Jamaica, the new Riviera

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Material Information

Title:
Jamaica, the new Riviera a pictorial description of the island and its attractions
Physical Description:
103 p. : plates, port., fold. map. ; 23 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
Johnston, James, M.D.
Publisher:
Cassell
Place of Publication:
London
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Description and travel -- Jamaica   ( lcsh )
Pictorial works -- Jamaica   ( lcsh )
Genre:
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

General Note:
The copyright notice inside the book states 1903. The book includes a photograph after the January 14, 1907 earthquake (Great Kingston Quake of 1907). Information on earthquakes in Jamaica: http://www.mona.uwi.edu/earthquake/equakedata.htm
General Note:
Large format viewbook, with ill. and text derived by Dr. Brown's from his travel lecture with stereoptican views.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Jas. Johnston, M.D.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
Published in 1903.
Resource Identifier:
oclc - 194228657
System ID:
AA00011910:00001


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THE TRAVELLER'S TREE.





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. .THE


Hmescription


of the 3s1


anb its attractions .


. .


. .


L 3 5if


BY ..
JAS. JOHNSTON,


M.ID. +. .


PRINTED AND PUBLISHED BY .
CASSELL AND COMPANY, LHYHTED, LUDGATE HELL, LONDON.


[ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.I


SAMNIA IC A


RIVIERA.


NE'W


i8 Dictorial

































G~opgright, 1903.


ENTERED AT STATIONERS) HALL.










PREPFAC E.


HILE on tour through Great Britain, the United States, and Canada, lecturing on Jamaica as a health
resort, it was frequently suggested to me that I should publish in book form the original photographs of
the Island scenery, etc., from which I had made the stereopticon slides that illustrated the lectures. On
consenting to the proposal, one and another expressed the opinion that the work would not be complete
without a treatise on Jamaica, past, present, and future, discussing fully its education, politics, agriculture,
natural history, etc.; and had I acted on the advice of my friends this would indeed have been a pretentious volume;
but I have thought it best to adhere to my original purpose of making the illustrations the chief feature of the book,
and including in the letterpress only a synopsis of such information as I think the average tourist wants to know
concerning the Island, its history, climate, places of interest, medicinal springs, sports and pastimes, etc.
I have refrained from giving the approximate cost of each tour or journey throughout the book, as I think the
reiteration of rates for hotels, lodgings, etc., becomes rather monotonous. It may be taken, however, as a general
rule that the rates of first-class hotels are from 12zs. upwards per day. Railway fares are 2d. (4 cents) first class and
third class Id. (2 cents) per mile. The question of buggy hire is dealt with under Places of Interest and How
to Reach Them.
The interesting story of the Island's history has been well told again and again by various literary visitors to
the Colony, in the several guide books, such as Stark's History," Bacon's New Jamaica," Jamaica at the Columbia
Exhibition," by Hon. Col. Ward, not forgetting the excellent compendium of information, Jamaica in 1905,"1 for
intending settlers and visitors, by Frank Cundall. In the last-named book the traveller will find everything pertaining
to hotels, lodging-houses, livery stables, mail coach rates, postal and mailing arrangements, and much else of value
and interest in a handy form (to be had at the Jamaica Institute, price 6d., or r2 cents). To each of the above
publications I am under obligation for some of the facts and figures used in the following pages, also to the very
able pamphlet by the late Dr. Phillippo on the Medicinal Waters of Jamaica. For more elaborate details of past
events the reader must turn to the bulky tomes of Bryan Edwards, Bridge's Annals, or Gardner's History, and for
those who are interested in politics, statistics, civil service, commerce, finance, etc., there is nothing better than
the Jamaica Handbook," published by the Government.
J. J.
Brown'~Zs Townz, P.O.,
famanica, West Indies.




























1












PAGE
3 MINERAL SPRINGS
7 SPORTS AND PASTIMES
12 PLACES OF; INTEREST AND How To REACH THEM
21 EXTENDED TOURS


PREFACE .
THE NEW RIVIERA .
TO A~MERICAN TOURISTS
HISTORICAL SKETCH .
CLIMATE


PAGE
THE TRAVELLER'S TREE .Fronztrspiece
MEN WHO HAVE DONE MUCH FOR JAMAICA. 6
MYRTLE BANK HOTEL *9
CONSTANT SPRING HOTEL .II
S.S. "PRINZ AUGUST WVILHELM," HAMBURG-
AMERICAN LINE S
DINING SALOON, PRINZ STEAMERS 14
LADIES' SALOON AND A STATEROOM,
L1 PRINZ ))STEAMERS If
ENTERING PORT ANTONIO HARBOUR .16
PORT ANTONIO, LOOKING NORTH .I/
THE BLUE HOLE, NEAR PORT ANTONIO 18
BITS FROM LIFE Ig
THE FORDING, OCHO RIOS : SHAW PARK ON
THE HILL 22
LORD RODNEY 22
ROCKFORT, NEAR KINGSTON, A RELIC OF
LORD VAUGHAN .22
KING'S HOUSE, ST. ANDREW'S 22
MONUMENT TO LORD RODNEY, SPANTSH
TOWN 22
THE AUTHOR IN IS75 24
THE AUTHOR AND HIS STANL.EY STEAM
CAR SO
KING STREET, LOOKING NORTH. THREE
YEARS AND) SIX MONTHS AFTER THE
EARTHQUAKE 32
SOME OF KINGSTON S NEW BUILDINGS 33
IN THE BOG WALK( 38
SCENES BY THE WAYSIDE 39
PORT ROYAL 45
KINGSTON, LOOKING WEST. BEFORE THE
EARTHQUAKE 46
KINGSTON, LOOKING WEST. FOUR DIA'S
AFTER THE EARTHQUAKE 47


LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.

KING STREET. LOOKING NORTH. AFTER THE
EARTHQUAKES, .
KING STREET, LOOKING NORTH, FROM THE
WEST SIDE, THREE YEARS LATER .
CASTLETON GARDENS .
LILY POND, CASTLETON GARDENS .
TREE FERNS
SCENE ON THE HOPE RIVER
CANE RIVER CANYON .
"( HARD LABOUR "
NEWCASTLE, LOOKING TOWARDS KINGSTON .
SCENE ON RAILWAY, NEAR TROJA
SCENE NEAR PORT ANTONIO .
PORT ANTONIO, LOOKING SOUTH .
LOADING BANANAS, PORT ANTONIO .(
WHARVES, PORT ANTONIO .(
BANANA TRAIN, BOWDEN (
ON THE ROAD TO BLUE HOLE .(
JAMAICA HELPS ".(
THE POOR MAN'S HERITAGE .(
DOMESTICS, WITH YAMS, COCOANUTS, ETC., (
BURLINGTON, ON THE RIO GRAND (
PRIESTMAN S RIVER .(
TOM CRINGLE S COTTON TREE (
YE OLDE FERRY INN .(
SCENES ON THE RIO COBRE G, 69, )
BAMBOO GLADE, WORTHY PARK .. )
CUTTING BANANAS .)
TYPICAL NATIVE HOMESTEAD )
ROYAL PALMS, RAVENSWORTH, SPANISH
TOWN .
BAMBOO AVENUE, ST, ELIZABETH. j
COCOA HARVEST )
M\ANDEVILLE MARKET j
CASCADE ON THE WHITE RIVER .. 1


WASHING DAY ON THE WHITE RIVER
WHITE RIVER RAPIDS .
CLIFTON FALLS
PICKING PIMENTO.
PICKING COFFEE.
BARBECUES FOR DRYING PIMENTO, COFFEE,


. 82
. 82
. 83
. 84
85
86
. i
88
89
. 90
. 91


92
93


ETC. .
GOING TO GROUND .
CUTTING THE SUGAR CANE .
NATIVE CANE MILL .
L.ANDOVERY SUGAR ESTATE
SUGAR AND RUM EN ROUTE
LL MENDING OUR WAYS -
LLANDOVERY FALLS .
ROARING RIVER FALLS
RUNAWAY BAY .
FISHERMEN LAUNCHING CANOES .


LIBERTY VALLEY, NEAR BROWN'S TOWN .
ON THE MAIN ROAD, NORTH SIDE .
ENTRANCE TO BROWN'S TOWN AND
MARKET
BROWN'S TOWN, ST. ANN.
MAHOGANY HALL, TRELAlWNEY.
CEIBA, OR SILK COTTON TREE, MONTEGO
BAY
ROSE HALL, ST. JAMES
MONTEGO BAY, ST. JAMES.
LARGEST KNOWN LOGWOOD TREE
FORDING, CLARENDON.
GOING TO THE DOCTOR
TYPICAL COUNTRY RESIDENCE
" A CORNER IN PINES"
WEDDING PARTY
(( HOME i SWEET HOME!~
DR. JAS. JOHNSTON


CONTENTS.



















I$~'
rrr


EDWARD R. GRABOW.


~


I


THE HON, DR. JOHN
PRINGLE, C M.G.


SIR HENRY A. BLAKE,
K.C.M.G.


ij;l~"lE~
1
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."L~Mki


THE RIGHT HON. JOSEPH
CHAMBERLAIN, P.C., M.P.


SIR ALFRED L JONES, K.C.M.G.


SIR SYDNEY OLIVIER, K.O.M.G.


CAPT. W. PEPLOE FORWOOD.


i7


MEN WHO HAVE DONE MUCH FOR JAMAICA.





Nthe cities on both sides of the Atlantic there are professional
and business men, worn out with working at the high
pressure that modern life seems to demand, until trivialities,
which under normal conditions would be accepted as matters
of course in the day's programme, become a perpetual worry
and irritation. Letter deliveries, cable despatches, and tele-
grams at all hours, besiege the office, until the wearied and jaded worker
feels that his life is little better than that of one doing time on the
treadmill, and he sighs for some place where he could go and rest serene
beyond the reach of all this, if only for a few weeks. If he follows the
beaten track of the "'personally conducted," the social excitement and
bustle with which he finds himself surrounded are too much on a par
with the condition of life from which he seeks to escape to satisfy his
longing for complete change.
But there is a still more numerous class among the dwellers of
temperate climes. I refer to those who, either by inheritance or
otherwise, have acquired a physically delicate constitution, and are
thereby ill-adapted to resist the rigours of a Northern winter ; to
whom the cold, bleak winds and treacherous- variableness of tempera-
ture yield only misery and discomfort, aggravating the natural
susceptibility, whether it be pulmonary trouble, bronchitis, catarrh,
rheumatism, or allied affections. To both classes I would say most
emphatically, Jamaica is the place for you "; and be it clearly
understood that this book is not offered to the public merely for the
purpose of advertising the island, but in the confidence that I am
thereby fulfilling a duty to tourists, both British and American, by


bringing to their notice the existence of a country the possibilities
of which, as a health resort, can never be over-estimated.-
We are always pleased to welcome strangers to our shores, and
we unquestionably derive benefit in' many ways by their presence
among us ; yet the rewards are reciprocal, and although money
tiust be spent in hotels, traveling, etc., the tourist receives a sub-
stantial q/uzdt pro q~uo in the pleasure of revelling amid scenes of
tropic beauty, rest to body and mind, and recuperated health, of
more value than much gold.
Many persolis have derived their impressions of Jamaica and its
climate from travellers and tourists who, during a short stay, never
went beyond the suburbs of Kingston. It would not be- considered
quite fair to judge of England or the United States after this fashion ;
a stroll through a seaport town is not likely to favourably impress the:
traveller in any country. It is the life in the open country' air that
really benefits those in search of health at' the summer resorts in
Europe and America; so it is here. The clear, rare atmosphere of
our higher elevations, I venture to affirm, will do more for the invalid
than Egypt, Mentone, Nice, or the Riviera for Europeans, and
California, Nassau, Bermuda, or Florida for the American. It is difficult
to find in the North a mountain resort with a mild temperature, and
there is danger, particularly to those suffering from phthisis, in
attempting the pursuit of health and amusement combined.
Until within the past few years the name Jamaica awoke in the
mind of the average reader practically nothing at all. Jamaica was
little more than a geographical expression, and even that only as it


THE NEW RIVIERA

Sailing away from the bleak, cold town,
And the things the town calls duty;
Drifting away from walls of grey.
To a land of bloom and beauty.
And it's good-bye to letters.
From our lessers or our betters,
To the gay world's smile and its frown;
We are sailing away on a sunny track,
To find the summer and bring it back
From the land of bloom and beauty."


JAMAICA :

" Sailing away to a Southern sea,
Out of the bleakr March weather;
Sailing away for a loaf and a play,
Just you and I together.
And it's good-bye to worry,
And it's good-bye to hurry,
And never a care have we,
With the sea below and the sky above,
And nothing to do but dream and 16ve,
Sailing away together.








JAiMAICA : THE NEW RIV;IYERA.


was redolent of Rum and Ginger; but now the mere mention of the
island's name conjures up the vision of a blue sky over a blue sea, in
which is set a beautiful island of luxurious vegetation and lovely scenery,
fragrant with the odour of spices and flowers, with an atmosphere
refreshed by invigorating sea breezes, and where, if you wish, you may
dwell on the heights and enjoy all the beauty of the tropics with a
temperature that varies little more than 10" all the year round, and
seldom exceeds 80" at that ; a land of wood and water, as its Indian name
implies. Here is a veritable Mecca for the invalid, for what pilgrimage
could hold out a greater reward than restored health ? And hopeless
indeed must be the case for which a sojourn in this health-giving island
could do nothing. Here for a number bf years many sufferers from the
United States have wintered, basking in the tempered sunshine and
enjoying a degree of health and life such as probably they would
find nowhere else.
The regular tourist season in Jamaica is from December to May, but it
is not unusual for people to visit the beautiful island at other times in the
year. A traveller from the North who starts on the voyage in December
is much sur-prised at his first view of the tropical richness of the Jamaica
landscape. He left his own country perchance white with snow, the trees
bereft of foliage, the morning air keen with frost, and himself wrapped
closelyin a winter overcoat. Long before the island is sighted the heavy
coat is discarded, and the thinnest substitute he can fish out from his
luggage donned hastily, while he seeks the sunlit deck to watch the seas
of wondrous colour set off with the yellow gulf weed, silvery nautilus, and
flying fish. Nothing one may see or learn afterwards will compare with
that first thrill of novel delight and pleasure.
The West Indians are proud, and rightly so, of their islands. The
inhabitants of each have a superlative name for their own bit of sea-sprayed
greenery. This one, "L The Pearl of the Antilles "; that one, The Gem,"
and here again, "' The Queen." Cuba claims not unprotested--the latter
title. But Jamaica earned it, and kept it, by Royal Warrant nearly two
hundred years ago, when her king called the island "L The Gem in my
Crown." Indeed, Jamaica is the quintessence of Greater Cuba, and two
hundred years of British colonisation have wiped out of Jamaica all those
tropical epidemics which up to a short time ago made Cuba a place to
avoid. Jamaica to-day, with its wild grandeur ~of scenery, tropic beauty
and foreign charm, has just enough of comfort in travelling facilities and
living to meet the wants of the visitor without spoiling the picture.
Volumes might be, and have been, written about Jamaica, for its history
is one long adventure, humour, tragedy, and all that goes to the making
up of a good story. Travellers whose stay at a place is necessarily short
could not do better than gather up its claims to interest beforehand, so that
they may at once appreciate what they see. There is no more alluring
pleasure on a trip to Jamaica than the reading of "L Tom Cringle's Log "
(although many changes have taken place for the better since Michael Scott
wrote it), while the steamer slips through the sapphire waves where once
ploughed the Spanish galleon, French corsair, and English frigate. He was


never a boy who cannot enjoy it, and, as for the other sex, they thrive on
romance and beauty--and here are both,
On the starboard bow rises a vast pile of rounded snow-white clouds
that roll aside now and then to reveal the purple peaks of the Blue Moun-
tains. The cool, healthy trade winds blow in from the seas, and render the
heat infinitely more bearable than that of a northern summer, and as the
haze clears the island is disclosed in a million hues. Poised on the ridges
plantation houses, with their white walls and red roofs, stand out against
the bluish-green of ravmnes, and, like winding silver threads, waterfalls and
streams sparkle in the sunshine as they tumble towards the sea. The sea
rollers burst glistening and rumbling beneath the cocoanut palms that
arch over the foam, bowing in the teeth of the Trades. His Majesty's mail
-a dust-covered cart--draivn by mules, tears along the coast road, and
close behind it glides the modern automobile. Blue smoke curls up from
sugar estates and negro clearings thousands of feet above. The eye
delights in the white villages under bamboos and palms half hidden in
sheltered nooks and glades, while towering over all are the forest-clad
mountains capped with their cloudy turbans.
Having been for some time confined to the narrow limits of his steamer,
the first desire of a tourist after he has landed and taken possession of his
airy and comfortable apartments at the hotel is to be on the move. If he
has come by one of the the usual routes he will have landed at Kingston,
and in all probability will have secured in advance rooms at the New Myrtle
Bank Hotel, now under American management.
From that location he can~ start out easily for any part of the island,
limited only by the time at his command.
SPerhaps the first thing that will appeal to him is a walk through the
streets. It feels good to walk after one has been permitted only to pace
the circumscribed deck for several days, and the novel sights and sounds of
his present place of sojourn will keep~ his senses alert. He has no doubt
provided himself with a camera, and his only uncertainty will be as to which
of the many scenes--some of vivid interest, some grotesque and amusing--
shall be "L snapped for future reference.
The natives with their soft voices and smiling faces, the shops or stores,
--very much up to date--and replenished with goods of all qualities, both
for use and ornament, that civilised manl can require. The curios, the
children, the solemn coolies from Madras or Calcutta, and much else that
the "L snappist will discover for himself.
Then ther-e will be a drive to one of the many points of interest which
are within easy distance, while the tourist who is given to motoring will
find Jamaica simply ideal. The roads are finely adapted for this mode of
travel. The main roads encircle the entire island with several cross country
connections; their extent is about 2,000 miles, controlled by the Public
Works Department, while 4,318 miles of good roads are kept up by the
Parochial Boards. These roads connect all important points. In the
mountainous regions there are numerous curves, but these make the grades
easier and add the charm of unexpected views.
One of the greatest diversions of the visitor who remains for anly time









JAMAICA .' ZEE NEWV. RIVIERA.


in Jamaica is the sea-bathing, which, at such places as The Doctor's Cave,"
Montego Bay, is said to be the- finest in the world. With the water com-
fortably tepid, clean and clear, a bottom of white sand and no under-tow,
the daily sea-bath in mid-winter is at once luxurious and exhilarating.
Jamaica is so thoroughly English in social matters that all the English
sports are engaged in
by the people .of leisure,
so that one is never at
a loss for diversion.
At almost every
point of interest will be
found good hotel ac- I
commodation, and with
the new Myrtle Bank
Hotel, Constant Spring
Hotel, the new South
Camp Road Hotel at
Kingston, the Rio
Cobre Hotel at Spanish a.
Town, the Spring Hill
Hotel at Montego Bay,
the Moneague Hotel, /
Moneague, the Rich- ~f
mond Hotel ait Brown's
Town St. Ann, the
King Edward Hotel
and several other good
hoesat Mandeville, '
not to- niention ,the s
famous Hotel Titchfield
at Port Antonio, the
tourist may depend on
being well taken care of
wherever he may be. 5 ,,
Ai Motor Car service .,,. .
r-uns to all parts of the
island with excursion ,
parties, and the manage-
ment at Myrtle Bankr MYRTLE
Hotel at Kingston, and
Hotel Titchfield at Port Antonio, will attend to the entering and clearing
through the Customs of private cars.
The Myrtle Bank. Hotel has accommodation for two hundred people,
though a much larger number- can always be comfortably entertained
in the restaurant. There are many rooms with private baths. Small
piazze leading off from many of the suites not only add to the archi-
tectural beauty of the str-ucture, but will be greatly appreciated by
foreigners who have grown accustomed to this little touch of exclusiveness


which they have found in; their European travels and in countries of the
Far East. The house is conducted entirely upoli ihe European plan, and
in addition to the main dining-hall there is a piazza dining-room which
overlooks the sea. The furnishings of the public rooms on the main
office floor, where the ladies' reception room, the billiard room, dining-
room and curio room
are located, have been
chosen in keeping with
the climate and the
tropical nature of the
country. The single
apartments and private
suites have been fitted
out daintily and attrac-
tively, and many little
home comforts have
been included in the
general plan. The
cuisine is intended to
satisfy the tastes of
the most exacting, the
choicest products of the
States and of the island
being used in the. pre-
paration of the various
dishes, whether they be
American, English,
Creole, or native
SJamaican.
Amlericail and Eng-
lish billiards, evening
orchestral concerts, and
.*i-k other indoor attractions
are provided for the
guests, while opportuni-
ties for tourists desiring
out-of-door sports like
golf, football, cricket,
IK HOTEL, tennis, boating, fishing,
are open to all. Driving,
motor-inga and horseback-riding are favourite recreations for people
sojourning upon the island, and there is always a good supply of motors,
carriages and saddle-horses at hand, for short or long tours. The trolley-
cars pass the door, and the suburban residential sections in the rugged
foothills of St. Andrew are within a short riding distance.
The climate of Kingston is equable and mild, the mean average tempera-
ture for the last eighteen years for the month of November being 790
The nights are always cool and comfortable for sleeping.


BAN










JAMhAICA4 : THE E \II RIVIERllA.


In the Myrtle Bank Hotel the public is now supplied with a
strictly first-class down-town hotel, capable of entertaining a large
number of people, giving them the service and conveniences of a
modern house such as can be found in all the large cities of America
and Europe.
When not travelling in the country the viisitor will find Constant
Spring Hotel the place to spend an enjoyable evening and comfortable
night, situated as it is at the foot of the Blue Mountains, six miles
from Kingston, at an elevation of 600 feet, and within easy access or
the city by the rapid transit of the electric cars, an interesting run all
the way.
The hotel itself is a handsome building, but it has been .constructed
more with a view to the comfort and convenience of its guests than for
style, with its verandahs, Moorish front with latticed porticoes, from which
you can look out upon a most extensive and picturesque view beyond
the Liguanea Plains to Fort Clarence, Port Royal, the Harbour, Palisa-
does, Long Mountain and St. Catherine's Peak, and a sea view of
unrivalled beauty--the Caribbean in glorious tints of emerald and blue.
The hotel is lighted throughout by electricity, and possesses its own
plant. The entrance hall is 60 feet square and jo fe~et hjgh,. artistically
furnished, a special feature being the flooring of alternate slabs of black
and white marble, giving an air of delicious coolness no matter .how hot
the sunshine may be outside ; the dining, drawing, billiard, smoking, and
other public rooms are proportionately spacious, while there are bedrooms
available for over two hundred guests. The rooms are so carefully
ventilated as to admit of practically living in the open air. The
temperature varies but little, and is always tempered by pleasant sea
breezes by day and cool hill breezes at night. Absolute quiet can be
relied upon.
A swimming-bath at home is a treat to enjoy, but what must it
be in the tropics ? Here you have a fine one, 45 by 25 feet, sheltered
from the sun, and" giving a depth of 4 to 8 feet of pure, cool, run-
ning water from the hills. Then there are the golf links, cricket
field, tennis courts, croquet, bowling-green, cla) pigeon shooting, archery,
etc., while iridoors there are billiards, a dark room for tyros of the


black art, and music! with frequent dances, concerts, and other enter-
tainments in the evenings. The leading doctors of Kingston and
St. Andrewv are always available, and canl be summoned by telephone,
and for the convenience of invalids two trained nurses are attached to
the establishment in the season.
Just as the influx of travellers to our shores increases so will the
accommodation and number of hotels multiply. Methinks it requires
no prophetic eye to see in the near future at least one good caravan-
serai in every parish. Meantime, the indulgent stranger will make all
allowance, while travelling through the country, if he does not find a
miniature Waldorf or Cecil, seeing we are younger in the business than
the Rivieras, Spas, and other resorts of the Continent; but we console
ourselves with the fact that we have something better to offer. We have
done the best to provide for- the entertainment of our guests, and our
doors are open wide to receive them.
Permit me right here to emphasise the fact to the newcomer that
staying round any hotel in the neighbourhood of Kingston, Port Antonio,
or any other seaport town i's nlot seeing famaicir. No matter how
excellent the hotel may be, get away from the coast as soon as you can
and taste the delights of the mountain air. The change in the
atmosphere and temperature will be an agreeable surprise to many.
When they reach even I,000 feet above sea-level a blanket will be
found very acceptable at night; the morning tub cold enough to be
refreshing and invigorating, while long early walks canl be taken with
absolute comfort among the hills when ilka blade o' grass keeps its
ain drap o' dew," and one inhales with supreme satisfaction the balmy
air laden with the perfume of flowers, pimento, orange, coffee and other
sweet blossoms according to the season of the year.
Then who among the many who have gone over the Stoney Hill
road to Annotta Bay, crossed Mount Diabolo, gone through the Fern
Gully, taken the interior road from Ewarton or from Kendal through
the ginger mountains to Brown's Town, but would gladly repeat the
pleasurable experience and again visit these scenes, that live in their
memories like a happy dream long after hotels and lodging houses, with
all their shortcomings, are forgotten.






























































CONSTANT SPRING HOTEL









JAN1WA7CA : ~THE NEW RIVIlERA.



TO A2MBRICAN TOURISTS.


HUS far, the information supplied has been intended specially
for Europeans. Now a word as to how best to reach
Jamaica from the United States. Although, by the way,
it is a good many years since the travelling public of
America began to reco nise the many attractions of the
island, and every succeeding year adds greatly to the
number of our visitors from the land of the Stars and Stripes, still
there is room for many more who are not yet alive to the induce-
ments for a genuinely delightful rest and change this island--so near
home--has to offer them.
The well-known and much-travelled authoress, E11a Wheeler Wilcox,
in describing her visit to Jamaica, wrote :-
What are you thinking about, you Northern men and women, who
rush to Florida, or Bermuda, or Europe in search of a winter resort,
where comfort and pleasure can be found ? Why, do~you not know
of this lost Garden of Eden--this incomparable combination of American
comfort, English cleanliness, and Italian climate ? And such beauty-
such glory of colourfing, such opulence of Nature's~ best gifts As I
write, the majestic Blue Mountains are back of me--the highest peak
towering head and shoulders above Mount Washington. The ther-
mometer marks 84" in my room, but a delicious, cool breeze blows in
from the mountain, and even when the mercury ran to 88. there was
no humidity or oppressiveness in the air. A fog was never known
here, so the captain of the U.S. steamer Sampsonz told me. And to
think that it is mid-March, and that this is no treacherous time for us
to abandon winter wraps, only to be caught in a blizzard to-morrow,
but a steady, all-the-year climate, for there is scarcely a variation of
ten degrees in twelve months. I have -not felt one mosquito, so far,
and have seen but two flies. There are no reptiles, and there is fruit
and there are vegetables enough to keep one well and hearty at small
cost and with small labour. America cannot be long blind to the
wonderful advantages offered by this beautiful spot as a winter resort."
A "LNew Englander writes:-
It would be useless to attempt to describe .the marvellous beauty
of this country. The stately cocoanut palm, hung with its generous
frutfurises o he yea thing of grace unrivalled. Some of the
futree aurnes crmonIedwit foliage and flowers that strike the eye as
wonderful, while others, like the luxuriant fields of banana with its
tropical leaves, suggestive of great fans, never breed monotony in scenery,
w-hic~h is diversified by the -vigorous coffee tree, the curious cocoa and
hop-like yam. Luscious pineapples grow in profusion, and are as cheap
as plentiful.; oranges with more juice and better flavour. than earth
offers elsewhere hang from the trees in golden fruitage, a dozen for one


poor 'quattie '--3 cents of Uncle Sam's money. Palms in great variety
delight the eye, among them the aristocratic Royal Palm, the very
essence of dignity embodied in a tree, while the cabbage palm and
thatch variety are the stalwarts that defy the wind and parade their
usefulness to man, for, from the exalted top of the former, he cuts a
growth that beats the best of lower-grown cabbage as a vegetable, and
from the latter he sees the native take the leaves to thatch his hut,
and in the rainy season sit under his own dry roof, and laugh at
Nature's downpour. If exercise is needed by the semi-invalid the
mountains call him to the peaks, and horses make little-to-do of speed
along the winding roads, while on the lower levels, in the early morn,
the cyclist can find no better highways for a spin."
I do not wish to weary the reader, otherwise such extracts might
be continued ad zin)Enitumt, and all this within less than five days fr-om
Boston or Philadelphia, for from these ports ply te beautiful and
yacht-like vessels of the United Fruit Co. Theliescoped f
a large number of steamers specially fitted for the conveyance and
comfort of passengers, and furnished with every requisite for a safe
and enjoyable voyage, the four best being named after America's
great admirals, the .Deweey, Sckley, Sampson, and Farragut. The
accommodation leaves I,1thing to be desired, cleanliness and the absence
of ship's odours are a marked feature, while the cuisine and service
are excellent. The staterooms are on the main deck, forward of
the engines, well ventilated and lighted by electricity. One of these
steamers leaves Boston every Wednesday and Phfiladelphia every Thurs-
day from October to April; other months of the year semi-weekly
sailings, running direct to Port Antonio. Fare, one way, $40; round
trip, $75-
But while the convenience of- traveller-s to Jamaica from both Phila-
delphia and Boston have been fully and satisfactorily met for a number-
of years past by the steamers of the United Fruit Company, New York
was at a disadvantage in this respect until lately, when the I-amburg-
American Line--the standard of which is known to every old-world
tourist--determined to establish and maintain a service to and from
Jamaica and the Panama Canal by its splendid fleet of four new "L Prinz "
and other steamers of the Atlas Line. The Prinz steamers are of
about 6,000 tons register, 402 feet in length, 4o feet in width, and 27 feet
in depth, have been- specially built for passenger service in the tropics,
and have ample deck room, airy social halls and well ventilated state-
.rooms, each. with its own electric fan. In every feature of their
equipment and service they ar-e fully up to thie transatlantic standard
of the Hamburg-American Line, a standard which has placed this great
steamship company in the very front of trans-oceanic passenger lines.









TO AMI(ERICAN TO WRISTS.


under the same comfortable surroundings that transatlantic passengers
on Hamburg-American ships have grown accustomed to.
The delights of Juxurious voyaging, coupled with the enjoyments or
Jamaica and its scenic and climatic perfection, will make a winter tour
to this tropic isle
Sa delightful ex-

~5t. `. --o -front the time the
.: traveller leaves New
,. York until he dis-
.:i .. ~. :. ~ 5~~.embarks once more
: .: within sight of the
"~~:lofty buildings of
Manhattan there
has not been a
~;:c ,single moment of
.'i overcrowding, of in-
~? ;. :convenience, or of
r dissatisfaction.
SFor .those. desir-
ing -particularly to
;; 1 visit the Panama
Canal, special trips
.-'-. of eighteen days canl
be arranged, which
.II. -.include a three days'
stay at the Isthmus
of Panama and a
call at Jamaica
(where a stop-over
canl be made if
desired). During
the steamer's stay
at Colon, passengers
can be provided with
accommodation and
meals on board writh-
out additional
charge.
The Kingston
HAMBURG-AMERICAN LINE. earthquake of Janu-
ary r4th, 1907, while
it laid low the capital of Jamaica, was scarcely felt and did little damage
in other parts of the island. Tourists will find Jamaica none the less
charming because of this upheaval, but will rather discover an.added
interest in visiting the stricken city, now happily being rapidly rebuilt.
In a word, it may be said in all seriousness that for the next couple
of centuries at least Jamaicans may consider their little island the


The annual West Indies cruises--which have been so popular--will be
made this season by the 8,000-ton twin-screw cruising steamship Oceanza.
This steamship will make two 28-day tours of the West Indies during
the coming winter season, visiting all the principal islands, the northern
coast of South
America, and make
a call at Colon, where ::
passengers will have
an opportunity to .
view the operations ~ L~' 'r-.I
carried on by the ~ :~i.-ui ~,
Government in dig- r
going the Panama :
Canal. In addition :
to the above-mnen- i
tioned cruises by the
steamship Oceanta, i.u
three cruises are -
arranged for the :i
Kr o np r inzessin 't,
Cecille, each of six- "P-r_
teen days' duration, 9*
leaving New York -
duringJanuary,Feb-
ruary, and March,
calling at Nassau,*****--*- -
Havana, San Juan,
Porto Rico and Ber
muda. These short
cruises offer particu-
lar facilities for a
limited tour in
southern waters,
touching as they do
the largest and most
important West
India islands, allow-
ing from ten to
thirty-six hours' stay
for sightseeing at
each port of call. S.s. "PRINZ. AUGUST WILH~
So complete sauc speddsiSepoe nimasta
programme, andsuhslnishpemlydiitmestathe
Hamburg-American Line recognizes fully the rapidly growing interest
of Americans in Jamaica as ai winter resort, and is an evidence of the
intention o~f the Company to supply its American patrons with every
facility, every comfort and every luxury in every department of its service.
Now for the first time--it may be said--it is possible to go to Jamaica


ELM,"


i~_.


