Two copies of “Biography of José Martí” translated from Spanish and synopsized by María T. Romero, including a foreword ...

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Title:
Two copies of “Biography of José Martí” translated from Spanish and synopsized by María T. Romero, including a foreword by María T. Romero.
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Mixed Material
Language:
English
Donor:
Romero, Eduardo S. ( donor )
Physical Location:
Box: 1
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University of Florida
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Full Text
;E ; Biography of Joad Marthi
Translated from Spanish
and synopsized byr
Maria T, Romerro
J3ulyr t44 1939




Although pracotically unrknown in the United Sta~tesa, he a
of Joad Mart is worshipped Wuhu l ai mrc.Fo al
yeath until the day when he died on the battlefield, this great Guban
patriot devoted his entire life to the caurse of Guban frreedom. With
prolonged and fever b activity he iaspiredL organized and launched
the revelation of 18B95, which eventually liberated his country from
the tyranny~ of the Spganiards. His full and turbulent life took him
through many highways and 13RRbyaya As a young politi-al prisoner he
was fettede to work in a chan21 goes and was twise ~ailed from Ouba,
His trasels took him to many countries.
-Eken with the teIP~eraent of~ a poet and an idealigtg Jup
srufferingts made of hin a kind, gentle, understanding man with as greab-
ness of soul, He knew only how to love and to serve well+ EIs greed
was that of equality for all, regardless of race or color....and he
practiced what he preached, Wherever he went, he won the adulation
of the peoples His maind had the magnificence of genius. He studied
and taught in univers~tities. There was no topio which he could not
disenas brilliantly+ He was gifted as a philosopher, prolific writer
and master eratorr Bla life was a veritable kaleidoscope of romance,
drama, traveled adversity and politisea He did not live to enjoy the
fruis of his success, bt wB~reaEdgaded in posterity. As he once
said *sWhen one has 1 Yed we~ll, death is but the crowning victory,"
Whn~ty books hav~e been ritrten about Joad Marti, but La the
following biography, Jorge Matinfeh gives the most soourate and details
ed deseript~ion of has life and sharnetfers It may be of interest to
the reader to kn~ow that the family of esarru Romero was elosely can-
nected with M~arti, Two of the important characters in this book are
Carmitl~a hantilla and Mbaria Mtant~illas Maria is now Gesa~e s motherre
Garmits was his p~~uandotherr For many years MLarti made his hars i~t~h
the Mantillal ioroly. He was Mar~iate adored Sodfather and undertook
her eduestioan personally, As the book indi;catesa he was .,,in later
yearlrrLs...eeLy~ tinlove with Ga-r~att who was ~i-s sole Bcmforterss and3
loyal supported dturing his years of greatest tral, Her odlerst littler
boarding-house in Brooklyn was the gathering place of all the Cuban
exiles who were in New York. WIjthin those four walls manyv of the rev~o-
lat~ionary plans were conceived and Eexeuted.
Mrs. 04sar 3. Romaero (nee Marial Mantilla) hars ia her posseas-
sion many~ of the letters and books ar~itten by Mlarti~ and is the best
qualified peraan to give any Sugh~*te`i~!:itiatormationio that may be desired
on the life of this great mlan, REia birthplace in Havana, Cuba, re-
moains preserved as a museum.


He Ta Ro




TranrslJated from Spanish
and synopsized by,
M~ariar 'f. Romero
July 84, 1939


MA~RTI. THIE APOS41;E,
A biography
by
Jorge Ma~iach


In the middle of the nineteseth Qcntrm23y) Spain found her-
self obliged to maintain strong garrisons of troops in bar Wrest Ind-
ian solany, the islsat of Oubas T'he ranks of. the mnen were frequent-
ly reduced by the ravages of Yellow Fever, but this course of the tro-
pies was not the solte3 examy with which the militant Spaniards had to
contend. Other foes preoccupied them much mereap*sesrscet political
factions wIhich were conspiring to overthrow the Spanish dominion usE~
der which the little island was holdi Ini3 1836 the mother Qountry had
refused Cuba arny constitutional representation in its Parliament c
Thfis fact;, along with ofsther broken promises and excessive taxation,
irritated the people* NVor was Spain unaware that the Un'ited States,
recently gone greedy with the acquisition of Mexican territory; bad
an eye on this colony of hers, Among the Cubans there were those who
favored annexation to the United States int preference to th tyranny
of the Spaniards,
In 1850, General Conoha was appointed governor of Cuba and
invested with the power of proclaiming martial law if necessary Gen-
trary to the advice of MYadrid, he brought additional troops from Spain.
One of these soldiers was S~argeant MIariano Marti, who wasted no time
in finding~ himself a sweet~heartsi Two years later h eand Leanor Pe~re
were married 5 Bin Havaa and established their homeis in a modest little

house s d Paula Street. Here it: was tha~t their First sonJ Joada was
born on the 28t of Jranuary in 185a. Other children followed8, and the
devoted husband and father began to feel a desire for spending more





bime with his fami reg He retired from the army and %ihereafte~~br seeCe
pied lesser government positions which did not pay so Rell but were
less emanating of his times He was diischaged from a series of unianL
portant em~ployments....and harmony no longer reigned La the poverty-
strieken household, I Jo~sits early years were filled with want and dis-;
cord. Nevertheless he wase a precoolious child and proved himr~self neep-
tionarlly brilliant ~at school At the atge of tea he had outdone the
brightest students in his elasss, At first his aptitude won for him oan-
ly the aversion of his cos9latssmts Their entiy and dislike soon grew
iabo admiration when Josi proved ahait he was lackring ia conceit, that
he could puneh harder and more gene~rousrly thanthe others and that
his inlitiative during recreation hours was greater than that of any
other pupil. Because of his extreme ability,,rand through the iLnflu-
anoe of friends...~he had been admitted to a school of good standing,
Bis closest friend was Fermrin Vald~a Domaingues, son of a wealthy fami-
174l Together they spent their afternoons playing games, watching the
troops drills and paying frequent visits to the wharf where ships camne
and went.
At lntervals, don Miarianosewho had a total disregard ZFor
education.c.would take the boy out of school. Then 30os6 would have to
find work so as to help the family weather tGhe fatherls long sieges of

unemployment s Bt he always found time to devote to his books A5 the
age of twelve he showed himself to be a sensitive and imPressiona'ble
youth, He was already somewhat of an idealists Ltike all poor bu~t de-
serving students, he aeoted as m~onitor and messenger-boy when not having
61rassesr Ho won the affootion of the kindly Doctor Rafael Mdendivesthe
school supervisore,ca patriot an~d man of ltettters.44wpho believed that his
students should be handled as firmly as possi'bleli but with gentleness
and understanding. Such was the adoration of Jos6 for his masterk that
he unclonsciously began to imitate him. At the age of thisaarreent had
already read ha~lf of' the literary works by Dootor Me~nditresi in the eve-





ning~s he took dictahian for himg and he joined a Blass of the more mta-
ture students who gathered to read and discuss the greatest literary
works of the day* Oner day the teacher caught him trying to translate
Byrronts$ poem, al fliyptoerpny with the aid of a copy of T'her American
popular L~essona's, Blusrhing and apologizing for his selection of such
a poeml Joad explained that he had starlted out to translate H~amlet"
but desired to go no further with it after coming to the scene of the
grave-diggersep it seemed to him, he asaid, that it was undignified an
the part of a g~enifusr like Shakespeare to speak of adoet
Meantime, don BWhriano had been reduced to working ia a gro-
oery store, while hi~s wife and daughters were compelled to take in sewa-
ing. in his spare hours J0s6 worked for a barber Whe~an time permitted,
he wrote theses on odd pieces of wrapping paper,
in 1866, Dloctor Mendive proved instrumental in having Joad'
admitted to the ILnstituto, a higher institution of leaurnitng. here the
boy again proved outstanding in his work and won many honors for him*
sel~f. Be camer in contact with the sons of wealthy Spanish militariPstas*
it was inevitable that he should mrark the disdain with which these young
men referred to the Cuban people, Althoughs in actu;a(IUty e Jos4 wras'.the
son of Spanish parents, his sympathies none the less were with the opni
pressed Oubana. With Dootor Mdendive,***a sponsor of the Cuban cause...
he held long discussions about the political situations it was the
youth's belief that the, Cubans were no~w Rmaturen enugcuCh to be self*
governing Thbis wabs the beginning of a new consciousness in him. From~s
that time on, hea wnas to fight msealously ia the cause for Cuban freedom.
It seemed as if a point had been gained by the Reformists
when Queen Isaabel II ordered an investigation of those reforms which
were deemed necessary in Cuba, Hioweverry there were those who, recall-
ing the broken promises of 1836, doubted the good faith of Spain. The
outcome of the investigation proved the doubters to be right. To the
Queen the delegation reported that no reforms were called for. To the




44
Ombanl theyr simply stated that any attempt at reform would be me't with
btloodshed. All kaniw that the co~mmit~tee~ of investigation had rbean Beam~
posed of twenty-two of the most notorious enemies of the Sefor~m move
meant,
In secret meetings held at the Institutoe Sosd gloried in
acting as leader to a group of f~ollowers*, To them hes would disclose
the revolutionary a~nd skreptical views of his o~ld master and friend,
Doo'tor Mlandive. H~e astounded and hypnotized his friends with' his own
ideas and eloquence of speech,
in 1868 Dotor Menidive established a private school in hi~s
own home, Josd and his friend, Vald~s Dominguez, left the Instituto
to take u~p their second yearts work with Mendivei This institution
was conducted along the lines of a noif~iori seminary where each student
was trtat~ed ase a son. None appreciated this more than Joad' who, ii6g
the age of fifteen knew anly discord and penury at home, It was in
the company of the master that this young man found the spiritual outts
let which to him was so necessary, Hlendiveb understood human nature
and, a~bovie a~lly he understdrod this sensitite youth. in return for the
loyalty and devotion of the older man, 3os6 Wavahipped at his shrine.
At the same time it hurt ha it~o think that he had to seek elsewhere
that which he could not find In his owja home, Rooted to his soul was~
a deep, meiancholio resentment,;.for he was of a type to whom family
love and unity meant much. BRe sought escape by writing poetry,
nFasmily loven was t~he, theme of mos% of his poems
A_9 the summer oPf1868 oana tok a';loser the atmosphere in
Doortor Menldivela srminary had grown mtorer political than lietrerary~
The Spanish delegates had returned 10o Guba and the1~ little island was
a veritable bofling-pot, TPo maker matters more unbearable duba was
thean being ravaged by the cBeaded cholera. Tfhe 0olonyr was We~ll on the
road to rebellion. A group of Cuban patriots had emigrated to .New
York, and there in conjunction with other secret faoCions in Cubsal





they were quietly planting the seeds for the revolution that was to
follow, At the same time, Spain was beginning to feel the first rsigns-
of those forcesa which were to cause the dethronmemnt of~X Isabel II.
Joad Mi~artd formed~ a club which had for its members those revo-
lutionary youths who had been his followers at the In~stituto, as, well asP
thoa6 students whom he had was over at the semi~narr~ at this time, all
entrances to -t~he city of Havana were being guarded, Soldiers were under
orders to kill on sight any who might try to get out without benefit of
a pass. For the present ita became impossible for any of the young revo-
lutionists to join that great patriot...0,ar1los MaBnuel de 04'spedes, who,
with his seat, was tervidly plaunntg a march, Thket Odspedes footion kept
itself Jit a coun~try hideout. The long suppressed eagerness of the peo-
ple showed itself in the number of newspapers and political publica-
tians wthich were going off the press at this time. No less than seven~t~y
seven papers were published between the 10th and the 288th of January
12869* Marti took advantage of this opportunity to have several of his
artices publirshedr H also made arrangements f'or the publication of
his own little paper called L~a Patria Libre" (Tlhe Free Country)4
Qn the night of January 22nd, in a theatre that was packed
with atheae audience, there arose ouries of eViva Cubalar and then, AViva
Spain't" Thi81s udden outburst was .followed by rioting and shooting such
as had neverr been witnessed before, On the followingdgEYDoator Mandive
was accused of inoiting revolt among his students, and was east into
prison, Five months later he was deported to Spain, Marti kept up a
correspondence with Aday but he was asr onle3 lost without his beloved
masters B, e found consolation and understanding only at the home of
his friend Valda.rs There, around the study table, he listened to the
Freneh lessens given to the children, read books, talked l@revolutionaj
and elabor~ated as plans to 3ioin G~sperdes .3- thle counrye Then it again;
becameu necessary for him to seek work.~d He obtained employment; L sa
office e where he labored from 6 csxa.m to 18 p~m. and was paid seventy dol-






