; and the next day, after partaking of an early breakfast, we set out on our journey across the country, to the Guaripichi. We were eighteen in number, including two guides : I had three mules, one to carry myself, and two others formy baggage. It was night before we reached the foot of the Brigenteen mountains, which is a spur of the great range of the Andes. Here we encamped under an ajoupa, or hut of palm-leaves, erected by ourselves. We all slept in hammocks carried for the occasion.

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190 WARNER ARUNDELL : The next day we commenced scaling the Sierras Brigantia a task attended with both difficulty and danger, owing to the abrupt and stupendous rocks, dried channels of torrents, and chasms rent by earthquakes. I never could have supposed that laden animals could achieve the passage across such gaps as our mules passed ; but we arrived, without accident, on the banks of the Guaripichi, five days after we set out, although the actual distance, in a direct line, is scarcely thirty leagues so laborious is the passage of the Brigenteen mountain. I arrived, in good health and spirits, at the quarters of General Bolivar, who had joined the division of the army intended for the relief or recapture of Maturin. I sent to that celebrated man the letter of introduction which Fernandez gave me, and was immediately conducted by his nephew, who was his secretary, into his presence. He received me with great joy, telling me that his army was much in want of gentlemen of my profession. He inquired if I had a tolerable set of instruments ; I satisfied him in this respect. He sent for them to inspect them, and expressed himself well pleased ; insomuch that he kept me in conversation half the night, making me sling my hammock in his ajoupa which, however, differed in no respect from that of

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THE ADVENTURES OF A CREOLE. 191 the poorest soldier until, worn out with fatigue, I ceased to answer his questions, being hindered from continuing the conversation by sleep. I must now describe this great libratador. He was a middle-sized spare man. with a fine aquiline set of features, and a capacious forehead. This, much mental and corporeal labour had already marked with furrows, and had commenced to turn his raven locks gray, although, at this period, he was scarcely thirty-two years of age. His eye was at once mild and penetrating; his voice was remarkably mellow ; he spoke English fluently, although with a foreign accent ; but his pronunciation of Castilian was perfect music. He generally expressed himself in good language ; but his discourse was rather too figurative for ordinary conversation, save when he confined himself to asking questions, which he would do for hours together. From what I heard and saw of this great man, I believe his military genius was not of the highest order. All the good he did as a warrior was caused by his undaunted perseverance, his indefatigable activity, and the confidence he inspired by his disinterested patriotism. By freeing and arming his immense number of slaves, he performed an act of real devotion to the cause of freedom a parallel to which we may look for

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192 WARNER ARUNDELL : in vain in the history of the North American war of independence. Before the revolution he had a princely fortune. He, during years, commanded the armies, established the liberty, and swayed the destiny, of his country ; and he died poor, although he neither was extravagant nor luxurious. These are facts which will be told of him by History, which can shew no greater patriot in her records than Simon Bolivar. I next was introduced to the redoubtable Sir Gregor M'Gregor. In England he is principally known as the author of the Poyais scheme ; here, he was spoken of as the hero of twenty battles. He was a dark-haired powerful man ; and, with the exception of Paez, one of the most terrible men for acts of personal bravery in the Republican service. He had two faults, which were the cause of all his misery and degradation : the-first was, an immoderate thirst ; and the second was, an aversion to water. Having mentioned Paez, I must say a word or two of him. He is stated to be a mulatto, but, judging from his appearance, I should pronounce him of that mixed race of Spanish, Indian, and negro blood, which resembles the class in South America called Peons. At the beginning of the long war of independence, he was a mere Llanaro (Anglice, man of the plains), a

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THE ADVENTURES OF A CREOLE. J 93 keeper or hunter of wild cattle on the great savannas. He is a man not of extraordinary stature, but yet one of matchless strength and activity. By a dexterity peculiar to South Americans, he could throw down the fiercest bull that ever bellowed on the plains ; his feats of horsemanship would astonish an Arab ; he soon became distinguished above his comrades for acts of daring, insomuch that he was the terror of the Spaniards. No man, since the days of Samson, ever slew so many as Paez (always excepting those who kill by patent medicine). Yet, with all, this Paez was a mere savage ; he knew nothing of the theory of war; all he could do was to slaughter, and excite others to slay by mere personal example. He would fight until he fell from his horse in a state of exhaustion, and go into a kind of hysteric, which was peculiar to him ; when, his friends conceiving it dangerous to touch him, he was left to foam and struggle during the paroxysm. His accomplishments consisted in being able to speak Spanish, with the slight corruption which that language has suffered in South America ; he could say, by rote, the Paternoster, and utter a few oaths in broken English. Behold the effects of education An English officer, on whom Paez doted, with that real friendVOL. II. K.

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194 WARNER ARUNDELL : ship which fears not to tell unpleasant truths, informed Paoz that he was, with all his bravery, a mere barbarian, and that he would remain one until civilised by letters, when he would become a truly great man. Amid the privations, toils, and alarms, of a terrible war of extermination, did Paez, under the direction of his English friend, learn the alphabet. Middle-aged as he was, he acquired knowledge with extraordinary rapidity ; and he is now a man of respectable attainments. He has been president of Columbia; which situation he has filled with honour to himself, and advantage to his country. He writes his own despatches, but his secretary corrects a word or two here and there ; he speaks to the congress fluently, sensibly, and, at times, eloquently. In short, Jose Antonio Paez, who, but a few years ago, was a mere ferocious partisan, is now a politician and an accomplished statesman. Twice has his moderation and patriotism saved Columbia from the horrors of a civil war. I also became acquainted with Santiago Marino, who was, perhaps, the best stratagist in the Columbian service. His capture of Gueria with a handful of men from Trinidad his destroying a whole division of the Spanish army, by manoeuvring to get to windward of them,

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THE ADVENTURES OF A CREOLE. 195 and then setting fire to the savanna might do honour to a better soldier than was supposed to have been engaged in this war. But he was haunted by a demon, which often besets the South American Creole: that fiend is gaming. We marched up the Guaripichi, along the magnificent savanna which spreads from the Oronoco to the Brigenteen mountains. Far as the eye could reach, one immense and apparently boundless plain extended until it was lost in the horizon : all around, the verdure of pasture melted into the circling ether, presenting to the eye the vastness of the ocean, without its monotony. Here and there a river wound through this vast savanna, whose meanders might be traced by the forests which flanked its banks ; while in other places arose groves of the gigantic trees of the tropics, which, in the distance, shewed like green islands elevated out of the ocean like pasture. Flocks of wild horses, although thinned by the war, were yet visible, each troop under the command of two or three noble stallions. But the mares outnumbered the males, by one hundred to one ; for the latter are so vicious as to destroy all the rivals they can master. Most of the females were followed by a beautiful foal or two. All the flocks were of one colour, a brown bay : they approached our out-

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196 WARNER A.RUNDELL : posts, gazed wildly at us, sniffed the air; and, at the neigh of one of their commanders, they set off at full gallop, occasionally flinging their hind heels in the air, as if in defiance of us. We also met several immense herds of wild deer, sporting over the glorious plains. Here was a beautiful country! Providence intended it as a paradise man made it a hell We approached Maturin. The siege was abandoned, and the garrison made an unsuccessful sortie on the retreating Royalists. But, although the people of Maturin were beaten back into the town and halfdismantled fort, they aided Bolivar ; and, but for this sally, the Spaniards would -have effected their retreat in good order, without coming to an engagement. Finding they could not do this, they formed in line as the patriots advanced, and a distant cannonading commenced as the two divisions approached. I was on horseback on a little eminence, so that I was enabled to command a view of the affair. Both parties were formed in one line, without having any reserve. We had eight small pieces, the enemy seven ; but theirs were of larger calibre. In this affair, as well as most of the engagements that happened, until the last year or two of the war, ammunition was scarce.

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THE ADVENTURES OF A CREOLE. 197 We had the numerical advantage in cavalry ; but the Spanish troops were rather better armed. Both cavalries were mounted on native horses. In general the Spanish troops used the sabre, and the Creole the lance. I saw the two lines flanked by their respective cavalry, slowly advancing, cannonading each other. Three of our pieces were well served by English gunners, and they produced a visible effect on the enemy's line ; the other four were worked by Creoles, and their fire was a waste of ammunition. The Spanish guns produced little better effect on our line. As they advanced within musket-shot of us, I could perceive a body of Maturinans sally forth cautiously in their rear, to take advantage of any disaster that might happen to the Royalists. This obliged the latter to despatch a part of their cavalry to keep them in check, or they would have been attacked in the rear. Both parties halted within about one hundred and thirty yards of each other, as if by mutual consent, and each line fired a volley of musketry. I saw the flash, and clouds of smoke of both lines, and perceived men fall on either side. Before I heard the reports, they again loaded, and, at double-quick time, advanced, halted within twenty yards, and again each party discharged an irregular, but well-directed volley.

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198 WARNER ARUNDELL : Before the smoke blew off, both lines rushed together, both were broken and mingled, and all were fighting with the naked steel ; the Spaniards using the awkward bayonet,* the Creoles, the less warlike, but more dexterous matcheti, having flung away their muskets. The cavalry, on both sides, engaged with mutual slaughter, but without producing any decided effect. The infantry displayed little discipline ; but no soldiers could fight with more fury, or rather animosity. The general rnelte of infantry lasted about ten minutes. The Royalists gave way ; but, their cavalry coming to their relief, the insurgents could not pursue them, although they remained masters of the field. Again, our troop charged the Spanish horse with little success : however, this charge enabled our line to re-form and re-arm itself with the muskets which they had discarded while the enemy retreated behind its cavalry ; and, by a rather confused attempt at an echellon movement, gained a wood a little to the left. The insurgents had captured two guns. Again the Patriots advanced, apparently to dislodge the Royalists from the wood ; but, on receiving and returning an irregular fire, they In the line the bayonet is a tremendous weapon ; but it is an awkward instrument in a single combat, being purely offensive, and very unwieldy.

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THE ADVENTURES OF A CREOLE. 199 seemed to be thrown into confusion, and formed behind their cavalry. The Royalist horse now charged ours, and were repulsed ; when a cry of Viva la patria!" was heard in the woods, which made the Spanish dragoons retreat in great disorder, followed by the insurgent cavalry. The fact was, on the appearance of the partisans from Maturin, the brave Paez, at the head of his mounted guerillas, made a long detour, in order to join them, unperceived by the enemy. This junction he could not effect ; but he got into the small wood, where he dismounted his troops, until he perceived the Spaniards take up a position at its entrance. He now mounted, and made one of his furious charges on the enemy. The Spaniards were taken by surprise ; and, before their own cavalry could come to their relief, they had fled in all directions. They were followed by Paez, who cut down great numbers of them. Some attempted to seek refuge in the town, but the Maturinans formed beyond the suburbs, and cut them to pieces. Five of the Spanish guns were captured, and the greatest part of the baggage fell into our hands. The Patriots, headed by Paez, pursued the enemy until night. This affair decided the fate of Maturin. We entered it as victors, or rather as deliverers. It

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200 WARNER ARUNDELL : had long been defended by its inhabitants, but was on the point of yielding when Bolivar arrived with relief. A body of women had fought in one of the forts, hence called Elfortizulo de las doncellas the little fort of the maidens." Amongst these Amazons there were many young and beautiful, who fought to defend their virtue and their lives ; for no mercy could be expected by women from the Spaniards, had they taken this patriotic town. A circumstance occurred during this engagement which made a strong impression on my mind. I have already stated that I was on a little eminence which commanded a view of the engagement. Several women, whose homes had been destroyed, and whose only resource was to follow thec amp, stood beside me. When the first discharge of musketry took place, I heard a woman, of mixed European and Indian race, called Mestija,* exclaim, He has fallen! Jose, my son, my firstborn, is down At the second discharge she shrieked again, Oh, God! I am childless! My poor boy, Francisco, is slain The curses of the widow on Feminine of Mestijo.