. i i II
.,









JAMAICA : THE NEW RIVIERA.


safest place on earth from such convulsions of nature, for, like the
San Franciscans, they have hzad their earthquake.
For touring among the islands of the West Indies, affording regular
connections and comfortable accommodations between points hitherto
accessible only by
occasional and ir-
regular steamers or
indirect routes, the
Hamburg-American
Line has placed in
service the fille twin-
screw passenger
steamshiphaisident,
specially built and ~B~ L
luxuriously equip-
ped for these inter-
colonial voyages.
The&/~isid!entmakes
a round trip monthly
between the islands
of Jamaica, Hayti,
Santo Domingo,
Porto Rico and St.
Thomas.
Nor should it be c
forgotten that these I ~~fitL
trips are enjoyable
in summer as well
as winter. The tem-
perature of places
bordering on the I ~~
Caribbean Sea varies 1 .._-
but: little the year -
around, 800 F. being
the average. The .
constant trade winds *
and the steadily flow-
ing ocean currants
maintain a won-
derfully equable
climate. DINING SALOON, "PRINZ" STE
In addition to
the service maintained to Jamaica, South and Central America. by the
Atlas Line, regular steamers also run between New York and the Haytian
ports; but the Jamaica route is the most interesting to the general
tourist. Within two days' voyage from New York the tropical waters
are reached and one feels the balmy influence of the Gulf Stream,
The entire cruise covers a period of twenty-three days, including visits


to Jamaica, Colombia, and Costa Rica, and the cost is only $1r25 includ-
ing stateroom accommodations and meals. Ample time is given at each
port of call to enable the traveller to visit such points of interest as
he may desire, and as the ship passes from point to point the scenes
unfold an ever vary-
ing panorama .
Should passengers
desire to stop over
at any place they
-~281 1 sil may do so, awaiting
'~~~~'sLB .One of the succeed-
ing steamers of this
line. The cost of
Sthe trip from New
York to Jamaica is
$40 one way, or $~75
for the round trip.
It takes from five
to six days to reach
Jamaica. A list of
hotels, good board-
ing houses, and in-
formation or advice
on any subject the
visitor is likely to
require connected
with his visit to the
island may be ob-
tained from the
~-: representative and
:~d~b~.~'gener-al agent of the
Hamburg-American
: -Line at Kingston,
". Captain W. P. For-
I 'Ilr rwood, wvho will
extend every pos-
sible courtesy to
American tourists.
The character of
the service main-
RS, HAMBURG-AMERICAN 'LINE. tained by the Ham-
burg-American Line
is sufficient guarantee that every provision is made for the comfort
and convenience of the traveller. The steamers, being specially adapted
for passenger service, possess most spacious and comfortable accommoda-
tions. Saloons and staterooms are above the main deck, which insures
a minimum of motion and thorough ventilation. The staterooms are
large, light and well furnished. The table is well provided with delicacies


iAME








TO AMERICAN TOURISTS.


in season, and particularly with such viands as are best suited to a
tropical voyage.
The cabins are all located amidship on the promenade, saloon and
upper decks, in the superstructure of the vessel, thus affording the
maximum degree of
ventilation.
The main saloon,
with seating
capacity for about
Ioo persons, is lo-
cated on one of the
upper decks, receiv-
ing light and ven-
tilation from three -
sides through large .,
portholes. A large
skylight passing
through the ladies'
parlour, situated
directly above the
saloon, supplies ad-
ditional light and
air.
The smoking
room and ladies' par-
lour are luxuriously
appointed, and with
other special fea-
tures these steamers
will undoubtedly be-
come very popular
with the travelling
public.
Preparations for
the trip need not be
elaborate or exten-
sive ; clothing of all
kinds can be ob-
tained in Jamaica
of good quality and LADIES' SALOON.
cheaper than you "IPRINZ STEAMERS
can buy it at home.
For both ladies and gentlemen ordinary summer clothing will be found
quite suitable, reserving, of course, a warm suit and underclothing for
the first forty-eight hours out and for the return journey. In two days
this will be laid aside, for you will be slipping along over a summer
sea, inhaling the balmy air and the ocean's ozone, hastening to the
land of sunshine; the snow-clad hills and the icy blasts of winter all


behind. In the Caribbean Sea there is no fear of fogs and almost
complete exemption from what might be called stormy weather ; I
have made the trip some fourteen times, but on more than half the
voyages the fiddles were not requisitioned for the tables, and even
when the ydid
appear it was fre-
quently more with
the idea of forestall-
ing possibilities
than from actual
necessity.
~. .:Flying fish now
begin to interest the
F'7"~traveller as they rise
in front of the vessel
~u~~~~~iC~kre~&~~seaep~and skim across the
blue, the fish of
which, as "'Turner "
says, "L everyone has
heard, which yet
none can see for
the first time with-
51 ~~ I~~ i IF~E~P '~out a gasp of amaze-
ment, without a
feeling as though
beholding the
miraculous; the fish
which has given rise
to more untruthful
stories than any
other fish in all the
seas.
"( Undoubtedly
the flying-fish has
wings like a bird,
undoubtedly it flies
-yvet not as a bird.
It does not flap the
wing-like, pectoral
ASTATEROOM. finS On which it is
BURG-AMERICAN LINE. upborne; nor, once
launched in the air,
can it change its course by any movement of its wings, until it dips
again to the water. Yet it will pass a ship making ten knots in
the hour, and travel in the air as far as five hundred feet at a time.
Astounding, indeed, is the sight of a shoal of flying-fish taking to
the air, skimming far over the surface when the sea is calm, leaping
high over great waves when gales blow. Fish seem ludicrously out


HAM





JAMIAICA THNE NEW RIVIERA.


of their element in the air--but that fish should fly is not really
more wonderful than that some animals and birds, like the otter or
the penguin, dive and .swim to perfection.
The flying-fish's fins are really parachutes to support and steady its
body rather than
wings to propel
it ; the lobe of
the tail gives pro-
pulsion to the
body as it leaves
the water. A
flying-fish mea-
sures about a foot .f
in length, and its
long,transparent,
pectoralfinsreach
almost to the tail;
but though very .
large when ex- .
panded, they can
be folded rip very .
neatly. Its flight
is short and inter-
mittent, and it
must needs con- n
tinually dip into
the sea :to give 1M
itself a fresh start.
"Fear spurs
the flying -fish
illto the: air; aid
sometimes mere
exuberance of
spirits. Often
they leap ~so high
that they fall on
the decks ofships,
and are killed by
the violence of
their fall.' L~ightS ENTERING POR~
on 'shiliboard
sometimes bring- them on deck at night. They are excellent eating,
and taste something likre herring.
The sight of fish flying naturally arouses one's pity, knowing the
persecutted lives they lead--how the coryphenes, or dolphins, as they
aire commonly called, love to feed upon~ them, and also certain sea-
birds wyho tiike them on the wying."
But now the tangled masses of Gulf weed recall the story of the


mutiny that threatened Columbus, when his sailors feared that the
weed meant hidden shoals.
The first land sighted is Watling's Island, and it was the first bit
of terr~a lirma discovered by Columbus on his westward voyage. A
monument has
been erected on
Sthe island to
commemorate
the event, some
200 feet from the
shore. BirdRock,
with its pictur-
esque lighthouse,
comes next mn
view, then. For-
tune Island, and
Castle Island also
Wiith a costly
lighthouse; these
islands all belong
to the Bahama
group. N\o more
land is seen until
Cape Maysi ap-
pears onl the
easter-n end' of
Cuba, and here
again there is a
lighthouse built
on1 a narrow, low-
lying spit of land,
behind which rise
the irregular ter-
races, cliffs and
lofty peaks of the
mountains of
Cuba, a sight
which ought~ to
interest every
TONlb klARBOUR. true American,
not only for the
grandeur of its rugged steeps, but for the part his country played in
delivering its down-trodden people from the curse of Spanish oppression
and the desolation caused by a quarter of a century of unavathung
resistance.
For half a day the vessel hugs the land so close, that you can~
make out villages and plantations without the aid of glasses, adte
the hills of Jamaica can be made out right ahead, on a clear day the


T AN





PORT ANTONIO: LOOKING NORTH.























~r






:r:i:
_~AIIPIPL~p I 4W~P~""sas~lrJ~Praa~..- 'j ~










~d-~ I(sC~b~'"i














,:
.~;~
;-,iB
ci~
.'r:~~










THE BLUE HOLE, NEAR PORT ANTONIO.




































THE BARBER I Li-arclr GOING TO SELL THE PIG.
























THE MORNING TOLET. OUR COOK





BITS FROM LIFE.

19~1 --,








JAMAICA : THE NEW RIVIE~RA.


peaks of the Blue Mountains outlined sharp and distinct against the sky;
a narrow channel is navigated with consummate skill, and the harbour
of Port Antonio unfolds itself like a grand panorama. "L Such riotous
colouring as Nature indulges in here was never seen out of a painting
by an 'impressionist'--the intense emerald, the marvellous amethyst,
with the vivid yellow and dark greens of the tropical verdure on the
hills beyond," present a picture never to be forgotten, and might well
be named the Venice of the West Indies.
In days gone by the Folly Point lighthouse was the most con-
spicuous object seen when approaching the entrance to Port Antonio
Harbour. Now it is entirely overshadowed by the magnificent new
Hotel Titchfield. Long before the voyager can make out any details
of the coast, this building looms up clear and picturesque, reminding
one of the palatial resorts that fringe the shores of Maine and New
England. A hotel of which Jamaica is justly proud. We scarcely know
which to admire most: the grit and go" of the company, who in
the space of but a few months, and in the face of innumerable difficulties,
made this great undertaking unl fait accompi, or the keen prescience
and courage of the man--Mr. E. R. G~rabow-who originated the idea
of establishing in Jamaica such a centre of attraction for tourists.
The new Titchfield, while less pretentious in point of size than the for-mer
hotel, will be equally attractive and adequate in every way to meet the
needs of the tourists. The architecture follows somewhat the prevailing
style of building seen in the tropics, and in this respect the exterior is not
only extremely artistic, but the inner arrangement is interesting and
picturesque. 'The main building is entirely surrounded by broad piazze
with concrete floors and overhanging roof, and as in all tropical houses there
will be a detached kitchen. There is but one wing, and this is located on
the north end of the building, looking out upon the Blue Mountains and
towards East Harbour. This is also separated from the body of the house
by a wide passage way or lounge, which can also be used as a dining-piazza.
The billiard-room, bamboo-room, and other public rooms are situated in
this end.
The main entrance is from the porte-cochbre into a large foyer with
offices and public writing-r-ooms on the left and ladies' reception-room,
curio shop, and ballroom on the right. The dining-room occupies the
entire north end of the main structure, as in the former Titchfield, but the
present plans make a very much more attractive room with its interior
decoration and unique lighting effects.
The grounds are handsomely arranged, and in addition to the garden
part there are tennis courts on the east side occupying the space of the old
billiard-room. A pergola at the south end of the building makes a sort
of raised court, an ideal resting place under tropical vines and a view un-
equalled in any part of the world--a bit of West Harbour on the left, East
Harbour and Folly Point on the right, and the Caribbean Sea extending
to the remotest point of the horizon,
The visitor who stays for a few days or a few weeks at the Hotel
Titchfield and goes away dissatisfied, either with the accommodation, the


attendance, the cuisine, or the natural surroundings, must have an
unfortunate kink in his composition and something seriously wrong with
him. For while there are, no doubt, in other parts of the world buildings
of greater magnificence, no hotel on either side of the Atlantic has
more comfortable public rooms, or is provided with more of those con-
veniences that minister so largely to the pleasure of travellers or
holiday-makers, and it is very evident that the enterprising men who
have put their money into the venture must be convinced that there is
an exceedingly bright future for Jamaica as a health and winter resort
for tourists.
It is no empty boast that at Port Antonio, as at many other points
around the island, facilities for sea bathing are unsurpassed in any part of
the world. The shores and beaches are of fine, hard, white coral sand;
the lapping waves have a uniform and agreeable temperature, so mild that
one may remain in the water for hours without danger or discomfort;
the beaches slope easily and gradually into the deeper water, and the surf
is devoid or even a particle of under-tow. These features combine to
make sea bathing in Jamaica a luxury denied to the dwellers in higher
latitudes, and are the reasons for the general popularity of this pastime
among the island's residents and visitors.
But the good ship is already at her moorings, and, let me remark,
there will be no trouble with the Custom House officials. Your baggage
need give you no concern, as a reliable agent from the hotel will take
charge of your belongings, while outside of the wharf will be found your
conveyance.
After a short drive through the town a steep pinch of hill is nego-
tiated, and on the top is the Titchfield.
The voyage has been all too short, but it feels good for the landsman
to be on terra frlma again, particularly amid such delightful surroundings,
within and without. For while one cannot fail to be charmed with the
air of refinement, luxury, and comfort that pervades one's apartments,
there is a positive fascination in the view from the windows or the broad
verandahs looking out upon the sea with the verdure-clad hills on the
left, and the long stretch of sea-coast leading the eye away into the
distance where the waves lap the palm-fringed shores.
There are many picturesque drives around Port Antonio, such as
to the Blue Hole, six miles along the coast, a remarkable inlet of the
sea, very deep and surrounded by a dense growth of cocoanut and other
tropical trees; the waters swarm with fish, and ar-e an intense sapphire
blue. Moore Town, an old Maroon village, nine miles distant, romantically
situated in a vale at the foot of the Blue Mountains; this trip is full of
interest, passing on the way within view of the vast banana fields of
Golden Vale. An Englishman, in describing the scenery along the coast,
wrote: Though the road runs coastwise, the sea is not constantly in
view, but at intervals I passed close enough to the electric green waters,
shallow and transpar-ent, over broad and rocky reefs, and brilliant under
Old Sol's warm smile, with an excusable impulse to dive in and join
the fishes of many colour-s. Monotony here cannot overtake the traveller,









HISTORICAL SKETCH.


but a short and refreshing shower often does, and adds to the freshness
of his experience. Here is a picture of a little house, prettily painted,
but mostly hidden by vines and wandering creepers. The garden has
an atmosphere of life and happiness touched up by variegated crotons,
with palms and banana trees on the rear slope as a background, and
roses, honeysuckle, jessamine, hybiscus, and wild maiden hair ferns with
spr-ays two or three feet long. In Jamaica the picture is perpetual,
from January to December, in a rhapsody of sweet aromas and brilliant
and ever-varying pictures. Then the sunset effects These. are beyond


the power of mortal pen or brush to venture upon a description or
delineation of."
Let lovers of art, history, and health, come and see, when sight of
the first pickaninny basking in the sun, conscious of nothing but
physical comfort, will call to their minds th~e words in the Alabama
Coon :-
"' Mammy, don't yer cry,
Wipe yer shiny eye,
Better days are coming soon."


AMAICA is an island in the Caribbean Sea, and lies in lat.
--but this really does not concern us very much. It is
enough that the captain of the ship knows all about the
latitude and longitude. Its area is about 4,207 square miles;
extreme length, 144 miles; and extreme width, 49 miles,
with a coast-line of 55o miles. Those who ought to know
say that "' It is one6 of the fairest countries for beauty in the habitable earth,
the brightest jewel in the British crown, and the gem of the Antilles."
Columbus found it for Spain on the 3rd of May, '494, and the
Spaniards held the island until the 20th day of the same month, 1655,
when an expedition under the--command of lAdmirals Penn and Venables
took it from them, and none too soon, for the Spanish occupation was
simply 160 years of cruel persecution of a peaceful race of Indians,
the aboriginal Arawaks. During that period some 60,000 of them
were done to death, under some pretext, or none, but so. complete
was the annihilation that there remains not a single living trace of
that unoffending and interesting people. Five months later Cromwell
sent .out General Sedgewick to conduct the Civil Government, who
was succeeded the following year by Colonel Brayne, and he in turn
gave place in I657 to Colonel D'Oyley, during whose administration
the island was invaded by Don Arnoldi Sasi, an old Spanish Governor,
who with J,000 men landed at Rio Nuevo in r6_i8 and fortified him-
self on a cliff near the river. In a few days D'Oyley advanced against
him by sea with 750 men. Led by their general, a landing was effected,
and by means of scaling ladders the fort was taken; 450 of the Spaniards
were killed, and~ over a hundred made prisoners. O-f the hapless band
that escaped some made for Cuba, while others, with Donl Sast and
many of their old slaves, took to the mountains and kept up a har-
assing guerilla warfare for a whole year, until early in 1660, when
D'Oyley heard that a band of them, some I5o strong, were encampd
in Ocho Rios, on what is now the Shaw Park property. They hd
planted their several guns on an eminence--they are still there--prepared
for a determined resistance, but D'Oyley attacked them by land, an


unexpected quarter, with about 80 men, and in less than an hour the
Blue-jackets had turned Don Sasi's artillery on himself, killing 50 of
his men, and poor Sasi fled to Runaway Bay (p. 90), whence he
escaped to Cuba in a canoe. Exit the last of the Spaniards. Enter
British rule permanently established.
The advent of the English was not marked by depredations against
the Arawak~s-for they were dead--but the rble of Ishmael was more
in line with their idea of good government. At that time, Sir Thomas
Modyford, who succeeded Colonel Edward Morgan, gave commissions
and letters of marque in the name of the King to pirates and buccaneers,
whose hands truly "L were against every man," to despoil the Spanish
main or wherever booty worth bringing to Port Royal could be found,
and it is written in the chronicles that the rule of Modyford brought
the island to its greatest perfection. The most notorious of these free-
booters was Henry Morgan. The story of his life on the high seas
is a catalogue of colossal barbarities and unexampled cruelties, but he
never sailed without a commission from the authorities, so that he
might be styled a very gentlemanly buccaneer." His expeditions of
pillage and, rapine were courteously styled by the powers that were as
"; Naval encounters and invasions." In 1670 he attacked Panama, then
possessing great wealth; his army of I,2oo men and strong fleet made
short shrift of the little town, and the sacking of it was but the work
of a few hours. One hundred and seventy-five mule loads of gold and
silver was the "swag," d25,000 of which Morgan secured for himself.
The men got the balance, but they recognized the lack of proportion
somewhere and mutinied, whereupon the intrepid Morgan rolled up
his tent like an Arab and silently stole away.
Among the many anomalies recorded in history none appears more
grotesque than the fact that while Sir Thomas Modyford was ordered
back to England, practically under arrest, to answer for the offence of
having exceeded his authority in commissioning Morgan, this same
Henry Morgan was krnighted as a mark of the King's appreciation of
the exploit of Panama. Six years later- Sir Henry, the "L wealthy planter,


HISTORICAL SKETCH.










.I


THE FORDING, OCHO RIOS:

SHAW PARK ON THE HILL.


ROCKFORT, NEAR KINGSTON
A REL1C OF LORD VAUGHAN.


LORD RODNEY.
situa Rcylnolds inr His Majes/fys Collection at
7aamesr Palce.)


KING'S HOUSE, ST. ANDREW'S


MONUMENT TO LORD RODNEY, SPANISH TOWN.








CL7A TE.


the foe of pirates and the friend of law and order," was appointed
Lieutenant-Governor of Jamaica !
But the curtain fell on the pirate business when Lord Vaughan
succeeded Morgan as Governor. Vaughan's remedy was a drastic but
salutary process of frequent hangings of these marauders at Gallows
Point. The sight of their comrades dangling on the Palisadoes so got
upon the nerves of the remaining buccaneers that the business became
unpopular, and was finally crushed out.
From this time there was no very remarkable epoch in the history
of Jamaica, with the exception of the destruction of Port Royal by an
earthquake in 1692, until 1782, when Rodney achieved his famous
victory over the French fleet commanded by Comte de Grasse. The
historian tells us that before the sun went down on that 12th day of
April the greatest naval battle in English history had been fought and won ;
all day long the cannon roared; one by one the French ships struck
their flags, or fought until they foundered and sank, while others
crept away like crippled birds, to be picked up afterwards. Rodney
brought his Formidable yard-arm to yard-arm with the magnificent
Ville de Paris, commanded in person by De Gr'asse, the finest and
best ship in the then known world. Sh~e was the last to surrender,
fighting till there was not enough mast left to carry a sail, her decks
above and below littered with mangled bodies. Fourteen thousand
Frenchmen were reckoned to have been killed, for the ships were


crowded down with troops for the assault on Jamaica. De Grasse
gave up his swvord to Rodney on the quarterdeck of the Formidable,
and so, on that memorable day, was the English Empire saved. Peace
followed, but it was peace with honour. The American Colonies were
lost, but England still kept her West Indies. 'Her flag still floated over
Gibraltar; "L the hostile strength of Europe all combined had failed to
wrest Britannia's sceptre from her. She sat down maimed and bleeding,
but the wreath had not been torn from her browr. She was still
Sovereign of the Seas."'
Rodney became Jamaica's best-loved hero, received the thanks of his
Sovereign, was elevated to the peerage, and a statue by Bacon was erected
to his memory in a prominent position in the square at Spanish Town.
Jamaican history, like its physical configuration, is broken, uneven,
and full of sharp contrasts. The first age began when Columbus dis-
covered the island; the second when Cromwell took it from the
Spaniards; the third with the commencement of the Victorian era,
when our late Queen of beloved memory gave her consent to the
Act of Parliament which provided that on and after the Ist of August,
1838, all the slaves in the Colonial possessions of Great Britain should
be absolutely and for ever free. The immediate effect of this act on
Jamaica was unquestionably-there, I was just about to touch on the
Sugar question, on which the subsequent history of the Colony has so
largely hinged; but Prudence whispers "Don't! "


HE average climate of Kingston, for a period extending over
ten years, has been figured out as follows: Maximum 87-8",
minimum 70-7", giving a range of 17'1 degrees. The rate of
decrease follows the same rate as that obtained in other
countries, viz. about 10 Eahr. for every 300 feet of elevation ;
therefore, any temperature desired may be found between
that given for the plains and Blue Mountain Peakr at an altitude of 7,r360
feet, where the thermometer registers maximum 7I'lo, minimum ~46'30,
and mean 5570.
The best months in which to visit the island ar-e fr-om -November
to April, as this is supposed to be the coolest season; but there is no
reason why Jamaica should not be visited with perfect comfort and
safety ~at anly time during the year, not only to avoid the cold of
Northern winters, but it would be a genuine relief to escape from
the intense heat that frequently visits New York and London in the
summer time, producing a condition of discomfort, and even suffering,


unknown to us here. Who ever heard of sunstroke in Jamaica ? And
even if the'thermometer were to reach the upper nineties with us,
which it seldom does, the atmosphere of latitudes where such temperature
might be reached is sufficiently charged with moisture to effectively
minimise the effect of the sun's rays.
It is true we have periods of heavy rainfall, sayl in May and Oct'ober,
but frequently this means copious tropical downpours~for a couple of
hours, with bright: sunshine in between; and so regular are the intervals
that one gets to know about what hour the rain is likely to come, and
times one's business or outdoor exercise accordingly. It is well, how-
ever, for the traveller to take his waterproof in going for a long ride,
as he may be detained, and' thus be exposed to a drenching which
it is wiser to avoid. Wet clothes and wet feet, when one is fatigued,
are not without danger anywhere.
In writing of the climate of Jamaica, I would address myself- not
only to the pleasure-seeker and sightseer, but particularly to the invalid,


C LIMRIATE.








JAM~AICA : THE NEW RIVIERA.


although it would be very difficult to enumerate the many ailments
that have been remedied or, at least, relieved by a sojourn in the
island. I might mention the benefit derived by gouty or rheumatic
patients treated at the Hot Sulphur Springs in St. Thomas; the in-
vigorating effects of the Chalybeate Spring at Silver Head, St. Andrew,
not to speak of the valuable Baths at Milk River--of the mineral
springs .of Jamaica more anon-of
dyspepsia cured by the free use of
our fruits; of malaria, for in the hill
regions It has no place; chronic nasal
catarrh, bronchial catarrh, etc. etc.
According to Dr. Clark, of Santa
Cruz, the climate is very similar to
that of Algiers, plus the altitude.
Rarely do Europeans suffer from
disease of any kind in our moun-
tains ; they are a perfect paradise for
I children, and frequently do those
I .. who live in the lowlands regain in
the hills the strength, elasticity, and
vim of which a long residence in
the invariable rather than the exces-
sive heat of the plains has deprived
them. Dr. Robb, of Kingston, in an
article on the climate of Jamaica, in
the Handbook for 1883, gives, as an
instance of European longevity, the
fact that on one day, in the moun-
tains of St. Ann, eight men met,
THE AUTHOR IN 1875. most of whom were English and
Scotch, and none of whom had been
in the island a shorter time than forty-three years, the majority fifty, and
whose united ages amounted to 579 years. Dr. Clarke, of St. Elizabeth,
in an article on the same subject, in the Handbook for 1884, says that
during a residence of fourteen years in the Santa Cruz Mountains, no
death from fever had occurred in his practice, and that. on one occasion
he had on his visiting list seven Europeans and two natives, whose ages
added together amounted to 751 years. To this I might add, for the in-
formation of those who are under the impression that Jamaica is the home
of yellow fever, that in a large and varied practice among all classes of
the community, extending over a period of twenty years, I have yet
to see my first case of this dread scourge of a century ago. If the
traveller will but obey the rules of hygiene and health that he would
follow in other lands, he is no more liable to fever here than he would
be at home.
But there is an ailment, above all others, for which this climate
is especially adapted, and for the relief of which a congenial atmosphere
is hard to find. I refer to incipient phthisis, or pulmonary trouble of any


kind; and to this may be added the testimony of sufferers from Bright's
disease. The observations of medical men in the Dry Harbour Mountains
prove that Bright's is by no means the dangerous malady it is supposed
to be, if the proper climate canl be found for the patient.
Lest the reader may be tempted to criticise too severely the ap-
parently extravagant language I use in describing either the scenery or
climate of Jamaica, I would ask him to pardon a personal allusion while I
give, briefly, a bit of my own experience. In 18741, while yet a young
man attending college in London, England, I contracted a severe
attack of pneumonia, followed by pulmonary symptoms of a very grave
character. In a few months I had reached a point where my physician
could hold out very little hope of recovery. Mr. Jonathan Hutchinson,
one of England's most famous specialists, limited my prospect of life
to six months unless I sought at once a milder climate. Where ?
was the question. Eventually South America was decided on, but on
reaching Jamaica news was received of an insurrection mn progress.
in the neighbourhood of Buenos Ayres, and the advisability of
stopping for a time, at least, in Jamaical became apparent. The sea
voyage had done much to build up- my strength, but there yet remained
persistent fever and an exhausting cough. After not .more than ten
days in Kingston, I sought the country, living much in the open air,
and that in the saddle. Within a month I found myself in Brown's Town,
St. Ann, which has been my home ever since. Before six months had
elapsed my temperature was normal, and the cough had entirely left
me. My weight when I left England was less than 140 lbs. ; what it is
now I am too modest to tell, but I present my photograph again at the
end of this book,1lest anyone should be inclined to commiserate or condole-
with me in being compelled to reside so long in the tropics. In all these-
years there has not been the slightest return of any of the symptoms of
ill-health that made it necessary for me to leave the Mother Country,
and what Jamaica has done for me I feel certain it will do for others
similarly affected, if only they will give it the opportunity. There are
scores of men and women mn this country who could relate a like
experience.
In a very able paper read before the American Congress on Tuber-
culosis, New York, in June, 1902, by that veteran authority on the-
lungs, Dr. Benjamin F. Lee, Secretary of the. State Board of Health,
Pennsylvania, he said : The alternations of sea- and land-breeze are-
remarkably regular, and can always be anticipated. At about 10 o'clock
in the morning the delightful breeze sets- in towards the mountain
heights from the ocean. This continues to blow until late in the after-
noon, when there is a period of codilparat'ive calm, followed, as the sun
goes down, by delightful currents of cool air from the forest-clad heights.
Hence it is possible by a simple change of elevation to obtain anly
desired climate within the range reqluired by the consumptive. The
difference between the daily maximum and minimum at any point or
altitude is rarely more than tenl degr~ees. Even at the level of the sea
one usually requires a light, blanket at night. The sudden alternations









CLlMA TE.


of heat and cold of from 250 to 400, which are so destructive to health
and life, and especially so trying to the consumptive, to which we are
so constantly liable all over the eastern part of this continent, even as far
south as Florida, are entirely unknown in that happy clime. Hence it
may be fairly said that while Jamaica is tropical in situation, so far as its
climate goes, it is tropical only in the characteristics of wonderful
equability, and sub-tropical or even temperate as to temperature. The
Parish of St. Ann, on the northern aspect of the mountain and towards
the western end of the island, offers by far the greatest proportion of
altitudes such as are usually considered desirable for consumptives,
possessing a total area of 476 square miles, 337 situated at elevations
of from I,000 to 3,000 feet. This parish has been called 'The Garden
of Jamaica '; and when it is considered that the whole island of
Jamaica is one vast garden of surpassing beauty, this is indeed high
praise. Brown's Town is one of its principal towns, and is beautifully
situated I,000 feet above the sea. The Parish of Manchester exceeds
all others, however, in average altitude, having out of 302 square.miles
134 between I,000 and 2,000 feet, and 126 between 2,000 and 3,000
feet. Its principal town is Mandeville, one of the most charming towns
of the island, placed on the summit of a mountain 2,200 feet above
sea-level, and noted at once for its picturesqueness and its cleanliness.
Suffice it to say that there are numerous localities, at altitudes of 2,000
feet and .over, where sites suitable for the erection of sanatoria could
be obtained and at no unreasonable delay; comparatively easy of access;
in daily communication with the important coast towns by railway and
by mail coaches, and where a delicious bracing climate prevails peren-
nially, within twenty miles of the coast; situated on the one main
mountain range of the island, the pure sea-breeze reaches them without
interference or obstruction, only cooled by its passing over the dense
inland forests. The Santa Cruz Mountains are well known for the
coolness and dryness of their climate, and of the Dry Harbour
Mountains also the same is true. Enough has been said to indicate
the claims of the climate of this exquisite island, as favourable to those
suffering from pulmonary affections, rheumatism, Bright's disease, and
a host of other ills that flesh is heir to."
There is one subject I should like to refer to her-e for the sake of
a large number of young men of delicate constitution who are desirous
of finding a country where they could earn a living, and at the same
time enjoy the benefit of a genial climate. Frequently when travelling
abroad I am interviewed on this question, and when at home almost
every mail brings me letters making the one inquiry, after relating
their circumstances, physical condition, etc., Would you advise me to
go to Jamaica ?" It is impossible not to sympathise with such cases,


but it is better to tell the bald truth, even if it is discouraging, rather
than to inspire anyone with hopes and expectations that are not likely
to be realized.
The list comprises professional men, clerks, mechanics, gardeners,
agriculturists, etc. To the first-named I would say that the supply is
already greater than the demand ; besides, the people are poor, while
every year numbers of young Jamaicans, legal and medical, return to
the island from Europe, there having qualified to practise. A stranger
would find the competition growing keener every year, although there
" is .always room at the top." Clerkships are all too few to provide
situations for more than a small percentage of the many well-educated
young men of respectable parentage already in the island. Mechanics
from abroad could not live upon the wage offered here. There is a
dearth of first-class workmen in every department of trade in the
island, probably because there is no apprenticeship law~ to strengthen
the hands of the competent masters who are in a position to turn out
journeymen with a thorough knowledge of their trade; bu~t, worse than
all, there exists a rooted objection in the minds of most native lads to
being indentured for a term of years to learn a trade. Be the cause
what it may, the fact remains that three-quarters of the mechanics in
Jamaica receive less than- 3s. per day. Gardeners and agriculturists
trained in temperate climes would require to spend some time
familiarising themselves with the many different phases of plant life
and cultivation in the tropics before they would be worth much of a
salary to anyone. But enough said. It may sound somewhat blunt,
but I would not advise anyone to come to this island with such an
aim mn view unless he had in hard cash 500 to 62,000 at the very
least; and even then, befor-e investing his capital, let him come out
and cautiously and carefully study the situation on the spot. If it is
fruit farming or pen-keeping he is going inl for, his dreams, and the
realisation of what the work is like, may be as far apart as the poles;
neither the mode of life, the climate, nor surroundings may suit him.
Let him first take a subordinate position on a property under some
experienced planter for a year or two--by applying to Elder, Dempster
&r Co. he will be aided in obtaining such a situation--and by that
time he will either have discovered or been told whether he is fitted
for the life or not. If he fails, he will still have his money, and
be able to blame nothing but his own lack of adaptability ; but
if he had imprudently invested his money, and by mismanagement
and lack of experience failed, he would of course blame the country.
On the other hand, if a planter's life suits him, he will now be
in a position to manage his own plantation; but here, as elsewhere,
there is no royal road to fortune, except by steady habits and hard work.








JA2MAICA .- .THE NEW RIVIERIA.


MONG the many resources that await development in Jamaica
may be mentioned our Mineral Springs, only waiting for the
man of enterprise to cast his money upon the waters, and
before many days he will not only reap a golden harvest,
I but prove a veritable benefactor to suffering humanity.
The first in importance of our Medicinal Springs is the
bath of St. Thomas the Apostle, situated near the pretty little village of
Bath, easily accessible by a good driving road from Kingston to Morant
Bay, a distance of thirty-one miles ; and twelve miles more inland lies the
village of Bath. This journey, however, is rather tedious, there being
very little of interest to be seen on the road; but a route much to be
preferred is that by the weekly coastal steamer to Bowden, where
lodgings may be obtained at the commodious and comfortable Peak
View Cottages of the United Fruit Co., and where the tourist will
probably be inclined to prolong his stay for a few days, to enjoy the
scenery and fresh air that blows over the lofty eminence on which
this resort is built. A rare treat is in store here for those who have
a day or two to spare, when advantage may be taken of the courtesy
extended so frequently to tourists by the United Fruit Co., of making
a trip among the plantations on a waggon provided with seats, coupled
to the front of the engine of the narrow gauge banana railway (p. 62).
This is an experience second only to the Rio Cobre Canal jaunt; the
exhilarating effect is indescribable as you rush upwards among the
glens and valleys of the Company's best banana properties. Try it!
A drive of nine, miles over a good road in one of the United Fruit
Co.'s conveyances brings you to Bath, where, although the hotel is not
yet built, fairly good lodgings will be found.
There is no space here in which to tell the interesting story of
Bath in anything like detail; its history is full of romance. Tradition
says that some two hundred years ago a runaway slave afflicted with
ulcers discovered the hot springs, in which he bathed his sores, was
healed, and returned to his master, who gave him his freedom. This
master was probably Colonel Stanton, who owned the property on
which the springs were found, and subsequently sold them, with I,100
acres of adjoining land, to the Government for E400. So run the
records of the Old House of Assembly. The Legislature made grants
of money for the building of houses, the botanic gardens were
established, while people contributed freely towards the support of the
sick and poor who resorted to the baths; a good road was laid out
between Port Morant and the springs, and "'many persons of fortune,"
says Long, who wrote the history of the island in 1774, took up lots
and erected houses; the square was soon adorned with a hospital,
public lodging-house, and a billiard-room, and became the fashionable
resort of the well-to-do from all parts of the island. In short, from a
dreary desert it grew into a scene of polite and social amusement."


This was not of long continuance, however ; political squabbles upset
all, and by 1768 the place was practically abandoned. All this is.
ancient history, of which more might be added, but we are concerned
with the present.
A4 few months ago I visited Bath, and, early on the morning after
my arrival, walked the short one-and-a-half miles from the village to
the spring. The road, which is good enough for wheeled traffic, is an.
easy gradient, and winds up a narrow gorge clad with the richest
vegetation, a perfect Arcadia for the botanist and fern hunter. The-
air is fragrant, but heavy--a sort of natural hot-house. Every half-mile
shelters are provided against sudden showers in the shape of zinc-
covered sheds built over the road. A sulphurous brook ripples down
the ravine. The bath building is in good condition, and quite a party-
might be accommodated upstairs with sleeping apartments by giving
previous notice to the manager, while downstairs are the baths, two
built of marble for ladies, anld three of cement for gentlemen. All-the
conveniences and accessories of a well-appointed establishment were at
hand--changing-room, towels, etc. I drank the regulation two glasses
of hot water fresh from the Kettle," as the spring is called, because-
it is covered in by stonework with an iron lid on the top, allowing
the escape of quite a volume of steam when removed. The temperature-
of the water in -the Kettle" is I32' Fahr.
I was already pretty warm from my walk, and now a copious-
perspiration broke out from every pore; but you don't mind that
when you are prepared for a bath, A few minutes later I stepped .into
a clean and inviting bath-room, and made a plunge, but I paid for
my tmerty. Nothing short of parboiling, I felt sure, would be my
fate before I~tk~etf could scramble out. The bath had just been filled, and
was about 120" temperature; but shouting brought cold water in
abundance, and quickly the temperature was down to a little below
loo*, when I enjoyed it immensely. Dr. Sibley, for some years.
physician to the baths, in one of his reports says: "'These waters.
are decidedly sulphurous, and evolve abundance of sulphuretted
hydrogen ;they also contain chlorate of calcium, a valuable medicinal
agent, and are greatly superior to the sulphurous waters so highly
prized in England, for whereas the English waters of this kind are
cold, these have a temperature of from 128" to I300, and are by the
highest medical authorities esteemed to be stimulant and highly-
beneficial in many chronic complaints and a great variety of skin
diseases and chronic rheumatism, gout, and disorders of the spleen and
liver, caused by malaria." Long described the water as sending a
thrilling glow through the whole body," and states that its continued
use enlivens the spirits and sometimes produces the same joyous effects
as inebriation. It must be a singular felicity to get drunk on water !
The springs may be classed among the hot sulphurous-sodic-calcic:


MINERAL SPRINGS.