Sawrs a month~-hs 9r alaryf intactl was handed over to his family
On Oaobeor 4thy for reasons in which he was not to blamedr,
Valdes was carried8 offi to 3Spirionr "Ihe authorlit9ies hen searched his
house and dilscovered ran inori-minating iettcerse.of a political nature...
aigned by' both Valdia and ;tose' Miarti, For this Marti also was impri-
soned. The two friends were placed in jail togethersr Months passed
r...onths of steneh and confusion, during wKhich the bond between these
two friends grew ever clossere it was made known to them that; the death
penaltyr weatld ber the final portion of the one who hard actually written
the letter, When called before the tlriban~al of justice, each one 131w
sisted upon assurming full responsibility for the nothien, The similar-
ity of their handwriting mrade it -impossible for the judges to ascertain
wPhose was the real guilt* Finally, pushi~ng Valdds aside, Mlarti stepped
forward and, with an eloqueruoe which swept the listeners off their fleetyi~
took all the bslamre upon Admamelf. Stilesno verdiot could be reached.
The final sentene wfas, for Valdess..sixe monthsa imlprisonment, for BMarti
ns,,ix yeairsl,
M8arti was then transferred to an even more horrible and

dungeon-like prisons and forced to work in a chain gang, Hae witnessed
horrors beyond human imagination, Men were lashed unmroifully ify,
for an moments they faltered atf their labor. They were forced to e~xp1-
vate rook in the line quarries which were like boiling Qaldrons under
the tropioal ann, They were bound together by iron fetters, their fPeet2
blistered by the hot rclmes White dust burned their throats and soorch-
ed the eyes. Msartis too, suffered the tortures of these men and felt
the sting of the lask hz Bu his greatest suffering was in watching the
martyrdom of the poor unfortunates who were his companions in this hell-
holre% his spirit was sorely tried. With blleeding heart and aching
body he did what he could to alleviate the misery of the others. After
six months of tnhirsl influential friends intervened and he was transfer-
red to a fortre~sssuathere to await deportation to Spain, At the age





et seventeen he was now~$ apale, this yTouth, bruised froArr the iron fet~-
ters and the wrhipl and partly blinded from the Ilme-duat.u Hi s mile,
however was more gentler I~n a letter to Dostor Menzdive he had said
"I have suffered much, buturb least IE have KNOWN ~how to suffer+ If.
have had strength to withstand all this) and still have strength to: be
a mOhlEa4 I' owe it all to your All t~he goodness and affection which I
have known, has come seably from o~u a
Wshen Matii~t arrived in 9Madrid he was given the freedom of the
country To his great disappointment, Doctor Mendive was no longer
there, as he had been permitted to go to Paris, Howevery since Marti~
spent his time busily exploring the wonders of this beautiful Spanish
capital, he did not here time to be lane~dlgys it seemed to him incred-
O~ble and impossible that sunfh a gay and beautiful metropolis could
have any connecotion whatsoever with the violence and horrors which pgrees~
failed in Cuba, .To a young man whose inclnsa~t~ion~s were so definitely
literary, the sudden contact with an older and richer eml~ZtureS gave added
ed impetus to his aspirations. His first step was to enroll in the
university where he took up the study of philosophy and lawiw Here he
came upon another young exile idea he had known slightly in Havana,
and he and Garlos Sauralle became close friendse The latter, being of~
wealthy family did much to relieve the poverty and suffering of his
impeannious companion, although Martij was loathe to accept even the ex-
treme necessities of Jllsife The injur~ies which he had suffered in pri-
son now commenoee to give him trouble. They resulted LA the growth of
a tumor for which Mlarti underwent three operations during the four
years that he was in Spainr Friends paid the medical expenses and
nursed him with loving care. During part of" his illness he wrote his
memoirs entitled othe Political Prison in Clubas, Aided by friends,
he distributed his' literature $amon exiled Oubans and among certain
influential Spaniards, Mbadrid ooseald not ignore the ex~ihaa~~~steSe o one
Jos& M~rartir His financial situation became somewPhat improved wrhen he




8+
s~eeired emlapoayment as tutor to several childpen, ~But instead of buy-
ing a badly needed pair of shoeag he spent the money as photographs of0~
fine paintings, tO maeny occasions he deprived himself La order to
help someone more needy than he. His generous nature knew~4 no limit.
In the university Marti made friends, It watgLs not long be-g
fore he was recounting to these amased youngy m~an all the horrors of
thj prison, and the sufferings of his people. From them, hki turn, he
learned a considerable lot about Spanish politics, It was at a time
when Spain was bubbling with internal setrife'o Ba~rti began to realize
that the state of affairs in Cuba was butb a reperoussian of conditions
in the mother country, and that not until Spain should be able to set-
$1e her own home pr~oblemsr, would Gaba find a solution to hers...qwn-

lgesay before that time,t there should seasri a, parting of the ways Thi~~Ls
topio was the frequent subject of discussion between Mlarti and don Ca-
lixto Bernal, a Gubran of greater years and of a more logical m~n~Jd than
that of the young poet and idealisCI In the question of polities,
Bernal ;became to M~arti what Mandive, had been in the field of literat~ure
Bernal was of the conviction that any aspirations te independence on
the part of Guba were prematurer- He favored the sannexation of Cuba by
the United States. His opinions gave Mdart~i much food for thought.
At Sauwrallets homere the youngn Cuban exiles gathered around
Ma~rtits~ siclkbedl to discuss news of the latest developments as the iset
land, TPhey had. lepa$ned that a group of medical students in the Univ-
ersity of Bavfana had been soonsed of defiling the monument to the
Spaniard, Castai~ann A newspaper printed the t~ragio news that eight
of the students had been shot, ranxd thifrty-fivee condemned to prison.
So terrible and so unjust was tthe punishment that had been meted out
to these young mansweall of them innocent...that spain herself felt
shamed and dishonored. It was then that M~arti made the resolution
from which he was never to be dissuaded He would free his people
from the terrible yokef31 that was rushing them.




9.


1maing the medioal Itudents doomed to the tortfures of the
chain gang was Vtaldes. ,But hey~d bsQ) was deported to Spain after some
months. H a rr~ived. in Madrid to become reunited with his old school-
nate .

A9 year passed Notw~ithatanding his continued ill health,
Marti forged ahead with his ;fervent campaign for the Ouban orausrea
Blany werre his ar~tles thEart were published in a weekly paper imasued
by the wrevoltutionariesu, Many were the rsecret and agitated meetings
held by this group of exiled patriots But despite his po~ltieal work
and hisr studies at the UnIVersity, Hardt found time to pay Frequent
VisEits to the famnous~ Museum of thet Prado. Here he wsrould write do~nr
his inmpressians of the great masters paintingsr He also became a dte-
vout follower of the Aam~a. Although not over-religious, he held,a
firm belief in God and often sought solace in the vast emptiness of
some quiet church. There were many gay reunions inJ the homes of wPell
known Cuban fa~milies, but Marti[ had little -time...land not much inlTP-
nation ...for frivolities. He preferred to spend his time where his
services could do some good, in the evenings he would visit the s~CbQhe
for the poorer bearing candy and books to the little childran, and de-
lighting them wSit~h his story-telling...for which he had an e-~pspreaia
talent.
The more recent efforts on the part of MBartact and his goallea--
gues to arouse the people off the capital oity ~had not met with the8
hoped-for auooess. M~arti had by this time devesloped into a powerful
and eloquent oratoro but the unimpassioned Spaniards1 could not be moved
by reason alone. Because the olimate inx MaIdrid did not prove benefit*
aial to their impaired health, and because the attitude of the cItizen~s
had become somewhat chilly toward the two zealots, Mdarti and Vald~s
moved to Zairagosa, The warm welcome which was accorded to them there
was made manifest th the genuineness of~ the peoplets hospitality+ The
two continued their coursesr inthe old University of Zauraglosa, quickly




10.


mlaking newr friends and winning tne~ir admLrat~ion, To an interested
audincrel Marti expressed his idealsa and purpose. The4 extraoPdinaryT
mafcuritfy at his twenty ye~arsJ his gift for oratory and argumentation
,..anhipanced by the Sentleness of his nature...won even the esteem and
affection oaf the professors.
O;ne eveaning Maurti was iLntrodued to a pretty and charming
young girlt who proved to be his first real love. Th~irs emotional epi-
srode oame ~lato his life ra~t a timae when it wars sorely needed, Of a
high-strung~, nostalgio tempegramentt craving tenderness and affection,
he was ripe for this first milestone at a ~romantic nature*r it brought
temporary hagppnes~s to him~. His laugh~tery usually tinged with maelan-
cholia, acquired a heartier, more genuine ring.


Marti had now spent four years in Spain. With the coming
of spring he completed his studies int the university. Driven by a
aenne of duty, the youthful philosopher felt compelled to tak1e~i passage
for Mr~exico, there to doian his family who had left Ouba iln search of
better fortunes The abroumstanesn of the family8 were more straight~en-
ed than ever* Arriving i-n Mazio Citys he set to worrk to increase the
budgets He wrote for various newspapers and did translations ~f~ the
classicrs,- Philosophyi Letters sad politics commanded all of his inter-
est. HBe esae inrto contact with other exiles and never for a moment
lost any of his seal for. the CuBan cause. HfowevRas' his forced inacti-
vity -in this field led him to takE~t ant ever increasing interest ~;in the
civil and religious problems of~P Mexico,
At ones time Marti was persuaded to try his hand at writing
for the dramlajl he did....a~nd fell in .love with the leading lady*. Eis
family disapproved of the notress and encou~rag~ed him to court Carmen
Zaras *Basin...the attractive but somew~hat ar~istoc~ratio Epr;g!nsadbgeman ada
young daughter of a Guban family, ~Almost without realiz~ing it, Mbarti
wras caugblht on the rebound and found himself engaged to Carmen.




