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A Comprehensive Outline of World History

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Title:
A Comprehensive Outline of World History
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Book
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en-US
Creator:
Maxfield, Jack E. ( Author, Primary )
Publisher:
Connexions, Rice University
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Houston, TX
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Subjects / Keywords:
world history, ancient history, modern history, regional history, OGT+ ISBN: 9781616100025
European History, Greek Civilization, History, Medieval History, Middle Eastern History, Non Western Civilization, World History
Social Studies / World history

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Abstract:
This free PDF textbook presents Jack E. Maxfield's "A Comprehensive Outline of World History" as originally organized, chronologically by era and across regions within an era. Each chapter covers a period of historical time (e.g. a century). Sections within chapters describe what was going on in every geographical region of the world; each section provides a reference for that region in the subsequent chapter, i.e. in the next time period. The reader can thus get a snapshot of the entire world at a point in time by reading one chapter, or can follow the history of a region through time by linking to sections in successive chapters.
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Expositive
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11, 12, Community College, Higher Education
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http://www.ogtp-cart.com/product.aspx?ISBN=9781616100025
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Adobe PDF
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Jack E. Maxfield
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Textbook
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http://cnx.org/content/col10595/latest/
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http://florida.theorangegrove.org/og/file/f796f14f-c573-1fcd-1cb1-d2a21d9b32b2/1/WorldHistory.pdf

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University Press of Florida
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University Press of Florida
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Copyright © 2008 Jack E. Maxfield. This selection and arrangement of content is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution License: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/
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isbn - 9781616100025
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AA00011699:00001


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AComprehensiveOutlineofWorldHistory By: JackE.Maxeld

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AComprehensiveOutlineofWorldHistory By: JackE.Maxeld Online: < http://cnx.org/content/col10595/1.2/ > CONNEXIONS RiceUniversity,Houston,Texas

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JackE.Maxeld ThisselectionandarrangementofcontentislicensedundertheCreativeCommonsAttributionLicense: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/

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TableofContents Foreword ..............................................................................................1 Introduction ...........................................................................................3 TheMechanicsofandSomeProblemsofthePresentation ................................................5 1TheMethodofGeographicalPresentation 1.1 IntroductiontotheMethodofGeographicalPresentation..........................................7 1.2 GeographicalPresentationofAfrica.............................................................7 1.3 GeographicalPresentationofTheNearEast......................................................9 1.4 GeographicalPresentationofEurope...........................................................11 1.5 GeographicalPresentationofCentralandNorthernAsia..........................................14 1.6 GeographicalPresentationofTheIndianSubcontinent...........................................15 1.7 GeographicalPresentationofTheFarEast......................................................18 1.8 GeographicalPresentationofThePacic........................................................19 1.9 GeographicalPresentationofAmerica..........................................................20 Solutions......................................................................................... ?? 2Beginningto8000B.C. 2.1 Beginningto8000B.C........................................................................27 2.2 Africa:Beginningto8000B.C.................................................................35 2.3 TheNearEast:Beginningto8000B.C..........................................................36 2.4 Europe:Beginningto8000B.C................................................................38 2.5 CentralandNorthernAsia:Beginningto8000B.C...............................................39 2.6 TheIndianSubcontinent:Beginningto8,000B.C................................................40 2.7 TheFarEast:Beginningto8000B.C...........................................................40 2.8 ThePacic:Beginningto8000B.C.............................................................41 2.9 America:Beginningto8000B.C...............................................................42 Solutions......................................................................................... ?? 38000to5000B.C. 3.1 8000to5000B.C.............................................................................47 3.2 Africa:8000to5000B.C......................................................................48 3.3 TheNearEast:8000to5000B.C...............................................................48 3.4 Europe:8000to5000B.C.....................................................................49 3.5 CentralandNorthernAsia:8000to5000B.C....................................................52 3.6 TheIndianSubcontinent:8000to5000B.C.....................................................52 3.7 TheFarEast:8000to5000B.C................................................................52 3.8 ThePacic:8000to5000B.C..................................................................53 3.9 America:8000to5000B.C....................................................................53 Solutions......................................................................................... ?? 45000to3000B.C. 4.1 5000to3000B.C.............................................................................57 4.2 Africa:5000to3000B.C......................................................................58 4.3 TheNearEast:5000to3000B.C...............................................................60 4.4 Europe:5000to3000B.C.....................................................................62 4.5 CentralandNorthernAsia:5000to3000B.C....................................................65 4.6 TheIndianSubcontinent:5000to3000B.C.....................................................66 4.7 TheFarEast:5000to3000B.C................................................................66 4.8 ThePacic:5000to3000B.C..................................................................67 4.9 America:5000to3000B.C....................................................................68

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iv Solutions......................................................................................... ?? 53000to1500B.C. 5.1 3000to1500B.C.............................................................................71 5.2 Africa:3000to1500B.C......................................................................72 5.3 TheNearEast:3000to1500B.C...............................................................74 5.4 Europe:3000to1500B.C.....................................................................80 5.5 CentralandNorthernAsia:3000to1500B.C....................................................85 5.6 TheIndianSubcontinent:3000to1500B.C.....................................................86 5.7 TheFarEast:3000to1500B.C................................................................88 5.8 ThePacic:3000to1500B.C..................................................................89 5.9 America:3000to1500B.C....................................................................90 Solutions......................................................................................... ?? 61500to1000B.C. 6.1 1500to1000B.C.............................................................................93 6.2 Africa:1500to1000B.C......................................................................94 6.3 TheNearEast:1500to1000B.C...............................................................95 6.4 Europe:1500to1000B.C.....................................................................98 6.5 CentralandNorthernAsia:1500to1000B.C...................................................102 6.6 TheIndianSubcontinent:1500to1000B.C....................................................103 6.7 TheFarEast:1500to1000B.C...............................................................103 6.8 ThePacic:1500to1000B.C.................................................................105 6.9 America:1500to1000B.C...................................................................105 Solutions......................................................................................... ?? 71000to700B.C. 7.1 1000to700B.C.............................................................................111 7.2 Africa:1000to700B.C......................................................................111 7.3 TheNearEast:1000to700B.C...............................................................112 7.4 Europe:1000to700B.C......................................................................116 7.5 CentralandNorthernAsia:1000to700B.C....................................................120 7.6 TheIndianSubcontinent:1000to700B.C......................................................120 7.7 TheFarEast:1000to700B.C.................................................................121 7.8 ThePacic:1000to700B.C..................................................................122 7.9 America:1000to700B.C....................................................................124 Solutions......................................................................................... ?? 8700to601B.C. 8.1 Europe:700to601B.C.......................................................................127 8.2 TheIndianSubcontinent:700to601B.C.......................................................130 8.3 TheNearEast:700to601B.C................................................................130 8.4 TheFarEast:700to601B.C..................................................................132 8.5 ThePacic:700to601B.C...................................................................133 8.6 America:700to601B.C.....................................................................133 8.7 CentralandNorthernAsia:700to601B.C.....................................................134 8.8 Africa:700to601B.C.......................................................................135 Solutions......................................................................................... ?? 9600to501B.C. 9.1 600to501B.C...............................................................................137 9.2 Africa:600to501B.C.......................................................................137 9.3 TheFarEast:600to501B.C..................................................................138 9.4 America:600to501B.C.....................................................................140 9.5 CentralandNorthernAsia:600to501B.C.....................................................141

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v 9.6 TheIndianSubcontinent:600to501B.C.......................................................142 9.7 TheNearEast:600to501B.C................................................................142 9.8 ThePacic:600to501B.C...................................................................145 9.9 Europe:600to501B.C.......................................................................146 Solutions......................................................................................... ?? 10500to401B.C. 10.1 500to401B.C.............................................................................151 10.2 Africa:500to401B.C......................................................................151 10.3 TheNearEast:500to401B.C...............................................................153 10.4 Europe:500to401B.C......................................................................155 10.5 CentralandNorthernAsia:500to401B.C....................................................159 10.6 TheIndianSubcontinent:500to401B.C......................................................160 10.7 TheFarEast:500to401B.C.................................................................160 10.8 ThePacic:500to401B.C..................................................................162 10.9 America:500to401B.C....................................................................162 Solutions......................................................................................... ?? 11400to301B.C. 11.1 400to301B.C.............................................................................165 11.2 Africa:400to301B.C......................................................................165 11.3 TheNearEast:400to301B.C...............................................................166 11.4 Europe:400to301B.C......................................................................168 11.5 CentralandNorthernAsia:400to301B.C....................................................172 11.6 TheIndianSubcontinent:400to301B.C......................................................173 11.7 TheFarEast:400to301B.C.................................................................173 11.8 ThePacic:400to301B.C..................................................................175 11.9 America:400to301B.C....................................................................175 Solutions......................................................................................... ?? 12300to201B.C. 12.1 300to201B.C.............................................................................179 12.2 Africa:300to201B.C......................................................................179 12.3 TheNearEast:300to201B.C...............................................................182 12.4 Europe:300to201B.C......................................................................183 12.5 CentralandNorthernAsia:300to201B.C....................................................187 12.6 TheIndianSubcontinent:300to201B.C......................................................187 12.7 TheFarEast:300to201B.C.................................................................188 12.8 ThePacic:300to201B.C..................................................................191 12.9 America:300to201B.C....................................................................191 Solutions......................................................................................... ?? 13200to101B.C. 13.1 200to101B.C.............................................................................195 13.2 Africa:200to101B.C......................................................................195 13.3 TheNearEast:200to101B.C...............................................................197 13.4 Europe:200to101B.C......................................................................198 13.5 CentralandNorthernAsia:200to101B.C....................................................201 13.6 TheIndianSubcontinent:200to101B.C......................................................202 13.7 TheFarEast:200to101B.C.................................................................203 13.8 ThePacic:200to101B.C..................................................................205 13.9 America:200to101B.C....................................................................205 Solutions......................................................................................... ?? 14100B.C.to0

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vi 14.1 100B.C.to0...............................................................................209 14.2 Africa:100B.C.to0........................................................................209 14.3 TheNearEast:100B.C.to0................................................................210 14.4 Europe:100B.C.to0.......................................................................213 14.5 CentralandNorthernAsia:100B.C.to0.....................................................218 14.6 TheIndianSubcontinent:100B.C.to0.......................................................218 14.7 TheFarEast:100B.C.to0..................................................................219 14.8 ThePacic:100B.C.to0...................................................................221 14.9 America:100B.C.to0......................................................................221 Solutions......................................................................................... ?? 150toA.D.100 15.1 0toA.D.100..............................................................................225 15.2 Africa:0toA.D.100.......................................................................226 15.3 TheNearEast:0toA.D.100................................................................227 15.4 Europe:0toA.D.100.......................................................................229 15.5 CentralandNorthernAsia:0toA.D.100.....................................................234 15.6 TheIndianSubcontinent:0toA.D.100.......................................................235 15.7 TheFarEast:0toA.D.100..................................................................236 15.8 ThePacic:0toA.D.100...................................................................237 15.9 America:0to100A.D......................................................................238 Solutions......................................................................................... ?? 16A.D.101to200 16.1 A.D.101to200............................................................................241 16.2 Africa:A.D.101to200.....................................................................242 16.3 TheNearEast:A.D.101to200..............................................................243 16.4 Europe:A.D.101to200....................................................................244 16.5 CentralandNorthernAsia:A.D.101to200...................................................248 16.6 TheIndianSubcontinent:101A.D.to200....................................................249 16.7 TheFarEast:A.D.101to200...............................................................250 16.8 ThePacic:A.D.101to200.................................................................251 16.9 America:A.D.101to200...................................................................252 Solutions......................................................................................... ?? 17A.D.201to300 17.1 A.D.201to300............................................................................255 17.2 Africa:A.D.201to300.....................................................................256 17.3 TheNearEast:A.D.201to300..............................................................257 17.4 Europe:A.D.201to300....................................................................258 17.5 CentralandNorthernAsia:A.D.201to300...................................................261 17.6 TheIndianSubcontinent:A.D.201to300....................................................261 17.7 TheFarEast:A.D.201to300...............................................................262 17.8 ThePacic:A.D.201to300.................................................................263 17.9 America:A.D.201to300...................................................................264 Solutions......................................................................................... ?? 18A.D.301to400 18.1 A.D.301to400............................................................................267 18.2 Africa:A.D.301to400.....................................................................268 18.3 TheNearEast:A.D.301to400..............................................................269 18.4 Europe:A.D.301to400....................................................................272 18.5 CentralandNorthernAsia:A.D.301to400...................................................277 18.6 TheIndianSubcontinent:A.D.301to400....................................................277

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vii 18.7 TheFarEast:A.D.301to400...............................................................278 18.8 ThePacic:A.D.301to400.................................................................279 18.9 America:A.D.301to400...................................................................281 Solutions......................................................................................... ?? 19A.D.401to500 19.1 A.D.401to500............................................................................283 19.2 Africa:A.D.401to500.....................................................................284 19.3 TheNearEast:A.D.401to500..............................................................285 19.4 Europe:A.D.401to500....................................................................288 19.5 CentralandNorthernAsia:A.D.401to500...................................................295 19.6 TheIndianSubcontinent:A.D.401to500....................................................296 19.7 TheFarEast:A.D.401to500...............................................................296 19.8 ThePacic:A.D.401to500.................................................................298 19.9 America:A.D.401to500...................................................................298 Solutions......................................................................................... ?? 20A.D.501to600 20.1 A.D.501to600............................................................................301 20.2 Africa:A.D.501to600.....................................................................302 20.3 TheNearEast:A.D.501to600..............................................................303 20.4 Europe:A.D.501to600....................................................................305 20.5 CentralandNorthernAsia:A.D.501to600...................................................310 20.6 TheIndianSubcontinent:A.D.501to600....................................................311 20.7 TheFarEast:A.D.501to600...............................................................311 20.8 ThePacic:A.D.501to600.................................................................313 20.9 America:A.D.501to600...................................................................313 Solutions......................................................................................... ?? 21A.D.601to700 21.1 A.D.601to700............................................................................317 21.2 Africa:A.D.601to700.....................................................................318 21.3 TheNearEast:A.D.601to700..............................................................319 21.4 Europe:A.D.601to700....................................................................322 21.5 CentralandNorthernAsia:A.D.601to700...................................................326 21.6 TheIndianSubcontinent:A.D.601to700....................................................327 21.7 TheFarEast:A.D.601to700...............................................................327 21.8 ThePacic:A.D.601to700.................................................................330 21.9 America:A.D.601to700...................................................................330 Solutions......................................................................................... ?? 22A.D.701to800 22.1 A.D.701to800............................................................................333 22.2 Africa:A.D.701to800.....................................................................334 22.3 TheNearEast:A.D.701to800..............................................................335 22.4 Europe:A.D.701to800....................................................................337 22.5 CentralandNorthernAsia:A.D.701to800...................................................342 22.6 TheIndianSubcontinent:A.D.701to800....................................................343 22.7 TheFarEast:A.D.701to800...............................................................343 22.8 ThePacic:A.D.701to800.................................................................345 22.9 America:A.D.701to800...................................................................346 Solutions......................................................................................... ?? 23A.D.801to900

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viii 23.1 A.D.801to900............................................................................349 23.2 Africa:A.D.801to900.....................................................................350 23.3 TheNearEast:A.D.801to900..............................................................351 23.4 Europe:A.D.801to900....................................................................353 23.5 CentralandNorthernAsia:A.D.801to900...................................................362 23.6 TheIndianSubcontinent:A.D.801to900....................................................363 23.7 TheFarEast:A.D.801to900...............................................................363 23.8 ThePacic:A.D.801to900.................................................................365 23.9 America:A.D.801to900...................................................................366 Solutions......................................................................................... ?? 24A.D.901to1000 24.1 A.D.901to1000...........................................................................371 24.2 Africa:A.D.901to1000....................................................................372 24.3 TheNearEast:A.D.901to1000.............................................................373 24.4 Europe:A.D.901to1000...................................................................375 24.5 CentralandNorthernAsia:A.D.901to1000..................................................382 24.6 TheIndianSubcontinent:A.D.901to1000...................................................383 24.7 TheFarEast:A.D.901to1000..............................................................383 24.8 ThePacic:A.D.901to1000...............................................................386 24.9 America:A.D.901to1000..................................................................386 Solutions......................................................................................... ?? 25A.D.1001to1100 25.1 A.D.1001to1100..........................................................................391 25.2 Africa:A.D.1001to1100...................................................................392 25.3 TheNearEast:A.D.1001to1100............................................................394 25.4 Europe:A.D.1001to1100..................................................................396 25.5 CentralandNorthernAsia:A.D.1001to1100.................................................406 25.6 TheIndianSubcontinent:A.D.1001to1100..................................................407 25.7 TheFarEast:A.D.1001to1100.............................................................407 25.8 ThePacic:A.D.1001to1100..............................................................410 25.9 America:A.D.1001to1100.................................................................410 Solutions......................................................................................... ?? 26A.D.1101to1200 26.1 A.D.1101to1200..........................................................................415 26.2 Africa:A.D.1101to1200...................................................................416 26.3 TheNearEast:A.D.1101to1200............................................................417 26.4 Europe:A.D.1101to1200..................................................................418 26.5 CentralandNorthernAsia:A.D.1101to1200.................................................427 26.6 TheIndianSubcontinent:A.D.1101to1200..................................................427 26.7 TheFarEast:A.D.1101to1200.............................................................428 26.8 ThePacic:A.D.1101to1200..............................................................429 26.9 America:A.D.1101to1200.................................................................430 Solutions......................................................................................... ?? 27A.D.1201to1300 27.1 A.D.1201to1300..........................................................................433 27.2 Africa:A.D.1201to1300...................................................................435 27.3 America:A.D.1201to1300.................................................................438 27.4 TheNearEast:A.D.1201to1300............................................................440 27.5 Europe:A.D.1201to1300..................................................................443 27.6 CentralandNorthernAsia:A.D.1201to1300.................................................454

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ix 27.7 TheIndianSubcontinent:A.D.1201to1300..................................................458 27.8 TheFarEast:A.D.1201to1300.............................................................458 27.9 ThePacic:A.D.1201to1300..............................................................461 Solutions......................................................................................... ?? 28A.D.1301to1400 28.1 A.D.1301to1400..........................................................................463 28.2 Africa:A.D.1301to1400...................................................................464 28.3 TheNearEast:A.D.1301to1400............................................................466 28.4 Europe:A.D.1301to1400..................................................................467 28.5 CentralandNorthernAsia:A.D.1301to1400.................................................478 28.6 TheIndianSubcontinent:A.D.1301to1400..................................................480 28.7 TheFarEast:A.D.1301to1400.............................................................480 28.8 ThePacic:A.D.1301to1400..............................................................482 28.9 America:A.D.1301to1400.................................................................482 Solutions......................................................................................... ?? 29A.D.1401to1500 29.1 A.D.1401to1500..........................................................................487 29.2 Africa:A.D.1401to1500...................................................................488 29.3 TheNearEast:A.D.1401to1500............................................................490 29.4 Europe:A.D.1401to1500..................................................................492 29.5 CentralandNorthernAsia:A.D.1401to1500.................................................505 29.6 TheIndianSubcontinent:A.D.1401to1500..................................................506 29.7 TheFarEast:A.D.1401to1500.............................................................507 29.8 ThePacic:A.D.1401to1500..............................................................509 29.9 America:A.D.1401to1500.................................................................509 Solutions......................................................................................... ?? 30A.D.1501to1600 30.1 A.D.1501to1600..........................................................................517 30.2 Africa:A.D.1501to1600...................................................................519 30.3 TheNearEast:A.D.1501to1600............................................................521 30.4 Europe:A.D.1501to1600..................................................................524 30.5 CentralandNorthernAsia:A.D.1501to1600.................................................547 30.6 TheIndianSubcontinent:A.D.1501to1600..................................................548 30.7 TheFarEast:A.D.1501to1600.............................................................549 30.8 ThePacic:A.D.1501to1600..............................................................553 30.9 America:A.D.1501to1600.................................................................554 Solutions......................................................................................... ?? 31A.D.1601to1700 31.1 A.D.1601to1700..........................................................................565 31.2 Africa:A.D.1601to1700...................................................................566 31.3 TheNearEast:A.D.1601to1700............................................................568 31.4 Europe:A.D.1601to1700..................................................................570 31.5 CentralandNorthernAsia:A.D.1601to1700.................................................594 31.6 TheIndianSubcontinent:A.D.1601to1700..................................................595 31.7 TheFarEast:A.D.1601to1700.............................................................597 31.8 ThePacic:A.D.1601to1700..............................................................600 31.9 America:A.D.1601to1700.................................................................601 Solutions......................................................................................... ?? 32A.D.1701to1800

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x 32.1 A.D.1701to1800..........................................................................615 32.2 Africa:A.D.1701to1800...................................................................616 32.3 TheNearEast:A.D.1701to1800............................................................618 32.4 Europe:A.D.1701to1800..................................................................620 32.5 CentralandNorthernAsia:A.D.1701to1800.................................................643 32.6 TheIndianSubcontinent:A.D.1701to1800..................................................644 32.7 TheFarEast:A.D.1701to1800.............................................................646 32.8 ThePacic:A.D.1701to1800..............................................................649 32.9 America:A.D.1701to1800.................................................................651 Solutions......................................................................................... ?? 33A.D.1801to1900 33.1 A.D.1801to1900..........................................................................669 33.2 Africa:A.D.1801to1900...................................................................670 33.3 TheNearEast:A.D.1801to1900............................................................676 33.4 Europe:A.D.1801to1900..................................................................679 33.5 CentralandNorthernAsia:A.D.1801to1900.................................................700 33.6 TheIndianSubcontinent:A.D.1801to1900..................................................701 33.7 TheFarEast:A.D.1801to1900.............................................................703 33.8 ThePacic:A.D.1801to1900..............................................................708 33.9 America:A.D.1801to1900.................................................................713 Solutions......................................................................................... ?? 34SpecialSections ...................................................................................739 35Bibliography ......................................................................................741 Bibliography .........................................................................................742 Index ................................................................................................756 Attributions ..........................................................................................760

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Foreword 1 AComprehensiveOutlineofWorldHistorywaswrittenandself-publishedbyDr.JackE.Maxeld. Thestructureoftheworkisinnovative.Eachchaptercoversaperiodofhistoricaltimee.g.acentury.Sectionswithin chaptersdescribewhatwasgoingonineverygeographicalregionoftheworld;eachsectionprovidesareferencefor thatregioninthesubsequentchapter,i.e.inthenexttimeperiod.Thereadercanthusgetasnapshotoftheentireworld atapointintimebyreadingonechapter,orcanfollowthehistoryofaregionthroughtimebylinkingtosectionsin successivechapters. Thismodular,linkedstructureisideallysuitedtoweb-basedonlineimplementation,especiallytotheConnexions platform.IampleasedtomakethiscontentavailableonConnexionsfortheenjoymentandenlightenmentofeveryone withaninterestinthehistoryofourworld. RobertMaxeld October2008 MoreDetailsontheOriginofthisMaterial Myfather,Dr.JackEldredMaxeld,wasanorthopedicsurgeonwithadeepinterestinhistory.Heself-published threeeditionsofAComprehensiveOutlineofWorldHistory.The1959rsteditionconsistedof200pageswith8 referencesinthebibliography,andincludedauniquetime-line,hand-drawnandhand-coloredbyhim,showingthe riseandfallofcivilizations.Anoriginalandsixcarboncopiesweretypedfromhishand-writtenmanuscript.Heput thesecopiesintobindersandpresentedthemtomeandmyfriendsashigh-schoolgraduationgifts. Thesecond,hardboundedition,publishedabout1975,wasasinglevolumeof474pages,47bibliographicalreferences, andnumeroushand-drawn,hand-coloredmaps.Idonotknowhowmanycopieswereprinted. Thethirdedition,typedbymyfatheronanelectronictypewriterandpublishedin1984,consistedofthreehardbound volumestotaling1303pagesand322bibliographicreferences.Welloveronehundredcopies,inbatchesof20,were eventuallypublishedasdemandgrew.Thefollowingletterwasincludedwitheachsethegaveaway: Dearfriends: Thesethreevolumesareinnowaytobeconsideredaformalpublication.Theysimplyrepresenttheend resultofsome25yearsofreading,writingandre-writinghistoricalmaterialarrangedinachronological waytosuitmyownfancyandfortheuseofmyfamilyiftheysodesired.Iamhappynowtoincludea fewfriendswhohaveexpressedaninterest. 1 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat. 1

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2 Beforeusingthismanuscriptforreferenceorevenforcasualreading,Iwouldsuggestthatyourstperuse thepagesnumberedwithRomannumeralsinVolumeI.Theygivethegeneralplanoftheoutlineand suggestitspurposesaswellasdeningsomeofitslimitations.Pleaseexcuseanyremainingtypographical and/orspellingerrorsandIamsuretherearemany. Bestregards, JackE.Maxeld JackMaxelddiedonSeptember14,2006,atage93.Theoriginal1984typedmanuscriptofAComprehensive OutlineofWorldHistorywasfoundonashelfinhiscloset.In2007,aspecialprinteditionwaspublishedfor hisgrandchildren,futuregenerationsofourfamily,andforspecialfriends.ThankstotheWorldWideWeband Connexionsitisnowavailabletoeveryone.

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Introduction 2 BacktoTheForewordSection MyfriendsaskwhyIshouldundertaketowriteaWorldHistory.Aren'ttherealreadyenoughsuchbooksintheEnglish language?Ofcourse.Therearedozens,perhapsscoresofthem,eachwithaparticularpurpose,orscope,orbiasand eachwithsomelimitations.Theveryexcellent TheOutlineofHistory byH.G.Wellswaspublishedsomesixtyplus yearsagoandlacksmuchoftheinformationgainedfromrecentarcheologyandothersciences.Itdevotesonlyabout twopagestotheAztecandIncaempiresandonlyanoccasionalsentenceaboutCentralandSouthAmerica,otherwise. Sub-SaharanAfricaisscarcelymentionedexceptinregardtotheslavetrade.TheDurants'multi-volumework, The StoryofCivilization isabeautifullywrittennarrativewhich,however,getsboggeddowninitslatervolumeswith tiringdetailsoflongagopolitics,royalgenealogiesandreligiousandphilosophicaldialogues.Unfortunately,as withothertexts,italsohassomeinaccuracies.Themorescholarly AStudyofHistory isasomewhatmystical interpretationofArnoldToynbee'spersonalideasofhistory,notinanysenseachronologicalnarrationofhappenings. Ifthereaderisnotalreadywellversedintheessentiallandmarksoftheworld'sfactualhistory,understandingisoften difcult.ThesamemightbesaidofthemorerecentHughThomas' AHistoryoftheWorld ,whichhasnosuggestion ofcontinuityfromthestandpointofdates,butdiscussesonefacetofman'sendeavorsatatime,jumpingfreelyfrom 1,000B.C.toA.D.1,800andbackagain,assumingthatthereaderalreadyknowstheprosaichistoricalfactsto appreciatetheserapidchangesofscenes.Again,inaccuraciesarepresent,someofwhicharementionedlaterinthe text.Whiletheusualhighschoolhistorybookshavebeencutofmostofthegore,tragedyandevenobscenitiesofthe oldworld,someofthecollegeandadulttextssuchas TheColumbiaHistoryoftheWorld andWilliamMcNeill's severaltextsareexcellent,buttheystilldonotreachthefarcornersoftheearthinsomeofthecenturies.The An EncyclopediaofWorldHistory ,compiledandeditedbyWilliamL.Langer,isanexcellentdocumentationofworld history-ancient,medievalandmodern,chronologicallyarrangedandthishasbeenreferredtomanytimesduringthe writingofthismanuscript,particularlyforconrmationofdates,dynasties,claricationofnames,etc.Itisnotabook forleisurelyreadingandenjoyment,however,andisessentiallyalistofyeardateswithshort,concisematerialafter each,purelyforreference.Similar,butlessuseful,isJamesTrager'sveryrecent ThePeoplesChronology ,aseriesof completelyunrelatedandmiscellaneous"facts"somearegrosserrorslistedbyyears.Itisdifculttoseethevalue ofthisexceptperhapsasaparlorgameof"Whatthingshappenedintheworldatlargeinsomespecicyear?"This manuscripthasonepurposeonly-togiveapanoramicpictureoftheentireglobefromthearctictodeepestAfrica andthesouthPacicinspecictime-frames.Theemphasisistogivetheoverallviewoftheworldanditspeoples, withoutdwellingintoomuchdepthonthosefeaturesthatareeasilyavailableineveryschoolandmunicipallibrary andinmanyhomes.IrefertosuchsubjectsasthedetailsofclassicalGreeceandRome,theAmericanColoniesand thevariouswarsandspecicbattles.Forexample,inthistextlessspacemaybegiventheAmericanRevolutionary andCivilwarsthanthepre-IncacivilizationsofSouthAmericaorthelifeoftheMongolsoldiersincentralAsia. Informationontheformersubjectsisavailableeverywhere,whilethatonthelattertwosubjectsislimited. Forwardto: 1.TheMechanicsofandSomeProblemsofthePresentationSection 2.IntroductiontotheMethodofGeographicalPresentationSection1.1 3.IntrotoEraSection2.1 2 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat. 3

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4 4.AfricaSection2.2 5.AmericaSection2.9 6.CentralandNorthernAsiaSection2.5 7.EuropeSection2.4 8.TheFarEastSection2.7 9.TheIndianSubcontinentSection2.6 10.TheNearEastSection2.3 11.PacicSection2.8 12.SomeThoughts 3 13.SpecialSectionsChapter34 14.BibliographyChapter35 3 "ImagesofMemorableCases:Case32"