SPORTS AIND PASTIMES


of September to the beginning of May. The mineral spring is a
thermal saline-calcic, the temperature being 92' Fahr., and its con-
stituents being almost identical with, although hotter than, the
Lebanon Spring of New York and the healing springs of Bath County,
Virginia, each of which is held in high esteem in the United States,
UNot d~,on',~ T nlyo :ue,~~i~d:,o; frok~~~;~hM'~-m all parts of the island, but from the Spanish Main,
and rheumatism are on the list of patients who have come for treat-
ment and have gone away, not only greatly relieved, but frequently
cured, many of them having already tested the thermal waters of
Homburg, W7eisbaden, and Kissingen, and confessing their preference
for Milk River, especially in the case of gout. Scrofulous and granular
diseases have also been successfully treated; but although the Govern-
ment has generously aided the institution, even up to the present
day, much remains still to be done in the way of alterations for the
convenience of invalids, and in the construction of the baths, before
it could be honestly recommended to the fastidious patient who looks
for comfort as well as cure.
There is no need to enlarge on the efficacy of the numerous other
mineral springs throughout the island, but in passing I might mention
the invigorating properties of the chalybeate springs at Silver Hill,
St. Andrew, called the Jamaica Spa," at one time of great and
deserved repute, but, like much else in Jamaica, allowed to fall into
disuse by sheer neglect. This is all the more surprising when one
considers its magnificent situation on the side of the Blue Mountains,
at an elevation of 3,500 feet, surrounded by scenery of surpassing
loveliness, and that the waters contain more iron than the chalybeate
waters of Harrogate, seven times more than Montpelier, and three
times as much as Twit Well ; but the day is not far distant when the true
value of this natural solution of chloride of iron will be recognized, and we
may yet hear of the promoters of the European chalybeate springs shak-
ing in their shoes at the very mention of the name Jamaica Spa."'




PASTIMES.

while in 1891 and 1892 I shot elephants in Central Africa for the
pot-roasts their hearts, feet, and trunks supplied ; hippos on the
Zambesi for the sake of their tallow ; koodoos, hartebeests, elands,
gemsbok, and other antelopes of a dozen varieties--for I had a
hundred men to feed day by day, often for weeks together, with
nothing but the meat that fell to my rifle--but that was not for
sport. However, I have a friend who struck. it rich on his wedding
day, and has ever since been a great sport, owns his yacht, and tells
me that for


waters, similar in their mineral constituents to the Salt Lake Spring
in Utah, and those of Bath in England, but still closer allied to the
famous waters in the Pyrenees, Eaux-bonnes and Eaux-chaudes. Writing
of these, an eminent physician, Piddoux, states that by the rare
combination in them of the sulphites of lime and soda they furnish
the most beautiful problem in therapeutics, a most powerful remedy
in phthisis." The action of the Eaux-bonnes on those who drink its
waters, who suffer from bronchial catarrh, pulmonary phthisis, and are
cured even in the third stage of the latter disease, is simply marvellous;
but precautions are needed, and patients must be placed under medical
surveillance. The waters of our Bath possess the same mineral properties
as, but in larger quantities than, the waters of Aix-la-Chapelle, Barages,
and Bagnbres de Luchon, and are superior to those at Harrogate,
which are cold, while these are hot. A great future may safely be
predicted for the Bath of St. Thomas the Apostle, when the people of
Europe and the United States learn that we have not only balmy
breezes and azure skies, but healing waters of the highest potency to
offer them.

THE IVILK RIVER BATHS.-These baths are situated on the
banks of the Milk River in Vere, Parish of Clarendon, and, like the
baths in St. Thomas, may be reached either by coasting steamer in a
few hours, or, if preferred, by rail to Clarendon Park and a drive of
seven miles by road. So far little attempt has been made in the way
of elaborate preparation to receive visitors, and the accommodation is
simple and antiquated, but, like the old almanacks, If they're no very
guid they're no very dear."' There are several houses in the neigh-
bourhood of the springs in good order, fairly well furnished, and
provided with bed and table linen, while a cook and butler are
available at a small charge, or arrangements may be made with the
matron for board at about 6s. per day.
The best months in the year to visit Milk River are from the end




SPORTS AND

0 ~ND when we come to Jamaica, what are you going to give
us to do ? A very proper question, and I should like to
be in a position to draw up a programme for the traveller
of how to kill time. The problem never having worried
me, I fear my knowledge of the subject is an unknown
quantity, for although in my youth I was wont to cast my
fly on the black waters of the Cabrach, and the still waters that run
deep of the Fiddoch and the Deveron, at nightfall bringing home
a well-filled basket of bonnie speckled trout, it is many years ago; and








JAMAICA : THE NEW RIVIRA.


YACHTSMEN looking for fresh cruising grounds during the
winter there is no better port for headquarters than Kingston in the
whole of the Greater Antilles. Good anchorage, well sheltered against
every wind that blows, supplies of all kinds on the spot, and the
doors of the Royal Jamaica Yacht Club always open to welcome
strangers, with its billiard-room, whist tables, cool and airy reading-
room, and many like-minded brethren ready to offer such assistance
and courtesies as tend to make a temporary sojourn pleasant. Interest-
ing trips may be made round the island with any craft over ten tons,
while Cuba, Hayti, San Domingo, and the Leeward and Windward
Islands may be visited, where good harbours for yachts of any draught
will be found.

CRICK.ET has many votaries in Jamaica. There are several clubs
in the island, notably the Kingston and Melbourne Cricket Clubs, the
former having a membership of three hundred, including some of the
best players in the island ; and here visitors introduced by a member
are always welcome. There are also good clubs in St. Elizabeth,
Portland, and other parishes.

GOLF.--What better exercise would one desire than a couple of
hours in the afternoon at this grand old game? There are splendid
links in Kingston; new links have been laid out on the grounds
of Constant Spring Hotel, and a professional engaged for the season;
there ai-e also good links at Mandeville. The Kingston and St. Andrew
Club has issued a card with the following information : The Com-
mittee of the above Club will be pleased to receive as temporary
members any visitors to the island on the following terms :-
"L A week's play free, after which there is a charge of 2s. 6d. per
week, gs. per month, and los. for three months.
There is also a charge of 6d. a round for all players.
Visitors intending to play over the links are requested to inform
the Secretary, who will be glad to give any further information1"
So bring along your bag of sticks--putter, driver,.cleek, and mashie;
we can find the caddie !

BICYCLN~G.--In no country are the roads better adapted for this
mode of travel than Jamaica. Hundreds have already made the trip
around the island on their wheels, adding greatly to their health and
enjoyment. The roads are macadamised, hard, but porous, so that
even when it rains there is little mud, and but little danger of
slipping.

SHOOTING.--We have no big game, but lots of wild fowl, white-
wings, baldpates, peadoves, blue pigeons, ring-tail pigeons, partridge
and quail; and in addition to these we are visited every winter by
large flocks of ducks of several varieties--whistling duck, shovel-bill
duck, and white-belly duck; also teal and snipe in large numbers.


The close season is from the end of March to the end of July for
most of the birds named. The best shooting grounds in the island
are to be found within a short distance of Kingston, round Port
Henderson and the Rio Cobre : the genial and hospitable owners are
always pleased to offer opportunities for a good day's sport in the
season to their friends and acquaintances, three hundred birds to
twelve guns being no unusual bag in a morning. Crocodile (otherwise
called alligator) hunting is a treat for any keen sportsman, for nothing
gives more excitement to the square inch than the chance of drawing
a bead on the vulnerable spot of a ten-foot croc as he emerges
from his slimy habitat, or basks in the sun on the banks of the
lagoon; but I would advise anyone to give this sport a wide berth
unless he is constitutionally strong, and inured to exposure, not only
to the mid-day sun, but the noxious exhalations of the malarial swamps,
for only in such pestilential neighborhoods are these saurian reptiles
found.

FISHING.-In the lower reaches of nearly all our rivers a variety of
delicious fish is to be found in abundance, chief among them being the
West Indian salmon, or callipeva, snook, June fish, and snapper,
while higher up in the hills, beneath the waterfalls and rapids, are to be
found the famous mountain mullet, a near relation to the brook trout.
All of these are caught with the rod, and give excellent sport, but for the
enthusiastic sportsman we have something better to offer him--namely,
tarpon fishing. The fashionable tarpon ground of to-day is, of course,
the Boco Grand Pass, off Florida. Thither the devotees of tarpon repair
at the beginning of April, and stay until they are driven away by the
mosquitoes ; talking, thinking, dreaming of nothing and fishing for
nothing but tarpon, the glorious, high-leaping tarpon. The author of an
article on this subject that appeared lately in an American magazine said :
"L Tarpon devotees will not allow that there is any other kind of fishing.
They wave you aside with a tired air when you talk of the skill needed
for salmon or trout fishing. Skill is the least part of the endowments
needed for tarpon fishing-w~hich calls for sheer strength and vast powers
of physical endurance. To all appearances it is a gigantic herring, with
scales four inches across, except for its long dorsal fin ray. When the
news spreads that the fish are on the move, a score of boats hastily put
out, clustering quickly together around the likely spots where great fish
continually leap into the air."' All this and more you will find here,
minus the hordes of mosquitoes. There are mosquitoes in Jamaica, but
very few as compared to an ordinary fishing resort at home; and as to
the flies, the pest of northern climes in the summer time, except in some
parts near the coast or in the neighbourhood of sugar estates, they are
not numerous enough to remind you of their existence.
In the waters around the Bogue Islands, Montego Bay, plenty of~
tarpon are to be found, four having been caught by a party of gentlemen
not long ago in one day, the- combined weight of which was 346 lb.
One of the finest fishermen in the world--Mr. Eugene Von Hofe, of New








PA STIME~S.

Every road in Jamaica, beside being thoroughly good as far as
construction is concerned, is in addition a series of enchanting views.
It is the usual thing to halt one's car every here and there to get the
full benefit of the beauty of colouring, to view the distant mountain tops
just come into the picture as the car rounds one of the winding stretches
of the hillside road, or to study the moving pictures in some little
native settlement.
The whole surface of Jamaica is well, traversed by finely built high-
ways, credit for wYhich is due to the British Government, under whose
sway the island has been for two and a half centuries,
From the hilly condition of the Jamaica landscape the roads cannot
proceed in straight lines from village to village, but must wind up and
down the steep places, with the result of constantly presenting to view
unexpected scenic beauties that inspire the admiration of every beholder.
If one is compelled to undergo the hardships and fatigue of ill-constructed
roads to do his sight-seeing he feels sometimes that the price he pays
is too great for the pleasure. But in one's own favourite touring car, and
running over the smooth and hard-surfaced r-oads of this fortune-favoured
island of the southern seas, there are no drawbacks to perfect enjoyment.
Not only are the main roads admirably adapted to this twentieth century
pastime, but they are so distinct in their character and so carefully
marked that the veriest stranger could not lose his way. Signboards are
maintained at all cross roads and intersections, masonry or cement
columns are established at convenient spots showing distances to adjacent
villages and even total mileage to far distant points, and every mile is
marked by a whitewashed and numbered wooden post. Visiting auto-
mobilists are cautioned against speeding, however, for, though the roads
invite it, the natives are not yet accustomed to the motor car, their
animals are apt to be frightened, the roads are seldom straight for any
great distance, and in the mountains there are sharp curves that it
would be dangerous to attempt to speed. It is best to go slowv and see
the country. Here, amid the restful environment of the waving palms
and thick shade of tropic groves, the wearied man of affairs and the tired
society leader may roll smoothly along, breathing in the calm serenity
of their surroundings and gaining strength of mind and body. Not that
it is impossible, with all the novel claims on one's attention, to make very
good time on certain of the comparatively long trips between important
localities, and a number of prominent American visitors have scored very
good runs from their headquarters at Hotel Titchfield, Port Antonio,
to Kingston, Castleton Gardens and Montego Bay.
The largest cars will find ample room on all the coast and many of
the interior roads. But among the mountains, owing to the numerous
abrupt corners and curves, an auto with a wheel base of more than about
100 inches will meet with difficulties. The ideal car, in my opinion,
for the Colomies mn general and Jamaica in particular, is a Stanley Steamer
--either the fine passenger touring car or the Runabout, carrying four--
and this conclusion is arrived at after an experience of several years with
One of the latter, and comparing it with others using gasoline cars.


SPORTS ANVD


York--says in his book on tarpon : This mighty game fish, in weight
running to hundreds of pounds, was comparatively unknown to anglers
not many years ago, at which time the taking of a tarpon with a rod and
reel was an unheard-of exploit, the difficulty experienced in handling him
on the rod exceeding that of any other fish. Of recent years the interest
in fishing for the tarpon has increased to a marked degree, but even now
his capture with the rod and line is not of frequent occurrence, and that
angler who proves himself so skilful or fortunate enough to take one of
these silver kings in that manner can well consider that he has achieved
no ordinary task, As a vaulting fish they are not exceeded by anything
that swims the seas, instances being known where they have cleared the
waters with their tails to a height equalling six feet ; they are rapid in
their movements, and their strength is ~something enormous. Generally,
after taking the bait, they instalitly jump in the air close to the boat, at
Other times dashing away for a great distance before commencing their
antics; while in the air they shake their heads, thus ejecting the bait
which they have been holding in their mouths."
The -Hon. Louis Bertram, Auditor-General of Jamaica, writes: "I '
understand you want to know something about tarpon. This magnificent
fish is found all over the West Indies under the following names:-
'Kuffum' in Demerara, 'Grand Ecaille' in Grenada and the French
Islands, and Tarpon elsewhere. We in Jamaica have landed them
with the rod up to eighty-five pounds, but much bigger ones have
been caught in nets. They are found in the sea, in creeks, in rivers,
and in salt ponds. Their bony scales make it extremely difficult to
gaff them, the safest place being in the gill. I landed one for Captain
Montgomerie that way the other day, also the eightydfive-pounder
already mentioned. We have caught them with whitebait, grey mullet,
fly, and prawn."
From the foregoing facts and actual experiences the English and
American angler will naturally conclude that he need not quit these
shores for Florida in the tourist season in order to indulge in his
favourite sport.

LAWN TENNIS is played not only in Kingston, but all over
the island. It ivould be difficult to, find a district where it is not ;
there are clubs everywhere, and tournaments are of constant occurrence.

AUTOMIOBILING.--Of the roads in Jamaica much has been written
and more has been told by the great army of delighted visitors who
every winter traverse the Island of Sunshine in motor car or native
carriage. Mingled with the pleasure of viewing the charms of a tropical
landscape is surprise that travel should be so comfortable. For it is not
usual in a tropical country to find the matter of getting about from place
to place as easy as in our own~ well-equipped suburbs--and that is just
what the tourist does find as he continues daiy after day to enjoy the
splendid roads in this wonderful land of delight, which until a few short
years ago was quite unknown to the American travelling public.









JAMAICA .* THE NEW RTIVIEA.


Tires will do more than double the same work on a steamer than on
a gasoline car on the rear wheels, and there is no shaking of the machine
while standing on its tires. A steamer when standing is perfectly quiet,
while in a gasoline car the vibration of the engine is continually shak-
Sing the mechanism
to, pieces, and
when one part
gives out a pretty
general smash-up
ensues. With a
~ T~iiC~43[ Isteamer the
absence of vibra-
1~~"Pbx: ;-, -~A R Y tion allows the
.: parts to remain
5 s. securely in their
z respective places,
and only legiti-
mate wear results.
Transportation
by automobile
should be like
gliding on wings
rather than riding
on a threshmng
machine. An
engine that de-
pends upon ex-
plosions to produce
power can never
be as still and fr-ee
from vibration as
one which receives
a constant, evenly
distributed power.
~ The vexatious
::? tire question is
ever with us, and,
as everyone knows
who runs a motor
iTANLEY STEAM CAR. car, sharp stones
when wet cut into
the rubber of a shoe pretty severely. But in a great measure this canl
be obviated if the motorist will but provide all four wheels with a set
of Woodworth Leather Tire Treads. The set costs less than the price
of a single tire of good quality, and from the day they are put on there
need be no further anxiety about punctures or blow outs, and with
rational care are good for from 2,500 to 4,000 miles or more, according
to weight of car, while with them skidding is impossible.


It is often objected that it takes fifteen or twenty minutes to get up steam
before starting on a journey. This is but a trifling drawback. When
steam is up it will go, and there is not a gasoline expert living who can
be certain when he turns the crank of a gasoline motor that it will
even start, to say
nothing of what
power it will
develop or how
long it will run n \
after it is started. 4.
A gasoline engine R~rlL:~~B~eitt; ~ ~ j
at its best is a
most complicated -~ 3m B~i12.
affair. The essen-
t~ials include: L ~ 'e'C`'C-'\u_
batteries, coils,
spark plugs, car-
buretters, water-
cooling devices,
besides a comply
cation of valves.
Then come the
shifting gears,
clutches, advance
and retard of
sparks, and the
constant attention
necessary to lubri-
cation. All these
ob jectionable
features are over
come in the new
steamer.
Then there is
the high cost of
gasoline to be con
sidered. Although
it is now reduced
to 60 cents per
gallon, there are THE AUTHOR AND ~
very few places in
the island where it can be obtained at any price ; w~hile~the steamer runs
best on kerosene oil as a fuel, provided it is fitted with a Judson L.
Thonison National burner. The kerosene costs little more than half
gasoline, gives nearly double the mileage, and can be had from any and
every wayside store along the road; and, I may add, a steam car is so
constructed that repairs are very much more easily effected--a considera-
tion, surely, in countries where skilled mechanics are seldom available,









PLACES OF INTEREST.


T is not my purpose to enter into an exhaustive and detailed
description of the attractions of the island, since this chapter
is intended only for those who are already in Jamaica and
intend travelling to see the country for themselves. No one
wishes to be told the details of a story they are about to
e read, and the long array of photographs this book contains,
selected from a collection of many hundreds taken during my pere-
grinations over all parts of the island, will speak for the scenery far
more eloquently than volumes of written description. I will therefore
confine myself to a few suggestions as to trips and tours to different
places of interest, leaving the visitor to decide which of them the time
and means at his command will permit of his accomplishing.
Frequently it happens that the round trip only is taken, mainly
for the benefit the sea voyage affords, returning by the same steamer,
and thus allowing five clear days ashore. This, of course, refers to
English travellers ; but the same itinerary will apply equally well to
visitors from the United States, though on different days.
I would gladly omit any reference to the catastrophe that laid low
our beloved city, for to those of us who were there when the blow was
struck, and barely escaped with our lives, there are memories so bitter
that we shrink from recalling them.
Life in the second largest city in the West Indies hummed along as
usual. The new year, 1907, was but fourteen days old, and the outlook
was rosy-the golden sun of prosperity had risen above the horizon--and
the people looked ahead with bright and cheerful hearts, when at 3-30 in
the afternoon, inside of a minute, the scene had changed--the black hand
of disaster had overshadowed the sun of prosperity, and ruin and horrible
disaster had overwhelmed Kingston.
San Francisco, Valparaiso, Kingston-inside of a year each of
these three great cities (for Kingston was a gr-eat city from a
West Indian standpoint) shared the same fate : destruction by earth-
quake and fire.
And, by comparison, the disaster that overwhelmed the capital city
of Jamaica was the most terrible of the three. In the Californian city it
was the fire following hard on the earthquake that did the greatest
amount of damage, but still fully a quarter of the residences were left
in a habitable condition. At Valparaiso, as at Kingston, the earthquake
was the principal agent of destruction, ebut here again, although the
damage was more widespread than in teAmerican city, at least ten per
-cent. of the buildings were left fit to live in. In Kingston not more than
two per cent. of the dwelling houses--for the business section was utterly


have been spared. In just thirty seconds--in the twinkling of an eye, as
it were--Nature had used her most terrible weapon to smash the city and
parish of Kingston to pieces. Several of the commercial houses stood the
terrible shock, but in an hour or two these were reduced to bare, broken
walls by the earthquake's chief aid--fire.
Such in brief is the story of the cataclysm that smote Kingston. The
photographs on pp. 47 and 48, taken within a few days of the catastrophe--
soldiers and police being still on guard over the ruins--represent the
centre of the city in all its sadness. But while it is true that many of the
men who helped to make Kingston the great West Indian city it had
become were lost in the great disaster, many of them still live, and yet
possess the gr-it, energy and enterprise that such an occasion could only
accentuate. The ashes of the shattered and burnt buildings were scarcely
cold before they were having the foundations cleared and a start made to
build a bigger, better and still greater Kingston than of yore. The
illustrations in the following pages, representing new streets and magnificent
buildings, all constructed within less than four years, testify that life in the
tropics has not taken the vim out of our city business men, and still the
work of rebuilding progresses with a rapidity beyond our fondest dreams,
for we will not be satisfied until the new Kingston ranks second to none
among the cities of the Caribbea.
Teelectric cars will take you along the main streets, and the belt
line around most of the city. We are proud of our Electric Street
Car system. There is no finer plant of its kind in the world. When
you go to Bog Walk, see the dam on the Rio Cobre and the power
house, whence the energy is generated for the tramways and electric
lighting. A dam of concrete is built across the river near the Bog
Walk station, 9 feet high above low water level, with a base of 18 feet.
The difference in levels from water above the dam to water above the-
power house is 57 feet, and the distance from the dam to the power
house is 6,2oo feet, the water being conveyed thither by means of a
steel-r-iveted pipe 8 feet in diameter. The electric current is transmitted
at the immense pressure of 14,000 volts, a distance of twenty-two miles to
the transforming station at Kingston ; the transmission hine is carried on
steel poles planted in concrete. The system, though subject to most
variable loading, is governed within 5 per cent., and the whole electrical
system works most perfectly.
The Museum connected with the Jamaica Institute will well
repay a visit, for the antiqluary will find not only relies recalling the
days of Spanish barbaric rule, but also subjects connected with the
aboriginal Indian inhabitants, the Arawaks, stone and shell implements,
skulls, bones, and potter~y. For the botanist the Herbarium contains


PLACES OF ]INTEREST AND HOW TO REACH THEM.





)I



fPLP;I
-IC

Ft. t f i: :




~1
I..

~2~
I
I









.,



~:: "'
:IT- .i'

;";

i.
v~

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.."


KING STREET, LOOKING NORTH.
THREE YEARS AND SIX MONTHS AFTER THE EARTHQUAKE.





BANK OF NOVA SCOTIA.


GOVERNMENT BUILDINGS.


COLONIAL BANK.


ROYAL MAIL STEAM PACKET BUILDINGS,

SOME OF KINGSTON'S NEW BUILDINGS.








JAM~AICA : THE NEW RIVIERA.


of tropical plant life will be found in these gardens. The Government
has spent an immense amount of money, while labour, taste, and skill
have all combined to bring them to their present state of perfection.
When you are tired walking around, you can go either to the cottage-
hotel of the United Fruit Co. within the grounds, where a good
luncheon may be had, or you can cross the road to the bank of the
river, and there you will discover a natural arbour, formed by the
interlacing of the groups of bamboos, delightfully cool, and just the
place to picnic and rest until it is time for the retur-n journey.
One of the most magnificent drives in the island is from her-e to
Annotta Bay, but there is no time for that trip on this occasion,

THREB DAYS ASHORE, SAY
MONDAY the journey to Newcastle should be made. The r-e-
marks with reference to arrangements and an early start for the tr-ip
to Castleton apply with equal force to this. The early morning in
every case is the best time to travel, and all the more when a long
journey is undertaken. The air is cool, it is easier for the horses,
the dust is laid by the dew of the night, and the atmosphere is
fragrant with the odour of blossoms on flower and tree.
Newcastle is the camp of the English soldiers, although I understand
a Scotch regiment--the Greys---was once sent there in disgrace to atone
for misdeeds. I suppose the idea was to give them a sort of solitary
confinement ezn masse. The existence of the daisy, Burns's wee
crimson-tippet flower," heather and whins growing around the camp,
lend colour to the story ; nevertheless, living there year in and year
out, and a scamper there and back in a day, are two different con-
siderations. One thing is certam : were the distance from Kingston
to Newcastle many times greater than it is, it would be well worth
the time and trouble required to get there, if only to enjoy the view
from the Parade Ground, at an elevation of 4,000 feet above sea-level.
Until lately only half the way was made by buggy, the rest of the
journey on horseback.; but now there is a driving road up to the centre
of the camp--a great convenience, certainly, for invalids and aged and
infirm folk ; but for those who canl take to the saddle the old riding
road from Gordon Town is much to be preferred, equally safe, much
shorter, and far more picturesque and interesting.
After leaving Kingston the road leads along the valley of the Hope
River, a deep and narrow ravine hemmed in by towering mountains on
both sides. Before reaching Gordon Town, those who drive take the road
to the left, and by comparatively easy gradients continue the ascent to
Newcastle. The riding party will obtain ponies at either of the two
livery-stables in Gordon Town--sure-footed animals accustomed to climb
the hills daily--and a well-made track, some four feet wide, is followed,
zig-zagging by the side of the torrent through some of the richest bits of
tropical scenery the eye ever- feasted on (p. 53). Beside the varied assort-
ment of acacias, roses, jessamine, hibiscus, and convolvulus, you will find


orchids, grasses, sedges, ferns, and a large collection of polished specimens
of economic wood ; while anyone can verify our great fish story by looking
upon the identical papers the notable shark swallowed, and subsequently
delivered up to the authorities, to the consternation, conviction, and
execution of the crew of the Nanzcy brig on the 25th of November, r799.
The library will afford many a pleasant hour to those who have the
time to spare and are sufficiently interested in the historical records of
the Colony to delve among the musty tomes--many books are to be
found here--and scarce anywhere else--dating back to the days when the
British under Penn and Venables added the island to the Empire.
Then there is the new Roman Catholic Cathedral, the finest ecclesias-
tical building in the West Indies, its glistening copper dome reflecting
the rays of the tropic sun and visible from the steamer's deck while yet
far out at sea. Other places of interest that will well repay a visit of
inspection are the n~ew Parish Church, the Nova Scotia Bank, the Colonial
Bank, the Royal Mail Steam Packet Building, the Law Courts, the
Penitentiary, the Victoria Market, the new Public Buildings, etc.
A very: enjoyable run might be taken on the street cars to the Hope
Gardens, King's House Gardens, or to Rock. For't, all of which are
short journeys in different directions from the city ~that take you out
to the country for a breath of fresh air.

ONE DAY ASHORE.
Arrange at the office of your hotel to have a carriage or motor
car by daybreak on Saturday morning, and start by sunrise for an ex-
cursion to Castleton Gardens (pp. 5o and SI), nineteen miles from Kingston.
Driving along the Half-wvay Tree Road, within an hour the Constant
Spring Hotel and Mona Estate are passed, the fields and foliage assume a
deeper green, the glare is less, and the air freshens as you ascend the
hill; crowds of women and children are met, walking briskly along with
their baskets on their- heads, carrying yam, plantains, potatoes, breadfruit,
bananas, cassava, ochra, peas, ginger, arrowroot, tobacco, maize, oranges,
limes, lemons, pineapples, cocoanuts, mangoes, shaddocks, grapefruit,
papaws,'melons, custard-apple-(In what other country will you find
custar-ds, milki, and oysters growing on trees?)--swyeetsop, soursop,
roseapples, sapodilla, cherrymoya, granadilla, cashew, chocho, tamarind,
av-ocada pear, poultry and eggs, &c., destined for the market in Kingston.
The road is good all the way, and in many parts completely shaded
by the overhanging trees. The outlook from the top of the hill is hard
to beat; a splendid panorama opens up to the view--the Liguanea
Plains at your feet, and beyond them the magnificent harbour, the
Palisadoes, Port Royal, and the long vista of receding mountain ranges
which line the coast towards the west, including the Healthshire
Hills.
One hour more and C~astleton is reached, situated in a valley through
which flows the Wag W~ater, noisily making its way among the huge
boulders that occupy the river bed. Almost every imnaginable species

















C '~Y



ra -

Y


L-~-_



+-



IN THE BO0G WALK.








JAMAICA : THE NEW RIVIERA.


the purple bougainvilleas, great banks of ferns, feathery bamboos, and
graceful palms overhanging the pathway. An hour of this at an easy
pace, and you reach the first of the buildings, that look from Kingston
like a flock of sheep grazing on the mountain side. Keep climbing,
and a few moments will bring you to the Parade Ground, where you
can rest and gaze upon a scene that can be more easily imagined than
described. If inclined for a walk, follow the path along by the old Post-
Office to Clifton Gap, and you will find a view from that point that,
to say the least, has no equal in the West Indies--and that is saying
a great deal. Do not stay late, as it generally rains in the evening at
Newcastle.

TUESDAY should be devoted to the exploration of Spanish Town,
an interesting drive by road, passing en route the great Ceiba, or Silk
Cotton Tree, immortalised in Tom Cringle's Log," and still known
as Tom Cringle's Tree (p. 66). Its branches, covered with tilland-
sias and other parasites, reach right across the road. These giants
are of solitary habit, and are never seen in groups. Specimens are
frequently to be found measuring eighteen to twenty feet in diameter.
Then there is Ye 01de Ferry Inn (p. 67), said to be the rendezvous
in bygone days of the roystering sports of Kingston and Spanish Town, -
who met here on Sundays for their weekly gamble and spree. The
old house is now almost deserted and crumbling to decay. If the
railroad journey is preferred, you take the train at 7.30 A.M., and a
short run of fourteen miles will land you at this ancient capital, founded
by the Spaniards in 1523, and called by them St. Jago de la Vega.
Around the Plaza, or square, you will see about everything of
interest there is in the place. On one side stands the old King's House,
or official residence of the Governors when Spanish Town was the
capital, with its massive portico supported by Doric columns; and
inside you will find the entrance-hall, banqueting-hall, ball-room and
reception-rooms--all on a scale so grand and lofty that one feels like
being turned loose into an empty cathedral of huge dimensions. On
the eitst are the Registrar's and Record Offices, where are deposited
the official records, land titles, etc. Get someone to take you
through this building, for in it our law-makers used to hold their
sessions in the stormy days of the old House of Assembly. On
the north stands Rodney's Temple, an elegant and artistic bit of
masonry, under the dome of which stands the statue of the noble hero,
flanked by two splendid brass I8-pounders captured from De Grasse's
flagship, the Ville d~e Paris. There are also two bronze mortars, taken
from some ship on that memorable day when Rodney saved Jamaica
from the French, and maintained the prestige of England's greatness
as Mistress of the Seas." The Cathedral must not be forgotten. It
stands on the foundations of the Spanish Church of the Red Cross,
which was destroyed by the Puritan soldiers of Cromwell in 1655.
The present building was erected in the place of the one built in the
reign of Queen Anne, but afterwards destroyed by a hurricane; many


of the monuments, tablets, and slabs are older than the church, and
are full of interest. Some specimens of Bacon's, best work are to be
found here, such as the monuments to Lady Elgin, the Earl and Countess
of Effingham, and others.
It will nowa be in order to repair to the Rio Cobre Hotel for lunch
previously arranged for. An hour only can be allowed for this repast,
as there is something very special in store for the afternoon. "' Oh,
I know," says someone; "a drive through the Bog Walk." No;
something even better than that, although I may say here that a drive
.through the Bog Walk is one of the pleasure trips few visitors miss
who have: the time to spare. This pass was, named by the Spaniards
Bocca diz Agucas (Mouth of the Waters), now corrupted with execrable
taste to Bog Walk," a vale of rare beauty, six miles in length, and
would be hard to match in any country, its extraordinary wealth of
vegetation covering the hills on either side from base to summit. The
swiftly running river follows the road all the way, its banks adorned
with the beautiful star-apple, graceful palms and masses of bamboo-like
ostrich feathers. On nearing Linstead the valley narrows, and nearly
perpendicular rocks of immense height and picturesque grandeur take
the place of sloping hills, but even here the rocks are festooned with
convolvulus and other climbing plants. A light, graceful bridge spans
the river where we emerge from the valley. But this trip must be
reserved for another visit. We hire a buggy for,,six shillings at the
Rio Cobre Hotel and drive to the head of the Irrigation Works, enter
the gate by the cottage, and descend the narrow track to the, dam ;
there you will find a punt with two men in attendance on the canal,
who, for a small fee of five shillings, will take a party of any number
up to eight on one of the most delightful cruises it has ever been their
good fortune to enjoy (pp. 68, 69-and 70 show three of the scenes from
this fairyland). For an hour and a half to two hours--if you .have any
sympathy with Nature in your being--it will simply mean enchant-
ment. Imagine the great Palm House at Kew placed here by some
kind genii alongside the water, and you may have an approximate
conception of what the vegetation is like that lines the banks on either
side, yet without monotony, but with the ever-changing combinations
of a kaleidoscope. The buggy can go round and meet the party at
the bridge, and you will get back to Spanish Town in time for the
5-32 train to Kinlgston.