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THE ADVENTURES OF A CREOLE. 201 the Cachupins My house is destroyed ; my husband was murdered in his hammock; and now, my two boys, whom I blessed, and bade go forth and revenge their father's death, have both fallen Holiest mother of Heaven, I am now a friendless outcast !" She wiped her eyes with her black and dishevelled locks. When she again looked up, and beheld the Spanish and Creole lines mixed, she shouted as loud as though she wished to be heard by her countrymen, Fight on, brave patriots! fight for vengeance fight to revenge Maria Gonzales, whom the Spaniards have robbed of house, home, husband, and children The execration of the houseless wretch, the malediction of the widow of a murdered man, the curse of the childless mother, on the dastard who turns his back on the bloodhound slaves of Ferdinand !" How this woman could perceive her sons fall (for fall they both did) is to me astonishing, considering the distance she was from the lines, and the confusion and smoke which existed. I cannot suppose she merely guessed these events ; and yet it seems all but impossible that the human vision, quickened as it was by the love of a mother for her sons, could have discerned the K2

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202 WARXER ARUNDELL : fall of two particular men, at such a distance, and under such circumstances. At night, I was going over the field to render what professional assistance I could to the groaning wounded. The full moon had risen over the little wood near the field of battle, on the branches of which perched a thousand vultures, in order to be ready for their horrid breakfast the next day. Again I perceived the wretched Maria Gonzales, crouching, in a manner peculiar to people of the New World, her thighs doubled, as it were, on the calves of her legs, and the whole weight of her frame supported on her heels. She held up the body of one of her sons who was slain, while her head drooped over the shoulder of the corpse. Touched with this pitiable sight, I held a lantern that I carried to see if there was yet hopes of recovering him ; but he was dead. The poor mother looked up, with utter despair, and said, He is dead! My brave boys, my poor children, must feed the vultures A groan near us startled the Mestija : she shot a glance around, and, perceiving it carne from a wounded Spaniard, she started on her feet, exclaiming,

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THE ADVENTURES OF A CREOLE. 203 The curse of the widow on you and your country She caught up a part of a broken musket, and, with one vengeful blow, put the Spaniard beyond his misery.

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204 WARNER ARUNDELL : CHAPTER XI. % We are but warriors for a working-day : Our gayness and our guilt are all besmerched With rainy marching in the painful field. And time bath worn us into slovenry." SHAKSHEARE. I WAS now fairly embarked in the cause of South America. I led a wandering life, generally seven or eight hours a-day on horseback ; and the rest of my time was chiefly employed in the arduous duties of my profession. My quarters were in the forests which border the Oronoco, in the great plains of Guiana, the mountains which branch off the main chain of the Andes, and terminate on the shores of the Carribean Sea, or on the rich savannas of Varennes ; watered by the Apure, the Arauca, the Meta, and a hundred other rivers, which, although noble streams, are mere tributaries to the monarch flood the Oronoco. Often, in the unrecorded skirmishes and

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THE ADVENTURES OF A CREOLE. 205 battles which took place in 1817 and 1818, in Columbia, was I obliged to join in the fight in self-defence : sometimes when the party to which I was attached was attempted to be surprised ; and often have I acted as a volunteer. These affairs were too numerous, and had too much sameness, and, I regret being obliged to add, were marked by too many deeds of horror, forme to relate. I cannot reflect on the scenes through which I passed at this period of my life with pleasure, nor can I describe them without pain. I shall, therefore, spare the reader, as well as myself, the misery of the recital; but will merely give a slight sketch of the insurgent army. Nothing could be more picturesque than the appearance of the Columbian troops; and, in one sense, nothing less military. The men were dressed in all the various habiliments of the English, French, and Spanish armies ; and many had the undress of the aboriginal Indians. One would have a British artilleryman's coat, ornamented with French worsted epaulettes ; a Spanish sash, a cavalry helmet, and blue Pennistown trousers, such as are worn by the negroes in the West Indies. Another would wear a blue surtout, minus collar and skirts ; an old staff cocked-

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206 WARNER ARUNDELL I hat, which bore the marks of former splendour the tarnished gilt lace seemed The poor remains of beauty once admired ; while his lower man bore no other habiliment than the Indian guiacou* Their arms were as various as their uniforms, if uniforms they could be called that uniform were not. We had muskets of all European nations, musketoons, rifles, fowling-pieces, carabines, and blunderbusses ; Indian bows and arrows of all sizes, from the six-feet bow of the Caraibe to the two-feet bow of the Choca Indian. The latter generally was used to shoot poisoned arrows, matchetis, and even hard wood. Indian clubs were often resorted to ; and I have seen men, armed with these sharp and heavy clubs, do terrible execution in close encounters. The colour of our soldiers included all complexions and intermixture of European, Indian, and African races. The most effective troops of the Patriots were their cavalry, mounted on the hardy horses of the Savanna. They were generally furnished with matchetis, and sometimes with A piece of cloth or leather, of about four inches by seven in extent, ornamented with beads, &c. The guiacou is the full dress of the South American Indian.

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THE ADVENTURES OF A. CREOLE. 207 sabres. Pistols were often given to the troops, but seldom carried, and seldomer used. Their favourite weapon was a lance of about eight feet in length : this was handled in various ways ; sometimes with one hand, but often with both. It was but rarely thrown.* Some had carabines, but the South American cavalry preferred the blunderbuss to all kinds of fire-arms. This they used to load with slugs. The dresses of the savanna cavalry were truly of primitive cut, consisting in general of what they called a poncho ; i.e. a blanket, with a hole in the middle through which the head was admitted : this was tied round the middle with a lazolian, or wild vine. Some of these ponchos were more elegant, being made of coarse blue cloth, and lined with red or yellow flannel, while some of the chiefs indulged in the luxury of drawers and check shirts. During the heat of the day, these ponchos were taken off, and placed between the saddle and the rider, and at night they did duty for blankets. Their saddles were of wood, made in the Spanish fashion, high be* Morillo was dangerously wounded with a lance, thrown at him while he V\T,S in the centre of a hollow square. So dexterous were the Patriots in the use of the lance, that the Spaniards used to say, Por una lanza una bala" (a lance can only be opposud by a ball.)

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208 WARNER ARUNDELL t hind and before, such as we see in the old Castilian editions of Don Quixote ; they were, however, covered with the undressed hides of the savanna cattle. Their reins were of the same materials ; but they had bits of such power, that, with ease, they could stop their half brokein horses amid their most furious career, and throw the animals back on their haunches. A chinchorin, or network hammock, made of the bark of certain trees, and a parcel of tasajo (smoked beef), were generally fastened behind the saddle. Such was the appearance of these Tartars of the savanna. As regular troops, they could not have stood against European cavalry ; but as partisans, the Spaniards, to their cost, found them truly terrific. Of the British auxiliaries of this period, 1 regret that, in general, I cannot speak favourably. They were too much like the passengers of the Saucy Jack, and were perpetually complaining of the inconveniencies of their stations. Most were professed gamblers ; and in no situation could that interesting class of English (the gamblers) be placed, in which they had greater scope to indulge their amiable peculiarities, than in the insurgent army. Most of them had come to Columbia in full expectation of finding it a land, not of milk and

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THE ADVENTURES OF A CREOLE. 209 honey, but of gold and silver; where there would be little fighting, much pay, and immense plunder. They found hard fare, hard fighting, no pay, and but little plunder. They seemed not displeased at the continued recurrence of hard blows ; on the contrary, as if the enemy did not afford them enough, they were perpetually exercising their pugnacious propensities upon each other. Exceptions must be made to the above sweeping censure. When, at a later period, so many British joined the Patriots that they were enabled to act in a body, they shewed the Spaniards the mettle of their pasture. When the British legion was acting, not as mere partisans, but in pitched battles, it was the terror of the Spaniards. The division of Colonel Farrier, in 1821, at Caribobo, retrieved the day, and fully proved that they were of the same materials which formed the squares of infantry at Waterloo, against which the cavalry of France spent their fury in vain. But in 1817, many of the Patriots were so annoyed by the reiterated complaints, and perpetual duels of the British, that they used to say, all the English were good for, was to fight amongst themselves. However, Paez, no bad judge of the qualities of warriors, was of an opposite opinion. He became so attached to the

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210 WARNER ARUNDELL : British, that, for months together, the English language was the only one which he would condescend to curse and swear in. He would shout, while leading on his Llanaros, Avancar, muchacos God dim my eye Mueron los Cachupinos ; the bloody devils !" &c. &c. When he uttered these and similar expressions in battle, Heaven might have mercy on the souls of the Spaniards which came within reach of his lance or sabre, for Jose Antonio Paez had none on their bodies. The want of a commissariat was severely felt by the insurgents. Owing to unnecessary waste at one period, for weeks together we were constrained to live on smoked and fresh beef, without a particle of salt, bread, or vegetable food. I remember once, on the Upper Oronoco, &, mufeteer arrived in our camp with two anim^l^.loaded with bags of salt : every handful re" this was literally sold for an ounce of. gold, or a pound weight of silver. A doubloon, or sixteen dollars, was actually paid for the privilege of dipping tfoe hand into one of the bags of salt and taking out as much as the hand could contain. After the rapid and advantageous sale of his condiment^ the muleteer commenced drinking gurapo,* and A fermented liquor, often made of cane-juice and pineapples.

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THE ADVENTURES OF A CREOLE. 21 1 gambling with some Sambos and negroes ; until, heated with drink and gaming, the party fell to quarrelling, and he was killed that night with a poniard. There was no coroner's inquest held on his body, nor any judicial inquiry made as to what became of his doubloons and dollars. After a time, we became somewhat reconciled to our carnivorous mode of living ; but the privations of our army were often extreme. I recollect once making a long march, in the height of the dry season, across the savanna, near Tabasco. We were dreadfully in want of water, until we "ffpproaehed a clear spring of this necessary element Impelled by thirst, we hurried towards the water, when, to our vexation, we perceived a party of the enemy making towards the spring in an opposite direction. We had with us a number of women and children ; but the passion for drink (for appetite it was not) overcame the fear of death. The women and children rushed before us, while the men prepared for battle. The former approached the spring, while the Spaniards fired on those famishing and defenceless creatures. We returned their compliment. After a few random shots, by which several poor females and two children fell, the ammunition of both parties were expended : we mutually rushed forward, and met at the spring. Here a deadly

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212 WARNER ARUNDELL I struggle took place, in which I mixed, and was fortunate enough to cut down the commanding officer of the Spanish party: yet, while the men fought, the children ran between their legs, and took hasty draughts of water with their little hands. I even observed that some of the Patriots stooped, and, while with their right hands they warded off the blows of the enemy, they employed their left in dipping them in the stream^ and moistening their parched lips. At length the enemy, fewer in numbers than we, and, perhaps, less under the influence of unsupportable thirst, were beaten and driven from this Esek, or spring of contention. I was now about to drink, but turned from the water with loathing, on account of its bearing the guilty colour of the late affray ; but the women drank, exclaiming, JEsta dulce con la sangrc del enemigo"* I relate this anecdote not through a love of the horrible, but because it may give those who love to sit quietly, surrounded by the comforts of happy peaceable England, and read of battles, some idea of the war of independence. The rancorous feelings of the belligerents made it truly a guerra a muerta war to the death. Our stock of medicines was soon exhausted. It is sweet with the blood of the enemy.'

