The effects of relocation on the accompanying spouse in dual-career couples

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Title:
The effects of relocation on the accompanying spouse in dual-career couples
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xi, 147 leaves : ill. ; 28 cm.
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English
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Neims, Myrna Robins, 1940-
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Married poeple -- Employment -- Psychological aspects -- United States   ( lcsh )
Employees -- Relocation -- United States   ( lcsh )
Counselor Education thesis Ph. D
Dissertations, Academic -- Counselor Education -- UF
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bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Thesis:
Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Florida, 1986.
Bibliography:
Bibliography: leaves 139-145.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Myrna Robins Neims.
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Typescript.
General Note:
Vita.

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THE EFFECTS OF RELOCATION ON THE ACCOMPANYING SPOUSE IN DUAL-CAREER
COUPLES





By

MYRNA ROBINS NEIMS


A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF
FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY



UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


1986
























In loving memory of my father,

Nathan E. Robins















ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS


I have much to be grateful for as I reach the end of my doctoral

studies. As I have worked toward my goals I have been extremely

fortunate to have the encouragement, support, guidance, and love of a

number of very wonderful people. I wish to express my appreciation and

gratitude to them.

First, thanks go to the members of my committee, Dr. Maxine

Margolis, Dr. Rod McDavis, and Dr. Joe Wittmer. Your helpful comments

and thought provoking questions were of great importance to me both

personally and professionally. I am especially grateful to you for

taking the time out of your busy and often hectic schedules to assist

me. Special thanks are in order for Dr. Peggy Fong, chairman of my

committee. You have been my teacher, my mentor, and my friend. You

have helped me to reach where I never thought I could. Perhaps the

best of all is that you have let me be your friend. Thank you.

I am also grateful to Dr. Phyllis Meek, Ms. Martha Adams, Mrs.

Toba Smith, Mr. Marty Smith, and Ms. Marty Musselman, for your

assistance in obtaining the names of the participants for the study.

Without your help this study could not have been done.

Steve Childers, Lynn Raynor, Lori Lim, and Laura Hammond, thank

you for your technical assistance. Your great patience and sense of

humor were invaluable.

There are some other very special friends who have provided me









with support and encouragement as well. DiAnne Borders, you are with

me even though there are many miles between us. Charlie Horn, thank

you for caring enough to be honest in your opinions and feedback. Your

direction and comments, particularly when I was "scratching" to make

some sense out of my ideas, were extremely valuable. Mary Horn and

David Lane, my wonderful friends and associates, thank you for always

being there for me. I will always be grateful to you.

I also wish to thank my family for their support and patience. My

mother, Ida Robins, and my brother, Sy, thank you for all of the

"positive vibes" you sent during those critical moments. My brother

and sister-in-law, Bert and Jane Robins, many thanks for your kind

thoughts along the way. Irving and Ruth Neims, my father-in-law and

mother-in-law, thank you for your encouragement and understanding.

There is also a special lady, my aunt, Rose Robbins, who has served as

an important role model for me. Thank you for your confidence in me

and your enthusiasm for what I am doing.

Above all, my immediate family has been the mainstay of this

endeavor. My children, Dan, Susie, and Nancy, have suffered through my

erratic moods with understanding and patience. Thank you for your love

and support.

The final acknowledgement is, perhaps, the one that is the most

important. It is to my husband, Allen, who has taken on

responsibilities above and beyond the call of duty with both style and

grace. Your love, friendship, and understanding have made this

possible. Thank you for helping me to grow.














TABLE OF CONTENTS


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS......................................... ii

LIST OF TABLES.............................................. viii

ABSTRACT .................................. ...................... x

CHAPTERS

I INTRODUCTION.............................................. 1

Statement of the Problem................................. 5

Purpose of the Study.................................... 5

Rationale for the Study................................. 6

Research Questions..................................... 13

Significance of the Study............................... 14

Definition of Terms...................................... 15

Organization of the Study................................ 19

II REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE................................. 20

Current Perspectives................................... 20

Costs of Relocation.................................. 22

Decision-making....................................... 22

Effects of Relocation on Careers....................... 24

Socioeconomic Effects of Relocation.................. 27

Impact of Relocation.................................... 28

Relocation as a Transition........................... 28

Psychological Effects of Relocation................. 29

Corporate Response to Relocation.........................33









Social Support.......................................... 35

Buffering Hypothesis................................. 35

Assessment of Social Support..........................42

III METHODOLOGY............................................ 47

Population and Sample................................... 48

Sampling Procedure...................................... 48

Instrumentation/Variables............................ 50

Measures of Esteem Support............................ 51

Measure of Emotional Support ........................ 54

Measure of Network Support............................ 57

Measures of Adaptation............................... 59

Measures of Demographic Information................... 59

Data Collection Procedures.............................. 60

Data Analysis........................................... 61

IV RESULTS.................................................64

Demographic Information................................. 64

Analysis of Research Questions One, Two, and Three........70

Coping Strategies and Successful Adaptation............. 84

Summary....... ......................................... 91

V DISCUSSION...............................................94

Discussion of Results................................... 94

Implications........................................... 103

Limitations of the Study................................. 104

Recommendations For Further Study ....................... 105

Summary................................................. 105











APPENDICES

A LETTER OF INTRODUCTION................................... 108

B ROSENBERG SELF-ESTEEM MEASURE.......................... 110

C REFLECTED SELF-ESTEEM AND REFLECTED LOVE SCALES.......... 112

D CES-D QUESTIONNAIRE.................................... 114

E A RELOCATION/TRANSITION ASSESSMENT...................... 117

F PERSONAL INFORMATION QUESTIONNAIRE (WOMEN) ............. 129

G PERSONAL INFORMATION QUESTIONNAIRE (MEN)................ 133

H LETTER OF INSTRUCTION................................... 136

INFORMED CONSENT FORM.................................... 137

REFERENCES. ................................................... 139

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH........................................ 146












LIST OF TABLES


Table

4-1 Highest Earned Degree For Men and Women..................66

4-2 Women's Careers Prior To and Following Relocation.........68

4-3 Regression Model of the Relationship Between
Adaptation and Five Demographic Variables................72

4-4 Descriptive Data for Career-Related Variables.............74

4-5 Regression Model of the Relationship Between Adaptation
and Career-related Variables for the Total Sample
of Women......................... .........................75

4-6 Regression Model of the Relationship Between Adaptation
and Career-related Variables for Employed Women..........76

4-7 Regression Model of the Relationship Between Adaptation
and Career-related Variables for Unemployed Women.........77

4-8 Descriptive Data of the Women's Responses on All
Social Support Measures.................................78

4-9 Frequency Distributions of the Women's Ratings of
Network 1 Supports......................................79

4-10 Frequency Distributions of the Women's Ratings of
Network 2 Supports.......................................81

4-11 Regression Model of the Relationship Between Adaptation
and Five Measures of Social Support......................83

4-12 Regression Model of the Relationship Between Adaptation
and Network Support Variables............................84

4-13 Regression Analysis of the Relationship Between
Adaptation and Coping Styles Used During Relocation.......86

4-14 Adaptation Score, Means, and Standard Deviations of the
Three General Response Groups............................87


viii











4-15 Means and Standard Deviations of the Response Groups
Related to the Recent Move and Adaptation................88

4-16 Means and Standard Deviations of the Three Level
of Activity During the Relocation Experience and
Adaptation............................... ................89

4-17 Means and Standard Deviations of the Perceptions
of Options in General and Adaptation.....................90













Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy


THE EFFECTS OF RELOCATION ON THE ACCOMPANYING SPOUSE IN DUAL-CAREER
COUPLES

By

Myrna Robins Neims

May, 1986

Chairman: Dr. Margaret Fong
Major Department: Counselor Education


Relocation to a new community for one spouse's employment is a

time of transition and crisis for dual-career couples. The

psychological effects of relocation on the accompanying spouse, usually

the wife, have been only partially described. Drawing on a sample of

80 recently relocated dual-career couples in a Southern university

town, this study examined factors in the wives' adaptation to the new

environment. Using Sidney Cobb's theory of social support as a model,

the accompanying wives were characterized in terms of levels of

personal and professional satisfaction, self-esteem, psychological

well-being, network supports, and coping behaviors. In addition,

demographic and career-related information was obtained.

Each couple completed questionnaires chosen to evaluate social

support variables, coping styles, and strategies used to manage the

relocation, and indicators of the level of adaptation in the new

environment. Couples had lived in the new town from 2 1/2 weeks to 18

months with a mean length of residency of 8.3 months. All of the women









in the study were career women prior to the move. Forty-five percent

of the women were unemployed at the time of the study, with 31% of

them unemployed not by choice. The presence of depressive symptomology

was reported by 31% of the women.

Regression analyses were performed to examine the relationships

between demographic variables, career variables, and social support

measures and the level of adaptation to relocation. Low levels of prior

job satisfaction, high levels of hopefulness for their professional

future, and being currently employed were determined to be strongly

associated (p =.0001) with successful adaptation. Cobb's social

support theory in its entirety was not significantly associated with

successful adaptation. However, one of the components, emotional

support as measured by the Center for Epidemiologic Study Depression

Scale (CES-D), had a significant relationship (p = .0001) to

adaptation with lower scores associated with successful adaptation. In

addition, high levels of support from one's husband, a network support

variable, were also significantly related to successful adaptation

(p = .007). Among the various coping strategies, viewing change in

general as providing more options, considering the relocation as a

challenge, and assuming an active stance and "making things happen"

upon arrival were significantly associated with higher levels of

adaptation.

Suggestions for personal and career counseling as well as areas

for additional research are described.














CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

In 1984, 52.8% of all married women were in the work force (United

States Bureau of Census, 1985). By 1990, the figure is expected to

increase to 75% (Catalyst Career and Family Bulletin, 1981). Women

are not only entering the work force in record numbers, they are

entering professions and fields which require substantial personal

involvement and high levels of responsibility. Educational enrollments

indicate that this trend will continue. Catalyst (1983) reported that

women comprised more than 50% of the undergraduate population, 55% of

accounting students, 45% of graduate students, over 30% of MBA

candidates, and close to 50% of law students. The increased level of

education, inflationary trends, and flexibility within sex roles will

all serve to strengthen women's commitments to their careers (Catalyst,

1983; Gilliland, 1979; Skinner, 1983).

As women's educational levels and commitments to career increase,

one can also expect to see an increase in the number of dual-career

families. In such families both spouses are engaged in careers which

require time and energy beyond regular work hours and both spouses

place strong emphasis on advancement. The career involvement is usually

preceded by "extensive preparation, education, and a strong commitment

to the profession ." (Portner, 1983, p. 165) with career-oriented

people viewing their careers as a primary source of personal

satisfaction (Skinner, 1983). Hayghe (1981) reported that 51% of all






2


married couples were dual-employment couples. It is estimated that 14%

to 18% of these couples could be classified as dual-career couples

(Portner, 1983; Thomas, Albrecht & White, 1984). This study deals

specifically with the dual-career couple. For this purpose, career, as

opposed to employment, refers to an occupation requiring continuing

specialized education and development, movement through a sequence of

related jobs gathering relevant experience, progression within a

hierarchy according to expertise, as well as socialization into a

professional culture (Tallon, 1979; Wilensky, 1961).

The Bureau of Labor Statistics has estimated that over eight

million white collar positions would be created in the 1980s. In 1983,

40.9% of the women in the work force held managerial and professional

positions (United States Bureau of Census, 1985). These positions

require the services of skilled and educated professionals, many of

whom will be partners in dual-career marriages. Business recruiters

report that issues related to dual-career families were raised by

virtually every college student they interviewed (Bickerstaffe, 1982).

One important issue for the dual-career family is relocation, the

move from one established home to another. A serious problem emerges

when a transfer or promotional move to a distant location becomes an

option for only one of the spouses. The decision of whether or not to

relocate when one spouse may have to sacrifice a satisfying career in

order that the other may make a professional gain presents a dilemma

for an increasing number of couples. John Mirtz, vice-president of an

executive recruiting firm, reports that in 70% of the cases where the

wife is working, her job is a serious factor in her husband's decision









to accept or decline an offer (Money, 1980). Brett and Werbel

(1980) found that a man's willingness to relocate does not depend as

much on whether or not his wife is working as on how involved the wife

is with her work. A wife previously could be expected to consider her

career as less important than her husband's (Bebbington, 1973; Duncan &

Perrucci, 1976; Heckman, Bryson & Bryson, 1977; Linn, 1971) and to

provide practical as well as moral support to her husband as he moved

up the ladder of success. She is now likely to be a spouse who is

involved in her own career and, while still supportive of her husband,

is reluctant to move (Catalyst, 1983). Each spouse is committed not

only to the other but to a career as well. The opportunity for

advancement, when it occurs for one spouse and not the other, has the

potential to create serious personal and professional problems.

Geographic relocation and its implicit career changes create

psychological and occupational transitions for both spouses. The term

transition is used here to mean an event in which an individual (a)

experiences a personal discontinuity in his or her life and (b) must

develop new assumptions or behavior responses because the situation is

new and/or the required behavioral adjustments are novel (Brammer &

Abrego, 1981). Certain pragmatic tasks are inherent in all family

relocations: the purchase, sale and/or renting of homes; the opening

and closing of bank accounts; the discovery of new shopping areas, home

services, places of worship, civic organizations, and schools; and the

exploration of new social relationships (Brett, 1982; Jones, 1973;

McAllister, Butler, & Kaiser, 1973). Brammer and Abrego (1981) consider

geographical relocation and career change to be psychosocial

transitions and therefore potential sources of stress.