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TheMechanicsofandSomeProblemsofthe Presentation 4 Materialisarrangedinonesensechronologicallyandinanothersensegeographicallysothatthereadermayreview historicalsituationseitherina"satellite"cross-sectionalviewoftheentireworldinonetime-frame,ormayfollow eventsinanyonegeographicalareathroughthemanycenturiesinmoreorlessbriefnarrativeformbyfollowingthe simpleContinuedonpagesoandsoaftereachsection.Anattempthasbeenmadetogiveabriefresumeofthe politicalstatus,importantphilosophies,scienticdevelopmentsandreligioustrendswhiledevotingproportionately moretimetoadescriptionofthestatusofthecommonpeopleofanareaatanygivenmoment.Hopefullymostofthe world'soutstandingpersonalitiesinalleldshavebeengivensomespace,butitisadmittedthatmanyaspectsofart, literature,musicandarchitecturemay,insomeopinions,beslighted,asthesearenotthemajoreldsoftheauthor's interests. Thetextualdataispresentedinmultiplechapters,eachrepresentingadeniteperiodoftime.Theearlierchapters spanseveralmillenniaeach,butbeginningwiththe7thcenturyB.C.eachchaptercontainstheeventsofonecentury only.Withineachchapterortime-frameinadditiontosomegeneralremarkspertinenttotheperiodasawhole,the worldsituationwilldiscussedundereightmainheadingsorsections,representingeightgreatareasoftheglobe.These areasandtheirsubdivisionshavebeensomewhatarbitrarilychosen,butseemtolendthemselvessatisfactorilytoan orderlyconsiderationofthevarioussocietiesandcivilizations.Onecannotpreventcertainover-lappingsandcertain difcultieswithsuchaplanduetothechangingpoliticalboundarylinesfromcenturytocentury.Asoneexampleit willberememberedthattheGreatWallofChinaendedatJiayuguaninthewest,markingtheborderoftraditional China,andbeyondthisonwestwardliesCentralAsia.Yettodaymuchofthislandtothewestbelongstothepresent ChinesePeoplesRepublic,eventhoughtheinhabitantsarestillchieyTurkishandMongolianpeoples.So,inspite ofthepoliticalshiftcertainareascurrentlyunderthedomainofChina,suchasSinkiang-Uighurpresentspelling XinjiangUygurandTibet,willbeconsideredinthismanuscriptundertheheadingofCENTRALANDNORTHERN ASIA.Manchuriaisconsideredanentityinitself,aspartoftheFarEastcomplex. Anothermatterwhichmayannoyorconfusethereaderasheprogressesthroughthetextisthespellingvariations.One mustrealizethatlanguageisaspokenphenomenonandthatwhatwecall"writtenlanguage"isreallyonlyanotation systemthatattemptstorecallthespokenwordstotheobserver.Thuswhenanyoneattemptstowritedownanotation thatseemstohimtorecordaspokenforeignwordhisrenditionwilldependonhisownlanguagebackgroundand phonetics.Theresultmaybeonlyaroughapproximationatbest,andthespellingwillvarygreatlywiththenationality ofthetranslator.OneofthemostfascinatingexamplesofthiswouldbeinthespellingvariationsforthegreatMongol leaderwhosenamehasbeenvariouslywrittenas"JenghisKhan","ChingisKhan","GenghisKhan","ChinggisKhan" andperhapsothers.TheMongolsasagrouphavebeennamed"Khalkas","Tatars","Tartars","Cumans","Kipchaks", or"Poloritse"dependingonthewriter,hisnationalityandthelocationoftheparticularMongoltribeatthemoment. ItiswellknownthattheEnglishoftenusea"k"whereAmericansuse"c"asinsuchwordsas"Keltic"-"Celtic"and "Khosru-"Chosroes",etc.Althoughthisauthorhasattemptedtobeasconsistentaspossiblethereareprobablymany exceptionsforwhichapologyisasked. 4 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat. 5

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6 Thereisstillanothersourceofconfusionconcerningnames.Whentherstnamesofthemonarchsofmedieval andlaterEuropeareallAnglicizedwegetanamazingsuccessionofCharles,Henrys,Johns,Williams,etc.Inone worldhistoryindexIcountedaboutsixty-verulersnamedCharles.Inthismanuscriptinsofaraspossiblethe monarchs'nameswillbegivenintheirownlanguagesothatdifferentiationmaybeaided.ThusintheScandinavian andGermaniccountriesCharleswillbeKarlandWilliamwillbeWilhelm.SimilarlytheFrenchHenryswillbeHenris andthePortugeseJohnwillbethenativeJoaowhilePeterwillberenderedasPedro.Otherexampleswillbeapparent. Butthatisnotall!TheChineseemperorspresentspecialproblemsinnomenclature,asallChinesehavetraditionally hadseveralkindsofpersonalnames,andspecialnameswereoftenaddedaccordingtointerestsorachievements. Posthumousnameswereoftengivenprominentindividualsalsotofurthercomplicatethesituation.Theoldrulers ofChinawereseldomreferredtobytheirpersonalnamesbutratherbytheepithetsofancestraltempleceremonies, includingtheterms"tsu"grandfather,"tsung"clansmanorancestoror"ti"emperor.Foundersofdynastiesare commonlydesignated"Kao-tsu"exaltedgrandfatheror"T'ai-tsu"grandprogenitor.Inadditiontheemperorsof theMingandCh'ingdynastiescommonlycoinederanamesindicatingwhattheyhopedthefuturewouldbringand subsequentlytheymightbecalledbytheirera-name.Onetroubleisthatsomechangedera-namesseveraltimesduring theirreigns.Huckergivestheexample:"MingT'ai-tsubeganhisreignintraditionalfashionwiththeera-nameHungwuswellingmilitarypower'theHung-wu'emperorisatechnicallycorrectalternativewayofreferringtoMing T'ai-tsu." 5 ButonedoesnotcorrectlysaythathisnamewasHung-wu"! Onelastwarning.AsthiseditionisbeingwrittenalmostalltheChinesecitiesandplacesarebeingspelledanew,in anattempttocomeclosertothetruephoneticrenditionoftheChinesewords.Sinceatthemomentthisonlyseemsto addtotheconfusionandsinceitwillbesomeyearsbeforemostmapsandtextswillchangetothenewformat,theold systemofspellingwillbefollowedinthismanuscript.Pekingwillstillbe"Peking"andnot"Beijing". Thistextwilloccasionallyalsohavespecialsectionsonselectedsubjectsorappropriatesummariesofcertaineras. Terminologywithreferencetodateswillbethetraditional"B.C."referringtoeitheryearsorcenturiesbeforethebirth ofChrist,and"A.D."foraspecicyearafterChrist.Thelatterabbreviation,ofcourse,isfor AnnoDomini ,meaning "inthe year ofourLord"andisthereforenotproperlyusedtorefertoa century Thus,forthosecenturiesafterthebirthofChristweshallusethedesignation"C.E.",indicatingthe"ChristianEra". Footnoteswillbeindicatedbynumberoneachpage,asdemonstratedonthisone.Referencestothebibliographywill bebynumberintheformRef.34[54],102[147]andusuallywillbegroupedattheendofparagraphsorsections tominimizeconfusionduringthereadingofthetext.Some"additionalnotes"willbefoundattheendofthetext, beginningonpage1181.Tripleasterisks-***-inthetextproperindicatethattheseadditionalnotesareappropriate tothatparagraph.Insomeinstancesthepagenumberislistedwiththeasterisks,butotherwisethenotesareeasily foundunderthepropertime-frameandthenthegeographicaldivision,justasinthemainoutline. 5 HuckerRef.101[146],page288n

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Chapter1 TheMethodofGeographicalPresentation 1.1IntroductiontotheMethodofGeographicalPresentation 1 Theeightgeographicalregionsoftheworldreferredtoabovewillnowbepresented,oneregionatatime,with accompanyingsemi-diagrammaticmap-plates.Allofthesearedrawntotheexactsamescaleandoneachtheregion tobediscussedwillbeoutlinedingreen.Subdivisionswillbeindicatedaswellaspossible,andshownindifferent colors.Themap-diagramsarenotdrawnontheclassicalMercatorprojection,butratherwithalllatitudelinesdrawn straight,ratherthanwiththeusualcurve.Thisallowsonetoeasilyappreciateeast-westrelationshipsataglance. Thelatitudelines,drawnat10 intervals,arethusapproximately690statutemilesapartandlongitudelineswhich arealsoat10 intervalswillbethesamedistanceapartneartheequator.Asoneapproacheseitheroftheearth's poles,however,theselinesconvergeandareseparatedbyprogressivelyshorterdistances.Allmapsonaatsurface purportingtorepresentaportionofaspherewillhavedistortionandthesearenoexception,withtheperipheries deformedparticularlybythemethodofconstructingthelongitudelinesasaseriesofstraightsegments.Thesegures arepresentedsothatonecanmakecomparisonsofthevariousgeographicalregionsastosize,latitude,andadjacent relationships. 1.2GeographicalPresentationofAfrica 2 Africaisatremendouscontinent,measuringnearly5,000milesfromnorthtosouthandthesamefromthewestern edgeat20 northlatitudetotheeastern"horn".Itcomprisesover20%oftheearth'slandsurface.Throughoutthe manuscriptweshalldiscussAfricaunderthesubdivisionslistedbelow. 1.2.1NORTHEASTAFRICA ThisareaincludespresentdayEgypt,Sudan,EthiopiaandSomalia.Ithasabout2,000,000squaremilesandisa regionwhereHamiticandSemiticCaucasoidshavemetandmergedwithNegroidstock.ManyoftheNegroidsseem differentthanotherblackAfricansandsomeauthoritiesbelievethemtobeaseparaterace,asforexampletheMasai. Ref.83[123].InancienttimespartofEthiopiaAbyssiniawasknownasAxum,whileportionsoftheSudanhave beenknownasKushandNubia.TheNileRiverrunsthroughallofthesecountrieswiththeexceptionofSomalia. 1.2.2NORTHCENTRALANDNORTHWEST ThisareaincludespresentdayLibya,Tunisia,Algeria,MoroccoandalargepartoftheSaharaDesert.Overallthereare nearly3,000,000squaremilesandthemajorityofthepresentpopulationisdescendantfromtheoriginalinhabitants,as 1 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat. 2 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat. 7

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8 CHAPTER1.THEMETHODOFGEOGRAPHICALPRESENTATION noinvadereverbroughtmanyindividualstothearea.EventhegreatArabwavesofthe7thand8thcenturiesprobably involvedlessthan200,000people.TheBerbersareaCaucasoidtype,butwithmuchphysicalvariationfromtribeto tribe.Theyinhabitmostofthecoastalregion,muchofthemountainouscountryandtheoases.Thebasicpopulation oftheSaharaproper,particularlyitsmoresouthernportions,wasandistodaybasicallyNegroid,somenativeand somedescendedfromslaves.Ref.83[123]. 1.2.3SUB-SAHARANAFRICA ThisareaextendsfromfarwestAfricaacrosstheSudanicplainasfareastastheLakeChadenvirons,thendownto theequatorialdistrictaswellascentral,eastandsouthAfricaandthemajorislands.Thisverylargespreadofland hasmanyandvariedpeoplesandcultures,buthistoricalmaterialisstillrelativelymeagerformostofitandfromthe standpointofmanuscriptspace,itseemsbesttoconsideritunderonesection. Figure1.1: Africa ChooseDifferentRegion 1.AmericaSection1.9

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9 2.CentralandNorthernAsiaSection1.5 3.EuropeSection1.4 4.TheFarEastSection1.7 5.TheIndianSubcontinentSection1.6 6.TheNearEastSection1.3 7.PacicSection1.8 1.3GeographicalPresentationofTheNearEast 3 BacktoIntroductiontotheMethodofGeographicalPresentationSection1.1 Althoughinpresentmediaparlancethe"MiddleEast"includesEgypt,weprefertoconsiderthatcountryasbasicallya partofAfricaandwillusethetermNEAREASTtorefertotheareashownwithintheblackborderonthemapbelow. Inspiteofitsoverallsmallsize,weshalldividethisgeographicalregionintovesubdivisions. 1.3.1THEARABIANPENINSULA ThisincludesallthepresentcountriesoftheArabianPeninsula,includingOman,Yemen,DemocraticYemen,Kuwait andSaudiArabia,aswellassomesmalleremiratesandnations.Jordan,lyingatthebaseofthepeninsulaisincluded also,sinceitspeopleandlandhavehistoricallybeenanintimatepartofthedesertculture. 1.3.2MEDITERRANEANCOASTALAREASOFISRAELANDLEBANON PresentdayLebanonisalmostidenticalgeographicallywithancientPhoeniciabutIsrael'sbordershavevariedgreatly underdifferingnamesthroughouttheages.AlthoughSyriahasalwayshadanarrowopeningonthesea,wepreferto groupthiscountrywithitseasternneighbor,Iraq.TheeasternMediterraneancoastisandalwayshasbeenSemitic, althoughJewandArabalikeseemtowanttodenytheirgeneticrelationshipandtheareahasbeenaconstantbattleeld aswellasacrossroadsbetweenAsia,AfricaandEurope. 1.3.3IRAQANDSYRIA PresentIraqhasnearlythesamebordersasancientMesopotamia.Syriahashadmobilebordersforcenturiesandwe aremaintainingthisdesignationforthatareawedgedbetweenAsiaMinor,IraqandLebanon.Historically,linguistically,politicallyandgeneticallyithasalwayshadcloseassociationwithIraq. 1.3.4IRAN:PERSIA Iranisbasicallyanon-Arabic,non-SemiticcountrywithanIndo-Europeanspeakingpeople.I-historicallyandreligiously,however,ithasbeenapartoftheNearEastforcenturies,atpresentsharingthemajorityMoslemreligion.Its easternportionischieydesert. 1.3.5ASIAMINOR:ANATOLIA TheAnatolianpeninsula,currentlyrepresentedchieybythecountryofTurkey,historicallyhasbeenalandofmany differentnationsandpeoples.Intheeasternend,theancientcountryofArmeniahasbeennowabsorbedmainlyby theSovietUnionbutwearekeepingthisdistrictofancientArmeniaasaseparateentityinthiswork. 3 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat.

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10 CHAPTER1.THEMETHODOFGEOGRAPHICALPRESENTATION Figure1.2: TheNearEastThismapwasobtainedfromhttp://english.freemap.jp/index.html 4 andisusedwith permissionunderaCreativeCommonsAttribution3.0license 5 ChooseDifferentRegion 1.AfricaSection1.2 4 http://english.freemap.jp/index.html 5 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

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11 2.AmericaSection1.9 3.CentralandNorthernAsiaSection1.5 4.TheFarEastSection1.7 5.EuropeSection1.4 6.TheIndianSubcontinentSection1.6 7.PacicSection1.8 1.4GeographicalPresentationofEurope 6 BacktoIntroductiontotheMethodofGeographicalPresentationSection1.1 Thesemi-diagrammaticmapofEuropebelowdemonstratesthatifoneeliminatesRussia,thelandmassinvolvedis scarcelylargerthantheNEAREAST.WeshouldalsonotethatthebulkofEuropeliesatalatitudenorthofboth theBlackandtheCaspianSeasandthatonlyasmallportionofSiberialiesfarthernorththanEuropeanRussia.As indicatedontheplate,thesetwoportionsoftheSovietUnionhavetraditionallybeenseparatedbytheUralMountain region.ItiseasytoseehowearlymarinersfromNorwayandtheBritishIslescouldsaildirectlywesttoIcelandand thenontoGreenlandandAmerica.Europewillbediscussedinthetextunderseveralsubdivisionswhich,inlater centuries,willbefurtherdivided.Thesesectionswillbenotedbelow. 1.4.1SOUTHERNEUROPE Thisdivisionwillbediscussedwithfoursub-sections.FirstwillbetheeasternMediterraneanislandswhichmodern authoritiesareconsideringasthesiteofthersttrulyEuropeansocietiesincontrasttobeingapartoftheNearEast, TheseincludetheCyclades,Crete,Rhodes,CyprusandevenMalta.ThesecondareawillbeGreeceandthethirdthe upperBalkanswhichincludespresentdayYugoslavia,Bulgaria,RomaniandAlbania.Historicallyothercountries haveoccupiedthisregion,suchasMacedonia,Serbia,Thrace,etc.LastlythedivisionwillhaveItaly,withsome commentsaboutSicily,SardiniaandCorsicafromtimetotime. 1.4.2CENTRALEUROPE Arbitrarilythiswillincludevesub-sections-Germany,Austria,Hungary,CzechoslovakiaandSwitzerland.Although HungaryandCzechoslovakiaarenowusuallyconsideredapartofeasternEuropebecauseofpresentideologies,we haveputtheminCentralEuropebecauseoftheirlongpoliticalassociationswithAustriaandGermany. 1.4.3WESTERNEUROPE ThesearethenationsalongtheAtlanticcoast,thusSpain,Portugal,France,theNetherlandsandBelgiumandnally theBritishIsles.ThelatterwillbefurtherbrokendownattimesintoEngland,Scotland,IrelandandWales. 1.4.4SCANDINAVIA Inadditiontotheexpectedsub-sectionsofNorway,SwedenandDenmark,thisdivisionwillincludeFinland.Although originallygeneticallydifferentfromthetrueScandinaviancountries,FinlandwasapartofSwedenforsome600years andstillhasSwedishasoneofitstwoofciallanguages.OnoccasionstherewillalsobecommentsaboutIceland. 6 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat.

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12 CHAPTER1.THEMETHODOFGEOGRAPHICALPRESENTATION 1.4.5EASTERNEUROPE ThiswillincludethesouthernBalticcountriessuchasPoland,OldPrussia,Lithuania,LatviaandEstoniaaswellas EuropeanRussia.

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13 Figure1.3: EuropeThismapwasobtainedfromhttp://english.freemap.jp/index.html 7 andisusedwithpermission underaCreativeCommonsAttribution3.0license 8

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14 CHAPTER1.THEMETHODOFGEOGRAPHICALPRESENTATION ChooseDifferentRegion 1.AfricaSection1.2 2.AmericaSection1.9 3.CentralandNorthernAsiaSection1.5 4.TheFarEastSection1.7 5.TheIndianSubcontinentSection1.6 6.TheNearEastSection1.3 7.PacicSection1.8 1.5GeographicalPresentationofCentralandNorthernAsia 9 BacktoIntroductiontotheMethodofGeographicalPresentationSection1.1 ThereaderwillnoteonthemaptofollowthatthisgeographicalregionisofthegeneralmagnitudeofNorthAmerica, butmuchsmallerthanAfrica.ThemapdoesnotincludetheveryfareasterntipofSovietSiberiawiththeMagadan regionandtheKamchatkapeninsula.Thatextendsroughly600milesfarthereastthantheedgeofthediagram,butitis oflittleinterestin-thismanuscript.Althoughthevarioussub-divisionsofcentralandnorthernAsiaarenotdiscussed formally,assuch,inthetextbecauseofconstantchangingofbordersandnamesthroughoutthecenturies,thevarious presentdaycomponentpartswillbediscussedundertheircurrentnames. 1.5.1THECOMPONENTPARTSOFCENTRALANDNORTHERNASIA TheboundariesofthisareahavebeenchosensomewhatarbitrarilysothattheregionisboundedbyEuropeanRussia onthenorthwest,ManchuriaandChinaonthesoutheast,Iran,Pakistan,IndiaandSoutheastAsiaonthesouthand otherwisebytheArcticandPacicoceansandtheCaspianSea.Siberiaisavastlandlyingalmostentirelynorthof the50thparallel.JustbelowitscenterliesMongolia,atroughlythelatitudeofPoland,butaboutaslargeasPoland, GermanyandFrancetogether.InsouthcentralAsiathepresentstatesofKazakh,Turkmen,Usbek,andKirghizall areincorporatedwithintheSovietUnion.TheancientandimportantcityofSamarkandisinUsbekwhileTashkent liesattheeasternedgeofKirghiz.StandingalonesouthofthesecentralstatesisthecountryofAfghanistan,shown inyellow.AllofthesecentralAsianareashaveagreatmixtureofTurkishandMongolianpeoples,withperhapssome remnantsoftheoldIndo-EuropeanspeakingKushans.TheMoslemreligionispredominanttoday. Theareashowninlightredonthediagramdeservesspecialmention.ThisistheZvareaofTibetandSinkiang,both ofwhicharecurrentlyapartofthePeoplesRepublicofChina.Historicallyandgenetically,atleastuntilveryrecent years,however,theseA-werecentralAsianpeoples,not"Han"Chineseandso,ignoringthepresentpoliticalborder wehaveelectedtoincludethislargeareaundertheheadingofCentralAsia.Thusthereisaheavydottedlineborder, ratherthanasolidlineabouttheseregions,asatpresenttheyarenotactuallydenedas"countries". 7 http://english.freemap.jp/index.html 8 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/ 9 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat.

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15 Figure1.4: CentralandNorthernAsiaThismapwasobtainedfromhttp://english.freemap.jp/index.html 10 andis usedwithpermissionunderaCreativeCommonsAttribution3.0license 11 ChooseDifferentRegion 1.AfricaSection1.2 2.AmericaSection1.9 3.EuropeSection1.4 4.TheFarEastSection1.7 5.TheIndianSubcontinentSection1.6 6.TheNearEastSection1.3 7.PacicSection1.8 1.6GeographicalPresentationofTheIndianSubcontinent 12 BacktoIntroductiontotheMethodofGeographicalPresentationSection1.1 10 http://english.freemap.jp/index.html 11 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/ 12 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat.

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16 CHAPTER1.THEMETHODOFGEOGRAPHICALPRESENTATION AllpartsoftraditionalIndiawillbeincludedunderthisheadingandthismeansthatpresentdayPakistan,Nepal, Bangladesh,BhutanandSriLankawillbeinvolved.Pleasenotethatthisareaisapproximatelythesamesizeas theNearEastandmuchofitliesatthesamelatitude.TheIndusRivervalley,siteofoneoftheworld'searliest civilizations,isnowinPakistan,whilethesecondgreatIndianRiver,theGanges,terminates,inpart,inBangladesh. Asweshallemphasizeinthetext,thissubcontinentcontainsanalmostunbelievablemixtureofpeoples,languages, customsandreligions.

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17 Figure1.5: IndianSubcontinentThismapwasobtainedfromhttp://english.freemap.jp/index.html 13 andisusedwith permissionunderaCreativeCommonsAttribution3.0license 14 ChooseDifferentRegion 13 http://english.freemap.jp/index.html 14 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

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18 CHAPTER1.THEMETHODOFGEOGRAPHICALPRESENTATION 1.AfricaSection1.2 2.AmericaSection1.9 3.CentralandNorthernAsiaSection1.5 4.TheFarEastSection1.7 5.EuropeSection1.4 6.TheNearEastSection1.3 7.PacicSection1.8 1.7GeographicalPresentationofTheFarEast 15 BacktoIntroductiontotheMethodofGeographicalPresentationSection1.1 IngeneralthisregionconcernsmostofthePaciccoastnationsofAsia.Thenorthernpeopleofthisareatendto betallerandheavierthanthesoutherners.Languageshowsgreaterdiversication,evenwithintheconnesofChina proper,withthenorthernersspeakingMandarinnowtheofciallanguageforallChinese,whilethesouthernChinese primarilyspeakoneofseveralmutuallyunintelligibledialects,includingCantonese,WuandFukien.Chinese,Thai andVietnamesemakeupalanguagefamilywhichinturnisabranchofalanguagestockcalledSino-Tibetan".The "Tibeto-Burman"familyisanotherdivisionofthisstock.Incontrast,theMongoliansandManchurianstothenorth belongtoanentirelydifferent"Altaic"languagestockwhichincludesTurkic,MongolianandTungusicManchu languagefamilies. Inthetextthissixthgeographicalareawillbediscussedunderfourmainsubdivisions. 1.7.1CHINAANDMANCHURIA ThiswillnotincludeChina'smorerecentcentralAsiaticacquisitions,namelySinkiangandTibet,butwillinclude ManchuriaandclassicalChina,whichisaboutone-halfthesizeofthecontinentalUnitedStatesandextendsfromthe greatWallinthenorth,theinnerAsianwastelands,andTibetanhighlandsinthewest,downtothePacicontheeast andsouth.ItisdividedtransverselybytheQinLingmountainchainintothenorthernYellowriverbasic,thesiteof theearliestChinesecivilization,andthemoresouthernYangste,sub-tropicalbasin.Ref.73[112],101[146]. 1.7.2JAPAN ThelandmassofalltheJapaneseislandstogetherissmallerthanthestateofCalifornia.Thequestionoftheoriginof theJapanesepeopleandlanguagewillbedevelopedinthetext. 1.7.3KOREA TheMongoloidKoreanpeoplespeakalanguageofnorthernderivationAltaicratherthanSino-Tibetan,indicating theirgeneticrelationtoManchuria,eventhoughtheirculturehasbeenandisverysimilartothatoftheChinese. 1.7.4SOUTHEWESTASIA Incertaintime-framesinthemanuscriptthisregionwillbefurtherdividedinto[1]MainlandSoutheastAsiaand[2] Indonesiaandadjacentislands.ThelatterclassicationwillincludethePhilippines.Theboundariesandpeoplesof mainlandSoutheastAsiaareandhavealwaysbeenconfusing.Onthemap,thecurrentsituationisindicated.Burmais shownwithobliquelineswhileVietnamhashorizontalstripes.Cambodiaiscross-hatched,whileLaosisessentially black.Othercountriesarequitewelllabeled.ThearealistedasSiamis,ofcourse,currentlycalledThailand. 15 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat.

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19 Figure1.6: TheFarEastThismapwasobtainedfromhttp://english.freemap.jp/index.html 16 andisusedwithpermissionunderaCreativeCommonsAttribution3.0license 17 ChooseDifferentRegion 1.AfricaSection1.2 2.AmericaSection1.9 3.CentralandNorthernAsiaSection1.5 4.EuropeSection1.4 5.TheIndianSubcontinentSection1.6 6.TheNearEastSection1.3 7.PacicSection1.8 1.8GeographicalPresentationofThePacic 18 ThePacicOceanmakesupone-halfoftheglobeonwhichweliveandifweexcludeAustralia,thetotalamountof landexistingasislandsinthismassiveamountofwaterisalmostinnitesimal.Yetmanyofthesetinyislandsareof greatinterestbecauseofthecontinuingcontroversiesabouttheoriginoftheirpeopleandmethodofsettlement.Ithas beenimpossibletoshowtheentirePaciconadiagrammaticmaponthescalewehaveselected,sothelargemapon thesecondpageaheadshowsonlyessentiallythesouthPacicandomitsthefareasternandwesternexpanses,even then.Thechiefcomponentsofthisgeographicalareawillbeoutlinedbelow. 16 http://english.freemap.jp/index.html 17 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/ 18 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat.

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20 CHAPTER1.THEMETHODOFGEOGRAPHICALPRESENTATION 1.8.1AUSTRALIAANDTHEPACIFICISLANDS Becauseofthelackofspaceonthenextpagemap,anadditional,samescaledrawingofAustraliaisshownbelow. Afteronerecordswhatlittleisknownaboutthepre-historyofthiscontinent,aswillbenotedinthetext,nomore informationisavailableuntilthe16thcenturyC.E.whenEuropeansrstvisitedtheland. TheislandsofthePacicareusuallydividedintothreegroups.Inthewesternsideoftheocean,butnorthofthe equatorarethevariousgroupsoftinyislands,chieyofcoralorigin,whichareknowncollectivelyas Micronesia WakeIsland,theMarianasandtheCarolineareexamplesofthisgroup.StillinthewesternPacicbutsouthof theequatoris Melanesia ,socalledbecauseofthedarkskinsandNegroidfeaturesoftheinhabitants.TheSolomons, HebridesandNewCaledoniaareexamplesofthesebasicallyvolcanicislands.Finally,intheeasternhalfofthePacic thereistheso-calledPolynesiantrianglewiththeHawaiianIslandsattheapex,NewZealandinthesouthwestcorner andEasterIslandatthesoutheastpoint.Onemustrealizethat,excludingNewZealand,makinganydotvisibletothe nakedeyeonanylargescalemap,makesthelandfaroutofproportion.Incorrectperspective,theyshouldbeonly microscopicpoints. Figure1.7: Australia Figure1.8: ThePacic ChooseDifferentRegion 1.AfricaSection1.2 2.AmericaSection1.9 3.CentralandNorthernAsiaSection1.5 4.TheFarEastSection1.7 5.EuropeSection1.4 6.TheIndianSubcontinentSection1.6 7.TheNearEastSection1.3 1.9GeographicalPresentationofAmerica 19 BacktoIntroductiontotheMethodofGeographicalPresentationSection1.1 Thelastgeographicalareawhichwillbediscussedundereachtime-framewillbethewholeoftheNewWorld, America.Sincethisconsistsoftwomajorcontinentswithanintermediateconnectingregion,theareawillbedivided intothreesubdivisions. 19 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat.

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21 1.9.1NORTHAMERICA Thisgeographicalareaisshownonthemap-diagramopposite.Inthetextthehistoricalmaterialwilloftenbefurther dividedinto[1]TheFarNorthandCanadaand[2]TheUnitedStates.Sinceweareinterestedinageographical area,notnecessarilypoliticalboundaries,therstcategoryof"TheFarNorthandCanada",willincludeAlaskaand Greenland,eventhoughtheformer,ofcourse,isapartoftheUnitedStatesandthelatterbelongstoDenmark.The secondportionwillactuallybelimitedtothe continental UnitedStates.Itwillbeofinteresttocomparelatitudeson thisdiagramwiththoseofEuropeandtheFarEast.Forexample,wewillberemindedthattheBritishIsleslieatabout thesameparallelasthesouthernpartofHudsonBayinCanadaandthatthecenteroftheUnitedStatesisonthesame latitudeas north ChinaandtheTarimBasininCentralAsia.TheBeringStrait,themiddleofHudsonBayandthe southerntipofGreenlandareallonapproximatelythesamelatitudeasLeningradinRussia.