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THE ADVENTURES OF A CREOLE. 213 This was of less consequence in South America than, perhaps, it would have been in any other country, on account of the abundance of vegetable medicines which that country produces. But little of my attention was taken up as a physician : most of my professional labour was required for the cure of the wounded. Contrary to the practice of most military surgeons, I found the number of gun-shot wounds bore no proportion to those inflicted by steel. This could be accounted for by the scarcity of ammunition to which I before alluded, and which gave this war of extermination a peculiar character. On one occasion, while I was dressing the wounded at the house of a desolated cocoa estate at Curupano, 1 remarked that the few gun-shot wounds I was treating turned out much worse than I had reason, from their nature, to anticipate ; hence, I began to suspect that the bullets with which those wounds were inflicted, were poisoned. I told my suspicion to a Sambo colonel, who was standing near me. He asked me if I thought the poison used on this occasion was the Indian bane. I replied, I supposed not, because that poison caused death a few minutes after it mingled with the blood ; while the poison that I suspected was used, only aggravated the wound, and rendered it more dangerous, although

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214 WARNER ARUNDELL : I could not say how much the effects of the Indian poison might be modified by the heat which the lead acquired in being discharged. On the whole, judging from the appearance of some bullets I had extracted, and wounds I dressed, I judged that it was mineral poison which the enemy used. Can you not poison our bullets, senor doctor?" said the Sambo. I replied, that it was my duty to heal, and not to poison. And yet," replied the colonel, I have seen that you can kill as well as cure. You possess the character of a troublesome fellow to the Cachupins with your pistols. I myself saw you bring down two in one day on the Apure." But, senor," I rejoined, I acted, in the excitement of battle, as a volunteer and a soldier. I cannot abuse my art asa surgeon which is one of humanity by turning poisoner." The Sambo could not understand my reasoning. He said, that he. thought it no worse to destroy an enemy by poison than by steel or gunpowder, after the enemy had set us so bad an example as to have recourse'to so dastardly a ~' method. He declared his ^determinatioif&f steep all' the balls used by the regiment in curari, or Indian poison. I believe he kept his word.

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THE ADVENTURES OF A CREOLE. 215 This Sambo was the famous, and, subsequently, the infamous Castillo, who, many years posterior to this, attempted a counter-revolution in Columbia. The hatred evinced by the South Americans to priests was surprising, considering' they are so superstitious that they lately, in one province, anathematised and excommunicated the mosquitoes; but it was easily accounted for, by recollecting that the priests were all determined and, most of them, sanguinary Royalists. Many of them, not satisfied with preaching against the revolution, took up arms and furiously fought for Ferdinand. Seldom were they known to shew or entreat for mercy to a prisoner ; and, on the other hand, when any of those warrior priests fell into the hands of the insurgents, they wer butchered without mercy. An Andalusian Capuchin, called Padre Andres, but better-" known by the no&L de guerre of Barba Negro, or Black Betrcl, used to boast that he was invulnerable to the balls;, of .the ins'urgents. He, perhaps, believed this himself, and his many and wonderful escapes from battle, and the way he used to expose himself with impunity, impressed many of the insurgents with a belief that he wore a charmed life. He used to wrap his cloak round his arm by way of shield, rush forward

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216 WARNER ARUNDELL : into the lines of the republicans, and, with his heavy toledo espadin* deal death and terror around him. Some thought him the devil ; the Royalists thought him a saint. At length, Barba Negro's career was cut short by Schmeder, my German fellow-passenger. Having heard that the priest was invulnerable, he resolved to try the effects of his carabine on him. He sought him long ; and, at length, discovered his black beard streaming like a meteor on the troubled air. He took a good aim, and shot the priest through the head. The Capuchin," said Schmeder, could not resist a ball fired from the carabine of a heretic." Those of the South Americans who heard this, doubted not that he would be damned ; but, at the same time, they admitted he was a good shot. Spanish sword.

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THE ADVENTURES OF A CREOLE. 217 CHAPTER XII. Je cms que c'tois la vierge de dernieres amours, cette vierge qu'on envoie au prisonnier de guerre pour enchanter sa tombe; dans cette persuasion je lui dis, en balbutiant, et avec un trouble qui, partant, no venoit pas de la crainte du bucher, Vierge, vous etes digne des premieres amours, et vous n'etes pas faite pour les dernieres.' Atala, par CHATEAUBRIAND. FORTUNE now set in full tide against the republicans. Morillo carried every thing before him. Victory after victory crowned his efforts. He had in Columbia alone nine thousand Spaniards, and four thousand native troops, and a vast number of Canary Island men, whose devotion to Ferdinand was boundless. Morillo's rage for extermination was without limit ; it increased with his power to do mischief: while the insurgents were disputing and disagreeing amongst themselves, dispirited by repeated disasters, unpaid, badly armed, worse clad, and depending entirely on the wild cattle of the savannas for VOL. II. L

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218 WARNER ARUNDELL : food. They had lost all the strong fortresses on the Caribbean Sea, and held possession of nothing but the natural fastnesses of the Oronoco, and the unconquerable island of Margarita, which should be as sacred in the eyes of the South American patriot as Thermopylae was to the Greeks. Despair alone held the bulk of the army together; but it was the despair of bravery, which preferred death on the battlefield to death on the scaffold. The chiefs were undaunted. The brave Libratador, the indefatigable Paez, the Spartan Arismendi, the skilful Marino, the daring Sublett, and the furious Monagos, now broke up their regular army, and commenced a system of guerilla warfare, which allowed the Royalists no rest, and which, after many months of hard fighting, ruined their army. My situation during this guerilla war was any thing but agreeable. As a volunteer, and as a surgeon, I had gained much approbation, but little or no pay. My well-provided chests were at first plundered, and then lost, together with a part of my instruments : the dress I wore was the only one I possessed, save one which I had stripped from the body of a Spanish officer, whom I killed in a skirmish at Rio Carribes. One of these dresses I used occasionally to get

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THE ADVENTURES OF A CREOLE. 219 washed by some of the unhappy females who followed the camp, for the poor protection it afforded. Many of these had been educated as ladies, reared in the lap of luxury, and had been the belles of Venezuela ; for no fault of theirs they were now doomed to be the wretched dependants on our wild army. These poor women willingly performed the most menial offices for any one who would share with them such miserable rations as we obtained. Such was the consequence of the crimes of Spain crimes, in this respect, unlike those of the first ravagers of the New World, for they were committed in vain. One night, after a hard day's ride, I arrived at a post far up the Oronoco, which was commanded by one Colonel Penango. Here was a party destined to attack the enemy, who were encamped at the mission of Alta Gracia ; but< unfortunately, we had that day captured from the enemy a quantity of fiery Spanish wine, which the colonel injudiciously allowed his troops to drink. The effects of this imprudence soon became visible : several quarrels took place ; the colonel interfered, and an Indian, of the tribe called Yaruros, struck him. Had he slain the man on the spot, or had him tried by such courts-martial as were used in the insurgent camp, the matter would have blown over ; but, unfortunately, Penango

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220 WARNER ARUNDELL : had seen the way in which the British auxiliaries treated men guilty of insubordination, by appealing to their feelings with the aid of a cat-o'nine-tails, and was determined to introduce the practice of flogging amongst his partisans ; without recollecting that, the naked Indian being two thousand years in civilisation behind the modern English, the former could not appreciate the beneficial effects of the said cat, with its unnatural number of tails. We all know that in the British army flogging is absolutely necessary for the maintenance of its morality and discipline ; or, if we know it not, it is not for want of being told ; but savages conceive that flogging is fit only for dogs and slaves : hence the whole of the Yaruros in our camp vowed revenge for the insult offered to one of their tribe. Penaugo had marched to surprise Boves ; but, encamping during his march, Pore, the chief of the Yaruros, sent a message to the Spaniards, informing them of the expedition under Penango, and advising them to attack the insurgents in the night, when the Yaruros would rise on the Patriots, and assist the Spaniards. In pursuance The last Maroon war in Jamaica, in 1795-6, which kept, for eighteen months, that island in a state of alarm, and cost one million sterling, arose from flogging two Maroons. Had they been shot, their comrades would not have noticed it.

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THE ADVENTURES OF A CREOLE. 221 of this advise, Boves despatched one Colonel Borero, and one hundred and fifty men, to surprise Penango. The Spaniards did not arrive until half-past four in the morning, by which time the Indian traitors had given over all hopes of an attack that night, and were asleep, when the Spaniards shot the sentinel and attacked the Patriots. The Indians rose from their sleep ; but, in the confusion and darkness, knew not one person from another : they rushed on the Royalists and insurgents, each fighting the first he met. All was confusion ; and it so happened that most of the Patriots effected their escape. More of the Spaniards fell ; but of the treacherous Yaruros scarcely one survived the night attack ; for the Royalists, observing several of the Indians fight against them, conceived they were betrayed, and turned on the Yaruros, who obtained the reward of their treason. The whole affair was badly conducted by all parties. But I must relate my share in this transaction. I had, the previous night, arrived in Penango's camp, much fatigued, having that day fairly knocked up two hardy horses, having been three times attacked by skirmishers, and having swam five wide streams, before I tasted any other food than tasajo and some water. I found in the camp plenty of provision, which

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222 WARNER ARUNDELL had been taken from the Spaniards. I supped very heartily, and drank much more strong wine than I was accustomed to take ; but I stopped short of intoxication. I tethered my weary horse under a tree, and, with my hammock, ascended its trunk. Having tied this to two branches, I got in, but in vain essayed to sleep ; being hindered therefrom either by excessive fatigue, or by having taken too intemperate a meal, or by both circumstances combined. I passed rather a feverish night. At length I recollected having about my person a small well-secured phial of laudanum, which I was in the habit of carrying with me, in order to drop a very small quantity into the very bad water I was sometimes necessitated to drink in the savannas. I applied to this sonmiferic, and soon felt its effects : I fell first into an uneasy state of confused dreams, and finally into a heavy sleep ; hence, when the camp below was attacked, I knew nothing of the circumstance, although I recollect dreaming of having been in a battle. The Patriots having at length been driven from the camp, day opened, and the Spaniards were masters of the dear-bought field. One perceived my suspended bed, and pointed me out to his comrades. Instantly a volley of musketballs came rattling about my leafy chamber.

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THE ADVENTURES OF A CREOLE. 223 None hit me, but one cut the cord of rny hammock. Down I fell, fortunately feet foremost. I plunged from branch to branch in a state of insensibility, until I alighted on a bearded Spaniard one of those who had sworn never to shave until Ferdinand was restored to his dominions in Venezuela. This man's neck broke my fall, but my fall broke his neck. I was stunned with the tumble ; and, when I came to my senses, I found myself tightly bound, and in custody of two Catalonian soldiers. They told me not to stir, for my life, until their colonel came. This personage soon approached me : he was a little dark Andalusian. He ordered me to rise ; I did so. He looked sternly at me, and asked what rank I held in the insurgent army. I told him. I asked," said the Andalusian, because, ammunition being scarce, his excellency has ordered us to sabre every man below the rank of captain. To those of or above that rank, we give a musket-ball." A pretty dilemma I am in thought I. But," continued the colonel, General Morillo said nothing about barber-surgeons ; and I know not what rank they hold. However, I suppose I must compound matters with you, and

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224 WARNER ARUNDELL : give you a pistol-ball. What would you advise us to do, senor doctor?" My advice to you," replied I, is, that you treat me as all civilised nations treat prisoners of war." Modest and disinterested advice this, camarade ; but what good should we get by following it?" Why, colonel, General Bolivar might be induced to treat one of your party, whom the fortune of war may place in his power, after a similar humane manner. Besides this good, you might avoid some evil. I am a British subject ; and, should you kill me in cold blood, it might get to the ears of my nation, and induce them to look with little favour on your cause." Ferdinand the Beloved cares not for your nation, nor all the nations of the earth united. God gave the New World to Spain, and we will subdue its rebellious sons. Wo betide the king who interferes to aid the rebels we will hurl him from his throne, as we hurled Napoleon from his usurped seat. But, I must say, I respect the English : they rendered the victorious Spaniards some service in one battle that I saw. This took place at Salamanca." All this was very modest, considering that at