WTEDNESDAY you must visit Port Royal. Take the early
market boat and cross the .Bay before the sun is too high to be
comfortable, and you will find a programme for the day to satisfy
the most exacting sightseer. Port Royal is situated at the entrance
to Kingston Harbour, at the end of the Palisadoes, a harbour large
enough to accommodate the fleets of the world. Here, in days gone
by, lay the craft of the early Spanish navigators; here was anchored
thre squadron of Penn and Venables three and a half centuries ago;
the rendezvous of the most noted pirates and buccaneers the world








EXTENDED TOURS.


has ever known ;here -they brought the plunder of the Spanish galleons
and South American cities, squandering their gain in gambling and
riot. But the grimmest story with which this historic place must
ever be associated was that of June 17th, 1692, when in the twinkling
of an eye three-quarters of the city was swallowed up by an earthquake
and tidal wave, and many thousands of its inhabitants, together with
the ill-gotten gain and pillage of the high seas, the spoils of Panama,
the ransom of Maricaibo, the gold, jewels, and silkrs wrested from the
merchantmen of Hispaniola, all found a common grave in the depths
below, except Louis G~aldy, who was swallowed up by -the earthquake
and by a second shock thrown into the sea, and was miraculously saved
by swimming until picked up by a boat. He lived for twenty years,
respected and beloved by all who knew him, and at last died in his
bed, surrounded by his friends, and was buried at Green Bay, where
his tombstone may be seen to this day.
The chief point of interest in the old town is the church. The
key may be obtained from the caretaker, who lives on the opposite
side of the street. The first object that attracts the attention on
entering the building is the tablet to the memory of Louis Galdy,
then the handsome antique mahogany gallery, traced and carved in
the intricate and graceful designs of the Spaniards. The numerous
mural tablets deserve more than a passing notice--some~ sacred to the
memory of an entire crew, this erected by the affection of a sister,
that by a comrade, the costliness of many indicating the love and



EXTENDED
(OR visitors who canl spend several weeks in the island we

[ into the interior, but there is yet a big two days to be
[put in by the young and vigorous while still in the neigh-
[bourhood of Kingston in climbing our Matterhorn,"' Blue
Mountain Peak, the highest point in Jamaica, 7,360 feet.
(The best route is by way of Gordon Town.) A good supply of pro-
visions should be taken, and as the thermometer may be found even
below 400 Fahrenheit rugs and blankets must not be omitted in the
outfit; rubber coats and umbrellas will come in useful when you
reach the clouds. Necessary crockery and cooking utensils will be
found in the hut on the peak, the key of which can be got at Farm
Hill Estate, six miles from the top. There is a fairly good bridle
track all the way, and although narrow and rugged in some places, it
presents no danger to an ordinarily cautious rider. Ponies accustomed
to the road may be engaged at G~ordon Town, and from there the
ascent proper commences; upward and onward your sturdy, sure-footed
beast will carry you, through scenery of incomparable beauty, increas-
ing to the grand and sublime, as you approach Whitfield Hall and


devotion in which were held those who were thus buried far from
home in a foreign land.
Yellow fever seems to have been the gate of exit from this vale of
sorrow for the large majority, but that fact only reflects credit on the
British Government, and ~adds one more proof of the humanitarian
principles that actuate its representatives at home and abroad in deal-
ing with those in distress, of whatever nationality ; for although there
were many cases of yellow fever then in Jamaica, owing not only to
the ignorance of sanitary laws that was then so prevalent, vessels that
ha~d never even seen Jamaica sent their stricken crews by other vessels
from all parts of the Spanish Main, knowing that the doors of the
great Port Royal Marine Hospital were never closed against a sick
soldier or sailor, no matter what his flag.
Now take -a walk across to Fort Charles, where Lord Nelson was
in command during 1779. Tread for yourself the veritable wooden
quarter-deck on which the famous Admiral watched for the approach
of the French fleet under D'Estaing, and read the marble tablet, "'IN
THIS PLACE DWELT HORATIO NELSON. YOU WHO TREAD IN HIS FOOT-
STEPS REMEMBER HIS GLORY."
The sun is getting low, and it is time to return to the ferry and
get back to Kingston. To-morrow you sail for home again, tired and
weary ; but once on board that will be forgotten, and I trust pleasant
reminiscences will recur to you of the three days you spent ashore on
the island of Jamaica. Bon voyage /



TOURS.
Abbey Green at an altitude of 4,000 feet. The wind blows deliciously
cool and fresh, as if across a Scottish moor, bringing the blood tingling
to the cheeks ; you feel good and exhilarated, and only regret that
the friends you left behind are not with you to share your pleasure.
At 6,000 feet you enter the forest primeval, wild and awe-inspiring
in its sylvan solitude ; another hour and you have reached the sum-
mit. Look westward and behold the never-to-be-forgotten panorama
of the whole fair island of Jamaica spread out at your feet, the purple
hills melting in the shadows of the distance, the sun setting in gorgeous
tints of crimson and gold. Half-an-hour later the lights of Kingston begin
to appear like fireflies sparkling in the distance, until the gathering mists
and darkness shut out the view, and you are left to contemplate Nature's
vastness in an hour of pensive silence, far fromn the adding crowd ;
but--the spell is rudely broken by the prosaic announcement of your
"Lhandy man"! that Supper is ready!i" You have had your tonic; eat,
but sparingly, if possible, as ther-e is neither billiards nor bridge to while
away the hlours of digestion, and in a few minutes you will be wrapped
in a well-earned slumber. In the morning, bestir betimes, and see a
sunrise that will amply repay you for all the hardships an'd fatigues








JAM1(AICA.- THE NEW RIVIERA.


'fringed with silver. "Wrhat a glorious place! Never heard of it
before There is Inothing strange in that, for there are few people
even in Kingston who; know -that here they have within~ two hours at
most of the city a spot .for a picnic that runs a close second to the~
Catskylls of Newv York, or the rugged and romantic glens of the~
Scottish Highlands.
..In .returning .let us take a good look at the cave--for thereby h~aigs
a tale. .Here was domiciled several years ago a gentleman by the -namne'
of "L Three-Fingered Jack,"' a noted- brigand, whose delight it was to.
waylay unwary travellers to Kingston and hold them up for such
valuables as they might carry on their persons. This and miuch~ elseq
that he did are written in the island's chronicles at Spanish Town.n
A reward was offered- by the Government for his body, dead or -alive,
and a Maroon named Readu took on the contract, and standing where
we see the figures in the photograph, brought Jackr from his lair. by
offering a challenge, couched in language expressive enough, but far
from proper. The robber was angry, and they closed in rnortal combat,
but the Maroon was the better man, and brought the three-fingered
hand to headquarters in proof that he had killed the highwayman.
Readu was granted a pension of 20 per annum for life !

1YANDEVILLE.-The train starts at II a.m., passing through
Spanish Town, Old Harbour, May Pen with its fine old bridge; rising
then to higher levels, the scenery becomes more broken, the glens
narrower, and the vegetation richer. By a p.m. you arrive at Williams-
field railway station; buggies are waiting (fare, 2s. 6d.) for the drive
to Mandeville, over a fine and undulating plateau. Do not forget that
here, 'as in mdst parts of Jamaica, nearly every tree you pass is either
an economic wood, flowering, fruit or sietree, almonds, cedars, man-
goes, oranges, oysters, custards, fresh ml, &c. As you approach the
town you are reminded of Froude's remark, about its being an exact
reproduction of a Warwickrshire hamlet, before the days of railways and
brick chimneys. On teP lefft isTe Ma~ \~~rndevlle Hote~l now greatly
enlarged and improved, and here you had better put up if there is
room, for although there are many good lodging houses in the town
of more or less attractiveness, this is the only hotel, and you will find
it comfortable, clean, and airy, with good attendance and an excellent table.
The fact that a good many Kingston folk make this their retreat mn
the summer months is commendation enough of the home comforts
it provides. The climate will be found delightful, seeing that its elevation
is 2,IST feet.
This district is famous for the cattle raised on the several fine pens
in the 41~ei~ghb~ourhood, and there are, too, large coffee" -proper-ties and
orange groves, where this .fruit is grown at its very best. There are
several pleasant drives around Mandeville, although the scenery is of a
less romantic type than that found on the north side; the roads are
~first-class, and tempt the visitor to prolong his drives. This is the best
point, too, from which to visit Malvern, in the Santa Cr-uz Mountains


of the journey;1leave firewood for the next visitor,.take time, coming
down the mountain, keep your pony well in hand--the rest you
know !

CANE RIVER GORG~E.-There is a short hut very pleasant trip
of nine miles from Kingston that should, be taken, being a visit to
Cane River Gorge (p. 54), along the windward or shore road that
leads to Morant Bay; following the car line, past the Lunatic Asylum,
fottr riiiles brings us to' Rock Fort, an interesting old ruin, an~d one of
the twenty-eight forts constructed ar-ound the coast during the adminis-
tration of Lord Vaughan, about 1674, when threatened and attempted
invasions -by hostile powers were the order of the day. This only
remains of the number in fair preservation. The view of the harbour
and Parisa~de's from this poitit is very fine, and there is a huge quarry
close by where the prisoners from the Penitentiary are brought every
working day to p~ut in their time of hard labour (p. 55), their
Osnaburg garbs abundantly testifying by sundry brands to the number
of years they are doing."
.After passing Rock Fort and skirting the base of Long Mountain
rve cross the Hop~e River, and a little further arrive at Cane River,
where we turn ofthe main road a few hundred yards. The shady
trees provide the hfor-ses with shelter from the sun, and here we mulst
leave them and foot it the balance of the way, about a mile and a half.
Carriers for the hampers and luncheon outfit can be had before leaving
the main road, and we proceed towards the mountains, crossing and
recrossing the river bed, which is almost dry, except in the rainy
season, when excursions of the kind are out of the question. Now it
shows a very small stream, over which one canl easily piss dry shod
on the stepping stones, but see the well-worn water marks on the
rocks ahead, some ten and. fifteen feet high, ~clear-ly indicating the
enormous torrents that must flood the valley when the season is on.
Gradually the bed of .the river narrows and wye ar-e entering a- huge
ravmne, flanked by frowning precipices of limestone rock, rising hundreds
of feet above us, the impregnable home of thousands of birds, as well
as orchids, ferns, and numberless creepers.
How delightful the breeze that blows softly down the canyon No
one would believe the change possible in so short a distance from the
radiated heat of the sands and rocks of the valley we have just come
through, but much of the water must be evaporated in its course over
the open plain, as now it is quite a river, more rapid and many times
larger than it was below.
After innumerable windings and crossings, where you must now
pull off your shoes or be carried: pick-a-back by your native heirohman,
the ascent to the finest cascade is made by a solidly built stone pathway,
through the cave and rinder an overhanging rock, the huge basin
underneath the cascade making an ideal place for a dip, and in taking
which' you. pass through to the shelf of rock .immediately behind~ the
fall arid look through the stream coming. down like a curtain of green











































PEELING GINGER.


MORNING IN THE COW-PEN.


" BEG YOU A PAN O' WATER."


THE VILLAGE POST OFFICE.
" SCENES BY THE WAYSIDE."










JAiMAICA .- THE NEW RIV;IERA.


probably the dr-yest region in the island, possessing a charming climate,
and exceptionally beneficial in lung trouble. The route lies by way
of Spur Tree Hill, from which there is a very fine landscape view
looking down on the great expanse of hlills and dales, plantations and
pens of St. Elizabeth. The distance to Malvern is about thirty miles.
Good accommodation will be found at the Astor House Hotel; Mrs.
Lawrence's lodgings are also well recommended.
There are several places of interest to visit, and among them the
quaint old village of Santa Cruz, the beautiful Bamboo Avenue or
Lovers' Walk near Shawvs (p. 75), the Y.S. Falls, Maggotty Falls, .and
the largest known Logwood Tree (p. Too), standing on Goshen Common,
are well worth seeing; while the celebrated Potsdam School, the town
of Black River, Lacovia, Fuller's Wood, the Lover's Leap on the
Pedro Plains--which is a sloping precipice of 1,660 feet high, the base
washed by the sea--are all within easy access. There are few places
on earth where Nature's beauties so combine with man's creation to
please and interest.
For the next journey it will not be necessary to return to Mande-
ville, as the railway canl be reached at Balaclava Station, after leaving
which the line skirrts the Black River, where beautiful glades of tropical
vegetation delight the eye. This river is navigable for thirty miles by
flat-bottomed lighters, that bring down from the interior large quantities
of produce, logwood, fustic, etc. Some of the cascades, both on the Black
River and its tributaries--such as the Y.S.-are among the most beautiful
in the island; and on the lower reaches the sportsman will find lots of
opportunity of drawing a bead on the eyle of a crocodile, if he so
desires. A full head of steam is now required by the iron horse, for
there are some stiff ascents to be made before the next level is reached,
overlooking the Cockpit country to the right, the old haunts of the
Maroons, and the wildest region in Jamaica--of interesting formation-
cliffs, sink-holes, and rocks of limestone deposited by the sea when
the island was upheaved from the depths below, the great basin seen
on every side formed by the gradual disintegration during successive
centuries, leaving the surface a rough and almost impassable structure,
and making it one of the waste places of the earth. The railway now
follows the valley of the great river, west of which is the Parish of
Westmoreland; and near the coast-line a section of country known as
the Surinam Quarters, so called because in 1672 over a thousand
Dutchmen from Surinam and South America came and settled here.
Industrious and frugal, they added greatly to the prosperity of the
Colony; but after a lapse of nearly two hundred years only a trace can
be found of their descendants in the mixed blood of some of the
inhabitants.
Montpelier Station is the next halting-place, and, as there has been
enough of travel and sight-seeing for one day, the traveller had better
stop over here and rest at the Montpelier Hotel, than which there is
no better this side of Constant Spring, built by the Hon. Evelyn Ellis
for the entertainment of English guests and travellers generally. The


house is Javishly furnished, excellently managed, and no epicure has
ever been known to find fault with the culiszine. For those interested
in farming, a day will be profitably spent in visiting Shuttlewood,
Montpelier, and. Knockalva--model pens all of them. Herefords are
specialities with the latter, while at the former may be seen the silver-
grey Zebu and Mysores, imported from India by Mr. Ellis for the im-
provement particularly of the' native working stock.

MONTEGO BAY (P- 99) is but a short run by rail of tenl
miles from Montpelietr, the view from the car as you emerge from the
last tunnel being the finest of the whole route--the Horseshoe Bay, so
graphically described by Captain Mayne Reid in the opening chapters of
" The Maroon," the Bogue Islands, the town, and the great fields of sugar-
cane on the plain, make a magnificent picture. Plenty of accommoda-
tion at moderate rates will be found at Mrs. Jervis's or- Mrs. Walling-
ham's lodgings; while for invalids Dr. MacCatty's Sanatorium is the
best institution of its kind in the Colony. But besides these, of course,
we have the new .Spring Hill Hotel, standing in its own eight acres
of land, finely situated, at an elevation sufficiently high to give an
extensive view of the town, surrounding country, and the beautiful
bay yet within easy walking distance of all points of interest.
Twenty-five bedrooms is its capacity. Well furnished and equipped;
broad verandahs, fine baths, billiard room, tennis court, etc.; and the
fact that the hotel is under the management of Miss Payne is in itself
a guarantee that the catering, convenience and comfort of the guest will
receive the very best of attention. The most interesting building in the
town is the old church, on account of the fine monumental marbles and
tablets, many of them testifying to the wealth of the planters who
resided in S~t. James in the days of slavery. A notable monument is
the one executed by the elder Bacon, and erected to the memory of
a lady named Rose Palmer, whom tradition makes out to be a fiend
incarnate, having managed, by the complicity of her slaves, to surrep-
titiously dispose of three husbands by means of poison, and, in turn,
flogging her guilty allies to death to seal their lips. She wore a ring,
with the inscription, "If Isurvive I will have five"; but her dissolute
career was brought to an abrupt termination by death at the hands of
her slaves, who were alternately the companions of her orgies and the
victims of her morning's remorse. But -it is too long a story to record
in detail here; besides, tradition is somewhat mixed up on the subject,
as .there were two ladies successive wives of the Hon. John Palmer,
one good and the other bad; and some say to the memory of the
former was the monument placed in the church. Be that as it may,
every visitor to Montego Bay ought to visit Rose Hall, the famous
mansion where the Palmers lived (p. 98), standing near the main road
to Kingston, about tenl miles along the sea-goast, which was built by
Mr. Palmer in 1760 at a cost of 30,ooo sterling. It must have been
superbly furnished, for although it is now fast tumbling to ruin, there
still remain many evidences of its ancient grandeur-the flight of im-









EXTENDED TOURS.


nines, are there so many tunnels to be seen in so short a distance,
some twenty-four occurring, and varying in length from fifty to three
hundred and thirty-seven yards. Twelve of them are met with
between Troja and Richmond, a distance of four miles.
But, had I the pen of a ready writer, what a story could be told
of the scenery that lies between Bog Walk and Annotta Bay, probably
the finest stretch of purely tropical scenery to be found in the West.
Evei-y turn presents a bit of landscape that one would love to record
with his camera as the train winds its serpentine course among the
hills; native cultivations or grounds everywhere, their cottages
perched up in all sorts of queer places. From Annotta Bay to
Port Antonio there are a succession of sights that charm the eye as
you skirt the coast-line and look out upon the blue ocean, its waters
rippled by a soft breeze, and here and there small sailing craft gliding
on its surface, while you pass frequently the depots of the United
Fruit Company, where, if a steamer is loading, you see bananas being
hurried along in waggons, in cattle trucks, mule carts, and by .the
peasantry on mule and donkey back, while everyone in charge .of an
animal carries a bunch or two on his or her head. Bananas bananas !
everywhere. The all-important, all-absorbing subject, claiming the
attention of everyone, and well it might be--bananas have been the
redemption of this part of the country. The demand for this fruit
seems insatiable, and no danger of the market being overstocked.
It is most popular among the working-classes of the United States, the
miners of Pennsylvania, and the iron workers of Pittsburg, who find it
more convenient, nutritious, and sustaining than anly farinaceous food
they canl obtain for the money. It is extremely wholesome and easily
digested, and when the upper classes have learned to prepare it as a
dessert, a- la crkole, it will be still more popular.
But our destination is not Port Antonio at present; this is a
digression from our main purpose. Nine miles from Bog Walk on the
main line and we reach Ewarton. The buggies are ready, and we set
out for Moneague, a distance of ten miles, the first four bemng a steady
climb of I,500 feet over Mount Diablo, the Simplon of Jamaica.
Higher and yet higher the horses diligently toil over a finely en-
gineered and well-kept road, protected by parapet walls. But what a
scene is given us here Away to the right stretches the vast plain
of St. Thomas-in-the-Vale, dotted with estates and pens, here a minia-
ture .hill, there a valley, but all adorned with exuberant vegetation,
and the Blue Mountain range rising as a background in the distance.
In running down the other side of Mount Diablo the freshness or
the atmosphere is at once noticeable, for you have entered the coolest
parish in the island, St. Ann. It is also the largest parish, having an
area of 476 square miles, and possessing thirty miles more of main
roads than any other parish--in all, 228 miles.
Moneague is reached within an hour and a half from the time we
started, and we make for the hotel, nicely situated on the top of the
hill just beyond the town, and here we remain for the night, sure of


posing stone steps, portions of the railings of curiously wrought brass,
massive folding-doors of solid mahogany, three or four inches thick,
upheld by brass hinges, representing sea-monsters biting into the
wood, and panels, hand-carved, in many a scroll of strange device.
The hall is forty feet long, thirty feet wide, and eighteen feet high, of
costly woods, ornamented. with a deep- cornice of arabesque pattern.
This room is still in a good state of preservation, and on the walls
hang three portraits, the work of masters, the colouring to this day
fresh and fair. One represents a hard, stern-featured man, clad in the
scarlet and ermine robes of a judge; another, a mild-looking, gentle-
manly individual, dressed in the fashion -of the seventeenth century;
while the third is a lady of five- or six-and-twenty, of exquisite beauty,
attired in bridal array. Could this have been the wicked Rosa ? In
the next room, on the same floor, is a magnificent staircase, which
gives a good idea of what the rest of the mansion must have been-
with rails, balustrades, and moulding all finely carved out of sandal
wood; one of our .1ate Governors in vain offered 500 for this piece
of wood-work. Through the. whole house you may roam and meditate
on the departed glory of other days, when sugar allowed the planter
to erect palatial residences like Rose Hall.
The tour may now be continued along the coast to Falmouth-
twelve miles---then on to Brown's Town, twenty-five miles by the
interior road, proceeding through Moneague; thirty-four miles more
you strike the railway at Ewarton, but in this route you will have
passed through the Parish of St. A~nn, and without seeing all you
ought to see of the "L garden of Jamaica." It will, therefore, be wiser
to return to K~ingston by rail, and enjoy hthe luxuries of Myrtle Bank
and Constant Spring for a few days; ten encourage some of your
friends to accompany you on the most interesting tour the island has
to offer. Take your railway ticket for Ewarton, having previously wired
to Miss Hutchinson, Moneague, to have conveyances meet you at the
station. There are two trains every day, one leaving Kingston at
730 A.M., and the other at 2 P.M.
The route lies across the Liguanea Plains, past Cumberland Pen
and Spanish Town, on through the Bog Walk. I have already referred
to the scenery of this valley, but its aspect from the railway is materially
different, as the line maintains a high level; and we look down on
the extraordinary, luxuriant vegetation, with glimpses of the road and
river, tangled thickiets--Nature, wild but grand. I heard a Swiss
traveller remark here one day that it reminded him of crossing the
Pyrenees. There are several deep cuttings and many tunnels on this road.
The one called "L Gibraltar is the longest on the whole Jamaica Railway,
namely, 719 yards. At the exit of this tunnel the Rio Cobre is dammed
back to provide volume of water sufficient to fill the great iron tube that
carries the water to the power house of the Electric Car Company.
Bog Walk Station is the junction of the Ewarton and Port Antonio
lines. The distance to Port Antonio from here is fifty-four miles, and
probably in no other part of the world, except perhaps in the Apen-









JAM~AICA : T]HE NEW RIVIERA.


a well-cooked and well-served dinner and a comfortable room. For
small parties of modest means who might wish to prolong their stay,
the lodgings kept by Miss Hutchinson offer suitable quarters, with
plain but wholesome fare, if one is prepared to dispense with frills.
The next stage must be taken bright and early, so as to reach the
Fern Gully, nine miles from Moneague, in the cool of the morning.
The scenery through this ravine is unique, affording only room enough
for a road on which two buggies can pass ; the hillsides rise so straight
and high that only the noon-day sun can penetrate' to the road, the
rocks in some places so abrupt, and form such acute angles, that one
imagines there can be no way out.- These same rocks are literally
matted with the loveliest banks of ferns, tree ferns of magnificent
proportions, as well as the tiniest and most delicate specimens of the
" maidenhair growing side by side in great profusion.
Less than a mile beyond this romantic spot is the pretty village of
Ocho Rios, or Eight Rivers, where the Spaniards met their "Waterloo,"
and, after a short rest here, we can follow the coast towards St. Ann's
Bay ; but, if there is time to spare, I would strongly recommend a very
interesting side trip to a region hitherto but little known even to
Jamaicans--I refer to the Clifton Falls (p. 81), Cascade and Rapids on the
White River (pp. 78 and 80). Were some of the scenes in this vicinity
but truthfully transferred to canvas, they would be the sensation pictures
of the Art Exhibition season. This trip will probably mean the
staying for the night at Clifton Lodge, where Miss Fletcher is prepared
to provide for a limited number of visitors of, say, not more than eight
or ten at a time; but the attractions of the river are quite worth a
little inconvenience, should it ~so happen that the party somewhat
exceeds in numbers the limits of accommodation. Before another season
I trust some enterprising company will be wise enough to recognize the
charms of this beautiful spot, with its ideal climate, bracing atmosphere,
and health-giving breezes among the fragrant spice-groves of the hills.
It is easy of access, being about eight miles from Ocho Rios; following
the road that turns up at the White River Bridge will land you at
the door of Clifton Lodge; but when the party is large, it would
be advisable, if a visit is contemplated, to give notice to Miss Fletcher
a day or so previous to the time you hope to arrive.
Returning by way of Ocho Rios, the journey is continued on a road
built hard by the sea, and a lovely drive of four miles brings you
to the famous Roaring River Falls (p. 89). There is a carriage road
right up to the Cataract, but it will be more humane, while the
exercise will do us good, to walk the short distance, about a mile, and
allow the horses to rest under the shade of the spreading palm trees
that shelter the road by the bridge, and slakre their thirst at the
-running stream of sparkling water that laps the roadside on its way
to the sea close by. The Roaring River appears from beneath a hill
about two miles from the sea, hence the volume of water is but little
affected by either flood or drought; the falls proper do not consist
of one continuous sheet of water, but a number of small cascades


leaping from rock to rock, terrace to ridge, breaking into a thousand'
foam-jets in their descent of nearly Ijo feet. Here the river has created
for itself a veritable Elysium, and is one of the loveliest scenes in this
land of Nature's picture-book.
On returning .to the buggies we take a look in at the Elfin Grotto,
and if hot too fatigued enjoy-the luxury of a bath in its cool and!
placid waters. Three miles more bring us to St. Ann's Bay, where a
good luncheon can be -obtained at any of the several lodgings in the
town, or for the matter of that a comfortable night's. rest, if it is
desirable, to make the journey in easy stages. No one need hesitate
to spend a day or two in lodgings such as these, for no trouble
is spared in providing rooms of scrupulous cleanliness, and the best
table that the limited supplies of a town far .from the railway will
permit.
Proceeding still westward, the road continues by the seaside, passing:
through Richmond and Llandovery Sugar Estates (p. 85), and 'on the
latter property by the mill house, a short distance from the road, may
be seen the waterfall represented on the Jamaica penny postage stamp
(p. 88). Ten miles more brings us to Eaton Hall and Runaway Bay,
and here the road turns sharp to the left; we leave the ocean
and seek again the interior, .over Mount Pleasant, and we can breathe
freely on~e more, for the temperature has gone down several
degrees; past Orange Valley, Huntly, and seven miles from Runaway Bay
our Mecca, Brown's Town, is reached. Here there are no lodgings,"'
only hotels, of which there are two, at either of which quite a large
party will find ample accommodation, and where, according to the
opinions expressed by many of the most fastidious of travellers, will be
found every coinfort that could reasonably be expected outside a city
hotel. In the neighbourhood are to be found several private lodging
houses where invalids and others making a prolonged stay may findr
quarters.
Among the inducements to visit Brown's Town (pp. 94 and 95) are its
picturesque situation, attractive surrounding scenery, clean and tidy
appearance, justifying its claim to being a model inland town, or village
if you will, the entire absence of fogs, the healthful virtues of a cool,
clear, and refreshing atmosphere and low temperature, as compared to
the plains, rarely at any time of the year exceeding 80" Fahr., and irr
the night frequently below 60". Were I required, as a medical man,.
to give an unbiased opinion as to what parts of Jamaica would be most
favourable, from a climatic standpoint, for persons from either the United
Kingdom or the United States suffering from pulmonary trouble,
bronchial catarrh, or kindred affections of the respiratory organs, also
Bright's disease, I would unhesitatingly advise Brown's Town, in the Dry
Harbour Mountains, and Malvern, in the Santa Cruz Mountains.-
There may be other places just as good, but both these districts have
been put to the test again and again with most satisfactory results.
Before another season we hope that here, too, the Jamaica Hotels-
Company, Limited, in their own interests as well as those of the:









EXTENDED TOURS.


travelling public, will establish a hotel commodious enough for at least
fifty guests.
On taking our departure from Brown's Town there are three routes
open to us ; one by way of Stewart Town, passing on the right the
Westwood High School for girls, then down Biddyford Hill, at the
foot of which the road turns into Mahogany Hall (p. 96), which, by
the way, has an interesting story attached to it as to how it
derived its name. A Spanish noblemari, who had accompanied Don
Sasi on his last and fatal expedition, and had fought gallantly at Ocho
Rios, where he had been severely wounded, unable to reach the coast
at Runaway Bay, where Sasi and others had made good their escape,
sought the habitation of an Indian cacique whom he had formerly
known, accompanied by three beautiful daughters, whose importunities
to be allowed to accompany him from Cuba he had yielded to, for
though aged, he was brave and sanguine of success. A party of
Cromwell's soldiers, scouring the country for refugee Spaniards, heard
pitiful cries and lamentations proceeding from the woods, and learned
that it was the wailing of the girls whose father had just died. Like
true cavaliers, the officers forgot hostilities, and at once agreed to go
and bring the ladies of Colonel D'Oyley's family from Sportsman Hall to
take charge of the sorrowing seiioritas, whose gratitude to their soldier
friends developed into--but that is another story. The Indian shelter
was found to be the hollow base of an enormous mahogany tree some
fourteen feet in diameter, rough, round sticks being stretched across
the upper part to form a garret, and over all a thatched roof of grass.
The Spanish gentleman was buried on the hillside, a house was after-
wards built enclosing the mahogany tree, and subsequently the present
Mahogany Hall was erected. Not many years ago a crixmbling slab
was found in the vicinity, on which t~he following words were de-
~ciphered : Aqu Tace-Don Sebastien, Marques-d-San-Lo-Mu-
Ann-1660." But to resume our journey.
The road now stretches down through the valley of Trelawney in
an almost straight line for about ten miles, sugar estates on. either side,
until Falmouth is reached. The next stage is Montego Bay. .
Another route from Brown's Town is the pretty drive over the
interior road, passing Bamboo, Green Park, through Claremont, and on
to Moneague and Ewarton again; but the third and, I think, the
most interesting route is the interior road leading to Kendal, no more
costly than either of the other roads, and much less than the
Montego Bay route. The livery stable keepers of Brown's Town
have agreed to supply tourists with buggy, good horses, and reliable
drivers for this journey at the same rate as for Ewarton, viz. 28s. for
one person, and 2d. per mile extra for each additional passenger. The
distance is the same as to Ewarton, thirty-four miles, but the road leads
through a form of scenery to be found nowhere else in the Island ;
it is somewhat out of the trodden path of visitors, for the very good
reason that it is only a few years since a road was made over which
a vehicle could pass. -Fifteen or twenty years ago, in wet weather, I


have frequently had to apply for assistance in riding through to get
my horse dug out of the mud holes. Now all is changed, thanks
chiefly to our late Governor, Sir Henry A. Blake, who left us a legacy
of many bridges and roads, even if their construction did deplete the
Colony's exchequer pretty badly ; roads and bridges are good assets in
any country. W~e have now 2,014 miles of main road in Jamaica, and
where is there another island of the same size better supplied with
such highways of communication?
The first sixteen miles of the drive traverse the Dry Harbour
Mountains road, passing St. Jean d'Acre, Bethany, Aboukir, and Cave
Valley to Burrough Bridge, through thickly populated and well-cultivated
country ; and let me say that from Runaway Bay to this point you will
have met on the public highways and elsewhere a class of black
people who for industry, frugality, cleanliness, civility, and politeness
to strangers, you will not have found their equal in any other part of
the island. To this I bear witness, not only because I have lived
among them since 1874, but having travelled through the greater part
of the island several times over, I am in a position to know. The
contrast between the peasantry of most inland districts and many of
the people met with in sea coast towns is very striking.
From Burrough Bridge we enter the parish of Clarendon, crossing
the Cave River by excellent bridges some six or seven times, and
gradually rising among the hills, the landscape ever changing, ever
pleasing, rugged and broken, but grand, as you look off into the
distance, chaste and pretty as the eye lights on some sequestered nook
on the river, where little children at play are racing their boats of
half husks of cocoanuts with dumb cane masts and wild fig leaves for
sails; but the scene far exce~lelece awaits us at Baillieston, in the parish
of Manchester. Here, from a high ridge, we have a panorama on the
right and left of mountains and valleys, grand enough to thrill the
soul of the most indifferent, and portions of no less than five parishes
are within sight--Manchester, Clarendon, St. Ann, Trelawney, and St.
Elizabeth.
We are right in the heart of the ginger cotmntry. Who has not
heard of Jamaica ginger "? Its reputation is world-wide, and in no
part of the island is it more extensively cultivated or of finer quality
than in this district. Through Spauldings we wend our way past
Mount Olivet, with its fine old Presbyterian church, then a rapid drive
down the hill to Keiadal railway station, where we entrain for Kingston
at II.i9--call it noon.
Now is the time to wake up the unfortunate visitors who, all the
time that we have been revelling in the magnificent scenery of the island,
have remained in Kingston, and therefore have seen nothing of the
gorgeous verdure of the interior. They do not know what they have
missed.
Some say I have a bee in my bonnet,"' and that my mental aber-
ration takes the form of extravagant adulation of Jamaica, and Brown's
Town in particular. Well, everyone is said to be a button short "









JAMAICA : THE NEW RIVIER~A.


somewhere; but let a cold-blooded Englishman, by name of Gervaise
Mason, close this chapter--those who know him best will own to his
having about as much sanity as erratic humans are likely to possess
on this mundane sphere. Describing a drive along the North Coast
of St. Mary and St. Ann, after a year's sojourn in the island, he
says :-
Whatever may be said or thought, either for love or business,
concerning the island, it is only they who have witnessed her manifold
glories, become entranced by the thousand and one perfect pictures by
Nature's most delicate brush~, and felt the refreshing influences of her
climate, that can hold up its justness and credit the enticing tales that
must forever be crossing from the little Colony to the Motherland.
Drive through the finest picture gallery in the world, where no cata-
logue is necessary, the quaint bridges crossing the innumerable streams,
the half-hidden telegraph poles being the only articles numbered. I
selected a quiet trot over twenty miles in the northern rooms,' be-
tween Port Maria and St. Ann's Bay, and at the finish soliloquised
' Well done because if anyone could wish for anything more majestic


in adornment, sweetly accidental in design, refreshing in every
momentary and undulating change, and interesting in historical associ-
ation, then indeed he must be hard to please.
See where the Spaniards made their last brave stand against an
indomitable foe. It is hard to realise that a site so grand, so peaceful
and romantic as this, overlooking the calm ocean, was ever a veritable
hell upon earth, because to-day a luxuriant vegetation and quietness,
preserved by law and order, veils what was. This road twists and
turns through the largest cocoanut plantation in the island, and, most
probably, .in the world. It is a large picture framed by the sea, and
hills hugging the former in an area of twelve hundred acres, and such
is not to be seen elsewhere. It is named Look Out,' and here there
lives to-day, in her 99th year, an English lady, who for sixty-one
successive years has been in the island of Jamaica, and still enjoys
good health and sight, which goes far to support what we already
know of the climate and general, longevity in the Colony. Who, in
the face of such facts, can hint that the longbow is required to boom
the Colony? "


























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KINGSTON LOOKING WEST. FOUR DAYS AFTER THE EARTHQUAKE.





KING STREET LOOKING NORTH. AFTER THE EARTHQUAKE.





























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KING STREET, LOOKING NORTH, FROM THE WEST SIDE.

TAKEN FROM THE SAME POINT AS THE PHOTO ON PAGE 48, THREE YEARS LATER.
G 49



































































CASTLETON GARDENS.








































































LILY POND CASTLETON GARDENS.

51





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SCENE ON THE HOPE RIVER.

53














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SCENE ON THE RIO COBRE.

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BAMBOO GLADE WORTHY PARK.


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ENTRANCE TO BROWN'S TOWN AND MARKET.

94




Full Text

PAGE 1

I.. ud. LOigens HAMBURG J undsbufgerdamm 65 Victoria escrivW'ltf &

PAGE 4

. -. .{,: : 1, .....

PAGE 5

[E -s J ,', I V -_____

PAGE 6

THE TRAVELLER' S TREE.

PAGE 7

JAMAICA: BY .. -. + + + THE NEW B ID-escription of the j-slanb anb its Bttractions. . ]AS. ]OHNSTONtM.D. PRINTED AND PUBLISHED BY RIVIERA. L J S-g r t. CASSELL AND COMPANY, LIMITED, LUDGATE HILL, LONDON. [AL L lUGHTS RESERVED.]

PAGE 8

1903. ENTERED AT STATIONERS' HALL.

PAGE 9

PREFACE. ILE on tour through Great Britain, the United States, and Canada, lecturing on Jamaica as a health resort, it was frequently suggested to me that I should publish in book form the original photographs of the Island scenery, etc. from which I had made the stereopticon slides that illustrated the lectures. On consenting to the proposal, one and another expressed the opinion that the work would not be complete without a treatise on Jamaica, past, present, and future, discussing fully its education, politics, agriculture, natural history, etc.; and had I acted on the advice of my friends this would indeed have been a pretentious volume; but I have thought it best to adhere to my original purpose of making the illustrations the chief feature of the book, and including in the letterpress only a synopsis of such information as I think the average tourist wants to know concerning the Island, its history, climate, places of interest, medicinal springs, sports and pastimes, etc. I have refrained from giving the approximate cost of each tour or journey throughout the book, as I think the reiteration of rates for hotels, lodgings, etc., becomes rather monotonous. It may be taken, however, as a general rule that the rates of first-class hotels are from 12S. upwards per day. Railway fares are 2d. (4 cents) first class and third class 1d. (2 cents) per mile. The question of buggy hire is dealt with under Places of Interest and How to Reach Them. The interesting story of the Island's history has been well told again and again by various literary visitors to the Colony, in the several guide books, such as "History," Bacon's" New Jamaica," "Jamaica at the Columbia Exhibition," by Hon. Col. vVard, not forgetting the excellent compendium of information, "Jamaica in 1905," for intending settlers and visitors, by Frank Cundall. In the last-name d book the traveller will find everything pertaining to hotels, lodging-houses, livery stables, mail coach rates postal and mailing arrangements, and much else of value and interest in a handy form (to be had at the Jamaica Institute, price 6d., or 12 cents). To each of the above publications I am under obligation for some of the facts and figures used in the following pages, also to the very able pamphle t by the late Dr. Phillippo on the Medicinal vVaters of Jamaica. For more elaborate details of past events the reader must turn to the bulky tomes of Bryan Edwards, Bridge'S Annals, or Gardner's History, and for those who are interested in politics, statistics, civil service, commerce, finance, etc., there is nothing bette r than the" Jamaica Handbook," published by the Governme nt. Brown's Town, P .O. jmnaica, West Indies. J. J.