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22 CHAPTER1.THEMETHODOFGEOGRAPHICALPRESENTATION Figure1.9: NorthAmericaThismapwasobtainedfromhttp://english.freemap.jp/index.html 20 andisusedwith permissionunderaCreativeCommonsAttribution3.0license 21

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23 1.9.2MEXICO,CENTRALAMERICAANDTHECARIBBEAN Themap-diagramshowingthisandthenextsubdivisionisonthesecond-pageahead.Mexicoisshowninvioletcolor, whileCentralAmericaandtheCaribbeanislandsareinyellow.TheCanaryandsouthernequatorialcurrents,which havebeenimportantinthediscoveryoftheNewWorld,areshown.ThepresentpoliticallinesinCentralAmerica areshown,markingGuatemala,Belize,SanSalvador,Honduras,Nicaragua,CostaRicaandPanama,goingfrom northwesttosoutheast. 1.9.3SOUTHAMERICA OntheSouthAmericanmaptheroughcourseofthemainriversandthegeneralextentandlocationofthecordillera areshown.Noattempthasbeenmadetooutlinethecurrentbordersbetweenthevariouscountries,butthegeneral areasofthemostimportantareindicated.Inthemainbodyofthemanuscriptinsometime-framesthiscontinentis dividedinto[1]WesternandNorthernCoastalAreasand[2]EasternandCentralAreas. 20 http://english.freemap.jp/index.html 21 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

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24 CHAPTER1.THEMETHODOFGEOGRAPHICALPRESENTATION Figure1.10: Mexico,CentralAmerica,theCaribbean,andSouthAmericaThismapwasobtainedfrom http://english.freemap.jp/index.html 22 andisusedwithpermissionunderaCreativeCommonsAttribution3.0license 23

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25 ChooseDifferentRegion 1.AfricaSection1.2 2.CentralandNorthernAsiaSection1.5 3.EuropeSection1.4 4.TheFarEastSection1.7 5.TheIndianSubcontinentSection1.6 6.TheNearEastSection1.3 7.PacicSection1.8 22 http://english.freemap.jp/index.html 23 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

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26 CHAPTER1.THEMETHODOFGEOGRAPHICALPRESENTATION

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Chapter2 Beginningto8000B.C. 2.1Beginningto8000B.C. 1 Ourearthisestimatedtohaveoriginated,bywhatevermeans,about4,600,000,000yearsagoandtheeonssincehave beenvariouslydescribedandclassiedbygeologists,paleontologistsandarchaeologistsintoerasandperiodsand epochs.Unfortunatelyeachdisciplinehastendedtouseitsownclassicationandattimesthismotleyoftermshas beenquiteconfusing.Onthenextpages,tableshavebeenconstructedinanattemptatsomeclarication.Inthestory ofmanweareconcernedonlywiththegeologicalepochslabeled"Pleistocene"and"Holocene"oftheCenozoic,or recentera.Thearchaeologicalagesofmancanbeonlyroughlytintothegeologicalschemaandwehaveattempted topresentthisrelationshiponthesecondofthecharts. Thepositionsandrelationshipsoflandmassesandseashavechangedmarkedlythroughoutthetimeoftheearth's existence.SometwohundredmillionyearsagotheEurasiancontinentwasseparatedfromacombinedlandmass called"Gondwanaland"whichconsistedofthepresentSouthAmerica,Antarctica,AustraliaandIndia,byagreat oceanjoiningtheAtlantictotheIndianOceanandrunningthroughtheareawhichisnowtheMediterraneanBasin. Thisgreatseaiscalled"Tethys"andithadanorthernarmParatethyswhichranthroughthepresentBlack,Caspian andAralseasareas.ThestoryofIndia'slatercollisionwiththeAsiancontinentisinthesectiononCentraland NorthernAsiaSection2.5.RecentstudyofcoresfromtheoorsoftheMediterraneanandBlackseashasgiven cluesastothecourseofeventsthere.WhenAfricacollidedwithEurasia,theTethyswasclosedatGibralterandthe NearEastareasothatatrstalargeinlandseawasproduced,coveringtheMediterraneanBasinandmuchofEastern Europe.Then,withsevereclimaticchangesofsixmillionyearsagotheMediterraneanareabecamedry,actually desert,foramillionyears,whiletheBlack-Caspian-Aralregionsbecameastagnant,shallowbutgigantictypeof swamp.Thenwhenthenorthernstreamsbecamere-activatedtheParatethysdrainedintotheMediterraneanBasin andbothareaswereconvertedtoanetworkoffresh-waterlakesatsomethinglikeveandone-halfmillionyearsago. About600,000yearsago,agreatlakeintheCarpathianMountainssiltedupandtheDanubespilledoverintotheBlack Sea.Asthelastglaciersrecededabout89000B.C.theMediterranean,whichhadapparentlybeenslowlyrellingas theAtlanticpouredoverGibralterStraits,nowbrokeovertheBosporusagaintoaddsaltwatertotheBlackSea.This gaverisetoananoxicstratumofstagnant,brackishwaterbelowthesurfacewhichremainstothisdayandprecludes marinelifeinthelowerlevels.Ref.100[145] Withreferencetothechartsonthenextpagesweshouldpointoutthattheyareinpartinaccuratefortheworldas awhole.WhilebronzeworkingwaspresentalloverthecontinentofEuropeproperby1,600B.C.thenorthernhalf ofBritainandallofScandinaviaaswellaswesternIberiaandNorthAfricaremainedneolithicorchalcolithic.More remotepartsoftheglobeundoubtedlystillhadanearlyStoneAgeculture.TheHittitesinAsiaMinorhadironas earlyas1,300B.C.butitwasworthfortytimesitsweightinsilveranditsusespreadveryslowlyfromthiscenter. TheAssyriansbroughttheIronAgetoEgyptonlyinthe7thcenturyB.C.anditwasnotusedincentralandsouthern 1 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat. 27

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28 CHAPTER2.BEGINNINGTO8000B.C. AfricauntilonetothreecenturiesafterthebirthofChrist.ChinahadtheShangBronzeAgeCultureabout1,600B.C. butdidnothaveironworksuntilthe6thcenturyB.C.

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29 GeologicalAges ERA SUB-ERA YRS.BEFORE PRESENT PERIOD EPOCH CHARACTERIZED BY Pre-Cambrian Archeozoic 5,000,000,000 to 1,000,000,000 Earth'scrust. Unicellular organisms Pre-Cambrian Proterozoic 1,000,000,000 to600,000,000 Bacteria,algae, fungiandsimplemulticellular organisms Phanerozoic** Paleozoic 600,000,000to 220,000,000 FromCambrian thruCaroniferous&Permian Development ofanimals frommarine invertebratesup throughinsects andreptiles. Phanerozoic Mesozoic Warm&rather uniformglobal climate 220,000,000to 65,000,000 Triassic Volcanicactivity,marine reptiles,dinosaurs.As periodstarted allcontinents weremoreor lesslocked togetherina supercontinent Pangaea_.A greatbight Tethysextended betweenAsia andAfricaand perhapsbetweenOldand newWorlds. Numberof marinespecies droppedby nearly60% ,but40%of presentland areabecame ooded.In No.Amer.sea overentiremidcontinentregion fromGulfdeep intoCanada& fromRockiesto Appalachians. Africasplitinto largeislands. Phanerozoic Mesozoic Warm&rather uniformglobal climate 220,000,000to 65,000,000 Jurassic Dinosaurs, conifers. continuedonnextpage

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30 CHAPTER2.BEGINNINGTO8000B.C. Phanerozoic Mesozoic Warm&rather uniformglobal climate 220,000,000to 65,000,000 Cretaceous Extinctionofgiantreptiles.Insectsandowers. Phanerozoic Cenozoic 65,000,000to 38,000,000 Tertiary Paleocene Eocene Birds&Mammals. Phanerozoic Cenozoic 38,000,000 Tertiary Oligocene Saber-tooth cats.Continents assumedapprox.present position& acoldcurrentcircled Antarcticawith relativelylittle waterdiverted northward,so temperature gradientfrom equatortoSo. Poleincreased. Phanerozoic Cenozoic 26to7,000,000 Tertiary Miocene Grazingmammals.First majorAntarctic glaciations. Phanerozoic Cenozoic 7to2,000,000 Tertiary Pliocene Mountains; climatecooling; increaseinsize andnumbers ofmammals. Man? Phanerozoic Cenozoic 2,000,000to 10,000 Quaternary PLEISTOCENE -ICEAGES. DEFINITE APPEARANCE OFMAN continuedonnextpage

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31 Phanerozoic Cenozoic 10,000to present Quaternary HOLOCENE DEVELOPMENT OFMAN,THE SOCIALANIMAL. Table2.1 :**65millionyearsagoattheboundarybetweenthegeologicmesozoicandcenozoicperiods,lifeinthe oceanschangeddramatically,withmassiveextinctionofearlierlifeformsandexplosiveevolutionofnewones. Tablereferences:8[14],202[275],224[299] ArcheologicalAgesinRelationtoGeologicalAgesSeeespeciallyPLEISTOCENEandHOLOCENE EPOCHSinprevioustable EPOCH YEARSB.C. ARCHEOLOGICAL AGE SYNONYMS ARCHEOLOGICAL FINDSOR HISTORICAL EVENTS PLEISTOCENE 2,000,000TO 1,000,000 EarliestIceAges Ape-likeHominids. Astralopithecus Otherswouldput stillearlier. PLEISTOCENE 1,000,000to 500,000 EarlyIceAge Simplestonetools. Majorglacial phases. PLEISTOCENE 500,000to8,000 PaleolithicLower OldStoneAge Javaman.Peking man-atetiger,buffalo.Standardtool forms.Useofre. PLEISTOCENE 500,000to8,000 PaleolithicMiddle Neanderthalman about75,000B.C. Bladetools,re, burials. PLEISTOCENE 500,000to8,000 PaleolithicUpper Paleo-Indianin America Modernman35,000 to40,000B.C.Ate rhinoceros,wild sheepandboar, but70%venison. Probablydidnot cook,buthadre. Splitbonesfor marrow.Possibly cannibalistic.Use ofboneandantler. continuedonnextpage

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32 CHAPTER2.BEGINNINGTO8000B.C. HOLOCENE 8,000TO5,000 MesolithicMesoIndian MiddleStoneAge. Domesticationof plantsandanimals. Earliesttowns, woodensawswith rowsofchipped intforteeth.More advancedtools. HOLOCENE 5,000to2,500 NeolithicArchaicIndian NeworLateStone Age Polishedstonetools, redpottery,cultivatedwheatandbarley.Post-glacialrise insealevels. HOLOCENE 5,000to2,500 Chalcolithic Copper-stoneAge Insomeareasonly, particularlyinNear East.Copperinuse withstone. HOLOCENE 2,500to1,000 BronzeAge Alloyoftinwith copper.Stronger, moreadaptable metal.Bronzewas usedinThailandas earlyas3,500B.C. HOLOCENE 1,000toPresent IronAge TheHittiteshadiron asearlyas1,300 B.C.butEgyptdid notuntil7thcentury B.C.andChinain 6thcenturyB.C. Table2.2 :Tablereferences:215[290],211[284],130[180],226[302] Wemustdiscussnowthemysteryofwhereandwhenmodernmanappearedontheworldscene.Althoughanupright, walkingmancalled Homoerectus waswidespreadinAsia,AfricaandEuropesomeone-halfmillionyearsago, usingreandsimplehand-axesandtools,therstfossilswhichappeartobethoseofaracemorecloselyrelated toourmodernraces Homosapiens havebeenfoundatSwanscombeinEnglandandSteinheiminGermany.An apparentclose"cousin"ofthesemenandavariantof Homosapiens ,theNeandertahaler,livedduringthelastIce AgesthroughoutEurope,NorthAfrica,theMid-eastandapparentlyafeweveninAsia,butthisparticularracefor somereasondidnotsurvive.Nevertheless,theNeanderthalmanwasaskilledhunter,usedre,cookedfoodand buriedhisdead.Only50%survivedtoagetwentyandnineoutoftenofthoseremainingdiedbeforetheirfortieth birthday.Theyweresubjecttorickets,somethingthatmayhaveresembledcongenitalsyphilisandwereprobably cannibalistic.ThereissomeevidenceinthefossilsoftheNearEastthatsomeauthoritiesinterpretasindicatingthat modernman,inthesenseofourownsub-species, Homosapienssapiens ,evolvedfromoroutofNeanderthalman around35,000to40,000yearsago,butthisisnottheconsensus.Mostanthropologistsassumethatoverseveraleons anewbreedofman,whichmightbecalledthe"Ur-race",spreadouttopopulatetheEurasianlandmass,replacing orextinguishinganypre-existinghominoids.Afurtherdevelopmentofthistheorynecessitatestheassumptionofthe isolationofvariousgroupsbehindgeologicalbarriers,eachadoptingandadaptingtotheirseparateenvironmentsand graduallydifferentiatingintopresentdayraces.Thus,thestay-at-homesbecametheCaucasoids,thosemovinginto CentralAsiaandnorthernChinabecametheMongoloidsthroughadaptationtoseverecold,whilethegroupsmoving intohotAfricabecameNegroids.Buttheseareonlytheoriesandafewauthoritieswoulddisagree.Chiefamongthese, perhaps,isDr.CarletonCoonofHarvardwhobelievesinthemultipleoriginsofthevariousraces.

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33 ModernmaninEuropewasinitiallyrepresentedbytheCro-Magnons-withlargebones,highbrowsandpowerful physiques,standingashighassixfeetfourinches,similartosomeEuropeansoftoday.Otherrepresentativesofmodern Homosapienssapiens werealsopresentataboutthistime,includingonesmallerandalmostfrailincomparison. ThiswasCombeCapelleman,apparentlyrelatedtotheMediterraneanpeoplesoftoday. Althoughthesenewmen,identiedinEuropebyabout37,000yearsago,carriedanumberofnewtypesoftools, moreimportantly,accordingtorecentextensivestudiesofthesetoolsandremainingimplements,thismanhadthe brainwhichmanhastoday,abraincapableofart,imageryandnotationandofseeingtheworldinatime-factoredand time-factoringway.Weshallhearmoreaboutthesefeatureslater.Ref.130[180] After10,000B.C.withtheretreatoftheice,vegetationpatternsbegantoalter.Reindeerfollowedmossesandferns attheiceedgeandpeopledependentonthemfollowed.Withwarmwinds,greateldsofwildgrainappearedin variousareasoftheNearEast.Eventuallythepeoplebegandeliberatecultivationanddomesticationoflivestock,but theoriginalpracticessoonturnedfertilelandintodesertandacontrolledirrigationsystemhadtobediscovered.Raw grainandthehumandigestivesystemarenotcompatiblesoonemightaskhowgraincouldbecookedinthedays beforepottery.Onoccasionslargeshells,stomachsofanimals,pitstones,etc.wereinlimiteduse,butprobablythe chiefmethodwastoheatthethreshingoortoahighenoughtemperaturetoroastthegrainatthesametimethatthe chaffwassplintered.Theresultwouldbeacoarsegroat,needingnofurthercookingbuttoodrytoswallow.Addwater andkneadtoastiffpasteandonehassomethingcomparabletotheGreek maza ,Roman puls ,theMexican tortilla Scotsoatcake,EastIndian chapate ,Chinese pao-ping ,Ethiopian injera andtheAmericanIndianJohnnycake'allof thesewereprobablydescendantsofNeolithicbread,justwithdifferingbasicgrains.Ref.211[284] Theoriginsanddifferentiationfactorsintheracesofmancontinuetoraiseunsolvedquestionsandcontinualnew concepts.Certainfeatures,suchasskincolor,whichwesuperciallytendtousetocategorizeracialgroupsmaybe simplyenvironmentallyadaptivetraitscorrelatedwithclimaticconditions.Skincolorvaries,evenwithineachrace, withthelatitudeofthehabitat.TheMongoloidpeoplesofSoutheastAsiaaremuchdarkerthanthoseofnorthern China;CaucasoidsofsouthernIndiaandsouthernArabiaarequiteblack;centralAmericanIndiansaredarkerthan thosefarthernorth.Similarly,fairskin,blueeyesandblondhairareclimaticadaptationsbynaturalselectiontoa cloudy,dimlylitnorthernenvironment,whereeverybitofVitaminDfromsunlightisneededandmustnotbeltered outbymelaninintheskin,iftheindividualistosurvive. Therearetraits,however,whicharenon-adaptiveandareknownas"racemarkers".Amongtheseare[1]distinctive teethshovel-shapedincisorsoccurwith80%frequencyamongMongoloidsandAmericanIndiansand[2]hairform, withcoarse,straighthairoflargediameterinMongoloidsandAmericanIndians,smalldiameterhairinCausasoids andatcross-sectionhairproducingthe"woolly"appearanceinAfricansandMelanesians. InadditiononlytheCaucasoidandtheAustralianaboriginehasmuchbodyhairandprematurebalding.Ofcourse thenaldifferentiationistobefoundinbloodgrouptraitsandfactorswhichweshallexaminealittlelaterinmore detail.Thegreatestdifferencesintheseblood-groupsandtraitslienotbetweenracesassuch,butbetweenthepeople livingeastandwestofthegreatAsianmountain-desertbarrier.Thusithasbeensuggestedthattheearliestdivisionof Homosapiens wasadifferentiationintoEasternandWesternraces.Certainlyastheprecursorofmodernmanspread acrossAfricaandthenEurasia,notonlyhisbodychanged,buthismethodofdoingthings,histoolkitandhisfood supply.Ref.215[290],130[180] Wecomenowtothequestionoftheoriginsanddivisionsofthepresent-dayracesofmanandasmightbeanticipated, thereisnocompleteuniformityofthoughtonthissubject.Thereisprobablynopointindiscussinganyconceptsat thistimethatarenotbasedonbloodgenestudies.AclassicationdevelopedbyWilliamC.BoydRef.16[27]is asfollows: 1. EUROPEANGROUP -OverallthisgrouphasthehighestincidenceoftheRhnegativegeneandarelatively highR',withnoFy,Vor"Diego".Itcanbefurthersubdivided. a EarlyEuropeanHypothetical. -TodaythisisrepresentedbytheBasquesandpossiblytheBerbers. ThisgrouphasthehighestpercentageofRhnegativeintheworldalongwithhighR'andA2andnoB,

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34 CHAPTER2.BEGINNINGTO8000B.C. b Lapps. -ThesepeoplearenotMongoloidsbutareEuropeans,havingdevelopedtheirdistinctiverace in situ .ThisclasshasthehighestfrequencyofN,isveryhighinA2,moderatelyhighinFyaandaverylow B. c NorthwestEuropeans. -WeassumethatBoydmeansScandinavians,northernGermans,French,English,etc..ThesearenexttotheLappsinhighestA2frequency,ahighRhnegativegenedistributionnext totheBasques,afairlyhighA,normalMNfrequenciesandlowB1. d EasternandCentralEuropeans. -WeassumethiswouldincludesouthernGermansandmostofthe Slavs.InthesethereishigherMthanincaboveandalowerRhnegative.Bishigher. e Mediterraneans. -IncludessouthernEurope,theMiddleEast,andmuchofnorthAfrica.Thisgroup hasahigherBandalowerRhnegativethanthenorthwestEuropeansbuttheyhaveagreaterRo[cDe], suggestingsomerelationshipwithAfricans.NorthAfricansandEgyptiansarepredominantinthisgroup. 2. AFRICANRACE -AfricanshaveaveryhighRo,ahighVandfrequenciesofFyabove0.8.R1islow,butthe frequencyofPfactoristhehighestknown.Somehavehighsickle-cellgenelevels. 3. ASIANRACE -AsianshavehighAlandB,withlittleA2.ThereisalowpercentageofRhnegativeandthe predominantRhgeneisR.Sisrelativerare.MishighinsouthernAsiawhileitisnormalinnorthernAsia. 4. INDO-DRAVIDIANRACE -ThisisasomewhatvariedgrouplyingsomewherebetweentheEuropeansand theAsiaticsandmayeventuallyhavetobesubdivided.TheyhavethehighestBofanyplaceintheworldandM ishigherthaninEurope.TheRhnegativefactorislessthaninEuropeandalthoughA2ispresentitaccountsfor lessoftheAthanintheEuropeangroup.IncidentallythesestudiesshowdenitelythatGypsiesareofIndian origin. 5. AMERICANINDIANRACE -Duetogeneticdrift,BbloodisalmostcompletelyabsentinAmericanIndians, althoughverycommontodayinEastAsia.Ref.215[290]Eskimosareplacedinthisgroupalthoughsome denitelypossessB,whichdoesnotcomefromanyEuropeanmixture.IntheIndiantheRhnegativegeneis completelyabsent,RislowbutR2isthehighestintheworld.InsomeAmericanIndiansthereisasubstantial "Diego"factorDiawhichisnearlyorcompletelyabsentinEuropeans.Thefactorsinthisgroupwillbeseen tobeveryclosetothatofthePolynesians,asshownbelow.Ref.also95[140] NOTE :BoydcautionsthatthePacicGroupabouttobedescribedunder,andneedmore investigation.IngeneralallofthesehaveahighMandalowNfactor. 6. INDONESIANRACE -IngeneralAandBarebothfairlyhigh,althoughnotinSumatra,andA2isabsent.S ispresentandtheyhaveonlyfourRhgenes[1,2,6andz]withRpredominating. 7. MELANESIANRACEMICRONESIAISSIMILAR -A2isabsentasinbutAandBarehigher.The frequencyofJKaishighwhileKandLuaareabsentandMislow. 8. POLYNESIAN -AlishighbutBisalmostnegligible.MishighwhileSispresentandmostlyattachedtoN. TheyhaveonlythreeRhgenes-Rl,R2andRowiththelatterlow.KandLuaaremissing.HeyerdahlRef.95 [140]pointsoutthatwiththeessentiallyabsentBandthehighM,thesePolynesianscanhavenorelationship totheMelanesiansorMicronesians. 9. AUSTRALIANABORIGINAL -TheseprimitivepeoplehaveahighAl,alowMandnoB.Theyalsohave noS,thusvaryingfromtheIndonesiansabove.WhileRhnegativeisabsent,RZhasitshighestknownfrequency here. AnotherclassicationofraceoccursintheveryrecentpublicationofHughThomasRef.213[288]althoughitis basedonCoon'sdifferentiationof1968.Coonfeltthateachoftheracialgroupstobelisteddevelopedfromentirely separatestemsontheprimatetree. 1. CAUCASOIDS -,includingEuropeans,WhiteAmericans,Middle-Easternwhites,Arabs,Jews,Persians,east IndiansandtheAinus. 2. MONGOLOIDS -,includingChinese,mostEastAsiatics,Polynesians,Eskimos,AmericanIndiansandIndonesians. 3. CONGOLOIDS -,includingblacksofbothAfricaandAmericaandpygmies. 4. AUSTRALOIDS -,theAustralianaboriginesandsometribesofIndiaandthenegritosofsouthernAsia. 5. CAPOIDS -,theSanBushmenandHottentots.

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35 RobinHallettRef.83[123]oftheUniversityofMichigan,anauthorityofAfricanhistory,wouldclassifynumber3 and5abovesomewhatdifferently,distinguishingthreeseparatenon-Caucasoid,non-MongoloidracesinAfrica.There areaNegroid,bBushmanoidtheCapoidsofThomasandCoon,describedasshortwithyellowishbrowncolor, thinlips,atnosesandhighcheek-bones,andcPygmoid,peoplewhoareveryshort,withyellow-brownskincolor anddownybodyhair,livingintheequatorialrainforests.HalletsaysthatatthetimeofChristtheBushmanoidswere thedominanttypeincentral,eastandSouthAfrica.TodaytheyarerepresentedonlybythepeopleoftheKalahari desert.TheHottentots,whichwereasubgroup,havedisappeared.ThetrueNegroids,ofcourse,arecharacterizedby darkbrownskin,broadnoses,thicklipsandkinkyhair,originallylivinginthesavannahtothenorthandwestofthe equatorialforests. Inthenextportionofthischapterweshallexaminesomeoftheprehistoricfeaturesmentionedintheearlyparagraphs moreindetailandfromthestandpointofthevariousgeographicalareas. InthegeographicalareasinhabitedchieybytheCaucasiansitwillclarifymatterssometofurtherdifferentiatethis raceaccordingtosomeoftheolderclassications.H.G.WellsRef.229[307]describedthreemainsubdivisions ofthewhiterace-thenorthern"blonds"Nordic,theMediterraneanandnorthAfrican"darkwhites"andasomewhat disputedintermediateAlpine,brachycephalicrace.McEvedyRef.136[187]saystheimportantsubdivisionsare SemitesArabianpeninsula,HamitesAfricanorthandeastoftheSahara,Indo-EuropeansandFinns 2 ofthefar north.Thesignicanceoftheterm"Indo-European"andafurtherbreakdownwithinthegroupwillbediscussedlater inthetext. Forwardto8000to5000B.C.Section3.1 ChooseDifferentRegion 1.AfricaSection2.2 2.AmericaSection2.9 3.CentralandNorthernAsiaSection2.5 4.EuropeSection2.4 5.TheFarEastSection2.7 6.TheIndianSubcontinentSection2.6 7.TheNearEastSection2.3 8.PacicSection2.8 2.2Africa:Beginningto8000B.C. 3 2.2.1AFRICA BeforetheIceAge,inthePlioceneEra,therewereape-likehominoidsusingweaponstokillpreyinAfrica.Itisinthe anthropologicaldigsinTanganyika'sOlduvaiGorgethatonendsthepossibleoriginofmanamillionormoreyears ago.Somecuttingtoolstherearedatedat3,000,000B.C.HumanhabitationinEgyptgoesbackatleast200,000years andtherearestonetoolsinZambiadatingto700,000to500,000B.C.About110,000yearsagotherewasamajor changeinworldclimateprobablyfromeccentricityintheearth'sorbitwhichgaverisetotheIceAgeinnorthern latitudesandtomarkedprecipitationchanges,bothofdistributionandamount,ontheAfricancontinent.Homoerectus disappearedandHomosapiens,withmiddleStoneAgetooltechnology,appeared.ThosemeninAfricaweresimilar oridenticaltoNeanderthalmaninEuropeandAsia. About20,000B.C.duringtheMagdalenianperiod,therewasahuntingcultureinNorthAfricasimilartothatof SpainandFrance,andthepeopleleftremarkablerockengravingsofwild,largeanimalsinsomeareas.Laterpost-ice 2 McEvedy'stextwouldsuggestthatthepeoplehedescribesas"Finns"arewhatmostcall"Lapps"andpresent-dayFinnsoriginatedfartothe east. 3 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat.

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36 CHAPTER2.BEGINNINGTO8000B.C. ageMesolithicpaintingshadlostthenaturalismofearlieronesandmayhavebeenchieyrememberedsymbolism withinthetribes,afterthelargeanimalshaddisappeared.AteriaanbowandarrowmakersinMaighrebandStillbayin MagosiansettlementsinsouthandeastAfricaaredatedto185000B.C.Atthattimetherewasalandbridgefromnear thehornofAfricatotheArabianPeninsula.Thelargegameanimals-mastodonsandmammothsbegantodisappear fromAfricasome50,000to40,000yearsagoandthenumberofhumanhuntersprobablydecreasedsecondarily.Rock arthasbeenfounddatingbackto25,000B.C.inNambia;to11,000B.C.insouthernMorocco;andto7,000B.C. inCapeProvince,SouthAfrica.TherstknownNegroskeletoncomesfromIwoIleruinNigeriaanddatestoabout 9,000B.C. Stoneartifactsshowthesameradio-carbondating.Flintblades,adaptedfromancientweapons,wereusednearthe Nileforreapingwildwheatby12,000B.C.Ref.18[31],28[48],140[190],66[97],45[66],130[180], 226[302],88[131],83[123],213[288]AdditionalNotes NOTE :WildcamelswerepresentinnorthwesternAfricafromthemiddlePleistocenedowntotheearlyPostglacialperiod.Ref.313[249]EmmanuelAnatiRef.299[5]datestheNamibiarockarttoaboutthe sameperiodasgiveninthetext,000to28,000yearsBeforePresentanddescribespolychromepainted slabswithanimalgurines ForwardtoAfrica:8000to5000B.C.Section3.2 ChooseDifferentRegion 1.IntrotoEraSection2.1 2.AmericaSection2.9 3.CentralandNorthernAsiaSection2.5 4.EuropeSection2.4 5.TheFarEastSection2.7 6.TheIndianSubcontinentSection2.6 7.TheNearEastSection2.3 8.PacicSection2.8 2.3TheNearEast:Beginningto8000B.C. 4 2.3.1THENEAREAST Ithasbeenmentionedearlierinthechapterthatbefore13,000B.C.theareanowcoveredbytheMediterraneanSea wasinpartalandmasswithonlyconnectedfreshwaterlakes,fedbytheNileandAdriaticriversanddrainagefrom theBlackSeaarea.AstheglacierscontinuedtomelttheAtlanticOceanlevelroseandspilledovertheGibralter barrierintotheMediterraneanbasin.Itispossiblethatagreataccumulationofmenofthedark-whiteIberianracehad occupiedthislushbasinandnowhadtospreadnorth,southandeast.IntheNearEast,asweknowittoday,there werepeopleat20,000B.C.eatingsnails,rivercrabs,freshwatermussels,turtlesandvariousnuts.Cookingbyboiling couldnotbewelldevelopedbeforetheuseofpottery,asonemusthavereproofcontainersforthewater.Someother previousmethodsmayhavebeenusedinlocalizedareasandonasmallscale,suchastheuseofalargemolluscor reptileshell,animalstomachs,etc. TheeasternMediterraneanshorehasbeenwarmandwetenoughforhumanhabitationforatleast20,000yearsand remainsoftheclassicalNeanderthalmanhavebeenfoundtherepredatingthatperiod,particularlyinIsrael,Lebanon andIraq,wheretypicalMousterianCulturetoolshavebeenfoundinbothcavesandopensites.Atabout10,000B.C. theNatuansarchaeologisttermforaparticulargroupstudiedindigsweretakingtheirrststepstowardbuilding permanentsettlements,storingfoodandsimilarbasicactivities.ThisMesolithiccultureofabout10,000to8,500B.C. wascenteredinPalestine,butextendednorthintoSyriaandLebanonandwestintoEgyptandsurroundingAfrica. 4 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat.