Even when the decision to relocate is a mutual one, both spouses

may experience feelings of inequity, resentment, and conflict (Rice,

1979). Catalyst (1983) reported that although a couple may have used

the strategy of an explicit agreement for one partner's career to take

temporary priority, the "invited spouse" often experiences a great deal

of tension as a result of initiating the move and uprooting his/her

spouse. While the excitement and support of newly acquired colleagues

serve to ameliorate the stress of the "invited spouse," the

accompanying spouse often suffers an abrupt career interruption and has

no such support. In the instances where employment is found by the

accompanying spouse in the new location, it is often regressive with

regard to title, position, and respect (Duncan & Perrucci, 1976;

Kilpatrick, 1982; Long, 1974). Career positions can rarely be

duplicated in the new environment (Brooks, 1981; Catalyst, 1983;

Kilpatrick, 1982). Current literature indicates that it is the wife

who is most frequently identified as the accompanying spouse (Heckman,

Bryson & Bryson, 1977; Poloma, Pendelton, & Garland, 1982; Tallon,

1979). A study of women dentists (Linn, 1971) found that 45% of the

married women dentists had practiced in more than one city with 49% of

them citing their husbands' work as the cause of the move.

As the accompanying spouse, the wife faces not only career

disruption but other psychological stressors, particularly when she is

unable to find employment. Accompanying spouses report that "of all

the stresses associated with relocation, the psychological and

emotional stress of being out of work was the worst" (Catalyst, 1983,

p. 34). In addition to a loss of collegial and career supports,









there is a perceived loss of control, poor self esteem (Pearlin &

Schooler, 1978), loss of status and professional identity (Catalyst,

1983; Duncan & Perucci, 1976), lack of reciprocity (husbands move for

their own advancement, wives move for their husbands) and a loss of

appropriate income and career development (Bebbington, 1973; Heckman et

al. 1977; Lichter, 1983; Linn, 1971). Clearly, these factors indicate

that relocation in dual-career marriages has the potential to produce

serious stress, especially for the accompanying spouse.

Statement of the Problem

Relocation is both a time of transition and crisis for dual-career

families. The psychological effects of relocation on the accompanying

spouse, in this case the wife, in a dual-career family are not known.

This study characterizes the accompanying spouse in terms of

self-esteem, psychological well-being, network supports, levels of

personal and professional satisfaction, and coping behaviors.

Purpose of the Study

The psychological effects of relocation on the accompanying spouse

in such a family are unknown. Social support may be a critical factor

in the successful adaptation to the new environment. The purpose of

this study was to examine and describe the effects of social support on

"accompanying wives'" adjustment to relocation caused by changes in the

husbands' employment. Specifically, this study (a) describes

representative demographic and career-related characteristics of the

accompanying spouse in recently relocated dual-career families;









(b) describes and clarifies the psychosocial effects of relocation on

the accompanying spouse in a dual-career family through the framework

of Cobb's theory of social support (esteem, emotional, and network

support); and (c) explores the relationship between esteem, emotional,

and network support and the successful adaptation to relocation.

Rationale for the Study

Research on the effects of relocation on the dual-career

family is only beginning to emerge. Most of the available literature

only incidentally mentions relocation as a significant life event, a

stressor, and/or a detriment to professional advancement (Brammer &

Abrego, 1981; McCubbin, Cauble, Comeau, Patterson, & Needle, 1980). In

addition to the paucity of information regarding relocation, many of

the existing studies fail to distinguish between dual-career families

and dual-earner families, a factor which may influence findings. For

example, in contrast to the studies previously mentioned, Brett (1982)

found that "mobile working women" (as distinct from career women)

viewed relocation as a positive event often resulting in positions with

greater chance for promotion, decision-making, and authority. While

the personal/emotional aspects of relocation are alluded to, only a few

studies specifically address the psychological ramifications of

relocation on the accompanying spouse in a dual-career family. One

study that did examine the psychological impact (Seidenberg, 1973)

concluded that depression occurred as a result of relocation for the

corporate wife. However, he made no clear delineation regarding the









wife's career involvement. Rice (1979) discussed feelings of inequity,

resentment, and conflict that often arise in a dual-career marriage as

the result of relocation. He stated that


Facing the feelings of inequity and career disadvantages that
result can be a painful process and resorting to denial of
competitive feelings seems to be an easier, if only temporary
solution. A common result, when competitive feelings can no
longer be denied, is for the dual-career wife to show her
resentment over career inequities indirectly, usually to the
detriment of the marriage and at the expense of felt personal
happiness. (p. 76-77)


Rice (1979) and other mental health professionals (M. Fisher & C.

Greenberg, personal communication, AACD Convention, 1985) indicated an

increase in the number of dual-career couples seeking therapy. During

the course of therapy couples often report marital dysfunction, anger,

and depression but often do not make the connection between their

psychological states and recent or impending relocation (M. Fisher & C.

Greenberg, personal communication, AACD Convention, New York, 1985).

Further investigation of the effects of relocation on the

accompanying wife in dual-career families is needed in order to better

describe, understand, and meet their needs during this period of

transition. The information gained in this study provides mental

health professionals with insights needed for the identification and

treatment of problems related to relocation. It also provides personnel

administrators, employers, and relocation counselors with data from

which to plan pre- and post-move interventions. The study also

provides a basis for further research.

One way to assess the psychological ramifications of relocation

involves examining the variables within social support theory. There

is growing evidence that social support may be important either as a








mediator of life stress (Cobb, 1976; Dean & Lin 1977) or as a critical

factor independent of the level of stress (Andrews, Tennant, Hewson &

Vaillant, 1978; Henderson, 1980). Mueller (1980) suggested that the

concept of social network may serve as a "unifying framework" in which

various findings regarding the relationship of social factors to

psychiatric disorders might be integrated. Mueller (1980) hypothesized

that inadequate and/or disrupted social networks may be a major

explanatory factor in the relationship between psychological well-being

and geographic mobility.

Social support has been defined as the existence or the

availability of people upon whom we can rely, people who let us know in

some way that they care about, value, and love us (Sarason, Levine,

Basham, & Sarason, 1983). Kaplan, Cassel, and Gore (1977) suggested

that social support is the degree to which a person's needs for

affection, belonging, approval, and security are met by significant

others. House (1981) stated that social support is "an interpersonal

transaction involving one or more of the following: (1) emotional

concern (liking, love, empathy), (2) instrumental aid (goods and

services), (3) information (about the environment), or (4) appraisal

(information relevant to self-evaluation)." (p.39)

Sidney Cobb's theory of social support (1976, 1982) differs from

those previously mentioned in that it is informational in nature and

depends upon an individual's perceptions of having such information.

He emphasizes social support as a moderator of the effects of major

life transitions.

According to Cobb (1976, 1982) social support is the most important

of four kinds of support needed by individuals to maintain health









through life crises and transitions (the other three are instrumental

support or counseling, the guiding of people toward better adaptation;

active support or mothering; and material support or goods and

service). While these other forms of support may involve or imply

social support, Cobb (1976) insisted that social support must stand on

its own as the single most important kind of support for the successful

coping with stressful life events. He stated further that it is

probably more important than all the others put together.

In his theory, Cobb (1982) described social support as
"communicated caring." He further defined it as informational in

nature and having three components: esteem support, emotional support

and network support.

Esteem support is information which leads the recipient to believe

that he/she is esteemed and valued. This type of information is most

effective when proclaimed in public. It encourages the individual to

"esteem himself and reaffirms his sense of personal worth, and above

all it assures him of a personal and separate identity" (Cobb, 1982, p.

190). In support of this concept, Rosenberg (1979) described the

"perceived self," a person's concept of how others judge and evaluate

him or her, as an important factor in self-esteem. Baruch, Barnett and

Rivers (1982) identified specific feelings such as self-confidence,

inferiority, competence, incompetence, pride, and shame as indicators

of a sense of self-esteem or lack thereof in women.

Emotional support, the second component of social support, is

information which leads the recipient to believe that he/she is cared

for and loved. Such information is often communicated in intimate

situations involving mutual trust, thus meeting needs for succorance,









nurturance, and affiliation (Cobb, 1976). Baruch et al. (1983) support

Cobb's notion of the need for emotional support. In a three-year study

of American women they were able to identify specific variables which

were statistically related to the emotional well-being of women:

happiness, feelings related to joy and delight, satisfaction, comparing

reality against expectations and desires, and optimism or a positive

outlook for the future. The authors identified these factors as being

related to the "feeling side of life, the quality of one's

relationships with others" (Baruch et al., p. 18). They also examined

self-esteem as a component of well-being and found a strong statistical

relationship among measures of esteem, control over one's life and

anxiety and depression. The woman who had high esteem and felt in

control of her life typically had low scores on measures of depression.

They conclude that "The confident, autonomous woman is likely to be

less vulnerable to depression" (Baruch et al., p.22). It is information

regarding these factors which contributes to emotional support.

Cobb's (1982) third aspect of social support is network support,

defined as information leading the recipient to believe that he/she

belongs to a network of communication and mutual obligation. This type

of information must be both common and shared, common in the sense that

each person in the network has the information, and shared in the sense

that each member is aware that every other member knows. Cobb (1982)

cited three kinds of relevant information: (a) historical, (b)

information pertaining to goods and services that are available to any

network member upon demand, and (c) information that is common and

shared with respect to the dangers of life and the procedures for

mutual defense.









Network support, often described in terms of social networks, may

be composed of family members, friends, work associates, professional

colleagues, school committee members, and/or neighbors. Networks

represent the nature and value of an individual's participation in the

major life spheres. Hirsch (1981) conceptualized the social network as

a "personal community that embeds and supports critical social

identities" (p.160). These personal communities are a reflection of

involvement, values, and choices. They represent how individuals seek

to achieve a sense of meaningful participation in their environment.

They assume particular importance at times of transition.

Cobb's (1976) review of the impact of network support as it

affects adjustment to transition found network support to be important

in the recovery from myocardial infarction (Mather, et al., 1971) and

in the ability to comply with a medical regime (Baekeland & Lundwall,

1975). Cobb (1976) also found network support to be instrumental in

successful coping with life stresses such as loss of employment (Gore,

1978), aging and retirement (Blau, 1973), and bereavement (Parkes,

1972). The destruction of network supports and the resultant negative

consequences after a natural disaster were reported by Erikson (1976).

More recent research suggests that people having a greater number of

supports may experience more positive interpersonal relationships than

those who are low in support (Lefcourt, Miller, Ware, & Sherk, 1981;

Sandler & Lakey, 1982; Sarason, et al., 1983).

To illustrate the theory of social support, Figure 1 presents a

diagram proposed by Cobb to represent the relationships between the

elements of social support and their anticipated outcomes.










SOCIAL
SUPPORT

Network > Sense of Participation,

Esteem Coping Behavior Control

Adaptation Sense of Autonom

Emotional



Figure 1. Cobb's hypothesis about the relationship between the elements
of social support and their anticipated outcomes.

The components of social support appear in the box. The arrows

from Esteem and Emotional supports to Adaptation illustrate the belief

that those who feel esteemed become self-confident, and those who feel

emotionally supported become more comfortable and more likely to be

able to adapt themselves to fit into the changed environment.

Additionally, those who are confident within strong esteem support also

have a sense of autonomy and are more likely, according to Cobb, to

utilize the kinds of coping behaviors which will enable them to assume

more control over their environments. This sense of control provides

them with the opportunity to manipulate their environments into more

personally satisfying conditions. Similarly, network support and

esteem support provide a sense of participation in decision-making

which also contributes to environmental control or, at least, to the

"illusion of control" which may be as important as actual control

(Perlmuter & Monty, 1977).

While it is clear that social support relates to adaptation, there

has been considerable discussion over whether social support acts as a

buffer to stressful life events as they occur (Cobb, 1976; Gore, 1978;

Kaplan et al., 1977) or whether it exerts influence even in the absence









of stressful life events (Thoits, 1982). Williams, Ware, and Donald

(1981) endorsed the theory which includes both the benefits of "good

social supports" and the negative effects of stressful life events.

Turner (1981) suggested that social support is important in its own

right but especially so during stressful circumstances. There is even

some indication that social support acts not only as a buffer to stress

but that it may be causal as well. Thoits (1982) noted that life

events may alter the number of people in the social support system

and/or change the nature or degree of the support provided by such a

system. Nonetheless, she hypothesized that as long as the initial

level of support is high and remains relatively constant "the

individual should be better able to withstand the distressing impacts

of life events." (p.154)

Research Questions

The specific questions studied were

1. Is there a relationship between any of the demographic

variables of the accompanying spouse and successful adaptation

following relocation?

2. Is there a relationship between any of the career-related

variables of the accompanying spouse and successful adaptation

following relocation?

3. Is there a relationship between the three dimensions of social

support (esteem, emotional, and network support) and the successful

adaptation of the accompanying spouse following relocation?

4. Are there identifiable coping strategies in successful versus

unsuccessful adaptation following relocation?









Significance of the Study

This study has implications for counseling practice as well as for

the personnel operations of organizations and institutions which

frequently hire and/or move employees. If there are identifiable social

support, demographic, or career-related variables which predict

successful adaptation to relocation for the accompanying spouse, then

provisions could be made by employers to act in a preventive manner

either prior to or immediately following relocation. During the

recruitment period, for example, interventions geared toward building

emotional, esteem, and network support systems could be initiated.

These interventions would be intensified once a commitment to relocate

has been made so as to assist the accompanying spouse to maintain a

sense of equilibrium within the new environment. This would then

lessen or prevent negative psychological repercussions or enhance the

positive ones. Relocating families could receive counseling regarding

what they might expect to occur on the basis of the experiences of

others. Successful coping skills used by others in making such a

transition can be shared.

A few large companies and institutions currently provide relocation

counseling for employees. The counselors in these programs report a

unique problem in offering such services. Information regarding the

availability of relocation services within the companies is minimal.

It also appears that many newly recruited men are reluctant to ask for

relocation assistance for fear that such a request would be interpreted

as a lack of ability to manage their personal lives. Thus, new

employees do not seek assistance, and employers interpret this as a

lack of need. This places the existence of such programs in jeopardy.









Personnel administrators and others who are involved with recruiting

and hiring for career positions might well find themselves more

successful in their recruiting efforts with a thorough understanding of

the effects of relocation on the dual-career family.