~k SO Y1


Rrestlessness overcame rTosi Marti, wrho had reached the age of
twe~nty four, c e- trained, at the reins wrhich kept him awfay from his. ene
country Consolernce bade him stay in Mexcowhejre he could help' pro-
vide for the family;) but hs hearPt: urged hi to return to his beloved
Cub~a and kgeep up thea fight for her freedom, Eso it wass that in Ja~Enuary
1877 hel disembarked ajt Itavania under an assumed name,. To hi~ surprise
and dismay) he encountered a noticeable lull in the activities of the
Cuban revolutionaries. TIher arrival of fresh reenforcements from Spain,
and the cobniliatory abttitude of the governort had done anch toward
dispeliling the bellgerjeny of. the people, It2 wast also a known fact
that ithet revoluionary factions lacked the necessary funds for arms and
supplies, Ejth Cuban immigrants in New York had also 'begun to give up.
I~n short, the people were tired anld discouraged. For the time being,
there was nothing that Mdarti coulld do IkE Ouba.r A month later he left
for Guatemala.
He arrived there a POorj sad' and unrknown young man. Friends
in~ Havana had given him letters of ~inroduction to the President and
provided him with sufficient funds to lZarst him for a time, I~t did not
take him long to e~stablish himself in the good graces of a hospiLetable
peoples The president, don Austo Ruzf~ino Barriosl was a demooratio,
efficient person, beat onr modernizing his country developing its wPealth
and eduanting his people. The schools aad university were open to all.
There was also a Noarmal Sohool under the direction of the Cuban, Doortor
IsaguirrerswantB here M8ar~ti secured a teaching position, Ehe was given
charge of the Ristory anld Literature departme~ntsr Bla pupils were qui~k-i
ly charmed b5y the br~illiano~y of his eloquence and t~he gentCleness of his
manner. There was a demand for his articles to appear in the newrspppeurs
In .these he exprerssed nlaught but praise for the demooratic form of goP-
ernment in the, republion to him it was ann ideal states ]Bg s~tdied its
methods writh the hope that some day his own country might enjoy simi.
l~ar conditions last hits popularity and fame increased, he was made





vice-prFaies3ien of a iBwltessaley scey and w~as also given a professor-
ship ait the univ~ersityj, where he taught Philosophyl Prinoiples and
Lttiterature. Eis influence made itself telt throughout the capital.
In his letters to Carmen, Mbarti expressed the belief that
here at last he had found his place. He hoped to return soon to marry
her so that he could bring hear back to this wonderful Guatemala, ~Even
so, the thought orf Guba was ever present in his minds There was cons-
tant oanflict with~i his soul. Sometimes he sought forgetfulness byr
visiting in the home of friends. At the home of don Garola GranadosJ
the pretty, yng~ daughterr**Maria, regarded Marti with worshipful gases
His manner toward her wpas one of gallant, kindly affootion. Bla ~aida
was too preoccupied to notice that the girl had fallen deeply in love
with him. HeTr heart was broken whenL~ she learned of his approaching
marriage. Wthen Mbarti beolame aware of the situation, he refused to bam-
tinue 'being a g~uest at the Granados home., He reproached himself, think-
ing that perhaps he had unwittingly led Mlaria to1 believe that his fQendp
ness for her was more than brotherly.
Anxious to continue his observation of the country, Mar~ti re--
turned to Mbexico by land. On horrseback, across the Ri~o Grande and the
Sierra de, las Mainaai he reached the border liner it was a land of Vel*
oanoes and primitive forests which spread ou5t~ beneath his astounded
gaze. This complete immersion in N9ature served -to increase his senti-
ment an admiration for all that was American, By rights Guba should
also have been a p~art1 Of the~ Americas uba would bef, Upon his arri-
Val in Mexico, M~arti published his n~nogy to Guatemalanq Kis stay was~
a brief oneb as he had been given butf a month's leave of abtsenoe~l from
his dutiesr The wfe~ddng was duly celebrated and the newlyweds returned
to Guatemal~a where they werec jubilantly welcomed. Martins nrEulogy##~
Guatema~laa brought himr the enthusiastie applause of those Guate~malans
who had always worshipped the name of Sim~n Bolivrarsr They now found
a1 new idol in the person of Joadb HYarti.




134~ _
The fruits of: this fresh trinalgh soon turned ~to bi~tternesse~.
a few days later, Euria Granados died. Her death was a2 sorrowful blow
to NhtJtil whose wife navar e~hi understand why. he was so deeply~ affeet-
ed by the tragedy, Somre years later he wrote a poem gnti~tlerd n~rls of
G~uatemalaay,...and to this day it remains famous*,,throug~hout all Latitn
Amner~ok~ican,to its great beau~ty and~ touc1Dhing sentiment.
Ltxike all grat nan who eamsidee ~the interPests of others Before
their oth, Mart~i brpouglht an and to hisL1 Dood fortune, Ima8guirre had ena-
mie~s. On a earai~n day they eame to the president and presented a l~ist
alof cusra~tions~ against the pro~fe~ssor The preBSiden-Zt, who happened to
be in unusually ill humo, demanedg Israguirrels ~resignation, lhr~eid was
quick tro champion the cause of his good fPriant who had been the victim
of such unfair trea~tment, Re, ~too, resigned from the uierrsityo Isaw
guirre protested against suc~h ae~tians sayings, t*Bab~ :arti,ryour salary
isr the makyp means youn have at) supporting your wif~eC and yoursel~fin Has
only reply wast "I shall resign, even if my wife and i starve to deatkh*
At; Whabtrcii this time Mdarti received word that the gas-reolutioan
in Cuba had completely died ourt; A sort of paot had been effected Be-
tween Spain rand Cuba, although it did not mean the latterts independence
On the 20thn of Jhly inx 1878, ~her and Giarmean sailed for Harvana.
The Treaty of Zanjds made kit: possible For Jll erxiles to return
to bubar .They icame rnrieaeiker biomaingr*pigeansr froma all parts of Elurope
and America. Ten years had passed...tenP long years in which all of
these patriots had yearned for their homes ands in many cases, had ex-
perienced poverty and want,
A few months later Ca~rman gave birth tos ason, TShe ShQAc was
named after his father, butrt was affecctionately called PePIte.I Marti
obtained work in I lawP oiffice, but nevertheless found time to resume
his po~~litial iseussions with those few friends who refused to let; die
the question of inderpendenae. Yes, the insurrection! had been quelled
+r ron~ the surfiaoei Spain had pacif~ied the weary people with a serries




14a.
of riew projtisesr, A fer wise ones knaew that the promises meant nothing.
Spain, too, knew that there wAere still those who refused to give up the
Gause, rand that i~t would require but lone spark to rekindle the wave of
ant~aganism. Still,...hs contiBnued in her established method of doing;
notihing to prove 40ethanpieople that she was acting in good faith,
GeneralClit G aroLt 0~ia was thhe one insurrectianist who ha~d
refused to sign the peace trea~t~y. e exijled himselJf to New York and
Ohere, with the QcoPgersaion of seVeral leaders who remained in Cubal, be
carried ionF his we k~I in secret. he succeesded in basingt his propaganda
circulate amrong~ lo3yal followers ~In New York and BEavana* Moneary~ Qam-
tributions began to csome inc MartiL was aware of all3 that went on+
Again he stood teaR between a seansie of duty$ to his responzsibilSities
a'nd that which orie;d out intj hise soula aliberyty Idbertygn"


TEnB~ years of constant warfare had cost Spainm and Cuba two huns-
dred thousand men and saven Ma~Aa+e mili-on dollars. TPhe littlr ~e sla
stood divided Some ~wanged only pace.r Others continued to agitate-
for independence NeJitherr the Cubans nor the Spaniards could remain
unaware of the leaderr; MartiC He seemed to haVe Visionary powers wbdich
no one else possessedl and With his 'briliant and persuasive speeches)
he electrified the masses T1he Spanpish gov~ernor regarded him as ra danm-
gerous manyC for he spo~ke' caS another war wRhich must some in~ order *to ihee
tChe people. At~t a seare; mereting of the Various revtoluionary fact~ions,
Martin was elected president of the Jiunta Gesntralenta group consisting
of repr~esentatives from all of ithel revolutionary organizations in the
provinue. he wa~s alsfo appointedi chief delegate of the Revo~lutionary
Commission whieh herld its headquarters in NewR York, The conspitracy~g
made progress. F~undsy Were raised sa sent to New York for the pureharse
of aras The other Gubcan provinses 3oinedP the orusade andu~ gave their
share, of men and mon~eys~.
In order to dgigsel surspiions the plotters avoided meeting




15.
extOopt~ when a~Bsolutely: naetessar~ys ?;%an Gualberse to Go~mes, 4 ~young ~alagg~r
la~tt who had rFeeiveds a ood education abroad, was & marmbe of the
Party and aletedi as messenger The abolit~ion Of: alarery had not~ se~-
sed to improve the r9treactment whic the negroes rcseived at the hands
of Se.the whites Al~ways the champion of the under-dogy, Martil treated
them as equals. Hes book up -fheirF cause, and showed them the same
courtesy, kihdnessa and conside~fration~ which he extesnded tLo his fellow~-
men, The negro elelmen~t :worshipppe him and formed several loyal Fooc-
tians suanog their own kind, in August several of them rosle up in anrasr
Thi was i'oliewed by other premature uprisings tahroughots the and
Once again Maargi was arrested land deported to Spain,
When~a he arrived in Madrid8 hhs felt thbat bez was too far away
from home to bes able to accomplish his purpose....rthat of uniting the
Cuban people and pePgar~tin them for ~t~he war of independence which must
come slonner or later. TPhe base of operations would have to be i$at the
UkiTed~ Sta~ters, Accordingly he se sail for N~ew York.


A new year and ane mur orld. Ony a few days in Ne~w Yorkt
MIarti had already become a famni~liar figure along the bravenues thalt exE-
tended fr'iom lower ]Kanbattan to uptown 59~th Stree~te the one thing which
had helped to dissipatde his lonesliness ~in this strange land was the ge-
ri3nuin warrmth with wphich he had been reogived. in the Cuban boading-ourse
where he took lodlgingsr It rus the home of Manel M8antilla) a Cfuban
who had married G~armita Maiyaespc~a charming -and ,\attraeCive young girl
fromt~a Vlenesuela, OChildren brighteed the hotestrfhoe -of' this coulples
who tried to make ends meet by taking in a ifaw boarderrs, all ofi; whom
were political ex~ilesE from Cubas Yurk:0C~a we 's somewhat melaneholio :
semri-invalid, Garmita,: man~Y years his Juniorpssse a088 1 capQtivatingl
personality, and ae kindness and generosity of Spirit which won the r(ee-
poe~t and devotion of all who knew her, she had stcrength of ~h~aracter
aas well1 Las a beautiful un3der3stanLdingf of human nature The kindliness





anr~dl friendliness whIc perated this niew atm~olsph~ere was likde a tfionia
to~ the lonelyg 8htti while he awaited the arrival of his wie and chVid.-
Idlenmes~s wasi the~ one tihbyg wihih he could not beare E
sought 'employrment and then Oook s~tept to jobt &he Revolu~tionary C~ommit- ;
t~ee th tha~t oitye. He pe~t to work wifth fervorP, ~te~j co~mmittee was maak-
ing: desperate re~ffrts to ga~rryi oat t~he 3lanrs of itsr president.Plii
oal, factiorns were atWa at inrjk not onl ~in Cuba but inb Jnia tgoo, It
s~eeed to Mkrtii, however, that th~epe, was a qack o~ lf atet'tinietuisons1
har~many and organization. Kingstan and Newr York, the ~two conspirartorial
center were1 1~YTO ojr wyLrm ah others Fund s~ were Pearce The
impovesrihddj exiles aculd no E6nger cntribut: lar~geg sueai Skill+e,c
retreat was untehinkable. TPhe orusade needed but a shoulder to the
wheel.,
The ooamsittee he~iw~.ad $ t frst .didnot consider their netw mea-13
ber as being of significant imortane t$e their wrokl,. They belittled
his resourse to oratory...oalled hip a %altar, But before long they
were foreda to0 arditt that Martig s methods brought; better resuitsle %h~an
those which theyr had been able ~to~ dbtain, ThEe tsug~ht themn -th vaine of
propagaba and of' speech-mah~akig, The Guban solong In News York soon
grew aw~tare of the power which layg km this trall and pale~ younpglOi m ith
the unuxlsually hipbh foreheadl and ther pensive gaze.+ The spellbound aH-
diennes received his speeches wilk entha~rats of applauses 9) could
speak~ for hours a-t a time wit0h never acto interruption save the nloplamaa.
tion of 'the peop~lesr$ W8hen Mar~ti dae~d tfo sharmpion th e auses of the
negrees, hias publia was astoundedrs~and made to feeilL humble. His ereed$
was that the new revolution anset be a truly demooratio oney~ with equal-
itEy for all~rweregardless of race anBd v1olor Ele arousel the en~thusiasm-
of: the people nnd be~Clame like a god toQ themr He begfan taki~nglollese3.
tionas.c rontf~ributinssm that ranged from pcenie~ls to more~ subs~tantIal
amounts. Evenltualy ~t~here wase enough mioney for arms8 and a sh L.: On