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37 Quernsforgrindingandsickleswereusedandthepeopleapparentlyhuntedgazelles.Agriculturalcommunities appearedwhererainfallpermitted.AdditionalNotes UpperPaleolithicculturesourishedincavesinAnatoliafrom13,000B.C.onwardsandtherearecavesitesatthe southeastcorneroftheCaspianSeafrom10,500B.C.on.Seasonalsettlementswithmudbrickcubiclesandplastered oorsinthecentralZagrosMountainsdatetothe9thmillenniumB.C.TannahillRef.211[284]saysthatevenback at40,000B.C.therewasonepersonforeverythirty-onesquaremilesinIran,andthebonesfoundtherearechiey ofwildgoatsandreddeer,althoughthoseofhare,fox,leopardandwildcattlehavealsobeenfound.AstheIceAge endedandtheglaciersreceded,theseasroserapidly,particularlywheretherewerewidecontinentalshelves. TheoodinginthePersianGulfareabetweensevenandtenthousandyearsagomusthavebeenspectacular,andbefore theTigrisandEuphratesriverslledthevalleywithsilt,theseareachedinlandoverhundredsofmiles,undoubtedly givingrisetotheoodstoriessocommoninallheritagesoftheoldcivilizationsoftheNearEast.Somefeelthata sinkingofthebedrockundertheMesopotamianplainsmayhaveoutstrippedtheoppositeeffectofsilting,andthus contributedtotheooding.Ref.211[284],68[106],8[14],158[215],224[299],45[66],130[180], 226[302] AtEridu,southofUr,theIraqgovernmenthasunearthedruinsoffourteentemples,oneabovetheother,allbelonging tothe"rstAl'Ubaidperiod",whichwasbeforeatremendousoodingofthisentirevalleyoccurred,llingtheland betweentheSyriandesertplateauonthewestandthePersianmountainsontheeast,representingsometremendous catastropheofnatureandrememberedthereafterinthepeoples'legendsas"TheFlood"-arecurringstorythroughout MesopotamianandNearEasternhistory.Intheexcavationsofthestratabelowtheoodsilttherewaspottery,evidence alreadyoffarungtrade,andatUr,Woollyevenfoundtwobeadsmadeofamazonite,astoneofwhichthenearest knownsourceistheNighirihillsofcentralIndia'Whetherthepre-oodpeopleshouldproperlybecalledSumerians isdisputed.ThefamousSumerianKinglists,foundlateronvarioustablets,showlegendarykingsbeforetheood andthelengthofeachreignwasdescribedfrom18,000yearsback.Then,saythetablets,theoodcame.Thelistsof kingsaftertheoodagainarealllegendarydownto"TheFirstDynastyofUr"whichweshalldiscusslater.Theood plainhadelevenfeetofsiltwhichhasbeenestimatedtomeanaoodnotlessthantwenty-vefeetdeepovertheat, low-lyinglandofMesopotamia.Ur,today,is200milesfromthesea,butonlyfourteenfeetabovesealevel.Ref.238 [318] SheepweredomesticatedinnorthernIraqabout9,000B.C.,certainlyby8,900B.C.,butitispossiblethattheywere broughtfromtheeastaroundtheCaspianSeabynomadswhohaddomesticatedthemevenearlier. NOTE :StoneAgehunter-gatherersleftstonetools,handaxes,borers,scrapers,knivesandarrowheadsfrom oneendofthepeninsulatotheother.Thenowdrywadismusthavegushedwithwateratthattime,although theyapparentlydriedupabout15,000yearsago.Ref.315[125] ForwardtoTheNearEast:8000to5000B.C.Section3.3 ChooseDifferentRegion 1.IntrotoEraSection2.1 2.AfricaSection2.2 3.AmericaSection2.9 4.CentralandNorthernAsiaSection2.5 5.EuropeSection2.4 6.TheFarEastSection2.7 7.TheIndianSubcontinentSection2.6 8.PacicSection2.8

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38 CHAPTER2.BEGINNINGTO8000B.C. 2.4Europe:Beginningto8000B.C. 5 2.4.1EUROPE Wehavementionedearlierthatoneoftheoldestskeletonsof homoerectus isonefromSwanscombe,England,found withsimpletoolsmadeofintpebblesandassociatedwithelephants'vertebrae.Continentalexamplesofasomewhat similarmanhavebeenfoundatHeidelbergandrecentlynotfarfromBudapest.Attheearlystateofthenalglaciation Wurmglacier,perhaps50,000to60,000yearsago,therewerewedge-shapedstones,axesandspearsmadeincentral Europe.ThiswasthetimeofNeanderthalman,whoapparentlyhasnodirectdescendantstodayandwhorepresented anevolutionarydevelopmentofprimitivemanwhichforsomeunknownreasoncametoadeadendanddisappeared. Heusedpointedscrapers,triangularknifeblades,ceremonialburialsandheatedsheltersaswellasboneneedles. Europeseemedtobethehomeofthesemen,althoughsomehavebeenidentiedinotherareas.Thearchaeologists calltheirculturethe"Mousterian"afterMousteir,France,thelocationoftheoriginalnds.Theirswasareindeerdependentculture,inwhichmenused"kits"ofsomesixty-threedifferenttools.Theywerebasicallycavedwellers, particularlyinSpainandFrance.AtthistimetherewasalandbridgefromEnglandtoFranceandtheglaciercovered thenorthernhalfoftheBritishIslesandallScandinavia,northerncontinentalEuropeandpartsofRussia.TheBlack Sea,asmentionedearlier,wassmallandafreshwaterlakethatatsometimewasconnectedtothegreatseaextending throughtheCaspiantotheAral.H.G.WellsRef.229[307]thoughtthatthisgreatseamighthavebeenconnected totheArctic,butmodernthoughtmakesitanorthernarmofTethys.Ref.229[307],100[145] IntheLowerPaleolithicAgebackasfaras100,000yearsagotherewereaketoolsoftheClactonianCultureand latertheAcheulianCultureinBritain.TherewassomeoccupationintheUpperPaleolithicinperhapsabout12,000 B.C.andthis homosapiens culturewhichfollowedtheNeanderthalMousterian,showedanincreasedtool"kit"with ninety-threetypesofchippedstonetools,besidesalargegroupofbonetools.Between30,000and10,000B.C.mostof centralandwesternEuropewasprobablyuninhabitablebecauseofcoldandice,exceptinthesummer,butthewaters oftheAtlanticanditsmoresouthernlatitudegavesouthwesternFrancerespitefromthecoldandthuswasafavorite placeforthePaleolithichunter.Earlymanherewasakillerofgameandpart-timecannibal.Inthe"shgorge"ofthe DordogneregionofFrancethereappeared,about25,000B.C.,short,baitedtoggleswithtinesattached,-therstsh hooks. About15,000yearsagohugeherdsofruminantanimalsroamedtheplainsofcentralandWesternEuropeandthey weremostusefultoearlymanassourcesofmeat,clothes,tentfabricsandframesandevenasfuelanimalfat. ThemammothwashuntedparticularlyinsouthernRussiaandCzechoslovakia.Earlymanwasalreadydividedinto subculturesintheUpperPaleolithiclevelwithaPerigordianChatelperronianlevelappearingastheearliestinwestern Europeabout35,000B.C.;aGravettianinCzechoslovakiaabout27,000B.C.extendingintosouthernRussia;and theAurignaciancultureoftheCro-Magnonmanat32,000B.C.inEuropeproper.Thelattermay,however,have originatedintheNearEast.Strangelymarkedbonesandstonesfoundalloverintheseperiodsandextendinguptothe Mesolithicperiodofthepost-iceagehaverecentlybeeninterpretedasnotational,probablyrelatedtotabulationofthe lunarperiodicity,andindicatingskillandintelligenceandsophistication,aswehavepreviouslymentioned. ItwasafterNeanderthalman,whichisafter35,000yearsago,thatclothingandornamentationcanbeidentied.The bestexampleoftheuseofbeadssewnonclothingcomesfromRussia,whereaskeletonwasaccompaniedbyshells aboutthehead,chestandonthelegs,suggestingtrousers.Onthesteppes,wherewoodwasinshortsupply,manyhuts weremadefromthetusksandbonesofmammoth,whichalsoformedthemajormeatsupplyinEasternEurope25,000 yearsago. TwocategoriesofEuropeanartarerecognized,amobileorhomeartdecoratedtools,smallcarvings,etc.andthen thexedworksofcavesandrockpaintings,engravingsandsculptures.TheearliestartdatestotheupperPaleolithic, betweentenandthirtythousandyearsago.Themostdevelopedartwasintheso-calledMagdalenianera,withthe famouscavepaintingsofSpainandFrance,ofwhichmorethanahundredhavebeenfound,perhapsrepresentinga periodofover20,000years.Thepigmentsusedappeartoberedandyellowochre,manganeseorcarbonforblack 5 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat.

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39 andchinaclayforwhite.Someofthecolormayhavebeenmixedwithfatandthepaintwasappliedbynger,chewed sticksorfurforbrushes.Thehighqualityofthisart,ofessentiallythesamedegreeofexcellenceasthatoftoday 6 is furtherevidencethatmanofthatdayhadthesamebrainandintellectualpotentialastoday. Ashortglacialperiodbetween9,000and8,000B.C.reacheditspeakinlessthanacenturyanddisappearedrapidly, butforseveralhundredyearstheforestsofEngland,WestGermanyandtheLowCountrieshadaclimatewithtundras, howlingwindsanddriftingsnow.Byabout8,000B.C.shingnetsfromtwistedbersorthongshadbeeninvented. Turnips,onionsandlargeradishesdatebacktoprehistorictimes.Irelandwasprobablyuninhabiteduntilabout8,000 B.C.TheearliestinhabitantsofsouthernScandinaviaenteredbetween12,000and8,000B.C.followingafterthe retreatingice,andformingprimitivehuntingcommunities.Ref.8[14],226[302],211[284],45[66],130 [180],136[187],88[131] ForwardtoEurope:8000to5000B.C.Section3.4 ChooseDifferentRegion 1.IntrotoEraSection2.1 2.AfricaSection2.2 3.AmericaSection2.9 4.CentralandNorthernAsiaSection2.5 5.TheFarEastSection2.7 6.TheIndianSubcontinentSection2.6 7.TheNearEastSection2.3 8.PacicSection2.8 2.5CentralandNorthernAsia:Beginningto8000B.C. 7 2.5.1CENTRALANDNORTHERNASIA ItisofinterestthatsomegeologistshavewrittenthatduringmuchoftheTriassicandJurassicperiodssome200million yearsago,southernTibetwaslargelysubmergedbelowthetropicalseaofTethys-waterseparatingthecontinentsof EurasiaandGondwanaland.DuringtheCretaceousperiod65millionyearsago,theIndiansubcontinentseparated, movedacrosstheTethysandcollidedwithEurasiawithaterricimpactwhichformedtheHimalayanrangeandthe Tibetanplateau.Thecollisionzonefoldedtheearth'scruststoalmostarightangle.Thenonlyafewmillionyearsago furtherupliftoftheHimalayansoccurred,incidenttoglaciationandotherfactors,andthesemountainsarestillrising attherateof1/2centimeterayear.Ref.182[250],100[145] SkeletalremainshavebeenfoundofthecavedwellingNeanderthalhuntersallabouttheareafromtheCaspianto theAralseas.AsthelastIceAgeretreated,Siberianreindeerhuntersprogressivelyworkednorthward.Menoftruly moderntypewerepressingintothisfarnorthlandsome35,000yearsago,wheretheyhuntedmammothswithina hundredmilesoftheArcticCircle,alongthePechoraRiver.AnearlywaveofmenspreadfromtheUralMountains acrosscentralAsiatosouthernSiberiaandMongoliaandtheirrelicshavecometobeknownastheMal'ta-Afontova Culture.AsecondwavepenetratedeasternSiberiaalongtheAldanRiverandSovietexcavationstherehaveshown thesepeopleoftheDiuktaiCulturetohavehuntedmammoths,muskoxen,bisonandgiantwoollyrhinocerosesabout 35,000yearsago.ThesepeoplemayhavebeensomeoftherstadventurersacrossthelandbridgeintoAlaska.Certain SiberiantribesexistingtodayNganasans,Eutsis,DoganChukchi,etc.haveacomplextime-factoredmythologyand ceremonials,includinglunarcalendarnotations,bearandreindeerceremonies,etc.thatarerelatedtoUpperPaleolithic culturesof15,000to35,000yearsago. AroundLakeBaikalandtheupperYenisseiRiverwellpreservedartifactsdatingto20,000yearsagohavebeen excavated.Theseincludehutsandsmallartobjects,suchascarvedgeesegurinesandtinyfemalestatuettes.From 6 ThisisArnoldToynbee'sopinion.Ref.220[294] 7 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat.

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40 CHAPTER2.BEGINNINGTO8000B.C. thelatteritisapparentthattheseMongoloidpeopleworeskinsuits,parkahoodsandmoccasinssewedontrousers.The bowandarrowmayhavebeeninventedincentralAsiaby13,000B.C.About11,000B.C.theAsiaticwolfprobably wasunderhumancontrol,butonlybygettinganimalsundersixweeksofage.Thiswasnottruedogdomestication. Ref.211[284],45[66],226[302],182[250],130[180] Dr.AlesHrdlickahasfoundonthesouthernslopesoftheHimalayasamongtheTibetantribesayellow-brownstock which"inphysique,inbehavior,indress,andeveninintonationsoflanguage" [ ? ]appearidenticalwithAmerican Indians.Couldthisbetheiroriginalhomeland? ForwardtoCentralandNorthernAsia:8000to5000B.C.Section3.5 2.6TheIndianSubcontinent:Beginningto8,000B.C. 8 2.6.1THEINDIANSUBCONTINENT TheIndiansubcontinenthasproducedalmostnofossilmenwiththeexceptionofRamapithecusfromtheSiwalikbeds andasimilarjawfromGandakasinPakistan.Thesehavejustrecentlybeenputintothehuman"line".Butmenhave livedinIndiasincethesecondinterglacialperiod,from400,000to200,000B.C.Thehand-axes,choppingtoolsand akesoftheearlyStoneAgearefoundinthePunjabfoothills,theSoanandBeasvalleys,Rajasthan,Malwaandas farsouthasMadras.SomeofthesearereminiscentoftheClactonianofEuropeandtheOlduvanofAfrica.Atthe closeofthePaleolithic,tinybladelettoolslikethoseoftheEuropeanMesolithicAgewerebeingused.Fromthenuntil about10,000B.C.therewasamixtureofarchaicandgraduallymoremodernsocieties,oftensidebyside. After10,000B.C.,exceptforthehighmountains,Indiawascoveredbywoodlandandthemodernbarrenlandscapeis man-made,duetomillenniaofwoodlandclearanceforvariousreasons.Ref.8[14],38[59],88[131],45[66] Continueonpage36 2.7TheFarEast:Beginningto8000B.C. 9 2.7.1THEFAREAST Thefamous"PekingMan",unearthedinnorthernChina,livedsome500,000yearsagoandhisuseofreallowed himtolivenorthofthefrostline.Heappearedtohaveabraincapableofspeech,anerectpostureandwasahunter andnut-gatherer.Hewasanintermediarystageofearlyman,evolvedbeyond Homohabilis whohadspreadacross EurasiaandAfrica,andwasdenitelyrelatedtotheJavaman Pithecanthropusrobustus .Bothhaveshovel-shaped incisors,acharacteristicofthemodernMongoloidrace.Afterthisearlyinterglacialperiod,northChinahadaseriesof evolutionarychangeswithNeanderthal-liketypesandthefullymaturedMongoloidHomosapiensappearingperhaps 20,000yearsago.Inthelatterpartofthisperiod,partsofsouthChinawereoccupiedbypro-humanswithsome Negroidracialcharacteristics.AllEastAsianstoneagepeopleusedadistinctivechop-pingtoolthatdifferedfromthe technologyofprehistoricEuropeandAfrica.Doesthismeanamultipleoriginofpresentdaymankind? About12,000yearsagoChinaprogressedtoceramicsandthebeginningsofagriculture.ThisYang-shaoCultureis representedinmorethan1,000excavatedsitesinHonanandKansuprovinces,withhand-moldedred,blackandgray potterypaintedwithpigments.AhuntingcultureexistedincentralChinaatthattime. At20,000B.C.therewerelandbridgesfromChinatoKoreaandfromKoreatothesoutherntipofJapanandpeople couldgofreelyacrosstheseareas.TherstpeopletoarriveinJapan,however,didsosome100,000yearsagoand werepre-MongolianAsiatics,similartotheaboriginesofAustraliatoday.Theywerewanderinghunterswithpale complexionsandheavybeardsofvaryingcolorsanddegreesofcurliness.Forthenext90,000years,duringthelastof theIceAges,JapanwasusuallylinkedtotheAsiaticmainlandbythelandbridgesandislandchains,sothatHokkaido 8 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat. 9 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat.

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41 wasaccessibletoSiberiaandKyushuwasaccessibletoTaiwanandSoutheastAsia.Withthemeltingoftheglaciers some10,000yearsago,Japanwascutofffromthemainlandandthereweretwosurvivingcultures,eachwithits ownlanguage-aSiberianoneinthenorth,survivingtodayasAinu,adistantrelativeofsometongueoftheSiberian tundra,andthesouthernlanguage,whichhasdevelopedintomodernJapanese.Inthelatter,someofthemoreancient andbasicwordssuchasthosefor"mother","father",etc.,bearsomeslightresemblancetosomePolynesiandialects andtosomewordsofcertainhilltribesofMalaya. PotteryfoundinFukinCave,Kyushu,Japanhasaradio-carbondatingofabout129700B.C.andisconsideredtobe theearliestintheworld.TheJomonPeriodofJapan,withahunting,shingandgatheringeconomyandtheuseof potterybutnotmetal,startedabout12,000B.C.andcontinuedforthenext8,000years.InthiseraJapanseemsto havebeenisolatedfromChinaandhadmoreincommonwiththePacicIslands. Javaman,whoseremainswerefoundintheBrantasValleyofJavabyEugeneDubois,aDutchdoctor,in1891,hasbeen datedto400,000B.C.,andappearstoberelatedtoPekingmaninChinaandhasthesameMongoloid,shovel-shaped incisorteeth.Some20,000yearsagotherewerelandbridgesallabouttheMalayanpeninsula,throughSumatra,Java andBorneoandconnectingalltotheregionsofpresentCambodiaandVietnam,makingthehugesubcontinentcalled theSundaShelf.Thepeoplemayhavebeentheancestorsofpresent-dayNegritosstilloccupyingsomeremoteregions ofthisarea.Mostwerehunters,somelivedincaves,andtherewerecultivatedfoodsinThailandasearlyas10,000 B.C.Therehavebeencarbondatingsof9,750B.C.ofseedsofpeas,beans,cucumbersandwaterchestnutsofthesize andshapesuggestingactualcultivation.Iftrue,thiswassome2,000yearsbeforetrueagriculturecanbeprovedinthe NearEastorCentralAmerica.About250,000yearsagopeoplemayhavewalkedacrossthethenexistinglandbridge fromtheMalaysianpeninsulaandtheAsianmainlandtothePhilippineIslands.Thementheremayhavebeenakin totheJavaandPekingmen.CavendswestofMindanaoshowcrudetoolsof50,000B.C.andinsomeareasthere arebettertoolsdatingto20,000B.C.Ref.101[146],12[21],45[66],8[14],175[241],211[284],215 [290] AdditionalNotesp.41 NOTE :Upto10,000yearsagosmallbandsofhunter-gathererswerewidelyscatterednorthtosouthfrom VietnamtoSumatraandeast-westfromBurmatotheGulfofTonkin.SpiritCaveexcavationshaveshowna varietyofgame-deer,pigs,monkeys,bamboorats,otters,yingsquirrelsandfromthesea-carpandcrabs. Nuts,beansandmelonswerealsoavailable.Ref.297[232] ForwardtoTheFarEast:8000to5000B.C.Section3.7 ChooseDifferentRegion 1.IntrotoEraSection2.1 2.AfricaSection2.2 3.AmericaSection2.9 4.CentralandNorthernAsiaSection2.5 5.EuropeSection2.4 6.TheIndianSubcontinentSection2.6 7.TheNearEastSection2.3 8.PacicSection2.8 2.8ThePacic:Beginningto8000B.C. 10 2.8.1THEPACIFIC Itispossiblethatbetween50,000and70,000yearsagomanventuredontothecontinentofAustraliaandsettled chieyalongthecoastalareaswhicharenowsubmergedandnotaccessibletoexcavation.Atthattimetherewere 10 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat.

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42 CHAPTER2.BEGINNINGTO8000B.C. landbridgesfromNewGuineatoAustraliaandontoTasmania.OthersbelievethatAustraliawascolonizedonly some30,000yearsagowiththemencomingbyboatorraft.TragerRef.222[296]saysthattheserstsea-going peopleoftheworldpopulatedAustraliaat42,000B.C.Inanyevent,edge-groundaxesdatingto22,000yearsago havebeenfoundinArnheimLandonthenorthcoast,anditisthoughtthattheentirecontinent,alongwithTasmania andNewGuineawereprobablywidelysettledby18,000B.C.Thepeoplewereearlyhunterscontemporarywithgiant marsupialswhichtheymayhavehelpedtoexterminate.ThelandbridgesprobablycontinuedoutintoMelanesiaand thesamepeoplesoonoccupiedthosecontinentalextensionsintothesouthPacic.Wehavenoinformationabout humansintheotherfar-spacedislandsofthePacicatthatveryearlytime.Ref.45[66],176[242],8[14],215 [290]AdditionalNotesp.42 NOTE :RockartappearedinSouthAustraliabefore20,000B.C.andhumanboneshavebeenfoundincaves inTasmaniaof20,000yearsago,thustwotimesolderthananyothersfoundthisfarsouth.Ref.299[5], 312[227] ForwardtoThePacic:8000to5000B.C.Section3.8 ChooseDifferentRegion 1.IntrotoEraSection2.1 2.AfricaSection2.2 3.AmericaSection2.9 4.CentralandNorthernAsiaSection2.5 5.EuropeSection2.4 6.TheFarEastSection2.7 7.TheIndianSubcontinentSection2.6 8.TheNearEastSection2.3 2.9America:Beginningto8000B.C. 11 2.9.1NORTHAMERICA Atsometimebetween40,000and10,000B.C.humanhuntinggroupsoccupiedallthemainlandmassesofearthexcept Antarctica.MenreachedAmericaabout20,000B.C.perhapsearlierfromAsiaoveralandbridgebetweenAsiaand Alaska,varyingfromthreehundredtoonethousandmileswideandapparentlyincludingtheAleutianIslandswhere bladesandburins,perhapsdatingbackto10,000B.C.havebeenfound.Otherwisetheearliestknownculturesofthe Americanfarnorthhavenotbeenwelldated 12 .Theso-calledBritishMountainCultureneartheYukonArcticcoastis probablytheoldest,withartifactsofeasternSiberia,includingcrudeinstrumentsandshapingtools.There,intheOld CrowBasin,therstknownoccupationsiteintheNewWorldhasbeententativelycarbon-datedto25,000B.C.The inhabitantswereskilledusersofbone,usingmammothandhorsebone,thelatteranimalsranginginsizefromponies toPercherons.Jawsofdomesticateddogsappeartobe30,000yearsold.Atanyrate,thepeoplewhocameoverthe landbridgeapparentlysimplyfollowedtheirpreyanimalsandwereofabasic,generalMongoloidstockwithskulls notmuchdifferentfromCaucasiansandtheirdescendantsbecametheAmericanIndians.Thetoolsandskillsspread fromAsiatoAmericawiththemandincludedthestoneadze,spoons,combsofboneorhorn,thetoggleharpoonand eventuallythebowandarrow.MarshackRef.130[180]saystheAmericanIndianscameinwavesfromAsiaover aperiodofperhaps20,000yearswithsomeaslateas2,000B.C.Thelattergureisnotfurtherexplained.Weknow thatthelandbridgewaspresentoffandonoverseveralmillennia,butneveraslateas2,000B.C.Itisinterestingthat aslateas1962thistheoryoftheAsiaticoriginoftheAmericanaborigineswasnotuniversallyaccepted.Greeman Ref.78[118]wascommittedtodiffusionacrossthenorthAtlanticinskin-coveredboatsintheUpperPaleolithic 11 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat. 12 TragerRef.222[296]evenstatesthatracemizationtestsonbonesuggestthatNeanderthalmanmayhavebeenonthewestcoastofthe westernhemisphereat50,000B.C.,butwehavenotseenconrmationfromanyotherauthorandTragerdoesnotrevealhissourcematerial.

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43 times.HefeltthatSandiaCulturematerialinAmericawasthesameastheSolutreanoftheMontautsiteinsouthwest France.BloodtypingstudiesbeginningwithBoydRef.17[30]in1963probablylaidthistheorytorest. ThegreatbulkofthepeoplecomingovertheBeringlandbridgemaynothavebeenabletomigratedownintothe regionoftheUnitedStatesandfarthersouthuntilabout12,000yearsagowhentheicethathadpreviouslyalmost coveredCanadanallymeltedenoughtoopenacorridoreastoftheRockies,atwhichtimetheMongoloidhunters pouredthroughtothegamelandsoftheAmericanplains.Dr.KnutFladmarkasquotedbyCanby[Ref.22[38]]of BritishColumbiaarguesthatsomemencouldhavecomesouthwhenthecorridorwasclosedbyleapfroggingdown thecoastwherethereweremanyice-freepockets,byboat.Furthermore,recentworkshowspositivelythatmuchof thecoastlineandislandarchipelagooffthecoastofsouthernAlaskawasnevercoveredbyglaciersatanytime.Ref. 239[320] AslightlydifferentviewisgivenbySwansonetalRef.209[282]whostatesthattherstcrossingoftheBering Straitoccurredfrom26,000to28,000yearsagoandthatthesepeoplebecametheAmericanIndianswithbloodtypes chieyO,withsomeAandnoB.Thenasecondmigrationtookplacebetween10,000and20,000yearsagowhich perhapsincludedtheEskimoswhohaveABand0bloodtypes.Theymayhavecomebykayakfromoneshoreto anotherasEskimostodaystillliveonbothsidesoftheBeringStrait.By10,000B.C.prehistorichunterswerein allpartsoftheNewWorld,evenatTierradelFuego.Someshingandgatheringpopulationswereverylarge.The highestaveragepopulationdensitynorthofMexicowasinCaliforniawherethereweretheacorngatherers,agroup whichwassosuccessfulthattheywerenotapttoexperimentwithnewtechniques.Themostrecentglaciationperiod inNorthAmericareacheditsmaximumbetween18,000and22,000yearsagoandextendeddowntoNewYorkState andcentralOhio,coveringMinnesota,Wisconsin,Iowa,IllinoisandpartsofKansasandMissouri.After12,000B.C. thisretreatedrapidly,sometimesseveralmilesinasingleyear. At9,000B.C.theAmericanplainsstillteemedwithgiantbison,camels,stagmoose,musk-oxen,largecats,mastodons andthreekindsofmammoths.Mostoftheseweregonewithin1,000yearsofman'sarrival.Thedatingoftheint spearheadsoftheSandiaCulturewhichhavebeenfoundinOregon,OntarioandNewMexicohavebeenvariously datedfrom23,000to6,000B.C.Atanyrateitwasalongtheretreatingiceedge,wherethespruceforestandpines migratednorthandwestfromtheAppalachiansandtheoakmovednorthfromtheGulf,thattheincreasedparkland andgrassallowedthehumanpopulation,nowwitharadicalnewstonetechnology,togreatlyincrease.Thiswasthe timeoftheGreatHuntingCulture,associatedwiththeClovispointsoftheSandiaCulturementionedabove.These ClovispointssonamedbecauserstidentiednearClovis,NewMexicowerelarge,heavyintpointsdesignedfor huntinglargeanimals,andbutcheredelephantshavebeenexcavateddatingtotheperiod9,500to9,000B.C.Insome areasthisculture,alsosometimescalledLlano,hasbeendatedfrom11,000to15,000yearsago.TheFolsomspear pointswhichdevelopedfromtheClovisweresmallerandmoredelicatelymade,foreffectiveusebythebisonhunters. Astemperaturesroseandthecloudcoverdiminished,therewasanincreasedevaporationrate,theplantcoverthinned andthegreatherdsdeclinedrapidly.Somefeelthatpriortothetemperaturerisethenorth-southcorridoropenedup intheglaciersallowingarcticwindstodescendontheplains,andthesuddendropintemperaturewasafactorinthe dyingoffofthegiantbisonandmastodons.TheDesertTraditionofwesternNorthAmerica,datingfromabout9,000 B.C.wascenteredintheGreatBasinofNevadabetweenthetwogreatmountainchainsandoccupyingportionsof sixpresentstates-Nevada,Wyoming,Idaho,OregonandCalifornia.Basketsandmillingstonesweremadeandthe subsistencebaseincludedsmallseeds,berries,bulrushrhizomesandnuts. IneasternUnitedStates,somefortymilessouthofPittsburgistheMeadowcroftrockshelterwhereremainsofIce AgemanincludesabifacialprojectilepointwhichmaybeancestraltotheClovispoint.Thecarbon-14datingofthe hearthis14,000B.C.butsomedoubtifthisdateiscorrect.Ref.211[284],209[282],210[283],8[14],22 [38],64[94],224[299],45[66],21[34] Concerningbloodtypes,mostNorthAmericanIndiansareexclusivelytypeObutafew,suchastheSioux,Chippewa andPueblohave10to15%GroupAwhiletherestareO.Thesemayrepresentseparateandlatermigrationgroups overtheBeringlandbridge,or,asshallbediscussedlater,possiblymixtureswithEuropeansorlaterAsiatics.Ref. 21[34],155[214]

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44 CHAPTER2.BEGINNINGTO8000B.C. AdditionalNotesp.44 2.9.2MEXICO,CENTRALAMERICA,ANDTHECARIBBEAN TheNationalGeographicSocietyRef.155[214]saysthatartefactssuggestman'spresenceatPuebla,Mexico by20,000B.C.althoughsuchearlydatesarenotuniversallyaccepted.TherocksheltersnearTehuacanhavebeen continuouslyoccupiedsince10,000B.C.InCentralAmericagourdandsquashdatetoprehistoryalongwithvarious wildformsofbeans,lentilsandchickpeas.Ref.211[284] 2.9.3SOUTHAMERICA ThetoolsofPleistocenemenwhohuntedcamelids,slothsandperhapshorseshavebeenunearthedatthebottomof arockshelteronthewesternslopeoftheAndescordillera.Thepresenceofhumanshasbeenattested13,000years agoinVenezuela,ArgentinaandPeru.DuringthelastphaseoftheIceAgetheWisconsininNorthAmericathe Andeanglacierswereaslowas11,000feetandtheirmeltinglatermayaccountfortherarityofhumansitesduring thatchaoticperiodofterricgorgeooding.Afterthat,however,theAndeswerecertainlyinhabitedbynumerous bandscorrespondingtothearchaicsocietiesofNorthAmerica.IncentralPeru,atChilca,whereat12,000to13,000 feetaltitudeonlyeightinchesofrainfallinayear,caveswithasmanyasfourteenarcheologicalstratahavebeen excavated.Perfectlypreservedcorpsesofseveralpeoplehavebeenfoundindicatingastoutbuttallphysique,varying from65.2to69.2inchesinheightaccordingtosex,withlongheads,protuberantjawsandstrongbones.Theyhad clothesmadeofcactusplantbersorofreeds.Somehadcloaksofvicunaskin,paintedandsewnwiththehelpof cactusspines.Weaponswereslingsandspearthrowerswithjavelinpointsmadefromobsidian,basaltorquartz.Hand axesandscraperswereverysimilartotheEuropeanMousterians',althoughseparatedintimebysome20,000years. Atabout13,000B.C.thewatersofthePacicweresomethreehundredfeetbelowpresentlevel,andattimessince thentheyhavebeensixteenfeetabovethepresentlevelandhaveoscillatedthroughtheages.Thismayhavegreatly disturbedthelivesoftheearlydwellersbyvirtueofchangesinthefreshwaterlevelsofthebeachesofarid,western Peru. Humanlivingsitesalongwithbonesofsloths,horses,camelidsandmastodonshavealsobeenfoundinthesierra regiontheAtlanticAndesofColumbiaandVenezuela.MenmayhavereachedtheextremetipofSouthAmericaat Falls'Caveby9,000B.C.orshortlythereafter,buttheremaybesomedisagreementastotheirorigin.Inthisarea PatagoniancaveswereinhabitedduringthehighHoloceneandimmigrantsfromAustraliaorSoutheastAsia may haveenteredthecontinentviaAntarcticaandtheislandofTierradelFuego.Stilllaterothersettlerscamefromthe easternAndes.OnTierradelFuegothechiefpeoplewereOnas-big,handsomemendressedinvicunaskins.They haddomesticateddogsandpoisonarrowsandremovedtheirbodyhairwithshellsusedaspincers. TheLagoaSantacavesinBrazilshowcharcoaldatingtobetween18,000and20,000B.C.andtoolsalongwith mastodonbonesdatingto9,400B.C.havebeenfoundincentralChile.ElIngoisapre-ceramicsiteatanaltitudeof 9,100feetinEcuador,datingbacktoabout10,000B.C.showinganobsidianworkshopandhuntingcampsite.The toolsshowsimilaritytoFolsomandClovispointsofNorthAmerica.Ref.45[66],22[38],62[91]Additional Notesp.45 IthasbeenthebeliefofauthoritiesinthepastthatallCentralandSouthAmericanIndianshadthebloodtype0 exclusively.VeryrecentABOblood-groupantigenandHL-Awhitecellstudiesindicatethatthiswasnottrueof PeruvianandChileancoastalpeoplesevenat3,000B.C.BothAandBwerefoundinmummiesofParacas,Huariand IcawhileABwasfoundintheseareasplusthoseoftheHuachoandNazca.OnlytheIncamummieswere100%0 andonlyveofthesewerestudied.OfonlyfourChileAtacamenasmummiestyped,allweretypeA.Wedonotknow whatthismeans,butitispossiblethatthesestudiesarecompatiblewithideasofpre-ColumbiandiffusionfromEurope orAsia,afeatureweshalldiscusslater.Ref.3[4]ProfessorFredericAndreEngelRef.62[91]whohasspent mostofhisadultlifeasanarcheologistinSouthAmericare-emphasizesthatalthoughonemustacceptanAsiatic foundation,evidencesofstrongforeigninuencesappearalmosteverywhereintheAmericas,eveninpre-Columbian times.