Counselors and counselor educators, as well as vocational and

career counselors, must be aware of these issues as well as the

stresses and crises that can occur within a relocating dual-career

family. Members of dual-career families who enter into counseling may

initially present problems which are symptomatic of the distress felt

as a result of relocation but may not be able to understand the

relationship. M. Fisher and C. Greenberg (personal communication, AACD

convention, 1985) reported that dual-career couples seeking counseling

frequently report marital dysfunction, anger, and depression, but often

neglect to disclose recent or upcoming moves. It is, therefore,

critical that the counselor understand the ramifications of relocation

so that appropriate assessment and treatment can occur. College

students, married women re-entering careers, and their husbands and

families need to be aware of the stresses which may occur as a result

of relocation.

Definition of Terms

The following terms will be used throughout this study:

Accompanying Spouse The accompanying spouse, in this instance the

wife, is the spouse who goes along with but who does not initiate the

move. She is involved in her career but it is her husband's employment

which is the primary reason for the move.









Adaptation For this study adaptation is the process of integration

during which the accompanying spouse moves from being preoccupied with

the transition of relocation to the incorporation of the transition

into her own life. It is dependent upon her "perceived and/or actual

balance of resources to deficits," in this instance in terms of the

relocation, the pre-post environment and her sense of competency,

well-being, and health. Adaptation also depends in part upon the

degree of similarity or difference in the accompanying spouse's

assumptions about herself and her environment (especially the

interpersonal support network of relationships) before and after

relocation (Schlossberg, 1981). These variables were operationalized

through the items in Section III of the Relocation/Transition

Assessment (see Appendix E) and items 26 and 27 of The Personal

Information Questionnaire (Women) (see Appendix F). Lower scores are

considered an indication of successful adaptation.


Career Career is defined as a process of continual personal

development/high educational achievement; moving from one stage to

another gathering relevant experience; movement in a hierarchy

according to expertise; and socialization into a professional culture"

(Tallon, 1981, p. 234). Each respondent's occupation was judged

independently so as to meet the above criteria.


Career-Related Variables (Men) Career-related variables are those

which provide information regarding career involvement and

satisfaction. These variables are operationalized in this study

through The Personal Information Questionnaire (Men) (see Appendix G)









items which asked for information regarding occupation, level of job

satisfaction prior to move, current level of job satisfaction, reason

for move.


Career-Related Variables (Women) Career-related variables are those

which provide information regarding career involvement and

satisfaction. These variables are operationalized in this study

through The Personal Information Questionnaire (see Appendix F) items

which asked for information regarding occupation, length of time in

career prior to relocation, incidence of mentoring relationships past

and present, current employment status, input into decision to move,

perceived levels of job satisfaction remembered and current, and

hopefulness about professional future in the new location.


Coping Coping is defined as "The things people do to avoid being

harmed by life strains" (Pearlin & Schooler, 1978, p.1) and the

overt and covert behaviors used to prevent or respond to stressful

situations" (George & Siegler, 1981, p.37). Coping is operationalized

through items 90 through 119 of A Relocation/Transition Assessment.

(See appendix E)








Demographic Variables (Men) Demographic variables are age, years of

education, and highest earned degree. These variables are

operationalized through items on the Personal Information

Questionnaire. (see Appendix G)


Demographic Variables (Women) Demographic variables are length of

time in the Gainesville area, age, years of education, highest earned

degree, level of participation in the decision to move,and degree of

satisfaction and happiness prior to and after relocation. These

variable are operationalized through items on the Personal Information

Questionnaire. (see Appendix F)


Emotional Support Emotional support is one of three components of

Cobb's theory of social support. It is information leading the

recipient to believe (perceive) that he/she is cared for and loved.

Emotional support is operationalized in this study as the score on The

Center for Epidemiological Studies Scale for Depression (CES-D)

(Radloff, 1977). (see Appendix D)


Esteem Support Esteem support is one of three components of Cobb's

theory of social support. It is information leading the recipient to

believe (perceive) that he/she is esteemed and valued. In this study

it is operationalized as the scores on Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale

(see Appendix B) and The Reflected Self-Esteem and Reflected Love

Scales (Turner, Frankel, & Levin, 1983). (see Appendix C)









Invited Spouse The invited spouse, in this study the husband, is the

spouse who initiated and/or was offered a job or career position which

required a geographic move.



Network Support Network support is one of three components of Cobb's

theory of social support. It is information leading the recipient to

believe (perceive) that he/she has a defined position in a network of

communication and mutual obligation. Network support is

operationalized in this study through the scores on items 120 through

133 on the Relocation/Transition Assessment, adapted from A Transition

Assessment (Schlossberg & Charner, 1982). (see Appendix E)


Relocation Relocation refers to a move from one established home to

another. In this study it is defined as a move involving a distance

greater than 100 miles.


Organization of the Study

The remainder of the study is presented in the following way.

Chapter II provides a review and analysis of the relevant literature.

Chapter III discusses the methodology, population and sample, sampling

procedure, instrumentation and variables, data collection procedures,

and data analysis. Chapter IV is a presentation of the results of the

study. The final chapter is devoted to a discussion and interpretation

of the results, a discussion of the limitations of the study, and

consequent recommendations.











CHAPTER II

REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE


The purpose of this chapter is to provide a review and an analysis

of the professional literature relevant to the psychological effects of

relocation on the accompanying spouse in a dual-career marriage. A

discussion of the current perspectives regarding relocation in

dual-career families is presented first. This discussion includes

issues concerning the human costs of relocation, the decision-making

process, the effects of relocation on careers, and the financial

ramifications of relocation. Relocation as a transition and a stressor

having psychological implications for both spouses, with a major

emphasis on the accompanying spouse, is considered next. This is

followed by a review of corporate responses to relocation. The chapter

concludes with a survey of social support theory, emphasizing Sidney

Cobb's work, and a discussion of approaches to the assessment of social

support.

Current Perspectives

The number of dual-career couples is increasing in the United

States. With this growth come unique and difficult situations regarding

the management of career and marriage for both partners. One such

situation is relocation, particularly when it involves a career

opportunity for one spouse and not the other. John Mirtz, vice

president of an executive recruiting firm reported that in 70% of the

cases where the wife is working, her employment is a critical factor in









her husband's decision to accept or decline a job offer (Money,

1980). The decision of whether or not to relocate when one spouse may

have to sacrifice a satisfying and fulfilling career in order that the

other may make a professional gain presents a complex dilemma for which

there is no easy solution. In a survey which requested information

about relocation problems (Catalyst, 1983) 76% of the large firms

responded that they had recently encountered greater resistance to

moves among employees. Brett and Werbel (1980) studied 500 randomly

selected employees from 10 U.S. companies who were in the process of

being transferred domestically by their companies. In the final report

to the Employee Relocation Council regarding the effects of job

transfer on employees and their families, Brett and Werbel captured the

essence of the career/family conflict when they found that male

employees will often take a promotional transfer in order to avoid

negative career consequences despite misgivings about the effect of the

transfer on wives and families. They also found that a man's

willingness to relocate does not depend as much on whether or not his

wife is working as on how involved she is with her work.

As perplexing as the relocation dilemma may be, it has not gone

unnoticed. In 1983, Catalyst, a New York non-profit organization that

focuses on the problems of women in business, issued a report on

relocation. Data regarding corporate relocation policies and practices

were collected from 160 of the Fortune 1300 companies. Interviews were

held with the corporate personnel responsible for relocation programs,

third party relocation companies, and executive and professional

recruiters. Group discussions were held with corporate personnel and

relocated employees and their spouses.









Costs of Relocation

The Catalyst (1983) study mentioned above pointed out that to move

a dual-career couple is not only costly financially but also in human

terms. A Merrill Lynch relocation management survey stated that the

average cost of relocating an employee was 104% of the average salary

of the relocated employee. The human aspects of relocation for the

dual-career family include the anxiety and uncertainty involved in

making the decision to accept or decline a relocation offer, the stress

and disorientation connected with leaving familiar surroundings, and

the adjustment to a new career position and environment. Other

important human concerns are the redefinition of one's identity in a

new environment, the issues inherent to moving with children, and the

problem of finding an acceptable career position for the transferred

employee's spouse. Catalyst (1983) concluded that successful relocation

will occur when corporations address the human concerns as well as the

financial ones.

Decision-making

Nancy Gilliland (1979) investigated the career problems and

decision-making processes of 13 dual-career families who had either

relocated or had considered doing so. All of the subjects were

employed at the time of the study. Using tape recorded interviews

Gilliland presented open-ended items to both the husbands and wives.

The couples identified particular characteristics of an occupational

field that seemed to significantly affect mobility. For example, being

in a field that demanded the development of a clientele made moving

more difficult than having a career with an already existing clientele.

Working within a highly specialized area with limited opportunities or









owning one's own business also limited mobility. Finally, the

existence of a supportive mentor residing in the same community

presented another deterrent to geographic relocation.

In addition to identifying occupational characteristics that

affected relocation, the respondents defined several potential problems

such as decreased career advancement and employability, difficulty with

the psychological acceptance of a decision to relocate, and the

infringement that such a move would create upon established support

networks of friends, relatives, and colleagues. The couples were asked

if they would be willing to relocate if their spouse received a job

offer in another city where they, themselves, had no job. The

responses indicated that the wife in 5 of the 13 couples was willing to

move unconditionally, while the husband was either not willing to move

at all or only when there were good job prospects for him. Three of the

13 couples responded that the husband would move unconditionally but

that the wife would not. The five remaining couples gave the same

responses: that is, both spouses were either willing, conditionally

willing, or unwilling to relocate.

The author, apparently surprised at her findings, questioned the

criteria she used in selecting the sample. She stated that in order to

find dual-career couples for whom relocation is a major problem it may

be necessary to include those in which one spouse is either unemployed

or employed in an area outside his or her chosen field. Couples who

were divorced or separated are cited as another possible category for

investigation. Gilliland concluded her article stating that the

decision to relocate involved more than career advancement issues alone

and saw the old concept of career with the striving and sacrifices that









it once entailed being replaced by a new set of values which give

higher priority to self, marriage relationships, and a way of life that

has both material and non-material rewards.

In an attempt to identify factors which play a role in the

decision to relocate, sociologists Duncan and Perrucci (1976)

investigated the effect of various conditions of dual-career

participation on relocation. The sample comprised 588 white, married

women college graduates who were employed in both 1964 and 1968.

Variables were the national and sex specific rates of relocation by

occupation taken from the U.S. Census. The results of an eight-year

longitudinal study of college graduate women in dual-career marriages

at the time of the study were also used. Duncan and Perrucci (1976)

concluded that neither the wife's career involvement, her relative

contribution to income, nor the presence or absence of career

opportunity for her in the new location affected the probability of

relocation. The greatest predictor of relocation was the husbands'

level of occupational prestige. Furthermore, the higher the husband's

level of occupational prestige the more likely the family was to

relocate.

Effects of Relocation on Careers

Duncan and Perrucci (1976) also examined whether relocation

decreases the likelihood of the wife's continuation in the work force.

They concluded that relocation was unfavorable to the wife's continued

participation in the labor force and appeared to interfere with the

achievement and development of career goals among women. Several

studies of professional women (Heckman, Bryson, & Bryson, 1977; Linn,

1971; Poloma, Pendelton, & Garland, 1982) corroborated these findings.









Heckman et al. (1977) indicated that selective job mobility was a

major factor in the differences of scientific productivity between

similarly trained husband and wife psychologists. They surveyed 200

psychologist couples, located through the 1972 American Psychological

Association dues statement listings, in an attempt to define factors

that affected career involvement and development. The subjects were

classified according to age, sex, and whether or not the couple had

children.

The respondents indicted that wives often had to consider their

careers as secondary to their husbands' careers. Husbands were

described as having the freedom to accept jobs while the wives had to

accept whatever employment they could find in the new location. The

possibility of finding two satisfactory positions was considered

unrealistic by the couples because of the lack of probable

availability. Heckman et al. (1977) concluded that the willingness of

wives to consider their careers as secondary to their families and to

their husbands' careers serves as a possible explanation for their

lower productivity rates.

The same phenomenon, the acceptance of their careers as secondary

to their husbands' careers, was observed in a study of women dentists

(Linn, 1971). This study surveyed 785 women dentists identified through

the American Dental Association, the Association of American Women

Dentists, and the Sorority of Women Dentists. Linn (1971) found that

those who were married were expected to move if their husbands' work

required a change. However, relocation of the couple was not

considered an expectation if the wife was offered employment in a new

location. In comparing married and unmarried women dentists, Linn









discovered that 45% of the married women had practiced in more than one

city while only 37% of the unmarried women had done so. Further

examination indicated that 22% of the unmarried women dentists moved

because of better career opportunity, but only 8% of the married

dentists had moved for that reason. Forty-nine percent of the married

dentists indicated that the reason for their relocation was due to a

change in their husbands' work. Linn (1971) discussed state licensure,

the cost of dental equipment, and the building up of a clientele as

specific consequences of relocation for the women dentists.

Additional evidence of the impact of relocation on the careers of

profession women is seen in the results of one of the few longitudinal

studies of dual-career marriages (Poloma et al., 1982). Intended to

address the concerns and consequences of dual-career marriages, the

study was specifically designed to better understand the dual-career

"phenomenon" through a developmental approach which related careers to

family life cycle stages. The sample was drawn from women who had

participated in the authors' original study in 1969. Forty-five of the

original sample of 53 wives responded. All of the women were

attorneys, physicians, or university professors employed in the

Cleveland, Ohio, area at the time of the initial investigation. A

mailed questionnaire constructed from the original individual interview

schedule and composed of Likert-type items and open-ended questions was

used in the follow-up study.

Of the 45 follow up respondents, 10 had relocated at least once

between 1969 and 1977. In no case was the move made in order to

enhance the wife's career opportunities. Poloma et al. (1982)

submitted that in the event of a geographical move someone's career









will have to "give". That someone is generally the wife. The notion

of the male as the primary support and provider is supported by

societal norms and results in women putting their career needs second

to those of their husbands. Potential hazards of relocation such as

the postponement of career goals, career dissatisfaction, unplanned job

termination, marital dissatisfaction, and divorce were discussed. The

authors concluded that the problems of coordinating a dual-career

marriage are ever-present and variable.