the 17th of ABprii in 1L880, tw~en~Ty-six menr u1nder the leadership of
General Garoia, leff; Jersey City on the schooner Natr ie~~ KIaskaitr,-
bound for the shores of ObJa. ItP was decided by the Committee that
MarIX should remata in New Y'ozr where he could best serve the oanaesr
by empS1~Jloyig hi~s powCPerf Qratory and By helpingg a keep upi~a the spirit-
so necessary to the support of the warsi
Bus~ity engaged ir- zlservin hisr coutntry~ Marti soon S~lot the
final trasesr of he~ me~lancheslia whtich crharact~erize his temperament.
ZMs spiritual equirlibrian was restored by the furious political. no&-
ivity in which he was now ipmmersed. H~e radiated optimism. He Was
hapap to be living Ja a Oountry where :the on ~gy anself-sufficiency
of the nYankeesn stood out in such sharp contras-t to the -laug and
poetlio nature of the fiatinsI Here in Aper~ica reach man ws manslter of
himself$ Ma~rt~i made ;rapid3 notes of his iLmpressions wrhich he wrote in
English, tdaunal perfecting himself in the use of the language. H
mastered it ~so notably that he was soon writing ocn varied topies for
an ~American paer~~, -1e earned a modest living by writing articles and
doing translartion~sr ew York seeiety 3Found hda nintseretilngn as 1E1B got
along well~3 with the6 men;~ but he could8 not accustom himself to the
foreign ways's of the Ameriarn ~women. Be preferred Bo spendhi 1alisfure
hours at the home of MaEnuel MVantilllar
In Cshe spring his wife and chald ag~rrEtW64 Two--year old Pepi~to
was now9 at2~ an~ age when he Cotida be~ more of a compshi~on to his fatherr
Marti was devoted to his little sont and loved to spend hours pinying
with him, Wdith hisa owPPn dear ones~ ab~ou~t him he no longer gel~t aloane.
In addition to his writingsa, Iae had secured a position as bookkeeping
rlerrrk. Eery ~day he %rverledl back and forth from the office to his
modest little htome in Brookiyn. Po-itical meetings took a~p many of bda
ev~renings*. Be never faltered in his efforts for the Gause, BuPt~ Calrmen,
fi~nding her bnaband submergetd. t a, fresh flood o~F polities which kept
him eway fromn home Inalnh of the timer was neither pleased nor happy*





Neverr~ in symrrpathy with his ideals, she hadl grown more domineering and
eazating with the yeak~rs Even so, t~2he3 harassed ~art understood how
his wif1e8 felt, A hu~bsandfSj ~pleo was La the home., Yet, like one who
was born to bes the paviour of his people, he could not still the con1-
v~siction in his hearts HeS had to go entl Thus...h and Garman were never
absle to strike -a happy maedluma n1 their~L domestic rela~t~ions.
Asr news reached New York that the Expeditionary Forebs jin
Cuba were not meaet~iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiing wSt~h the hoped-ePrife resultsl Marti beg~an to taste
discouragement once more. in the god the Cuban troogPs had to surra~n-
der. Tlhe war wass lost for the time being. AE fresh start would have to
be made, but the time was not yet ripe For thatr The Cuban generals
were again exiled tk o SpainJ Trhe Revolfutionaryr CoPmmitteea jin Nw York
was forced to break anlp Bartits wife and son returnsed to Cuba, and be
traveled on to South Americoa,


Hie a~rrived in Venessuela bearing lett~ers of~P introduction from
Carmita MasntUlla t~o friends and relatives~ in G~aaras Bere he was warm-
ly welcomed int the homnes of the best families. it helped to lif~t~S 24a
out; of~ his low apirits. Not for a moment could he forget his Ibeloved
son Pepito. L~oilg hours were spent ~in ~wrri&tingS poetry to the child, NoB
loved to wander through thEa city, exprloring its every nook and corner,
BHe s~t~oruc up a closed fPrienadship witLh the venerable Geoilio Aoosta, ra
brilliant phltosophter and man of letters theyi because, of his theories.
and t~eachinsgs, had iLnaurred the enmity of$ the dio~tatsorial president of
~Venezeuelad Faored to give up his poet; at the university, he now eked
eat a. meager existence from what he could earn ags private instructor 'to
his icyai ERhudents* Throug~h this man, Mrarti soon became well knaown to
the student elrement in the~:oapital aity. E~La ideals, his philosophyb
hisr wisdom and hits eloquencre eaptisvated the yioungE men, Many were the~
literary meetings held at th()a ~dlest abode of~ Aoosta. Donasionally
Mbarti dared to express his political tiewsl winning fPurther the admi-




194,
ration of' his smali audie~naseq He was pers~uaded~ to g~ive:a 4lctGure~ at
a literary meet~in'bh~at' wa~s to be open to the public, Bush was his
reputation by this time 4 J that the crowds completely. filled the rooms
of the oinbhouse and overf~Jlowed out into the street Mfarti had to
address his audience from a balcony~ outside. ''
A group of e~ntihusiast~ic st~dent:s begg ed~ Lidartto ive a series
of courases and thief s gave' him a means' o earning a livPeifhood. He ~al
published his own little paper and rseiceied requests to teaeh in ser-
era'l schools, Ble was careful not to be too ardent in expressing hi
political views and his' zeal for depooracyr Gbmir~n Blanco was Vene*
zuelars president, but her was also its: dictator and a tyrant, B~alano,
howeverr: had not failed Qo get wrind. of ~this duban patriot and his
fight for demooracy. 395 would welcome an excuse to ge~t him out of the
country* Hi15 chancese srogroner than expected, Thie ailing Geoilio
Aoosta had begun tofadULZ rapidly~ and his death soon followed, to a
eulogy to his friend, Marti upheld the theories wiedtd the aged ph~gi
osopher had set forth in his teachings, That was enough; Soon after
be found himself once more bound for New YeorkL leaving behind Adsa- mani~y
loyal friends aLnd acountryT which ha had learned to love. The brief
sIx~ months which he had spent in Vesnesuegis had served -lo gives final
impulsie to hi enthnaiasm1 for all that was Pef ~Americak,
In New York he con~tinued to write @ihronie~les for trhe news.
papers in Caracas. For the sake of prudence ha signed a fictitious
name to these articles. Heli also commrencred$ rto ite for other publicas
tions in Spanish, English and Frenobs Backt in the Mantilla household
he busied himself with his work, Cakring time eat to; study Amaerican
hisrtdry, the chnaracter and cu~stroms of the people, aLnd their form of
government. He made penetrating observations in the hope of Some day
being a'ble to apply the fruits of his knowvledge for the be~t~termen of
his own peopler Her hoped, too, that his wife and sonr would return to
himl for he missed themS H~s3 soul felt the Ohill of l~onlinesas, He




SO,
was a mran who6 needed the warmth of love and affection, because he him-
se~lf knew only how Xto c loe and re~rve ot~hesra
La the summer of 1882 there began negortiations for th re-
sumaption of political activity.l Harti had reached the age of thirty
annd had suceedled in more or le~ss stabilisingl his ifBe. In addition to
an office positions, he held the post of vie-eosrul of Ufruguays ia
wife returned and) thanks to his increased' Lnome,~ he was able to esta-
blish her in a maor pretentious little home. It also gratified him to
be able to sen~d a naonbly allowance to hisl parents who had left Mxco~~
and -$aam back to ubU1a3 In the sIP~rin he sent for his aging father who
was much ini need of a changer A s~ort of peaceful diplomacy reigned in
the little homestead. Marti led an orderly life znar so and devoted
only Sundays to the matter of polities, ;Political agitation was being
revied among the Cubans in Key~ West and in jamaioa, M~artif eyes
grew brighter writh the prospect of launrching a fresh insurrection,
The nex9t war would be a quick ane and a brilliant one, The only draw-
back was ad reluc~tane on the part of the two generals, Bbzimo Go~mes
and Maceso, to leave their peaceful plantations in honduras where they
bha sought refuge after the last war, All alone, Marti commenced his
new campaign. The, people 'had to `fbe ed~ucated andb taoused talll over again,
Day fterr day he dreamed of the redemption of' bla beloved tittle island.
His r3te~rro became Oontagious. He oune to be regarded as -the symbol of
Cuba.
in 1884, Mazimcno Gomes and Mdaceo (the latter a mulatto) were
persuaded to return to New YQfp% A beehive activity took plalei AJLl
went wesll until Gomese made it apparent; that he expe~t~ed things to be
run in his own way, Sht~ tried to employ the tacotics of a dictator* The
dissension became soute and Marti withdrewr froms the conspiracy+ In an
address delivered at Giarendon Hal~y ip arti azplained the reasons for
his retirement, Some months later he proved to be right when Gomzezls
campaign ended$ 3in failurei




214
The political storm bhad onee more been the Onause of M~artits
loatag his wife.8 Taking the bo~y with her, she had returned to CubZa,
His father, tool had gone back and died a short time -afterr Marti
sent for his mother M~anuerl Mia~ntilla also had died. It was the wi~dowr-
ed and understanding Garmita who nowe consoled him (Mlarti) in his lone-
Ulnessr Marti was Bgodfather to her youngest child, MBaria, who had itn-
herited all, the charm a~nd intelligence of the mother, M8arti' grew to
love this child as though.he were his~ owni On her he lavished all th
tenderness .and affection which he would have given to his own san,. He
even untdertook her eduatian personally. The~ Mantilla household became
his home. Ladtr bg~E e received the devotion of the entire family as
well as of all the Cubans who gathered there. So soft and gentle was
his manner that he won the adoration of all chlldren. He had an es-

pecial fondness for them and delighted in spending hours in their amnuse-
maell r 18 popular AThe Golden Age" magastae for children was short-
lived, but~ only because of a lack of funds for the continuance of its
publication. On manyr occasions he would take~ Carmitiaf ls children to
visit the park or Ithei popular W9ax M~useum. He harbored great respect
for the Sof4HEIi simp~lricity and purity of little childrentsii mindsr In*
sisting that the schools often wasted time iLa teaching much that was
unneesrsary, he himseljF gave the lessons to the children. Mara was
the light of his heart, She had a keen little mind and the sloulX a an
artist. Sae, adored her godfathersv Als she grew up she became a finish*
ed artist in volcae and piano. Oftentimes she anoompanied Ma~lrti to his
meetings, and ther she .WOUlda sing and play to the delight of her aud-
Aenne.

By the time that he had reached the age of thirt~y-fivec the
friendship between larti. and Garmita had grown into something deeper
and more beautiPufulc In the years to coome, this bond between them wa~s to
remain but an idylllia lover The domineering Carmen refused to continue
living as Martits wifer but she also refused to give him his f-reedom.