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45 NOTE :Paleo-IndianskeletonshavebeenfoundnearWaco.Texasradio-carbondatedto10,000yearsago. Artifactsburiedwiththemindicatetrade,withseashellpendants,redintsfromtheTexasPanhandle, projectilepointsfromtheplainsandsometools.Someburialobjectsindicateadeathritual,perhapsrelated toareligion.Bonesofcookedrabbits,turtles,raccoonsandsnakeswerepresent.Ref.298[128] NOTE :RockarthasbeenfoundinBrazildatedto17,000B.C.andatthetipofSouthAmericadatingto 10,000B.C.Ref.260[29] ForwardtoAmerica:8000to5000B.C.Section3.9 ChooseDifferentRegion 1.IntrotoEraSection2.1 2.AfricaSection2.2 3.CentralandNorthernAsiaSection2.5 4.EuropeSection2.4 5.TheFarEastSection2.7 6.TheIndianSubcontinentSection2.6 7.TheNearEastSection2.3 8.PacicSection2.8

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46 CHAPTER2.BEGINNINGTO8000B.C.

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Chapter3 8000to5000B.C. 3.18000to5000B.C. 1 3.1.1CHAPTER2:8TH,7TH,&6THMILLENNIAB.C. BackwardtoBeginningto8000B.C.Section2.1 3.1.1.18,000TO5,000B.C.-FROMHUNTINGTOAGRICULTURE Althoughtechnicallythisperiodtobediscussedisstillprehistoricalfromthestandpointofitsprecedingman'sability towriteandthereforenarratehisexploits,archaeologicalexcavationsandotherstudieshavepin-pointedsomany activitiesthatitseemsworthwhiletogiveaseparatechaptertothesethreemillennia.Inthisperiodtherewere weatheroscillationswithrapidchangesinclimateandcorrespondingchangesinoraandfaunabutoveralltherewas improvementtowardamoretemperatesituation.Domesticationofsomeanimalsoccurredandtherewasearlyplant cultivation.Domesticationinvolvesselectivebreedingandgeneticchangesothatsomespeciesbecomecompletely dependentonman'sinterventionforsurvival.Theyieldfromcultivatedcerealsmadepossiblehumancommunitiesof alargersizethaneverbefore,andthusforthersttimetherearosesettlementswhichcanbedescribedasvillagesor eventowns.Theearth'spopulationat8,000B.C.hasbeenestimatedat5.3millionRef.222[296].Thechanged distributionofrainfallandthechangesinseaandlakelevelsafterthatdatenecessitatedagreateruseofthegrasses whichaboundedinthemountainfoothillsandtheselectionofcertainformswhichcouldbegrowninlowlandhabitats aspotentialcrops.Asmankindbegantoleavefood-gatheringforanagriculturalwayoflife,99%ofthetimeduring whichmankindhasexistedhadalreadypassed.Ref.8[14],215[290],221[295] Forwardto5000to3000B.C.Section4.1 ChooseDifferentRegion 1.AfricaSection3.2 2.AmericaSection3.9 3.CentralandNorthernAsiaSection3.5 4.EuropeSection3.4 5.TheFarEastSection3.7 6.TheIndianSubcontinentSection3.6 7.TheNearEastSection3.3 8.PacicSection3.8 1 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat. 47

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48 CHAPTER3.8000TO5000B.C. 3.2Africa:8000to5000B.C. 2 3.2.1AFRICA BacktoAfrica:Beginningto8000B.C.Section2.2 About7,000B.C.atwo-manploughwasusedinEgypt,onemanaheadpullingonaropeandtheotherpressingdown thepoint.Ref.213[288]ItisassumedthathuntersandpastoralpeopleslivedingreatpartsofAfrica,particularly thenorthandeastatthistime,butthereislittleornoevidenceoftheircultureexceptintheSahara,itself.Someof theTassilipastoralrockpaintingsofthatareamaydatebackto6,000B.C.Duringtheclimaticoptimumfromabout 7,000to3,000B.C.theSaharawasbushcountry,wellstockedwithgame.Itwellcouldhavebeenazoneofhuman interbreedingofraces,inthattodaythereareanumberofSaharanandSudanesetribeswhichappeartobeintermediate betweenCaucasoidsandAfricanNegroes.Mediterraneandark-whiteHamiticCaucasoidsappeartohavecomefrom Asia,bringingCushiticlanguagesabout8,000B.C.andspreadingsouthalongtheRiftValleyofAfricatosettleby thelakesinKenya.Theywereshermen,usingstoneinstrumentsandmakingpottery.Ref.83[123]Buttoreturn totheareaoftheSahara,certainlybefore6,000B.C.thiswasaregionoflushvalleys,woodedhillsandfertilerolling plains,andtherockdrawingsofthisearlyperiodsuggestthatthepeoplewerelikethepresentdayBushmen,now foundonlyintheSouthAfricandesert.Butwiththedisappearanceofthebiggame,particularlythebuffalo,these peoplewereapparentlyreplacedbyherdsmenfromtheeast,perhapstheancestorsofthepresentdaynomadicFulani peoplesRef.215[290],176[242]ElsewhereinAfricafromabout6,000B.C.on,somegroupslivingnearlakes orriversadoptedamoresettledwayoflife,usingboneharpoonsforshing.Remainsofthesehavebeenfoundnear LakeChad,LakeEdwardandKhartoumontheNile.Ref.88[131] ForwardtoAfrica:5000to3000B.C.Section4.2 3.3TheNearEast:8000to5000B.C. 3 3.3.1THENEAREAST BacktoTheNearEast:Beginningto8000B.C.Section2.3 Theearlyagricultureofthenaturallygrowingwildwheatandbarleyinpartsofthisareaallowedthedevelopmentof communitiespermanentenoughtodevelopbrickandstoneforbothprivateandpublicbuildings.Theearliestsites werenotfarfromthemountainrangeswhichhadbeentheoriginalhomeofthecerealsjustmentionedandallwere withinabeltof300millimetersinchesrainfallayear,orinaoodplain.SuchwereTelles-SultanatJericho andCatalHuyukincentralTurkey.Thelattercoveredthirty-twoacreswithperhaps6,000to10,000people,with evidenceoflongdistancetrade,volcanicglassfortoolsandblueapatiteforornamentation.Thiscentercametoanend about5,000B.C.,apparentlysimplyabandoned.Buttherstknownpotteryandwoolentextileswerefoundthere 4 Jericho,inJudea,isthoughttobetheworld'soldestcity,datingback9,000yearsago,some4,000yearsbeforethe rstSumeriancity.SittingbesideaspringneartheDeadSea,ithadstonewallsandatowerthirtyfeethighanda populationofperhaps2,500,allliving800feetbelowsealevel,whereasitscounter-partCatalHuyukwasatanaltitude ofmorethan3,000feet.Inbothitappearsthatwomencultivatedthecropsandlookedaftercattlewhilethemenwent huntingwiththeirnewlydomesticateddogs.AdditionalNotesp.49 Althoughnotyetatthestageofcitybuilding,SumeriansinMesopotamiaarethoughttohaveinventedthewheel sometimebetween65500and6,300B.C.Ref.222[296]WheatandbarleywerebothgrowninsouthernIraqby 79000B.C.ExcavationsatTelles-Sawwan,seventymilesnorthwestofBaghdadindicateahighlevelofcivilization therearound6,000B.C.,withbuildingsbuiltfromunbaked,mortaredbricksandhouseswithaccessthroughtheroofs 2 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat. 3 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat. 4 HughThomasRef.213[288]saysthattheworld'srstpotterywasamonochrometypemadeinIraqabout7,000B.C.withpaintedpottery appearingabout6,500B.C.

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49 andcoatedwithplaster,thenbitumenandnallyfacingsofgypsum.Thissitewasoccupiedfor1,000yearsandhas similaritytoCatalHuyukalthoughoccurringmuchlaterintime.ItllsinagapbetweenthenewStoneAgeand recordedhistory.Thustheso-called"NeolithicRevolution"appearstohavetakenplacebetween7,000and6,500B.C. Someinstrumentsinsteadofbeingchippedwerenowhighlypolished.Therstfarmanimaltamedwasprobablythe goat,whichlivesoffwildgrass.Sheep,pigsandnallycattlefollowed.Thepigisnotaruminantandpig-rearing couldnotoccuruntilnuts,acorns,meatscrapsandcookedgrainwereavailable.Cattle,domesticatedeitherinTurkey orMacedoniabetween6,000and5,800B.C.,offeredadifculttaskastheoriginalswereeryandagile,butthiswas amostimportantstepinman'sexploitationoftheanimalworld.Theywerebroughtundercontrolbypoorfeeding, closepenning,hobblingandcastrationofthebulls.Thebarnyardanimalbecameman'srstpowertool,butcattle werenotusedinanyotherareaoftheworldinthismilleniumtime-frame.EveninthisNearEastregiondesertstill predominatedandmanandanimalswereactuallycrowdedinoases.Eriduwasanagriculturalsettlementof5,000 B.C.Ref.68[106],8[14],213[288],222[296] Woolengarmentswerewovenandthereisevidenceofearlytradeinobsidianwhichwasidealfortools.Thiscame fromtheareaofLakeVanandwasexportedtoMesopotamiaasearlyas7,000B.C.Basketsandwoodenaswellas stonevesselshadbeeninventedbeforethe6thmillennium.AtHacilarinAsiaMinor,beginningabout5,500B.C.there isevidenceofaChalcolithicCulturewhichinvolvestheuseofpurecopperalongwithstone.Elam,insouthernIran wassettledbythe8thmillenniumandinthemiddleofthe6thIranhadfarmingvillageswithirrigationagriculture, supplementedbyhunting.Animalpaintingsandimportedcoppertoolshavebeenfound. Aswehavenotedinthelastchapter,theBlackSea,uptothistime,hadbeenafreshwaterlake,connectedinturnto theCaspian-Aralsystem.Now,astheicecapmeltedandthesealevelrose,saltwaterintheMediterraneaneventually wentovertheBosporanshelfintotheBlackSea,killingthefresh-waterlifeitcontained.Thedecomposedremainsof thisice-agepopulationstillpoisonsthelowerlevelsofthestagnantBlackSea,whichisstilldevoidoflifebelow250 feet.Ref.176[242],60[89],28[48],45[66],215[290],88[131],158[215] ForwardtoTheNearEast:5000to3000B.C.Section4.3 ChooseDifferentRegion 1.IntrotoEraSection3.1 2.AfricaSection3.2 3.AmericaSection3.9 4.CentralandNorthernAsiaSection3.5 5.EuropeSection3.4 6.TheFarEastSection3.7 7.TheIndianSubcontinentSection3.6 8.PacicSection3.8 NOTE :PeoplelivinginreedhutsalongthePersianGulfontheArabianpeninsulahadsomekindofcommercewithMesopotamiaby5000B.C.Ref.315[125] 3.4Europe:8000to5000B.C. 5 3.4.1SOUTHERNEUROPE CreteandtheAegeanIslandsweresitesofagriculturalsettlementsspreadingoverfromAsiaMinorbetween7,000 and6,000B.C.Alittledifferentviewissuggestedinthenextchapter.Amysteriouspeoplewhoseplacenames andthereforelanguagewasnotGreek,spreadovertheeasternMediterraneanperhapsasearlyas6,000B.C.Linguist LeonardPalmerbelievesthereisadeniteMiddleEasternavortothewordsleftbehind,andtracesthemtothe 5 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat.

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50 CHAPTER3.8000TO5000B.C. Luvians,apeoplefromthehillsofTurkey."Corinth","Olympus"and"Knossos"areamongthosenamesthatare notGreek.TheoldesthousesbelowKnossosonCrete,inaneolithiclayerdatedat6,000B.C.,weremadeofmud brickshardenedinre,amid-easterntechniqueneverseenlaterontheisland.TherstsettlersofCrete,whoeverthey were,foundaheavilyforestedlandwithvaststandsofcypress,oak,chestnutandpine,unlikemodern,denudedCrete. CyprushadaNeolithicpopulationbythe4thmillenniumB.C.Ref.109[155],215[290],88[131],41[62] ThecentralmountainsofGreeceareaseriesoflimestoneridgesrunningsoutheastintotheAegeanSeawherepeaks formaseriesofislands.Thecultivablevalleysonthecoastaremoreaccessiblefromtheseathanfromeachother ortherestofEurope.ThereforetheeastcoastofGreeceparticipatedintheagriculturalsettlementoftheAegeanvia theseafromtheeast.DomesticatedsheepwereinGreeceby7,200B.C.TheBalkanshadagriculturalsettlements andpaintedandimpressed-wareculturesfrom6,000to5,000B.C.spreadingupfromGreece.Theeconomywas basedonsheep,wheatandlegumes.Karanovo,Bulgaria,isanexample,withmoundsettlementdebrisfortyfeethigh. SimilarculturespreadallalongthecoastsoftheAdriatic,SicilyandsouthernFrance.ExcavationsintheMaritsa ValleyValleyoftheRosesincentralBulgariaindicateplasteredmud-housesoverwoodframeworkpresentby6,000 B.C.Eachgenerationofpeople,however,woulddemolishtheiroldhouseandbuildanewoneonthesite,sothatafter severalthousandyears,someoftheresultingmoundsroseashighasftyfeet.Thesepeopleat6,000B.C.hadovens tobakebread,graphitedecoratedpotteryandby5,000B.C.hadearlysmeltingandcastingofcopper,perhapsentirely independentlyofsimilardevelopmentsintheNearEast.LepenskiVir,ontherightbankoftheDanubeinpresentday Yugoslavia,wasanancientcitysitedatingbefore5,000B.C.Itischaracteristicoftheworkofhuntersandshermen ofapureOldStoneAgetraditionbeforehousestookonapermanentform. GeneticstudiesofEuropeanpeopleshaveindicatedthatfarmingadvancedfromtheMiddleEastintoEurope,starting atabout7,000B.C.witharadialrateofadvanceofaboutonekilometerayear,andthisadvanceoccurredbydiffusion ofthefarmersthemselvesdemicdiffusionratherthanbythesimplespreadoftechnologyfromonepopulationto anotherculturaldiffusion.Thisisevidencedbythefanningoutofcertainallelesingenefrequencies,spreadingin EuropefromsoutheasttonorthwestandalsofromtheNearEasttoNorthAfrica,ArabiaandEastAfrica-andfrom SouthwestAsiatotheIndusValley. ArcheologicalevidenceisalsoplentifulontheEuropeancontinent,butnotsointheotherareas.Sardiniaandnorthern AlgeriaaremorenearlysimilartotheNearEastthantherestoftheCentralMediterranean,andSardiniahasverylow Rhnegativefrequencyandotherfrequenciesthataremostunusual.Thearcheologythereshowsrstthattheearliest occupationwasNeolithic-withnoPaleolithicantecedentandsecondlythattherewassubstantialcolonizationbyboth PhoeniciansandCarthaginians.Therstfarmers,however,probablycamefromsouthernItaly.TheislandMelos,in theAegean,hasadistinctivevarietyofobsidian,andthereisevidencethatGreekandCretansailorsexploiteditand broughtittotheirowncountriesasearlyas6,000B.C.Ref.222[296],215[290],136[187],211[284],170 [234],176[242],143[196]AdditionalNotesp.51 3.4.2CENTRALEUROPE ThemajorityofmiddleEuropeanspassedintotheMesolithicAgeinthisperiod.Therewerenolongerlargeanimals tohunt,perhapsonlydeer,andmanaugmentedhisdietwithnutsandberries.Thedogwaspresentinthehuman encampmentsandboatswereused.Farming,whichappearedintheDanubebasinabout6,000B.C.spreadtothe NorthEuropeanplainabout5,000B.C.Theyusedwoodensawsttedwithchippedintteeth.Neolithicpottery called"Bandkeramik",whichwascharacterizedbyincisedparallellinesabovetheneck,appearedinareasofsouth andnorthcentralEuropeandaccompaniedthegenegradientwhichwedescribedabove.Suchfarmermigrations involvedmorepeopleandhaveabetterpotentialforincreaseinpopulationthan"barbarian"invasionswhichhave onlylimitednumbersandnotenoughpeopletoeffectgenefrequenciesstriking1y.Thisfarmingandtheassociated potteryspreadrapidlyalongthemainrivervalleys,especiallytheDanubeandtheRhine,attheendofthisperiodabout 5,000B.C.Althoughmuchcontroversystillexists,thereismuchevidencetosuggestthattheIndo-Europeanspeaking peoplewereactuallyasinglegrouporpeopleatthistime,livingintheDanubeValley.Weshallexaminesomeother ideasaboutthislater.Ref.136[187],215[290],143[196]

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51 Swisslakedwellerswithdomesticateddogsandplowoxencollectedorgrewaxforuseinmakingshlinesand netsandgeneralutilityropesbyabout6,000B.C.Theyalsomadeabreadfromcrushedgrainandhadtruepottery. Continueonpage50 3.4.3WESTERNEUROPE CentralFranceandmostofSpainhadMesolithiccultureswhilesouthernSpainhadcoastalagriculturalsettlements thatwereextensionsofAdriaticandsouthernFrancecultures.TheverysouthernpartofEnglandwasnotcoveredby thelastglacier,andrecentdiscoveriesanddatingtechniquessuggestaveryearlyinhabitationofthatarea.Dogswere domesticatedbytribesintheBritishIslesby7,300B.C.ChurchillRef.29[50]saysthatat7,000B.C.therewas stillnoEnglishchannelandBritainwasapromontoryofEurope.TherewaslandinwhatistodaytheNorthSea,also, andmenlivedthereat6,000B.C.whentherewascontinuoustundrafromJutlandacrosstoEng1and.Thesemenof thenorthwerereindeerhunters,comingupfromcentralEurope.Astheglaciersretreatedtheanimalsdependingon snowwaterhadtohavesalt.Wherehumanbeingsaccumulated,thereindeerswouldaccepthumanurineasasourceof saltandsosemi-domesticationbecamepossible,althoughtheseanimalsneverbecamesubjecttotruedomestication. Britainmayhavebecomeseparatefromthecontinentbyabout5,900B.C.InIrelandwattlehutsdatebackasfaras 7,000B.C.alongthecoastalroutesandinlandwaterways.MostoftheIrish,particularlyinthenorthandwesthave bloodtypeO,pointingtoastrongpre-CelticphysicalinheritancewhichisbelievedtohavecomeviatheAtlantic fromtheMediterraneanarea.Hunter-gathersofWesternEuropeandprobablytheBritishIsleshavecloseto100% Rhnegativegenes,withlaterpositivegenesarrivingfromtheeastandsoutheastofEurope.Ref.143[196],215 [290],117[164],29[50]Continueonpage51 3.4.4SCANDINAVIA Evenat8,000B.C.thelastglacierhadretreatedsufcientlytoleaveallofDenmarkandsouthernSwedenfreeofice andthereweremenlivingthere,eatingoysters,shandsealmeat.Denmarkandallislandsguardingtheapproaches totheBalticweresettledbyLappsandFinns.ThesepeoplewereprobablyofEuropeanoriginalthoughbothspokea relatedFinno-Ugrictongue,originatingintheUralsfartotheeast.Denmarkwasthenonecontinuousstretchofland, notmultipleislandsandpeninsulasastoday,andtherewasonelargewaterchannelacrossSwedenviathegreatlakes totheKattegat.TheBalticSeaandtheSoundmaynothaveexistedassuch.ANeolithicratherthanaMesolithic cultureexistedinthisportionoftheworld.Continueonpage53 3.4.5EASTERNEUROPE ThereweregoodsuppliesofintineasternPoland,andthemilesofrivers,lakesandtimberaffordedresourcesfor earlyman.ThegreatwatersystemincludingtheBlackandCaspianSeasalongwiththeUralMountainsactedas abarrierbetweentheAsiaticpeoplesandtheIndo-Europeans.SomewouldlocatetheoriginoftheIndo-European speakingpeoplesatthistimejustnorthoftheBlackSea,andcertainlythereweresparselyscatteredpeoplethroughout allofnorthernEuropeanRussiauptotheedgeoftheretreatingglacier.McEvedyRef.136[187]callsallofthese northernStoneAgepeople"Finns",butmostwouldprobablyprefertheterm"Arcticpeoples"or"Lapps".Certain scholarsincludetheforefathersofpresentdayLappsamongthePaleo-arcticgroups,whileothersmaintainthatthey areAlpineandcamefromcentralEuropeandwerepushednorth.Theydonotallbelongtoasinglephysicaltypeand donotbelongtoasinglebloodgroup.TheirFinno-UgriclanguageisclosetoFinnishbutthetwoarenotmutually intelligibleandtherearethreemutuallyunintelligibleLappishdialects.TodaypracticallyallLappsarebilingual.Ref. 229[307],61[90],88[131]Continueonpage53 NOTE :InItalynearFoppedeNadrotherearemanyrockartgures,includingascenedepictingapraying humanguresurroundedbydogs.Thiswassupposedlycreatedbythe"DogCult"peopleabout5000B.C. Ref.299[5]

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52 CHAPTER3.8000TO5000B.C. 3.5CentralandNorthernAsia:8000to5000B.C. 6 3.5.1THEINDIANSUBCONTINENT BacktoCentralandNorthernAsia:Beginningto8000B.C.Section2.5 MiddleStoneAgesiteswiththeirdelicateake-shapedtoolsoccurredmainlyinIndiainthecentralandpeninsular areas,butalsointheSoanValleyandatSanghaoinnortheastIndia.MicrolithsandMesolithsoftheLateStoneAge aredistributedalmostthroughoutthesubcontinent,exceptinPakistan.Interestinglyenough,scatteredinremoteareas throughouttherearestilltodayabouttwentymillionaboriginalpeoplessuchastheGonds,Bondos,Kani,Todasand Magas,ofuncertainracialancestry.AfewseemtoberelatedtotheAustraloidsofAustralia.Pollenanalysissuggests forestclearanceandcerealcultureinRajasthanasearlyasthe8thmillenniumB.C.Ref.33[55],88[131],8 [14] ForwardtoCentralandNorthernAsia:5000to3000B.C.Section4.5 3.6TheIndianSubcontinent:8000to5000B.C. 7 3.6.1THEINDIANSUBCONTINENT MiddleStoneAgesiteswiththeirdelicateake-shapedtoolsoccurredmainlyinIndiainthecentralandpeninsular areas,butalsointheSoanValleyandatSanghaoinnortheastIndia.MicrolithsandMesolithsoftheLateStoneAge aredistributedalmostthroughoutthesubcontinent,exceptinPakistan.Interestinglyenough,scatteredinremoteareas throughouttherearestilltodayabouttwentymillionaboriginalpeoplessuchastheGonds,Bondos,Kani,Todasand Magas,ofuncertainracialancestry.AfewseemtoberelatedtotheAustraloidsofAustralia.Pollenanalysissuggests forestclearanceandcerealcultureinRajasthanasearlyasthe8thmillenniumB.C.Ref.33[55],88[131],8 [14]Continueonpage54 3.7TheFarEast:8000to5000B.C. 8 3.7.1THEFAREAST BacktoTheFarEast:Beginningto8000B.C.Section2.7 WhiletherewereprobablymanypeopleintheFarEastatthisperiod,mostremainedintheMesolithicstage.The Yang-shaopaintedpotteryculturepeopleofChinalivedinsmallvillagesofperhapsonehundredcottages,growing millet,keepingdogsandpigsandhuntingwithbowsandarrows.Theyburiedtheirdeadandpracticedfertilityrites. JapanhadtheJomonCulture,dateoforiginuncertain.TheBritishMuseumGuidelistsitfrom7,000B.C.onbut othersbelieveitexistedevenat8,000B.C.orbefore.Itwasadistincthunting,gatheringandshingsocietywith alow-redhandmadepotterysometimesimpressedwithpatternsmadebytwistedrope.Theword"Jomon"means "ropepatterns".Thereissomeevidencethatthepeopleofthissocietywerenottheancestorsofthepresentday Japanese,butratherthoseoftheAinu,nowpushedintothenorthernfringesoftheislandsbythelaterimmigrants. TheJomonCulturewasrelatedtothesoutheastChinatraditionsandtothoseoftheSovietMaritimeProvinceand Kamchataka,butisnotrelatedtotheYang-shaoRef.101[146],19[32],8[14],215[290],45[66],88 [131]AdditionalNotesp.53 InSoutheastAsiapeoplecultivatedriceasearlyas6,000B.C.withevidencefoundinSpiritCaveinnorthernSiam. MesolithiccultureshavebeenidentiedinVietnam,SiamandMalaya,withearlycavesitesexcavatedinSumatra, BorneoandCambodia.InThailand,by6,000B.C.,peopleusedawidevarietyoffoods,withmanyoftheplants 6 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat. 7 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat. 8 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat.

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53 domesticated.Theseincludedalmonds,broadbeans,betelnuts,cucumbers,peas,waterchestnutsandgourds,aswell asrice.TherewaswidespreaddistributionofmankindinNewGuineaby8,000B.C.withaaketool-chopperstone industry.Althoughsomewerealreadythereby6,000B.C.morepeoplebeganarrivinginthePhilippinesbyseafrom Indonesia,Malaysia,IndochinaandtheArabworld.Ref.8[14],175[241] ForwardtoTheFarEast:5000to3000B.C.Section4.7 ChooseDifferentRegion 1.IntrotoEraSection3.1 2.AfricaSection3.2 3.AmericaSection3.9 4.CentralandNorthernAsiaSection3.5 5.EuropeSection3.4 6.TheIndianSubcontinentSection3.6 7.TheNearEastSection3.3 8.PacicSection3.8 NOTE :TheearliestclearevidenceforricecultivationhasbeenfoundnearHangchowandisdatedatabout 50008.C.Ref.297[232] 3.8ThePacic:8000to5000B.C. 9 3.8.1THEPACIFIC BacktoThePacic:Beginningto8000B.C.Section2.8 AustraliahadmanyofthesametoolsthatwerefoundinNewGuinea,suchastheedge-groundaxeandwaistedblades. MicronesiaandmostofPolynesiaappeartohavebeenuninhabitedthroughoutallthesemillenniaunderreview. ForwardtoThePacic:5000to3000B.C.Section4.8 ChooseDifferentRegion 1.IntrotoEraSection3.1 2.AfricaSection3.2 3.AmericaSection3.9 4.CentralandNorthernAsiaSection3.5 5.EuropeSection3.4 6.TheFarEastSection3.7 7.TheIndianSubcontinentSection3.6 8.TheNearEastSection3.3 3.9America:8000to5000B.C. 10 3.9.1NORTHAMERICA BacktoAmerica:Beginningto8000B.C.Section2.9 9 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat. 10 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat.