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THE ADVENTURES OF A CREOLE. 226 Salamanca the loss of the Spaniards, in killed, wounded, and missing, was four men, thought I. The little colonel continued, But what right have you to claim consideration as an Englishman, after being taken in the camp of the rebels?" Where," added I, "I was exercising my humane profession as a surgeon." He who assists insurgents with his skill in medicine equally deserves death with him who aids them in battle. What right had you to join South American rebels, who wish to rob KingFerdinand of his colonies ? About the same right that your countrymen had to assist North American rebels, who wished to rob King George of his colonies. Your nation, senor, aided the people of the United States to throw off their dependence on Great Britain. During the war in North America many Spaniards were taken by the English, but no one was slaughtered in cold blood." Ay," said the Spaniard ; <{ but our king declared open war against yours, and, as always was and ever will be the case, Spain triumphed in war. We liberated the North Americans, and now the ungrateful villains are selling arms and ammunition to the rebels of Venezuela. The North Americans were rebels, until our king L 2

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226 WARNER ARUNDELL : pleased to proclaim them a nation. When that was the case they were no longer insurgents, but became a people, at war with England, and Spain became their allies ; so that it was necessary to treat all persons taken on both sides as prisoners of war. But you do not join one people at war with another ; you join a parcel of Creole banditti, and must pay the forfeit of your own act. I am sure you can have nothing reasonable to urge against my arguments, because I know that I am right, and that you are in the wrong ; so there need no more be said about the matter. Here, Francisco, load your pistol. Kneel, Englishman : take this handkerchief as a bandage." I can look death in the face, senor, therefore want no bandage. Here are three doubloons I have about me ; you may as well have them as another. Will you be pleased to grant me but five minutes for prayer, before I quit this world?" The English heretics are always generous," said the Andalusian, looking at the coins ; but I never knew that they prayed before. However, ten minutes shall be yours." I knelt to pray, and a cold perspiration ran from my forehead. In a moment, all I ever did of good or evil crowded on my memory. My

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THE ADVENTURES OF A CREOLE. 227 thoughts, despite myself, wandered from devotion. At one time I looked at the noble scenery by which I was surrounded, and recollected that in a few minutes my mortal eyes would shut on it for ever. I glanced at my own person, and remembered that, in a few hours, it would be festering in the equinoctial sun, the prey of tigers and vultures. At length I ceased altogether to ~ O pray, on hearing the following dialogue : Colonel, for the love of the Holy Mother of God, save that Englishman Why so, Captain Raymond?" He saved my life." How did that happen?" Captain Raymond, a Creole Royalist, now told the Andalusian that, after a skirmish at Barancos, I found him on the field, wounded and faint from loss of blood ; that I dressed his wound, carried him to a copse which lies beside the village of Barancos and the Oronoco, and there supplied him with a small quantity of provision. After many days' hiding about, he at length rejoined the Royalist army. You know," said Borero, that it is our general's orders to give no quarter; and, according to the Priest Diego, it is a soldier's duty to obey, should his general order him to commit the seven deadly sins ; because, in that case, the

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228 WARNER ARUNDELL : soul of the general, and not that of his officer, would have to pay for it in purgatory. Nevertheless, it is a pity to shoot so fine a young man, especially after having saved your life. He is as generous as his countrymen usually are : do you know, the poor devil gave me three doubloons immediately after I ordered him to be shot and what renders this act the more meritorious is this, I never should have thought of having him searched for money. He is not altogether destitute of religion, because he just now asked to be allowed to pray ; although he must know that, being a heretic, die when he will he is sure to go to perdition. However, all I can venture to do is to conduct him to the headquarters of Boves, and leave him for that general's consideration. He may be saved in this world, although he is certain of being damned in the next. You had better interest Padre Salomon and Seiioritta Ximines in his behalf, as they are always for saving prisoners. Captain Raymond, I leave this prisoner in your charge, while I go to give orders to Sergeant Perez to search the dead rebels ; perhaps they may have doubloons about them as well as this Englishman, and it is necessary for the king's service that I take possession of them."

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THE ADVENTURES OF A CREOLE. 229 Saying this, the Andalusian went to speak to his sergeant. I now rose and grasped the hand of the grateful Raymond, for I fully felt the obligation I owed him for his rescuing me from immediate destruction. When maddened by the excitement of battle, I feared death no more than one might who was conscious he possessed a hundred lives, but no soul ; yet, when I was no longer dazzled by the false glory of war, but had calmly to look on the king of terrors, I felt the awful truth, namely, that I was unfit to die. Through life, I had thought more of conducting myself as a gentleman than as a Christian ; I meditated much on the laws of honour, but little on the laws of God. Several of the Spaniards being wounded, I volunteered to dress them. Both the colonel and Raymond were pleased with my proposition ; to aid which, my instruments were found and brought me. Some refused to be dressed by an insurgent, lest I should purposely treat them unskilfully ; but, when informed I was an Englishman, they all gladly submitted to my operations, saying, the English were not assassins. I was nearly two hours professionally employed, and the wounded were carried into three canoes, to be rowc-d up the Oronoco.

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230 WARNER ARUNDELL : After partaking of a breakfast of aripa (Indian corn bread) and smoked beef, we set out on our inarch to Alta Gracia. A sergeant was about to tie my hands, when Raymond again interfered, and forbade this, saying he would be responsible for my custody. The colonel said, if I would give my honour not to escape, he would allow me to ride a mule. I acceded to this, but said, that if any attempt was made by the insurgents during our march to rescue me, I would be merely passive ; and, if they succeeded in the attempt, and I got back safely to the army of Bolivar, I would procure the liberation of some Royalist prisoner of my own rank. I admire your candour," said the colonel ; but, should any attempt be made on us during our march, I will order two of my men to blow out your brains." With this amicable understanding, we commenced our march. This was conducted in so irregular a manner, that I half regretted giving my honour not to escape ; for, even had I been bound, it would have taken less talent than Vidocq possessed to have given my conductors the Slip ; but when I recollected that, by so doing, I should compromise the grateful Raymond, I thought it infamous to attempt to escape, even had I not given my honour not to do this.

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THE ADVENTURES OF A CREOLE. 231 I observed that the Royalist troops were less ragged than the Patriots ; but those by which I was surrounded might have served George Cruikshank as studies for Falstaff's regiment, save that they looked rather too outre. After a hot march of three leagues, we came to a halt. All the party, sentinels included, took a regular siesta ; in a few minutes they were all nodding,' and some snoring. Oh, how I wished for a party to rescue me! but, I suppose, the Patriots, about this hour, were also taking their nap. About five o'clock we again set out; and, after marching about hulf-a-mile, we came to a post of the Royalists. Here we crossed to the right bank of the Oronoco in several large canoes; and, after a short march, we arrived at the head-quarters of General Boves, at a mission called Alta Gracia. I was instantly lodged in a large thatched building, which was dignified with the title of Casa del Rey (the king's house.) I was w r ell secured, by having my right leg and hand chained : these chains were fastened to a thick iron bar, within a foot of the unfloored ground ; 1, however, was able to stand, sit, or lie down. Scarcely was I fastened before I heard a gruff voice exclaim, "In with you, dog of a Hollander and two men dragged in a well-

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232 WARNER ARUNDELL : dressed little man, who, by the twilight, I discovered to be my friend, Moses Fernandez. I was about to utter an exclamation of surprise, when he checked me, by placing his finger on his mouth. I instantly comprehended his sign, and suppressed all appearance of recognition. His looks bespoke deep regret at our respective situations. They placed the Curagoa man in a pair of stocks at the other end of the hall : they then left us to our meditations or conversation. Moses spoke to me in English, lest we should be overheard. Our days," said he, I fear, are numbered ; but do not seem to know me." He asked me how I came to be taken? I briefly told him my late adventure. He, on his part, informed me that he was captured in a Patriot launch going up the Oronoco. Our conversation was interrupted by another companion in misfortune being put into the stocks. He was a middle-sized, well-built Frenchman, with a military mien. He had been despatched by Paez with a flag of truce : his mission was to ascertain if I was taken ; and, if that were the case, to offer a Spanish major and subaltern in exchange for me ; and, at the same time, to threaten that, if any injury were done to me after my capture, the said major and subaltern should lose their heads the next morning, although

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THE ADVENTURES OF A CREOLE. 233 neither of theirs might exactly fit my shoulders. The white rag which did duty for the flag of truce had been purposely destroyed by some Indians who waylaid the Frenchman ; and the poor officer, instead of being received as an envoy, was treated as a prisoner by an army which gave no quarter. The Spaniards would have butchered him on the spot, but several Creole Royalists protested against it, and the Frenchman's fate was referred to General Boves, who was momentarily expected. The fact was, the unfortunate bearer of the flag of truce was a freemason, and he met with several of his craft amongst the Royalists : these were doing what they could in order to get him released. Bon jour, camarades," said the Frenchman to us. We returned his salute. We are, I surmise, pretty near our last gasp. I know not how you feel, gentlemen ; but, for me, if they give me the death of a soldier, I care not how soon it takes place : life I have not found so happy as to make me dread falling into annihilation. Yes let bigots, who believe in childish stories of heaven and hell, fear death ; we philosophers know it to be a cessation of life, and nothing more. What priests call the soul, my friends, is but the mechanical action of the

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234 WARNER ARUNDELL : brain: this thinking part of the human frame is born with the body, is imbecile with the body during infancy, strengthens with it, decays with it, and, doubtless, perishes with it. Life after death a pretty story for knavish priests to tell, and credulous fools to believe. 1 would as lief give credence to one who tells ine of the soul of a steam-engine, which, after being broken to pieces, will animate another and more perfect steam-engine Little religion as I possessed, I was shocked with this ill-timed, uncalled-for, and senseless blasphemy. Fernandez seemed to feel as I did ; but the present was no time for religious argument, and the Frenchman seemed neither to expect nor desire controversy. He added, I forget, camarades, you may be of a different way of thinking : if so, I beg pardon ; and, lest my opinion may disturb your devotion, I will bid you good night for the present." Saying this, he lay down, and in a few minutes was asleep. Before I could make any remarks on the language of this atheist, we heard the guard turn out to receive the general. He did not enter the Casa del Rey, but stood at the door, in conversation with Padre Salomon, a priest, who had been humanely interceding to save us. The

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THE ADVENTURES OF A CREOLE. 235 stern Boves was not to be moved from his sanguinary resolves. We could not see the speakers, although we heard them. Every third word the Spanish general uttered was an obscene oath, with which I need not stain my paper. A pretty affair this!" said Boves : Borero takes the English barber-surgeon, a heretic, forsooth ; and yet you, a priest, beg mercy for him Gomez captures a rascally Curagoa merchant, who was going to supply the rebels with arms, and brings him all the way here, instead of allowing the alligators of the Oronoco to make food of him ; and Jose Maria catches a Frenchman, a pretended bearer of a flag of truce. Instead of settling these fellows at once, I must be plagued to give orders to have them shot or sabred : but their execution shall take place this night, by the Swear not!" interrupted the priest. Would you destroy their souls ? Will you allow me no time to prepare them for a future state? Be it so ; their sins be at your door ; and on your own immortal soul be the offence of sending three men before their Creator unconfessed!" Do you not know that two out of the three are heretics, being a Dutchman and an Englishman?" responded Boves. "However, I will not incur the censure of the church by cutting

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236 WARNER ARUNDKLL : them off too suddenly : I'll defer their execution until to-morrow noon. Are you satisfied ? Well, satisfied or not, it shall be so. I will go and give orders to Colonel Ximenes about this matter. We heard the general depart, and the priest tell the sentinel that he was going to confess a dying man, but that, in half-an-hour, he would return to attend to us. Fernandez and myself exchanged a few melancholy words, and then each commenced praying Fernandez using the Hebrew language. Do, good sentry, let me in," said a silvery voice. It is against the general's orders, senoritta," responded the sentinel ; but he is never long angry at any thing you do, for who could be displeased with la angela de la misericordia (the angel of mercy) ? Go in, con dios." The door now opened, and I discovered a female form, carrying a small silver lamp fed with cocoa-nut oil : this threw a doubtful light into the hall. She went to the stocks, and there perceived the Frenchman asleep. She exclaimed, Holy Virgin to sleep at such a time !" She then held the lamp so that it threw its small but clear light on the Jew ; but he, absorbed by his devotion, paid no attention to her,