Socioeconomic Effects of Relocation

Relocation also interacts with socioeconomic status. Lichter

(1983) examined the effects of relocation on the changes in earnings

among a group of married women ages 30-44 who were part of the National

Longitudinal Survey (source), an ongoing an panel study of over 5000

women. Lichter found that relocation had a negative short-term effect

on the earnings of the women studied but that the longer term effects

were minimal. However, he discovered that relocation seemed to have a

more negative effect on earnings as women's resources increased: that

is, the higher the wives' levels of education and socioeconomic index,

the more negative the economic effect of moving. He concluded that, in

contrast to men, the majority of women in higher socioeconomic standing

are not able to initiate family relocation with the intent of improving

their earnings and, in fact, stand to lose the most when their families

do relocate.

In a similar study, Spitze (1984) investigated the economic

consequence of relocation for women as it affected employment status,

weeks worked, weeks unemployed, earnings, and attitudes toward work

over a period of three years following relocation. The sample









comprised 5,159 white women aged 14-24 and 5,083 white women aged

30-44. The data were based on the occupational information for women

collected by the Census Bureau. Spitze's (1984) results indicated that

relocation negatively affected both the number of weeks worked and

employment status for both the young and mature women. The effects on

earnings were negative but only on a short-term basis except when they

reflected unemployment. Job satisfaction decreased among the mature

women who returned to work after the move. Spitze (1984) suggested

that this dissatisfaction may reflect the wives' acceptance of less

attractive employment than they desired or it may be a consequence of

the time needed to establish new social and professional networks. In

any event, Spitze (1984) found that the dissatisfaction did not last

more than one or two years after relocation.

Impact of Relocation
Relocation as a Transition

For couples with career-commitment, it is difficult, if not

impossible, to entirely separate the impact of relocation on career

from the psychological responses to the relocation itself. Brammer and

Abrego (1981) and Schlossberg (1981, 1984) considered both relocation

and career changes as transitions and potential sources of stress.

Brammer and Abrego (1981) presented a theoretical framework for coping

with such transition based on the belief that transitions are a

particular kind of change which involves not only personal awareness

but new assumptions and behaviors. Their model emphasized the need to

ease the experience of loss, the consideration of change and hardship

as challenges, and the development of skills for use in future

transitions. It is based on the premise that through the process of









coping with change people can learn how to manage future transitions

and that the change itself ignites a renewal process which may lead a

person to greater satisfactions than before the painful transition

occurred. It is the potential for the development of positive learning

out of distressing changes that the authors considered to be the

challenge for the helping professionals who work with people in

transition.

Schlossberg (1981, 1984) defines transition as "any event or

non-event that results in a change of relationships, routines,

assumptions and/or roles within the settings of self, work, family,

health and/or economics" (1984, p.43). Her theory is based on the

premise that transition is not so much a matter of the change itself,

as it is of the individual's own perception of that change. She

emphasizes that transition is a process, and that to truly understand

the meaning of a particular transition for a person, one must examine

the type of transition, the context in which it occurred, and the

impact of the transition on the person's life. Both Schlossberg's and

Brammer's and Abrego's contributions serve as important foundations as

we examine the literature on the psychological effects of relocation.

Psychological Effects of Relocation

Probably the most widely read work regarding the psychological

impact of relocation is that of psychiatrist, Robert Seidenberg (1973).

His book, based on case histories of corporate wives and data gathered

through correspondence and personal contacts, described some of the









more devastating effects of relocation. Regarding the wife who moves

dutifully for her husband's advancement Seidenberg writes

In contrast to her husband, whose credentials are easily
transferable, her identity as a person, apart from being a wife
and mother, is rarely transferable. In a new community she finds
she must create one all over again. It is starting from the bottom
once more for most mobile wives--for some again and again. Often
they become defeated people, casualties of "success". They are
seen clinically during their third and fourth decades of life
chronically depressed, lacking in hope or desire, frequently
addicted to alcohol, tranquilizers and barbiturates. (pp.2-3)


More recently, a study reported in an article for personnel

administrators by Gullotta and Donohue (1982) reported a substantial

number of husbands and wives were coping with the distress of

relocation through the use of drugs and alcohol. Noninvolvement with

family activities, the seeking of extra-marital relationships, and the

consideration of divorce were also reported as coping strategies.

There are identifiable psychological themes that emerge as a

result of relocation. Levin, Groves, and Lurie (1980) described these

themes in their article about support groups for recently relocated or

soon to be relocated women. The groups were heterogeneous in terms of

age, marital status, life-style, ethnic identity, and number of

previous moves. All of the women appeared to have had a well defined

sense of identity prior to the move and appeared to have been

functioning well at that time as well. One of the early themes that

emerged in the groups was a sense of sadness and grieving for what was

left behind. This included not only grieving for significant people in

the women's lives, but also grieving for places, activities, and even

the weather. Feelings of loneliness and vulnerability were also

expressed. Some of the women related feelings of being victimized and a

sense of helplessness. All of the women reported loss of identity and









self-esteem as a result of the absence of their familiar sources of

recognition. Anger was noted as another theme, sometimes focused on

the spouse's new job, other times on the new community.

The authors reported that the short-term, topic-focused support

group was considered to be helpful in allowing the expression and

working through of the various emotions. After this had been

accomplished, the women appeared to be able to focus on more positive

aspects of the move.

In 1982, Brett, used 500 soon-to-be-transferred families the same

sample as in her earlier study with Werbel (Brett & Werbel, 1980) to

examine the relationship between job transfer and well-being.

Well-being was operationalized by measures of self-concept, physical

health, standard of living, family life, marriage, work, and social

relationships. A mobility index based on the number of moves per

employee's years of employment was used as the independent variable for

the employee and his wife. This index was used to examine the impact

of the rate of mobility. The data from the investigation, limited by

the lack of a control group of stable families (those not being

transferred), were analyzed by comparison group studies using results

from three previous studies, The Quality of Employment Survey (Quinn &

Staines, 1979), the Quality of American Life Survey (Campbell, 1981)

and the 1976 Mental Health Survey (Veroff, Douvan, & Kulka, 1981).

This investigation yielded results which are contrary to studies

done earlier by other researchers. Noting limitations and cautioning

the reader about causal interpretations, Brett reported few differences

between stable and mobile working women. Compared with less mobile

working women, mobile women thought that they had better chances for









promotion, more decision-making discretion and more authority. Despite

this report of a higher degree of intrinsic motivation, they were less

involved with their jobs and felt less secure within their jobs than

the stable women. The authors stated that the only data that

consistently separated the mobile sample (men and women) from

comparison samples was that the mobile sample was more dissatisfied

with social relationships.

Brett commented that the sample of mobile working wives did not

provide a good basis for generalization. Random sampling turned up only

31% of working women within the transfer sample, suggesting that

perhaps there were only a few full time career-committed women in the

population of wives of mobile employees in the late 1970s. In

contrast, the U.S. Department of Labor statistics indicate that

expected labor force participation for women of comparable

socio-economic status should have been 53%. Brett hypothesizes that

perhaps it was mobility that contributed to the low labor force

participation in her sample. Brett qualified her results by stating

that they were typical of mobile working women but cautioned against

generalizing her results to dual-career mobile couples. The lack of

comparison of results with a concurrent group of non-mobile women,

regardless of internal consistency within measures, weakens her

conclusions.

While Brett's study is comprehensive in many ways, it does not

discriminate adequately between dual-career and dual-earner couples.

Her study may not apply to the previously employed, highly

career-committed woman who is no longer working after relocation.











Corporate Response to Relocation

The corporate world has responded to the stressors of relocation

in a variety of ways. An increasing number of articles discussing

relocation issues have begun to appear in professional business

journals and magazines. Geared toward employers and personnel

administrators, these articles, for example, Flynn and Litzsinger

(1981), Gullotta and Donohue (1982), Levenson and Hollman (1980),

Maynard and Zawacki (1979), and Moore (1981), describe a variety of

methods and strategies to assist transferred employees. These

strategies cover the spectrum from commuter marriage arrangements to

providing the accompanying spouse with a month's salary while he/she

searches for suitable employment in the new location.

Some particularly unique recruiting strategies have been

recommended by Cardwell (1980). He described successful recruiting

practices and concluded that the spouse of the candidate be involved in

the actual recruiting process. He offered specific suggestions for

including both the husband and wife by testing the spouse's desire to

make the change, by getting hidden agendas out into the open, by

keeping the channels of communication open for both the candidate and

the spouse, and by being open and honest about the positives and

negatives of both the business and neighborhood communities.

Bickerstaffe (1982) described similar approaches which were

incorporated into a program named "transplacmement." A number of U.S.

companies are beginning to adopt this program in response to the

relocation dilemma. Transplacement offers accompanying spouses

counseling and assistance with employment searches and career









opportunities, establishes networks with other companies regarding job

openings, uses consultants who offer transplacement services, and on

occasion actually employs the spouse.

The current literature on relocation for the dual-career family

supports the notion that even under ideal circumstances the

decision-making and actual relocation processes are stressful and

involve both financial and human costs (Brett & Werbel, 1980; Catalyst,

1983; Duncan & Perrucci, 1976; Gilliland, 1979; Money, 1980).

Women's careers are often not considered in the decision to move and/or

women frequently consider their careers as secondary to their husbands'

careers (Duncan & Perrucci, 1976; Heckman et al., 1977; Linn, 1971;

Poloma et al., 1982). Women fortunate enough to find work in their new

location suffered immediate decreases in salary following with longer

lasting negative effects for women with higher levels of education and

socioeconomic status (Lichter, 1983; Spitze, 1984).

The human costs to accompanying wives are manifested through

depression, substance abuse, and family dysfunction (Gullotta &

Donohue, 1982; Seidenberg, 1973). Themes of sadness and grieving,

loneliness and vulnerability, anger, feelings of victimization,

helplessness, loss of identity, and low self-esteem were identified as

consequences of relocation and corroborate the psychological

implications of relocation (Levin et al., 1980). In contrast, one

study of relocated families found accompanying wives to have a more

positive attitude toward all areas related to relocation except for

social relationships in the new location (Brett, 1982).
A response to concerns about both the financial and human costs of

relocation on dual-career families has appeared in professional









business journals and magazines. Directed toward employers, corporate

recruiters, and personnel administrators, these articles describe

strategies and interventions to assist in successful relocation

practices (Bickerstaffe, 1982; Cardwell, 1980; Flynn & Litzsinger,

1981; Gullotta & Donohue, 1982; Hall & Hall, 1978; Levenson & Hollman,

1980; Maynard & Zawacki, 1979; Moore, 1981).

It is clear that the problems related to relocation in dual-career

marriages is of interest to social scientists, psychologists, business

professionals, not to mention the families involved in the relocation

dilemma. What is lacking is a clear description of the effects of

relocation on clearly defined dual-career populations. Previously

mentioned studies have combined dual-career and dual-earner families in

their studies. Some have not discriminated clearly between those women

who are currently employed and those who are not. Investigators such

as Brammer and Abrego (1981), Cobb (1976, 1982), Schlossberg (1981),

Thoits (1982), and Turner (1981) have called for further study of

transitions such as relocation.

Social Support

Social support has become a predominant theme in the literature

regarding stressful transitions such as relocation. Investigators have

been divided, however, in the determination of whether social support

(a) acts as a moderator or buffer to the physical and psychological

effects of stressful life events or (b) acts independently of such

events.

Buffering Hypothesis

One of the major proponents of the moderating or buffering effects

of social support is Sidney Cobb. His review article (Cobb, 1976)









defined social support as "information leading the subjects to believe

that he or she is cared for and loved, esteemed, and a member of a

network of social obligations" (p. 300). Based on his belief that

social support facilitates coping with crisis and adapting to change,

Cobb (1976) critically reviewed, and sometimes re-analyzed, research

that examined relationships among people as they passed through various

crises and transitions. He included studies involving low birth weight,

arthritis, depression, alcoholism, and other psychiatric illnesses.

Despite the fact that alternative explanations to social support theory

may exist, Cobb (1976) endorsed the theory that adequate social support

can protect people against the consequences of life stress. He urged

researchers to do further study of social support as it effects

transition and crisis.

In an essay reiterating and refining his earlier definition of

social support, Cobb (1982) again presented an impressive review of

relevant literature pertaining to the effects of social support.

Included in this review were studies done regarding the effect of

social support during pregnancy, on learning and early development, on

health during various life crises, on its relationship to a variety of

specific illnesses, on compliance, and on its general life sparing

effects. In addition, Cobb presents a theoretical model of the

mechanism through which social support may operate to improve one's

relationship with the environment, reducing psychological stress and

thereby relieving strain. Cobb (1982) noted four general systems of

support; social, instrumental, active, and material. He stated that

social support was the most important of these four and was needed to

maintain psychological balance and equilibrium during times of









transition. Describing it as "communicated caring" he further defined

social support as informational in nature with three components: (a)

Emotional support leading the recipient to believe that he or she is

cared for and loved (b) Esteem support leading the recipient to believe

that he or she is esteemed and valued and (c) Network support leading

the recipient to believe that he or she has a defined position in a

network of communication and mutual obligation.

Cobb (1982) discounted making distinctions between main effects

and interactions between social support and stresses in the

environment. He stated that few, if any, lives are entirely free of

psychological or social stress. Therefore, when main effects appear it

may be that the unmeasured stresses are responsible for an interaction

effect that is large enough to also appear as a main effect. He added

that at very low levels of social support, the deprivation of

additional support may be strong enough to be a stress in itself while

at pre-existing medium and high levels of social support some degree of

protection could still exist. Cobb (1982) concluded that if this

theory is correct, investigators should concern themselves with mapping

out the three-dimensional relationships between variables rather than

looking for main effects versus interaction effects.

Empirical evidence on the buffering hypothesis was examined

carefully in a comprehensive review article (Thoits, 1982). She

explained the relationship of the buffering hypothesis to life events

using the following description:

individuals with a strong social support system should be better
able to cope with major life changes; those with little or no
social support may be more vulnerable to life changes,
particularly undesirable ones. (p.145)









Thoits (1982) continued that this hypothesis provides for an

interactive effect, that is, the occurrence of life events in the

presence of social support should produce less distress than if they

occurred in the absence of social support. Despite her advocacy of the

buffering effect hypothesis, Thoits (1982) pointed out several problems

with the existing empirical studies. Her first criticism was that most

studies have neither adequate conceptualization nor operationalization

of social support. She stated that most investigators have not

attempted to define social support and that few have even made the

attempt to develop valid or reliable measures to assess the concept.