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54 CHAPTER3.8000TO5000B.C. ThelandbridgefromSiberiatoAlaskabecameinundatedabout8,000B.C.and,asmentionedpreviously,thelater arrivingEskimosandAleutscamebyboatandrepresentedthelater,classicalMongolianrace,ascontrastedtothe earlieroriginalMongolianstockwhocameoverabout20,000B.C.PossiblystilllatercametheAthapascans,who slowlymovedinlandwheremanystilllivetodayincentral,northernCanada.SomeoftheseAthapascanseventually migrateddowntothesouthwestUnitedStateswheretheybecametheApachesandNavajos.AdditionalNotesp.55 IntheUnitedStatesareabiggamehuntingcontinuedthroughoutthisperiodbutwithagradualdecreaseinthenumber ofanimalsavailable.By8,000B.C.NorthAmericanIndianculturewasalreadydividedintothreegreatpatterns: EasternWoodlands ,whichwilllaterbecalled"Archaic" Desert ,possiblyrelatedto EasternWoodland WesternPaleo-Indian AlthoughtheEasternWoodlandsactuallyexistedfrom8,000B.C.toabout1,000B.C.,duringthis8,000to5,000B.C. periodunderdiscussionitwascalled"EarlyArchaic"andwascharacterizedbybiggamehuntingwithshingand shellandplantgathering.BurialmoundswerebeingbuiltineasternCanadaby5,000B.C.Ref.213[288]Inthe mid-westtherewasarelatedsub-culturecalled"Modoc",withevidenceofmanoandmetatestonemortarandpestle existingabout7,200B.C.AnothervariationexistedintheOzarks,OklahomaandMississippi.AdditionalNotesp. 55 TheWesternPaleo-IndianCulturewasoriginallyabiggamehuntingtraditioncongregatedintheGreatBasinlying betweentheCascadeMountainsofsouthernOregonandtheRockiesofIdahoandrunningsouththroughNevada, westernUtahandtheeasternpartofCalifornia.The"OldCordilleranTradition"isanamegiventothecultureof IndiansintheOregonandWashingtonareasdatingfrom7,800to5,700B.C.whousedcharacteristicakedstone pointsknownas"Cascadepoints".Around7,000B.C.someofthehuntersfromtheGreatBasinareamigratedsouth intothemountainsandtablelandsofthesouthwest-i.e.southernColoradoandUtah,alongwithArizona,NewMexico andtheMexicanstatesofSonoroandChihuahua.Thismigrationwasprobablyprecipitatedbyweatherchangeswhich weremakingsemi-ariddesertsofthepreviousgreatsavannahsoftheBasin,andtheconsequentdisappearanceofthe game.Onelargebranchoftheseancientimmigrantstothesouthwesthasbeengiventhenamerecentlyof"Cochise" fromacountyinArizona.Theso-calledSulfurSpringsPhaseofthiscultureranfrom7,000to5,000B.C.andwas asocietydependentonhuntingancienthorses,mammoths,antelopeandbisonwithakedprojectilepoints.TheLake MojaveareaofsouthernCaliforniahasyieldedkite-shapedpoints,choppers,drillsandscrapers,someofwhichhave beendatedbackto9,000B.C.At6,000B.C.theclimatechangedwithamarkedriseintemperatureassociatedwith drought.Thegreatherdsdiedoutincludingthemastodonsandcamels.Manyareasweredenudedandtherewasa shiftingofIndianpopulationandachangeintheirlivingpatterns.Ref.45[66],209[282],210[283] 3.9.2MEXICO,CENTRALAMERICA,ANDTHECARIBBEAN By7,000B.C.intheTehuacanValleyofMexicotherewerepeoplelivinginrocksheltersandusingstonecooking potswhichwereleftinthecenterofthehearth.Maizewasusedinthesamevalleybetween6,000and5,000B.C. andatsomepointtheturkeywasdomesticated.Beforethedevelopmentofpotterysomepeoplesmayhaveused animalstomachsasliquidcontainerstohangoverres.Inthesamevalleythereisevidenceoftheuseofsixfood resourcesthemagueyplant,cactusfruitspricklypear,treelegumeslikethemesquite,wildgrasses,deerandrabbits. Cultivatedplantsprobablymadeuponly5%ofthediet,asopposedto54%fromhuntingand41%fromcollecting wildplants.Thecommonbeanandmaizewereintroducedintothevalleyabout5,000B.C.Maizeapparentlywent underconsiderablegeneticchangewithcultivation,butsinceitlacksanimportantaminoacid,itwasfortunateforthe Indiansthatitwaseateninconnectionwithbeans,whichsuppliedthedecit.SeealsoAfricainthe16thcenturyC.E. Section30.2.TherewassquashintheMexicanhighlandsbefore5,000B.C.Ref.211[284],209[282] 3.9.3SOUTHAMERICA Asearlyas8,000B.C.theneedforartisticexpressionapparentlyexistedinthehighAndes.Wementionedinthelast chapterthatprehistoricpeoplehadpaintedclothing,butnowwecanaddnecklaces,bracelets,carvedpendantsand

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55 geometricallymarkedbones,paintedgreen.Thesepeopleatepricklypearcactus,alderseeds,tomatoesandplants withrhizomesandtuberssuchasjiquimas,potatoes,ullucuandpossiblymaniocandsweetpotatoes.Thereisalso refuseofmanylandmammalssuchasbucksandroedeer,vixcahas,camelidsandrodents,aswellastheremainsof sh.Althoughthecavesweresixtymilesfromtheocean,marinemolluskshavebeenfound,suggestingthatthese menmigratedattimestotheseashore,probablylivinginthecondensedfogoasescalled lomas ,asthebeachland otherwiseiscompletelyarid.By7,000B.C.therewereallsortsofprojectilepointsinVenezuela,Chile,Boliviaand Peru.Long-headedhumanskeletonsalongwithbothextinctandmodernanimalshavebeenfoundinBrazildatedto thesametime. NativesofbothAmericasareofextremelyvariedtypes.InSouthAmericatherearepeoplewithCaucasianappearance butdarkbrownskin,alongwithMongoliantypeswithAfricanfaces,butofpaleorsallowcomplexion.Big,straight non-aquilinenosesareseenfrequentlynearCuzcointhehighAndes,wherenon-Mongoliancharacteristicsmixwith trueAsiaticones.ManyscholarssuchasJulianSteward,PaulRivet,MiguelCovarrubiasandHeineGildern,aswellas HeyerdahlandFell,whowillbementionedofteninthismanuscript,areallcomingtotheconclusionthattransoceanic voyagesfromsouthernAsia,Polynesia,evenAustraliaorAfrica,havehelpedpeopletheNewWorldsincetheBering Straitmigration.Theearlymenof8,000to4,000B.C.unearthedintheexcavationsofProfessorEngelRef.62[91] werealldolichocephals,prognathous,big-bonedandtall,whereasthe16thcenturypeoplefoundbytheSpaniardswere ofonlymediocreheight,mesoorbrachycephalicwithshortlimbsandslenderframes. By6,000B.C.someAndeanpopulationswerealreadyadvancedtothestageofcomparablegroupsintheNearEast, notyettruefarmersorherders,butlivingasedentarytypeoflife,occupyingwelldenedterritories.Onasouth Peruvianplainbetweenmountainspurs,inlandfromthecoastataboutthe16thparallel,therewerehundredsof inhabitantsusingwaterfromnowdrywadis.Seashorevillagesofthesamemillenniumhavealsobeenfoundand becauseofthecompletesurfacedessication,humanshavebeenuncoveredbysimplybrushingoffthesand.They stillhavetheirclothes,skinandeyesafter7,000to9,000years.Millingstoneshavebeenfoundineveryhutandin graves,particularlyintheSantaValleyofPeruandtheeasternAndes.Itispossiblethatllamasandalpacasbeganto bedomesticatedontheeasternslopesatabout6,000B.C. IntheColumbiaandVenezuelaareasbetween7,000and3,000B.C.Meso-Indianslived,eatingseafood,berries,seeds, rootsandtubers.Remnantnowcanbeidentiedbythelargemoundsofshells,ashesandfooddebris.Thesenorthern SouthAmericanswerealsonavigators,fortracesofthesamepeoplearefoundonalladjacentislands.Documentation regardinghumidChileandArgentinaislackinginthisearlyperiod,althoughgroupsofpre-agriculturalistscertainly occupiedthewesternslopeoftheChileanAndesattimesabout8,000B.C.althoughperhapsnotcontinuously.Itis possiblethatsomeftyvalleysincentralPeruandaridChilewereinhabitedbygroupsofupto2,000peoplebefore agricultureappearedonthecoast.Ref.209[282],45[66],62[91] NOTE :ExcavationsatAnangulaIslandintheAleutianchainshowevidenceofsettlementtherearound7,000 B.C.Mummiesonneighboringislandsarewrappedinfursandwovengrasses.Ref.310[204] NOTE :Paleo-Indianskeletons,amanandboywithheadsrestingonturtleshells,foundatRoundRock, Texas,havebeendatedatabout7000B.C.Ref.298[128] ForwardtoAmerica:5000to3000B.C.Section4.9 ChooseDifferentRegion 1.IntrotoEraSection3.1 2.AfricaSection3.2 3.CentralandNorthernAsiaSection3.5 4.EuropeSection3.4 5.TheFarEastSection3.7 6.TheIndianSubcontinentSection3.6 7.TheNearEastSection3.3 8.PacicSection3.8

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56 CHAPTER3.8000TO5000B.C.

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Chapter4 5000to3000B.C. 4.15000to3000B.C. 1 4.1.1CHAPTER3-FIFTH&FOURTHMILLENNIAB.C. Backwardto5000to8000B.C.Section3.1 4.1.1.15,000TO3,000B.C. MichaelCheilikRef.28[48]fromCityUniversityofNewYork,callsthisperiodtheChalcolithic Chalcos = copper, lithos =stone.Afterdraftanimalsweredomesticatedandwheeledvehicleswereinventedtransportationover longdistancesbecamepossible.Astageofintellectualdevelopmentknownasmythopoeicmyth-makingarrivedand persistedforcenturies.Theforcesoftheuniversebecameappreciatedandpersonal.Sometimeinthiseracamethe "DawnofCivilization"asinafewareastruecivilizationsappeared.Itisprobablynotunbelievablethen,thatalsoat thisperiodtheweatherandclimatewasthemostidealofthelast100,000years,withthepossibleexceptionofour owntimethepastone-halfcentury.Ref.28[48],224[299] Asweshallseeinthedevelopmentofthisperiodofhistory,EgyptandMesopotamiahavelongcompetedinthe historians'annalsforthehonorofbeingtheoldestsourceofcivilization.Veryrecentlycarbon-14datingandbristleconedendrologystudiesincorrelation,havesuggestedthatsomeoftheMediterraneanislandsparticularlyMalta mayhavehadanadvancedculturebeforesuchappearedinthefertileNileValley.Ref.164[223].Furthermore, recentDanisharchaeologicalexcavationsontheislandofBahrainintheArabianGulfhaverevealedacivilization antedatingthatofMesopotamia'Therecentrevisionofthecarbondatinghasnowevenplacedsomeofthestone towersandmegalithsoftheBritishIslesbacktocorrespondingearlydates.Whatdoesthismean?Itisdifcultto conceiveofextensivecivilizationsdevelopingonlyonislands.Moreprobableisthethoughtthattheseislandswere onlyrefugesorway-stationsforaseagoingpeoplewhohadbeendislodgedbysomecatastrophefromtheiroriginal homes,perhapsasyetundiscoveredandunidentied.Coastlineshavechanged,oldlandsarenowcoveredbyseas, andmanycitiesmayyetlieburiedundersanddunes,lavaandashesorwaterinmanypartsoftheworld.Alongthe Afro-Asiaticcoastsmuchhaschangedevensincethe5thcenturyB.C.whenHannosaileddowntheAtlanticAfrican coastwithsixtygalleysand30,000settlerswhoestablishedportswhichhavenowbecomeinlandelds.TheRomans discoveredanoldcityontheAtlanticcoastofAfrica,alreadyveryancientwhentheyfoundit,withimpressivesunoriented,megalithicstructures.Theycalledthis"MaqomSemes","CityoftheSun"or"Lixus,theEternalCity"and feltittobeolderthananycityinsidetheMediterranean.Theseimpressiveruinsarenownolongeronanislandor thecoast,butarehalf-buriedonaheadlandonaridgesurroundedonallsidesbyateldsoftheLucusRiverdelta, withtheoceanonlybarelyvisibleinthedistance.ThisisaboutthreemilesupstreamfromthemoderncityofLarache, Morocco,whichisitselfaboutseventymilesdowntheAfricancoastfromtheStraitofGibralter.EngleRef.62[91] hasreportedthattheoceanshorelineinwesternSouthAmericaabout6,000yearsagowasmuchtotheeastofwhere 1 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat. 57

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58 CHAPTER4.5000TO3000B.C. itistoday.CouldnotthisalsobetrueofthewesterncoastofAfrica?Atanyrate,intheruins"AlargeRomanmosaic ofNeptunebearswitnesstoformerlinkswiththeocean,whiletheruinsofArabmosquesandRomantemplescover earlierBerberandPhoenicianstructures,rettedinturnfromgiganticblockshauledfromfarawaybytheunknown sun-worshipperswhorstchosethissite" 2 .Ontheotherhand,drylandhassunkintotheAtlantic,makingunderwater canyonsextendingoutintotheoceanoorfromAfricanrivermouths.Oceanoorshaveneverceasedtomove,and somegreatgeologicaldisasterdisturbedtheAtlanticandsplitthecountrysideofIceland,creatingagiantriftcanyon thatrunsacrossitandbeyondintheoceanoor 3 .Radio-carbondatingsofatreeembeddedinlavainthisriftindicated thatthecatastropheoccurredaround3,000B.C.Doesthishavesomebearingontheshiftingofpeoplesaroundthe Mediterraneanatthistimeandtherathersudden"new"locationsofcivilizationsontheislandsandthensubsequent locationsinEgyptandMesopotamia? SuddenchangesoccurredonMaltaandCreteandCyprusatabout3,000B.C.withasuddenendtotheNeolithicphase andthebeginningofamajornewera.IfageologicaloccurrenceaboutthattimeintheAtlanticwasgreatenoughto splitIceland,itseemspossiblethattidalwaveswouldhavecausedfarreachingdisasters,forcingpopulationgroupsto searchfornewlands,andsucheventscouldhavebeenrememberedinmanypeopleslegendsasthetimeofthegreat ood.AsAlexanderMarshackRef.130[180]haswritten,art,agriculture,science,mathematics,astronomy,the calendar,writing,cities-thesethingscouldnothavehappened"suddenly".Thequestionishowandoverhowmany thousandsofyearsdidthepreparationrequire?Ref.130[180],95[140],61[90],164[223] Forwardto3000to1500B.C.Section5.1 ChooseDifferentRegion 1.AfricaSection4.2 2.AmericaSection4.9 3.CentralandNorthernAsiaSection4.5 4.EuropeSection4.4 5.TheFarEastSection4.7 6.TheIndianSubcontinentSection4.6 7.TheNearEastSection4.3 8.PacicSection4.8 4.2Africa:5000to3000B.C. 4 4.2.1NORTHEASTAFRICA BacktoAfrica:8000to5000B.C.Section3.2 InthisperiodtherewereCushiticspeakingHamiticpeoplealongtheRedSeaandtheGulfofAdenonthecoastlineof thehornofAfrica.InEgypt,sometimebetween4,500and3,100B.C.theBadarianCultureexisted,withagriculture, irrigation,clearingofjunglesandswampsandpictographicwriting,whichmayhavebeenimportedfromSumeria. TheseBadariansmayhavecomefromsouthofEgyptviatheRedSeaandWadiHammarat,butitispossiblethat immigrantsfromJerichoalsoarrived,bringingfood-producingtechniques.TheoverallpopulationofthelowerNile wasprobablylessthan20,000at5,000B.C.Ref.83[123]Theclimatewascoldanddampandthepeoplewore kiltsorlongskirtsmadeoflinenorskinswiththefurinward.Theylivedinsometypeoftentsorperishablewall homes. Hippopotamiandcrocodileswereinevidence,andintheareaofelBadaritherearebodiesofdogs,sheepandoxen wrappedinmattingorlinen.Thissuggestspossiblereverencefortheseanimals.LowerEgypthaddomesticgrazing 2 AsquotedinHeyerdahlRef.95[140],page356 3 Thisnorth-southvalleysplitsthemid-AtlanticridgefromIcelandtoBouvetIslandinthesouthAtlanticandrepresentstheboundarybetween crustal,tectonicplates 4 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat.

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59 animalsfromtheLevantbyabout4,500B.C.,buttheBadarianslivedprimarilyinmiddleEgyptandtheirpottery datestothesecondhalfofthe5thmillenniumbythermoluminescence.Thattheyhadoutsidecontactsisevidenced byivoryspoons,shellsfromtheRedSeaandturquoisebeadsfromtheSinai.Recentndsofavastnumberofreed ships,manywithmastsandsailshavebeenmadeinthelongdried-upwadibetweentheNileandtheRedSeawhich maywelldatebacktothisperiod.TheEgyptiansarebasicallyHamitic,butmaywellhaveaddedmixturesofNubian, EthiopianandLibyannatives,comingfromtheSaharaasitslowlydried,alongwithimmigrantSemiticorArmenoid tribes.Cattlewereusedasbeastsofburdenperhapsby4,000B.C.Thesailwasusedfromabout3,500B.C.on,and potterydatingto3,100bearspaintingsofsickle-shapedsailingvessels,apparentlybuiltwithreedsandcompletewith cabinsandcenterboards.Egyptwasrstunitedasthe"OldKingdom"underMenes 5 ,who,askingofUpperEgypt, subduedLowerEgyptandunitedthetwowithanewcapitalestablishedatwhatwaslatercalledMemphis.Although Egypthadnocopperortin,itdidhavegoldandtherewerefabulousgoldsmithsinMemphisactuallyaclanofdwarfs fromtheearlydaysoftheUnitedKingdom.Ref.175[241],94[141],95[140],45[66],213[288] 4.2.2NORTHCENTRALANDNORTHWESTAFRICA ANeolithicHamiticculturewaspresentinAlgeriaandMoroccowithagriculturalsettlementsandpotteryby5,000 B.C.TheSaharawasquitewetfrom7,000to2,000B.C.andthemanylakesreachedtheirmaximumextentabout3,500 B.C.whenLakeChadcoveredsome200,000squaremiles.Itisnowtheonlyremaininglakewith15,000squaremiles ofwater.TheriversoftheSahararaninlandsothatalluvialmaterialgraduallylleduptheinlandbasins,blockingand slowingthestreams.Intheercesunthatfollowedthechangingclimate,thewaterevaporatedandthemarshesdried out.SaltdepositsarestillworkedatsuchplacesasAmadror,TeghazaandTaoudenniwhicharesimplyoldinland basins.ThepeopleofthewetSaharawereNegroidandtheyraiseddomesticatedcattleandleftbeautifulworksofart onrockswithsomeguresashighastwenty-sixfeet.Elephants,antelope,wateranimalsandshwereabundant.The NegroidpeopleofthiserawerenottheBushmanoid,round-headedpeoplepicturedontherockdrawingsbefore6,000 B.C.Ref.8[14],176[242] 4.2.3SUBSAHARANAFRICA At4,000B.C.thereweretwolanguagesofthewesternSudanfamily-YorubaandIdoma-buttheywerealready verydifferentandhadapparentlybeendivergingforseveralthousandyears.Ref.83[123]IntropicalAfricathere wereprobablyscatteredbandsofpeopleswhosedescendantsarethepygmiesoftheZaireforestsandBushmenof theKalahariDesert.ThersttrueNegroesprobablylivedasshermenalongtheNileandtheNigerriversandthe savannahnorthandwestoftheforestabout4,000B.C.Ref.175[241],83[123] NOTE :ArcheologistM.A.HoffmanoftheUniversityofSouthCarolinaRef.316[142]writesofthe factorsallowingthedevelopmentofthe"rstnation",underNarmerMenes.AtHierakonopolis,inUpper Egypt,about3800B.C.,therewasslightseasonalrainfall,woodedgrasslands,fertileoodplainsandeasy accesstotheNile.Thereweretwosettlementsintheareawithmud-brickandwattle-and-daubhouses spreadovera100acreareaandhavingperhapsasmanyas10,000people.ThisiscalledtheAmratian periodalsoNaqadaIandexcavationshaveproducedmaceheads,assymbolsofcentralauthority.Ahuge potteryindustrywaspresent,makingRedWarepotterywhichwastradedupanddowntheNile.Some wasusedintheelaborateburialswhichwerepartoftheEgyptians'religiousbeliefs.Justafter3500B.C., however,withtheareabecomingmorearid,potterieswereabandonedandtheAmratianperiodcameto anend,aspeoplemovedintomorethicklysettledvillagesalongthewetterNileoodplain,initiatingthe GerzeanorNaqadaIIperiod,whichlasteduntil3100B.C.Aneliteclassinthenewvillagesbuilttemples, palaces,largertombsandpossiblyanirrigationsystem,renderingtheoodplainabletoproducebigger andmorereliableharvests.Butthewatermanagementandexcessgrainstorageproblemsdemandedmore centralcontrol.VariouskingsfoughtfordominanceandnallyitwasNarmer,whosucceededinpolitical unicationoftheentireEgyptianNilevalley ForwardtoAfrica:3000to1500B.C.Section5.2 5 MenesisnowconsideredtobeoneandthesamewiththelegendaryKingNarmerofHieraconopolis,soeulogizedbyProfessorToynbee.Ref. 221[295],68[106]AdditionalNotesp.59

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60 CHAPTER4.5000TO3000B.C. 4.3TheNearEast:5000to3000B.C. 6 4.3.1ARABIANPENINSULA BacktoTheNearEast:8000to5000B.C.Section3.3 ThiswasthefountandbreedingplaceoftheSemiticpeoples,althoughatthisparticulartimeonlyBedouinsand nomadtribesmenexistedandtherewasnotruecivilization,atleastinthewesterntwo-thirdsofthepeninsula.Recent excavationsontheIslandofBahrainandadjacentSaudiArabiahavesuggestedthepresenceofavanishedempire whichtheSumeriansreferredtoas"Dilmun",centerofearthlyparadise.Excavatedobjectsindicatecommercial activityorientedbothtowardsIndiaandMesopotamia.Surfaceshardsandimplementshavebeendatedbacktoabout 4,000B.C.Ref.176[242]ApparentlyaftertheWetPhase,about4,000B.C.therewasaprogressivedessication oftheArabianpeninsulawhichmayhavecontributedtothenorthwardmigrationsofpeoplesintotheSyrianDesert whichbeganshortlythereafter.Ref.88[131]AdditionalNotesp.62 4.3.2MEDITERRANEANCOASTALAREASOFISRAELANDLEBANON ThepeopleofthecoastintheseearlymillenniamayhavebeenoftheoriginalMediterraneanracenowrepresentedin thispartoftheworldonlybytheGeorgianCaucasians.Timnal,insouthernIsrael,wasasourceoflargeamountsof surfaceoresofmalachite,sotherewasaChalcolithicPalestiniancivilizationcalledtheGhassulianCulture,usingthe rstdeliberatealloy,arsenicalcopper.Ref.8[14]Theoriginallocationsofcoastaltowns,andlatermajorcities, wasoccasionedtogreatextentbythelocationofspringsandthustherehasoftenresultedcontinuousoccupationof thesamespotsovermanycenturies,withtheconsequentriseofdebrismounds,ortellsRef.88[131].Additional Notesp.62 4.3.3IRAQANDSYRIA IraqistheareaoftheancientMesopotamia,awordderivedfrom mesos meaning"between"and potamos or"river". Thewheelandtheplowarethoughtbymosttohavebeeninventedorbroughtheresometimeabout3,500B.C.1.Cattle wereusedasbeastsofburdenaboutthesametime.ThereisevidenceofirrigationonasteppeeastofMesopotamia by5,000B.C.,andclassicallyhistorianshavedescribedthreemoreorlessseparatecivilizationswhichdevelopedin theriverbasinsofMesopotamiaperhapsasearlyas4,500B.C.Themostimportantofthesewillbediscussedrst: SUMER OntheEuphratesRiverAllhistoriansseemagreedthattheSumerianswerenon-Semitic,buttheiroriginis muchdisputed.SomehavesuggestedIberianorDravidianafnities.McEvedyRef.136[187]thinkstheymay havebeenpartoftheaboriginalCaucasianpeopleandtothisisaddedtheopinionofSirLeonardWoolleyRef.238 [318]thattheirlanguagewasthatoftheearlyCaucasians.Theyusedcopperfrom5,000B.C.onwardandtheirclay tabletsgiveusrecordsbackto3,300B.C.inthecityofUr,whichwasthenaseaport.ThegeographyofMesopotamia haschangedgreatlythroughthemillennia.InadditiontotheTigrisandEuphrates,theKarunRiverfromthePersian mountainsandWadialBatin,drainingtheheartofArabia,allenterthePersianGulf,thelattertwoatalmostright anglestotheformertwo.Manymillenniaago,thelasttworiversdischargedamassofsiltacrossthegulf,whichthen extendedevennorthofpresentdayBaghdad,andeventuallymadeabaragainstwhichsimilarsiltofthetwochief riverspiledup,formingdrylanddirectlyacrossthegulf.Theeffectwastoturntheupperendofthethenexistinggulf intoastagnantlakewhichwasstillfedbythewatersoftheTigrisandEuphrates,butwhichthenturnedfromsaltyto brackishandthentoactualfreshwater.Eventually,ofcourse,eventhelakebuiltupwithsilt,makingtheareathemost fertilelandonearth.AlthoughUr,thenontheseacoast,becamethegreatcapitalofSumer,thecityofEridu,south ofthis,seemsolderandinanearbyvillageofal'Ubaidtherehasbeenfoundancientpottery,insomewayssimilarto potteryalsofoundatSusa,inancientElamandwhichmighthaveacommonancestryfromsomeforeignplace.Could theoriginbeBahrain,theislanddownthegulfwhereDanishexcavationsnowshowacivilizationpossiblyolderthan Sumer?ThereisaSumerianlegendwhichtellshowaraceofmonsters,halfshandhalfhuman,camefromthe PersianGulf,ledbyOannes,andintroducedtheartsofwriting,agricultureandmetallurgy. 6 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat.

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61 TheSumerianshadwheeledvehicles 7 ,wheel-madepottery,sailboatsandanimal-drawnplows.Thesailboatswereof particularinterestbecauserecentinformationindicatingamuchgreaterandextensivemaritimetradewithlarge,reed, wash-throughshipshasbeenmadeavailable.ThorHeyerdahl,constructingsuchashipfromthereedsoftheTigris Euphratesdeltaregionin1980hasdemonstratedthatsuchshipscouldsailtoIndiaandtoAfrica.Theconceptthat thecivilizationofBahrainmayhaveantedatedSumeriscompatiblewithanewtheorysuggestedbyHeyerdahlRef. 95[140]anddiscussedunderII,Cofthischapter.FromtherecordsofUrthereisevidenceofthepresenceofboats ofalmostonehundredtonsandaceramicboatmodelintheIraqMuseumwithacylindricalfootingforitsmastdates backtoatleast4,000B.C.Thepotters'wheelwasinventedinErechabout3,000B.C.,perhapsalongwiththebrick mold. ThesesameSumeriansdevelopedtheduodecimalsystemofmeasurementgivingrisetoourtwelveinchestothefoot, sixtyminutesinanhourandthreehundredsixtydegreesinacircle.Inadditiontotheisland"Dilmun",theymention "Magan"asadistantcoppermountainand"Meluhha"whichmaywellhavebeenthegreatIndusValleycivilization. At5,000B.C.theyhadprimitiveirrigationsystemsusedtowatereldsasfarasthreemilesoneithersideofariver. Theresultinglargerandrichercrops,alongwiththenecessityofwateradministrationsystems,probablyledtothe growthofsomeofthetowns.Eventually,however,thisleachingoutoftheearth'ssaltsledtosoilinfertility.Thefood ofSumerincludedbarley,wheat,millett,chickenpeas,lentils,beans,turnips,onions,garlic,leeks,cucumbers,lettuce, cressandmustard.Therewasplentyofshandsomebeefandvealifonecouldaffordit.Thebeefsource,however, wasfromanimalsaftertheirusefulworklifewasoverandthereforeitwastough.Muttonwascommonalongwith goatandpork,thelastonlyuntilabout1,800B.C.TheIndo-EuropeannomadsroamingthroughtheMid-Eastmay havestartedtheloathingofpork,sincetheycouldbeherdedonlywithdifcultyandhadlittlestaminaformovement. FortypercentoftheSumeriangrainyieldwasusedforaleproduction,butsincenohopswereavailabletherewasno truebeer. Atempleworkmanreceivedtheequivalentof2.2Americanpintsofaleadayandseniordignitariesvetimesthat amount,someofwhichtheymayhaveusedascurrency.ThecultivatedgrapecametoMesopotamiafromtheCaucasus about5,000B.C.andinlateryears,astheirrigationsouredthesoilandgrainbecamemoredifculttogrow,many peopletooktoeithergrapeordatewines.Ref.211[284],95[140],238[318],136[187],94[141],175 [241],213[288] AKKADIA-KISH ThissecondcenterofcivilizationconsistedofaSemiticpeoplelivingtothenorthandwestof Sumerwithaseparateculture.ThereisevidencethattheirThirdDynastywasineffectasearlyas3,638B.C.More willbeheardabouttheminthenextchapter. 4.3.4IRANPERSIA Athirdcenterofcivilizationwithcopperweaponsandtools,hieroglyphicwritinganddomesticatedanimalsappeared eastofSumer,withacapitalatSusa.OlderwritersthoughtthattheymighthavebeenaNegroid 8 people,some modernsfeelthattheywereprobablytheancestorsoftheMedes,whileMcEvedyRef.136[187]writesthatthey wererelativesoftheSumerians,inthattheywereapartoftheoriginalCaucasianraceofGeorgians.Wearespeaking oftheancientcountryofElam,apartofpresentIran.TherewasmuchcopperaroundthesouthernCaucasus,theshore oftheCaspianSeaanddowntothePersianGulf.RemainsofaChalcolithicculturehavebeenfoundatAnau,Tepe HissarandRarjydatingto3,000B.C.Paintedpotterycultureswithmixedfarmingandtradeactivityexistedincentral Iraninthe2ndhalfofthe5thMillennium.Copperlyingfreehadbeenfoundandhammeredintoutensilsbeginning about7,000B.C.andabout5,000B.C.copperwasobtainedbyringmalachitewhichreleasestheowingmetalat arelativelylowtemperature.Tinore,oftenfoundwithmalachite,soonyieldeditsmetalandthetin-copperbronze alloyresultedinsomeareasby3,800B.C.Thebestbronze,consistingof15%tin,isthreetimesashardascopper alone.Ref.21[34],45[66],136[187] 7 Asnotedinthepreviouschapter,TragerRef.222[296]saysthatthewheelwasinventedmuchearlier,justafter6,500B.C.inSumeria 8 Asforexample,H.G.Wells,Ref.229[307]

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62 CHAPTER4.5000TO3000B.C. 4.3.5ASIAMINOR InthiseratherewerecoloniesoftheCycladiancivilizationalongthecoastandawelldevelopedChalcolithicculture ofbasicCaucasianpeoplesinland.A1978studyofskeletonsfromadigatKalinkayaincentralAnatolia,datingtothis period,indicatedthatthepeoplewererelativelyshort,themenaveragingvefeetfourinchesandthewomenjustve feet.20%ofthewomenhadhealedanklefracturesorfootbonechanges,probablyfromfallsintheirrockycountry homes.Thereissomeindicationofnutritionalstressinbowedtibiae,attenedlongbonesandattenedpelvicinlets. 33%ofthelimitednumberofskeletonsstudiedshowedvertebralosteoarthritiscomparedto50%inmodernUnited States,and12%showedextremityosteoarthritiscomparedto29%inmodernU.S.Ref.4[8].Agricultural societieswerewelldistributedandtherewastradeandmigrationwithothercountriesoftheNearEast.Ref.88 [131] ForwardtoTheNearEast:3000to1500B.C.Section5.3 ChooseDifferentRegion 1.IntrotoEraSection4.1 2.AfricaSection4.2 3.AmericaSection4.9 4.CentralandNorthernAsiaSection4.5 5.EuropeSection4.4 6.TheFarEastSection4.7 7.TheIndianSubcontinentSection4.6 8.PacicSection4.8 NOTE :Althoughthereisstillmuchconfusionandargumentabouttheoriginanddomesticationofthecamel, recentwriterssuggestthatdomesticationoccurredinsouthernArabiapossiblyasearlyasthe4thmillennium B.C.andtheirusewasextendedtoEgyptevenbeforetherstdynasty,thatis,before3100B.C.Ref.313 [249]Anotherrecentwriter,HamblinRef.315[125],however,althoughagreeingthatdomestication occurredamongthesouthernArabiantribes,wouldputthedatemuchlater,at2500B.C. NOTE :WhenancientIsraelwasunderPtolemaiccontrollateinthe4thmillenniumB.C.,Jemmehinthe northwesternNegevdesertwasoccupiedbyasmallgroupofChalcolithichuntingandfarmingpeople,but subsequentlyitwasapparentlyabandonedforsome1,300to1,400years.Ref.295[300] 4.4Europe:5000to3000B.C. 9 4.4.1EUROPE ItwaswarmerinEuropeafterabout5,000B.C.thanatanytimebeforeorsince.Ref.91[135]Theoriginofthe originalIndo-Europeanlanguagespeakersremainsanunsolvedmystery,withsomeclaimingthesepeoplestartedon theBalticshores,othersintheBalkanportionoftheDanubeandstillothersinthesteppesofsouthernRussiaandon northoftheCaspianSea.Thedateoforiginalsoremainsundecidedwithsomebelievingitdatesbacktobetween 6,000and5,000B.C.andothers,particularlysomelinguists,toamuchlaterdate.Weshallbeginourdiscussionof theseideasinthenextchapter. 9 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat.