822
It was a great sorrow to him that he could not have his son by his
side. The selfish mother never permitted 1ityL
Time passed, during which MIarti never ceased "in his efforts:
to unify his people and prepare them for further demonstrations againikt
the Spanish regime. He participated in hot debates and made frequent
addresses in an attempt to draw out the people ead thug determine their
feelings. Politics, the office, the consulate and his writings took
up all3;5 of hcis2 t~ime. There was not a single topia wfhich his ncycplopedita
mind could not grasp and which he could not discuss brilliant~lys It
was said thant; an haitW1sg conversation with him was more instructive than
ae yeartst course of: study And in his little office at 120Front Street
icu which was a veritable beehive of" activity, he found time to lend a
helping hand wherever it was needed,
A sense of humor was sharacteristically lacking in the maske-
up of this philosopher-politicilan, but: there were occarsions when he
showed tha~tr..undern.eat;h it a2llu3~sh did have an appreciation for the
humorous aide of ;life, ToQ wits Bearing that twoe Quban brothers, photoj-
graphers, had spokean I~ll ~f" him, he, promptly visited their studio and
told them, nI hav'fe comet here to have my picture taken because i hear
that you dontt like me~n From that moment on, the two brothers eremai--
ed his loy~al supporters.
in spite of broken healthz Marti continued h18 incessant
nativities, Be accepted the invitation to address the Cuban colonyt in
Florida. An enthursiastio multitude at Tampa accorded him ovation after
ovation. His speech was a masterpiece of orat~ory. The audience, breaik-
ing into torrential apgplausep took up the ba~ttle-osry of their leaders
in ae blaze of glory followed by a band and four thousand admirers bI~ear;
ing Flags and standards, Marti Eentrained for Nlew Yorki The same demon-
Extration was repeated in KeyP West a few weeks laterb The people were
won over+*.and the Cuban Revolutionary Party was boraq Twenty years
had passed since the daily t3hat2 Marti had made his firm resolve to free





his counLtr~Be News of his campaign echoed through Gubal Jealousy droveg
dertC~ai veteran leaders to accruse hins, of seeking selfP-glorif~icat~ion
TEhe accusation wasl a bitter blow to the devOUt patrSiot who had asari-
fined hi5s entire life for the good qlj his people?
The result oft Marftits excursion through the south served to

revive the optimism of the Oubans in New Ylork, Nlew clubs were forpled
and, in a1 ydblication oialled nZLa Patri~an, the Revolu~tionary part/ set
forth its pla~tform and calrried onL the campaign, The task ofe organizaw~
tion went on La the face ofi continual setbacks which wler8c~' e created by
enemies, above all by Spain. The governing rfgi~ae in Gaba was consid*~
erab~ly alarmed byr~g the turn o~fF affir~Ls One of Btartil~~8 pala -pesseu~pa-
tionsl was his desire that the revolution be the outgrowth of a colleath~
willa rathat than of ind~ividual Suginsp~irat~oing and that at the same time it9
should remain uinder that executive authority which is so vital to the
speedy and efficient dispatch of any enterprise* TPhe new war must spr~id:
saiultaneously all ~over the island as an expression of unanimity. W
did not want to wage a waraz without First havsin the ~Fuill cooperation ofr
the peopler, within and without the island. With this itn mind, he set
his forces to work on home ground sttand hitSsel54~ f3 made a tour of all t~he:
American cities ia which there were any Ouban residents, Feelinlg the
need for the military leadershlip of Generals Gomes and MacQeo, he put all
personal feeli~ngs aside and traveled to Sant~1o Doaningo and Co't~a Rion to
persuade the two Perterans respeat~ivelyf, that ith~eir services were needed
Fresh crises arose daily~ Thesre~ was need of haste, Every-
thing had to be done under covery His staunchest accomplicoe was ne1Paa
other than Carmit;a MBanti~llasL Ner home was the aucleus around which rmush
of~ the activity waisr entered. Every night the likttle, house was the
scene of some gatherings. Perlansr ere conceived antd gearried out within
those folur walls, AndyrP to Ma~rtiz Garmita gave her whole support, faith
and understanding,. Her oldest son, Mllanuelly was one of the tryig~ht-hand*
mans destinedl ;to give his lif~es for his country,




844
Everything was in readinsess* Three s1hips8 had been charter-
ed under assumed namesay presumably to be used for purely commercial,
purposes a They were secretly" loaded wih camouflaged arm~~Ps and ~aman
nition,- and ordered to pick upt Generalrsla Gomtes and Mae~o with their man
and transport them to Guba, ~Extra supplies would be sent by land,
ris Then came the e~t~astrophel Ir:e A traitor h9;ad disclosedd the sectre~t
plans and the United States government confisoated the loaded shipsr
before theJy could leavte port. Three years of' hoper and feverish work
had gone for naught,
ahdaunteJd by the tromendous setback which. his% forces had re-
g~ivedg, farti forghd ahead onece mnorecsonand tGhis timae in the fa~e of
even greateri odds~. A month ~later everything was again seot for action,
On the sixth at February,1 Marti..acompanied byhgLO nnl Mntilla and
several paldby leadeQrs, arriived in Santeo Domingo for a final consuilta-
tion with Gomces. Overs there protests of his frliends;l het decided ~to join
the expeditionary forces in~a CuBa. Tfhe party leaders felt that this
was too great a risk for the mran wthO was the Ver~39y heart and soul it
the revolutionary movement, and whose genius was so gi~tal to tihe Cause.
Their pleas werec~ t~arBnavtailage Martj: remained unshakceable in his deter-.
maination t~o give his l~f~essirf need be.4.for his country, W~ord reach.-
the group inl Santo Domzneing that the revolution had broken out in Cuba.
The antaider fo~rbes had joined the troops on the island. The war~ was an~
The little party of mno enol'ountered tremendous difficulties
as itf attempted to leavtre Sant~o Domingo for Cuban shore. Esaaping
police Pigila~nbey they chartered a boatmossaul~fy to find that no erew
would risk going to bub~an shores. T~he captain of a freighter schooner
was finally persuaded to take them on as passengers and drop them off
in a lif~eboat wihen they passed the caoastline of Cuba. On a stormqy
night on thea 10th of April 1895,j the six men rowed ashore in the pour-
ing rain, E~xhaustesd, they fought their way through woods and swampsw
traveling a night and a dRg ay util they finally met up with the military




$54S


forees&i
Wharti~ fought side by site, with the soldiei~rs, minis'tered to
the wl~eededI& and balped to keep up the morale of the satarn The troops
wilorshiPpped him and affectbionately -called hiZm #1 ~Pareidenton, Piggy.
ing vent on1 for several weeks Thenl at ~a meeting of the armiy gene--
Tals, it wna decided that Martit must return to New YPork for the con-
tin~uanoe Of his mnissin there, On th~e eve of hisj departure, he inrsi~t;-
ed upin partlenipatin :01~ ane last savalry charge in2 Dos Rios.r On the
19th atb Mday 1895, with pistol IPL hand, het gave spur to his horse and
wth forward, Whe the smocke alograd, his lifeless bodys..covsered
wit2h b~steedesola oAthek bat~tlefelldsr ,$nF hisbl eastpabEki 9t they found
a little photograph of his adored godohi~ld,
On the vesry day of hiS burial in the city of Santiagfo, Maria
Manztll~a receive d the leatter which Jo4 Maart~i had writiesi tO o r set-
eral weeks ~Before telling her that he ca~rried her picture over his
h~eart.....a a sheld agains~t~ the enemy'sr bullets.


a sii. rk st







Biography of Jose' Marti'
Translated from the Spanish
and synopsized by:
Maria T. Romero
July 24, 1939

FOREWORD

Although practically unknown in the United States, the name of
Jose' Marti' is worshipped throughout all Latin America. From early
youth until the day when he died on the battlefield, this great Cuban
patriot devoted his entire life to the cause of Cuban freedom. With
prolonged and feverish activity he inspired, organized and launched the
revolution of 1895, which eventually liberated his country from the
tyranny of the Spaniards. His full and turbulent life took him through
many highways and byways. As a young political prisoner he was forced
to work in a chain gang and was twice exiled from Cuba. His travels
took him to many countries.

Born with the temperament of a poet and an idealist, his
sufferings made of him a kind, gentle, understanding man with a
greatness of soul. He knew only how to love and to serve well. His
creed was that of equality for all, regardless of race or color -- and
he practiced what he preached. Wherever he went, he won the adulation
of the people. His mind had the magnificence of genius. He studied and
taught in universities. There was no topic which he could not discuss
brilliantly. He was gifted as a philosopher, prolific writer and master
orator. His life was a veritable kaleidoscope of romance, drama,
travel, adversity and politics. He did not live to enjoy the fruits of
his success, but was rewarded in posterity. As he once said: "When one
has lived well, death is but the crowning victory."

Many books have been written about Jose' Marti', but in the
following biography, Jorge Manach gives the most accurate and detailed
description of his life and character. It may be of interest to the
reader to know that the family of Cesar Romero was closely connected
with Marti'. Two of the important characters in this book are Carmita
Mantilla and Maria Mantilla. Maria is now Cesar's mother. Carmita was
his grandmother. For many years Marti' made his home with the Mantilla
family. He was Maria's adored godfather and undertook her education
personally. As the book indicates, he was -- in later years -- deeply
in love with Carmita, who was his sole comforter and loyal supporter
during his years of greatest trial. Her modest little boarding house in
Brooklyn was the gathering place of all the Cuban exiles who were in New
York. Within these four walls many of the revolutionary plans were
conceived and executed.

Mrs. Cesar J. Romero (nee Maria Mantilla) has in her possession
many of the letters and books written by Marti', and is the best
qualified person to give any further information that may be desired on
the life of this great man. His birthplace in Havana, Cuba, remains
preserved as a museum.







Translated from the Spanish
and synopsized by:
Maria T. Romero
July 24, 1939

MARTI',_THE APOSTLE

A Biography
by
Jorge Manach


In the middle of the nineteenth century, Spain found herself
obliged to maintain strong garrisons of troops in her West Indian
colony, the island of Cuba. The ranks of the men were frequently
reduced by the ravages of Yellow Fever, but this curse of the tropics
was not the sole enemy with which the militant Spaniards had to contend.
Other foes preoccupied them much more -- secret political factions which
were conspiring to overthrow the Spanish dominion under which the little
island was held. In 1836, the mother country had refused Cuba any
constitutional representation in its Parliament. This fact, along with
other broken promises and excessive taxation, irritated the people. Nor
was Spain unaware that the United States, recently gone greedy with the
acquisition of Mexican territory, had an eye on this colony of hers.
Among the Cubans, there were those who favored annexation to the United
States in preference to the tyranny of the Spaniards.

In 1850, General Concha was appointed governor of Cuba and
invested with the power of proclaiming martial law if necessary.
Contrary to the advice of Madrid, he brought additional troops from
Spain. One of these soldiers was Sergeant Mariano Marti', who wasted no
time in finding himself a sweetheart. Two years later he and Leonor
Perez were married and established their home in a modest little house
on Paula Street. Here it was that their first done, Jose', was born on
the 28th of January 1853. Other children followed, and the devoted
husband and father began to feel a desire for spending more time with
his family. He retired from the army and thereafter occupied lesser
government positions, which did not pay so well but were less exacting
of his time. He was discharged from a series of unimportant
employment, and harmony no longer reigned in the poverty-stricken
household. Jose's early years were filled with want and discord.
Nevertheless he was a precocious child and proved himself exceptionally
brilliant at school. At the age of ten, he had outdone the brightest
students in his class. At first, his aptitude won for him only the
aversion of his classmates. Their envy and dislike soon grew into
admiration when Jose' proved that he was lacking in conceit, that he
could punch harder and more generously than the others, and that his
initiative during recreation hours was greater than that of any other
pupil. Because of his extreme ability, and through the influence of
friends, he had been admitted to a school of good standing. His closest
friend was Fermin Valdes Dominguez, son of a wealthy family. Together
they spent their afternoons playing games, watching the troops drill,
and paying frequent visits to the wharf where ships came and went.







At intervals, don Mariano, who had a total disregard for
education, would take the boy out of school. Then Jose' would have to
find work so as to help the family weather the father's long sieges or
unemployment. But he always found time to devote to his books. At the
age of twelve, he showed himself to be a sensitive and impressionable
youth. He was already somewhat of an idealist. Like all poor but
deserving students, he acted as monitor and messenger-boy when not
having classes. He won the affection of the kindly don Rafael Mendive,
the school supervisor -- and patriot and man of letters who believed
that his students should be handled as firmly as possible, but with
gentleness and understanding. Such was the adoration of Jose' for his
master, that he unconsciously began to imitate him. At the age of
thirteen, he had already read half of the literacy works by don Mendive.
In the evenings he took dictation for him, and he joined a class of the
more mature students who gathered to read and discuss the greatest
literary works of the day. One day the teacher caught him trying to
translate Byron's poem, "A Mystery", with the aid of a copy of "The
American Popular Lessons". Blushing and apologizing for his selection
of such a poem, Jose' explained that he had started out to translate
"Hamlet", but desired to go no further with it after coming to the scene
of the grave-diggers. It seems to him, he said, that it was undignified
on the part of a genius like Shakespeare, to speak of mice!

Meantime, don Mariano had been reduced to working in a grocery
store, while his wife and daughters were compelled to take in sewing.
In his spare hours, Jose' worked for a barber. When time permitted, he
wrote theses on odd pieces of wrapping-paper.