Indeed, Thoits (1982) questioned how researchers were able to reliably

measure something that had not been carefully defined and

conceptualized.

A related conceptual problem discussed in the article is that

investigators have implied that social support is a multidimensional

concept which includes not only the amount of support, but the types,

sources, and the structure of support. Thoits (1982) wrote that

despite the identification of these factors, few researchers have

attempted to systematically investigate particular distress-relieving

aspects of one's social support system.

Thoits' (1982) second major criticism of the research which

supports the buffering hypothesis concerned a theoretical and

methodological problem. She contended that the direct effects of life

events on support and the interactive or buffering effect of life

events with support may be seriously confounded creating a bias in

favor of the buffering hypothesis.








Citing such theorists as Cobb (1976), House (1981), and Kaplan,

Cassel, and Gore (1977), Thoits (1982) offered more precise

conceptualizations of social support. These more precise definitions

allow the investigator to operationalize and examine a variety of

dimensions that more adequately assess the buffering effects of social

support. Thoits (1982) also raised some theoretical issues regarding

the relationships between life events, social support, and

psychological disturbance. She disagreed with the notion that social

support has no direct relationship to psychological well-being in the

absence of stressful life events. She cited sociological and

psychologically oriented studies which supported her perspective that

social support is an important factor not only in the acquisition and

maintenance of self-esteem but in social integration as well. Thoits

(1982) concluded that while research supportive of the moderating

effect of social support is increasing, it must be interpreted with

caution. She suggested that the influence of social support may also

be causal as well as moderating.

The moderating effect hypothesis of social support was also

examined by Gore (1978). The article reports on a longitudinal study

of the physical and mental health consequences of involuntary job loss.

One hundred urban and rural married male blue collar workers who had

suffered involuntary job loss were studied over a two-year period.

Seventy-four men who were continuously employed served as a control

group. Social support was measured using a 13-item index which

examined the extent of supportive and affiliative relationships with

wife, relatives, and friends. The results indicated that the

unemployed rural cohort, while experiencing longer unemployment, had









fewer abnormal changes on some of the health indicators and appeared to

return to normal more rapidly than did the urban terminees. They also

reported a significantly higher level of social support than did their

urban counterparts. Gore (1978) hypothesizes that this was due to the

strength of ethnic ties in the small community as well as a more

concerned social milieu. No differences were reported between the

supported and unsupported groups regarding the number of weeks

unemployed nor actual economic deprivation. However, during

unemployment the unsupported group experienced significantly higher

physiological and affective responses than the supported group.

Contrary to other investigators whose similar results led them to

conclude that social support has a moderating effect on life stress and

despite her own reservations regarding this study's instrumentation and

baseline determinations, Gore interprets her data to mean that social

support does not buffer the effects of life stress, but that a low

sense of social support on the part of the terminees heightened the

experience of stress.

Another empirical study (Turner, 1981) based on Cobb's (1976)

theory of social support examined the association between social

support and psychological well-being. The study assessed whether the

two variables represented distinct dimensions, what the "causal

ordering" was, and whether the effect of social support is independent

or acts as a buffer against unusual stress. Data sets were drawn from

four distinct populations: a family volunteer group of 293 new mothers,

65 mothers known to be having parenting difficulties, 420 adults with

acquired hearing loss, and 100 subjects diagnosed as mentally ill.

Social support was assessed by a measure adapted from an instrument









developed by Kaplan (1977), a student of Cobb's. Emotional well-being

was assessed in three of the studies by an instrument measuring

anxiety, depression, and anger/aggression developed at the University

of Chicago. The sample of psychiatric patients was evaluated through

the use of the Brief Symptom Inventory developed at Johns Hopkins

School of Medicine.

The results across all four studies indicated a modest, but

nonetheless, reliable, association between social support and

psychological well-being. Factor analysis indicated that there were

different major determinants for social support and well-being. Turner

(1981) also found that "some important part of the causation between

these variables goes from social support to psychological well-being

and that some important part goes in the reverse direction" (pp.

365-6). His evaluation of the effects of the level of stress on the

support/well-being relationship suggested that social support is

important in its own right, that it is most helpful in stressful

circumstances and that the relationships are variable across social

class groupings.

The effects of social support and stressful life events on

psychiatric symptoms were examined by Lin, Ensel, Simeone and Kuo

(1979). They based their study on the hypothesis that the more

substantial social support a person can gather, the less likely he or

she would be to experience psychiatric distress. This, they felt,

should be true even in the face of stressful life events. Their sample

comprised 121 male and 49 female Chinese-Americans who resided in

Washington, D.C. An adapted version of the Holmes and Rahe Social

Readjustment Scale was used to assess life events. The authors









developed a 24-item scale to assess psychiatric symptoms. Social

support was measured using a nine-item scale tapping the respondent's

involvement and interaction with friends and neighbors and feelings

about their neighborhood, community, and workplace. Occupational

prestige was assessed using the two-digit Hodge, Siegel, and Rossi

scale (1964) of prestige scores. The results indicated that stressful

life events and social support are important factors in psychiatric

symptoms. Analysis also indicated that social support contributed

significantly to the explained variance in psychiatric symptoms (62%).

The data failed to show any relationship between stressors and social

support nor did it indicate that social support preceded or negatively

affected stressors. There was little support shown for the buffering

hypothesis that stressors would in some way trigger social support.

Lin et al. (1979) concluded that stressful life events are for the most

part unmanipulatable and irreversible by external forces.

Clearly, there has been no real agreement on whether social

support acts as a buffer or moderator of psychological well-being or

whether it is independent. Cobb (1976, 1982) wholeheartedly endorsed

the buffering hypothesis, Gore (1978) interpreted her findings as being

similar to buffering, and Thoits (1982), while advocating for the

buffering hypothesis, questioned previous investigations in terms of

their conceptualization and operationalization. Neither Lin et al.

(1979) nor Turner (1981) were able to substantiate the buffering

hypothesis through their studies.

The Assessment of Social Support

Given the variety of definitions and conceptualization espoused by

various investigators, it is not difficult to see how operationalizing









social support has been inconsistent. The lack of agreement, however,

impedes the process of providing valid and generalizable measures for

the development and function of social support (Sandler & Barrerra,

1984).

In an article intended to encourage the development and use of

reliable, valid, and precise measures of social support, Tardy (1985)

described and defined five basic elements of social support; direction,

disposition, description/evaluation, content, and network. Certain

assumptions are made about each element during the operationalizing

process and must be carefully thought out in order for the assessment

to be valid. Tardy (1985) conducted a computerized search of

Psychological Abstracts and Sociological Abstracts and

investigated journal articles in order to locate the over 60 relevant

studies reviewed for this article. The criteria he used for the final

selection of the seven instruments to be studied were (a) the

instruments had to clearly measure at least one previously defined

aspect of social support; (b) the instruments had to measure the

supportive aspect of social relations as opposed to social

participation, integration, or contact; and (c) the instruments had to

demonstrate reliability and validity. The seven instruments reviewed

were The Arizona Social Support Interview Schedule (Barrera, 1981), The

Inventory of Socially Supportive Behaviors (Barrera, 1981), The

Perceived Social Support from Friends and Family Scale (Procidano &

Heller, 1983), The Social Relationship Scale (McFarlane, Neale, Norman,

Roy, & Streiner, 1981), The Social Support Network Interview (Fischer,

1982), The Social Support Questionnaire (Sarason, Levine, Basham, &

Sarason, 1983), and The Social Support Vignettes (Turner, 1981). The









results indicated clear patterns of strengths and weaknesses among the

instruments. All of the seven instruments measured the receipt of

social support, but none of them assessed the provision of support.

Support disposition, whether support was actually available and/or

used, was equally represented in these measures. All of the

instruments provided descriptions of social support, three included

measures of evaluation of social support, and none were strictly

evaluative. Most of the measures show an awareness and concern for the

various types of content which social support comprise. (See Chapter

III for a more detailed description.) Four of the instruments include a

broad range of items intended to be representative of all types of

social support. Two reflect particular categories of content. Tardy

(1985) expressed surprise that so few instruments focused on emotional

support since it is so often associated with social support. Network

assessment is carried out through two procedures; asking respondents to

supply names and descriptions of the people in their support network,

or asking respondents to describe the support provided to or received

from individuals specified by the instrument. Investigators may choose

between the procedures or combine them. Tardy (1985) concluded that

while substantial progress has been made in the development and use of

social support measures, some problems still exist. The most serious is

the need to develop instruments that will clearly delineate among the

types of social support content and which assess the provision of

support.

The need for reliable and valid qualitative measures of social

support was also expressed by Holohan and Moos (1982) in their article

examining the predictive qualities of social support indices. They








stated that existing indices of social support have been limited to

quantitative measures of the number of helpers or the number of

contacts with helpers. Little is known, they contend, about the

qualitative indices of social support which could then allow for the

tapping of both the quantity and quality of social support. Qualitative

indices might also increase the predictive strength of social support,

allowing for broader conceptualization.

Holohan and Moos (1982) hypothesized that measures of the quality

of social support in family and work settings would significantly

predict psychosomatic illness and the incidence of depression after

variance due to negative life change events and a traditional social

support measure are accounted for. To test this hypothesis, a sample of

267 adult couples in the San Francisco Bay were studied. Five measures

of social support were utilized. Each instrument was selected on the

basis of it being (a) established as reliable and valid, (b)

qualititative as well as quantitative in nature, and (c) an examination

of differential roles included in alternative sources of social support

(family and work environments) for men and women. The results support

the investigators' hypothesis. One of the instruments used, The Family

Relationships Index, predicted psychosomatic complaints and depression

for both employed and unemployed women. This instrument and the Work

Relationships Index significantly predicted psychosomatic complaints

for employed men and depression. Holohan and Moos (1982) concluded that

the predictive strength gained by the use of qualitative measures in

the areas of work and family environments is indicative of the

potential to be found in developing qualitative instruments for the

other areas of social support.









In conclusion, the current status of the assessment of social

support seems fragmented. Tardy (1985) presented a conceptual and

operational framework for social support measures. Selecting seven

measures, he found that while some of them fit some of the criteria,

none of them fit all of the criteria. He called for more rigorous

development of instruments. Holohan and Moos (1982) agreed with many

of Tardy's criteria and also pointed out the need for instruments that

measured not only quantitative variables of social support but

qualitative variables as well. They too, encouraged more thoughtful and

well planned development of instruments appropriate to the measurement

of social support.













CHAPTER III

METHODOLOGY



It has been suggested that relocation provides a formidable

challenge to career women who accompany their spouses to new career

positions. Relocation can be defined as both a transition and

sometimes as a crisis for dual-career families. This study was designed

to examine and describe the effects of social support on "accompanying

wives'" adaptation to relocation caused by changes in the husbands'

employment. As a descriptive study this investigation characterized the

accompanying spouse in terms of level of self-esteem, emotional

well-being, degree of perceived network affiliation, and coping

behaviors. The study also determined whether there were demographic

and/or career-related commonalities among subjects and, if so, whether

there were relationships between them and the degree of adaptation.

Finally, the study sought to identify behavioral coping strategies used

in successful versus unsuccessful adaptation.

Chapter III discusses the methodology used in the collection and

analysis of the data. The chapter is presented in five sections:

population and sample, sampling procedure, instrumentation/variables,

data collection procedures, and data analysis.











Population and Sample

The population base was dual-career families who had relocated to

the Gainesville, Florida, area within the past 18 months as a result of

the husband's acceptance of a career position in a business or

institution (for example, county or city government, University of

Florida, School Board of Alachua County). A potential population of

305 couples was identified. From this group a volunteer sample of 104

recently relocated dual-career couples was located. The final sample

was a group of 80 couples who met the criteria and correctly completed

the questionnaires.

To be included in the study, the women had to have been at least

25 years of age, with at least a high school degree. They had to have

had career training and/or education beyond high school and had to have

worked within their career for at least one year immediately prior to

relocating. It is recognized that most careers entail education well

beyond high school. However, one of the participants in the pilot study

(Neims, 1983) had received career training beyond high school but under

non-academic conditions. Thus, the high school education seemed an

appropriate limit. The women could have been either employed or

unemployed at the time of the study.

Sampling Procedure

Possible participants were identified from a number of sources.

The Gainesville Personnel Association, a group composed of personnel

managers of major employers in Gainesville, Florida, was asked to

provide names of employees who match the criteria specified above.

Departmental lists of newly hired (effective July 1, 1984 and July 1,









1985) University of Florida faculty members and their spouses were also

utilized. In addition, The Hospitality Hostess, Inc., a "welcome

wagon" type business; an employment agency; and a realtor provided the

names of possible participants. Two participants gave additional

names.

From these sources 305 couples were identified as possible

participants and were sent a letter explaining the study, describing

the specific criteria, and inviting their participation (see Appendix

A). Seven of the original letters were returned as undeliverable. A

follow-up phone call was made by the investigator to 233 of the couples

listed to determine if they met the criteria, ask for their

participation, and to provide any additional information that may have

been needed. Sixty-five of the couples could not be reached by phone

because of no answer (each number was tried a minimum of three times),

and incorrect, disconnected, and/or unlisted telephone numbers. Of

those reached, 21 couples indicated that they had moved to the area

more than 18 months ago, 10 had relocated due to the wives' careers, 25

of the women were not involved in a career outside of the home, and 29

women had not worked in their career immediately prior to the move.

Six couples responded that they were too busy to participate in the

study, 7 stated that they were not interested in participating, and 22

refused with no reason given. Two of the women were students, two

couples had moved to the area for retirement, two couples had

separated, and three respondents, a man and two women, reported that

their spouses were deceased. The remaining 104 couples indicated that

they matched the criteria and were interested in participating in the

study. Each volunteer couple was sent a packet containing









instructions, the assessment instruments, two informed consent forms,

and an addressed, stamped envelope for the return of the completed

instruments. One hundred and two questionnaires were returned with 80

meeting the criteria for use in the final sample.