PAGE 11

PREFACE THE NEW RIVIERA T o AMERICAN TOURISTS HISTORICAL SKETCH CLIMATE PAGE THE TRAVELLER'S TREE Fro1ltz"spece MEN WHO HAVE DOl'E MUCH FOR MYRTLE BANK HOTEL JAMAICA. 6 9 CONSTANT SPRING HOTEL I I S.S. "PRINZ AUGUST WILHELM, HAMBURG-AMERICAN LINE 13 DINING SALOON. "PRINZ" STEAMERS 14 LADIES' SALOON AND A STATEROOM, PRINZ" STEAMERS 15 ENTERING PORT ANTONIO HARBOUR 16 PORT ANTONIO, LOOKING NORTH 17 THE BLUE HOLE, NEAR PORT ANTONIO J 8 BITS FROM LIFE. 19 THE FORDING, OCHO RIOS: SHAW PARK ON THE HILL 22 LORD RODNEY 22 ROCKFORT, NEAR KINGSTON, A RELIC OF LORD VAUGHAN 22 KING'S HOUSE, ST. ANDREW'S 22 MONUMENT TO LORD RODNEY, SPANfSH TOWN THE AUTHOR IN 1875 THE A UTHOR CAR AND HIS STANLEY STEAM KING STREET, LOOKING NORTH. THREE YEARS AN}) SIX MONTHS AFTER THE EARTHQUAKE 32 SOME OF KINGSTON'S NEW BUlLDI:-IGS 33 IN THE BOG WALK 35 "SCENES BY THE WAYSIDE" 39 PORT ROYAL 45 KINGSTON, LOOKING WEST. BEFORE THE EARTHQUAKE 46 KINGSTON, LOOKING WEST. FOUR DAYS AFTER THE EARTHQUAKE 47 CONTENTS. PAGE PAGE 3 MINERAL SPRINGS 26 7 SPORTS AND PASTIMES 27 12 PLACES OF I N TEREST AND How TO REACH THEM 31 21 EXTENDED TOURS 37 23 LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. PAGE PAGE KING STREET: LOOKING NORTH. AFTER THE EARTHQUAKE. 48 WASHING DAY ON THE WHITE RIVER 79 WHITE RIVER RAPIDS. 8 0 KING STREET, LOOKING NORTH, FROM THE WEST SIDE, THREE YEARS LATER 49 CASTLETON GARDENS 5 0 CLIFTON FALLS 81 PICKING PIMENTO. 82 PICKING COFFEE 82 LILY POND, CASTLETON GARDENS. 51 TREE FERNS 52 SCENE ON THE HOPE RIVER 53 BARBECUES FOR DRYING PIMENTO, COFFEE, ETC. 82 "GOING TO GROUND" 82 CANE RIVER CANYON 54 CUTTING THE SUGAR CANE 83 "HARD LABOUR" 55 NATIVE CANE MILL 84 NEWCASTLE, LOOKING TOWAlmS KINGSTON. 56 SCENE ON RAILWAY, NEAR TROJA 57 SCENE NEAR PORT ANTONIO 58 LLANDOVERY SUGAR ESTATE 85 SUGAR AND RUM EN ROUTE 86 "MENDING OUR WAYS" 87 PORT ANTONIO, LOOKING SOUTH. 59 LLANDOVERY FALLS 88 LOADING BANANAS, PORT ANTONIO 6 0 ROARING RIVER FALLS 89 WHARVES, PORT ANTONIO 6 I RUNAWAY BAY 9 0 BANANA TRAIN, BOWDEN 62 FISHERMEN LAUNCHING CANOES 91 ON THE ROAD TO BLUE HOLE 62 LIBERTY VALLEY, NEAR BROWN'S TOWN 92 JAMAICA "HELPS" 62 ON THE MAIN ROAD, NORTH SIDE 93 THE POOR lIIAN'S HERITAGE 62 ENTRANCE TO BROWN'S TOWN AND DOMESTICS, WITH YAMS, COCOANUTS, ETC.. 63 BURLINGTON, ON THE RIO GRANDE 64 PRIESTMAN'S RIVER 65 MARKET 94 BROWN'S TOWN, ST. ANN 95 MAHOGANY HALL, TRELAWNEY 96 TOIlI CRINGLE'S COTTON TREE 66 CEIBA, OR SILK COTTON TREE, MONTEGO YE OLDE FERRY INN 67 BAY 97 SCENES ON THE RIO COBRE 68, 69, 7 0 ROSE HALL, ST. JAMES 98 BAMBOO GLADE, WORTHY PARK. 71 MONTE GO BAY, ST. JAMES 99 CUTTING BANANAS 72 LARGEST KNOWN LOGWOOD TREE 100 TYPICAL NATIVE HOMESTEAD 73 FORDING, CLARENDON 100 ROYAL PALMS, RAVENSWORTH, SPANISH GOING TO THE DOCTOR 100 TOWN 74 TYPICAL COUNTRY RESIDENCE 100 BAMBOO AVENUE, ST. ELIZABETH. 75 COCOA HARVEST. 76 "A CORNER IN PINES" 1 0 1 WEDDING PARTY. 1 0 2 MANDEVILLE MARKET 77 CASCADE ON THE WHITE RIVER. 78 HOME! SWEET HOME!" 1 0 3 DR. JAS. JOHNSTON 1 0 4

PAGE 12

SIR HENRY A. K C M G SIR ALFRED L JONES, K C M .G. CAPT. W PEPLOE FORWOOD. MEN WHO HAVE DONE MUCH FOR JAMAICA THE RIGHT HON. JOSEPH CHAMBERLAIN, P C M .P.

PAGE 13

JAMAICA: Sailing away to a So"uthern sea, Out of the bleak March weather; Sailing away for a loaf and a play, Just you and I together. And it's goodbye to worry, And it's goodbye to hurry, And never a care have we, With the sea below and the sky above, And nothing to do but dream and ldve, Sailing away together. THE N the cities on both sides of the Atlantic there are professional and business men, worn out with working at the high pressure that modei"n life seems to demand, until trivialities, which under normal conditions would be accepted as matters of course in the day 's programme, become a perpetual worry and irritation. Letter deliveries, cable despatches, and tele-grams at all hours, besiege the office, until the wearied and jaded worker feels that his life is little better than that of one "doing time JJ on the treadmill, and he sighs for some place where he could go and rest serene beyond the reach of all this, if only for a few weeks. If he follows the beaten track of the" personally conducted," the social excitement and bustle with which he finds himself surrounded are too much on a par with the condition of life from which he seeks to escape to satisfy his longing for complete change. -But there is a still more numerous class among the dwellers of temperate climes. I refer to those who, either by inheritance or otherwise, h ave acquired a physically delicate constitution, and ate thereby ill-adapted to resist the rigours of a Northern winter; to whom the cold, bleak winds and treacherous variableness of temperature yield only misery and discomfort, aggravating the natural susceptibility, whether it be pulmonary trouble, bronchitis, catarrh, rheumatism, or allied affections. To both classes I would say most emphatically, "Jamaica is the place for you JJ; and be it clearly understood that this book is not offered to the public merely for the purpose of advertising the island, but in the confidence that I am thereby fulfilling a duty to tourists, both British and American, by NEW RIVIERA "Sailing away from the bleak, cold town, And the things the town calls dnty; Drifting away from walls of grey To a land of bloom and beauty. And it's good -b ye to letters, From our lessers or our betters, To the gay world's smile and its frown ; We are sailing away on a sunny track, To find the summer and bring it back From the land of bloom and beauty." bringing to their notice the existence of a country the possibilities of which, as a health resort, can never be Weare always pleased to welcome strangers to ou r shores, and we unquestionably derive benefit in-many ways by their presence among us; yet the rewards are reciprocal, and although money must be spent in hotels, travelling, etc., the tourist receives a sub stantial qud pro quo in the pleasure of revelling amid scenes of tropic beauty, rest to -body and mind, and recuperated health, of more value than much gold. Many persolis have derived their impressions of Jamaica and its climate from travellers and tourists who, during a short stay, never went beyond the suburbs of Kingston. It would not be considered quite fair to judge of England or the United States after this fashion; a stroll through a seaport town is not likely to favourably impress the traveller in any country. It is the life in the open countryair -that really benefits those -in search of health at the summer resorts in Europe and America; so it is here. The clear, rare atmosphere of our higher elevations, I venture to affirm, will do more for the invalid thi m Egypt, Mentone, Nice, or the Riviera for -Europeans, : and California, Nassau, Bermuda, or Florida for the American. It is difficult to find in the North a mountain resort with a mild temperature, and there is danger, particularly to those suffering from phthisis, in attempting the pursuit of health and amusement combined. Until within the past few years the name" Jamaica JJ awoke in the mind of the average reader practically nothing at all. Jamaica was little more than a geographical express i on, and even that only as it

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8 JAMAICA: THE NEW RIVIERA. was redolent of Rum and Ginger; but now the mere mentio n of the island's name conjures up the vision of a blue s k y over a blue sea, in which i s set a beautiful island of luxurious vegetation and lovely scenery, fragrant with the odour of spices and flowers, with an atmosphere refreshed by invigorating sea breezes and where, if you wish, you may dwell on the heights and enjoy all the beauty of the tropics with a temperature that varies little more than 10 all the year round, and seldom exceeds 80 at that; a land of wood and water, as its Indian name implies. Here is a veritable Mecc a for the invalid, for what pilgrimage could hold out a greater reward than restored health? And hopeless indeed must be the case for which a sojourn in this health-giving island could do nothing. Here for a number bf years many sufferers from the United States have wintered, basking in the tempered sunshine and enjoying a degree of health and life such as probably they would find nowhere else. The regular touris t sea so n in Jama ica is from Decemper to May! but it is not unusual for people to visit the beautiful island at other times in the year. A traveller from the North who starts on the voyage in December is much surprised at his first view of the tropical richness of the Jamaica l andsca pe. He left his own country perchance white with snow, the trees bereft of foliage the morning air keen with frost, and himself wrapped closely in a winter overcoat. Long before the island is sighted the heavy coat is discarded, and the thinnest substitute he can fish out from his luggage donned h as tily, while he seeks the sunlit deck to watch the seas of wondrous colour set off with the yellow gulf weed, silvery nautilus, and flying fish Nothing one may see or learn afterwards will compare with that fir s t thrill of novel delight and pleasure. The West Indians are proud, and rightly so, of their i s lands. The inhabitants of each have a superlative name for their own bit of sea-sprayed greenery. This one, "The Pearl of the Antilles"; that one,. The Gem," and here again, The Queen." Cuba claims -not unprotested-the latter title. But Jamaica earned it, and kept it, by Royal Warrant nearly two hundred years ago, when her king called the island "The Gem in my Crown." Indeed, Jamaica is the quintessence of Greater Cuba, and two hundred years of Britis h colonisation have wiped out of Jamaica all those tropical epidemics which up to a short time ago made Cuba a place to avoid. Jamaica tod ay, with its wild grandeur of scenery, tropic beauty and f oreign charm, has just enough of comfort in travelling facilities and living to meet the wants o f the visitor without spoiling the picture. Volumes might be, and have been, written about Jamaica, for its history is one long adventure, humour, tragedy, and all that goes to the making up of a good story. Trav eller s whose stay at a place is n e cessarily short could not do better than gather up its claims to interes t b eforehand, so that they may at once appreciate what they see. There is n o more alluring pleaf-ure on a trip to Jama ic a than the reading of" Tom Cringle's Log" (although many changes h ave taken place for the better since Michael Scott wrote it), while the steamer s lips through the sapphire waves where once ploughed the Spanish galleon, French corsair, and English friga te. He was never a boy who cannot enjoy it! and, as for the other sex they thrive on romance and b eauty-and here are both. On the starboard bow ris es a vast pile of rounded snow-white cloud s that roll aside now and then to r evea l the purple peaks of the Blue Mountains. The cool, healthy tra d e winds blow in jrom the seas, and render the heat infinitely more bearable than that of a northern summer, and as the haze clears the island i s disclo sed in a million hues Poised on the ridges plantation houses, with the ir white walls and r e d roofs, stand out again s t the bluish-green of r avines, and, like winding silver threads, waterfalls and streams s p arkle in the sunshine as they tumble towards the sea. The sea roI-lel : s burst glistening and rumbling beneath the cocoanut palms that arch ove r the foam bowing in the teeth of the Trades. His Majesty's mail -a dust-covered cart-dra\vn by mules, tears along the coast road, and close behind it glides the modern automobile. Blue smoke curls up from sugar estates and negro clearings thousands of feet above. The eye d elights in the white villages under bamboos and palms half hidden in sheltered nooks and glades, while towering over all are the forest-clad mounta ins capped with their cloudy turbans Having been for some time confined to the narrow limits of his steamer, the first desire of a tourist after he has landed and taken possessio n of his airy and comfortable apartments at the hotel is to be on the mov e If he has come by one of the the usual routes he will have landed at Kingston, and in a ll probability will have secured in advance rooms at the New Myrtle B ank Hotel, now under American management. From that location he can start out easily for any part of the island limited only by the time at his command. Perhaps the first thing that will appeal to him is a walk through the streets. It feels good to walk after one has been permitted only to pace the circumscribed deck for sever a l days, and the novel sights and sounds of his present place of sojourn will kee p his senses alert. He has no doubt provided himself with a camera, and his only uncertainty will be as to which of the many scenes-some of vivid some grotesque and amusingshall b e "snapped" for future r e fer e nce. The natives with their soft voices and smiling faces, the shops or stores, -very much up to date-and r e pl enished with goods of all qualities, both for use and ornament, that civ ilis e d man c a n require. The curios, the children, the solemn coolies from Madras or Calcutta, and muc h e l se that the" snappist will di s cover for himself. Then there will be a drive to o ne of the many points of interest which are within ea s y distance, while the tourist who is given to motoring will find Jamaica simply ide al. The roads are finely adapted for this mode of travel. The main roads encircle the entire island with several cross country connections; their extent i s about 2,000 miles, controlled by the Public Works D epartment, while 4,3 1 8 miles of good roads are kept up by the Parochia l Boards. These roads connect all important points. In the m ountaino us regions there are numerous curves, but these make the grades easie r and add the charm of unexpec t e d views. One of the greatest diversions of the visitor who remains for any time

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lAMAICA.; THE NEW. RIVIERA. 9 in Jamaica is the sea-bathing, which, at such places as" The Doctor's Cave," Montego BilY, is said to be the finest in the world. With the water com fortably tepid, clean and clear, a bottom of white sand and no under-tow, the daily sea-bath in mid-winter is at once luxurious and exhilarating. Jamaica is so thoroughly English in social matters that all the English sports are engaged in by the people .of leisure, so that one is never at a loss for diversion. At aI.most every point of interest will be found good hotel ac commodatiQn, and with the new Myrtle Bank. Hotel, Constant Spring Hotel, the new South Camp Road Hotel at Kingston, the Rio Cobre Hotel at Spanish Town, the Spriqg Hill Hotel at Montego Bay, the Moneaglie Hotel, Moneague, the Richmond Hotel at Brown's Town St. Ann; the' King Ed ward Hotel and se:veral other good hotels at Mandeville, not to mention. the famous Hotel Titchfield at Port Antonio, the tourist may depend on. being well taken qre of wherever he may be. which they have found,in their trayels and in; of; the Far East. The house IS conducted entIrely upon the European plan, and in addition to the main dining-hall there is a piazza dining-room which overlooks the sea. The furnishings of the public rooms on the main office floor, where the ladies' reception room, the billiard room, dining-. room and curio room '. are located, have been chosen in keeping with the climate and the tropical nature of the country. The single apartments and private suites have been fitted out daintily and attrac tively, and many little home comforts have been included in the general plan. The cuisine is intended to satisfy the tastes of the most exacting, the choicest products of the States and of the island .being used in the. pre-. paration of the various dishes, whether they be American, English, Creole, ,or native Jamaican A Motor Car service runs to all parts of the island with excursion parties, and the management' at Myrtle Bank Hotel at Kingston, and MYRTLE BANK HOTEL. American and English billiards, el'ening orchestral concerts, and other indoor attractions are provided for the guests, while opportunities for tourists desiring out-of-door sports like golf, football, cricket, tennis, boating, fishing, Hotel Titchfiel.d at Port Antonio, will attend to the entering and clearing through the Customs of private cars. The Myrtle Bank Hotel has accommodation for two hundred people, though a much larger number can always be comfortably entertained in the restaurant. There are many rooms with private baths. Small piazze leading off from many of the suites not only add to the a rchitectural beauty of the structure, but will be greatly appreciated by foreigners who have grown accustomed to this little touch of exclusiveness B are open to all. Driving, motoring and horseback-riding are favourite recreations for people sojourning upon the island, and there is always a good supply of motors, carriages and saddle-horses at hand, for short or long tours The trolley cars pass the door, and the suburban residential sections in the rugged foothills of St. Andrew are within a short riding distance. The climate of Kingston is equable and mild, the mean average temperature for the last eighteen years for the month of November being 79. The nights are always cool and comfortable for sleeping.

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10 JAMAICA THE NEW RIVIERA. In the Myrtle Bank Hotel the public is now supplied with a strictly down-town hotel, capable of entertaining a large number of people, giving them the service and conveniences of a modern house such as can be found in all the large cities of America and Europe. 'When not travelling in the country the visitor will find Constant Spring Hotel the place to spend an enjoyable evening and comfortahle night, situated as it is at the foot of the Blue Mountains, six miles from Kingston, at an elevation of 600 feet, and within easy access 01 the city by the rapid transit of the electric cars, an interesting run all" the way. The hotel itself is a handsome building, but it has been constructed more with a view to the comfort and convenience of its guests than for style, with its verandahs, Moorish front with latticed porticoes, from which you can look out upon a most extensive and picturesque view beyond the Liguanea Plains to Fort Clarence, Port Royal, the Harbour, Palisa does, Long Mountain and St. Catherine's Peak, and a sea view of unrivalled beauty-the Caribbean in glorious tints of emerald and blue. The hotel is lighted throughout by electricity, and possesses its own plant. The entrance hall is 60 feet square and 50 feet hjgh,. artistically furnished, a special feature being the flooring of alternate slabs of black and white marble, giving an air of. delicious coolness no matter .how hot the sunshine may be outside; the dining, drawing, billiard, smoking, and other public rooms are proportionately spacious, while there are bedrooms available for over two hundred guests The rooms are so carefully ventilated as to admit of practically living in the open air. The temperature varies but little, and is always tempered by pleasant sea breezes by day and cool hill breezes at night. Absolute quiet can be relied upon. A swimming-bath at home is a treat to enjoy, but what must it be in the tropics? Here you have'a fine one, 45 by 25 feet, sheltered from the sun, and' giving a depth of 4 to 8 feet of pure, cool, running water from the hills. Then there are the golf links, cricket field, tennis courts, croquet, bowling-green, clay pigeon shooting, archery, etc., while indoors there are billiards, a dark room for tyros of the black art, and music, with frequent dances, concerts, and other entertainments in the eyenings. The 'leading doctors of Kingston and St. Andrew are always available, and can be summoned by telephone, and for the convenience of invalids two trained nurses are attached to the establishment in the season. Just as the influx of travellers to our shores increases so will the accommodation and nl)mber of hotels multiply. Methinks it requires no prophetic eye to see in the near future at least one good caravan serai. in every parish. Meantime, the indulgent stranger will make all allowance, while travelling through the country, if he does not find a miniature '\iV a ldorf or Cecil, seeing we are younger in the business than the Rivieras, Spas, and other resorts of the Continent; but we console ourselves with the fact that we have something better to offer. We have done the best to provide for the entertainment of our guests, and our doors are open wide to receive them. Permit me right here to emphasi se the fact to the newcomer that staying round any hotel in the neighbourhood of Kingston, Port Antonio, or any other seaport town zs not seeing Jamazca. No matter how excellent the hqtel may be, get away from the coast as soon as you can and taste the delights of the mountain' air. The change in the atmosphere and temperature will be an agreeable surprise to many. When they reach even 1,000 feet above sea-level a blanket will be found very acceptable at night; the morning tub cold enough to be refreshing and invigorating, while long early walks can be taken with absolute comfort among the hills when "ilka blade 0' grass keeps its ain drap 0' dew," and one inhales with supreme satisfaction the balmy air laden with the perfume of flowers, pimento, orange, coffee and other sweet blossoms according to the season of the year. Then who among the many who have gone over the Stoney Hill road to Annotta Bay, crossed Mount Diabolo, gone through the Fern Gully, taken the interior road from Ewarton or from Kendal through the ginger mountains to Brown's Town, but would gladly repeat the pleasurable experience and again visit these scenes, that live in their memories like a happy dream long after hotels and lodging houses, with all their shortcomings, are forgotten.

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I CONSTANT SPRING HOTEL 11

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12 JAMAicA THE NEW RivIERA. TO AMERICAN HUS far, the information supplied has been intended specially for Europeans. Now a word as to how best to reach Jamai!::a from the United States. Although, by the way, it is a good ll1any years since the travelling public of America began to recognise the many attractions of the island, and every succeeding year adds greatly to the number of our visitors from the land of the Stars and Stripes, still there is room for many more who are not yet alive to the inducements for a genuinely delightful rest and change this islandso near home-has to offer them. The well-known and much-travelled authoress, Ella Wheeler Wilcox, in describing her visit to Jamaica, wrote :-"What are you thinking about, you Northern men"and women, who rush to Florida, or Bermuda, or EUI'ope in search of a winter resort, w here comfort and pleasure can be found? Why, do you not know of this lost Garden of Eden-this incomparable combination of American comfort, English cleanliness, and Italian climate? And such beautysuch glory of coIouring, such opillence of Nature's best gifts! As' I write, the majestic Blue Mountains are back of me-the highest peak towering head and shoulders above Mount Was hillgton. The thermometer marks 84 in my room, but a delicious, cool breeze blows in from the mountain, and even when the mercury ran to 88 there was no humidity or oppressiveness in the air. A fog was never known here, so the captain of the U.S. steamer Sampson told me. And to think that it is mid-March, and that this is no treacherous time for us to abandon winter wraps, only to be caught in a blizzard to-morrow, but a steady, all-the-year climate, for there is scarcely a variation of ten degrees in twelve months. I have -not felt one mosquito, so far, and have seen but two flies. There are no reptiles, and there is fruit and there are vegetables enough to keep one well and hearty at small cost and with small labour. America cannot be long blind to the wonderful advantages offered by this beautiful spot as a winter resort." A "New Englander" writes:-"It would be useless to attempt to describe the marvellous beauty of this country. The stately cocoanut palm, hung with its generous fruit, furnishes to the eye a thing of grace unrivalled. Some of the trees are crimsoned with foliage and flowers that strike the eye as wonderful, 'while others, like the luxuriant fields of banana with its tropical leaves, suggestive of great fans, never breed monotony in scenery, which is diversified : by the .. \1. igorous coffee tree, the curious cocoa .and hop-like yam. Luscious pineapples grow in profusion) and are as cheap as plentiful.; oranges with more juice and better flavour than earth offers elsewhere hang from the trees in golden fruitage, a dozen for one, TOURISTS. poor' quattie '-3 cents of Uncle Sam's money. Palms in great variety delight the eye, among them the aristocratic Royal Palm, the very essence of dignity embodied in a tree, while the cabbage palm and thatch variety are the stalwarts that defy the wind and parade their usefulness to man, for, from the exalted top of the former, he cuts a growth that beats the best of lower-grown cabbage as a vegetabJe, and from the latter he sees the native take the leaves to thatch his hut, and in the rainy season sit under his own dry roof, and laugh at Nature's downpour. If exercise is needed by the semi-invalid the mountains call him to the peaks, and horses make little-to-do of speed along the winding roads, while on the lower levels, in the early morn, the cyclist can find no better highways for a spin." I do not wish to weary the reader, otherwise such extracts might be continued ad ziifindu11Z, -and all this within less than five days from Boston or Philadelphia, for from these ports ply the beautiful and yacht-like vessels of the United Fruit Co. The line is composed of a large number of steamers specially fitted for the conveyance and comfort of passengers, and furnished with every requisite for a safe and enjoyable voyage, the four best being named after America's great admirals, the Dewey, Schley, Sampso1l, and Farragut. The accommodation leaves IJothing to be desired, cleanliness and the absence of ship's odours 'are a marked feature, while the cuisine and service are excellent. The staterooms are on the main deck, forward of the engines, well ventilated and lighted by electricity. One of thes e steamers leaves Boston every Wednesday and Philadelphia every Thursday from October to April; other months of the year s emi-we e kly sailings, running direct to Port Antonio. Fare, one way, $40; round trip, $ 75. But while the convenience of-travellers to Jamaica from both Philadelphia and Boston have been fully and satisfactorily met for a number of years past by the steamers of the United Fruit Company, New York was at a disadvantage in this resp ect untillalely, when the HamburgAmerican Line-the standard of which is known to every old-world tourist-determined to establish and maintain a service to and from Jamaica and the Panama Canal by its splendid fleet of four new" Prinz II and other steamers of the Atlas Line. The" Prinz" steamers are of about 6,000 tons register, 402 feet in length, 40 feet in width, and 27 feet in depth, have been specially built for passenger service in the tropics, and have ample deck room, airy social halls and well v entilated state. rooms, each with its own electric fan In tvery feature of their equipment and service they are fully up to the transatlantic standard of the Hamburg-American Line, a standard which has placed this great steamship company in the very front of trans-oceanic passenger lines.

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TO AMERICAN TOURISTS. 13 The annual West Indies cruises--which have been so popular-will be made this season by the 8,000-t ,on twin-screw cruising steamship Oceaiza. This steamship will make two 28-day tours of the West Indies during the coming winter season, visiting all the principal islands, the northern coast of South under the same comfortable surroundings that transatlantic passengers on Hamburg-American ships have grown accustomed The delights of luxurious voyaging, coupled with the enjoyments or Jamaica and its scenic and climatic perfection, will make a winter tour to this tropic isle a delightful experience in' which -from the time the, traveller leaves New York until he disembarks once more within sight of the lofty buildings of Manhattan -there has 'not been a moment of overcrowding, of inconvenience; or of dissatisfaction. For-,those desiringparticularly to visit ,the Panama Canal, spe cial trips of eighteen days ca li be arranged, which include a three days' stay at the I sthmus of Panama and a call at Jamaica (where a s top-over can b e made if desired). During the steamer's stay at Colon, passengers can be prov ided with accommodation and meals on board without additional charge. America, and make a call at Colon, where passengers will have an opportunity to view the operations carried on by the Government in digging the Panama Canal. In addition to the above-mentioned cruises by the steamship Oc eana three cruises are arranged for the If: ro np rz"n z essin Cecz"/z"e, each of sixteen duration, leaving, New, York duringJ anuary,February, arid March, calling at N a ssau, Havana, San Juan, Porto Rico and muda. These short cruises offer particular facilities for a I imi ted, tour in southern waters, as they d o the largest and m ost important 'West India i s lands, allowing from ten to thirty-six hours' stay for sightseeing at each port of call. S .S. PRINZ, AUGUST )NILHELM," LINE. The Kingston earthquake of J anuary 14th, 1907, while it l aid low the capital of Jamaica, was scarcely felt and did little damage in other parts of the i s land. Tourists will find Jamaica none the less charming because of this upheaval, but will rather discover an, added interest in visiting the stricken city, now happily being rapidly rebuilt. So complete a programme, and such splendid ships employed in it, means that the Hamburg-American Line recognises fu!ly the rapidly growing interest of Americans in Jamaica as al winter resort, and is 2 m 'evidence of the intenti'Ori 'of the Company to supply its American patrons with every facility, every comfort every luxury in every,department of its service. Now for the first time-it may be said-it. is possible to go to Jamaica In a word, it may b e said in all seriousness that for the next couple of centuries at least Jamaicans may consider their little i sland the -, ",' ,; ill 'b,11 /

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JAMAICA.' THE NEW RIVIERA. safest place on earth from such convulsions of nature, for, like the' San Franciscans, they have had their earthq uake. For touring among the i s lands of the West Indies, affording regular connections and comfortable accommodations between points hitherto accessible only by occasional and irregular s te amers or indirect routes, the Hamburg-American Line has placed in service the fiQe twinscrew passenger steamshipPrasz"del1t, specially built and luxuriously equipped for these intercolonial voyages. ThePl'i.iszdentmakes a round trip monthly between the islands of Jamaica, Hayti, Santo Domingo, Porto Rico and St. Thomas. to Jamaica, Colombia, and Costa Rica, and the cost is only $125 inciuding stateroom accommodations and meals. Ample time is given at each port of call to enable the traveller to visit such points of interest as he may desire, and as the ship passes from point to point the scenes unfold an ever varying panorama. Should passengers desire to stop over at any place they may do so, awaiting one of the succeeding steamers of this line. The cost of the trip from New York to Jamaica is $4 0 one way; or $75 for the round trip. It takes from five to six days to reach Jamaica. A list of hotels, good boarding houses, and information or' advice any subject the' visitor is likely to require coni1ected with his visit to the island may be obtained from the representative and general agent of the Hamburg-American Line at Kingston, Captain W. P. Forwood, who will extend every pos sible courtesy to American tourists. Nor should it be forgotten tha t these trips are enjoyable in summer as well a s winter. The temperature of places bordering on the Caribbean Sea varies but little the year around, 80 F. being the average. The constant trade winds and the steadily flowing ocean currants maintain a wonderfully equable climate. DINING SALOON, "PRINZ" STEAMERS, HAMBURG-AMERICAN' LINE, The character of the service ,maintained b y the Hamburg-American Line In addition to the service maintained to Jamaica, South and Central America by the Atlas Line, regular steamers also run between New York and the Haytian ports; but the Jamaica route is the most interesting to the general tourist. Within two days' voyage from New York the tropical waters are reached and one feels the balmy influence of the Gulf Stream. The entire cruise covers a period of twenty-three days, including visits IS sufficient guarantee that every provIsion is made for the comfort and convenience of the traveller. The steamers, being specially adapted for passenger service, possess most spacious and comfortable accommodations. Saloons and staterooms are above the main deck, which insures a minimum of motion and thorough ventilation. The staterooms are large, light and well furnished The table is well provided with delicacies

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TO AMERICAN TOURISTS. IS in season, and particularly with such viands as are best suited to a tropical voyage. The cabins are all located amidship on the promenade, saloon and upper decks, in the superstructure of the vessel, thus affording the maximum degree of ven tilation. The main saloon, with a seating capacity for about 100 persons, is located on one of the upper decks, receiving light and ven tilation from three sides through large portholes. A large skylight passing through the ladies' parlour, situated directly above the saloon, supplies additional light and air. The smoking room and ladies' parlour are luxuriously appointed, and with other special features these steamers will undou btedly become very popular with the travelling public. LADIES' SALOON. behind. In the Caribbean Sea there is no fear of fogs and almost complete exemption from what might be called stormy weather; I have made the trip some fourteen times, but on more than half the voyages the fiddles were not requisitioned for the tables, and even A STATEROOM. when they did appear it was frequently more with the idea of forestallin g possibi Ii ties tha n from actual necessitv. fish now begin to interest the trave ller as they rise in front of the vessel and skim acro s s the blue, the fish of which, as "Turner" says, everyone has heard, which yet none can see for the first time without. a gas p of amazement, without a feeling as though beholding the miraculous; the fish which has given rise to more untruthful stories than any other fish in all the seas. Preparations for the trip need not be elaborate or extensive; clothing of all kinds can be obtained in Jamaica of good quality and cheaper than you can buy it at home. PRINZ STEAMERS HAMBURG-AMERICAN LINE. Undoubtedly the fly ing-fish has wings like a bird, undoubtedly it flies -yet not as a bird. It does not flap the wing-like, pectoral fins on which it is upborne; nor, once launched in the air, For both ladies and gentlemen ordinary summer clothing will be found quite suitable, reserving, of a warm suit and underclothing for the first forty-eight hours out and for the return journey. In two days this will be laid aside, for you will be slipping along over a summe r sea, inhaling the balmy air and the ocean's ozone, hastening to the land of sunshine; the snow-clad hills and the icy blasts of winter all can it change its course by any movement of its wings, until it dips again to the water. Yet it will pass a ship making ten knots in the hour, and travel in the air as far as five hundred feet at a time. "Astounding, inde ed, is the sight of a shoal of flying-fish taking to the air, skimming far over the surface when the sea is calm leaping high over great waves when gales blow. Fish seem ludicrously out

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16 1AMAleA: THE NEW RIVIERA. of their element in the air-bilt that fish should fly is not really more wonderful than that some animals and birds, like the otter or the penguin, dive and_ swim to perfection. The flying-fish's fins are really parachutes to support and steady its body rather than wings to propel it; the lobe of the tail gives pro pulsion to the body as it leaves the water. A flying-fish mea sures about a foot in length, alid its long, transpa:rent, pectoral fins reach almost to the tail; btit though very large when expanded, they can be folded tip very neatly. Its flight is short and interniittent, -and -it must needs continually dip intb the sea :to give itself a fresh start. rnutiny that threatened Columbus, when his sailors feared that the weed meant hidden shoals. -The first land sighted is Watlingis Isiand, and it was the first bit ofte17'a firma discovered by Columbus on his westward voyage. A monument has "Fear' spurs the flying ihto the: air; alid sometimes mere of Often' they leap so high that they fall on of shi ps, -and are killed by the violence of falCLights 6nshipboard ENTERING PORT ANTONlh I
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PORT ANTONIO: LOOKIND NORTH. c 17

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THE BLUE NEAR PORT ANTONIQ 1 8

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THE MORNING TOILET. YOUNG JAMA9-..,..---V BITS FROM LIFE." OUR COOK. /' .........