In 1866, don Mendive proved instrumental in having Jose' admitted
to the Instituto, a higher institution of learning. Here the boy again
proved outstanding in his work and won many honors for himself. He came
in contact with the sons of wealthy Spanish militarists. It was
inevitable that he should mark the disdain with which these young men
referred to the Cuban people. Although, in actuality, Jose' was the son
of Spanish parents, his sympathies none the less were with the oppressed
Cubans. With don Mendive -- a sponsor of the Cuban cause -- he held
long discussions about the political situation. It was the youth's
belief that the Cubans were now "mature" enough to be self-governing.
This was the beginning of a new consciousness in him. From that time
on, he was to fight zealously in the cause for Cuban freedom.

It seemed as if a point had been gained by the Reformists when
Queen Isabel II ordered an investigation of those reforms which were
deemed necessary in Cuba. However, there were those who, recalling the
broken promises of 1836, doubted the good faith of Spain. The outcome
of the investigation proved that the doubters were right. To the Queen,
the delegation reported that no reforms were called for. To the Cubans
they simply stated that any attempt at reform would be met with
bloodshed. All knew that the committee of investigation had been
composed of twenty-two of the most notorious enemies of the reform
movement.







In secret meetings held at the Instituto, Jose' gloried in acting
as leader to a group of "followers". To them he would disclose the
revolutionary and skeptical views of his old master and friend, don
Mendive. He astounded and hypnotized his friends with his ideas and
eloquence of speech.

In 1868, don Mendive established a private school in his own home.
Jose' and his friend, Valdes Dominguez, left the Instituto to take up
their second year's work with Mendive. This institution was conducted
along the lines of a "civic" seminary where each student was treated as
a son. None appreciated this more than Jose' who, at the age of
fifteen, knew only discord and penury at home. It was in the company of
the master that this young man found the spiritual outlet which to him
was so necessary. Mendive understood human nature and, above all, he
understood this sensitive youth. In return for the loyalty and devotion
of the older man, Jose' worshipped at his shrine. At the same time it
hurt him to think that he had to seek elsewhere that which he could not
find in his own home. Rooted in his soul was a deep, melancholic
resentment -- for he was of a type to whom family love and unity meant
much. He sought escape by writing poetry. "Family love" was the theme
of most of his poems.

As the summer of 1868 came to a close, the atmosphere in don
Mendive's seminary had grown more political than literary. The Spanish
delegates had returned to Cuba, and the little island was a veritable
boiling pot. To make matters more unbearable, Cuba was then being
ravaged by the dreaded cholera. The colony was well on the road to
rebellion. A group of Cuban patriots had emigrated to New York, and
there, in conjunction with other secret factions in Cuba, they were
quietly planting the seeds for the revolution that was to follow. At
the same time, Spain was beginning to feel the first signs of those
forces which were to cause the dethronement of Isabel II.

Jose' Marti' formed a club which had for its members those
revolutionary youths who had been his followers at the Instituto as well
as those students whom he had won over at the seminary. At this time,
all entrances to the city of Havana were being guarded. Soldiers were
ordered to kill on sight any who might try to get out without benefit of
a pass. For the present, it became impossible for any of the young
revolutionists to join that great patriot, Carlos Manuel de Cespedes
who, with his men, was fervidly planning a march. The Cespedes faction
kept itself in a country hideout. The long suppressed eagerness of the
people showed itself in the number of newspapers and political
publications which were going off the press at this time. No less than
seventy-seven papers were published from the 10th to the 28th of
January, 1869. Marti' took advantage of this opportunity to have
several of his articles published. He also made arrangements for the
publication of his own little paper called "La Patria Libre" (The Free
Country).

On the night of January 22nd, in a theatre packed with a tense
audience, there arose crises of "Viva Cuba!" and then, "Viva Spain!"
This sudden outburst was followed by rioting and shooting such as had
never been witnessed before. On the following day, don Mendive was
accused of inciting revolt among his students, and was cast into prison.







Five months later he was deported to Spain. Marti' kept up a
correspondence with him, but he was as one lost without his beloved
master. He found consolation and understanding only at the home of his
friend Valdes. There, around the study table, he listened to the French
lessons given to the children, read books, talked "revolution", and
elaborated on plans to join Cespedes in the country. Then it again
became necessary for him to seek work. He obtained employment in an
office where he worked from 6 a.m. to 8 p.m. and was paid seventy
dollars a month. His salary, intact, was handed over to his family.

On October 4th, for reasons in which he was not to blame, Valdes
was carried off to prison. The authorities then searched his house and
discovered an incriminating letter -- of a political nature -- signed by
both Valdes and Jose' Marti'. For this, Marti' also was imprisoned. The
two friends were placed in jail together. Months passed -- months of
stench and confusion, during which the bond between these two friends
grew ever closer. It was made known to them that the death penalty
would be the final portion of the one who had actually written the
letter. When called before the tribunal of justice, each one insisted
upon assuming full responsibility for the "crime." The similarity of
their handwriting made it impossible for the judges to ascertain whose
wastherea gult.Finally, pushing Valdes aside, Marti' tpe
forward and, with an eloquence which swept the listeners off their feet,
took all the blame upon himself. Still, no definite verdict could be
reached. The final sentence was, for Valdes -- six months imprisonment,
for Marti' -- six years!

Marti' was then transferred to an even more horrible and dungeon-
like prison, and forced to work in a chain gang. He witnessed horrors
beyond human imagination. Men were lashed unmercifully if, for a
moment, they faltered at their labor. They were forced to excavate rock
in the lime quarries which were like boiling caldrons under the tropical
sun. They were bound together by iron fetters, their feet blistered by
the hot lime. White dust burned their throats and scorched the eyes.
Marti', too, suffered the tortures of these men and felt the sting of
the lash. But his greatest suffering was in watching the martyrdom of
the poor unfortunates who were his companions in this hell hole. His
spirit was sorely tried. With bleeding heart and aching body, he did
what he could to alleviate the misery of the others. After six months
of this, influential friends intervened and he was transferred to a
fortress, there to await deportation to Spain. At the age of seventeen,
he was now a pale, thin youth, bruised form the iron fetters and the
whip, and partly blinded from the lime dust. His smile, however, was
more gentle. In a letter to don Mendive he had said: "I have suffered
much, but at least I have KNOWN how to suffer. If I have had strength
to withstand all this, and still have strength to be a man, I owe it all
to you. All the goodness and affection which I have know, has come only
from you."

When Marti' arrived in Madrid, he was given the freedom of the
country. To his great disappointment, don Mendive was no longer there,
as he had been permitted to go to Paris. However, since Marti' spent
his time busily exploring the wonders of this beautiful Spanish capital,
he did not have time to be lonely. It seemed to him incredible and







impossible that such a gay and beautiful metropolis could have any
connection whatsoever with the violence and horrors which prevailed in
Cuba. To a young man whose inclinations were so definitely literary,
the sudden contact with an older and richer culture gave added impetus
to his aspirations. His first step was to enroll in the University
where he took up the study of philosophy and law. Here he came upon
another young exile whom he had known slightly in Havana, and he and
Carlos Sauvalle became close friends. The latter, being of wealthy
family, did much to relieve the poverty and suffering of his impecunious
companion, although Marti' was loathe to accept even the extreme
necessities of life. The injuries which he had suffered in prison now
commenced to give him trouble. They resulted in the growth of a tumor
for which Marti' underwent three operations during the years that he was
in Spain. Friends paid the medical expenses and nursed him with loving
care. During part of his illness he wrote his memoirs entitled "The
Political Prison in Cuba." Aided by friends, he distributed his
literature among exiled Cubans and among certain influential Spaniards.
Madrid could not ignore the existence of one Jose' Marti'. His financial
situation became somewhat improved when he secured employment as tutor
to several children. But instead of buying a badly needed pair of
shoes, he spent the money on photographs of fine paintings. On many
occasions he deprived himself in order to help someone more needy than
he. His generous nature knew no limit.

In the University Marti' made friends. It was not long before he
was recounting to these amazed young men all the horrors of the prison,
and the sufferings of his people. From them, in turn, he learned a
considerable lot about Spanish politics. It was at a time when Spain
was bubbling with internal strife. Marti' began to realize that the
state of affairs in Cuba was but a repercussion of conditions in the
mother country, and that not until Spain should be able to settle her
home problems, would Cuba find a solution to hers -- unless before that
time there should come a parting of the ways. This topic was the
frequent subject of discussion between Marti' and don Calixto Bernal, a
Cuban of greater years and of a more logical mind than that of the young
poet and idealist. In the question of politics, Bernal became to Marti'
what Mendive had been in the field of literature. Bernal was of the
conviction that any aspirations to independence on the part of Cuba were
premature. He favored the annexation of Cuba by the United States. His
opinions gave Marti' much food for thought.

At Sauvalle's home, the young Cuban exiles gathered around Marti''s
sickbed to discuss news of the latest developments on the island. They
had learned that a group of medical students in the University of Havana
had been accused of defiling the monument to the Spaniard, Castanon. A
newspaper printed the tragic news that eight of the students had been
shot, and thirty-five condemned to prison. So terrible and so unjust
was the punishment which had been meted out to these innocent young men
on that unforgettable second day of May, that Spain herself felt shamed
and dishonored. It was then that Marti' made the resolution from which
he was never to be dissuaded. He would free his people from the
terrible yoke that was crushing them.







Among the medical students doomed to the tortures of the chain
gang was Valdes. But he too was deported to Spain after some months.
He arrived in Madrid to become reunited with his old schoolmate.

A year passed. Notwithstanding his continued ill health, Marti'
forged ahead with his fervent campaign for the Cuban cause. Many were
his articles that were published in a weekly paper issued by the
"revolutionaries". Many were the secret and agitated meetings held by
this group of exiled patriots. But despite his political work and his
studies at the university, Marti' found time to pay frequent visits to
the famous Museum of the Prado. Here he would write down his
impressions of the great masters' paintings. He also became a devout
follower of the drama. Although not over-religious, he had a firm
belief in God and often sought solace in the vast emptiness of some
quiet church. There were many gay reunions in the homes of well known
Cuban families, but Marti' had little time -- and not much inclination -
-for frivolities. He preferred to spend his time where his services
could do some good. In the evenings he would visit the school for the
poor, bearing candy and books to the little children, and delighting
them with his story telling, for which he had a special talent.

The more recent efforts on the part of Marti'' and his colleagues to
arouse the people of the capital city had not met with the hoped-for
success. Marti' had by this time developed into a powerful and eloquent
orator, but the unimpassioned Spaniards could not be moved by reason
along. Because the climate in Madrid did not prove beneficial to their
impaired health, and because the attitude of the citizens had become
somewhat chilly toward the two zealots, Marti' and Vales moved to
Zaragosa. The warm welcome which was accorded to them there was made
manifest in the genuineness of the people's hospitality. The two
continued their courses in the old University of Zaragosa, quickly
making new friends and winning their admiration. To an interested
audience, Marti' expressed his ideals and purpose. The extraordinary
maturity of his twenty years, his gift for oratory and argumentation --
enhanced by the gentleness of his nature -- won even the esteem and
affection of the professors.

One evening Marti'' was introduced to a pretty and charming young
girl who proved to be his first real love. This emotional episode came
into his life at a time when it was sorely needed. Of a high-strung,
nostalgic temperament, craving tenderness and affection, he was ripe for
this first milestone of a romantic nature. It brought temporary
happiness to him. His laughter, usually tined with melancholia,
acquired a heartier, more genuine ring.

Marti' had now spent four years in Spain. With the coming of
spring, he completed his studies in the university. Driven by a sense
of duty, the youthful philosopher felt compelled to take passage for
Mexico, there to join his family who had left Cuba in search of better
fortunes. The circumstances of the family were more straightened than
ever. Arriving in Mexico City, he set to work to increase the budget.
He wrote for various newspapers and did translations of the classics.