Instrumentation/Variables

Thoits (1982), in a comprehensive review of social support

studies, reported that social support has not been adequately

conceptualized and operationalized. However, she pointed out that

certain investigators have developed theories which provide specific

dimensions of support. Describing the work of Cobb (1976), Thoits

stated that Cobb's definition of social support is more precise than

others, offers more highly developed conceptual statements, and has

clear implications for operationalization. The variables investigated

in this study were those described by Cobb (1976, 1982) as they relate

to the psychological well-being of recently relocated wives in

dual-career marriages. The demographic and career-related

characteristics of each subject were also examined.

Psychological well-being as defined by social support theory

(Cobb, 1982) consists of three elements: esteem, emotional support, and

network support. While Cobb carefully defined these dimensions, he did

not offer a comprehensive manner by which to assess them. In this

study, well defined instruments measuring self-esteem, esteem perceived

from others, and depression operationalized the three elements of

social support described by Cobb (1982). In addition, information

regarding coping behaviors and personal as well as professional network

affiliation were obtained as indicators of network support.









Measures of Esteem Support

Esteem, the first component of social support theory (Cobb, 1976,

1982) was assessed by means of two instruments, The Rosenberg

Self-esteem scale (RSE) (Rosenberg, 1965) and the Reflected Self-esteem

and Reflected Love Scales (Turner et al., 1983). The RSE measured the

self-acceptance factor of self-esteem and the Reflected Self-esteem and

Reflected Love Scales (Turner, et al., 1983) examined esteem in the

context of how the subject feels he/she is perceived by others.

The Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale (RSE) (see Appendix B) is a

10-item pencil and paper, self-report instrument. It asked respondents

to strongly agree, agree, disagree, or strongly disagree with

statements presented in the first person. All items revolve around

liking and/or approving of oneself.

Studies of the RSE responses of small samples of college students

indicated satisfactory internal reliability based on a two-week

test-retest trial, r=.85 (Silber & Tippett, 1965) and r=.88 (McCullough

as cited in Rosenberg, 1979)). Crandall (1973) reported the RSE to be

"brief and thorough" in its measurement of self-esteem with high

reliability for a scale of its brevity.

The RSE was designed specifically for ease of administration and

brevity. Although originally scored using a seven-point Guttman scale,

a Likert-type format is more frequently used (Crandall, 1973;

Rosenberg, 1979; Wells & Marwell, 1976). The original sample was a

group of 5,024 high school juniors and seniors randomly selected from

10 New York schools. Since that time the scale has been used with a

wide variety of adult subjects (Crandall, 1973).

Construct validity has been examined in terms of the conformity of









the measure with theoretical expectations. If the scale measures

self-esteem, it should be empirically related to traits which are

related to conditions of esteem or the lack of it. Rosenberg (1979)

described these traits as depressive affect, anxiety and peer-group

reputation. Verification of these relationships and support for the

construct validity of the RSE was based on the New York State study;

the work done by Stouffer, Guttmann, Suchman, Lazarsfeld, Star, and

Clausen; and the Baltimore Study.

The convergent validity of the RSE was examined in a study of 44

college students (Silber & Tippett, 1965). In this study global

self-esteem and stability of self-concept were investigated using four

different methods: the RSE, the Kelly Repertory Test (a self-ideal

discrepancy test), the Heath self-image questionnaire (the sum of 20

items dealing with self and social ideal discrepancy), and a

psychiatrist's rating. The correlation of the RSE to the self-ideal

discrepancy score was r=.67; to the self-image questionnaire, r=.83;

and to the psychiatrist's rating, r=.56. A correlation of .60 was

found in an investigation of the relationship between the RSE and the

Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory (Crandall, 1973).

The Reflected Self-esteem and Reflected Love Scales (Turner et

al., 1983) (see Appendix C) are two six-item, pencil and paper,

self-report measures designed to assess to what degree the subject

experiences being loved and esteemed. The scales are based on the "How

I Feel" instrument developed by Peterson and associates (Peterson &

Kellam, 1977). Turner and associates added the words "other people

think" or "other people see me" to the original first person statements

which dealt with self-esteem and self-love. A sample item is, "other









people think that I am a worthwhile person." A five-level response

scale that ranges from "I am very certain this is true" to "I am very

certain this is not true" is presented.

The Reflected Self-esteem and Reflected Love Scales are brief and

easy to administer and score. The scales also address the notion of

having received information regarding the degree to which one is

esteemed by others, an element regarded as essential by Cobb (1976,

1982).

The Reflected Self-esteem and Reflected Love Scales were used in

four different studies in an effort to establish their reliability and

validity (Turner et al., 1983). The studies included a longitudinal

study of 312 mothers of newborns which assessed the effectiveness of a

'friendly visitor' program as a social support intervention. The alpha

coefficients for the Reflective Love Scale (.68) and the Reflected

Self-esteem scale (.65) indicate satisfactory internal consistency

(Turner et al., 1983). Another study of 421 persons with acquired

hearing loss examined social, situational, and psychological factors

thought to influence their adjustment to the loss of hearing. The alpha

coefficients for this group were .83 for the Reflected Love Scale and

.77 for the Reflected Self-esteem scale (Turner et al., 1983). A third

study assessed community adaptation of 523 discharged psychiatric

patients and also yielded satisfactory internal consistency. Alpha

coefficients for this group were .77 for both scales (Turner et al.,

1983). The final study utilized only the Reflected Self-esteem measure

and was done with a sample of 989 physically disabled community

residents. The subjects had a wide range of disabilities with varying

degrees of impairment. A major goal of this study was to assess the









social and psychological adjustments of this group. The alpha

coefficient, again, was at an acceptable level of .69 (Turner et al.,

1983).

The Reflected Esteem Scale and The Reflected Love Scale, as

discussed above, represent modifications of the "How I Feel"

instruments developed and validated by Peterson and Kellam (1977).

While these modified scales have not been directly evaluated, they have

been examined as measures of social support. In a study designed to

determine construct validity, Turner et al. (1983) administered four

social support measures, including Reflected Esteem and Reflected Love,

across four studies to determine the relationship between them. The

results revealed that the four measures did relate to the same

"universe of content" (that is, social support) yet they did so with

minimal redundancy. The correlation coefficients between reflected

esteem and reflected love ranged from 0.45 to 0.62 in the various

studies.

Measure of Emotional Support

Emotional support, the second dimension described by Cobb

(1976,1982), was assessed by The Center for Epidemiologic Studies

Depression Scale (CES-D), an instrument developed by the Center for

Epidemiological Studies of the National Institute of Mental Health (see

Appendix D). The 20 self-report items were derived from other

self-report depression inventories such as the Inventory for Measuring

Depression (Beck, Ward, Mendelson, Mock,& Erbaugh, 1961) and the Zung

Self-rating Depression Scale (1965) and were selected to sample major

components of depression. The purpose of the scale is to assess the

current level of depressive symptomology with particular emphasis on









the affective component, depressed mood. It is intended to survey

depressive symptoms that may be found in medical, psychiatric, and/or

general populations.

The content areas sampled are depressed mood, feelings of guilt

and worthlessness, feelings of helplessness and hopelessness,

psychomotor retardation, loss of appetite, and sleep disturbance

(Radloff, 1977). Each item is a first person statement of a relatively

specific depressive symptom, for example, "I felt sad, I thought my

life had been a failure." The respondent is asked to indicate how

often she/he has felt this way during the past week on a scale of zero

to three which indicates the frequency of occurrence of the symptom

with three denoting the highest frequency. The possible range of scores

is from 0 to 60, with high scores indicative of more symptoms.

The CES-D scale was selected for use in this study because of its

orientation toward the general population. While not designed for

clinical diagnosis, the CES-D is based on symptoms of depression as

seen in clinical cases. This allows for discrimination between patient

and general population groups as well as sensitivity to levels of

severity of depressive symptoms. Hersen and Bellack (1981) describe the

CES-D scale as having "very good psychometric properties" (p. 256) and

recommend its use for exploring relationships between depressive

symptomology and other characteristics of populations in survey

samples. Radloff (1977) recommends the CES-D as a useful instrument

for epidemiological studies of depression.

Efforts to establish the reliability and validity of the CES-D

have used intact communities and clinically diagnosed depressed

populations. Radloff (1977) reports validation of the instrument








through field testing in two communities, Kansas City, Missouri, and

Washington County, Maryland, with participants randomly selected from

each household in the sample. A total of 2846 subjects responded.

Retest data were collected through the completion and mailing of CES-D

questionnaires and through reinterview. The mail-in procedure was

utilized with 419 respondents at 2, 4, 6, and 8 week intervals. A

repeat interview was held with 1552 of the original sample at 3, 6, or

12 months after the original interview to assess test-retest

reliability.

The distributions of the CES-D scale scores (Radloff, 1977) were

skewed for the general population group, with a large proportion of low

scores and a small standard deviation. Test-retest correlations were

in the moderate range with all but one between .45 and .70.

Correlations were, on the average, larger for the shorter time

intervals. Subjects reporting no occurrence of negative life events at

either interview showed the highest correlation; those reporting life

events at both times had the lowest correlation and those reporting

life events at one time but not the other had intermediate correlations

(Radloff, 1977).

Radloff (1977) also reported the results of two clinical

validation studies done in conjunction with the community studies, one

in Washington County, Maryland, and the other in New Haven,

Connecticut. The Maryland study was done in a private psychiatric

facility with 70 patients selected on the basis of their ability to

respond and their willingness to participate. In the New Haven study,

35 outpatients being treated for severe depression and scoring at least

seven on the Raskin Depression Rating Scale participated in the study.









The distribution of the scores of the patient group was

symmetrical with a large standard deviation. These results, along with

those from the general population, support the interpretation of the

scale as being related to a clinical depressive condition more typical

of a patient population than a household sample. However, Radloff

(1977) notes that "there was a wide enough range of scores in the

general population to allow meaningful identification of relationships

between depressive symptomology and other variables" (p. 390).

In summary, the CES-D has high internal consistency, moderate

test-retest stability, high concurrent validity by empirical and

clinical criteria, and strong evidence for construct validity across

the general population subgroups that were studied (Radloff, 1977).

Measure of Network Support

Network support, the third dimension of Cobb's theory, was

evaluated through the use of selected items adapted by this

investigator from The Transition Assessment (Schlossberg & Charner,

1982). Originally designed to identify and examine transition within a

pre-determined population, The Transition Assessment (Schlossberg &

Charner, 1982) provided a comprehensive structure from which to assess

a particular transition, in this case relocation. The adapted

instrument is called A Relocation/Transition Assessment (see Appendix

E). The items to be included in A Relocation/Transition Assessment

were selected by utilizing the conceptual paradigm provided by Tardy

(1985). In his article evaluating measures of social support, Tardy

described five important issues to be considered when selecting

instruments: (a) direction, whether support is given or received;








(b) disposition, whether support is available and/or used; (c)

description/evaluation, whether support is described and/or

evaluated;(d) content, the type of support, emotional, instrumental,

informational and/or appraisal and; (e) network, the consideration of

people providing and/or receiving support.

A Relocation/Transition Assessment is a 70-item self-report,

paper and pencil instrument which asked the respondent to describe her

network support system in terms of enactment and evaluation. The

potential networks of family, close friends, neighbors, community,

co-workers, and mentors are included in the instrument. This

instrument included paired items such as "Did you receive emotional

support from your husband during the transition? If yes, to what

extent did it help with the transition?" Responses of totally, to a

great extent, to some extent, to hardly any extent, and not at all are

presented.

In addition to items regarding personal and professional

networks, each woman respondent was asked to examine her personal

reactions to the relocation experience by checking a category of

response most appropriate to her situation. (For example, "How would

you describe the process of relocation?" The response items were very

planned, somewhat planned, very unplanned.) The impact of relocation

was explored by means of a similar, but broader format to examine the

amount of change as it pertains to relationships with people and

activities.

The inclusion of items exploring personal and professional

networks, as well as personal reactions to relocation made this

instrument particularly appropriate because it assessed network support









in a manner consistent with both Cobb's theory (1976, 1982) and the

criteria specified by Tardy (1985).

Measures of Adaptation

The sum of questions 135 through 139 of Section III of A

Relocation/Transition Assessment (see Appendix E) plus any difference

between questions 25 and 26 of the Personal Information Questionnaire

(see Appendix F) were used as the measure of adaptation. This portion

asked each woman to assess and evaluate the relocation experience and

to compare the degree of satisfaction and happiness prior to relocation

with current levels.

Measures of Demographic Information

Demographic information, past and present levels of career and

personal satisfaction, and outlook for the wife's professional future

from both spouses' perspectives was gathered from the Personal

Information Questionnaires developed by this researcher (see Appendices

F and G). These questionnaires were used in a pilot project involving

13 dual-career couples (Neims, 1983). One original item regarding the

wife's role in the decision to relocate has been replaced with items 10

and 11 (men) and items 24 and 25 (women) due to reported confusion over

the wording.

The Personal Information Questionnaire (Men) (see Appendix G)

contained 13 items. Brief responses pertaining to demographic

information about the husband were required. In addition, items asked

of the women regarding levels of satisfaction, influence upon the

decision to move, and hope for the future were re-examined from the

husbands' perspectives. For example, item 12 asked, "Using the

following scale, please describe your wife prior to the decision to









relocate." Responses ranged from 1, dissatisfied and unhappy to 5,

generally satisfied and happy. Each husband was asked to add any

comments that he felt would help the investigator better understand the

relocation experience. These responses were used to corroborate,

support, and further explain the wives' responses and experiences.

Each item required either a brief response pertaining to demographic

information or an indication of position on a Likert-type scale

regarding levels of past and present satisfaction and levels of hope

for the future.