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20 JAMAICA.' THE NEW RIVIERA. peaks of the Blue Mountains outlined sharp and distinct against the sky; a narrow channel is navigated with consummate skill, and the harbour of Port Antonio unfolds itself like a grand panorama. "Such riotous colouring as Nature indulges in here was never seen out of a painting by an 'impressionist '-the intense emerald, the marvellous amethyst, with the vivid yellow and dark greens of the tropical verdure on the hills beyond," present a picture never to be forgotten, and might well be named the Venice of the Vif est Indies. In days gone by the Folly Point lighthouse was the most con spicuous object seen when approaching the entrance to Port Antonio Harbour. Now it is entirely overshadowed by the magnificent ne\V Hotel Titchfield. Long before the voyager can make out any details of the coast, this building looms up clear and picturesque, reminding one of the palatial resorts that fringe the shores of Maine and New England. A hotel of which Jamaica is justly proud. We scarcely kno\V \Vhich to admire most: the "grit and go" of the company, who in the space of but a few months, and in the face of innumerable difficulties, made this great undertaking un fait accompli, or the keen prescience and courage of the man-Mr. E. R. Grabo\V-who originated the idea of establishing in Jamaica such a centre of attraction for tourists. The newTitchfield, while less pretentious in point of size than the former hotel, \Vill be equally attractive and adequate in every way to meet the needs of the tourists. The architecture follows somewhat the prevailing style of building seen in the tropics, and in this respect the exterior is not only extremely artistic, but the inner arrangement is interesting and picturesque. The main building is entirely surrounded by broad piazze with concrete floors and overhanging roof, and as in all tropical houses there will be a detached kitchen. There is but one wing, and this is located on the north end of the building, looking out upon the Blue Mountains and towards East Harbour. This is also separated from the body of the house by a wide passage way or lounge, which can also be used as a dining-piazza. The billiard-room, bamboo-room, and other public rooms are situated in this end. The main entrance is from the porte-cochere into a large foyer with offices and public writing-rooms on the left and ladies' reception-room, curio shop, and ballroom on the right. The dining-room occupies the entire north end of the main structure, as in the former Titchfield, but the present plans make a very much more attractive room with its interior decoration and unique lighting effects. The grounds are handsomely arranged, and in addition to the garden part there are tennis courts on the east side occupying the space of the old billiard-room. A pergola at the south end of the building makes a sort of raised court, an ideal resting place under tropical vines and a view un equalled in any part of the world-a bit of West Harbour on the left, East Harbour and Folly Point on the right, and the Caribbean Sea extending to the remotest point of the horizon. The visitor who stays for a few days or a few weeks at the Hotel Titchfield and goes away dissatisfied, either with the accommodation, the attendance, the cuisine, or the natural surroundings, must have an unfortunate kink in his composition and something seriously wrong with him. For while there are, no doubt, in other parts of the world buildings of greater magnificence, no hotel on either side of the Atlantic has more comfortable public rooms, or is provided with more of those conveniences that minister so largely to the pleasure of travellers or holiday-makers, and it is very evident that the enterprising men who have put their money into the venture must be convinced that there is an exceedingly bright future for Jamaica as a health and winter resort for tourists. It is no empty boast that at Port Antonio, as at many other points around the island, facilities for sea bathing are unsurpassed in any part of the world The shores and beaches are of fine, hard, white coral sand; the lapping waves have a uniform and agreeable temperature, so mild that one may remain in the water for hours without danger or discomfort; the beaches slope easily and gradually into the deeper water, and the surf is devoid or even a particle of under-tow. These features combine to make sea bathing in Jamaica a luxury denied to the dwellers in higher latitudes, and are the reasons for the general popula-rity of this pastime among the island's residents and visitors. But the good ship is already at her moorings, and, let me remark, there will be no trouble with the Custom House officials. Your baggage need give you no concern, as a reliable agent from the hotel will take charge of your belongings, while outside of the wharf will be found your conveyance. After a short drive through the town a steep pinch of hill is negotiated, and on the top is the Titchfield. The voyage has been all too short, but it feels good for the landsman to be on terra firma again, particularly amid such delightful surroundings, within and without. For while one cannot fail to be charmed with the air of refinement, luxury, and comfort that pervades one's apartments, there is a positive fascination in the view from the windows or the broad verandahs looking out upon the sea with the verdure-clad hills on the left, and the long stretch of sea-coast leading the eye away into the distance where the waves lap the palm-fringed shores. There are many picturesque drives around Port Antonio, such as to the Blue Hole, six miles along the coast, a remarkable inlet of the sea, very deep and surrounded by a dense growth of cocoanut and other tropical trees; the waters swarm with fish, and are an intense sapphire blue. Moore Town, an old Maroon village, nine miles distant, romantically situated in a vale at the foot of the Blue Mountains; this trip is fuH of interest, passing on the way within view of the vast banana fields of Golden Vale. An Englishman, in describing the scenery along the c.oast, wrote: "Though the road runs coastwise, the sea is not constantly in view, but at intervals I passed close enough to the electric green waters, shallow and transparent, over broad and rocky reefs, and brilliant under Old Sol's warm smile, with an excusable impulse to dive in and join the fishes of many colours. Monotony here cannot overtake the traveller,

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HISTORICAL SKETCH. 21 but a short and refreshing shower often does, and adds to the freshness of his experience. Here is a picture of a little house, prettily painted, but mostly hidden by vines and wandering creepers. The garden has an atmosphere of life and happiness touched up by variegated crotons, with palms and banana trees on the rear slope as a background, and roses, honeysuckle, jessamine, hybiscus, and wild maidenhair ferns with sprays two or three feet long. In Jamaica the picture is perpetual, from January to December, in a rhapsody of sweet aromas and brilliant and ever-varying pictures. Then the s .unset effects! These are HISTORICAL AMAICA is an island in the Caribbean Sea, and lies in lat. -but this really does not concern us very much. It is enough that the captain of the ship kno,Ys all about the latitude and longitude. Its area is about 4,207 5quare miles; extreme length, 144 miles; and extreme width, 49 miles, with a coast-line of 550 miles. Those who ought to know say that "It is one of the fairest countries for beauty in the habitable earth, the brightest jewel in the British crown, and the gem of the Antilles." Columbus found it for Spain on the 3rd of May, 1494, and the Spaniards held the island Ul}til the 20th day of the same month, 1655, when an expedition under the-command of Admirals Penn and Venables took it from them, and none too soon, for the Spanish occupation was simply 160 years of cruel persecution of a peaceful race of Inqians, the aboriginal Arawaks. During that period some 60,000 of them were done to death, under some pretext, or none, but so complete was the annihilation that there remains not a single living trace of that unoffending and interesting people. Five months later Cromwell sent out General Sedgewick to conduct the Civil Government, who was succeeded the following year by Colonel Brayne, and he in turn gave place in 1657 to Colonel D'Oyley, during whose administration the island was invaded by Don Arnoldi Sasi, an old Spanish Governor, who with J ,000 men landed at Rio Nuevo in 16 and fortified him self on a cliff near the river. In a few days D'Oyley advanced against him by sea with 750 men. Led by their general, a landing was effected, and by means of scaling ladders the fort was taken; 450 of the Spaniards were killed; and_ over a hundred made prisoners. .of the hapless band that escaped some made for Cuba! while others, with Don Sasi and many of their old slaves, took to the mountains and kept up a har assing guerilla warfare fora whole year, until early in 1660, when D'Oyley heard that a band of them, some 150 strong, were encamped in Ocho Rios, on what is now the Shaw Park property. They had planted their several guns on an eminence-they are still there-prepared for a determined resistance, but D'Oyley attacked them by land, an the power of mortal pen or brush to venture upon a description or delineation of." Let lovers of art, history, and health, come and see, when sight of the first pickaninny basking in the sun, conscious of nothing but physical comfort, will call to their minds the words in the Ir Alabama Coon" :-SKETCH. "Mammy, don't yer cry, Wipe yer shiny eye, Better days are coming soon." unexpected quarter, with about 80 men, and in less than an hour the Blue-jackets had turned Don Sasi's artillery on himself, killing 50 of his men, and poor Sasi fled to Runaway Bay (p. 90), whe' nce he escaped to Cuba in a canoe Exit the last of the Spaniards. Enter British rule permanently established. The advent of the English was not marked by depredations against the Arawaks-for they were dead-but the role of Ishmael was more in line with their idea of good government. At that time, Sir Thomas Modyford, who succeeded Colonel Edward Morgan, gave commissions and letters of marque in the name of the King to pirates and buccaneers, whose hands truly "were against every man," to despoil the Spanish main or wherever booty worth bringing to Port Royal could be found, and it is written in the chronicles that the rule of Modyford brought the island to its greatest perfection. The most notorious of these free booters was Henry Morgan. The story of his life on the high seas is a catalogue of colossal barbflrities and unexampled cruelties, but he never sailed without a commission from the authorities, so that he might be styled a "very gentlemanly buccaneer." His expeditions of pillage and rapine were courteously styled by the powers that were as "Naval encounters and invasions." In 1670 he attacked Panama, then possessing great wealth; his army of 1,200 men and strong fleet made short shrift of the' little town, and the sacking of it was but the work of a few hours. One hundred and seventy-five mule loads of gold and silver was the" swag," ,000 of which Morgan secured for himself. The men got the balance, but they recognised the lack of proportion somewhere and mutinied, whereupon the intrepid Morgan rolled up his tent like an Arab and silently stole away. Among the many anomalies recorded in history none appears more grotesque than the fact that while Sir Thomas Modyford was ordered back to England, practically under arrest, to answer for the offence of having exceeded his authority in cpmmissioning Morgan, this same Henry Morgan was knighted as a mark of the King's appreciation of the exploit of Panama. Six years later Sir Henry, the" wealthy planter,

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THE FORDING, OCHO RIOS: SHAW PARK ON THE HILL. KING' S HOUSE, ST. ANDREW' S Fro m a jJlC/m'e b J Sir YOSltl((l. Reyn olds I'll I N s J1/ajes ty' s Collertio ll at 51 7allles s Palare. ) ROCKFORT, NEAR KINGSTON A RELIC OF LORD VAUGHAN. MONUMENT TO LORD ROONEY, SPANISH TOWN. 22 I}

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CLIMATE. the foe of pirates and the friend of law and order," was appoirited Lieutenant-Governor of Jamaica! But the curtain fell on the pirate business when Lord Vaughan succeeded Morgan as Go\'ernor. Vaughan's remedy was a drastic but salutary process of frequent hangings of these marauders at Gallows Point. The sight of their comrades dangling on the Palisadoes so got upon the nerves of the remaining buccaneers that the business became unpopular, and was finally crushed out. From this time there was no very remarkable epoch in the history of Jamaica, with the exception of the destruction of Port Royal by an earthquake ill 1692, until 1782, when Rodney achieved his famous victory over the French fleet commanded by Comte de Grasse. The historian tells us that before the sun went down on that 12th day of April the greatest naval battle in English history had been fought and won j all day long the cannon roared j one by one the French ships struck their flags, or fought until they foundered and sank, while others crept away like crippled birds, to be picked up afterwards. Rodney brought his Formzdable yard-arm to yard-arm with the magnificent Vzlle de Pans, commanded in person by De Grasse, the finest and best ship in the then known world. She was the last to surrender, fighting till there was not enough mast left to carry a sail, her decks above and below littered with mangled bodies. Fourteen thousand Frenchmen were reckoned to have been killed, for the ships were crowded down with troops for the assault on Jamaica. De Grasse gave up his sword to Rodney on the quarterdeck of the FOl11zzdable, and so, on that memorable day, was the English Empire saved. Peace followed, but it was peace with honour. The American Colonies were lost, but England still kept her West Indies. 'Her flag still floated over Gibraltar j "the hostile strength of Europe all combined had failed to wrest Britannia's sceptre from her. She sat down maimed and bleeding, but the wreath had not been torn from her brow. She was still Sovereign of the Seas." Rodney became Jamaica's best-loved hero, received the thanks of his Sovereig' n, was elevated to the peerage, and a statue by Bacon was erected to his memory in a prominent position in the square at Spanish Town. Jamaican history, like its physical configuration, is broken, uneven, and full of sharp contrasts. The first age began when Columbus dis covered the island j the second when Cromwell took it from the Spaniards; the third with the commencement of the Victorian era, when our late Queen of beloved memory gave her consent to the Act of Parliament which provided that on and after the 1st of August, 1838, all the slaves in the Colonial possessions of Great Britain should be absolutely and for ever free. The immediate effect of this act on Jamaica was unquestionably-there, I was just about to touch on the Sugar question, on which the subsequent history of the Colony has so largely hinged j but Prudence whispers "Don't!" CLIMATE. _HE "''''g' climate of Kin, gston, for a period over ten years, has been figured out as follows: MaxImum 87'8, minimum 70'7, giving a range of 17'1 degrees. The rate of decrease follows the same rate as that obtained in other ,-.. countries, viz. about 1 Fahr. for every 300 feet of elevation; therefore, any temperature desired may be found between that given for the plains and Blue Mountain Peak at an altitude of 7,360 feet, where the thermometer registers maximum 71'1, minimum 46'3, and mean 55'7. The best months in which to visit the island are from ,November to April; as this is supposed to be the coolest season j but there is no reason why Jamaica should not be visited with perfect comfort and safety at ariy time during the year, not only to avoid the cold of Northern winters, but it would be a genuine relief to escape from the intense heat that frequently visits New York and London in the ,summer time, producing a ,condition of discomfort, and even suffering, unknown to us here. \iVho ever heard of sunstroke in Jamaica? And even if the' thermometer were to reach the, upper nineties with us, which it seldom does, the atmosphere of latitudes where such temperature might be reached is sufficiently charged with moisture to effectively minimise the effect of the sun's rays. -It is true we have periods of heavy rainfall, say in May and October, but frequently this means copious tropical downpours for a couple of hours, with bright sunshine in between j and so regular are the intervals that one gets to know about what hour the rain is likely to come, and times one's business or outdoor exercise accordingly. It is well, how ever, for the traveller to take his waterproof in going for a long ride, as he may be detained, and thus be exposed to a dr'el1chingwhich it is wiser to avoid. "Vet clothes and wet feet, when one is fatigued, are not without danger anywhere. Iil writing' of the climate of Jamaica, I would address myself -not only to the pleasure-seeker and sight,seer, but particularly to the invalid,

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JAMAICA: THE NEW RIVIERA. although it would be very difficult to enumerate the many ailments that have been remedied or, at least, relieved by a sojourn in the island. I might mention the benefit derived by gouty or rheumatic Pf'ltients treated at the HQt Sulphur Springs in St. Thomas; the in vigorating effects of the Chalybeate Spring at Silver Head, St. Andrew, not to speak of the valuable Baths at Milk River-of the mineral springs of Jamaica more anon-of dyspepsia cured by the free use of our fruits i of malaria, for in the hill regions It has no place; chronic nasal catarrh, bronchial catarrh, etc. etc. According to Dr. Clark, of Santa Cruz, the climate is very similar to that of Algiers, plus the altitude. Rarely do Europeans suffer from disease of any kind in our mountains; they are a perfect paradise for children, and frequently do those who live in the lowlands regain in the hills the strength, elasticity, and vim of which a long residence in the invariable rather than the exces sive heat of the plains has deprived them. Dr. Robb, of Kingston, in an article on the climate of Jamaica, in the Handbook for 1883, gives, as an instance of European longevity, the fact that on one day, in the moun tains of St. Ann, eight men met, THE AUTHOR IN 1875. most of whom were English and Scotch, and none of whom had been in the island a shorter time than forty-three years, the majority fifty, and I"hose united ages amounted to 579 years. Dr. Clarke, of St. Elizabeth, in an article on the same subject, in the Bandbook for 1884, says that during a residence of fourteen years in the Santa Cruz Mountains, no death from fever had occurred in his practice, and that. on one occasion he had on his visiting list seven Europeans and two natives, whose ages added together amounted to 75I years. To this I .might add, for the in formation of those who are under the impression that Jamaica is the home of yellow fever, that in a large and varied practice among all classes of the community, extending over a period of twenty years, I have yet to see my first Case of this dread scourge of a century ago. If the traveller will but obey the rules of hygiene and health that he would follow in othel; land s he is no more liable to fever here. ) than he would be at home. .; But there is an ailment, above all others, for which this climate is especially adapted, and for the relief of which a congenial atmosphere is hard to find. I refer to incipient I?hthisis, or pulmonary trouble of any kind; and to this m ay be added the testimony of sufferers from Bright's disease. The observations of medical men in the Dry Harbour Mountains prove that Bright's is by no means the dangerous malady it is supposed to be, if the proper climate can be found for the patient. Lest the reader may be tempted to criticise too severely the apparently extravagant language I use in describing either the scenery or climate of Jamaica, I would ask him to pardon a personal allusion while I give, briefly, a bit of iny own experience. In 1 874, while yet a young man attending college in London, England, I contracted a severe attack of pneumonia, followed by pulmonary symptoms of a very grave character. In a few months I had reached a point where my physician could hold out very little hope of recovery Mr. Jonathan Hutchinsont one of England's most famous specialists, limited m y prospect of life to six months unless I sought at once a milder climate. Where? was the question. Eventually Sopth America ,vas d ec ided on, but on reaching Jamaica news was received of an insurrection in progress in the neighbourhood of Buenos Ayres, and the advisability of stopping for a time, at least, in Jamaica became apparent. The sea voyage had done much to build up. my strength, but there yet remained persistent fever and an exhausting cough. After not. more than ten, days in Kingston, I sought the country, living much in the open air, and that in the saddle. Within a month I found myself in Brown's Town, St. Ann, which has been my home ever since. Before six months had elapsed my temperature was normal, and the cough had entirely left me. My weight when I left England was less than 140 Ibs ; what it is now I am too modest to tell, but I present my photograph again at the end of this book, lest anyone should be inclined to commiserate or condole with me in being compelled to re s ide so long in the tropics. In all these years there has not been the slightest return of any of the symptoms of ill-health that made it necessary for me to leave the Mother Country, and what Jamaica has done for me I feel certain it will do for others similarly affected, if only they will give it the opportunity. There are scores of men and women in this country who could relate a like experience. In a very able paper read before the American Congress on Tuber culosis, New York, in June, 1902, by tha; t veteran authority on the lungs, Dr. Benjamin F. Lee; Secret;!ry qf State Board of Health, Pennsylvania, he said: The alternations of land-bI ;eeze are remarkably regular, and can always be anticipated. At about 10 o'clock it). the morning the delightful breeze sets in towards the mountain heights from the ocean. This continues to blow until late in the after noon, when there is a period of cotfiparative calm, followed, as the sun goes down, by delightful currents of coo.l air from the forest-clad heights. Hence it is possible by a simple change of elevation to obtain. any desired climate within the range required by the consumptive. The difference betw 'ee n the daily maximum and minimurll at any point or altitude is rarely more than ten degrees. Even at the level of the sea one usually r equ ires a light. blanket a t night. The sudden alternations.

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CLIMATE. 25 of heat and cold of from 25 to 40, which are so destructive to health and life, and especially so trying to the consumptive, to which we are so constantly liable all over the eastern part of this continent, even as far south as Florida, are entirely unknown in that happy clime. Hence it may be fairly said that while Jamaica is tropical in situation, so far as its climate goes, it is tropical only in the characteristics of wonderful equability, and sub-tropical or even temperate as to temperature. The Parish of St. Ann, on the northern aspect of the mountain and towards the western end of the island, offers by far the greatest proportion of altitudes such as are usually considered desirable for consumptives, possessing a total area of 476 square miles, 337 situated at elevations of from 1,000 to 3,000 feet. This parish has been called' The Garden of Jamaica'; and when it is considered that the whole island of Jamaica is one vast garden of surpassing beauty, this is indeed high praise. Brown's Town is one of its principal towns, and is beautifully situated I,OOO feet above the sea. The Parish of Manchester exceeds all others, however, in average altitude, having out of 302 square miles 134 between 1,000 and 2,000 feet, and 126 between 2,000 and 3,000 feet. Its principal town is Mandeville, one of the most charming to'wns of the island, placed on the summit of a mountain 2,200 feet above sea-level, and noted at once for its picturesqueness and its cleanliness. Suffice it to say that there are numerous localities, at altitudes of 2,000 feet and over, where sites suitable for the erection of sanatoria could be obtained and at no unreasonable delay; comparatively easy of access; in daily communication with the important coast towns by railway and by mail coaches, and where a delicious bracing climate prevails perennially, within twenty miles of the coast; situated on the one main mountain range of the island, the pure sea-breeze reaches them without interference or obstruction, only cooled by its passing over the dense inland forests. The Santa Cruz Mountains are well known for the coolness and dryness of their climate, and of the Dry Harbour Mountains also the same is true. Enough has been said to indicate the claims of the climate of this exquisite island, as favourable to those suffering from pulmonary affections, rheumatism, Bright's disease, and a host of other ills that flesh is heir to." There is one subject I should like to refer to here for the sake of a large number of young men of delicate constitution who are desirous of finding a country where they could earn a living, and at the same time enjoy the benefit of a genial climate. Frequently when travelling abroad I am interviewed on this question, and when at home almost every mail brings me letters making the one inquiry, after relating their circumstances, physical condition, etc., "Would you advise me to go to Jamaica?" It is impossible not to sympathise with such cases, D but it is better to tell the bald truth, even if it is discouraging, rather than to inspire anyone with hopes and expectations that are not likely to be realised. The list comprises professional men, clerks, mechanics, gardeners, agriculturists, etc. To the first-named I would say that the supply is already greater than the demand ; besides, the people are poor, while every year numbers of young Jamaicans, legal and medical, return to the island from Europe, there having qualified to practise. A stranger would find the competition growing keener every year, although there is .always room at the top." Clerkships are all too few to provide situations for more than a small percentage of the many well-educated young men of respectable parentage already in the island. Mechanics from abroad could not live upon the wage offered here. There is a dearth of first-class workmen in every department of trade in the island, probably because there is no apprenticeship law, to strengthen the hands of the competent masters who are in a position to turn out journeymen a thorough knowledge of their trade;' but, worse than all, there exists a rooted objection in the minds of most native lads to being indentured for a term of years to learn a trade. Be the cause what it may, the fact remains that three-quarters of the mechanics in Jamaica receive less than' 3s. per day. Gardeners and agriculturists trained in temperate climes would require to spend, some time familiarising themselves with the many different phases of plant life and cultivation in the tropics before they would be 'worth much of a salary to anyone. But enough said. It m:ay sound' somewhat blunt, but I would not advise anyone to come to this island with such an aim in view unless he had in hard cash to ,000 'at the very least; and even then, befOl'e investing his capital, let him come out and cautiously and carefully study the situation Oll the spot. If it is fruit farming or pen-keeping he is going in for, his dreams, and the realisation of what the work is like, may be as far apart as the poles; neither the mode of life, the climate, nor surroundings may suit him. Let him first take a subordinate position on a property under some experienced planter for a year or two-by applying to Elder, Dempster & Co. he will be aided in obtaining such a situation-and by that time he will either have discovered or been told whether he is fitted for the life or not. If he fails, he will still have his money, and be able to blame nothing but his own lack of adaptability; but if he had imprudently invested his money, and by mismanagement and lack of experience failed, he would of course blame the country. On the other hand, if a planter's life suits him, he will now be in a position to manage his own plantation; but here, as elsewhere, there is no royal road to fortune, except by steady habits and hard work.

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2 6 JAMAICA.' THE NEW RIVIERA. MINERAL MONG the many resourc e s tha t aw ait development in Jamaica may be mentioned our Mineral Springs, only waiting for the man of enterprise to cast his money upon the waters, and before many days he will not only reap a golden harvest, but prove a veritable benefactor to suffering humanity. The first in importance of our Medicinal Springs is the bath of St. Thomas the Apostle, situated near the pretty little village of Bath, easil y accessible by a good driving road from Kingston to Morant Bay, a distance of thirty-one miles; and twelve miles more inland lies the village of Bath. This journey, however, is rather tedious, there being very little of interest t Q be seen on the road; but a route much to be pre ferred is that by the weekly coastal steamer to Bowden, where lodgings may be obtained at the commodious and comfortable Peak View Cotta ges of the United Fruit Co., and where the tourist will probably be inclined to prolong his stay for a few days, to enjoy the s cenery fresh air that blows over the loft y eminence on which this res Ort is built. A rare treat is in store here for those who have a da y or two to spare, when advantage may be taken of the courtesy extended so frequently to tourists by the United Fruit Co., of making a trip among the plantations on a waggon provided with seats, coupled to the front of the engine or the narrow gauge banana railway (p. 62). This is an experience second only to the Rio Cobre Canal jaunt; the exhilarating effect is indescribable as you rush upwards among the glens and valleys of the Company's best banana properties. Try it! A drive of nine, miles over a good' road in one of the United Fruit Co.'s conveyances brings you to Bath, where, although the hotel is not yet built, fairly good lodgings will be found. There is no space here in which to tell the interesting story of Bath in anything like detail; its history is full of romance. Tradition says that some two hundred years ago a runaway slave afflicted with ulcers discovered the hot springs, in which he bathed his sores, was healed, and returned to his master, who gave him his freedom. This master was probably Colonel Stanton, who owned the property on which the springs were found, and subsequently sold them, with I,lOO acres of adjoining land, to the Government for So run the records of the Old House of Assembly. The Legislature made grants of money for the building of houses, the botanic gardens were established, while people contributed freely towards the support of the sick and poor who resorted to the baths; a good road was laid out between Port Morant and the springs, and" many persons of fortutle," s ays Long, who wrote the history of the island in I774, "took up lots and erected houses; the square was soon adorned with a hospital, public lodging-house, and a billiard-room, and became the fashionable resort of the well-to-do from all parts of the island. In short, from a dreary desert it grew into a scene of polite and social amusement. SPRINGS. This was not of long continuance, however;' political squabbles upset all, and by I 768 the place was practically abandoned. All this is. ancient history, of which more might be added, but w e are conc erned with the present. A few months ago I visited Bath, and, early on the morning after my arriv al, walked the short one-and-a-half miles from the village to the spring. The road, which is good enough for wheeled traffic, is an. easy gradient, and winds up a narrow gorge clad with the richest vegetation, a perfect Arcadia for the botanist and f ern hunter. The air is fragrant, but heavy-a sort of natural hot-house. Every half-mileshelters are provided against sudden showers in the shape of zinc covered sheds built over the road. A sulphurous brook ripple s down the ravine. The bath building is in good condition, and quite a party might be accommodated upstairs with sleeping apartments by giving previous notice to the manager, while downstairs are the baths, two built of marble for ladies, and three of cement for gentlemen. Allthe conveniences and accessories of a well-appointed establishment were at hand-changing-room, towels, etc. I drank the regulation two glasses of hot water fresh from the "Kettle," as the spring is called, because it is covered in by stonework with an iron lid on the top, allowing the escape of quite avolume of steam when removed. The temperature of the water in the" Kettle" is I32 Fahr. I was already pretty warm from my walk, and now a copious perspiration broke out from every pore; but you don't mind that when you are prepared for a bath. A few minutes later I stepped .into a clean and inviting bath-room, and made a plunge, but I paid for my temerity. Nothing short of parboiling, I felt sure, would be my fate before I could scramble out. The bath had just been filled, and. was about 120 temperature; but shouting brought cold water in abundance, and quickly the temperature was down to a little below 100", when I enjoyed it immensely. Dr. Sibley, for some years. physician to the baths, in one of his reports says: "Thes e waters. are decidedly sulphurous, and evolve abundance of sulphuretted hydrogen; they also contain chlorate of calcium, a valuable medicinal' agent, and are greatly superior to the sulphurous waters so highly prized in England, for whereas the English waters of this kind are cold, these have a temperature of from I28 to I30, and are' by the highest medical authorities esteemed to be stimulant and highly beneficial in many chronic complaints and a great variety of skin diseases and chronic rheumatism, gout, and disorders of the spleen and liver, caused by malaria." Long described the wate r as "sending a thrilling glow through the whole body," and states that its continued use enlivens the spirits and sometimes produces the s a m e joyous effects as inebriation. It must be a singular f e licity to get drunk on w ater! The ,springs may be classed among the hot sulphurouss odic-calcic-

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SPORTS AND PASTIMES 27 waters, similar in their mineral constituents to the Salt Lake Spring in Utah, and those of Bath in England, but still closer allied to the famous waters in the Pyrenees, Eaux-bonnes and Eaux-chaudes. Writing of these, an eminent physician, Piddoux, states that "by the rare combination in them of the sulphites of lime and soda they furnish the most beautiful problem in therapeutics, a most powerful remedy in phthisis." The action of the Eaux-bonnes on those who drink its waters, who suffer from bronchial catarrh, pulmonary phthisis, and are cured even in the third stage of the latter disease, is simply marvellous; but precautions are needed, and patients must be placed under medical surveillance. The waters of our Bath possess the same mineral properties as, but in larger quantities than, the waters of Aix-la-Chapelle, Bareges, and Bagneres de Luchon, and are superior to those at Harrogate, which are cold, while these are hot. A great future may safely be predicted for the Bath of St. Thomas the Apostle, when the people of Europe and the United States learn that we have not only balmy breezes and azure skies, but healing waters of the highest potency to offer them. THE MILK RIVER BATHS.-These baths are situated on the banks of the Milk River in Vere, Parish of Clarendon, and, like the baths in St. Thomas, may be reached either by coasting steamer in a few hours, or, if preferred, by rail to Clarendon Park and a drive of seven miles by road. So far little attempt has been made in the way of elaborate preparation to receive visitors, and the accommodation is simple and antiquated, but, like the old almanacks, If they're no very guid they're no very dear. There are several houses in the neighbourhood of the springs in good order, fairly well furnished, and provided with bed and table linen, while a cook and butler are available at a small charge, or arrangements may be made with the matron for board at about 6s. per day. The best months in the year to visit Milk River are from the end of September to the beginning of May. The mineral spring IS a thermal saline-calcic, the temperature being 92 Fahr., and its constituents being almost identical with, although hotter than, the Lebanon Spring of New York and the healing springs of Bath County, Virginia, each of which is held in high esteem in the United States, Not only from all parts of the island, but from the Spanish Main, United States, Canada and Europe, hundreds of sufferers from gout and rheumatism are on the list of patients who have come for treatment and have gone away, not only greatly relieved, but frequently cured, many of them having already tested the thermal waters of Homburg, Weisbadell, and Kissingen, and confessing their preference for Milk River, especially in the case of gout. Scrofulous and granular diseases have also been successfully treated; but although the Government has generously aided the institution, even up to the present day, much remains still to be done in the way of alterations for the convenience of invalids, and in the construction of the baths, before it could be honestly recommended to the fastidious patient who looks for comfort as well as cure. There is no need to enlarge on the efficacy of the numerous other mineral springs throughout the island, but in passing I might mention the invigorating properties of the chalybeate springs at Silver Hill, St. Andrew, called the "Jamaica Spa," at one time of great and deserved repute, but, like much else in Jamaica, allowed to fall into disuse by sheer neglect. This is all the more surprising when one considers its magnificent situation on the side of the Blue Mountains, at an elevation of 3,500 feet, surrounded by scenery of surpassing loveliness, and that the waters contain more iron than the chalybeate waters of Harrogate, seven times more than Montpelier, and three times as much as Twit Well; but the day is not far distant when the true value of this natural solution of chloride of iron will be recognised, and we may yet hear of the promoters of the. European chalybeate springs shaking in their shoes at the very mention of the name" Jamaica Spa." SPORTS AND PASTIMES. ND when we come to Jamaica, ."hat are you going to give us to do?" A very proper question, and I should like to be in a position to draw up a programme for the traveller of how to kill time. The problem never having worried me, I fear my knowledge of the subject is an unknown quantity, for although in my youth I was wont to cast my fly on the black waters of the Cabrach, and the still waters that run deep of the Fiddoch and the Deveron, at nightfall bringing home a well-filled basket of bonnie speckled trout, it is many years ago; and while in 1891 and 1892 I shot elephants in Central Africa for the pot-roasts their hearts, feet, and trunks supplied; hippos on the Zambesi for the sake of their tallow; koodoos, hartebeests, elands, gemsbok, and other antelopes of a dozen varieties-for I had a hundred men to feed day by day, often for weeks together, with nothing but the meat that fell to my rifle-but that was not for sport. However, I have a friend who struck it rich on his wedding day, and has ever since been a great sport, owns his yacht, and tells me that for

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28 JAMAICA: THE NEW RIVIERA. YACHTSMEN looking for fresh CrUlS1l1g grounds during the winte r there is no better port for headquarters than Kingston in the whole of the Greater Antilles. Good anchorage, well sheltered against e very wind that blows, supplies of all kinds on the spot, and the doors of the Royal Jamaica Yacht Club always open to welcome strangers, with its billiard-room, whist tables, cool and airy reading room, and many like-minded brethren ready to offer such assistance and courtesies as tend to make a temporary sojourn pleasant. Interesting trips may be made round the island with any craft over ten tons, while Cuba Hayti, San Domingo, and the Leeward and Windward Islands may be visited, where good harbours for yachts of any draught will be found. CRICKET has many votaries in Jamaica. There are several clubs in the island, notably the Kingston and Melbourne Cricket Clubs, the former having a membership of three hundred, including some of the best players in the island; and here visitors introduced by a member are always welcome. There are also good clubs in St. Elizabeth, Portland, and other parishes. GOLF.-What better exercise would one desire than a couple of hours in the afternoon at this grand old game? There are splendid links in Kingston; new links have been laid out on the grounds of Constant Spring Hotel, and a professional engaged for the season i there are also good links at Mandeville. The Kingston and St. Andrew Club has issued a card with the following information: "The Committee of the above Club will be pleased to receive as temporary members any visitors to the island on the following terms :-"A week's play free, after which there is a charge of 28. 6d. per week, 5s. per month, and lOS. for three months. "There is also a charge of 6d. a round for all players. "Visitors intending to play over the links are requested to inform the Secretary, who will be glad to give any further information." So bring along your bag of sticks-putter, driver,. cleek, and mashie; we can find the caddie! no country are the roads better adapted for this mode of travel than Jamaica. Hundreds have already made the trip around the island on their wheels, adding greatly to their health and enjoyment. The roads are macadamised, hard, but porous, so that even when it rains there is little mud, and but little danger of slipping. SHOOTING.-We have no big game, but lots of wild fowl, whitewings, baldpates, peadoves, blue pigeons, ring-tail pigeons, partridge. and quail i and in addition to these we are visited every winter by large flocks of ducks of several varieties-whistling duck, shovel bill duck, and white-belly duck i also teal and snipe in large numbers. The close season is from the end of March to the end of July for most of the birds named. The best shooting grounds in the island are to be found within a short distance of Kingston, round Port Henderson and the RioCobre: the genial and hospitable owners are always pleased to offer opportunities for a good day's sport in the season to their friends and acquaintances, three hundred birds to twelve guns being no unusual bag in a morning. Crocodile (otherwise called alligator) hunting is a treat for any keen sportsman, for nothing gives more excitement to the square inch than the chance of drawing a bead on the vulnerable spot of a ten-foot croc as he emerges from his slimy habitat, or basks in the sun on the banks of the lagoon i but I would advise anyone to give this sport a wide berth unless he is constitutionally strong, and inured to exposure, not only to the mid-day sun, but the noxious exhalations of the malarial swamps, for only in such pestilential neighbourhoods are these saurian reptiles found. the lower reaches of nearly all our rivers a variety of delicious fish is to be found in abundance, chief among them being the West Indian salmon, or callipeva, snook, June fish, and snapper, while higher up in the hills, beneath the waterfalls and rapids, are to be found the famous mount;lin mullet, a near relation to the brook trout. All of these are caught with the rod, and give excellent sport, but for the enthusiastic sportsman we have something better to offer him-namely, tarpon fishing. The fashionable tarpon ground of to-day is, of course, the Boco Grand Pass, off Florida. Thither the devotees of tarpon repair at the beginning of April, and stay until they are driven away by the mosquitoes i talking, thinking, dreaming of nothing and fishing for nothing but tarpon, the glorious, high-leaping tarpon. The author of an article on this subject that appeared lately in an American magazine said: Tarpon devotees will not allow that there is any other kind of fishing. They wave you aside with a tired air when you talk of the skill needed for salmon or trout fishing. Skill is the least part of the endowments needed for tarpon fishing-which calls for sheer strength and vast powers of physical endurance. To all appearances it is a gigantic herring, with scales four inches across, except for its long dorsal fin ray. When the news spreads that the fish are on the move, a score of boats hastily put out, clustering quickly together around the likely spots where great fish continually leap into the air." All this and more you will find here, minus the hordes of mosquitoes. There are mosquitoes in Jamaica, but very few as compared to an ordinary fishing resort at home i and as to the flies, the pest of northern climes in the summer time, except in some parts near the coast or in the neighbourhood of sugar estates, they are not numerous enough to remind you of their existence. In the waters around the Bogue Islands, Montego Bay, plenty of tarpon are to be found, four having been caught by a party of gentlemen not long ago in one day, the combined weight of which was 346 lb One of the finest fishermen in the world-Mr. Eugene Von Hofe, of New