Philosophy, letters, and politics commanded all of his interest.
He came into contact with other exiles and never for a moment lost any
of his zeal for the Cuban cause. However, his forced inactivity in this
field led him to take an ever increasing interest in the civil and
religious problems of Mexico.

At one time Marti' was persuaded to try his hand at writing for the
drama. He did -- and fell in love with the leading lady. His family
disapproved of the actress and encouraged him to court Carmen Zayas
Bazan -- the attractive, but somewhat aristocratic and domineering young
dauhte ofa Cbanfamly.Almost without realizing it, Marti' was
caught on the rebound and found himself engaged to Carmen.

Restlessness overcame Jose' Marti', who had reached the age of
twenty-four. He strained at the reins which kept him away from his own
country. Conscience bade him stay in Mexico where he could help provide
for the family, but his heart urged him to return to his beloved Cuba
and keep up the fight for freedom. So it was that in January 1877, he
disembarked at Havana under an assumed name. To his surprise and
dismay, he encountered a noticeable lull in the activities of the Cuban
revolutionaries. The arrival of fresh reinforcements from Spain, and
the conciliatory attitude of the governor had done much toward
dispelling the belligerency of the people. It was also a known fact
that the revolutionary factions lacked the necessary funds for arms and
supplies. The Cuban immigrants in New York had also begun to give up.
In short, the people were tired and discouraged. For the time being,
there was nothing that Marti' could do in Cuba. A month later he left
for Guatemala.

He arrived there a poor, sad and unknown young man. Friends in
Havana had given him letters of introduction to the President, and
provided him with sufficient funds to last him for a time. It did not
take him long to establish himself in the good graces of a hospitable
people. The president, don Justo Rufino Barrios, was a democratic,
efficient person, bent on modernizing his country, developing its
wealth, and educating his people. The schools and university were open
to all. There was also a Normal School under the direction of the
Cuban, doctor Izaguirre and here Marti' secured a teaching position.
He was given charge of the History and Literature departments. His
pupils were quickly charmed by the brilliancy of his eloquence and the
gentleness of his manner. There was a demand for his articles to appear
in the newspapers. In these he expressed naught but praise for the
democratic form of government in the republic. To him it was an ideal
state. He studied its methods with the hope that some day his own
country might enjoy similar conditions. As his popularity and fame
increased, he was made vice-president of a literary society, and was
also given a professorship at the university, where he taught
Philosophy, Principles and Literature. His influence made itself felt
throughout the capital.

In his letters to Carmen, Marti' expressed the belief that here at
last he had found his place. He hoped to return soon to marry her so
that he could bring her back to this wonderful Guatemala. Even so, the
thought of Cuba was ever present in his mind. There was constant
conflict in his soul. Sometimes he sought forgetfulness by visiting in







the home of friends. At the home of don Garcia Granados, the pretty
young daughter, Maria, regarded Marti' with worshipful gaze. His manner
toward her was one of gallant, kindly affection. His mind was too
preoccupied to notice that the girl had fallen deeply in love with him.
Her heart was broken when she learned of his approaching marriage. When
Marti' become aware of the situation, he refused to continue being a
guest at the Granados home. He reproached himself, thinking that
perhaps he had unwittingly led Maria to belief that his fondness for her
was more than brotherly.

Anxious to continue his observation of the country, Marti' returned
to Mexico by land. On horseback, across the Rio Grande and the Sierra
de las Minas, he reached the border line. It was a land of volcanoes
and primitive forests which spread out beneath his astounded gaze. This
complete immersion in Nature served to increase his sentiment and
admiration for all that was American. By rights, Cuba should also have
been a part of the Americas. Cuba would be! Upon his arrival in
Mexico, Marti' published his "Eulogy to Guatemala". His stay was a
brief one. The wedding was duly celebrated and the newlyweds returned
to Guatemala, where they were jubilantly welcomed. Martin's "Eulogy of
Guatemala" brought him enthusiastic applause of these Guatemalans who
worshipped the name of Simon Bolivar. They now found a new idol in the
person of Jose' Marti'.

The fruits of this fresh triumph soon turned to bitterness. A few
days later, Maria Granados died. Her death was a sorrowful blow to
Marti', whose wife never could understand why he was so deeply affected
by the tragedy. Some years later he wrote a beautiful poem entitled
"Girl of Guatemala" -- and to this day it remains famous throughout all
Latin America.

Like all great men who consider the interests of others before
their own, Marti' brought an end to his good fortune. Izaguirre had
enemies. On a certain day they came to the present and presented a list
of accusations against the professor. The president, who happened to be
in unusually ill humor, demanded Izaguirre's resignation. Marti' was
quick to champion the cause of his good friend who had been the victim
of such unfair treatment. He, too, resigned from the university.
Izaguirre protested against such action, saying "But Marti', your salary
is the only means you have of supporting your wife and yourself!" His
only reply was: "I shall resign, even if my wife and I starve to death."

At about this time, Marti' received word that the "revolution" in
Cuba had completely died out. A sort of pact had been effected between
Spain and Cuba, although it did not mean the latter's independence. On
the 26th of July in 1878, he and Carmen sailed for Havana.

The Treaty of Zanjon made it possible for all exiles to return to
Cuba. They came now, like homing pigeons, from all parts of Europe and
America. Ten years had passed -- ten long years in which all of these
patriots had yearned for their homes and, in many cases, had experienced
poverty and want.







A few months later, Carmen gave birth to a son. The child was
named after his father, but was affectionately called Pepito. Marti'
obtained work in a law office, but nevertheless found time to resume his
political discussions with those few friends who refused to let die the
question of independence. Yes, the insurrection had been quelled -- on
the surface. Spain had pacified the weary people with a series of new
promises. A few wise ones knew that the promises meant nothing. Spain,
too, knew that there were still those who refused to give up the Cause,
and that it would require but one spark to rekindle the wave of
antagonism. Still she continued in her established method of doing
nothing to prove to the people that she was acting in good faith.

General Calixto Garcia was the one insurrectionist who had refused
to sign the peace treaty. He exiled himself to New York and there, with
the cooperation of several leaders who remained in Cuba, he carried on
his work in secret. He succeeded in having his propaganda circulated
among loyal followers in New York and Havana. Monetary contributions
began to come in. Marti' was aware of all that went on. Again, he
stood torn between a sense of duty to his responsibilities, and that
which cried out in his soul: "Liberty! Liberty!"

Ten years of constant warfare had cost Spain and Cuba two hundred
thousand men, and seven hundred million dollars. The little island
stood divided. Some wanted only peace. Others continued to agitate for
independence. Neither the Cubans nor the Spaniards could remain unaware
of the leader, Marti'. He seemed to have visionary powers which no one
else possessed, and with his brilliant and persuasive speeches, he
electrified the masses. The Spanish governor regarded him as a
dangerous man, for he spoke of another war which must come in order to
free the people. At a secret meeting of the various revolutionary
factions, Marti' was elected president of the Junta Central, a group
consisting of representatives from all of the revolutionary
organizations in the province. He was also appointed chief delegate of
the Revolutionary Commission which held its headquarters in New York.
The conspiracy made progress. Funds were raised and sent to New York
for the purchase of arms. The other Cuban provinces joined the crusade
and gave their share of men and money.

In order to dispel suspicion, the plotters avoided meeting except
when absolutely necessary. Juan Gualberto Gomez, a young mulatto who
had received a good education abroad, was a member of the Party and
acted as messenger. The abolition of slavery had not served to improve
the treatment which the negroes received at the hands of the whites.
Always the champion of the under-dog, Marti' treated them as equals. He
took up their cause, and showed them the same courtesy and kindness
which he extended to his fellow men. The negro element worshipped him
and formed several loyal factions among their own kind. In August,
several of them rose up in arms. This was followed by other premature
uprisings throughout the island. Once again Marti' was arrested and
deported to Spain.







When he arrived in Madrid, he felt that he was too far away from
home to be able to accomplish his purpose -- that of uniting the Cuban
people and preparing them for the war of independence which must come
sooner or later. The base of operation would have to be in the United
States. Accordingly, he set sail for New York.

A new year and a new world. Only a few days in New York, Marti'
had already become a familiar figure along the avenues that extended
from lower Manhattan to uptown 59th Street. The one thing which had
helped to dissipate his loneliness in this strange land, was the genuine
warmth with which he had been received in the Cuban boarding-house where
he took lodgings. It was the home of Manuel Mantilla, a Cuban who had
married Carmita Miyares, a charming and attractive young girl from
Venezuela. Children brightened the modest home of this couple who tried
to make ends meet by taking in a few boarders, all of whom were
political exiles from Cuba. Mantilla was a somewhat melancholic semi-
invalid. Carmita, many years his junior, possessed a captivating
personality, and a kindness and generosity of spirit which won the
respect and devotion of all who knew her. She had strength of character
as well as a beautiful understanding of human nature. The kindliness
and friendliness which permeated this new atmosphere was like a tonic to
the lonely Marti' while he awaited the arrival of his wife and child.

Idleness was the one thing which he could not bear. He sought
employment and then took steps to join the Revolutionary Committee in
that city. He set to work in fervor. The committee was making
desperate efforts to carry out the plans of its president. Political
factions were now at work not only in Cuba but in Jamaica too. It
seemed to Marti', however, that there was a lack of sufficient unison,
harmony and organization. Kingston and New York, the two conspiratorial
centers, were too far away from each other. Funds were scarce. The
impoverished exiles could no longer contribute large sums. Still --
retreat was unthinkable. The crusade needed but a shoulder to the
wheel.

The committee heads at first did not consider their new member as
being of significant importance to their work. They belittled his
recourse to oratory -- called him a talker. But before long they were
forced to admit that Marti''s methods brought better results than those
which they had been able to obtain. He taught them the value of
propaganda and speech-making. The Cuban colony in New York soon grew
aware of the power which lay in this tall and pale young man with the
unusually high forehead and a pensive gaze. The spellbound audiences
received his speeches with outbursts of applause. He could speak for
hours at a time, with never an interruption save the acclamation of the
people. When Marti' dared to champion the cause of the negroes, his
public was astounded -- and made to feel humble. His creed was that the
new revolution must be a truly democratic one, with equality for all --
regardless of race and color. He aroused the enthusiasm of the people
and became like a god to them. He began taking collections --
contributions that ranged from pennies to more substantial amounts.
Eventually there was enough money for arms and a ship. On the 17th of
April of 1880, twenty-six men, under the leadership of General Garcia,
left Jersey City on the schooner "Hattie Haskell", bound for the shores







of Cuba. It was decided by the committee that Marti' should remain in
New York where he could best serve the cause by employing his power of
oratory, and by helping to keep up the spirit so necessary to the
support of the war.

Busily engaged in serving his country, Marti' soon lost the final
traces of the melancholia which characterized his temperament. His
spiritual equilibrium was restored by the furious political activity in
which he was now immersed. He radiated optimism. He was happy to be
living in a country where the energy and self-sufficiency of the
"Yankee" stood out in such contrast to the lazy and poetic nature of the
Latins. Here in America each man was master of himself! Marti' made
rapid notes of his impressions, which he wrote in English, thereby
perfecting himself in the language. He mastered it so notably that he
was soon writing on varied topics for an American paper. He earned a
modest living by writing articles and doing translations. New York
society found him "interesting". He got along well with the men, but he
could not accustom himself to the foreign ways of the American women.
He preferred to spend his leisure hours at the home of Manuel Mantilla.

In the Spring, his wife and child arrived. Two year old Pepito
was now at an age when he could be more of a companion to his father.
Marti' was devoted to his little son and loved to spend hours playing
with him. With his own dear ones about him, he no longer felt alone.
In addition to his writings, he now had a position as bookkeeping clerk.
Every day he traveled back and forth from the office to his modest
little home in Brooklyn. Political meetings took up many of his
evenings. He never faltered in his efforts for the Cause. But Carmen,
finding her husband submerged in a fresh flood of politics which kept
him away from home much of the time, was neither pleased nor happy. She
had grown more domineering and exacting with the years. EvnsMrti
understood how she felt. A husband's place was in the home. Yet, like
one who was born to be the saviour of his people, he could not still the
conviction in his heart. He had to go on! Thus he and Carmen were
never able to strike a happy medium in their domestic relations.