The Personal Information Questionnaire (Women) (See Appendix F) was

comprised of 27 items. Each item required either a brief response

pertaining to demographic information or an indication of position on a

Likert-type scale regarding levels of past and present satisfaction and

levels of hope for the future. Three items were added to the original

women's questionnaire (Neims, 1983) in order to identify their work

prior to and after relocation as either full- or part-time and to

determine their current annual salary.

The entire packet for the women contained 139 possible

short-answer items. In addition, space was allotted for any

supplemental information the respondents wish to include. Despite the

large number of items appearing on the women's assessment the total

time needed to complete the instruments was approximately 35 minutes.

Data Collection Procedures

Each couple selected to participate in the study was sent a packet

including a letter thanking them for their participation. The packet

included instructions for the instruments, the instruments themselves,

two informed consent forms, and an addressed stamped envelope for the








return of the packet. The letter of instruction asked that the couple

not collaborate regarding any of the items on the questionnaires (see

Appendix H). The letter also included the investigator's phone number

and an invitation to call should there be any questions or concerns

about the instruments.

A follow-up phone call was be made to the couple after 14 days if

the packets had not been returned to the investigator. Five couples

needed further reminding beyond the initial follow-up. In the interest

of time, one questionnaire was picked up from the respondent directly.

The response rate achieved in the pilot study (Neims, 1983) was

100%. However, the number of couples participating was small and the

investigator collected the packets personally at the time of the

structured interview. Nonetheless, based upon the enthusiasm expressed

by the participants in the pilot study a high response rate was

anticipated and achieved (98%) for the present study.

Data Analysis
This study posed the following research questions:

1. Is there a relationship between any of the demographic

variables of the accompanying spouse and successful adaptation

following relocation?

2. Is there a relationship between any of the career-related
variables of the accompanying spouse and successful adaptation

following relocation?

3. Is there a relationship between the three dimensions of social

support (esteem, emotional, and network support) and the successful

adaptation of the accompanying spouse following relocation?









4. Are there identifiable coping strategies in successful versus

unsuccessful adaptation following relocation?

The data were analyzed using both descriptive and correlational

statistics. Descriptive statistics such as frequency distributions,

central tendencies and variability will be computed for all variables.

The demographic variables examined in research question one were,

length of time in Gainesville, age, level of participation in the

decision to move, and the degree of satisfaction and happiness prior to

and after relocation. The data were analyzed using multiple regression

statistics and analysis of variance.

The career-related variables examined in research question two

were, the number of years of education/training for career, the length

of time in the previous career position, level of job satisfaction

prior to relocation, current employment status, level of current job

satisfaction, and level of hopefulness about the professional future.

The data were analyzed using regression analyses and analysis of

variance.

Research question three was analyzed using multiple regression

statistics to determine whether a significant relationship existed

between the five measures of social support and successful adaptation.

In addition, regression statistics were used to further examine the

variables included in network support.

Research question four was analyzed using t-tests, regression

statistics, analysis of variance, and Pearson product correlation

statistics. Coping strategies were identified and evaluated by items 90

through 99 and 110 through 119 of A Relocation/Transition Assessment.








These items examined the cognitive and behavioral means by which the

women responded to relocation and to what extent these strategies were

helpful to them.

















CHAPTER IV

RESULTS
This study was designed to examine and describe the psycho-social

effects of relocation on the accompanying wives in dual-career families

when the families have moved because of changes in the husbands'

employment. This chapter will include a description of the final

sample, a discussion of each research question, and, finally, a summary

of the results.

The final sample comprised 80 dual-career couples who had

relocated to the Gainesville, Florida area within 18 months of the

beginning of the study. The length of time between relocation and the

study ranged from 2 1/2 weeks to 18 months with an average time of 8.3

months. Relocation was due in each case to the husband's acceptance of

a new career position in the Gainesville area.

Demographic Information
Career-related and demographic information pertaining to the men

is highlighted here in order to provide a backdrop for the responses

gathered from the women. Sixty of the 80 male participants were

affiliated with the University of Florida, one was in the military, and

19 were employed either by government agencies or worked within various

businesses in the community. Two of the latter 19 were unemployed at

the time of the study because of lay-offs within their respective

companies. The men's university affiliation or non-affiliation was not









a significant factor in the women's scores on the measures of social

support or adaptation. Levels of job satisfaction for the men prior to

the move ranged from 1 (not at all satisfied) to 5 (extremely

satisfied) with a mean rating of 2.81 (SD = .99) indicating a moderate

degree of job satisfaction. Using the same scale, their current levels

of job satisfaction ranged from 1 to 5 with a mean rating of 3.65

(SD = .91) indicating a significant positive shift in job satisfaction

(t = 5.66, p = .0001).

Fifty-four percent of the men viewed the move as a vertical career

move while 15% considered it a lateral move. The remaining 31% cited

other reasons, both professional and personal, for the move.

Professional reasons included better job opportunities and career

potential, better salary, better collegial relationships, more time to

pursue research, career change, transfers from public to private

sectors, changes from private to academic settings, "coming out of

semi-retirement," and the furthering of education. Personal reasons

cited were climate, wanting to be closer to family, and a desire to

"simplify life."

The men's ages ranged from 24 to 65 with a mean age of 37.25 years

(SD = 8.11). The number of years of training/education beyond high

school for the men ranged from 0 to 25 with a mean of 8.45 years (SD =

3.84). Similarly, the accompanying wives ranged in age from 25 to 60

with a mean age of 35.79 years (SD = 6.92). The number of years of

training/education beyond high school for the women ranged from 1 to 13

with a mean of 5.59 years (SD = 2.43). The highest earned degrees for

both men and women included a broad spectrum from high school degrees

through Ph.D.s and M.D.s (see Table 4-1).









Table 4-1
Highest Earned Degree For Men and Women


Men Women

n % n %


High School 5 (6.3) 4 (5.0)

AA or LPN 1 (1.3) 11 (13.8)

Bachelor's 9 (11.3) 29 (36.3)

Master's 14 (17.5) 22 (27.5)

Ed.S. 0 2 (2.5)
J.D. 1 (1.3) 2 (2.5)

Ph.D. 35 (43.8) 6 (7.5)

M.D. 10 (12.5) 2 (2.5)

Other Professional 5 ( 6.3) 0


The demographic and career-related data presented above provide an

interesting contrast for similar data gathered from the women. Sixty

four percent of the women indicated that they had worked full time

prior to the move with the remaining 36% working part time. The length

of time engaged in the career prior to relocation ranged from 6 months
to 26 years with an average of approximately 5 1/2 years (SD = 4.64).

Annual salaries prior to the move ranged from $2000 to $40,000 with a

mean salary of $18,104 (SD = $8912).








At the time of the study, 55% of the women were employed with 49%

working full time and the remaining 51% working part time.

Approximately 37% of all the employed women reported their new

positions to be either worse or much worse than their previous jobs.

The average length of time in the new position was 6.23 months (SD =

4.40). The range was from 2 1/2 weeks to 15 months. Approximately 31%

of the unemployed women indicated that their unemployment was not by

choice.

Working women reported annual salaries following relocation

ranging from $1000 to $60,000 with a mean salary of $17,303 (SD =

$11,974). Levels of job satisfaction for the women prior to the move

ranged from 1 (not at all satisfied) to 5 (extremely satisfied) with a

mean rating of 3.43 (SD = 1.08) indicating a high degree of job

satisfaction. Using the the same scale, the levels of job satisfaction

for those women who were employed at the time of the study ranged from

1 to 5 with a mean rating of 2.74 (SD = 1.05) indicating a significant

decline in the level of job satisfaction in the new location (t =

2.93, P = .005).

Prior to relocation the women had been involved in a broad variety

of careers. Following relocation not only was there a decrease in the

number of women involved in careers but a shift in the kinds of careers

being pursued (see Table 4-2). A number of women reported that they

now considered homemaking to be their career.






68


Table 4-2

Women's Careers Prior To and Following Relocation




Career Category Prior After


n n
Author 1+ 1

Public relations 2 1

Program/project director/curator 3 2

Accountant/CPA/accounting clerk 4 0

Actuarial Assistant 0 1

Advertising agency executive 1 0

Artist/Art agent/graphic designer 3 2

Attorney 1 1*

City planner 1 1

Dental hygienist 2 0

Instructor (University level) 6 3**

Insurance agent 1 0

Interior Designer 1 0

Real estate 2 2

Librarian/assistant 2 0

Merchandiser 0 1

Nursing (RN and LPN) 13 7

Occupational therapist/physical

therapist/speech pathologist 3 2









Table 4-2--Continued

Prior

n
Physician 1

Professor 2

Skin Care Specialist 1

Teacher/Tutor 7

Social worker/School psychologist/

Mental health counselor 5

Student/Graduate student/Doctoral

candidate 3++

Research associate/assistant/

administrator/technician/supervisor 8

(includes sciences, medical sciences,

and marketing)

Secretarial/managerial/administrative 10

Television producer 1

Zoo Keeper 0


After

n

0

3

1

3



3


4****

1

1


Note. + Described herself as "teacher/author" prior to move.

++ Also involved in career.

* Represents a change in career for two women.

** 2 of these women indicated promotion in the new location.

*** 3 of these women are also involved in a career.
**** 2 of these women indicated lesser positions in the new location.









The following portion presents the results of the study as they

pertain to the research questions. The data will be discussed in two

main sections. The first will include the analyses of the first three

research questions. The second section will present the analysis of the

fourth and final research question.

Analysis of Research Questions One, Two, and Three

Research question one was as follows: Is there a relationship

between any of the demographic variables of the accompanying spouse and

successful adaptation following relocation? Regression statistics were

used to analyze this question with five predictor variables from the

demographic information on the accompanying spouse as the independent

variables. The variables examined were the length of time in

Gainesville, age, level of importance of their input in the decision to

move, and the degree of general satisfaction and happiness both prior

to and after relocation as they related to successful adaptation. The

dependent variable was the mean score of the adaptation measure.

As previously mentioned, the mean age of the women in the sample
was 35.79 years (SD = 6.92). The average length of time in the

Gainesville area was 8.32 months (SD = 5.48) with a range of 2 weeks to

18 months. The level of importance of their input in the decision to

move was rated on a scale of 1 (not at all important) to 5 (extremely
important). The mean score, with only 78 women responding, was 3.81

(SD = 1.26) with a range of 1 to 5. The level of general satisfaction

and happiness prior to the move was rated on a scale of 1 (generally

dissatisfied and unhappy) to 5 (generally satisfied and happy). The








women indicated a mean score of 3.64 (SD = 1.39) with a range from 1 to

5. The women used the same scale to rate themselves after the move and

reported a mean score of 3.46 (SD = 1.12) with a range of 1 to 5.

The men (N = 76) rated the importance of their wives' input in

the decision to move at a mean level of 4.16 (SD = .91) indicating a

significant difference in perception between husbands and wives

(t = 2.55, p = .01). A significant difference also occurred

between the husbands' and wives' rating of the wives' level of

satisfaction and happiness prior to the move. The husbands' ratings

were at a mean level of 3.35 (SD = 1.24) significantly lower than the

wives' ratings (t = 2.33, P = .02).

The multiple regression analysis using age, length of time in

Gainesville, level of importance of input in the decision, level of

satisfaction prior to the move, level of satisfaction after the move,

and the adaptation score is presented in Table 4-3. The regression

analysis indicated that the demographic variables in general were good

predictors of successful adaptation, F value = 36.58, p = .0001,

and R-square = .72. Examination of the analysis indicates that low

levels of general satisfaction and happiness prior to relocation and

high levels following the move are the best predictors of successful

adaptation, with the other three variables adding only 2% of the

variance.

In addition to the regression analysis, an analysis of variance

(ANOVA) was calculated to determine whether there was a significant

difference between the length of time in Gainesville and successful









Table 4-3
Regression Model of the Relationship Between Adaptation and Five
Demographic Variables



Parameter Estimate t For HO: PR> of t Std. Error/Estimate

Parameter=O


Intercept 20.307

Age 0.013

Time in

Gainesville -0.044

Input/

Decision -0.233

Satisfaction

prior 1.510

Satisfaction

after move -3.386

F = 36.58, P = .0001,


9.35

0.28



-0.76



-0.81



6.57


-10.41

R-square =


0.0001

0.7840



0.4520



0.4234



0.0001


2.172

0.046



0.059



0.290



0.230


0.0001 0.325

.72 Mean Adaptation Score = 13.15


adaptation. The results yielded no significant differences between

women who had moved to the area 6, 12, and 18 months prior to the study

and successful adaptation. (F = 0.53, = = 0.59).

Research question two was as follows: Are relationships between

career-related variables and successful adaptation? The variables

examined were the number of years of education/career training, the

length of time in career prior to relocation, the level of job









satisfaction prior to relocation, current employment status, if

unemployed, whether it is by choice, level of current job satisfaction,

and hopefulness regarding professional future. The employment status

item indicated that 55% of the women were employed at the time of the

study and 45% were unemployed, with 31% of the unemployed women

indicating that unemployment was not by their choice. The descriptive

data for the other variables are presented in Table 4-4.

Regression analysis of these variables using the entire sample of

women is presented in Table 4-5. This analysis indicated that the

career-related variables were satisfactory predictors of successful

adaptation, F value = 11.19, p = 0.0001, R-Square = 0.43. The

variables contributing most strongly to the variance were job

satisfaction prior to relocation, current employment status, and the

level of hopefulness for the professional future. Examination of each

variable indicates that low levels of job satisfaction prior to

relocation and high levels of hopefulness for the future are related to

successful adaptation. Employment at the time of the study was also

associated with successful adaptation.

Regression analysis was repeated with the sample divided into

groups of women who were employed at the time of the study (Table 4-6)

and those who were unemployed (Table 4-7) using variables appropriate

to each group. These analysis yielded, as would be expected, somewhat

different overall results but nonetheless indicated that hopefulness

about the professional future provided the greatest amount of variance

to the model in each of the subgroups. Further examination indicated

that higher levels of hopefulness for the future were associated with

successful adaptation.