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SPORTS AND PASTIMES. York-says in his book on tarpon: "This mighty game fish,in weight running to hundreds of pounds, was comparatively unknown to anglers not many years ago, at which time the taking of a tarpon with a rod and reel was an unheard-of exploit, the difficulty experienced in handling him on the rod exceeding that of any other fish. Of recent years the interest in fishing for the tarpon has increased to a marked degree, but even now his capture with th' e rod and line is not of frequent occurrence, and that angler who proves himself so skilful or fortunate enough to take one of these silver kings in that manner can well consider that he has achieved no ordinary As a vaulting fish they are not exceeded by anything that swims the seas, instances being known where they have cleared the waters with their tails to a height equalling six feet; they are rapid in' their movements, and their strength is something enormous. Generally, after taking the bait, they instal1tly jump in the air close to the boat, at other times dashing away for a great distance before commencing their antics; while in the air they shake their heads, thus ejecting the bait which they have been holding in their mouths." The Hon. Louis Bertram, Auditor-General of Jamaica, writes: "I understand you want to know something about tarpon. This magnificent fish is found all over the West Indies under the following names:, Kuffum' in Demerara, 'Grand Ecaille' in Grenada and the French Islands, and' Tarpon' elsewhere. We in Jamaica have landed them with the rod up to eighty-five pounds, but much bigger ones have been caught in nets. They are found in the sea, in creeks, in rivers, and in salt ponds. Their bony scales make it extremely difficult to gaff them, the safest place being in the gill. I landed one for Captain Montgomerie that way the other day, also the eightyfive-pounder already mentioned. We have caught them with whitebait, grey mullet, fly, and prawn." From the foregoing facts and act].lal experiences the English and American angler will naturally conclude that he need not quit these shores for Florida in the tourist season in order to indulge in his favourite sport. LAWN TENNIS IS played not only in Kingston, but all over the island. It would be difficult to. find a district where it is not; there are clubs everywhere, and tournaments are of constant occurrence. AUTOMOBILING.-Of the roads in Jamaica much has been written and more has been told by the great army of delighted visitors who every winter traverse the Island of Sunshine in motor car or native carriage. Mingled with the pleasure of viewing the charms of a .tr,?pical landscape is surprise that travel should be so comfortable. For It IS not usual in a tropical country to find the matter of getting about from place to place as easy as in our own' well-equipped suburbs-and that. is just what the tourist does find as he continues day after day to enJoy the splendid roads in this wonderful land of delight, which until a few short years ago was quite unknown to the American travelling public. Every. in Jamaica, beside being thproughly good as far as constructlOn IS concerned, is in addition a series of enchanting views. It is the usual thing to halt one's car every here and there to get the full benefit of the beauty of colouring, to view the distant mountain tops just come into the picture as the car rounds one of the winding stretches of the hillside road, or to study the "movinO" pIctures" in some little native settlement. -'" The whole surface of Jamaica is well traversed by finely built highways, credit for which is due to the British Government, under whose sway the island has been for two and a half centuries. From the hilly condition of the Jamaica landscape the roads cannot proceed in straight lines from village to village, but must wind up and down the steep places, with the result of constantly presenting to view unexpected scenic beauties that inspire the admiration of every beholder. If one is compelled to undergo the hardships and fatigue of ill-constructed roads to do his sight-seeing he feels sometimes that the price he pays is too great for the pleasure. But in one's own favourite touring car, and running over the smooth and hard-surfaced roads of this fortune-favoured island of the southern seas, there are no drawbacks to perfect enjoyment. Not only are the main roads admirably adapted to this twentieth century pastime, but they are so distinct in their character and so carefully marked that the veriest stranger could not lose his way. Signboards are maintained at all cross roads and intersections, masonry or cement columns are established at convenient spots showing distances to adjacent villages and even total mileage to far distant points, and every mile is marked by a whitewashed and numbered wooden post. Visiting automobilists are cautioned against speeding, however, for, though the roads invite it, the natives are not yet accustomed to the motor car, their animals are apt to be frightened, the roads are seldom straight for any great distance, and in the mountains there are sharp curves that it would be dangerous to attempt to speed. It is best to go slow and see the country. Here, amid the restful environment of the waving palms and thick shade of tropic groves, the wearied man of affairs and the tired society leader may roll smoothly along, breathing in the calm serenity of their surroundings and gaining strength of mind and body. Not that it is impossible, with all the novel claims on one's attention, to make very good time on certain of the 'comparatively long trips between important localities, and a number of prominent American visitors have scored very good runs from their headquarters at Hotel Titchfield, Port Antonio, to Kingston, Castleton Gardens and Montego Bay. The largest cars will find ample room on all the coast and many of the interior roads. But among the mountains, owing to the numerous abrupt corners and curves, an auto with a wheel base of more than about 100 inches will meet with difficulties. The ideal car, in my opinion, for the Colonies in general and Jamaica in particular, is a Stanley Steamer -either the fine passenger touring car or the Runabout, carrying fourand this conclusion is arrived at after an experience of several years with one of the latter, and comparing it with others using gasoline cars.

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30 JAMAICA: THE NEW RIVIERA. It is often objected that it takes fifteen or twenty minutes to get up. steam before starting on a journey. This is but a trifling drawback. When steam is up it will go, and th'ere is not a gasoline expert living who can be certain when he turns the crank of a gasoline motor that it will even start, to say nothing of what power it will develop or how long it will run after it is started. A gasoline engine at its best is a most con:iplicated dfair. The essentials include batteries, coils, spark plugs, carburetters, watercooling devices, besides a complication of valves. Then come tht;! shifting gears, clutches, advance and retard of sparks, and the constant attention necessary to lubri. cation. All these o b j e c t ion a b Ie features are overcome 111 the new steamer. Tires will do more than double the same work on a steamer than on a gasoline car on the rear wheels, and there is no shaking oflhe machine while standing on its tires. A steamer when standing is perfectly quiet, while in a gascilinecar the vibration of the engine is continually shak-ing the mechanism to. pieces, an. d when one. part gives out a 'pretty general smashcup ensues. With a steamer the absence of vi bra. tion allows the parts to remain securely in their respectiv e places, and only-legiti" mate wear results. Transportation by autom ab il e should be like glidirig on wings rather than riding on threshing mac'hin e. An engine that depends upon ex plosions to produce power can neyer be as still and free from vibration as one which receives a constant; evenly distributed power. Then there is the high c.ost of gasoline to be con sidered. Although it is now reduced to 60 cents per gallon, there are very few places in THE AUTHOR AND HIS STANLEY STEAM CAR. The vexatious tire question is ever with us, and, as everyone knows who runs a motor car, sharp stones th e island where it can be obtained at any price; while .the steamer runs best on kerosene oil as a fuel, provided it is fitted with a Judson L. Thomson N atibnal burner. The kerosene costs little more than half gasoline, gives nearly double the mileage, and can be had from any and every wayside store along the road; and, I may add, a steam car is so cOllstructed that repairs are very much more easily effected-a considera tion, surely, in countries where skilled mechanics are seldom available. when .wet cut into the rubber of a shoe pretty severely. But in a great measure this can be obviated if the motorist will but provide all four wheels with a set of Woodworth Leather Tire Treads. The set costs less thall the price of a single tire of good quality; and from the day they are' put on there need be no further anxiety about punctures or blowouts, and with rational care are good for from 2,500 to 4,000 miles or more, according to weight of car, while with them skidding is impossible.

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PLA CES OF INTEREST. PLACES OF INTEREST AND HOW TO REACH THEM. is not my purpose to enter into an exhaustive and detailed description of the attractions of the island, since this chapter is intended only for those who are already in Jamaica and intend travelling to see the country for themselves. Noone wishes to be told the details of a story they are about to read, and the long array of photographs this book contains, selected from a collection of many hundreds taken during my peregrinations over all parts of the island, will speak for the scenery far more eloquently than volumes of written description. I will therefore confine myself to a few suggestions as to trips and tours to different places of interest, leaving the visitor to decide which of them the time and means at his command will permit of his accomplishing Frequently it happens that the round trip only is taken, mainly for the benefit the sea voyage affords, returning by the same steamer, and thus allowing five clear days ashore. This, of course, refers to English travellers; but the same itinerary will apply equally well to visitors from the United States, though on different days. I would gladly omit any reference to the catastrophe that laid low our beloved city, for to those of us who were there when the blow was struck, and barely escaped with our lives, there are memories so bitter that we shrink from recalling them. Life in the second largest city in the West Indies hummed along as usual. The new year, 1907, was but fourteen days old, and the outlook was rosy-the golden sun of prosperity had risen above the horizon-and the people looked ahead with bright and cheerful hearts, when at 3.30 in the afternoon, inside of a minute, the scene had changed-the black hand of disaster had overshadowed the sun of prosperity, and ruin and horrible disaster had overwhelmed Kingston. San Francisco, Valparaiso, Kingston-inside of a year each of these three great cities (for Kingston was a great city from a West Indian standpoint) shared the same fate; destruction by earthquake and fire. And, by comparison, the disaster that overwhelmed the capital city of Jamaica was the most terrible of the three. In the Californian city it was the fire following hard on the earthquake that did the greatest amount of damage, but still fully a quarter of the residences were left in a habitable condition. At Valparaiso, as at Kingston, the earthquake was the principal agent of destruction, but here again, although the damage was more widespread than in the American city, at least ten per cent. of the buildings were left fit to live in In Kingston not more than two per cent. of the dwelling houses-for the business section was utterly destroyed-(and the vast majority of these were small wooden buildings) have been spared. In just thirty seconds-in the twinkling of an eye, as it were-Nature had used her most terrible weapon to smas h the city and parish of Kingston to pieces. Several of the commercial houses stood the terrible shock, but in an hour or two these were reduced to bare, broken walls by the earthquake's chief aid-fire. Such in brief is the story of the cataclysm that smote Kingston. The photographs on pp. 47 and 4il, taken within a few days of the catastrophesoldiers and police being still on guard over the ruins-represent the centre of the city in all its sadness. But while it is true that many of the men who helped to make Kingston the great "Vest Indian city it had become were lost in the great disaster, many of them still live, and yet possess the grit, energy and enterprise that such an occasion could only accentuate. The ashes of the shattered and burnt buildings were scarcely cold before they were having the foundations cleared and a start made to build a bigger, better and still greater Kingston than of yore. The illustrations in the following pages, representing new streets and magificent buildings, all constructed within less than four years, testify that life in the tropics has not taken the vim out of our city business men, and still the work of rebuilding progresses with a rapiditibeyond our fondest dreams, for we will not be satisfied until the new Kingston ranks second to none among the cities of the Caribbea. The electric cars will take you along the main streets, and the belt line around most of the city. Weare proud of our Electric Street Car system. There is no finer plant of its kind in the world. When you go to Bog \iValle, see the dam on the Rio Cobre and the power house, whence the energy is generated for the tramways and electric lighting. A dam of concrete is built across the river near the Bog \iV alk station, 9 feet high above low water level, with a base of 18 feet. The difference in levels from water above the dam to water above the' power house is 57 feet, and the distance from the dam to the power house is 6,200 feet, the water being conveyed thither by means of a steel-riveted pipe 8 feet in diameter. The electric current is transmitted at the immense pressure of 14,000 volts, a distance of twenty-two miles to the transforming station at Kingston; the transmission line is carried on steel poles planted in concrete. The system, though subject to most variable loading, is governed within 5 per cent., and the whole electrical system works most perfectly. The Museum connected with the Jamaica Institute will well repay a visit, for the antiquary will find not only relics recalling the days of Spanish barbaric rule, but also subjects connected with the aboriginal Indian inhabitants, the Arawaks, stone and shell implements, skulls, bones, and pottery. For the botanist the Herbarium contains

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" KING STREET, LOOKING NORTH. THREE YEARS AND SIX MONTHS AFTER THE EARTHQUAKE. 32

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BANK OF NOVA SCOTIA. RO YAL MAIL STEAM PACKET BUILDINGS SOME OF KINGSTON S NEW BUILDINGS. E GOVERNMENT BUILDINGS. COLONIAL BANK. 33

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34 JAMAICA: THE NEW RIVIERA. orchids, grasses, sedges, ferns, and a large collection of polished specimens of economic wood; while anyone can verify our great fish story by looking upon the identical papers the notable shark swallowed, and subsequentl y delivered up to the authorities, to the consternation, conviction, and execution of the crew of the Nanc)1 brig on the 25th of November, 1799. The library will afford many a pleasant hour to those who have the time to spare and are sufficiently interested in the bistorical records of the Colony to de l ve among the musty tomes-many books are to be foulld here-and scarce anywhere else-dating back to the days when tl;1e under Penn and Venables added the i sland to the Empire. -Then there is the new Roman Catholi c Cathedral, the finest ecclesias tical building in the West Indies, its glistening copper dome reflecting the rays of the tropic sun and visible from the steamer's deck while yet far out at sea. Other places of interest that will we ll repay a visit of inspection are the new Parish Church, the Nova Scotia Bank, the Colonial Bank, the Royal Mai l Steam Packet Building, the Law Courts, the Penitentiary, the Victoria Market, the new Public Buildings, etc. A very enjoyable run might be taken on the street cars to the Hope Gardens, lOng's House Gardens, or to Rock Fort, all of which are short journeys in different directions from the city that take you out to the country for a breath of fresh air. ONE DAY ASHORE. Arrange at the office of your hotel to have a carriage or motor car by daybreak on Saturday morning, and start by sunrise for an ex cursion to Castleton Gardens (pp. 5 0 and 5 I), nineteen miles from Kingston. Driving a long the Half-way Tree Road, within an hour the Constant Spring Hotel and Mona Estate are passed, the fields and foliage assume a deeper green, the glare is less, and the ai r freshens as you ascend the hill; crowds of women and children are met, walking brisk.ly along with their baskets on their heads, carrying yam, plantains, potatoes, breadfruit, bananas, cassava, ochra, peas, ginger, arrowroot, tobacco, maize, oranges, limes, pineapples, cocoanuts, mangoes, sh'l-ddocl"s, grapefruit, papaws, melons, custard-apple-:(In what other country will you find custards, milk, and oysters growing on trees ?)-sweetsop, soursop, roseapples, sapodilla, cherrymoya, granadilla, cashew, chocho, tamarind, ayocada pear, poultry and eggs, &c., destined for the market in Kingston. The road is good all the way, and in many parts completely shaded by the overhanging trees. The outlook from the top of the hill is hard to beat; a splendid panorama opens up to the view-the Liguanea Plains at your feet, and beyond them the magnificent harbour, the Palisadoes, Port Royal, and the long vista of receding mountain ranges which line the coast towards the west, including the Healthshire Hills. One hour more and Castleton is reached, situated in a valley through which flows the Wag VVater, noisily making its way among the huge boulders that occupy the river bed. Almost every imaginable species of tropical plant life will be found in these gardens. The Government has spent an immense amount of money, while labour, taste, and sk ill have a ll combined to bring them to their present state of perfection. When you are tired walking around, you can go either to the cottagehotel of the United Fruit Co. within the grounds, where a good luncheon may be had, or you can cross the road to the bank of the river, and there you will discover a natural arbour, formed by the interlacing of the groups of bamboos, delightfully cool, and just the place to picnic and rest until it is time for the return journey. One of the most magnificent drives in the island is from here to Annotta Bay, but there is no time for that trip on this occasion. THREE DAYS ASHORE, SAY MONDAY the journey to Newcastle should be made. The remarks with reference to arrangements and an early start for the trip to Castleton app l y with equal force to this. The early mornill!I in every case is the best time to travel, and all the more when a long journey is undertaken. The air is cool, it is easier for the horses, the dust is l aid by the dew of the night, and the atmosphere is fragrant with the odour of b l ossoms on flower and tree. Newcastle is the camp of the English soldiers, although I understand a Scotch regiment-the Greys-was once sent there in disgrace to atone for misdeeds. I suppose the idea was to give them a sort of solitary confinement en masse. The existence of the daisy, Burns's "wee crimson-tippet flower," heather and whins growing around the camp, lend colour to the story; nevertheless, living there year in and year out, and a scamper there and back in a day, are two different con siderations. One thing is certain: were the distance from Kingston to Newcastle many times greater than it is, it would be well worth the time and trouble required to get there, if only to enjoy the view from the Parade Ground, at an elevation of 4,000 feet above sea-Ieyel. Until lately only half the way was made by buggy, the rest of the journey on horseback; but now there is a driving road up to the centre of the camp-a great convenience, certain l y, for invalids and aged and infirm folk; but for those who can take to the sadd l e the old riding road from Gordon Town is much to be preferred, equally safe, much shorter, and far more picturesque and interesting. After leaving Kingston the road l eads along the valley of the Hope River, a deep and narrow ravine hemmed in by towering mountains on both sides. Before reaching Gordon Town, those who drive take the r oad to the left, and by comparatively easy gradients continue the ascent to Newcastle. The riding party will obtain ponies at of the two livery-stables in Gordon Town-sure-footecl animals accustomed to climb the hills daily-and a well-made track, some four feet wide, is followed, zig-zagging by the side of the torrent through some of the richest bits of tropical scenery the eye ever feasted on (p. 53). Be5ide the varied assortment of acacias, roses, jessamine, hibiscus, and COl1\'olyulus, you will find

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IN THE BOG WALK 35

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lAMAlCA: THE NEW RIVIERA. the purple bougainvilleas, great banks offerns, feathery bamboos, and graceful palms overhanging the pathway. An hour of this at an easy pace, and you reach the first of the buildings, that look from Kingston like a flock of sheep grazing on the mountain side. Keep climbing, and a few moments will bring you to the Parade Ground, where you can rest and gaze upon a scene that can be more easily imagined than described. If inclined for a walk, follow the path along by the old Post Office to Clifton Gap, and you will find a view from that point that, to say the least, has no equal in the West Indies-and that is saying a great deal. Do not stay late, as it generally rains in the evening at Newcastle. TUESDAY should be devoted to the exploration of Spanish Town, an interesting drive by road, passing en route the great Ceiba, or Silk Cotton Tree, immortalised in "Tom Cringle's Log," and still known as Tom Cringle's Tree (p. 66). Its branches, covered with tilland sias and other parasites, reach right across the road. These giants are of solitary habit, and are never seen in groups. Specimens are frequently to be found measuring eighteen to twenty feet in diameter. Then there is Ye Olde Ferry Inn (p. 67), said to be the rendezvous in bygone days of the roystering sports of Kingston and Spanish Town, who met here on Sundays for their weekly gamble and spree. The old house is now almost deserted and crumbling to decay. If the railroad journey is preferred, you take the train at 7.30 A.M., and a short run of fourteen miles will land you at this ancient capital, founded by the Spaniards in 1523, and called by them St. Jago de la Vega. Around the Plaza, or square, you will see about everything of interest there is in the place. On one side stands the old King's House, or official residence of the Governors when Spanish Town was the capital, with its massive portico supported by Doric columns; and inside you will find the entrance-hall, banqueting-hall, ballroom and reception-rooms-all on a scale so grand and lofty that one feels like being turned loose into an empty cathedral of huge dimensions. On the east are the Registrar's and Record Offices, where are deposited the official records, land titles, etc. Get someone to take you through this building, for in it our law-makers used to hold their sessions in the stormy days of the old House of Assembly. On the north stands Rodney's Temple, an elegant and artistic bit of masonry, under the dome of which stands the statue of the noble hero, flanked by two splendid jJrass I8-pounders captured from De Grasse's flagship, the Ville de Paris. There are also two bronze mortars, taken from some ship on that memorable day when Rodney saved Jamaica from the French, and maintained the prestIge of England's greatness as "Mistress of the Seas." The Cathedral must not be forgotten. It stands on the foundations of the Spanish Church of the Red Cross, which was destroyed by the Puritan soldiers of Cromwell in 1655. The present building was erected in the place of the one built in the reign of Queen Anne, but afterwards destroyed by a hurricane; many of the monuments, tablets, and slabs are older than .the church, and are full of interest. Some specimens of Bacon's best work are to be found here, such as the monuments to Lady Elgin, the Earl and Countess of Effingham, and others. It will now be in order to repair to the Rio Cobre Hotel for lunch previously arranged for. An hour only can be allowed for this repast, as there is something very special in store for the afternoon. Oh, I know," says someone; "a drive through the Bog Walle" No; something even better than that, although I may say here that a drive through the Bog Walk is one of the pleasure trips few visitors miss who have the time to spare. This pass was. named by the Spaniards Bocca d Aguas (Mouth of the Waters), now corrupted with execrable taste to "Bog Walk," a vale of rare beauty, six miles in length, and would be hard to match in any country, its extraordinary wealth of vegetation covering the hills on either side from base to summit. The swiftly running river follows the road all the way, its banks adorned with the beautiful graceful palms and masses of bamboo-like ostrich feathers. On nearing Linstead the valley narrows, and nearly perpendicular rocks of immense height and picturesque grandeur take the place of sloping hills, but even here the rocks are festooned with convolvulus and other climbing plants. A light, graceful bridge spans the river where we emerge from the valley. But this trip must be reserved for another visit. We hire a buggy fOL six shillings at the Rio Cobre Hotel and drive to the head of the Irrigation Works, enter the gate by the cottage, and descend the narrow track to the. dam; there you will find a punt with two men in attendance on the canal, who, for a small fee of five shillings, will take a party of any number up to eight on one of the most delightful cruises it has ever been their good fortune to enjoy (pp. 68, 69 and 70 show three of the scenes from this fairyland). For an hour and a half to two hours-if you ,have any sympathy with Nature in your being-it will simply mean enchantment. Imagine the great Palm House at Kew placed here by some kind genii alongside the water, and you may have an approximate conception of what the vegetation is like that lines the banks on either side, yet without monotony, but with the ever-changing combinations of a kaleidoscope. The buggy can go round and meet the party at the bridge, you will get back to Spanish Town in time for the 5.32 train to Kingston. WEDNESDAY you must VISIt Port Royal. Take the early market boat and cross the Bay before the sun is too high to be comfortable, and you will find a programme for the day to satis(y the most exacting sightseer. Port Royal is situated at the entrance to Kingston Harbour, at the end of the Palisadoes, a harbour large enough to accommodate the fleets of the world. Here, in days gone by, lay the craft of the early Spanish navigators; here was anchored the squadron of Penn and Venables three and a half centuries ago; the rendezvous of the most noted pirates and buccaneers the world

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EXTENDED TOURS. 37 has ever known ; here they brought the plunder of the Spanish galleons and South American cities, squandering their gain in gambling and riot. But the grimmest story with which this historic place must ever be associated was that of June 17th, 1692, when in the twinkling of an eye three-quarters of the city was swallowed up by an earthquake and tidal wave, and many thousands of its inhabitants, together with the ill-gotten gain and pillage of the high seas, the spoils of Panama, the ransom of Maricaibo, the gold, jewels, and silks wrested from the merchantmen of Hispaniola, all found a common grave in the depths below, except Louis G a ldy, who was swallowed up by the earthquake and by a second shock thrown into the sea, and was miraculously saved by swimming until picked up by a boat. He lived for twenty years, respected and beloved by all who knew, him, and at last died in his bed, surrounded by his friends, and was buried at Green Bay, where his tombstone may be seen to this day. The chief point of interest in the old town is the ,church. The key may be obtained from the caretaker, who lives on the opposite side of the street. The first object_ that attracts the attention on entering the building is the tablet to the memory of Louis Galdy, then the handsome antique mahogany gallery, traced and carved in the intricate and graceful designs of the Spaniards. The numerous mural tablets deserve more than a passing notice-some, sacred to the memory of an entire crew, this erected by the affection of a sister, that by a comrade, the costliness of many indicating the love and EXTENDED vlSltors who can spend several weeks in the island we are able to provide a more extensive programme of travel into the interior, but there is yet a big two days to be put in by the young and vigorous while still in the neighbourhood of Kingston in climbing our" Matterhorn," Blue Mountain Peak, the highest point in Jamaica, 7,360 feet. (The best route is by way of Gordon Town.) A good supply of pro visions should be taken, and as the thermometer m"lY be found even below 40 Fahrenheit rugs and blankets must not be omitted in the outfit rubber coats and umbrellas will come in useful when you reach' the clouds. Necessary crockery and cooking utensils will be found in the hut on the peak, the key of which can be got at Farm Hill Estate, six miles from the top. There is a fairly good bridle track all the way, and although narrow and rugged in some places, it presents no danger to an ordinarily cautious rider. Ponies accustomed to the road may be engaged at Gordon Town, and from there the ascent proper commences; upward and onward your sturdy, sure-footed beast will ,carry you, through scenery of incomparable beauty, increasing to the grand and sublime, as you approach Whitfield Hall and devotion in which were held those who were thus buried far from home in a foreign land. Yellow fever seems to have been the gate of exit from this yale of sorrow for the large majority, but that fact only reflects credit on the British Government,' and adds one more proof of the humanitarian principles that actuate its representatives at home and abroad in dealing with those in distress, of whatever nationality; for although there were many cases of yellow fever then in' Jamaica, owing not only to the ignorance of sanitary laws that was then so prevalent, vessels that had never even seen Jamaica sent their stricken crews by other vessels from all parts of the Spanish Main, knowing that the doors of the great Port Royal Marine Hospital were never closed against a sick soldier or sailor, no matter what his flag. Now take a walk across to Fort Charles, where Lord Nelson was in command during 1779. Tread for yourself the veritable wooden quarter-deck on which the famous Admiral watched for the approach of the French fleet under D'Estaing, and read the marble tablet, "IN THIS PLACE DWELT HORATIO NELSON. You WHO TREAD IN HIS FOOT-STEPS REMEMBER HIS GLORY." The sun is getting low, and it is time to return to the ferry and get back to Kingston_ To-morrow you sail for home again, tired and weary; but once on board that will be forgotten, and I trust pleasant reminiscences will recur to you of the three days you spent ashore on the island of Jamaica. Bon vo)'age! TO U R S. Abbey Green at an altitude of 4,000 feet. The wind blows deliciously cool and fresh, as if across a Scottish moor, bringing the blood tingling to the cheeks; you feel good and exhilarated, and only regret that the friends you left behind are not with you to share your pleasure. At 6,000 feet you enter the forest primeval, wild and awe-inspiring in its sylvan solitude; another hour and you have reached the summit. Look westward and behold the never-to-be-forgotten panorama of the whole fair island of Jamaica spread out at your feet the purple hills melting in the shadows of the distance, the sun setting in gorgeous tints of crimson and gold. Half-an-hour later the lights of Kingston begin to appear like fireflies sparkling in the distance, until the gathering mists and darkness shut out the view, and you are left to contemplate Nature's vastness in an hour of pensive silence, far from the madding crowd; but-the spell is rudely broken by the prosaic announcement of your handy man" that "Supper is ready!" You have had your tonic; eat, but sparingly, if possible, as there is neither billiards nor bridge to while away the hours of digestion, and in a f ew minutes you will be wrapped in a well-earned slumber. In the morning, bestir betimes, and see a sunrise that will amply repay you for all the hardships and fatigues

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3 8 JAMAICA: THE NEW RIVIERA. of the journ'ey j leave firewood for the next visitor, take tinie, coming down the mountain, keep your pony well in hand-the rest you know! CANE RIVER GORGE.-There is a short hut very pleasant trip of nine miles from Kingston that should be taken, being a visit to Cane River Gorae (p. 54), along the windward or shore road that leads to Morant Bay; following the car line, past the Lunatic Asylum, foM miles brings us to: Rock Fort, an interesting old ruin, aIld 'one of the twenty-eight forts constructed around the coast during the tration of Lord Vaughan, about 1674, when threatened and attempted invasions by hostile powers were the order of the day. Thisonly remains of the number in fair preservation. The view of the harbour and Pali sades from this poii1t is very fine, and there is a huge quarry close by where the prisoners from the Penitentiary are brought every working da y to put in their time of "hard labour" (p. 55), their Osnaburg garbs abundantly testifying by sundry brands to the number of years they a re "doing." ,After passing Rock Fort and skirting the base of Long Mountain \ve cross the Hope River, and a little further arrive at Cane River, where we turn off the main road a few hundred yards. The shady trees provide the horses with shelter from the sun, and here we must leave them apd foot it the balance of the way, about a mile and a half. Carriers for the hampers and luncheon outfit can be had before leaving the main road, and we proceed towards the mountains, crossing and recrossing the river bed which is almost dry, except in the rainy season, when excursions of the kind. are out of the question. Now it shows a very small stream, over which one can eas ily pass dry on the stepping stones, but see the well-worn water marks on the rocks ahead, son1e ten and fifteen feet high, clearl y indicating the enormous torrents that must flood the valley when the season is on. Gradually the bed of the river narrows and we are entering a huge ravine, flanked by frowning precipices of limestone rock, rising hundreds of feet above us, the impregnable home of thousands of birds, as well as orchids, ferns, and numberless creepers. How delightful the breeze that blows softl y down the canyon! ,No one would believe the change possible in so short a distance from the radiated heat of the sands and rocks of the : valle y we have jus t come through, but much of the water must be evaporated in its course over the open plain, as now it is quite a river, more rapid and many times larger than it was below After innumerable wil.1dings and crGssings, where you 'must now pulh o ff y.our-shoes or pick-a-backby. your l?ative ihell"Chman the' ascent to the finest cascade IS made by a sohdly' bUllt stone pathway, through the cave and under an overhanging rock, the huge basin underneath the cascade m 'akingan id e al place for a dip, and in taking which' you. pass thrOugh to the shelf of rock immediately behind' the fall arid look through the stream coming down like a curtain, of green fringed with silver. "What a g l orious place! Never heard of it before!" There, is ,nothing strange in that, for there are few people even in :Kingston who know that ,here they have within twQhoursat mostef the city a spot for a picnic that runs a close second Catskylls of New York, or the rilgge d and romantic glens of the Scottish Highlands. : ; In ,returning let us take a good look at the cave---'for thereby hailgs a tal e H e re was domiciled several years ago a gentleman by the name: of "Three-Fingered Jade," a brigand, whose ,delight it was ,to: waylay unwary travellers to Kingston and hold them up for,such' valuables as they rilight carry Oll their persons. This and milch e lse: that he did are written in the island's chronicles at Spanish ToWn, A reward was uffered by the Government for his body, dead or alive,: and a Maroon named Readu took on the contract, and standing where we see the figures in the photograph, brought Jack from hislail:, by offering a challenge; couched in language expressi\"e enough, but far from proper. The robber was angry, and they clo sedininortal combat, but the Maroon was the better man, and Qrought the three-fingered hand to headquarters in proof that he had killed the highwayman. Readu was granted a pension of per annum for life! MANDEVILLE.-The train starts at II a.m., passing through Spanish Town, Old Harbour, May Pen with its fine old bridge j rising then to higher levels, the scenery becomes more broke n, the glens narrower, and the vegetation richer. By 2 p.m. you arrive at Williams field railway station; buggies are waiting (fare 2S. 6d.) for the drive to Mandeville, over a fine and undulating plateau. Do not forget that here/as in most parts of Jamaica, nearly every tree you pass is either an economic wood, flowering, fruit or spice tree, almonds, cedars, mangoes, oranges, oysters, custards, fre s h milk, &c. ,As yo u approach the town you are reminded of Froude's remark, about its being an exact reproduction of a Warwickshire hamlet, before the da ys of rai l ways and brick chimneys. On the left is "The Mandeville Hote l ," now greatly en larged and improved)' and here you had bette r put up if there is room, for although there are many good lodging houses in the to';yn of more or less attractiveness, this is the only hotel, and yo u will find it comfortable, clean, and airy, with good attenda nce and an excellent table. The fact that a good many Kingston folk make this their retreat ill the summer months is commendation enough of the home comforts it provides The clim 'atewill be found delightful, seeing that its elevatiOll is 2,131 feet. This district is famous for the cattle raised on the several fine pens imthe:t1eighbDurhood, and there are, t oo, larg e coffe6"properties 'and orange groves; where this .fruit is grown al its \"ery best. There are several pleasant drives around Mandevill e, although the scenery is of a lesS romantic type than that found on the 11orth side jthe road s are first-class, and tempt the visitor t o prolong his drives This is the best point, too, from which to visit Malvern, in the Santa Cruz Mountains

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MORNING IN THE COW-PEN. THE VILLAGE POST OFFICE. "SCENES BY THE WAYSIDE." 39 PEELING GINGER. "BEG YOU A PAN O' WATER."