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THE ADVENTURES OF A CREOLE. 237 and continued his prayer in a language to her unknown. The saints aid you !" she said ; but where is the tall and handsome Englishman they told me of?" She held up the lamp ; and, perceiving where I sat on the floor, crossed over to me, and lowered the lamp in order to see me. By this means I had a full view of her person ; and, heavens what a divine vision I beheld She seemed In form a woman, but in years a child," not being more than seventeen : and yet she was taller than the generality of women ; while her stature seemed increased in height by a part of her long raven tresses being rolled into a mass, and confined on her head by means of a very large tortoise-shell comb, ornamented with gold and Margarita pearls. These shewed like a coronet, while a part of her glossy tresses hung beside her small ears, and played on her deep bosom. From her comb depended a rich black veil ; her dress was of black velvet. She wore a profusion of rich jewels ; these could scarcely be said to set off her queenly form and noble features, in which seemed to be united the Castilian traits of romance with the indications of Creole benevolence. And I must here observe,

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238 WARNER ARUNDELL : that the feminine beauty of Spain, when transplanted into the New World, seems to flourish with greater loveliness than that of any European nation. Her large black eyebrows surmounted a pair of eyes quicker in their expression than any I ever beheld. Their darkness contrasted strongly with the alabaster whiteness of her pellucid skin ; and, when she spoke, she displayed a set of pearly teeth, beautiful beyond any I had ever seen. Her voice was rich and silvery, while a natural and commanding grace accompanied all her movements. Such was the apparition which stood before me, and which I contemplated by means of the small lamp she held. On any occasion I should have beheld with pleasure this Columbian flower of feminine beauty ; but, after having for months seen no other woman but such wo-begone females as followed the insurgent camp to prevent their being massacred, and partook of all the privations and sufferings of a civil war ; for me to be visited, in my present situation, by aught so lovely, was unlooked-for happiness. I for some moments believed she was a being from the region of the blessed, who had descended to console my approaching death. Long I gazed at her before I recollected that I was in a sitting posture. I rose ; and, as my chains clanked, I gained my

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THE ADVENTURES OF A CREOLE. 239 feet. This divine creature still regarded me, at first with deep curiosity, and then I perceived a smile of pleasure steal over her features ; at length she uttered the words, Poor fellow and you, too, must he butchered, to add to the crimes of the sanguinary Boves Instantly her eyes became suffused with tears. I must now inform the reader that, although I had never before beheld this lovely female, yet I had often heard of Maria Josefa Ximenes, by her well-known appellation of la angela de la ndsericordia. Her cousin, Colonel Ximenes, having been captured by one of Bolivar's parties, he was about to be put to death, in retaliation for an insurgent colonel slain by Morales ; when Maria Josefa, with a degree of praiseworthy enthusiasm, clad in all her rich habiliments and jewellery, left the Royalist army, and arrived at the out-posts of the Republicans without accident for her beauty protected her from insult. At her request, she was conducted to Bolivar, before whom she pleaded so eloquently for the life of her cousin, that the Liberator, who was not stern by nature, but rendered so by circumstances, granted her prayer, on condition that she would endeavour to obtain the liberation of one Colonel Borroteran, a nephew of Bolivar, and his secretary, who was at that moment a pri-

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240 WARNER ARUNDELL : soner in the Royalist camp. This she promised to do, and well kept her word. The ferocious Morales was not to be moved by her eloquence, and the nephew of Bolivar was ordered to be shot ; when a great number of Creoles in the Royalist camp, thinkingthemselves slighted, by having their favourite's prayer rejected, began to murmur aloud, and a dangerous mutiny was likely to result from the sternness of Morales. He then found that he had better yield with a good grace than risk a disturbance in his camp ; for at this period the cause of Ferdinand looked doubtful. The colonel was sent to his uncle ; and, from that time forth, Maria Josefa, being aware of her influence amongst her compatriots, used it for benevolent purposes. She fearlessly passed between the belligerent camps, and was respected by both parties as a sacred person, even when a priest of eighty years of age would have been molested. Many an unfortunate Royalist and Patriot owed their lives to her intercession, which some of the less sanguinary chiefs of both armies chose to encourage ; while, in the Royalist camp, the more cruel officers feared the influence she possessed. She often alleviated the miseries of the wretched women and children who were compelled to follow both camps. Her endeavours to soften the rigours of this

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THE ADVENTURES OF A CREOLE. 241 savage war were so incessant and successful, that both parties called her the angel of mercy. She even made a feminine "weakness which she possessed (viz. a love for splendid dress) subservient to her benevolent exertion. As her jewellery threw a dazzle around her person by which she was recognised from afar, the wildest guerilla of Paez knew Maria Josefa, and would as soon think of plundering the gems of his patron saint, as of taking one pearl from the necklace of Senoritta Ximenes ; the roughest Llanaro, whose dress was but an old blanket, and whose looks were more savage than those of a naked Indian, would crouch his lance and bow his head with the courtesy of a knight-errant, when he saw the well designated angel of mercy approach ; while the most clownish Biscayan or Catalonian of the Royalist camp would hail her return from the insurgent lines with Viva la anyela fie la miser icordia Poor fellow! and you, too, must be butchered, although you saved the life of my compadre, Raymond said Maria Josefa. So says your general, beautiful senoritta." Are you a good Christian ?"-f^* Gossip. This kind of relationship is more sacred amongst the Spaniards than amongst us. t Butiio Christiana, amongst Spaniards, means a Catholic. VOL. II. M

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242 WARNER ARUNDELL : I hope I am a Christian ; but fear I cannot apply to myself the epithet, good. I resemble you, fair lady, too little for that." Would you wish a priest to administer to you the last consolation of religion?" I am a Lutheran Christian," replied I (for by that designation the less intolerant Creoles call Protestants, instead of the more obnoxious word, heretic). I added, Yet, I believe that the prayers of a worthy priest will do no harm to a doomed man, even should we diifer in our modes of worship." That is well. We say the English are heretics ; yet we know them to be generous, honourable, and humane. If they are not, they ought to be Christians. Padre Salomon will shortly be here. He will attend you and your two companions there ; although the one is asleep, and the other seems to pray in a language I never before heard. But would you wish to write, before you die, to your father or your poor mother ?" Here her eyes became again filled with tears. She continued, Ah, little did that mother think, when she pillowed your head on her bosom, that the fair locks JL of that head would be stained with your J?_ Light hair is, in South America, considered most beautiful.

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THE ADVENTURES OF A CREOLE. 243 life's gore ere the days of your youth were passed But I wander. I can procure you pen, ink, and paper, if you desire to write to your parents." I have none, sweet senora. My father died in my infancy, and my poor mother left this troublesome world the day I entered it." But you have brothers and sisters, caballero Inglese 1 I have, fair Creole; but I would not wish them to know the death that your stern general has doomed me to die to-morrow." But have you not," said my interrogatress, lowering her voice, some lady that loves you, or whom you love ? Yes, surely you have, for I see you pause. Send her some love-token, before you quit this world. You know not what to send. Be advised : send her a lock of your fair hair ; and, if she be worthy of your love, she will never part with this simple, but natural, dying gift. Here are my scissors. Tell me where the lady of your love lives, and I will endeavour to despatch it to her by the first safe opportunity that I meet with ; and, in the mean time, I promise, on the honour of a descendant of a Castilian, to wear the lock in my bosom for security." Cut the lock yourself, fair damsel," said I. She did so ; and then said,

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24-1 WARNER ARUNDELL : To whom am I to send it, senor ?" You promised to wear it in your bosom, senora. Keep your word, and I shall die happy." But to whom am I to send it? Who is the lady of your heart?" Had I been asked the question but ten minutes ago, I should have replied that I had no lady of my heart ; but now I have one, the print of whose feet on the earth I am not worthy to kiss." What say you? Is it possible? I mean, who is this person that, within a few minutes, has conquered your affection?" She is called and rightly denominated the angel of mercy." A sudden blush overspread the beautiful features of Maria Josefa. She looked at me with a smile. This soon vanished ; and she said, I knew not, senor, you were a Frenchman." I am an English Creole, lovely demoiselle. What made you suppose 1 was French?" Because we have been in each other's company but ten minutes, and yet you employ your wit in trying to flatter me." Flattery, fair one, is the meanest species of falsehood. I am English therefore, of a nation

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THE ADVENTURES OF A CREOLE. 245 nut remarkable for flattery. 1 am a gentleman,* and therefore disdain falsehood. I am a Christian, and, consequently, would shudder at a lie, standing as I do on the brink of eternity. But I declare to you, as an Englishman, a gentleman, and a Christian, that until I beheld you I knew not love ; but, since my eyes were blessed with your appearance, I am your unworthy but most passionate lover. I have no object to gain by my avowal, well knowing that the marine Morales -Jhas doomed me to death to-morrow noon. But keep your sweet promise : wear but the lock of hair you have severed from my head in that lovely bosom, and I will die contented ; while my last breath shall be employed in invoking blessings on you." She again blushed, and smiled through her tears. After a pause, she said, I am wrong to listen to an amorous declaration. No, no ; Maria Josefa has a more sacred duty to perform than to listen to tales of love. The soft passion accords with happy times. Heaven has made me the instrument of good to others, and I will faithfully fulfil my destiny." The word caballero, in Spanish America, is understood in a sense exactly as wo understand the word gentleman in its noblest signification. t Morales was a marine sergeant at the battle of Trafalgar.

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246 WARNER ARUNDELL : She again paused ; and, pressing her hands to her temples, said, in a tone of soliloquy, Is there no way to save him ?" Her cogitation was disturbed by the noise occasioned by the sentinel of the door presenting arms ; and suddenly entered a handsome Creole, in the dress of a Spanish colonel. He bore a torch of resinous wood ; his face was ornamented and disfigured by black whiskers and mustachios. Yet, notwithstanding these, and a stern military air which he had, his features were so strikingly like those of the lovely Maria Josefa, that they might have been taken for twins. He shot a look of suspicion at me, and a glance of displeasure at his cousin, for such she was. How keen-sighted is passion Colonel Ximenes loved Maria Josefa. One would have thought there was nothing in our respective situationsto excite his jealousy; yet his features told me that I caused it. At the same moment, I felt a sudden degree of abhorrence for the handsome Colonel Ximenes. I thought would I had my good steed and trusty matcheti, and that you were equally well armed and mounted, and we had a clear stage and no favour ; I think I could give these fine features of yours a slash, which should injure their beauty. I believe we were not in each other's company above two seconds, before

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THE ADVENTURES OF A CREOLE. 247 we hated each other as cordially as though we had been friends for twenty years. A conversation now took place between the cousins, which I shall relate, omitting the says he and says she ; to which I have an aversion. Maria Josefa here! How is this?" Does Colonel Ximenes ask why I am here, when I have victims to snatch from cold-blooded slaughter?" True, senoritta, you are called the angel of mercy. To your active humanity I owe my life." And to my exertion shall this young gentleman I mean, these three people, owe their lives." Impossible! Our general has sworn To continue a butcher. I have heard of his amiable vow. He calculates on exterminating the race of Creoles ; but let Morillo, Boves, and Morales, not be too elated with their success. Bolivar is beaten, but not subdued ; Arismendi has sworn vengeance, and he ever keeps his oaths ; while Paez hovers about their army like a fiend of destruction. Sick of this war of death, I have long entreated that it might be conducted with some slight degree of mercy. But I will cease to entreat; I command that the lives of these men be saved Are you mad, Maria?"