As news reached New York that the Expeditionary Forces in Cuba
were not meeting with the hoped-for results, Marti' began to taste
discouragement once more. In the end, the Cuban troops had to
surrender. The war was lost for the time being. A fresh start would
have to be made, but the time was not yet ripe for that. The Cuban
generals were again exiled to Spain. The Revolutionary Committee in New
York was forced to break up. Martin's wife and son returned to Cuba,
and he traveled on to South America.

He arrived in Venezuela bearing letters of introduction from
Carmen Mantilla to friends and relatives in Caracas. Here he was warmly
welcomed into the homes of the best families. It helped to lift him out
of his low spirits. Not for a moment could he forget his beloved son
Pepito. He spent long hours writing poetry to the child, and loved to
wander through the city, exploring its every nook and corner. He struck
up a close friendship with the venerable Cecilio Acosta, a brilliant
philosopher and man of letters who, because of his theories and
teachings, had incurred the enmity of the dictatorial president of







Venezuela. Forced to give up his post at the university, he now eked
out a meager existence from what he could earn as private instructor to
his loyal students. Through this man, Marti' soon became well known to
the student element in the capital city. His ideals, his philosophy,
his wisdom and his eloquence captivated the young men. Many were the
literary meetings held at the modest abode of Acosta. Occasionally
Marti' dared to express his political views, winning further the
admiration of his small audience. He was persuaded to give a lecture at
a literary meeting that was to be open to the public. Such was his
reputation by this time, that the crowds completely filled the rooms of
the clubhouse and overflowed out into the street. Marti' had to address
them from a balcony.

A group of enthusiastic students begged him to give a series of
courses and this gave him a means of earning a livelihood. He also
published his own little paper and received requests to teach in several
schools. He was careful not to be too ardent in expressing his
political views and his zeal for democracy. Guzman Blanco was
Venezuela's president, but he was also its dictator and a tyrant.
Blanco, however, had not failed to wind of this Cuban patriot and his
fight for democracy. He would welcome an excuse to get him out of the
country. His chance came sooner than expected. The ailing Cecilio
Acosta had begun to fail rapidly, and his death soon followed. In a
eulogy to his friend, Marti' upheld the theories which the aged
philosopher had set forth in his teachings. That was enough. Soon
after, he found himself once more bound for New York, leaving behind him
many loyal friends and country which he had learned to love. The brief
six months which he had spent in Venezuela had served to give final
impulse to his enthusiasm for all that was "of America".

In New York he continued to write chronicles for the newspapers in
Caracas. He deemed it prudent to sign a fictitious name to these
articles. He also commenced to write for other publications, in
Spanish, English and French. Back in the Mantilla household he busied
himself with his work, taking time out to study American history, the
character and customs of the people, and their form of government. He
made penetrating observations in the hope of some day being able to
apply the fruits of his knowledge for the betterment of his own people.
He hoped, too, that his wife and son would return to him, for he missed
them. His soul felt the chill of loneliness. He was a man who needed
the warmth of love and affection, because he himself knew only how to
love and serve others.

In the summer of 1882, there began negotiations for the resumption
of political activity. Now, at the age of thirty, Marti' had succeeded
in more or less stabilizing his life. In addition to an office
position, he held the post of vice-consul of Uruguay. His wife returned
and, thanks to his increased income, he was able to establish her in a
more pretentious little home. It also gratified him to be able to send
a monthly allowance to his parents who had left Mexico and gone back to
Havana. In the spring he sent for his aging father who was much in need
of a change. A sort of peaceful diplomacy reigned in the little
homestead. Marti' led an orderly life now, and devoted only Sundays to
the matter of politics. Political agitation was being revived among the







Cubans in Key West and in Jamaica. Martin's eyes grew brighter with the
prospect of launching a fresh insurrection. The next war would be a
quick one and a brilliant one. The only drawback was a reluctance on
the part of the two generals, Maximo Gomez and Maceo, to leave their
peaceful plantations in Honduras where they had sought refuge after the
last war. All alone, Marti' commenced his new campaign. The people had
to be educated and aroused all over again. Day after day he dreamed of
the redemption of his beloved little island. His fever became
contagious. He came to be regarded as the symbol of Cuba.

In 1884, Maximo Gomez and Maceo (the latter, a mulatto) were
persuaded to return to New York. A beehive of activity took place. All
went well until Gomez made it apparent that he expected things to be run
in his own way. He tried to employ the tactics of a dictator. The
dissension became acute, and Marti' withdrew from the Conspiracy. In an
address delivered at Clarendon Hall, Marti' explained the reasons for
his retirement. Some months later he proved to be right when Gomez's
campaign ended in failure.

The political storm had once more been the cause of Marti''s losing
his wife. Taking the boy back with her, she had returned to Cuba. His
father, too, had gone back and died a short time after. Marti' sent for
his mother. Manuel Mantilla also had died. It was the widowed and
understanding Carmita who now consoled him in his loneliness. Marti'
was godfather to her youngest child, Maria, who had inherited all the
charm and intelligence of the mother. Marti' grew to love this child as
though she were his own. On her he lavished all the tenderness and
affection which he would have given to his own son. He even undertook
her education personally. The Mantilla household became his home. In
turn, he received the devotion of the entire family as well as of all
the Cubans who gathered there. So soft and gentle was his manner that
he won the adoration of all children. He had an especial fondness for
them and delighted in spending hours in their amusement. On many
occasions he would take Carmita's children to visit the park or the
popular Wax Museum. He harbored great respect for the simplicity and
purity of little children's minds. He gave them lessons. Maria was the
light of his heart. She had a keen little mind and the soul of an
artist. She adored her godfather. As she grew up she became a finished
artist in voice and piano. Oftentimes she accompanied Marti' to his
meetings, and there she would sing and play to the delight of her
audience.

By the time that he had reached the age of thirty-five, the
friendship between Marti'' and Carmita had grown into something deeper
and more beautiful. In the years to come, this bond between them was to
remain but an idyllic love. The domineering Carmen refused to continue
living as his wife, but she also refused to give Marti' his freedom. It
was a great sorrow to him that he could not have his son by his side.
The selfish mother never permitted it.







Time passed, during which Marti' never ceased in his efforts to
unify his people and prepare them for further demonstrations against the
Spanish regime. He participated in hot debates and made frequent
addresses in an attempt to draw out the people and thus determine their
feeling. Politics, the office, the consulate and his writings took up
all of his time. There was not a single topic which his encyclopedic
mind could not grasp and which he could not discuss brilliantly. It was
said that an hour's conversation with him was more instructive than a
year's course of study. And in his little office at 120 Front Street
which was a beehive of activity, he found time to lend a helping hand
wherever it was needed.

A sense of humor was characteristically lacking in the make-up of
this philosopher-politician. But there were occasions when he showed
that, underneath it all, he did have some sense of humor. To wit:
Hearing that two Cuban brothers, photographers, had spoken ill of him,
he promptly visited their studio and told them "I have come here to have
my picture taken because I hear that you don't like me." From that
moment on, the two brothers remained his loyal supporters.

In spite of broken health, Marti' continued his incessant
activities. He accepted the invitation to address the Cuban colony in
Florida. An enthusiastic multitude at Tampa accorded him ovation after
ovation. His speech was a masterpiece of oratory. The audience,
breaking into torrential applause, took up the battle-cry of their
leader. In a blaze of glory, followed by a band and four thousand
admirers bearing flags and standards, Marti' entrained for New York.
The same demonstration was repeated in Key West a few weeks later. The
people were won over, and the Cuban Revolutionary part was born. Twenty
years had passed since the day when Marti' had made his resolve to free
his country. News of his campaign echoed through Cuba. Jealousy drove
certain veteran leaders to accuse him of seeking self-glorification.
The accusation was a bitter blow to the devout patriot who had
sacrificed his entire life for the good of his people.

The result of Marti''s excursion through the south served to revive
the optimism of the Cubans in New York. New clubs were formed, and in a
publication called "La Patria", the Revolutionary party set forth its
platform and carried on the campaign. The task of organization went on
in the face of continual setbacks which were created by enemies, above
all by Spain. The governing regime in Cuba was considerably alarmed by
the turn of affairs. One of Marti''s chief preoccupations was his
desire that the revolution be the outgrowth of a collective will rather
than the individual inspiration, and that at the same time it should
remain under that executive authority which is so vital to the speedy
and efficient dispatch of any enterprise. The new war must spring
simultaneously all over the island as an expression of unanimity. He
did not want to wage a war without first having the full cooperation of
the people, within and without the island. With this in mind he set his
forces to work on home ground and, himself, made a tour of all the
American cities in which there were Cuban residents. Feeling the need
for the military leadership of Generals Gomez and Maceo, he put all
personal feelings aside and traveled to Santo Domingo and Costa Rica to
persuade the two veterans, respectively, that their services were
needed.







Fresh crises arose daily. There was need of haste. Everything
had to be done under cover. His staunchest accomplice was none other
than Carmita Mantilla. Her home was the nucleus around which much of
the activity was centered. Every night the little house was the scene
of some gathering. Plans were conceived and carried out within those
four walls. And to Marti', Carmita gave her whole support, faith and
understanding. Her oldest son, Manuel, was one of the "right-hand men",
destined to give his life for his country.

Everything was in readiness. Three ships had been chartered under
assumed names, presumably to be used for purely commercial purposes.
They were secretly loaded with camouflaged arms and ammunition, and
ordered to pick up Generals Gomez and Maceo with their men and transport
them to Cuba. Extra supplies would be sent by land. ---- Then came the
catastrophe! A traitor had disclosed the secret plans, and the United
States government confiscated the ships before they could leave port.
Three years of hope and feverish work had gone for naught.

Undaunted by the tremendous setback which his forces had received,
Marti' forged ahead once more -- this time in the face of even greater
odds. A month later everything was again set for action. On the sixth
of February, Marti', accompanied by Manuel Mantilla and several party
leaders, arrived in Santo Domingo for a final consultation with Gomez.
Over the protests of his friends, he decided to join the expeditionary
forces in Cuba. The party leaders felt that this was too great a risk
for the man who was the very heart and soul of the revolutionary
movement, and whose genius was so vital to the cause. Their pleas were
of no avail. Marti' remained unshakeable in his determination to give
his life if need be for his country. Word reached the group in
Santo Domingo that the revolution had broken out in Cuba. The outside
forces had joined the troops. The war was on!

The little party encountered tremendous difficulties as it
attempted to leave Santo Domingo for Cuban shores. Escaping police
vigilance, they chartered a boat -- only to find that no crew would risk
going to Cuban shores. The captain of a freighter schooner was finally
persuaded to take them on as passengers and drop them off in a lifeboat
when they passed the coastline of Cuba. On a stormy night on the 10th
of April, 1895, the six men rowed ashore in the pouring rain.
Exhausted, they fought their way through woods and swamps, traveling a
night and a day until they finally met up with the military forces.

Marti' fought side by side with the soldiers, ministered to the
wounded, and helped to keep up the morale of the men. The troops
worshipped and affectionately called him "El Presidente". Fighting went
on for weeks. Then, at a meeting of the army generals it was decided
that Marti' must return to New York for the continuance of his mission
there. On the eve of his departure he insisted upon participating in
one last cavalry charge in Dos Rios. On the 19th of May, with pistol in
hand, he gave spur to his horse and went forward. When the smoke
cleared, his lifeless body -- covered with blood -- lay on the
battlefield. In his breastpocket they found a little photograph of his
adored godchild.







On the very day of his burial in the city of Santiago, Maria
Mantilla received the letter which Jose' Marti' had written to her
several weeks before, telling her that he carried her picture over his
heart -- as a shield against the enemy's bullets.