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JAMAICA: THE NEW RIVIERA. probably the dryest region in the island, possessing a charming climate, and exceptionally beneficial in lung trouble. The route lies by way of Spur Tree Hill, from which there is a very fine landscape view looking down on the great expanse of hills and dales, plantations and pens of St. Elizabeth. The distance to Malvern is about thirty miles. Good accommodation will be found at the Astor House Hotel; Lawrence's lodgings are also well recommended. There are several places of interest to visit, and among thcm the quaint old village of Santa Cruz, the beautiful Bamboo Avenue or Lovers' vValk near Shaws (p. 75), the Y.S. Falls, Maggotty Falls, ,'lnd the largest known Logwood Tree (p. 100), standing on Goshen Common, are well worth seeing; while the cekbrated Potsdam School, the town of Black River, Lacoyia, Fuller's Wood, the Lover's Leap on the Pedro Plains-which is a sloping precipice of 1,660 feet high, the base washed by the sea-are all within easy access. There are few places on earth where Nature's beauties so combine with man's creation to please and interest. For the next journey it will not be necessary to return to Mandeville, as the railway can be reached at Balaclava Station, after leaving which the line skirts the Black River, where beautiful glades of tropical vegetation delight the eye. This river is navigable for thirty miles by flat-bottomed lighters, that bring down from the interior large quantities of produce, logwood, fustic, etc. Some of the cascades, both on the Black River and its tributaries-such as the Y.S.-are among the most beautiful in the island; and on the lower reaches the sportsman will find lots of opportunity of drawing a bead on the eye of a crocodile, if he so desires. A full head of steam is now required by the iron horse, for there are some stiff ascents to be made before the next level is reached, overlooking the Cockpit country to the right, the old haunts of the Maroons, and the wildest region in Jamaica-of interesting formationcliffs, sink-holes, and rocks of limestone deposited by the sea when the island was upheaved from the depths below, the great basin seen on every side formed by the gradual disintegration during successive centuries, leaving the surface a rough and almost impassable structure, and making it one of the wasle places of the earth. The railway now follows the valley of the great river, west of which is the Parish of Westmoreland; and near the coast-line a section of country known as the Surinam Quarters, so called because in 1672 over a thousand Dutchmen from Surinam and South America came and settled here. Industrious and frugal, they added greatly to the prosperity of the Colony; but after a lapse of nearly two hundred years only a trace can be found of their descendants in the mixed blood of some of the inhabitants. Montpelier Station is the next halting-place, and, as there has been enough of travel and sight-seeing for one day, the traveller had better stop over here and rest at the Montpelier Hotel, than which there is 110 better this side of Constant Spring, built by the Hon. Evelyn Ellis f(r the entertainment of English guests and travellers generally. The house is lavishly furnished, excellently managed, and no epicure has ever been known to find fault with the cuisi1le. For those interested in farming, a day will be profitably spent in visiting Shuttlewood, Montpelier, and. Knockalva-model pens all of them. Herefords are specialities with the latter, while at the former may be seen the silvergrey Zebu and Mysores, imported from India by Mr. Ellis for the improvement particularly of the' native working stock. MONTEGO BAY (p. 99) is but a short run by rail of ten miles from Montpelier, the view from the car as you emerge from the last tunnel being the finest of the whole route-the Horseshoe Bay, so graphically described by Captain Mayne Reid in the opening chapters of The Maroon," the Bogue Islands, the town, and the great fields of sugarcane on the plain, make a ruagnificent picture. Plenty of accommodation at moderate rates will be found at Mrs. Jervis's or Mrs. Wallingham's lodgings; while for invalids Dr. MacCatty's Sanatorium is the best institution of its kind in the Colony. But besides these, of course, we have the new ,Spring Hill Hotel, standing in its own eight acres of land, finely situated, at an elevation sufficiently high to give an extensive view of the town, surrounding country, and the beautiful bay, yet within easy walking distance of all points of interest. Twenty-five bedrooms is its capacity. Well furnished and equipped; broad verandahs, fine baths, billiard room, tennis court, etc.; and the fact that the hotel is under the management of Miss Payne is in itself a guarantee that the catering, convenience and comfort of the guest will receive the very best of attention. The most interesting building in the town is the old church, on account of the fine monumental marbles and tablets, many of them testifying to the wealth of the planters who resided in St. James in the days of slavery. A notable monument is the one executed by the elder Bacon, and erected to the memory of a lady named Rose Palmer, whom tradition makes out to be a fiend incarnate, having managed, by the complicity of her slaves, to surreptitiously dispose of thre, e husbands by means of poison, and, in turn, flogging her guilty allies to death to seal their lips. She wore a ring, with the inscription, "If I survive I will have five" ; but her dissolute career was brought to an abrupt termination by death at the hands of her slaves, who were alternately the companions of her orgies and the victims of her morning's remorse. But'it is too long a story to record in detail here; besides, tradition is somewhat mixed up on the subject, as there were two ladies successive wives of the Hon. John Palmer, one good and the other bad; and some say to the memory of the former was the monument placed in the church. Be that as it may, every visitor to Montego Bay ought to visit Rose Hall, the famous. mansion where the Palmers lived (p. 98), standing near the main road to Kingston, about ten miles along the sea-c oast, which was built by Mr. Palmer in 1760 at a cost of ,000 sterling. It must have been superbly furnished, for although it is now fast tumbling to ruin, there still remain many evidences of its ancient grandeur-the flight of im-

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EXTENDED TOURS. stone. steps,portions of the railings of curiously wrought brass, maSSlVe foldmg-doors of solid mahogany, three or four inches thick, upheld by brass hinges, representing sea-monsters biting into the wood, panels, hand-carved, in many a scroll of strange device. The hall IS forty feet long, thirty feet wide, and eighteen feet high, of costly woods,ornamented. with a deep' cornice of arabesque pattern. This room is still in a good state of preservation, and on the walls hang three portraits, the work of masters, the colouring to this day fresh and fair. One represents a hard, stern-featured man, clad in the scarlet and ermine robes of a judge j another, a mild-looking, gentlemanly individual, dressed in the fashion_, of the seventeenth century; while the third is a lady of five-or six-and-twenty, of exquisite beauty, attired in bridal array. Could this have been the wicked Rosa? In: the next room, on the same floor, is a magnificent staircase, which gives a good idea of what the rest of the mansion must have beenwith rails, balustrades, and moulding all finely carved out of sandal wood; one of our late Governors in vain offered for this piece of wood-work; Through the. whole house you may roam and meditate on the departed glory of other days, when sugar allowed the planter to erect palatial residences like Rose Hall. The tour may now. be continued along the coast to Falmouthmiles-then on to Brown's Town, twenty-five miles by the interior road, proceeding through Moneague j thirty-four miles more strike' the railway at Ewarton, but in this route you will have passed through the Parish of St. Ann, and without seeing all you ought to see of the "garden of Jamaica." It will, therefore, be wiser to return tei Kingston by rail, and enjoy the luxuries of Myrtle Bank and Constant Spring for a few days; then encourage some of your friends to accompany you on the most interesting tour the island has to offer. Take your railway ticket for Ewarton, having previously wired to Miss Hutchinson, Moneague, to have conveyances meet you at the station. There are two trains every day, one leaving Kingston at 7.30 A .M., and the other at 2 P.M. The route lies across the Liguanea Plains, past Cumberland Pen and Spanish Town, on through the Bog Walle. I hav e alre ady referred to the scenery of this valley, but its aspect from the railway is materially different, as the line maintains a high l evel j and we look down on the extraordinary, luxuriant vegetation, with glimpses of the road and river, tangled thickets-Nature, wild but grand. I heard a Swiss traveller remark here one day. that it reminded him of crossing the Pyrenees. There are' several deep cuttings and many tunnels on this road. The one called" Gibraltar" is the longest on the whole Jamaica Railway, namely, 719 yards. At theeKit of this tunnel the Rio Cobre is dammed back to provide volume of water sufficient to fill the great iron tube that carries the water to the power house of the Electric Car Company. Bog Walk Station is the junction of the Ewarton and Port Antonio lines. The distance to Port Antonio from here is fifty-four miles, and probably in no other part of the world, except perhaps in the ApenF nines, are there so many tunnels to be seen in so shod a distance, some twenty-four occurring, and varying in length fwm fifty to three hundred and thirty-seven yards. Twelve of them are met with between Troja and Richmond, a distance of four miles But, had I the pen of a ready writer, what a story could be told of the scenery that lies between Bog Walk and Annotta Bay, probably the finest stretch of purely tropical scenery to be found in the West. Every turn presents a bit of l andscape that one would love to record with his camera as the train winds its serpentine course among the hills j native cultivations or "grounds" everywhere, their cottages perched up in all sorts of queer places. From Annotta Bay to Port Antonio there are a succession of sights that charm the eye as you skirt the coast-line and look out upon the blue ocean, its waters rippled by a soft breeze, and here and there small sailing craft gliding on its sllrface, while you pass frequently the depots of the United Fruit Company, where, if a steamer is loading, you see bananas being hurried along in waggons, in cattle trucks, mule carts, and by. the peasantry. on mule an. d donkey back, while everyone in charge of an animal carries a bunch or two on his or her head. Bananas! bananas! everywhere. The all-important, all absorbing subject, claiming the attention of everyone, and well it might be-bananas have been .the redemption of this part of the country. The demand' for this fruit seems insatiable, and no danger of the market being overstocked. It is most popular among the working-cl asses of the United States, tl-:e miners of Pennsylvania, and the iron workers of Pittsburg, who find It more convenient, nutritious, and sustaining than any farinaceous food they can obtain for the money. It is extremely wholesome and easily digested, and when the upper classes have learned to prepare it as a dessert, Ii la creole, it will be still more popular. But our destination is not Port Antonio at present j this is a digression from our main purpose. Nine miles from Bog Walk on the main line and we reach Ewartc)l1 The buggies are ready, and we set out for Moneague, a distance of ten miles, the first four beirig a climb of J ,500 feet over Mount Diablo, the "Simplon" of' JamaIca. Higher and yet higher the hors es diligently toil over a finel y en gineered and well-kept road, protected by parapet walls. But what. a scene is given us here! Awa y to the right stretches the vast plam of St. Thomas-in-the-Vale, dotted with estates and pens, here a miniature hill, there a valley, but all adorned with exuberant vegetation, and the Blue Mountain range rising as a background in the distance In running down the other side of Mount Diablo the freshness or the atmosphere is at once noticeable, for you have entered the coolest parish in the island, St. Ann. It is also the largest parish, having area of 476 square miles, and possessing thirty mile s more of ma111 roads than any other parish-in all, 228 miles : Mbneague is reached within an hour and a half from the time we started, and we make for the hotel, nicely situated on the top of the hill jus t beyond the town, and here we remain for the night, sure of

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JAMAICA: THE NEW RIVIERA. a well-cooked and well-served dinner and a comfortable room. For small parties of modest means who might wish to prolong their stay, the lodgings kept by Miss Hutchinson offer suitable quarters, with plain but wholesome fare, if one is prepared to dispense with frills. The next stage must be taken bright and early, so as to reach the Fern Gully, nine miles from Moneague, in the cool of the morning. The scenery through this ravine is unique, affording only room enough for a road on which two buggies can pass; the hillsides rise so straight and 'high that only the noon-day sun can penetrate' to the road, the rocks in some places so abrupt, and form such acute angles, that one imagines there can be no way out. These same rocks are literally matted with the loveliest banks of ferns, tree ferns of magnificent proportions, as well as the tiniest and most delicate specimens of the maidenhair" growing side by side in great profusion. Less than a mile beyond this romantic spot is the pretty village of Ocho Rios, or Eight Rivers, where the Spaniards met their "Waterloo," and, after a short rest here, we can follow the coast towards St. Ann's Bay; but, if there is time to spare, I would strongly recommend a very interesting side trip to a region hitherto but little known even to Jamaicans-I refer to the Clifton Falls (p. 81), Cascade and Rapids on the 'White River (pp. 78 and 80 ). Were some of the scenes in this vicinity but truthfully transferred to canvas, they would be the sensation pictures of the Art Exhibition season. This trip will probably mean the staying for the night at Clifton Lodge, where Miss Fletcher is prepared to provide for a limited number of visitors of,say, not more than eight or ten at a time; but the attractions of the river are quite worth a little inconvenience,' should it, so happen that the party somewhat exceeds in numbers the limits of accommodation. Before another season I trust some enterprising company will be wise enough to recognise the charms of this beautiful spot, with its. ideal climate, bracing atmosphere, and health-giving breezes among the fragrant spice-groves of the hills. It is easy of access, being about eight miles from Ocho Rios; following the road that turns np at the White River Bridge will land you at the door of Clifton Lodge; but when the party is large, it would be advisable, if a visit is contemplated, to give notice to Miss Fletcher a day or so previous to the time you hope to arrive. Returning by way of Ocho Rios, the journey is continued on a road built hard' by the sea, and a lovely drive of four miles brings you to the famous Roaring River Falls (p. 89) There is a carriage road right up to the Cataract, but it will be more humane, while the exercise will do us good, to walk the short distance, about a mile, and allow the horses to rest under the shade of the spreading palm trees that shelter the road by the bridge, and slake their thirst at the -running stream of sparkling water that laps the roadside 011 its way to the sea close by. The Roaring River appears from beneath a hill about two miles from the sea, hence the volume of water is but little affected by either flood or drought; the falls proper do not consist of one continuous sheet of water, but a number of small cascades leaping from rock to rock, terrace to ridge, breaking into a thousand! foam-jets in their descent of nearly ISO feet. Here the river has created for itself a veritable Elysium, and is one of the loveliest scenes in this land of Nature's picture-book. On returning, to the buggies we take a look in at the Elfin Grotto, and if not too fatigued enjoy. the luxury of a ba.th in its cool and! placid waters Three miles more bring us to St. Ann's Bay, where a good lllncheon can be obtained at any of the several lodgings in the town, or for the matter of that a comfortable night's, rest, if it is desirable to make the journey in easy stages No one need hesitate' to spend a day or two in lodgings such as these, for no trouble is spared in providing rooms of scrupulous cleanliness, and the best table that the limited supplies of a town far, from the railway will permit. Proceeding still westward, the road continues by the seaside, passing, through Richmond and Llandovery Sugar Estates (p. 85), and 'on the latter property by the mill house, a short distance from the road, may be seen the waterfall represented on -the Jamaica penny postage stamp (p. 88). Tenm, iles more brings us to Eaton Hall and Runaway Bay, and here the road turns sharp to the left; we leave the ocean and seek again the interior,over Mount Pleasant, and we can breathe freely once more, for the temperature has gone down several' degrees; past Orange Valley, Huntly, and seven miles from Runaway Bay our Mecca, Brown's Town, is reached. Here there are no "lodgings,'" only hotels, of which there are two, at either of which quite a large party will find ample accommodation, and where, according to the opinions expressed by many of the most fastidious of travellers, will be found every comfort that could reasonably be expected outside a city hotel. In the neighbourhood are to be found several private lodging houses where invalids and others making a prolonged, stay may find' quarters. Among the inducements to visit Brown's Town (pp. 94 and 95) are its picturesque situation, attractive surrounding scenery, clean and tidy appearance, justifying its claim to being a model inland town, or village if you will, the entire absence of fogs, the healthful virtues of a cool, clear, and refreshing atmosphere and low temperature, as compared to' the plains, rarely at any time of the year exceeding 80 Fahr., and inthe night frequently below 60. Were I required, as a medical man" to give an unbiased opinion as to what parts of Jamaica would be most favourable, from a climatic standpoint, for persons from either the United Kingdom or the United States suffering from pulmonary trouble, bronchial catarrh, or kindred affections of the respiratory organs, also Bright's disease, I would unhesitatingly advise Brown's Town, in the Dry Harbour Mountains, and Malvern, in the Santa Cruz Mountains. There may be other places just as good, but both these districts have been put to the test again and again with most satisfactory results. Before another season we hope that here, too, the Jamaica Hotels Company, Limited, in their own interests as well as those of the;

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EXTENDED TOURS. 43 travelling public, will establish a hotel commodious enough for at least fifty guests. On taking our departure from Brown's Town there are three routes {)pen to us; one by way of Stewart Town, passing on the right the Westwood High School for girls, then down Biddyford Hill, at the foot of which the road turns into Mahogany Hall (p. 96), which, by the way, has an interesting story attached to it as to how it derived its name. A Spanish noblemari, who had accompanied Don Sasi on his last and fatal expedition, and had fought gallantly at Ocho Rios, where he had been severely wounded, unable to reach the coast at Runaway Bay, where Sasi and others had made good their escape, .sought the habitation of an Indian cacique whom he had formerly known, accompanied by three beautiful daughters, whose importunities to be allowed to accompany hirn from Cuba he had yielded to, for though aged, he was brave and sanguine of success. A party of Cromwell's soldiers, scouring the country for refugee Spaniards, heard pitiful cries and lamentations proceeding from the woods, and learned that it was the wailing of the girls whose father had just died. Like true cavaliers, the officers forgot hostilities, and at once agreed to go and bring the ladies of Colonel D'Oyley's family from Sportsman Hall to take charge of the sorrowing senoritas, whose gratitude to their soldier friends developed into-but that is another story. The Indian shelter was found to be the hollow base of an enormous mahogany tree some fourteen feet in diameter, rough, round sticks being stretched across the upper part to form a garret, and over all a thatched roof of grass. The Spanish gentleman was buried on the hillside, a house was afterwards built enclosing the mahogany tree, and subsequently the present Mahogany Hall was erected. Not many years ago a crumbling slab was found in the vicinity, on which the following words were de -ciphered: "Aqu Tace-DonSebastien, Marques-d-San-Lo-MuAnn-1660." But to resume our journey. The road now stretches down through the valley of Trelawney in an almost straight line for about ten miles, sugar estates on. either side, until Falmouth is reached. The next stage is Montego Bay. Another route from Brown's Town is the pretty drive over the interior road, passing Bamboo, Green Park, through Claremont, and on to Moneague and Ewarton again; but the third and, I think, the most interesting route is the interior road leading to Kendal, no more -costly than either of the other roads, and much less than the Montego Bay route. The livery stable keepers of Brown's Town have agreed to supply tourists with buggy, good horses, and reliable drivers for this journey at the same rate as for Ewarton, viz. 28s. for one person, and 2d. per mile extra for each additional passenger. The distance is the same as to Ewarton, thirty-four miles, but the road leads through a form of scenery to be found nowhere else in the Island; it is somewhat out of the trodden path of visitors, for the very good reason that it is only a few years since a road was made over which .a vehicle could pass. Fifteen or twenty years ago, in wet weather, I have frequently had to apply for assistance In riding through to get my horse dug out of the mud holes. Now all is changed, thanks chiefly to our late Governor, Sir Henry A. Blake, who left us a legacy of many bridges and roads, even if their construction did deplete the Colohy's exchequer pretty badly; roads and bridges are good assets in any country. We have now 2,014 miles of main road in Jamaica, and where is there another island of the same size better supplied with such highways of communication? The first sixteen miles of the drive traverse the Dry Harbour Mountains road, passing St. Jean d'Acre, Bethany, Aboukir, and Cave Valley to Burrough Bridge, through thickly populated and well-cultivated country; and let me say that from Runaway Bay to this point you will have met on the public highways and elsewhere a class of black people who for industry, frugality, cleanliness, civility, and politeness to strangers, you will not have found their equal in any other part of the island. To this I bear witness, not only because I have lived among them since 1874, but having travelled through the greater part of the island several times over, I am in a position to know. The contrast between the peasantry of most inland districts and many of the people met with in sea coast towns is very striking. From Burrough Bridge we enter the parish of Clarendon, crossing the Cave River by excellent bridges some six or seven times, and gradually rising among the hills, the landscape ever changing, ever pleasing, rugged and broken, but grand, as you look off into the distance, chaste and pretty as the eye lights on some sequestered nook on the river, where little children at play are racing their boats of half husks of cocoanuts with dumb cane masts and wild fig leaves for sails; but the scene par excellence awaits us at Baillieston, in the parish of Manchester. Here, from a high ridge, we have a panorama on the right and left of mountains and valleys, grand enough to thrill the soul of the most indifferent, and portions of no less than five parishes are within sight-Manchester, Clarendon, Sf. Ann, Trelawney, and St. Elizabeth. We are right in the heart of the ginger cOllntry. Who has not heard of "Jamaica ginger"? Its reputation is world-wide, and in no part of the island is it more extensively cultivated or of finer quality than in this district. Through Spauldings we wend our way past Mount Olivet, with its fine old Presbyterian church, then a rapid drive down the hill to Kendal railway station, where we entrain for Kingston at 1I.59-call it noon. Now is the time to wake up the unfortunate visitors who, all the time that we have been revelling in the magnificent scenery of the island, have remained in Kingston, and therefore have seen nothing of the g6rgeous verdure of the interior. They do not know what they have missed. Some say I have a "bee in my bonnet," and that my mental aberration takes the form of extravagant adulation of Jamaica, and Brown's Town in particular. Well, everyone is said to be a "button short"

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44 JAMAICA: THE NEW RIVIERA. somewhere; but let a cold-blooded Englishman, by name of Gervaise Mason, close this chapter-those who know him best will own to his having about as much sanity as erratic humans are likely to possess on this mundane sphere. Describing a drive along the North Coast of St. Mary and St. Ann, after a year's sojourn in the island, he says ;-"Whatever may be said or thought, either for love or business, concerning the island, it is only they who have witnessed her manifold glories become entranced by the thousand and one perfect pictures by Nature's most delicate brush, and felt the refreshing influences of her climate, that can hold up its justness and credit the enticing tales that. must forever be crossing from the little COlony to the Motherland. Drive through the finest picture gallery in the world, where no cata logue is necessary, the quaint bridges crossing the innumerable streams, the half-hidden telegraph poles being the only articles numbered. I selected a quiet trot over twenty miles in the northern 'rooms,' be tween Port Maria and St. Ann's Bay, and at the finish soliloquised Well done!' because if anyone could wish for anything more majestic in adornment, sweetly accidental 111 design, refreshing 111 every momentary and undulating change, and interesting in historical assocI ation, then indeed he must be hard to please. "See where the Spaniards made their last brave stand against an ilidomitable foe. It is hard to realise that a site so grand, so peaceful and romantic as this, overlooking the calm ocean, was ever a veritable hell upon earth, because to-day a luxuriant vegetation and quietnesst preserved by law and order; veils what was. This road twists and turns through the largest cocoanut plantation in the island, and, inost the world. It is a large picture framed by the sea, and hills hugging the former in an area of twelve hundred acres, and such is not to be seen elsewhere. It is named 'Look Out,' and here there lives to-day, in her 99th year, an English lady, who for sixty-one successive years has been in the island of Jamaica, and still enjoys good health and sight, which goes far to support what we already know of the climate and general: longevity in the Colony. Who, in the face of such facts, can hint that the long-bow is required to boom the Colony?"

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PORT ROYAL. 45

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KINGSTON LOOKING WEST, BEFORE THE EARTHQUAKE 46

PAGE 53

KINGSTON LOOKING WEST. FOUR DAYS AFTER THE EARTHQUAKE 47

PAGE 54

KING STREET LOOKING NORTH. AFTER THE EARTHQUAKE. 48

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KING STREET, LOOKING NORTH, FROM THE WEST SIDE. TAKEN FROM THE SAME POINT AS THE PHOTO ON PAGE 4 8, THREE YEARS LATER. G

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CASTLETON GARDEN& 50

PAGE 57

LILY POND CASTLETON GARDENS 51

PAGE 58

TREE FERNS 52

PAGE 59

SCENE ON THE HOPE RIVER. 53

PAGE 60

CANE RIVER CANYON

PAGE 61

.. HARD LABOUR," 55

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NEWCASTLE, LOOKING TOWARDS KINGSTON 56

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SCENE ON RAILWAY NEAR TROJA. H .57

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NEAR PORT ANTONIO. 58

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PORT ANTONIO: LOOKING SOUTH. 59

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LOADING BANANAS, PORT ANTONIO. 60

PAGE 67

WHARVES, PORT ANTONIO. 6 1

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BANANA TRAIN, BOWDEN, ON THE ROAD TO BLUE JAMAICA HELPS, THE POO' R MAN' S HERITAGE, 62

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DOMESTICS, WITH YAMS COCOANUTS, & c 6 3

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BURLINGTON, ON THE RIO GRANDE 64

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PRIESTMAN' S RIVER 65

PAGE 72

TOM CRINGLE' S COTTON TREE 66

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YE OlDE FERRY INN 67

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SCENE ON THE RIO COBRE. 68

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SCENE ON THE RIO COBRE. 69

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SCENE ON THE RIO COBRE 70

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BAMBOO GLADE WORTHY PARK 7 1

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CUTTING BANANAS. 72

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TYPICAL NATIVE HOMESTEAD. J 73-

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ROYAL PALMS RAVENSWORTH, SPANISH TOWN. 74

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BAMBOO AVENUE ST. ELIZABETH. 7 5

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COCOA HARVEST. 76

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MANDEVILLE MARKET 77

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CASCADE ON THE WHITE RIVER. 7 8

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WASHING DAY ON THE WHITE RIVER. 7 9

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WHITE RIVER RAPIDS 8 0

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eLi FTON FALLS K 8 1

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PICKING PIMENTO. PICKING COFFEE BARBECUES FOR DRYING PIMENTO COFFEE, &c. "GOING TO GROUND."

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CUTTING THE SUGAR CANE. 83

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NATIVE CANE MILL. 8 4

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I LLANDOVERY SUGAR ESTATE. 85

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SUGAR AND RUM EN ROUTE 86

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"MENDING OUR WAYS ." 87

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LLANDOVERY FALLS This v i ew was selec ted by the Goverument f o r 11se llS Ihe design for j n.mnica PCIIIIY postnge s lrrmp. 88

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ROARING RIVER FALLS. L 89

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.. ..;,.. ... RUNAWAY BAY. 90

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FISHERMEN LAUNCHING CANOES. 91

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:LlBERTY VALLEY NEAR BROWN' S TOWN. 92

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ON THE M AIN ROAD, NORTH SIDE" 93

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ENTRANCE TO BROWN' S TOWN AND MARKET. -94

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BROWN'S TOWN, ST ANN 95

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MAHOGANY HALL, TRELAWNEY 96

PAGE 103

CEIBA OR SILK COTTON TREE, MONTEGO BAY.

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ROSE JAME& 9 8

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MONTEGO BAY, ST. JAMES. 99

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LARGEST KNOWN LOGWOOD TREE. FORDING, CLARENDON. GOING TO THE DOCTOR. TYPICAL COUNTRY RESIDENCE. 100

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"A CORNER IN PINES," 101

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WEDDING PARTY 102

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.. HOME I SWEET HOME." 103

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N NEGRIL S.NEGRI L P! ;}1 -l. I 'l)'I: &., '*' () ;.0(' : A ",",S"riAq do ck pi t REFERENCE Bmuularies "'. Co1QUie s DOor Parishes RaiL Roo dJ; & Stati.on.s MaU L R o od. s Parochi.a L li.o0.dJ3 F'oo't o t JTi.lls _.-.-.--' I I 9 Town .. wuL ViIlr1B e s Po s t Offies Ouu'ches (lluI Chopers -:: I r i s /ric1:-Court-Stah:On s _-",,-.... __ .... "'Ii Esw.i:;es unrL SettlemenJ;s mm + o -. S wamps ,.I. .. ; ... ..-:') ... ..All flu Main Roads are Carriage .R.oadG excep t t:lrn.L fro m Gnrc1.on lbwn w N c w custf.e, o:ruL Ow.J:; fro m .7'yr e tLJ Coxhealh. 78 GOUlltI: y ... -----------77 "30' Dry Caled.:)1U4, /Malwg'fIllL' i Arb"Ouu>l I 77 30' ..LIO'ILI' tud.e W e s t fro m GrHenwicll o I 2 ,+ 4 76 3 0 MAP OF THE I S LA N 0 OF J M I A TO ACCOMPANY DR JOHNSTON'S ILLUSTRATED GUIDE BOOK G 1 0 12 PREPAR 'ED U NDER THE DIRECTION O F l' H 0 M...'\.S HARRI S 0 14 J 6 I I Govt Su rveyor b y COLI N L I D D E L L 1895 20 22 24 26 Z8 3 0 :\2 34-! : j-=t v., .... ..... rONEAL rot. u

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Prof. Lutgens

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READY RECKONER. DOLLARS TO STERLING, STERLING TO DOLLARS. j. $ STERLING (4S 2d. PER D OLLAR ) (4S. 2 d PER D OLLAR.) $ STERLING. $ STERLIN G. STERLIN G, I $ C. STERLING. $ C S T ERLING. $ C ---. 0 1 0 0 o t II 2 5 10 4 8 10 0 0 d I 0 02 8 38 4 0 45 216 -.02 0 0 I 12 2IO 0 4 9 1 0 4 2 2 0 0 4 9 4 3 20 4 6 2 2 0 8 0 .03 0 0 I t 50 I 8 06 4 8 225 60 1 3 2 1 4 2 010 4 3 0 1 0 -4 7 .0 4 0 0 2 I4 2 1 8 4 51 1 0 1 2 6 4 0 0 8 II 5 2 80 4 8 230 4 0 .0 5 0 0 IS 3 2 6 5 2 1 0 1 6 8 5 0 1 0 1 2 57 60 49 235 20 .0 6 0 0 3 16 3 6 8 53 II 0 10 6 0 1 2 1 3 6 2 40 50 2 4 0 -.07 0 0 3! 1 7 3 1 0 1 0 54 II 5 0 7 0 I4 14 67 20 5 1 0 244 8 0 .08 0 0 4 1 8 3 1 5 0 55 II 9 2 8 0 1 6 15 7 2 -5 2 2 4 9 60 0 9 0 0 4 i 19 3 19 2 5 6 II 1 3 4 9 0 1 8 1 6 7 6 8 0 53 254 4 0 1 0 0 0 5 2 0 4 3 4 5 7 I I I7 6 1 0 0 20 17 8 1 60 54 2 5 9 20 .1 5 0 0 7i 2 1 4 7 6 58 12 I 8 II 0 22 1 8 86 4 0 5 5 2 6 4 -.20 0 o 1 0 22 4II 8 5 9 12 5 10 S I 0 2 4 1 9 9 1 20 56 268 8 0 2 5 0 I o t 2 3 4 IS 1 0 6 0 1 2 10 0 2 0 4 8 20 9 6 -57 273 60 3 0 0 I 3 2 4 5 0 0 6 1 12 1 4 2 3 0 7 2 2 1 100 8 0 58 278 4 0 35 0 I 5i 2 5 5 4 2 6 2 1 2 1 8 4 4 0 9 6 2 2 105 60 59 283 2 0 4 0 0 I 8 26 5 8 4 63 1 3 2 6 5 I 2 0 23 IIO 4 0 60 288 -45 0 I lOt 2 7 5 12 6 6 4 1 3 6 8 6 I 44 2 4 II5 2 0 61 292 80 .5 0 0 2 I 2 8 .') 1 6 8 6 5 13 IO 10 7 I 6 8 2 5 120 -6 2 2 9 7 60 0 2 3t 29 6 o 1 0 0 66 13 15 0 8 I 9 2 26 1 2 4 80 63 302 4 0 .60 0 2 6 3 0 6 5 0 67 13 1 9 2 9 2 16 2 7 1 2 9 60 6 4 3 0 7 2 0 .6 5 0 2 8! 3 1 6 9 2 6 8 14 3 4 1 0 2 4 0 28 1 3 4 4 0 312 -J .7 0 0 2 II 3 2 6 1 3 4 69 14 7 6 II 2 64 2 9 139 20 6 6 316 80 0 3 I i 33 6 1 7 6 7 0 14 II 8 1 2 2 8 8 30 144 -6 7 3 2 1 60 .80 0 3 4 3 4 7 I 8 7 1 1 4 1 5 10 1 3 3 1 2 3 1 148 80 68 326 4 0 .8 5 0 3 6! 35 7 5 10 7 2 15 0 0 I4 3 36 3 2 153 6 0 6 9 3 3 1 20 9 0 0 3 9 3 6 7 10 0 73 1 5 4 2 15 3 60 3 3 1 5 8 4 0 7 0 3 3 6 5 0 3 II! 37 7I4 2 74 15 8 4 r 6 3 84 3 4 r63 20 7 1 3 4 0 80 $ 1 0 4 2 3 8 7 1 8 4 75 15 1 2 6 1 7 4 08 35 168 -7 2 345 60 2 0 8 4 3 9 8 2 6 7 6 15 1 6 8 1 8 4 3 2 3 6 172 80 7 3 350 4 0 3 o 1 2 6 4 0 8 6 8 77 1 6 o 1 0 1 9 4 56 37 177 6 0 7 4 355 2 0 4 o 1 6 8 41 8 10 IO 7 8 1 6 5 0 I 4 80 3 8 182 4 0 7 5 360 -5 I o 1 0 4 2 8 1 5 0 79 1 6 9 2 2 9 60 39 187 2 0 80 3 8 4 -6 I 5 0 4 3 8 1 9 2 80 16 1 3 4 3 14 4 0 4 0 192 -8 5 4 0 8 -7 I 9 2 44 9 3 4 85 17 14 2 4 1 9 20 41 1 9 6 80 9 0 432 -8 I 1 3 4 45 9 7 6 9 0 18 1 5 0 5 2 4 -4 2 201 60 9 5 456 -I 9 I 1 7 6 4 6 9II 8 95 1 9 IS 1 0 6 2 8 80 4 3 206 4 0 100 4 8 0 -1 0 2 I 8 4 7 9 15 10 100 20 1 6 8 7 3 3 60 44 2II 20 --I I I _________ 0 O N

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AMBURGAZWAMERI CA LI REGULAR 'WEEKLY SAILINGS ED Atlas Servioe. BY SUPERB NEW "PRINZ" AND OTHER STEAMERS BETWEEN New York, Jamaica, Isthmus of Panama, Colombia, Costa Rica & Hayti. THE "P R I N Z" steamers are splendid passenger vessels of 6,000 t ons, specially constructed and luxuriously furnished for travel in tropical waters. They offer the tourist every comfort and convemence. CRUISES FROM IN THE CARIBBEAN. 21 and 25 DA YS. NEW YORK Every Saturday. H.A. S S "Prinz August Wilhelm." CRUISE *1 includes:JAMAICA, PANAMA, COSTA RICA. $140 UP. CRUISE *2 includes:JAMAICA. PANAMA. COLOMBIA $125 UP. Cruises can be )oined at Kmgston or Port Antomo, making a delightful trip of J 2 days permitting a stay of Two days at Colon and Three days at Costa Rica. RATE $55. SAILINGS from KINGSTON: Every THURSDAY, for New York; Every SATURDAY, for Sa vanilla, Colon, Port Limon. Also Regular Sailings for Cartagen[!., Grey town, Bocas del Toro, Santa Marta. During Winter Season Steamers call at Port Antonio to and from New York. SEND FOR DESCRIPTIVE BOOKLET AND GENERAL INFORMATION.

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FOR HEALTH FOR AMUSEMENT Delightful Cruis ing Steamer" Oceana," Hamburg-American Line. E. Cruises FOR REST FOR EXPERIENCE fJl Hamburg -American Cruises offer best opportunities for pleasant' ocean trips under most favourable conditions fJl The itineraries are most comprehensive-. including some of the most interesting places in Europe and America. WINTER CRlJISES. fJl T o the Orient, Mediterra nean, Egypt, the Holy Land fJl To the West I ndies. Panama Canal. Bermuda. South and Central America. SlJMMER CRlJISES. fJl Also to Norway. Spit zber gen and I celand. and the Seaside Resorts of Europe. fJl Made by magnificent twin screw steamers equipped with every convenience and comfo r t for luxurious trav el. fJl Trips to suit a ll incl inations. Du r ation f r om 6 to 79 days. fJl Cost from $50 to $300 and upward Rates with or without shore excursions. fJl Twenty years experience in arrangi ng and managing cruises insures efficient management. fJl Tourist department with exceptional facilities i:lIIfi' WRITE FOR ILLUSTRATEO BOOKLETS. HAMBURG=AMERICAN LINE, 41=45, BROADWAY, NEW YORK. 1884, Walnut St., Philad e lphia 159, Randolph St., Chicago 901, Olive Stree t St. L ouis. 90, State Street, B osto n 908, Market St., San Franc i sco. Offices in KINGSTON, COLON, and other ports in the West Indies, South and Central America.

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. ,. mEUl BROWN'S TOWN, g a ST. has the advantage of being situated at an elevation of 1,000 feet above sea-level in the suburbs of the finest little town in the Island. INVALIDS OR PERSONS IN \ S DELICATE HEALTH s s will find the climate just what they ) require for the recuperati9n of lost S vigour and strength. THE ENTIRE ABSENCE OF FOGS, the Low Temperature compar ed to the Plains, the Internal Arrangements for the Comfort of Guests, the Excellent Cuisine and General Management of this Hotel combine to make it ONE OF THE MOST DELIGHTFUL RESORTS FOR TOURISTS ... to be found in any part of Jamaica. -----------FOR FURTHER INFORMATION APPLY TO THE MANAGER .. __________

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/ It ,. I

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,