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248 WARNER ARUNDELL : No, I am sensible sensible of my power. Let me but utter one word, and every Creole in the Royalist camp, who now raises his traitorous arms against his country, will join the Patriots, strike for liberty, and Columbia will be free Here her sweet countenance assumed an air of majesty, and she spoke with the boldness of an inspired prophetess. Rash girl! are you weary of life? Speak low, for the love of God!" No ; I will speak out! It is long since I ceased to fear death. Call in the sentinels, and I will tell them that Spain is tyrannical. Span1 iards are blood-hounds ; and Creoles who aid them are traitors and fools!" Every limb of Ximenes shook with emotion. He caught his cousin's hands, fell upon his knees, and then said, in a whisper, For the sake of Heaven, for the love of your friends, for the sake of your country, be pacified, Maria. You know not what you do. You will involve us all in ruin. Be patient, and South America shall be free. Your rashness will betray the land of your birth." Maria replied in a low voice, but which I distinctly heard, being too interested in the conversation to lose a syllable, Be it so. I have long suspected this.

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THE ADVENTURES OF A CREOLE. 249 May your plot succeed But, at all events, that Englishman must be saved. Rather than he should be sacrificed, I will, ere morning daAvns, raise three thousand Creoles to his rescue. Nay, nay, frown not on that youth. Antonio Ximeaes, is this a time, when war is desolating your native land, to think of love or jealousy ? Shame shame Maria, retire a minute or two. I will think how to rescue this Englishman." She now passed over to where Fernandez and the Frenchman were confined, arid entered into conversation with the former. Meanwhile, the colonel was lost in meditation. The torch he held threw a red glare on his fine features, and enabled me to observe their appearance. They seemed to be strongly agitated ; and once or twice he put his hand on his forehead. At length he said, No, no; she saved my life, and I will rescue him, even if he be born to blast my happiness." He now advanced towards me, and held his torch near my face. Suddenly, his stern look relaxed into wonder : he exclaimed, Is it possible? My old friend! Do you not recollect me?" I answered in the negative. M 2

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250 WARNER ARUNDELL : He said, Do you not remember giving me an orange when I was a prisoner?" I now recollected that, when Ximenes was taken, he was marched many miles, exposed to the rays of a burning sun, until he was nearly perishing with thirst. I happened to have an orange, with which I moistened his parched lips, his own hands being at that time bound. Little did I think, at the moment I performed this act of common humanity, that it would have conduced so much to my advantage. Instantly the colonel's behaviour totally changed. Give me your hand!" he cried; I tender mine in friendship." And I accept yours with the same feeling." Maria Josefa beheld our salute with tears of pleasure ; which, when Ximenes observed, his features again became stern. He motioned her to retire. She withdrew a few steps. I will," said the colonel, endeavour to effect your escape. Major Peiia wishes to save yonder Frenchman, who, careless of his fate, sleeps soundly. Peha and he belong to some foolish secret society. I will consult with him ; but, if I aid your flight, you must promise me, on the well-known faith of your countrymen, to quit South America, and not appear here for four years."

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THE ADVENTURES OF A CREOLE. 251 I looked at Maria, and saw, by her countenance, that she wished me to accede to her cousin's proposition. I, therefore, agreed to the proposal, provided that my friend Fernandez, and the Frenchman, should be also allowed to escape. To this stipulation he promised to conform, and said, Now, let me seek Pena and padre Salomon. Maria Josefa, we have not a minute to lose. Is this a time for you to coquette with a man whose life is at stake ? Away call hither to me the Indian, Guiocolo : he can be trusted ; he shall guide these three men to English Guiana. At the same time, tell Pedro to procure something for these people to eat and drink they have need of it : away Maria Josefa did not move off so quickly as her cousin wished. She read in my countenance expressions of doubt, and said to me, Fear not, caballero : Colonel Ximenes is passionate, but not dishonourable ; he acts from sudden emotions, but those are never treacherous." I believe you," replied I ; "no one can be dishonourable whose features resemble yours, fair senora." Away!" said the colonel, and handed her to the door. She went: he then said, I have much to prepare, and little time:

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252 WARMER ARUNDELL : let me get you four swift horses, arid provisions for your arduous journey." Saying this, he quitted me. The latter part of our conference was spoken in suppressed voices ; but at one time the passion of Maria Josefa so far got the better of her discretion, that I wonder she was not overheard by the sentinels who were ordered to watch the Casa del Rey. But these people were busily employed, twenty yards from the building, drinking guarapa, smoking rank Virginia cigars, and playing at monte* for rials, with a small and dirty pack of cards. I was about to congratulate Fernandez on our prospect of escape, when I heard the gambling sentinels without shout, Welcome, padre Salomon; give us your benediction, and we are all of us sure to win." Shortly after, the priest entered, and a remarkable scene took place. I, at that time, was not aware what was going on, because I knew riot the language used on the occasion ; but, subsequently, Fernandez recounted it to me. As the priest (an old and venerable-looking man) entered, Fernandez was repeating, in Hebrew, from Deuteronomy, chapter iv. verse 4, A game of chance.

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THE ADVENTURES OF A CREOLE. 253 what the moJern Jews conceive to be the foundation-stone of their faith. Hear, O Israel! Jehovah is our Lord; Jehovah is One." When he saw the priest enter, he suddenly stopped in his devotion, lest the padre should discover his religion ; for, although he knew that the learning of Spanish priests, in general, is confined to being able to say mass by rote in Latin, which they scarcely understand, yet some few of them are very learned. This was the case with Salomon ; he instantly perceived of what religion Fernandez was, and a conversation took place, in that mixed and corrupt Hebrew which is spoken by Jews of the present day. What/' said the priest, does a child of Israel do in the camp of Christians?" Fernandez made no answer, not wishing to confess, although he well knew the priest had discovered it. The latter continued, Proceed with your prayers: fear me not; I will not betray you to the bigoted soldiers, or they will tear you in pieces. I come to you with tidings of mercy." When did not a priest of that religion which pretends to believe in the Pentateuch, and yet dares to alter Jehovah's commandments, by

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254 WARNER ARUNDELL : suppressing the second* when did not such a one talk of mercy ; yet when did he ever practise it towards the suffering race of Israel? You know my language ; you know my creed. Go to your savage general, tell him that I am the Curaoa merchant whom Christians name Fernandez, but who is called Masha Ben Simon when summoned to the desk of the synagogue to hear that Law read which Jehovah gave to his chosen people." No," replied the priest, I will not betray you. I pity the errors of the children of Israel, but I will never harm any of them. I am, myself, a descendant of one of the Twelve Tribes." Why wearest thou the dress of the Christian priest?" Because I am one." I hate a Spaniard ; I doubly detest a Spanish priest : but, for thee, I at once loathe and despise thee, because thou art an apostate. Be thou cut off, and thy name erased from the book of life As Fernandez said this, he spat on the ground, to shew his contempt. I was prepared for all this, when I told thee Catholics omit the second commandment, and divide the tenth into two parts.

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THE ADVENTURES OF A CREOLE. 255 I was a servant of the Christian altar. I have chosen my creed ; remain, if God wills it, by thine. But we lose time. Leagued with Pena, I come to aid your escape, and that of your companions." I will not be indebted for my life to an apostate." Then remain to be slaughtered, and have thy body devoured by wild beasts and obscene birds, instead of being interred in ground consecrated by an Israelitish rabbi. Hast thou no sons nor daughters, whose descendants, thou vainly hopest, will be the Messiah that thou expectest?" I have, like Jephthah, an only daughter, for whose dear sake will I even thankfully accept of life at the hands of one who has forsaken the religion of his fathers." "Be it so : I forgive your reproaches, and go to aid your escape. Awake your sleeping companion, if you wish to save him. I go to assist Pena and Ximenes in preparing for your flight." At this instant Maria Josefa entered, followed by an Indian of the Chyma tribe, together with a negro, who bore a small basket of provisions for our repast, and a heavy bunch of keys, the same which confined my chains. I must inform the reader, that Ximenes had

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256 WARNER ARUNDELL : sent to the sentinels a quantity of rum, which was part of the cargo taken in the launch with Fernandez. What with the spirits and the pack of cards, they neither knew nor cared for what took place in the Casa del Rey. Maria Josefa saw the priest, but doubted if he was fully acquainted with the plot for effecting our escape. She threw herself on her knees, clasped his, and exclaimed, Father, for the love of all the saints, betray me not ; but suffer me to deliver this dear, dear English youth Oh, do not refuse my prayer ; or you will break niy heart Blessings on thee, dearest child!" said the priest, laying his hands on her head ; truly hast thou been called the angel of mercy. Hitherto thou hast saved men for the love of Heaven ; but now, poor child, thou urgest thy humane prayer for the love of your handsome Englishman Nay, blush not, nor droop thy beautiful head : Heaven, in its own good time, will reward thy virtue, and, perhaps, bless thee with thy lover. I go to aid your cousin in his preparations for the flight of these three men. God be with thee !" The priest now left us : and, while Fernandez awoke the Frenchman, whose name was D'Aubert, and acquainted him with our prospect

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THE ADVENTURES OF A CREOLE. 257 of escape, Maria hastily informed me of the means of our flight. o We ate a hurried, but hearty supper, which consisted of Indian corn bread, South American cheese, and turtles' eggs. We drank, between U8, a bottle of tolerable sack. All this time, Guiocolo was busy unlocking my chains, and loosing the stocks ; while he placed in the middle of the hall a large quantity of palm-leaves, which had been brought into the Casa del Rey to new thatch it. This it was designed to set fire to, in order to cover our retreat, and account for our disappearance. While this preparation was going forward, a more serious task devolved on Pefia, Ximenes, and Raymond, who willingly joined in the plot, in order to requite my having saved him at Barancos. Supper being finished, Guiocolo, after carefully reconnoitring, told us that, by passing a back-door which he opened, we might evade an encounter with the sentinels. We cautiously stole out, accompanied by Maria, and led by the Indian ; but we left the faithful negro, named Pedro, to kindle the fire amongst the palm-leaves, about an hour after our flight : this he was punctual in doing. When we got about six hundred yards from the Casa del Rey, we were challenged by a

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258 WARNER ARUNDELL : drowsy sentinel. We gave the pass-word, of which we were informed, and were allowed to proceed. Twice, after this, were we challenged by sentinels, and with the same result. Maria Josefa, enveloped in a cloak, leaned on my arm, and accompanied us. As soon as we passed the out-posts of the camp I conversed with my fair preserver. I will not repeat all that took place between us : let it suffice that, encouraged by her admission that I was not so indifferent as others she had rescued from the Spaniards, I had the cruelty to propose that she should fly with me. No," she said ; that would be disgraceful in a daughter of the house of Ximenes, and dishonourable to my cousin Antonio, to whom I have not plighted my faith, but yet I promised never to give my hand to another, until the conclusion of this unhappy war. Here I remain, to fulfil a sacred duty, to which I am vowed ; that is, fearlessly to use all my best endeavours in order to soften the rigour of this cruel civil war. My cousin has stipulated that you return not in less than four years. If Heaven at the end of that time should preserve us, and if you really love Maria Josefa Ximenes, you will, doubtless, find her somewhere in Venezuela : if, however, at the end of five years I hear nothing of you, I

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THE ADVENTURES OF A CREOLE. 259 go to Cuba, and become the bride of Heaven. Take this ring, dear Englishman : it is of value ; but part not with it, unless you should be pressed by necessity." Much sooner will I part with my life!" I kissed her long, slender hand, as she gave me the ring ; when, with the frankness of pure and holy innocence, she offered me her cheek. I pressed the trembling girl to my bosom : she wept, prayed for my deliverance, and asked my name. I told it, but regretted that I had no writing-materials whereon to inscribe it. Warner Arundell said she. 1 shall ever remember it for it is written here. I am wrong, perhaps, so far to encourage an utter stranger ; but the Virgin will not, I am sure, suffer poor Maria Josefa to love one unworthy of her affection No, no, dear heart your honest features tell me that the Mother of Heaven has not suffered such an affliction to fall on me. But, hold I had nearly forgotten. Here is a belt in which are sewn twenty-two doubloons : these may serve you, dearest Warner Arundell But see, Guiocolo and your companions are impatient, and wait ; therefore let us part. God bless and restore you to me in happier times We again embraced ; and then, by a violent