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63 4.4.1.1SOUTHERNEUROPE Araceofdarkwhites,perhapsakintotheIberiansofSpainandtheGeorgiansoftheCaucasus,developedanisland civilizationasearlyas4,000B.C.centeredonCrete,butapparentlywithcoloniesonCyprus,Greece,AsiaMinor, SicilyandsouthernItalyasimportantpartsofthewhole.Theirlanguageisuncertainandtheirearlywritinghasnot yetbeendeciphered,buttheyhadearlytradeandcontactswithEgyptandmayverywellhaveevenprecededthe classicalknowncivilizationsofEgyptandMesopotamia.Reedboatsandreedboatillustrationsonpotteryhavebeen foundthroughouttheMediterraneanfromMesopotamia,Egypt,thecoastofSyria,Lebanon,Cyprus,Crete,Corfu, Malta,Italy,Sardinia,Libya,AlgeriaandoutthroughtheStraitsofGibralter.Asmentionedinapreviouschapter, recentcarbondatingcorrectionsindicatethepossiblepresenceofadvancecivilizationsonsomeoftheseislandsprior tothemoreclassicalonesonthecontinents.TheoldRomanbeliefthatLixus,ontheAtlanticcoastwastheoldestcity intheworld,supportsthepossiblehypothesisthatcivilizationmovedeastwardtowardEgyptandnotthereverse. Aninterestingside-lightistherecentnewspaperreportfromRussia,detailingthendingsofancient,buriedhuman buildingsandwallsofacityfarbelowtheoceansurfaceaboutone-halfwaybetweenPortugalandtheMadeiraislands. Againthequestionofthe"LostcontinentofAtlantis"ismentioned,butitisperhapsofsomemomentthatthearea describedandallegedlyphotographedunderwaterisalmostdirectlyouttoseafromLixus.Wedoknownowthat thespiraldecorationsofbuildingsonMaltadatebefore3,000B.C.andthatcopperwasminedonCyprusprobablyas earlyas4,000to3,000B.C.Ref.95,178,224,18 Justbeforethecloseoftheperiodunderreview,acivilizationcalledthe"Cycladic"existedallalongtheshoresofthe MediterraneanSeaandseemstohavebeenthehighestcultureofthetimes.Inlandataboutthesametimetheancient HelladicorMycenaeancivilizationbegantodeveloponthenorthernplainsofGreece.ProfessorIvanBenedikov, BulgarianarchaeologistRef.171,saysthatthereisevidenceofanancientThracian,Indo-Europeancultureinthe areaofBulgariaandthattheyproducedgoldornaments,gurinesandpottery.Thisisreinforcedbythebeliefsof ProfessorColinRenfrewRef.179[244]whofeelsthatthefantasticgoldornaments,someweighingthirteen pounds,foundatVerna,BulgariaontheBlackSea,representtheoldestgold-workingknown,antedatinganythingof thistypeintheNearEast.CoppertoolsweremadeinRomania,HungaryandBulgariaasearlyas4,500B.C.This datinghasbeenconrmedbytheBritishMuseum.Ref.164[223] NowsomeveryinterestingtheoreticalpropositionsmustbediscussedwithrelationtothepopulationofancientGreece. Weretheindigenouspeopleknowntoinhabitthepeninsulaafter6,000B.C.thesamewholaterbecameknownasthe Mycenaeans,orwerethelatterinvadingconquerorswhoovercametheoriginals?Iftheformeristrue,then,since theMycenaeansspokeanearlyGreeklanguage,theremusthavebeenIndo-Europeanspeakersintheareaby6,000 B.C.Butsomelinguistssaythiscannotbe.AnotheralternativeistheideachampionedbyProfessorMarijaGimbutas, thatKurgansfromthelowerVolgasteppesmigratedbylandandseaVikingsofthe4thmillenniumB.C. 10 toallthe BalkansandtheGreekpeninsulaabout2,300B.C.andbecametheAchaeans 11 .Ref.171,179[244],88[131], 215[290] 4.4.1.2CENTRALEUROPE TheDanubianINeolithicCulturewhichspreadfromtheNearEast,nowreachedwellupintoGermany,andthisis usuallydescribedasanIndo-Europeanculture.Village-basedagriculturewaspresentinHungaryby5,000B.C.In Switzerlandthelakedwellers,withhousesonstilts,builteitherinthelakesoronadjacentmarshygroundasearlyas 5,000B.C.TheextremenorthofcentralEurope,however,wasstillsubarctic,withonlyhuntingtribesfollowingthe herds.NewpeoplesintroducedmixedfarmingincentralEuropeabout4,400B.C.TheseNeolithicpeopleslivedin villagesconsistingofsixtothirteenwoodenlonghousesaveragingabout325feetlong,andtheyusedtheso-called Linearpottery.Theygrewwheatbyaslashandburnmethodandkeptcattle,sheepandpigs.Thisistheculturewhich spreadintonorthernFranceandBelgium. 10 Ref.215,page268 11 "Achaeans"isoftenusedinterchangeablywith"Mycenaeans"

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64 CHAPTER4.5000TO3000B.C. 4.4.1.3WESTERNEUROPE Impressed-warepotterypeoplelivedallalongthecoastofthewesternMediterraneanby6,000B.C.Theislandof MallorcaintheBalearics,about125milesfromtheeasterncoastofSpain,wasdenitelyinhabitedbymaninthe5th millenniumB.C.,co-existingwithruminantartiodactylmammals.TherewereBowlCultureagriculturalsettlementsin France,northernSpainandEnglandinthe4thmillenniumandthesepeoplewereprobablydistinctfromtheWindmill Hillgroupswhichweshallidentifylater,andoftheoldIberianorWesternMediterraneanrace,whichmayhavespread byboatuptheAtlanticcoast.Smallboatsweredenitelyinuseforcoastaltransportby5,000B.C.InBelgiumaint mineofabout4,300B.C.hasbeendiscoveredwhichrequiredtheminerstogothroughaboutthirtyfeetofunstable gravelandsandtoreachtheint.Thetunnelswereshoredinsideandatthebottomtheminefannedoutintoaweb ofgalleries.ThefarmersofBelgiumandnorthernFranceofthiseracamefromGermanybetween4,000and3,000 B.C.andbuiltlargefarmhousesandusedLinearpotteryofthetraditionofcentralEurope.Incontrast,thepeopleof France,usingChasseypotteryafter3,500B.C.developedaseparateNeolithicfarminggroup. TheearliestintmineofBritainwasinSussexandhasbeendatedtoabout4,300B.C.TheareaoftheSalisburyplain insouthwesternEnglandwasinhabitedbytheWindmillHillpeoplebyabout4,000B.C.,comingfromthecontinent. Theywereafarmingpeoplewithcattle,goats,pigs,sheep,dogsandwheat,whoaddedshandshellshtotheir diet.TheybuiltatleastseventeenknownenclosuresandprobablyactuallymanymoreinthisareaofEnglandwith thelargestoftheseontopofWindmillHillaboutoneandone-halfmilesnorthwestofAvebury,andthustheorigin oftheirarcheologicalname.Thisparticularcausewayenclosurewasbuiltabout3,250B.C.andoriginallyconsisted ofthreeconcentriccircles,thelargestbeing1,200feetindiameter,coveringtwenty-oneacres.Some1,300pottery vesselshavebeenrecoveredfromthisspot,anditisthoughttohavebeenmoreorlesscontinuouslyusedforoverone thousandyears.This,andtheothersimilarconstructionswereprobablyusedforritualorceremonialcentersrather thanforhabitation.WhentheseWindmillHillpeoplearrivedinEngland,about4,000B.C.,itwastheendofthe MesolithicAgeinBritain,andtherewerecertainlyotherpeoplealreadytherelivingassemi-nomads,makingintand stonetoolsforcuttingandshapingtimber,red-deerantlersandskins.MostofsouthernEnglandwasheavilyforested, butWessex,withchalkandlimestone,hadlightervegetationandwasattractivetotheimmigratingstockbreedersand agriculturalists.SomefeelthatcattlemayhavebeenshippedtoEnglandfromthecontinentasearlyas5,000B.C. ThecircularenclosureswerenottheonlymysteriousconstructionsoftheSalisburyplainsinthoseearlytimes.The 4thmillenniumB.C.wastheperiodofthe"longbarrows"ofwhichtherearesome260inBritainwith148ofthem intheWiltshirecountryarea.ThebestknownoftheseistheWestKennetLongBarrow,locatedsomeone-halfmile southofAvebury.Constructedatabout3,600B.C.itisthreehundredfortyfeetlongandseventy-vefeetwideatits widesteasternendandeightfeethigh.Itwasoriginallysurroundedbyacurbofstones.Theeasternone-eighthof thebarrowisastonetombwithvecarefullymadechambersinwhichforty-veskeletonshavebeenfound.Atthe entrancearemanyuprightstones,linedupatrightanglestotheaxisofthemound.Nofunctionhasbeenyetidentied forthewesternseven-eighthsofthebarrow. TherstNeolithicAgesitesofIrelandarefoundinCountyTyrone,datingfromabout3,700B.C.onwards.The SandhillsWarePotterypeoplethereexploitedthesalmonfromtheBoyneRiverandby3,250livedinrectangular, timberhouses.Theforestswereclearedandcereals,oxen,sheep,goatsandpigswereraised,perhapsafterthe additionoftheimmigrantsrelatedtotheWindmillHillpeoplementionedabove. NextwemustdiscussthemysteriousandproblematicalmegalithswhichhavebeenfoundallovertheMediterranean islands,alongthecoastsoftheIberianpeninsula,France,BritainandsouthernScandinavia.Traditionallyithasbeen taughtthatthe2,500B.C.periodwastheoneofthismegalithicculture,butrecentcorrectionofcarbondatingby bristle-conepinecorrelationhasputtheAtlanticmegalithsbackanother800yearstobefore3,000B.C.Onetheoryis thatthisculturewasbasedonareligionspreadbypriestsandmerchantsperhapsfromMalta?,butasweshallsee whenwediscusssomeoftheseremainingmonumentsinthenextchapter,theirfunction,atleastinsome,appearsto havebeenfargreaterthananysimpleritual.Ithasbeenestimatedthatthereareatleast50,000ofthesemegalithsin WesternEuropeandcountlessnumbersofothersmusthavebeendestroyedthroughtheages.Recentlytherehasbeen speculationthattheoriginalmegalithbuildersmayhavespreadfromBritainsouthward,ratherthanthereverse.

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65 TheseimmigrantsalsosettledinIrelandandwesternmainlandcoastalareas,butavoidedtheMidlands.Inthisperiod ofglobaloptimalclimate,therewereprehistoricfarmsinScotlandandNorthernEnglandinlatitudeelevationswhere todaynoagricultureisfeasible.Atabout3,000B.C.thisEdenterminatedwithasharpreturnofcolderweatherRef. 227[303],176[242],136[187],215[290],176[242],45[66],224[299],88[131],7[12] 4.4.1.4SCANDINAVIA At5,900B.C.therewerestupendousgeologicalchangesstilloccurringinthenorth.Menhadlivedintheareanow coveredbytheNorthSeabutastheglaciersmeltedandreceded,theearth'scrust,previouslydentedbytheweight oftheice,begantoriseanditisstillrisingthroughoutmostofSwedentoday.Southofthis,thewaterspouredinto theNorthSeaandovermuchofDenmark,sothatthemainpartofthislandremainedattachedtoEuropeonlybya thinstalkatHolsteinandtheDanishtribesbecameisolatedandremainedvirtuallysoforsomecenturies.TheDanes knewhowtosailandcanoeandhadinttoolsandweapons.AllsouthernScandinaviaandtheBalticsettlementsof thiserahadtheFunnelRimpottery.Rockscribingsofpetroglyphshewnintooroccasionallypaintedonrockfaces representinganimalshavebeenfoundallovertheScandinavianpeninsula,aswellasinFinlandandRussia,dating backtoatleast5,000B.C.Mostofthesearelife-sizeandareoutlinedrawingsinnaturalisticstyle,althoughanother typewithstylizedanimalshasbeenfoundatVengenandAusevik,NorwayandNamforseninSweden.Justafter4,000 B.C.somesayearliercontactwithEuropeproperincreasedwiththeresultthatnewpeoplegrowingbarleyandwheat andraisingherdsofcattle,sheepandpigsmigratedintotheScandinavianarea.WerethesethesameastheWindmill HillpeopleinEngland?.LikeotherareasinWesternEurope,thiswasalsotheeraofmegalithictombs,ofwhich somethousandsstillstandinsouthernScandinavia.Duetotheverywarmclimatewhichdevelopedafter5,000B.C., vinesgrewinsouthernNorwayandthewholeofScandinaviahadmixedanddeciduousforests.Ref.8[14],88 [131] 4.4.1.5EASTERNEUROPE ThereisarcheologicalevidenceofhumanhabitationonthesouthernplainsofRussiadatingfarbackintoprehistoric times,andnomadicpeoplesroamedthecountrythroughoutthecenturiesofthischapter.Ofparticularinterestarethe Kurgans,knowntoliveonthelowerVolgaevenin5,000B.C.SeealsoSOUTHERNEUROPE,thischapter.They hadhorses,lovedtoghtandburiedtheirdeadundertumuli.TheymaylaterhavemigratedtoGreecetobecomethe Mycenaeans.MarijaGimbutasofU.C.L.A.thinksthesepeoplearetheoriginalIndo-Europeansandthatabout4,000 B.C.theyexpandedintotheDanubebasinanddownintotheBalkanpeninsulafromthere.Mostarcheologistswould denythattheyaretheoriginalIndo-Europeansbutdoagreethatatsometime,probably3,500to3,000B.C.,these peopledidover-runmuchofEurope,usingwheeledcartsandbronzeweapons. WildgrapeswerebroughtundercultivationintheCaucasusinthe4thmillenniumB.C.TheFinnsorLapps?were endemicinnorthernRussiaandoccupiedallnorthernclimesoutsidetheareaofNeolithicCulture.TheLinearPottery CulturespreadfromHungaryaroundthenorthernedgeoftheCarpathiansintoRussiainthemid-5thmillenniumand agriculturespreadthroughtheVolga-DonregionfromtheDanubebyabout4,500B.C.Central,eastEuropewasinthe latecopperageafter3,500B.C.,astheCarpathianssuppliedplentyofcopperandlatergoldandtin.Ref.45[66], 8[14],215[290],211[284],88[131],222[296] ForwardtoEurope:3000to1500B.C.Section5.4 4.5CentralandNorthernAsia:5000to3000B.C. 12 4.5.1CENTRALANDNORTHERNASIA BacktoCentralandNorthernAsia:8000to5000B.C.Section3.5 12 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat.

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66 CHAPTER4.5000TO3000B.C. AnearlyphaseoftheYang-ShaoCulturewhichhasbeenmentionedinconnectionwithChinahasalsobeenunearthed atPan-p'o-ts'unincentralAsia.Ithadaslashandburnagriculture,domesticatedanimalsandhand-madepottery. IncontrasttoourremarksabouttheinventionofthewheelinSumer,someauthoritiesbelievethatitwasinventedin westernAsiapriorto3,500B.C.,butthecircumstancesareunknown.Itispossiblethattheinventorswererelativesof theKurgansofsouthRussiawhodidbringwheeledchariotsintoEurope.Ref.175[241] ForwardtoCentralandNorthernAsia:3000to1500B.C.Section5.5 4.6TheIndianSubcontinent:5000to3000B.C. 13 4.6.1THEINDIANSUBCONTINENT PeoplesoftheIndusValleyraisedwheat,barley,peas,sesameseeds,mangoes,datesandcitrusfruitsonirrigated eldsby4,000B.C.Theyusedasses,horses,buffalo,camelsandcattlebothformeatanddraftanimalsRef.222 [296]Wovencottonfabricwasinthesamevalleyby3,000B.C.MajorsiteshavebeenunearthedinwesternIndia andPakistanoftheethnicgroupcalled"Brachycephals",whowerewidelyscatteredthroughoutSind,Baluchistanand Rajasthan,withelaboratesettlements,usingcopperandbronzeby39000B.C.Neolithicsitesofcattleraisingpeople livinginvillagesofwattleanddaubormudhutshavebeenexcavatedintheGangesValleyandthesouthernpeninsula, datingtothe4thmillenniumB.C.Ref.45[66]Continueonpage89 4.7TheFarEast:5000to3000B.C. 14 4.7.1THEFAREAST BacktoTheFarEast:8000to5000B.C.Section3.7 4.7.1.1CHINAANDMANCHURIA TherewasaNeolithicYang-ShaocultureinbothcentralandwesternChinawithdomesticatedanimalsandcultivated millet,whichreachedapeakabout3,000B.C.TheChinesearenotahomogeneouspeople,andrepresentamedley ofhumanvarieties,differentinorigin,language,character,customsandgovernment.TheearliestChinesecitywas LiangCh'engoftheLung-ShanCulture,datingtoabout3,500B.C.Theinhabitantshadgreattechnicalskillanda highleveloforganizationandritual.PriortothattheancestorsofthepresentChinesecivilizationweredevelopingan agriculturalcommunityaround49000B.C.intheloesscoveredhighlandsofnorthandnorthwesternChina,wherethe welldrainedsoiloftheriverterraceswasidealfortheearlycrops.TheLung-ShanCultureappearedonthelowland northChinaplainandeventuallyspreadoverallofChinaproperexceptthesouthwest,butithadmanyregional variations.Overallitwascharacterizedbywheelmade,unpainted,blackpotterywithaburnished,lustroussurface. Thepeoplelivedinwalledcommunitiesontheriverplains,almostfromManchuriatoVietnam.Theyhadriceas wellasmillet,domesticatedcattleandsheep.TheirreligionemphasizedancestorworshipRef.8[14],101[146] AdditionalNotesp.67 4.7.1.2JAPAN Neolithicsocietiesonly. 4.7.1.3KOREA Neolithicsocietiesonly. 13 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat. 14 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat.

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67 4.7.1.4SOUTHEASTASIA ThereisevidenceofabronzeindustryinThailandby3,600B.C.andprobablythetincamefromMalaysia,which remainstodaytheworld'sgreatestproducerofthatmetal.WildricewascultivatedatNonNokTha,Thailand,by3,500 B.C.SomeexcavationsneartheLoatianborderatBenChiengshowbronzeweaponsandwheels,carvedivoryand pottery,allbeautifullymade.SometimeinthisperiodMalayanpeoplejoinedtherstinhabitantsofthePhilippines andMadagascar.HypotheticallysomeofthemcouldevenhavegonetoBrazilaroundthesouthendofAfricaRef. 155[214],215[290],211[284],176[242],175[241]AdditionalNotesp.67 ForwardtoTheFarEast:3000to1500B.C.Section5.7 ChooseDifferentRegion 1.IntrotoEraSection4.1 2.AfricaSection4.2 3.AmericaSection4.9 4.CentralandNorthernAsiaSection4.5 5.EuropeSection4.4 6.TheIndianSubcontinentSection4.6 7.TheNearEastSection4.3 8.PacicSection4.8 NOTE :HumanbonesofthisperiodhavebeenfoundatSongzeexcavationsnearShanghai.Ritualceramics weremadewiththepotters'wheelandtheartisanswerebeginningtotempertheirwaresduringring.Ref. 314[255] NOTE :JoyceWhiteRef.296[312]describesacurrentexhibitatBanChiang,whichhasobjectsrecently excavatedfromtheStoneAgeof5000B.C.totheBronzeAge,beginningatleastby3600B.C.These excavationsindicatesettlementsoonafter4000B.C.,withraiseddomesticstockandprobablyrudimentary ricecultivation.Unusualwastheuseofmetals,notinanurbancontext,butinvillages,insuchthingsas spearpoints,axesandpersonalornaments.Theyhadbeautifulpotteryfrom3600B.C.on,andtheculture, overall,lastedabout4,000years.JohnPfeifferRef.297[232]conrmsthesendingsandaddsthat350 bronzebracelets,anklets,rings,axeandspearheadsweredistributedamongabout2,000otherobjects.The bronzeseemstohaveappearedfullblownwithoutantecedentpurecopperuse.Whetherthiswasbroughtin fromtheoutsideordevelopedlocallyisnotknown. 4.8ThePacic:5000to3000B.C. 15 4.8.1THEPACIFIC BacktoThePacic:8000to5000B.C.Section3.8 About4,000B.C.seasrosetotheirpresentlevelandthedingowasintroducedtoAustraliaperhapsbyboat.The Australiansmalltooltradition,inarchaeologicalterms,appearedonthatcontinent.MankindwasintheSoloman IslandsinMelanesiabyabout3,000B.C.Ref.8[14]AdditionalNotesp.67 NOTE :TheargumentsgoonabouttheoriginandrouteofsettlementofthePolynesianislands.Sinoto Ref.300[267]hasrecentlyexcavatedanancientsailingcanoeonHuahineintheSocietyIslandsgroup, andreportsthatthisdatesto3000B.C.Hisconclusionthatthisindicatesthatancientmarinerssailedfrom Asiatotheseislandsisdifculttoverifyfromhispaper.Hesaysthatlinguistsareabletotracelanguage 15 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat.

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68 CHAPTER4.5000TO3000B.C. rootsofearlyPolynesiansailorsbacktoatonguespokeninSoutheastAsia5,000yearsagoandthatthis isstronglysupportedbyarchaeologicalevidenceofwesttoeastmovement.Theactual"evidence"isnot detailed.ThereislittledoubtbutwhatthePolynesianancestorscamefromSoutheastAsia,buttheirroute totheeasternPacicandthetimescheduleisstilldebatable.Thereismoreaboutthisargumentinthemain outlineinthe4thcenturyC.E.andafter. ForwardtoThePacic:3000to1500B.C.Section5.8 ChooseDifferentRegion 1.IntrotoEraSection4.1 2.AfricaSection4.2 3.AmericaSection4.9 4.CentralandNorthernAsiaSection4.5 5.EuropeSection4.4 6.TheFarEastSection4.7 7.TheIndianSubcontinentSection4.6 8.TheNearEastSection4.3 4.9America:5000to3000B.C. 16 4.9.1NORTHAMERICA BacktoAmerica:8000to5000B.C.Section3.9 4.9.1.11.FARNORTHANDCANADA Inthefarnorththerewasamicro-bladetraditioncalled"LittleArm"withevidenceofcaribouandelkhuntingdated from5,500to4,000B.C.InCanadaby4,000B.C.theMaritimeProvincesweresettledbyhunters,shers,and gatherers.TheColumbiaplateaufolks,previouslymentioned,werehuntingelkanddeerintheforestsofDouglasr andwesternyellowpine,andshingforsalmonintheColumbiaby9,000B.C.Ref.209[282],45[66] 4.9.1.22.THEUNITEDSTATES Between5,000and3,800B.C.thetemperatureloweredagainandprecipitationincreasedsothatsomegamereturned astheclimateapproachedwhatitistoday.Evensothehuntingculturesgraduallygavewaytoatypeinwhichthe peoplewerenotspecializedinasingleskillbutwereversatileenoughtoattemptotherthings. IntheEasternWoodlandstherewasnowa"MiddlePeriod"withgreatvariationfromareatoarea.Someusedantlers andbonesforsh-hooks,spearsandharpoons,somelearnedtousecopperfortoolsandornaments.Inthelatter respect,adistinctivecultureoftheGreatLakesandupperMississippiValley,beginningabout4,500B.C.,wasthe "OldCopperCulture"inwhichthemetalwasworkedeitherinthecoldorhotstate,butitwasnevermeltedorcast. Knives,barbedharpoonpointsandatlatlweightsthrowingsticksweremadeinthisway.Therewasnobiggame presentandmostoftheinhabitantsoftheeasternsocietiesusedsteatitevessels.TheearliestoftheArchaicCulturesis sometimescalledthesouthern"IndianKnollSociety",withalaternorthernLauretainCultureabouttheGreatLakes andoneastwardwherealongtheLabradorcoastiteventuallycamefacetofacewithEskimos.Ref.64[94],45 [66],209[282] ThewesternDesertCulturewasorientedtowardplants,collectingofsmallseedsandrootsforfood.Plantberswere usedforbaskets,footwearandnetsforsnares. 16 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat.

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69 Inthesouthwest,theChircahuaPhaseoftheCochiseCulturemadeitsappearanceabout5,000B.C.andwastolast about3,000years.ItwastherethatmaizerstappearedintheUnitedStates,sometimebetween3,000and2,000 B.C.,apparentlybroughtupfromMexicowhereithadbeencultivatedlongbefore.TheCochisecouldgrowthecorn becausetheyhadthesoil,therightgrowingseasonandthenecessaryskillsandtools.Theycouldalreadyweave basketsinwhichtostoreitandhadlongusedgrindingtoolstopulverizeseedsandnuts.Thisearlydesertsocietylater gavewaytothePuebloandMexicanempires.InCaliforniatheSanDiegoCountyArcheologicalSocietyrecently broughtsuitagainstalanddevelopmentrm,allegingthatitintentionallymarredasitethoughttohavebeenoccupied byLaJollaIndians3,000to7,000yearsago 17 .ExcavationsonCatalinaIslandjustofftheCaliforniacoast,showthat mangorgedhimselfonabaloneinthe4thmillenniumB.C.,almostwipingoutthecoloniesRef.106[152],211 [284],45[66],210[283] 4.9.2MEXICO,CENTRALAMERICAANDTHECARIBBEAN SantaLuisa,intheVeracruzareawasoccupiedbefore4,000B.C.andbecamemajortradecenterwithanextensive irrigationsystem.Thepeopleweresuccessfulhuntersandgatherersaswellasearlyfarmers.By3,500Mexicancave inhabitantsreliedheavilyonagriculture.Onethirdoftheirfoodcamefromdomesticatedplants,includingmaize, beansandothers.MaizewasdestinedtoplaythesameroleherethatwheatandbarleydidintheNearEast.Inthe TamaulipasMountainstheyhadbeguntodomesticatesummersquashandchilipepper,andthebottlegourdasawater container.Earlymanalsoategrasshoppers,antsandtermites. Wespeculatedatthebeginningofthischapterthatthetimeofabout3,100B.C.mighthavebeenamilestoneinhistory whensomefantasticupheavaloccurredintheAtlantic,withfar-reachingsecondaryeffectsinthedevelopmentof earlycivilizationsinEgyptandtheNearEast.Itisamazingthen,tondthezerodateintheincrediblyaccurateMaya Calendar,whichwillbedescribedlater,tobe"4AhauCumhu",whichconvertstoourcalendarasAugust12,3,113 B.C.!Nosatisfactoryexplanationofthatdatehaseverbeengiven,butMayawrittenandoraltextsandthoseoftheir descendantcivilizationsclaimdescentfromacivilizedpeoplewhosailedinfromtheeast!Ref.236[314],211 [284],95[140] 4.9.3SOUTHAMERICA Datingtoprobablyabout5,000B.C.,inthoselastcenturiesbeforerealagriculture,isthepartiallyexcavatedvillageon alomaatPalomaonthedryPeruviancoast.Thevillageextendsover1,900feetinlengthatanaltitudeof660to825 feet.EngleRef.62[91]excavatedonly2trenches,removing35,000cubicfeetofruble,usingonlytrowelsand brushes.Some90gravesand45hutswerethusexposedandfromthatheestimated,byextrapolation,thatcomplete uncoveringoftheentirevillageareaswouldinvolve7,000,000cubicfeetofdebristoberemovedtoreveal9,000 gravesinandaroundsome4,000to5,000houses.Obviouslythiswasnotdone. Radio-carbondatingsindicatethatcottonandbeanswerepresentintheupperinter-Andeanvalleysabout6,000B.C. butinthecoastalvillagestheywerenotpresentuntil5,000B.C.orshortlythereafter.AtChilca,about45milessouth ofLima,portionsofanothervillagehavebeenexcavated,showingmultiplearcheologicallayers,indicatingmultiple re-occupations.Carbon14datingindicatestheearliesthabitationat3,500B.C.Largemolluskswerepresentbutare nolongertobefound,sotheshorelinemaythenhavebeenmuchfarthereastandtheretreatoftheocean-lineand consequentlythemollusks,mayhaveledtotheabandonmentofthesite.Onlyafewsiteshavebeenuncovered,since acubicyardofkitchenmiddenweighsabout2,600poundsandsosiftingavillageof71/2acresthatformsamound 1yardthickmeansthe"siftingsome36,000tonsofdebris,theequivalentofatrain1,000carslong" 18 17 ComplaintshavebeenmadethatotherconstructionprojectshavedestroyedhundredsofprehistoricIndiansitesinCalifornia.Estimatesgive morethan600Yokutsvillages,campsitesandburialgroundsinMercedandStanislauscounties.LoggingoperationsintheSierraNevadarange havechurnedupinnumerablesimilarsites.AlongthesouthcoasttherewereChumash,Gabrielinos,Fernandenosandsomeothers,dependingupon ashingandfoodgatheringexistence.Thesepeoplewereapparentlyfreeofintertribalwarsanddidnothavethecyclicalfaminessufferedby groupsdependentuponfarmcrops.Theylivedinlargevillages,usedplankcanoesandtradedwithvillagesontheChannelIslands,oftenbartering thecoastalbasketryforefgiescarvedfromthesteatiterockofCatalinaRef.106[152]. 18 FromEngelRef.62[91],page98.