Table 4-4

Descriptive Data for Career-related Variables


Variable N Mean SD Minimum Maximum



Years of ed./training 80 5.59 2.43 1.00 13.00

beyond high school

Time in career prior 80 5.64 4.64 0.50 26.00

to move

Level of job satisfaction

prior to move 80 3.43 1.08 1.00 5.00

Level of current job

satisfaction 43 2.74 1.04 1.00 5.00

Level of hope for

professional future 80 2.74 1.11 1.00 5.00


In addition to the regression statistics an analysis of variance

(ANOVA) was calculated to determined whether there were significant

differences between the levels of employment status and successful

adaptation. The levels were employed, unemployed by choice, and

unemployed not by choice. The results indicated no significant

differences at the .05 level (F = 2.83; p = .065).









Table 4-5
Regression Model of the Relationship Between Adaptation and
Career-related Variables for the Total Sample of Women



Parameter Estimate t For HO: PR> of t Std. Error/Estimate

Parameter=O


Intercept 10.351 3.95 0.0002 2.623

Years of ed./

training 0.231 1.25 0.2135 0.184

Time in career

prior to move 0.171 1.77 0.0805 0.096

Prior job

satisfaction 1.380 3.34 0.0013 0.413

Current employ-

ment status 1.800 2.03 0.0459 0.887

Hopefulness for

professional

future -2.468 -6.17 0.0001 0.400

F = 11.19,p= 0.0001, R-Square = 0.43 Mean Adaptation Score = 13.19










Table 4-6
Regression Model of the Relationship Between Adaptation and
Career-related Variables for Employed Women



Parameter Estimate t For HO: PR> of t Std. Error/Estimate

Parameter=O


Intercept 15.099 4.59 0.0001 3.292

Years of ed./

training 0.191 0.76 0.4534 0.252

Time in career

prior to move 0.111 0.92 0.3643 0.121

Prior job

satisfaction 1.439 2.56 0.0145 0.562

Current job

satisfaction -1.422 -1.88 0.0679 0.756

Hopefulness for

professional

future -1.944 -2.80 0.0081 0.695

F Value = 8.94, p = 0.001, R-square = 0.547 Mean Adaptation score=12.67









Table 4-7

Regression Model of the Relationship Between Adaptation and
Career-related Variables for Unemployed Women



Parameter Estimate t For HO: PR> of t Std. Error/Estimate

Parameter=0


Intercept 8.151 1.91 0.0664 4.278

Years of ed./

training 0.413 1.46 0.1550 0.283

Time in career

prior to move 0.297 1.97 0.0585 0.151

Prior job

satisfaction 0.889 1.44 0.1597 0.617

Choice re:

unemployment 2.513 1.68 0.1037 1.497

Hopefulness for

professional

future -1.568 -2.47 0.0193 0.634

F Value=4.33, P = 0.0044, R-square = 0.419 Mean Adaptation Score =

13.97




The third research question in this study was as follows: Is there

a relationship between the three dimensions of social support (esteem,

emotional, and network support) and the successful adaptation of the

accompanying spouse following relocation? The measures of esteem









support were the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSE) and the Reflected

Self-esteem and Reflected Love Scales (Turner). Emotional support was

measured by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale

(CES-D). Network support was determined through the use of items 120

through 133 on the Relocation/Transition Assessment located in Appendix

E. These items examined whether network supports had been used, and if

so, how helpful they had been in the transition (rating). The

descriptive data for all social support measures are presented in Table

4-8. Additional discriptive data regarding network support are found

in Table 4-9 and Table 4-10.

It is important to note that there are two separate network

analyses. Network 1 comprises items 120 through 129 on the

Relocation/Transition Assessment. Network 2 comprises items 130

through 133 of the same assessment. This separation was needed because

of the differing format of the items as they appeared on the

questionnaire.

Table 4-8
Descriptive Data of the Women's Responses on All Social Support
Measures



Variable N Mean SD Minimum Maximum


RSE 80 16.54 5.50 10.0 32.00

Turner 80 21.00 5.96 12.0 42.00

CES-D 80 12.46 10.99 0.0 49.00

Network 1 74 7.51 0.95 6.0 9.00

Network 2 74 9.59 1.07 8.0 13.00









Frequency distributions and evaluations for network 1 and network

2 items appear in Table 4-9. Rating of the network support was

described in the following manner: 1 = Totally helpful; 2 = Helpful to

a great extent; 3 = Helpful to some extent; 4 = Helpful to hardly any

extent; 5 = Not at all helpful. The term "None" is used here to

indicate responses of no support received.

The frequency distributions and ratings of network 2 supports are

presented in Table 4-10. The amount of support received was described

in the following manner: 1 = A great amount; 2 = A medium amount; 3 = A

small amount; 4 = None. The rating of the support was the same as in

network 1: 1 = Totally helpful; 2 = Helpful to a great extent; 3 =

Helpful to some extent; 4 = Helpful to hardly any extent; 5 = Not at

all helpful.

Table 4-9
Frequency Distributions of the Women's Ratings of Network 1 Supports




Type of Support Rating N Percent


Emotional/From husband 1 12 16.9

2 37 52.1

3 19 26.8

4 3 4.2

(None 9)









Emotional/From family


Emotional/From friends


Emotional/From co-workers

in new job?


Table 4-9--Continued
1

2 3(

3 2(

4 :

(None 2:


1

2

3

4

(None


2 5

3 5

4 1

(None 33)

(Not Applicable 36)


Support from a mentor


3

4

(None

(No Response


3.4

50.8

44.1

1.7


5.3

38.7

49.3

6.7


45.5

45.5

9.1


18.8

68.8

12.5


___


______









Table 4-10
Frequency Distributions of the Women's Ratings of Network 2 Supports




Type of Support Amount Received N Percent


Physical aid


4

Rating


1

2

3

4

5

Amount Received


Feedback and reaction


31.3

27.5

33.8

7.5

Percent


5.1

42.3

32.1

14.1

6.4

Percent


51.3

32.5

15.0

1.3









Table 4-10--Continued


Rating N Percent


Feedback and reaction 1 3 3.8

2 25 31.3

3 34 42.5

4 13 16.3

5 5 6.3






Regression analysis of the entire social support model is

presented in Table 4-11. The independent variables are the measures of

esteem support, The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSE) and the Turner

Scales of Reflected Self-Esteem and Reflected Love (Turner); the

measure of emotional support, The Center for Epidemiologic Study

Depression Scale (CES-D), and the network support variables. Network

Use represents whether or not the network supports, husband, family,

friends, co-workers, mentors, physical assistance, and feedback,

described in Tables 4-9 and 4-10, were used by the women during the

relocation process. Network Rating, represents the evaluation of the

helpfulness of these supports by those women who have used them. The

regression analysis indicated that the social support model in general

was a good predictor of successful adaptation (F = 11.34, p = .0001,

R-square = 0.45). Low scores on the emotional support index (CES-D) are

associated with successful adaptation. Neither the esteem support








measures nor the network support measures reached statistical

significance, p = .05.

Table 4-11

Regression Model of the Relationship between Adaptation and Five
Measures of Social Support



Parameter Estimate t For HO: PR of t Std. Error/Estimate

Parameter=O


Intercept 22.312 2.69 0.0089 8.288

RSE 0.011 0.10 0.9235 0.115

Turner -0.005 -0.05 0.9632 0.099

CES-D 0.276 5.20 0.0001 0.053

Network Use -0.887 -1.38 0.1720 0.643

Network Ratings -0.357 -1.81 0.0743 0.197

F = 11.34, p = 0.0001, R-square = 0.45 Mean Adaptation Score = 13.07




The multiple regression analysis relating successful adaptation to

the ratings of support from husband, other family members, friends, new

co-workers, mentor, physical assistance, and feedback and reaction is

presented in Table 4-12. The analysis indicated that network variables

in general were satisfactory predictors of successful adaptation, F =

2.69, P = 0.0158, R-square = 0.21. Examination of the data indicates

that high levels of emotional support from husbands are associated with

successful adaptation for the women. No other network support reached

statistical significance, p = .05.









Table 4-12

Regression Model of the Relationship Between Adaptation and Network
Support Variables



Parameter Estimate t For HO: PR of t Std. Error/Estimate

Parameter=0


Intercept 19.846 9.39 0.0001 2.113

Husband -1.418 -2.76 0.0073 0.513

Family -0.057 -0.12 0.9051 0.476

Friends -0.606 -0.89 0.3747 0.678

Co-workers -0.180 -0.26 0.7969 0.698

Mentor 0.891 1.40 0.1644 0.634

Physical aid -0.344 -0.59 0.5539 0.578

Feedback -0.568 -0.77 0.4416 0.734

F = 2.69, P = 0.0158, R-square = 0.21 Mean Adaptation Score = 13.19




Coping Strategies and Successful Adaptation

The fourth and final research question asked if there are

identifiable coping strategies, and if so, is there a relationship

between them and successful adaptation. This question were assessed

through several methods. The first method asked that the women examine

their general coping styles. The styles were described as being a

"fighter," a "stoic," a "deny-er," a "needer," or a "believer in

magic." The women were then asked to describe to what extent they used

these styles in general and to what extent they used them during the









relocation experience. A scale of the amount of use ranging from one

to five was used with one being totally and five being not at all.

Each pair was analyzed through the use of t-tests. Two significant

differences were found between general styles and styles used during

the move. While the women indicated that they were generally

"fighters", M = 2.33, SD = .79, they were significantly less likely to

be so during the move, M = 2.72, SD = 1.03 ( t = 3.34, 2 = .001). The

women also identified themselves as being "needers" to "hardly any

extent" in general, M = 3.62, SD = .85, but were significantly more

likely to report themselves as "needers" during the move, M = 3.41,

SD = .91 ( t = 2.63, E = .01).

After the examination of individual coping styles and uses, a

regression analysis was calculated to determine whether significant

relationships exist between general coping styles and successful

adaptation. The results indicated that there was no significant

relationship between general coping styles and successful adaptation,

F = 1.30, p = 0.27, R-square = .08. Table 4-13 presents an additional

regression analysis utilizing as variables the coping styles that the

women reported actually using during the relocation experience. This

analysis indicated that the coping styles used during relocation were

satisfactory predictors of successful adaptation, F = 2.39, p = .046,

R-square = .14, with the ability to "recognize the reality of the

situation" as the best predictor.









Table 4-13


Regression Analysis of the Relationship
Styles Used During


Between Adaptation and Coping
Relocation


Parameter Estimate t For HO: PR of t Std. Error/Estimate

Parameter=0


Intercept 22.553 4.93 0.0001 4.571

"Fighter" -0.623 -1.16 0.2508 0.538

"Stoic" 0.214 0.37 0.7133 0.581

"Deny-er" -1.449 -2.18 0.0321 0.663

"Needer" -1.123 -1.77 0.0813 0.635

"Believer in

Magic" 0.349 0.51 0.6136 0.689

F = 2.39, p = .046, R-square = 0.14 Mean Adaptation Score = 13.19




In addition to identifying coping styles, the women were asked

about their perceptions regarding change in general and the changes

resulting from their recent move. In order to assess perceptions in

general, a one-way analysis of variance with three levels of response,

Overwhelmed, Not affected, and Challenged was performed. The results

indicated a significant difference between groups (F = 6.92, p = .0018,

R-square = .16). Table 4-14 presents the means and standard deviations

of the three general response groups and adaptation. The post hoc

analysis using Tukey's Studentized Range Test revealed a significant









difference between women who viewed change in general as challenging

and those who viewed change as overwhelming with the challenged group

being more successful in their adaptation to the new environment.

Table 4-14

Adaptation Score, Means, and Standard Deviations of the Three General
Response Groups



Level n Mean S.D.




Overwhelmed 13 17.31 4.35*

Not Affected 4 15.00 2.94

Challenged 61 12.10 4.84*


Mean Adaptation Score = 13.12




Note. Significant difference <.05., Tukey's Studentized Range
Test


A second analysis, using the same three classification levels as

they related to the recent move, indicated a significant difference

between groups (F = 18.35, p = .0001, R-square = .33). The women who

described the changes resulting from the move to Gainesville as

challenging were found to have adapted more successfully than the

groups of women who described themselves as either not affected by the

changes or as overwhelmed by the changes, F = 18.35, p = .0001,

R-square = .33. The results of post hoc analysis using Tukey's









Studentized Range Test indicated significant differences between the

challenged group and both the overwhelmed and not affected groups, with

the challenged group adapting more successfully than either

counterpart. The means and standard deviations of each group are

introduced in Table 4-15.

Table 4-15

Means and Standard Deviations of the Response Groups Related to the
Recent Move and Adaptation


Level n Mean S.D.



Overwhelmed 15 18.93 4.23*

Not Affected 5 12.40 2.19*

Challenged 59 11.66 4.24*


Mean Adaptation Score = 13.09




Note. *Significant difference <.05., Tukey's Studentized Range Test


The women were also asked to respond to items which asked whether

they acted in an active or a passive manner in general and during the

move. This variable had three possible categories of response, "I make

things happen," "Mixed," and "Things happen to me." A one-way analysis

of variance with three levels was performed with adaptation as the

dependent variable. The results indicated no significant differences

between variables for situations in general (F = .49, p = .61,

R-square = .01). However, there were significant differences found

between variables as they related to the relocation experience








(F = 10.68, p = .0001, R-square = .22). The post hoc analysis using

Tukey's Studentized Range Test is presented in Table 4-16. The results

indicated significant differences between all variables. The women who

reportedly made things happen for themselves adapted most successfully

and women who felt that things happened to them adapted the least

successfully.

Table 4-16
Means and Standard Deviations of the Three Levels of Activity During
the Relocation Experience and Adaptation



Level n Mean S.D.


I made things happen 33 10.88 4.51*

Mixed 37 13.92 4.02*

Things Happened to me 10 18.10 6.15*

Mean Adaptation Score = 13.19




Note *Significant difference <.05., Tukey's Studentized Range Test


The final items asked about how the women perceived options in

general and how they perceived their options regarding their current

move. The categories of responses were "Usually there is only one,"

"There are a Few," and "There are many." A one-way analysis of

variance with these three levels of response was performed with

adaptation serving as the dependent variable. A significant

relationship was found only on the item regarding the perception of




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