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260 WARNER ARUNDELL : effort, we separated. I felt as though my heai't was torn from my bosom, as she left me and hastily walked towards the camp : and if my companions had not returned and hurried me on, I should have remained for some time rooted to the spot. We walked forward, at a round pace, for about a mile, when we joined a party of five, consisting of the padre Salomon, Colonel Ximenes, Captain Raymond, Major Pena, and my old friend Colonel Borero, who had captured me that morning ; but who, for a small douceur given by Raymond, under pretence of a loan, assisted our escape. Four noble horses, well caparisoned, and partly loaded, but without their bridles, were feeding on a quantity of Indian corn meal. Let the horses feed," said Ximenes ; we have still half-an-hour before us ere the Casa Real will be fired by Pedro." He addressed me apart, while the Frenchman entered into conversation with Pena, and Fernandez talked to the priest, to whom he seemed reconciled. Ximenes informed me that Guiocolo would, by a circuitous route known to few, conduct me across the immense plains, rivers, forests, and mountains, which lay between us and the River

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THE ADVENTURES OF A CREOLE. 261 Essequibo ; and that he had made every preparation for the occasion which time and circumstances would admit of. He enumerated all the articles he had supplied us with : these consisted of three horse-pistols ; an English fowling-piece ; four pounds of powder ; a proportionate quantity of shot ; a small bladder full of salt ; a quantity of tasajo ; and four hammocks. In a portmanteau, attached to my saddle, he placed three shirts ; he gave us two long knives and an axe ; while Guiocolo was furnished with two Indian bows, and a quantity of poisoned arrows. Each horse carried a small bag of Indian corn. After enumerating these, the colonel said, Depart, in God's name, senor Inglese ; but I fear you carry away the heart of one who is dearer to me than my own soul. Would that Maria Josefa had never seen you However, I have promised to aid your escape, and I have kept my word. Have I acted the part of a generous rival?" I expressed my satisfaction at his honourable conduct. Remember," said he, your promise not to return during four years." I told him I would not break my word. We shook each other cordially by the hand ;

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262 WARNER ARUNDELL : and, the horses having made an end of their provender, the Indian bridled them. While he was doing this, Colonel Borero stepped up to me, and apologised for not having the three doubloons which I gave him in the morning to return to me, because, he said, he had lost them at monte. He produced a dirty pack of cards, and offered to cut double or quits for the money. How he was to pay if he lost, he did not say; I, however, humoured him, and lost, which I was glad of. We all took a cordial leave of our deliverers. Even Fernandez said to the priest, The God of Israel bless you We have chosen different roads ; but I hope we shall meet in Paradise." By this time the Casa Real was fired. Pedro had managed affairs so well, that the house was in full blaze before the fire was discovered. Its combustible materials burned so readily, that we were, as I afterwards learned, supposed to have perished in the flames. The fire illuminated the night-clouds, and the sparks flew in all directions. The church-bell at Alta Gracia rang an alarm, and the drums, fifes, and bugles, called in vain for the soldiers to extinguish the flames. We heard these notes of alarm ; it was our

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THE ADVENTURES OP A CREOLE. 263 signal to mount our well-laden and noble horses, o and commence our arduous journey Guiocolo, the Indian, leading the way. Our animals carried us at a tremendous rate. In a few minutes we were out of hearing of the drums, bells, and bugles, of the Royalist camp, and were on our v.'ay to Essequibo.

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2fi4 WARNER ARUNDELL : CHAPTER XIII. To traverse o'er Plain, forest, river, man nor brute, By dint of hoof, nor print of foot, Lay in that wild luxuriant soil ; No signs of travel, none of toil." BVHON. ALL night our guide rode before us, at the full speed of our horses, shaping his way by the stars, for road or track over the country there was none. Neither D'Aubert nor Fernandez were first-rate horsemen ; but the fear of death is an excellent riding-master. It was about midnight when we started, and, as day opened, we were, as I calculate, about fifty miles from Aha Gracia, when Guiocolo drew up his horse : we did the same. He advised us to dismount, as the animals were completely blown. Down we got, leading the horses, to cool them, but walking as fast as we could on our journey. We walked about four miles, when we came to a broad but not deep \

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THE ADVENTURES OF A CREOLE. 265 stream. I saw the propriety of the Indian's advice. The animals were now cooled, and could cross the river without injury. Guiocolo told us to allow them to drink: we did so. The stream was not out of the horses' depth. On the other side of the river the Indian gave them a greater quantity of corn than I conceived was prudent ; but he said the horses were heavily laden, and could better carry corn in their bellies than on their backs. I do not think the admirers of the English turf will agree to this mode of feeding ; but it occasioned no apparent inconvenience. We drank some water while the horses fed, and each ate a small piece of aripa. Again we mounted. At first we walked ; we then gradually increased our pace to a quick gallop, which we continued till about noon, when we came to a thick forest, the branches of which hung too low to allow us to ride. We dismounted, and walked for about half-an-hour, when we came to a pool of not the clearest water. Here we bathed, and fed ourselves and our horses. About three p. M. we again set out, riding across a steep range of hills, until about eight at night, when we came to the borders of savanna land, through which ran a stream. Our careful Indian now tethered our horses with lazoes ; and we suspended our hammocks to low VOL. II. N

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266 WARNER ARUNDELL : savanna trees, and slept in open air. We took the precaution of making a good fire to frighten away tigers and pumas, as well as to keep the horses near us, in case any of them got loose ; for those animals will keep instinctively near the fire. So fatigued were we, that we all slept soundly ; but, every subsequent night of our journey, one always watched while the others slept. We enjoyed undisturbed repose for about eight hours ; and, as day opened, we were awoke by the notes of the pouie, or South American turkey. Again were our horses fed with grain, and watered. While the animals were eating, Guiocolo brought down with his bow a large pouie : off this we made a hasty breakfast ; and, notwithstanding that it was killed with a poisoned arrow, it tasted deliciously. We perceived a very fine tiger; but, on our shouting, he decamped, running with surprising grace. The symmetry and beauty of these animals are astonishing. Those who only behold them pent up in cages can form no conception of their elegance of form and colour. However, as they are apt to give travellers rather ugly scratches in the great savannas, they, after all, are better seen in the Zoological Gardens than met with in the plains of South America.

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THE ADVENTURES OF A CREOLE. 267 The Columbians say the jaguar, or tiger, mixes with the puma (South American lion), and produces an extremely ferocious mongrel. I doubt this, but record it as a mere report, which, however, is currently believed. We rode until about noon, when some cocoanut trees, planted in rows, informed us that we were approaching a hato, or breeding farm. The Indian threw off all his light clothing, save a guiacou, in order to look like one of the unreclaimed savages. This he did to approach the hato and reconnoitre, lest we might meet with enemies at the farm. He returned in a few minutes, telling us we might safely approach, as there were not people enough to attack us. The war had left but three boys and one woman in the place. We walked our horses to the large unfinished house of the hato. The poor woman who possessed it was much alarmed at our appearance. We soon found means of quieting her fears : this done, her joy and hospitality seemed to know no bounds. She gave us an excellent meal, replenished our supply of aripa, Indian corn, and tasajo ; she gave our horses, what is very common on hatoes, a pail of milk each with aripa broken up in it. This is an excellent mode of

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268 WARNER ARUNDELL : feeding cattle intended for a long journey ; but I do not expect it will be practised in England. The old woman pressed us to stay that day. To this we consented, it beinothe last house we 9 O expected to enter, save two days' journey on, where was a mission under Padre Rodrig;o, an O 7 Andalusian Capuchin. What a beautiful place is a South American hato with its flocks of wild dark -bay horses, each squadron led by its captain ; its immense droves of horned cattle ; its general appearance of plenty, content, and, I had almost said, happiness : but happiness is not merely the absence of misery ; it is a positive, not a negative enjoyment. Man was not made to live in the wild seclusion of a South American hato ; the inhabitant of which, having little to think of, seemed to think of nothing. Che poor woman who owned the place appeared scarcely able to command sufficient words, in her native language, to express her limited ideas. She, however, was most kind to us. We offered her money, some of which I possessed, thanks to the generosity of my angel of mercy ; but the woman would accept of none. She, however, was most thankful for five or six charges of powder, which we gave her. She thought herself overpaid

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THE ADVENTURES OF A CREOLE. 269 The next day we set out rather overloaded with presents, from the hato ; but, conceiving ourselves beyond danger, we went on at leisure. We journied a great part of the day across a savanna, without coming to a drop of water for the horses, and had nothing to drink ourselves but guarapa, which we took from the hato. Towards evening we came to a wood, which, like most of those in South America, abounded in the wild pines which adhere to branches of trees. Each of these contain, in the driest season, a quantity of pure and cool water. With some labour, we collected a sufficient quantity for our horses, and crossed the wood. At the edge of this, we erected an ajupa, lit a fire, and slept in our hammocks during the night ; each watching about two hours in his turn, while the rest slept. D'Aubert had a pinchbeck watch, which served us to divide the night. This kept pretty regular time, as it only lost about a quarter of an hour out of every twenty-four ; but we easily regulated it. The Indian guessed the time, pretty accurately, by the stars. We started at daylight the next morning, for our abundance of provisions obviated the necessity of our looking out for game. After a somewhat fatiguing ride, we, in the evening, came to a mission of the Puriagotoe Indians, under the

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270 WARNER ARUNDELL : direction of the Capuchin before mentioned. On stating what was truth, in one sense, that we came from the camp of the Royalists, we were kindly treated. The Indian alcalde, or chief officer, received us in great state, and turned out a whole regiment of naked Indians to escort us to the Casa del Rey, a kind of caravansary. They provided a tolerable repast for us and our horses. The Indian magistrate behaved with great state and munificence, because D'Aubert gave him the brass seal which was attached to his watch. Our horses were well fed, and we slept soundly, after having paid our respects to the padre. The next morning we viewed the mission, which seemed an earthly Paradise. It was situated on the banks of a beautiful stream, which was flung from a rock about six hundred feet in height. This cascade looked like a falling stream of molten silver. The land about the mission was extremely fertile ; the houses, although formed of slight materials, were built with regularity ; all the necessaries of life, and many of its luxuries, were abundant. The old padre was in his eighty seventh year. Poor man, his extraordinarily long sojourn amongst the Indians had nearly extinguished his mental faculties. Although he was still able to attend to the old

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THE ADVENTURES OF A CREOLE. 271 routine of his clerical duties, he was absolutely ignorant of the war which was desolating a part of the very province in which he lived. Some of the Indians told him of this ; but he would not believe that the people of South America could ever be so impious as to talk seriously of warring on the King of Spain. We, of course, did not broach the subject : it was quite enough for him to know that we were on our journey across Spanish Guiana to Essequibo. He seemed not to like to talk of the news of the day, but asked us if it was true that the French had decapitated Louis the Sixteenth ? On our answering in the affirmative, he said, Holy Virgin! what will they do next ? It being one of the numerous fetes of the Spanish calendar, the naked alcalde requested that we would stop and spend the day at the mission. We hesitated at this ; but, at the particular request of Fernandez, we remained. I thought I observed that he seemed more devout that day than any other. We exchanged a few charges of powder and shot for as many turtle-eggs, prepared in a mass, smoked deer, dried fish, and cassada bread, as we could conveniently take with us ; and the alcalde ordered four Indians to carry a part of our luggage over a mountain which we had to

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272 WARNER ARUN DELL: cross, but which could not be ridden over. The second morning after our arrival, we mounted our horses and set forward at a walk, with four Indians on foot. We did not halt until we reached the foot of a steep and rocky mountain, which the Pariagotoe Indians called Guiago. After partaking of a temperate meal, and watering our horses, we commenced climbing this steep ascent on foot, the Indians leading our horses. We were soon out of breath, and were forced to pause and hold on by branches of dwarf trees, which sent their roots into the crevices of the rocks, and appeared to vegetate with very little assistance from the earth. All the rest of the day, and long after the sun had set, we continued our toilsome ascent. About nine at night we arrived at a place where the horses could stand at ease," and where we found the remains of an Indian hut. Here we slung our hammocks, and, worn with fatigue, we slept soundly ; but, towards morning, we found the weather so cold, owing to our elevated situation, that we were constrained to warm ourselves at the fire which, as usual, was lighted to keep off tigers, as they abounded in these mountains. At daylight we commenced our descent. This was less fatiguing, but far more dangerous, than our ascent. Repeatedly we slung ourselves,

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THE ADVENTURES OF A CREOLE. 273 by branches of dwarf trees, down rocks and across chasms. How the animals passed these obstacles is astonishing, but they had the agility and security of foot of goats. We crossed a small stream of water, in which we bathed the horses ; and which, we were told, became one of the many mighty tributary rivers of the Oronoco. We rested on the borders of this stream during the night, and the next day came to a most magnificent savanna, but one that was only inhabited by pumas, tigers, serpents, and wandering Indians, equally wild. Here our pedestrian fellow-travellers proposed to leave us, but Guiocolo entreated them to proceed as far as a grove and stream which lay about three leagues and a half further, where we intended to encamp, as he much feared being attacked by Caraibes. The Pariagotoes demurred at this, until I offered them ten charges of powder to come with us. This munificent offer they could not resist. We mounted our horses, and the Indians bounded forward with such activity that they kept our animals in a smart trot. Of course, we soon arrived at this grove, but the horses would not enter it : they all smelt the air, laid their ears back, bounded in all directions, but no efforts of ours could make them advance. "There must be a tiger there," said Guiocolo. Instantly the Indians threw off their guias, N2

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274 WARNER ARUNDELL : and each fitted an arrow to his bow and advanced. I left my horse in charge of D'Aubert ; and, having loaded my fowling-piece, proceeded with them. As we entered the grove, a deep growl told us we were near our quarry. A large and lank tigress appeared, with a cub in her mouth. One of the Indians shot his arrow and wounded her ; two others missed ; and Guiocolo struck her in the back with a poisoned arrow: but still she was making off. I took aim, and sent a bullet right into her brain : this finished her career. On looking round, we found the cub she carried, as a cat carries her kittens, and another: these appeared scarcely two days old. The fear of losing her young hindered her flight, and cost her her life. The Indians said they would endeavour to keep the little creatures alive, and bring them to the mission as a present to the padre. The tigress must have lately srfruck down a deer, for the greater part of its carcass we found near her. It had been killed within an hour or two, so that we dressed and ate it. The Indians preferred the tigress, which, they said, was better food. Strange to say, they preferred the flesh of the jaguar to beef or venison. It grieved Fernandez to partake of food not slaughtered after his own manner; however, he had but the choice of eating it or starving.

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THE ADVENTURES OF A CREOLE. 275 We made our ajupa that night in the grove : the next morning we parted with the Pariagotoe Indians. We fed our horses well ; for a clear ride of one hundred miles lay before us, through a country inhabited by wild tribes. We started about seven o'clock, according to D'Aubert's pinchbeck chronometer. We rode all that day, and half the night, ere we came to a place where we could conveniently bait our horses. When we did arrive, we had difficulty in keeping the animals from drinking too much. Unfortunately, we had no kind of instruments with us, so as to enable our taking any kind of observation : we had not even a compass. This I regret the more, because the most fertile and noble country lying between the Upper Orinoco and the Essequibo is entirely a terra incognita. Pretended maps of it exist, but, to my own knowledge, they are most inaccurate placing mountains, rivers, and lakes, where plains only exist ; and vice versa. Our route was circuitous and wandering in the extreme ; sometimes we went for two days without advancing as many miles. This was occasioned by some inaccessible mountain or other obstacle lying across our path : hence, the actual distance we went was very disproportionate to

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276 WARNER ARUNDELL : the progress we made in a direct line. Often we took immense circuits in order to avoid hostile arid savage Indians, of whom Guiocolo stood in great dread ; for this man, although faithful to his undertaking in an extraordinary degree, and courageous when opposed to animals, was, I suspect, cowardly when encountering men. His timidity, I surmise, cost us many a day's journey. The sixth day after we left the mission, our Indian guide advised a halt, as our horses wanted rest telling us, that about five leagues onward lay a river, which he called the Matagatoe.* Fernandez dissented from the opinion of Guiocolo ; and said that, although our animals were weary, we were not, and advised us to dismount and lead our horses. I was astonished at this, because Fernandez was the oldest of the party ; in fact, he had long passed the prime of life. We, however, agreed to follow his advice; and, after a long and tedious walk, we came to the banks of a noble river. Here we rested, previous to our crossing it. Scarcely had we time to repose, ere the Indian regarded the stream with some alarm, and said we must cross instantly, or we should be detained for several days. The fact was, he Every Indian tribe calls rivers, mountains, &c. by a different name.

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THE ADVENTURES OF A CREOLE. 277 noticed, by the visible rising of the river, that a flood of rain must have fallen in the mountains, and that the banks would be soon overflowed ; in which case, we might be detained for weeks before we could cross it for we now might daily expect the rainy season. It was fortunate that we had followed the advice of Fernandez in not halting, as the Indian proposed, although he did not foresee the result of his good counsel. We crossed the river, swimming our horses, and holding on by their manes. So strong was the current setting in, that we were carried down the stream nearly half-a-league before we were able to cross it ; and then, with great difficulty, we mounted the steep bank. Almost all the rivers of South America have a shallow bank on one side, and an abrupt one on the other. We erected our leafy tent on the banks of the Matagatoe before sunset ; and the next day, men, as well as horses, were so completely fatigued, that we were constrained to halt. We could not do this in a better situation. We had wood, water, forage, fish, and venison, at our command ; and such abundance of the terekay, or small river turtle, and its delicious eggs, at our very feet, that it would be worth while for a London alderman to take a journey to the river Matagatoe for the purpose of enjoying it: but (shocking to

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278 WARNER ARUNDELL : relate ) we were obliged to broil all we ate, having no cooking utensils. The first evening after we passed the Matagatoe, I observed that Fernandez became more than usually devout. This I at first attributed to his being thankful for having safely crossed the river, as he could not swim ; but, although I could not understand the language in which he prayed, for this he always did audibly, yet I thought I could distinguish the word Sabbath in Hebrew. It now struck me that it was the eve of the Jewish Sabbath. This at once accounted for his anxiety to rest the last week at the mission, and to push on this day, in order that he might rest on the morrow. When he had finished his devotion, I questioned him on this subject, and I found my conjecture correct. When I recollected that for months I had never known one day from another since I joined the insurgents, nor the days of the week, I stood rebuked in the presence of the pious Jew. I told him so, and praised him for recollecting, amid all his toil and wanderings, the ordinances of his religion. Why," said he, Warner, should we forget the service of God ? Has He forgotten us, when, in six days, He created this globe ; the sun, that animates all nature ; the moon, whose silvery

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THE ADVENTURES OP A CREOLE. 279 light now glitters on the swelling river ; the stars, which gem yon blue vault ? When He had breathed the breath of life into the nostrils of our first parents, whom he created after his own image, He rested the seventh day, and consecrated it. The river Sabathjon, therefore, flows during six days, and, on the seventh, its waters are stationary ; the very damned in hell have rest on the Sabbath. Why, amid this desert, the dwelling-place of the tiger and the cannibal, should we forget our Creator, seeing He abandons us not? When I repose beneath our wretched ajupa, I close my eyes in sleep with the full assurance that the archangel Michael stands at my right hand ; at my left watches Gabriel ; Raphael and Uriel are stationed at my feet; while, above me, hovers the spirit of the living God. This yon poor atheist would call the dream of enthusiasm ; but it is a dream I would not like to be awoke from. Kneel, young man ; praise the God you worship, for His having delivered you. Kneel, Warner, and supplicate a blessing on the head of one whose name 1 often hear you murmur in your sleep ; implore a benediction on Maria Josefa, the angel of mercy. I like not the appellation of angel to be given to a mortal ; but, if ever daughter of Eve deserves it, she does.

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280 WARNER ARUNDELL : Doubt not, you will meet again in happy times, when the maiden shall be as a crown unto you." For the first time for some years I shed a devout tear : I knelt, and prayed fervently. D'Aubert knew not what Fernandez said to me ; for he understood scarce a syllable of English, in which language we conversed. It is singular, that of four persons thus brought by chance together, one was a Jew ; the other, although baptised, was a mere heathen ; another was, or pretended to be, an atheist ; and, finally, I was an unworthy Christian. Warner," said Fernandez to me the next evening, I think I shall convert you to Christianity, although a Jew myself. Be advised : let us not proceed to-morrow, but keep your Sabbath. We are here surrounded by rude abundance, and the horses will be better for another day's rest. Remain here to-morrow, and I will collect tortoises and eggs, and stand cook for the party." I mentioned this to D'Aubert, and he consented to remain. He cared not for religion, but was too polite to ridicule it before Fernandez and myself. He amused himself in shooting, and singing little French songs. Previous to this remarkable journey across Guiana, Fernandez was a martyr to gout and

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THE ADVENTURES OF A CREOLE. 281 rheumatism : but the exertion he was obliged to use, and to which he cheerfully submitted ; the rude fare he was necessitated to partake of; the frequent immersions he underwent; and his sleeping continually with no other shelter than an ajupa, which is merely a few leaves to keep off the dew, all combined to cure him completely of his chronic diseases. Twenty-five days after we left Alta Gracia, we came to an encampment of comparatively civilised Caraibes, called Buck Indians : they spoke no Spanish, but a little broken English. These conducted us to a muddy-looking, partly natural and partly artificial, canal, which leads to the Essequibo. We agreed to give our pistols and the remains of our powder to them, if they would convey us to the British settlements. This they consented to do; and we embarked in a large canoe, having given our horses and fowling-piece to the faithful guide, Guiocolo, who, I afterwards learnt, disposed of the fine animals for a trifle, and returned by himself to Alta Gracia. During the journey I was by far the most active of the party, not excepting the Indian; but the confinement in a canoe for several days in a cramped posture, together with the miasma from the swamps of old Dutch (now British) Guiana,

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282 WARNE-R ARUNDELL : conjoined to give rne a very bad intermittent fever.' This increased in violence until we arrived at Essequibo. I hailed with joy the appearance of-the British flag. A boat, with several officers, came alongside of our canoe. These gentlemen were astonished at our wild appearance. This was scarcely to be wondered at. Our clothes hung together in tatters ; our toes were peeping through our shoes as though they were looking out for fresh lodgings ; our hair had not had the benefit of a comb for some weeks ; and we had each a month's beard on our faces. On Fernandez informing the officers that we had escaped from the Royalists, and had journeyed from Alta Gracia, they behaved most humanely to us. These gentlemen had come in a brig, on what is called a maroon party, i. e. a party of pleasure. They sent for a boat, and had us removed on board the brig. Each underwent shaving from the hands of a military barber. After this, the kind officers had a meeting, and each agreed to furnish us with some articles of clothing; hence, we were enabled to enjoy the luxury of clean linen, and appear on deck in decent attire. A military surgeon being of the party, I requested his advice as to my malady ; he immedi-

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THE ADVENTURES OF A CREOLE. 283 ately ordered me into a berth, and gave me a glass of hot sangaree. In short, we were most kindly entertained by these gentlemen; and, the next day, we safely landed in the town of St. George's, Demerara. END OF THE SECOND VOLUME. LONDON : PRINTED BY JAMES MOVES, CASTLE STREET, LEICESTER SQUARE.

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