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70 CHAPTER4.5000TO3000B.C. MaizewasbroughtdownfromMexico,butpotatoesandmaniocweredevelopedfromlocalplants.Theearliestdated potteryintheNewWorldisfromColombia,from3,090B.C.,sand-temperedwithwide-linedincising.Cottonhas beenusedforatleast4,000to6,000yearsintheAndes,replacingotherplantsthatcouldbeusedforspinningand makingcloth. WehavewrittensomethingofPatagoniaandTierradelFuegointhelastchapter.Theislandsofthewesternarchipelago offthetipofSouthAmericawerestillblockedbyiceuntilabout5,000B.C.andtheAlacalufarrivedafterthattime. Theywerealittlepeoplewiththemenrangingfrom61to62.5inchesandthewomen56.9to57.7inches,withatruly Asiaticappearance,includingthickblackhair,Mongoloidspotsandverylittlebodyhair.Theylivedentirelyfromthe ocean,divingoffboatsmadeofboardssewedtogether.LaterthesepeopleweresoldasslavesbytheChonostothe north.Ref.45[66],62[91] ForwardtoAmerica:3000to1500B.C.Section5.9 ChooseDifferentRegion 1.IntrotoEraSection4.1 2.AfricaSection4.2 3.CentralandNorthernAsiaSection4.5 4.EuropeSection4.4 5.TheFarEastSection4.7 6.TheIndianSubcontinentSection4.6 7.TheNearEastSection4.3 8.PacicSection4.8

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Chapter5 3000to1500B.C. 5.13000to1500B.C. 1 5.1.1CHAPTER4THIRD&FIRSTHALFSECONDMILLENNIUMB.C. Backwardto5000to3000B.C.Section4.1 5.1.1.13,000TO1,500B.C. At3,000B.C.thesealevelwasperhaps10'belowthepresentlevelandafter7,000yearsoffarmingtherewere perhaps100,000,000peopleintheworld.Inthisperiodweshallseethedevelopmentofmanynewcivilizationsand thegeneralmigrationofsocietiesthroughouttheworld.Writtenrecordsareavailablefrommanyplacesandthere arethebeginningsofscienceandimprovementsinmetallurgy.BronzewasusedintheOrientasearlyas4,000B.C. andcontinuedtodominateuntil1,800B.C.whentheIronAgebeganthere.InEuropetheBronzeAgedatedroughly from2,000to1,000B.C.About2,700B.C.thecircleofcopperworkingincludedalloftheBalkansandGreece,Asia Minor,theCaucasus,Mesopotamia,IranianPlateauandalloftheArabianPeninsula,alongwithEgypt.Thelimit ofNeolithictechniquewentfromJaxartes,westoftheAralSea,acrosssouthernRussiatotheBalticandacrossthe southernhalfofScandinavia.Some500yearslaterthelineofcopperworkingextendedfromIranupintothesteppes northoftheJaxartesRiverandacrosssouthernEuropethroughalltheDanubianIIIculturalareadowntheAdriatic andacrosstoAfrica,includingpartoftheCushiteareaonthehorn.By1,800B.C.copperwasusedinallofthe BritishIslesandallEuropesouthofmid-ScandinaviaandwellnorthinRussia.Alloftheaboveareawasthenwhat mightbecalledChalcolithic,whileinArabia,Egypt,someofAsiaMinor,ThraceandGreecetheNewBronzeAge wasappearing.By1,600B.C.,thisBronzeworkinghadspreadalloverEuropeexceptthenorthernhalfofBritain, Scandinavia,westernIberiaandNorthAfrica.Insofaraswhatmightbecalled"truecivilization",however,themap onthenextpagegivestheclassicalconceptofthetime-framesinvolvedRef.211[284],224[299],136[187], 222[296]. Forwardto1500to1000B.C.Section6.1 ChooseDifferentRegion 1.AfricaSection5.2 2.AmericaSection5.9 3.CentralandNorthernAsiaSection5.5 4.EuropeSection5.4 5.TheFarEastSection5.7 6.TheIndianSubcontinentSection5.6 7.TheNearEastSection5.3 1 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat. 71

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72 CHAPTER5.3000TO1500B.C. 8.PacicSection5.8 5.2Africa:3000to1500B.C. 2 5.2.1NORTHEASTAFRICA BacktoAfrica:5000to3000B.C.Section4.2 OutonthehornofAfrica,meninSomaliawereproducingfrankincenseandmyrrhforsaletoEgyptasearlyas 3,000B.C.TheCushitic-speakingpeoplecontinuedexpansionsouthofEgyptandintoNubia.Duetothechangein theSaharaclimate,moreNegroandSudanicpeoplesettledjustwestoftheCushitesalsoKushites,increasingthe populationthereRef.8[14]AdditionalNotesp.74 AmapofEgyptofthisperiodmaybefoundintheearlypagesofthenextchapter.Theexactdatingofthevarious dynastiesanderasofancientEgyptcontinuetobedebated. NOTE:InsertMaptakenfromReference97page61 ThedatesusedinthismanuscriptarethosegivenbyProfessorEastoninTheHeritageofthePastRef.57[82]and thesearefairlywellcoordinatedwiththoseusedinTheColumbiaHistoryoftheWorldRef.68[106]andother recentpublications.TherststoneconstructedsepulchreofpyramidaldesignwasbuiltatSaqqara,nearMemphis, duringthereignofZoseralsoDjoser,anearlykingofthe3rddynasty,between2,700and2,630B.C.Thiswas calledthe"StepPyramid"andwasactuallythecreationofImhotep,chiefministeroftheking,amanwhowaslater deied.Recentdesertstudieswouldsuggestthatthissteppyramidandthelargeronestofollowwereactuallyshaped afternature'sowndesert,wind-sweptdunesofthewesterndesert.Sand-stoneandsolidrockmountainsanddunesall seemtohavenaturallyassumedaconicalshape,asthewindsspiralaboutthemtoexhausttheirenergyatthepointed top.Itisverypossiblethattheman-madestructuresweremodeledafterthesenaturalones,anditissaidthatarocky knollofunknownsizeunderliestheGreatPyramidandthatthereisanaturalstoneout-croppingatthetombofQueen Khent-Kawes.Itisthussuggestedthattheancientsnotonlysimplyenlargedandrenedalreadyexistingnatural conicalstructures,butthattheverynatureoftheseshapeshaveallowedthemtowithstandthewindsandsandstorms ofalltheagessincetheywerebuilt 3 .Stillmoreintriguingisthendinginthedesertofformsverymuchlikethe sphinx,indicatingthatwhereconstantlydirectedwindshitcertaingeologicalformationsanunusualshapesomewhat likethatofarecliningdogwithraisedhead,isformed. Canthesphinxsimplybeadressed-upnaturalformationofthistype?Similarshapeshavebeenfoundinthedesert asfarbackas1909Ref.59[87],243[88]andtherearesuggestionsofthesamephenomenoninpartsofUtah today.CopperminesweredevelopedintheSinaibyPharaohSnefu,asuccessorofZoser.Healsousedlargeshipsto increaseseatradeRef.222[296]. BronzewasinuseinEgyptby3,000B.C.andthegreatpyramidswerestartedabout2,600B.C.inthetimeofCheops ofthe4thdynasty 4 .BecauseofthefertilityoftheNileoodbasinsinthis3rdmillennium,theaveragepeasant producedthreetimesasmuchfoodashisfamilyneededandthushewascapableoffeedingtheoodcontrolworkers andthebuildersofpublicbuildingsandPharaoh'stombs.Therstwoodenboatsweremadeinexactimitationofthe oldreedboats.AnentiresuchvesselofCheops',datingto2,700B.C.,hasrecentlybeenexcavatedfromhispyramid. Ithasalengthof143feetandappearsmoregracefulthanalaterVikingship,butcouldonlyhavebeenusedfor ceremoniesonthesmoothNile,asithadnointernalribsandcouldnothavesurvivedoceansailing.Onlythepapyrus shipsfromwhichitwascopiedcouldwithstandtheoceanwaves. 2 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat. 3 TheconicalshapesofprimitivesheltersfromtheAmericanIndiantepeestoAfricanandArabianDeserttentsandMongolianandKazakyurts incentralAsiamayallresistthewindsinthesamewayRef.59[87] 4 ThomasRef.213[288],page32datestheGreatPyramidat2,900B.C.andcommentsonitsexactlysquaredbase,the50degreeslopeof allsurfacesandthefactthatthestonesaresowellttedtogetherthatabladecannotbeinsertedbetweenthem

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73 AllsubsequentrulersoftheOldKingdombuiltgreatpyramidssuchasthatofCheopsandtheseediceshadgreat religioussignicance.Thereisnodoubtthatgreatnumbersofslaveswereusedintheirconstruction,andtheywere obtainedchieyfromNubiaandsomeofthesewereevenexportedontoIraq.ToynbeeRef.220[294]feelsthat the4thdynasty,600to2,500B.C.representstheheightofEgyptianSocietycultureandgrowth.Thepopulation atthattimewasprobablyaboutthreemillion,ormoreRef.83.Disintegrationofthesocietyor"timeoftroubles", accordingtoToynbee,beganinthe6thdynasty,300to2,200B.C.andforfourcenturiestherewasnocentral controlbutonlysmallfeudalstatesruledbyprovincialgovernors,the"nomarcha",wholeviedtaxesandkeptsmall armies.Kingsdidexist,butinnameonly.About2,000B.C.AmenemhetI,aThebiannomarch,marcheddownthe Nileandestablishedthe12thdynastyasacentralrulinggovernment,beginningthe"MiddleKingdom"ofEgyptian history.Toynbeeconsidersthisthe"UniversalState"ofthedegeneratingEgyptianSociety,inwhichthesinsofthe pyramidbuilderswerevisitedontheirsuccessors,butProfessorCheilikRef.28[48]describesthisasaperiodof increasingtradeandcontactswithothercountries,inspiteofsomepoliticaldeterioration.WhenamummyofWah,an ofcialofthisThebesDynasty,wasunwrappedattheMetropolitanMuseumofArtinNewYorktheyestimatedthat about365squaremetersoflinenhadbeenused.Thiscraftofmummicationhadbeendevelopedoveralongperiod andallthetechniqueisstillnotknown.Certainlytherststepwasremovaloftheinternalorgansofthedeceased, sometimesbyanabdominalincision,sometimesbyacorrosiveagentintroducedinanenema.Thesecondstepwas dessicationwiththeuseofnatron,eitherdryorinsolution.Finallythebodywasanointedwithbalmsandointments andtheextensivebandagingbegan.Allofthiswassimplytopreservethebodyasaneternalrepositoryforthesoul. Ref.246[23] TheportofByblosonthePhoeniciancoastwasalargeemporiumforEgyptianproductsandEgyptianwareswere wantedinCreteandMesopotamia.WiththeconquestofNubiaalargesupplyofgoldwasobtainedandahighpointof prosperitywasreachedunderSenusertalsoSesostrisIII,878-1,840B.C..Egypthadapopulationatthattimeof seventoeightmillionRef.176[242],95[140],57[82],68[106],8[14],220[294],28[48],213[288]. TheMiddleKingdomendedwithabouttwohundredyearsofturmoilanddisputesforthethrone,until1,680B.C. whenthenomadSemiticscalled"Hyksos"probablyCanaanitesinvadedfromtheArabianarea.Theseinvaders broughtthedomesticatedhorsewithchariotwarfareandmenusingcompositebowsandwerethusinvincibleatthat time.TheymadetheircapitalintheNiledeltaatAvarisandtheiroverlordscalledthemselves"pharaohs".Previous totheadventoftheHyksos'horsestheEgyptianshadusedonlythedonkeyasabeastofburdenbuttheinvaders didnotpenetratethecountryfarfromtheNiledelta,andtheEgyptiansconsideredthemselvesadistinctandseparate peopleanddidnoteasilyacceptstrangersornewideassotheyrefusedtoadopteitherthehorse-drawnchariotorthe compositebow.ThepopulationasawholewasthusnotgreatlyinuencedRef.246[23] About1,567B.C.anotherThebianking,Kamose,startedawarofliberationfromupperEgyptandrecoveredmostof theterritoryfromtheinvaderSemites.Thejobwascompletedbyhisbrother,AmosisI,afewyearslater.TheHyksos movementprobablypresentedthenalupheavalintheAmoriteseriesofexpansionsthatwillbediscussedunderthe sectionontheNEAREAST,below.ItwasprobablyatthetimeofthisSemiticdominationthattheBiblicalJoseph movedintoEgyptRef.231[308],122[170],8[14],136[187] Thebow-drillwasusedinEgyptfrom2,500B.C.onandrulesofmeasurement,theplumb-line,constructionofaright angleandtheshapingofstoneswithamason'ssquarewereallfeaturesofthissociety.Ahmescalculatedtheareaofa circleabout1,600B.C.andPtah-Hotepwasagreatphilosopherofthe3rdmillenniumB.C.TheMiddleKingdomwas alsoaperiodofnecraftsmanship.Abeercalled haq wascommonlydrunkandwasmadefromredbarleyoftheNile valley.Breadwassupposedlyalsorstmadehereinthedynasticperiodbecauseofthedevelopmentofanewkindof wheatwhichcouldbethreshedwithouttheapplicationofheat.Theass,ofAfricanorigin,wasrstusedforregular tradebetweenEgyptandIraqsometimeafter2,000B.C. OurknowledgeofEgyptianmedicineexceptforcommentariesfromGreekandRomanwriterscomesfromseven medicalpapyrusesdiscoveredinthelastcentury.Theoldestofthese,thefragmentaryKahunPapyrus,dealswith veterinarymedicineandwomen'sdiseases.Thenext,datingtoaboutthe17thcenturyB.C.,isconcernedwithsurgical mattersbeginningatthetopoftheheadandworkingdowntothemid-chest.Thelongestofthepapers,theGeorge EbersPapyrus,datestoaboutthe16thcenturyB.C.andisanextensivetherapeutictextwrittenamillenniumbefore

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74 CHAPTER5.3000TO1500B.C. Hippocratesandcontainingprescriptionsdatingbackto3,700B.C.Itwasprobablyacopyofolderdocuments.This papyrus,twelveincheswide,unwindstoalengthofsixty-sixfeet.Egyptiansratherroutinelyremovedallinternal organsafterdeath,savingtheminspecialcontainersasthebodyproperwasmummied,buttheyknewverylittle aboutthefunctionsoftheseorgans.Althoughtheypaidmuchattentiontocleanliness,havingalmostanational fetishofkeepingthegastro-intestinaltractcleanwithmultiplepurges,emeticsandenemasofeveryconceivablekind, diseasewasstillrampant.Mummiesshowevidenceoftuberculosisofthespinewithaccompanyingspinaldeformities andcoldabscesses,clubfoot,polioandmeasles,nottomentiontheundoubtedparasiticinfestationstheymusthave obtained,andstilldo,fromtheNile.Eyediseases,particularlytrachoma,leadingtoblindness,wereandarestill commoninEgypt.ItrespondssometocopperpreparationsanditisinterestingthatEgyptianwomenworegreen eyemake-up,probablymadefromcoppersalts.Ingeneral,treatmentwasamixtureofreligio-magicalgesturesand theuseofanextensivepharmacopoeiaandsomelimitedsurgicalproceduressuchascauterization,circumcisionand occasionaltrepanningoftheskull,ifindeed,thiswasactuallyamedicalprocedure.Dentistrywasadvancedwith prosthesisconstructionasearlyas2,600B.C.Egyptianphysicianshadgoodreputationsthroughouttheancientworld andathome.Therewasapparentlyadenitemedicalhierarchy,beginningatthetopwiththePharaoh'sphysician. SpecialtrainingschoolsforphysicianswereattachedtotemplesRef.211[284],125[173],15[26],213[288]. AdditionalNotesp.74 5.2.2NORTHCENTRALANDNORTHWESTAFRICA TheHamiticBerbershadawellestablishedNeolithicCultureinalargeareaalongthecoastofNorthAfrica,butthey hadnocopper.TheywereprobablydescendantsoftheancientMediterraneanpeoplesandrelatedtotheIberiansand Basques.Thereweretwomajorsubgroups: Thenomadic Tauregs ofthedesertwhomaintainedstricthereditaryclasses,withanancientalphabetandusing artistictrappingsontheircamelsandjewelryonthemselves,and The Kabyles ,particularlyofAlgeria,livingasasettledtribe,longfamousforpotterymadewithouttheuseof thewheel.Ref.46[76],19[32] DessicationoftheSaharasetinabout3,000to2,500B.C.,causingsomepastoraliststomoveintothejunglesofthe NileValleyandotherstomovesouthwiththerains.ThisshifttoaridconditionsintheSaharamayhavestimulatedthe emergenceofcivilizationinEgypt.By2,000B.C.,asreectedintheSahararockdrawings,rhinoceroses,hippopotamusesandgiraffeshadalreadyvanishedfromthisarea.Southwardexpansionofcereal-growingoccurredduringthe 2ndmillenniumB.C.asmilletandsorghumweredomesticatedastropicalcropsRef.215[290],176[242],8 [14] 5.2.3SUBSAHARANAFRICA Thesouthernshiftofthecereal-growingbelt,duetothechangeintheSaharaclimate,resultedinanincreaseofthe Negropopulations.Ref.8[14] NOTE :Kerma,1,500kilometersnorthofmodernKhartoum,wasthecapitalofKush.EgyptoftheMiddle KingdomhadtodealwiththeseNubiansanddidsowithfortsatSenna,some270kilometersnorthof Kerma.Thecityitselfwasanextensiveurbandevelopment,particularlyafter2000B.C.Thelargetombsof "royalty"containedanimalsacricesandsomeofthemevenhadupto400humansacricedretainers.The NubianculturespreadovercentralandnorthernSudan.ThisparticularcultureofKermaalmostcompletely disappearedaftercolonizationoftheareabythepharaohsoftheXVIIIDynastyofEgypt.Ref.303[25] After1,520theNewKingdomofEgyptusedNubiangoldtohirecharioteersasaprofessionalforce.Ref. 279[191] ForwardtoAfrica:1500to1000B.C.Section6.2

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75 5.3TheNearEast:3000to1500B.C. 5 5.3.1THENEAREAST BacktoTheNearEast:5000to3000B.C.Section4.3 Inadditiontosomenewcivilizationsappearinginthisregionthereweregreatchangesintheoldone.Wemustrealize thatinthissinglechapterwearereviewingeventsspanning1,500yearsoraperiodequaltothatfromthetimeof ChristtotheReformationinEurope.Inafewlimitedways,therewasactualregressionintheNearEastatthistime asthelocaltindepositsbecameexhaustedandtheareaslippedbackoutoftheBronzeAge. 5.3.1.1THEARABIANPENINSULA NomadicSemitictribescontinueddominationofthecentralareasofthepeninsula,whileotherSemiticempirescontrolledthefertilenorthwesternregionofArabiaandpresentdayJordan.About2,250B.C.theAkkadianswere extendingtheirinuencedownintothisareaandsome400yearslateranArabiantribeofAmoritesbegantheirrst expansionandbegantooverowthisentireareaoftheFertileCrescent,rollingoverintoMesopotamiaandbeyond. 5.3.1.2MEDITERRANEANCOASTALAREASOFISRAELANDLEBANON TheancientbasicpopulationofthisareawereCanaanites,originallySemiticnomadswhohadearlymigratednorth fromArabia,butintheperiodunderreview,twootherpeoplesappearedtheJewsandthePhoenicians.Ref.175 [241]AdditionalNotesp.79 5.3.1.2.11.ISRAEL SemiticspeakingpeoplelivedaBronzeAgeurbanlifeinPalestinefrom3,000to2,200B.C.butthenfortwoorthree hundredyearsthecitylifeappearstohavebeendestroyedbyaninvadingnomadicpeople,probablytheAmoritesfrom deepintheArabianpeninsula.After1,900B.C.populationreturnedtotheurbanareasandthatperiodmaythenbe describedasthetrueCanaaniteera.TheAfricancamelwasusedinPalestineforcaravantradeby1,600B.C.Theexact timeofthearrivaloftheJewsisdebated.TheirowntraditionsaysthattheycamefromUrinabout2,200B.C.,but theyprobablycameupoutoftheArabianPeninsulasomewhatlater.Theytoo,ofcourse,wereaSemiticgroupwho rarelyintermarriedwithotherstocks,yetsomefeelthattheyreceivedtheircharacteristicnosefromthenon-Semitic Hittites.Ref.229[307]DuringtheseearlycenturiestheJewsremainedastwelvemoreorlessindependenttribes, withastateofcivilizationdevelopingabout1,800B.C.MostofthemthenenteredEgyptbetween1,800and1,650 B.C.perhapswiththeir"cousins",theHyksos.ItissaidthatJudaismwasfoundedbyAbraham,aprinceofUr,living inCanaanin1,700B.C.,ashereplacedhumansacricewithsacriceoframs.Ref.18[31],213[288],222 [296] 5.3.1.2.22.LEBANONPHOENICIA TheoriginofthePhoenicianswhofoundedthecityofTyreandsettledalongastripofcoastonehundredmileslong andtenmileswide,about2,800B.C.isnotdenitelyknown,buttheymayhavebeensimplyanotherSemitictribe fromtheregionofthePersianGulf.From2,600B.C.on,theywerethebusiestmerchantsoftheancientworld, manufacturingformsofglass,workingmetalandproducingafamouspurpledyefromMediterraneanmollusca.The forestofLebanonsuppliedtheentiremiddleeastwithtimberandtheincrediblydurableLebanoncedarallowedthe earlyPhoenicians,aswellastheHittites,toabandontheearlierpapyrusreedsforboatsofwood.Thesepeoplewere shrewdtraders,stealingfromtheweak,cheatingthestupidanddealinghonestlywiththerestofmankind.Theysailed theseasinseventyfeetlong,narrowgalleyswithoarsandonelargerectangularsail,developingtheartofnavigation astheysailedfromtheirhomecitiesofTyre,ByblosandSidontodevelopagreatcolonialempire.Theywereknownin theBibleasSiddonians.UgaritwasaCanaaniteandPhoeniciancitywhichhasbeendubbedthe"Shanghaiofthemid2ndmilleniumB.C.",becauseitseemedacross-roadofworldtrade.TextsinSumerian-Akkadian,Hurrian,Egyptian 5 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat.

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76 CHAPTER5.3000TO1500B.C. andHittitehavebeenfoundthere.TheoldestknownalphabetwasapparentlynativeCanaanite,laterimprovedbythe Phoenicians.SometextsshowcloseassociationofHebrewstoCanaanitesbeforethetimeofMoses,andmuchofthe moralteachingandidealsofjusticeoflaterHebrewpro-phetswereforeshadowedhereandthereareparallelstothe laterBiblicalpsalms,etc.Ref.95[140],87[132] ThetimberresourcesofLebanonwerealreadyconsiderablydepletedby2,000B.C.buttheyhavecontinuedtobe exploitedrightdowntothepresenttime.Oliveoil,grain,grapes,sheepandcattlewereproductsinantiquity.Slaves hadalwaysbeenusedsome,butafter2,000B.C.largenumberswereimportedfromEgypt,sothatitwassoonnot uncommonforhouseholdstohavethree.Ref.88[131],213[288] 5.3.1.3IRAQANDSYRIA 5.3.1.3.11.MESOPOTAMIA,PROPER Theterm"Sumerian"hasbeencoinedbyscholarsfromtheplacenameof"Sumer"whichbythethirdmillenniumwas usedtomeansouthernMesopotamiaasapposedtoAkkad,thenorthernpart.Sumeriawasacitycivilizationandthe importantcitiesofUr,Uruk,Larsa,EriduandKishhadpopulationsrangingfrom15,000to250,000.Oneormore templecommunitiesconstitutedacity,withpriestadministrationandwork-gangstooperatetheirrigationsystem.The landofthecitywasdividedintoseveralcategories,withsomeeldsownedbythegodsandworkedontheirbehalf, someeldsrentedoutannuallytoindividualsandothersawardedtoindividuals,rent-free. TherstdynastyofUrhasbeendatedarchaeologicallyandhistoricallyfromtheKing-listsroyalgenealogicaltablets foundonthesitetoabout2,700B.C.,buttherewasahighcivilizationatUrbeforethis,perhapswiththecity functioningunderthesuzeraintyoftheErechDynasty.Atleastwhatappearstohavebeenaroyalcemeteryhasbeen excavated,datedpriortotherstdynastyofUr,inwhichtheritualofburialincludedhumansacrice,varyingfrom sixtoseventyoreightypeople,sometimesincludingassesandcartswithgroomsandvariouswomen'sbodies.There wasnoevidenceofviolence;themenandwomensacricialattendantsprobablysimplydrankadrugandwentquietly tosleep.NothinglikehumansacricewasevermentionedfromthelaterSumeria.Atanyrate,theactual,historical rstdynastyofUrwasthatofMes-an-ni-pad-daofabout2,700B.C.anditlastedsupposedlyfor177years.During thelaterpartofthistime,atabout2,600B.C.ithadsucceededinconqueringvarioussurroundingareas,underKing Urukagina.ThiswasfollowedbytheusurpationofneighboringUmmabyKingLugalzaggesi.Situatedontheat landsofthelowerEuphrates,Sumerhadnonaturaldefensesandthecitiesbecametemptingobjectsofplundertothe barbarouspeoplearound.About2,300B.C.SumeriawasconqueredbytheneighboringAkkadiansundertheirgreat leader,SargonI.TheSumeriancultureseemedtocontinueinthenew,combinedempire,however,anda"Golden AgeofUr"resulted.Sargonwroteofshipsladenwithgoodsinharborathiscapitalandtherewerecaravansof200 donkeystraveling12to15hoursadayplyingbetweenArmeniaandIraq.From2,112to2,015B.C.Urremainedthe capitalofthisgreatempire,ruledbythevekingsofthethirddynasty.Iraqhadapopulationofbetweenfourandve millionatthattime. OneofthecharacteristicfeaturesofeachgreatSumeriancitywasthezigguratandthatofUrhasbeenthebest preserved.IthasbeensuggestedthatiftheSumerianscameoriginallyfromtheCaucasus,onemightassumethat theyfeltthattheirgodshadtohaveamountaintostandorliveon,andsotheybuilttheziggurats,assubstitutes.Ur wasdestroyedsometimeafter2,000B.C.andthenforawhileitwasunderIsinlordship,thenunderthecityofLarsa andnallyundertheElamiteswhocamefromsouthPersia.TheElamiteprince,Warad-Sin,whobecamekingofUr, rebuiltandenlargedthetemplesoftheancientcityandhissuccessor,Rim-sinservedaskingofLarsaalso,andduring hisreignthepopulationofthe"oldtown"ofUr,thatis,withintheoriginalwalls,includedanestimated4,250houses, probablywith34,000people.Thewholecity,then,musthaveexceeded250,000andmayhavebeentwicethatlarge.It wasamanufacturingcenterwithrawmaterialsimported,sometimesfromoverseasviathePersianGulf.Gold,copper ore,hardwoods,ivory,pearlsandpreciousstoneswereallbroughtbyshipandrecordedinbillsoflading.Ref.238 [318],28[48],213[288] ButUrwasnottolastmuchlonger.Althoughthereisstillsomedisagreementaboutdating,weshallassumethat HammurabistartedhisruleinBabylonin1,783B.C.andtheninthe12thyearofthereignofhisson,Samsi-iluna,the

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77 BabyloniansdestroyedthewallsofUrwithaterriblethoroughnessandlaidwastetothecity.Upuntilthattime,all thetabletsandtextsofUrandtherewerethousandsofthemwerewrittenintheSumerianlanguageCaucasian?, butafterthatdestructionthetabletswereintheBabylonianlanguage.Theinvaderstookoverthecuneiformwriting, buttheSumerianlanguageitselfbecameadeadliteraryandreligioustongue.ThisfallofSumeriamayhavebeen preparedinpartbyinternaldisintegrationandclasswarswithinthecity-stateRef.238[318],28[48] TheconqueringBabylonianswereactuallyAmoritesandthenewcombinationofAmorite-Akkadian-andnon-Semitic SumeriancivilizationbecameknownastheBabylonian 6 ,withtheSemiticstrainthedominantone.Hammurabihad forgedoutthisempireandputhiscapitalatBabylon.Pleasenotethemapbelow. NOTE:InsertMaptakenfromReference97. Agriculturethrivedasgreatnewirrigationcanalsweredeveloped.TheBabylonians,ofthesamebasicstockas AbrahamandthelaterHebrews,orJews,hadthebeginningsofastronomyandtheabilitytopredicteclipses.They hadacalendarandcouldhandlecubicequationswithtwounknowns.TheBabyloniansocietydemonstratedthe developmentofanimperialpoliticaltheory,animprovedadministrativetechnique,especiallythroughtheuseof writtencommunication,thedevelopmentofabureaucracyandprofessionalarmy,andnallybettermethodsofintercityandinter-regionaltrade,alongwiththepromotionofanindependentmerchantclass.Acodeoflaws,basedon Sumerianprototypes,hasbecomefamousastheCodeofHammurabi,putintoeffectabout1,750B.C.Thiscode coveredmostordinarylifeactivities,evencondemningalehousesforunder-strength,over-pricedbeer.Fortypercent ofthegraininsomecitieswenttothemanufactureofbeer.Thecodealsoregulatedmanymedicalfeesforsuchthings astreatingseverewounds,tumors,andbrokenbones.Thefeeswerehigh-forexample,thatforsuccessfullytreating afreeman'sbrokenbonewasveshekelsofsilver,avalueequaltotheyearlyrentforamiddle-classdwelling.But thepunishmentsforpoormedicaltreatmentwereequallyelevated.Ref.68[106],220[294],211[284],125 [173] Sometimeabout1,600B.C.orperhapsslightlyearlier,BabyloniawasconqueredbyacombinedforceofAryan McEvedy,[Ref.136[187]],saysCaucasianKassites1fromtheeastandHittitesfromnearAsiaMinor.TheHittites quicklywithdrew,takingtheSumerianscriptwiththem,leavingtheKassitestoruleBabyloniaforaboutsixcenturies. SomebelievethattheybroughtthehorsewiththemfromtheSamartianatlands.Ontheotherhand,LewinsohnRef. 122[170]saysthatridinghorseswererstmentionedinhistoricalrecordsatthetimeofHammurabi,about2,000 B.C.,althoughchariotshadbeenusedearlierbySumeriankings.Asmentionedearlier,Mesopotamiawasthehomeof thespectacular,brick-builttemplemonumentscalled"ziggurats",manyhavingbeenbuiltbetween3,000and500B.C. Amongtherstofthesewasonecalledthe"WhiteTemple",probablydedicatedtoAmu,godofthesky,atancient UrukErechoftheBible,capitalofseveralSumeriandynasties.Itwasbuiltabout3,000B.C.onaplatformfortyfeet high.EventheKassitesbuiltziggurats-theremainsofaspectacularonestillsometwohundredfeethigh,remainsat Aquarquf,theKassitecapitaljustwestofBaghdad.Ref.136[187],122[170],176[242] AdditionalNotesp.79 5.3.1.3.22.SYRIAANDADJACENTAREAS RecentexcavationsinnorthwesternSyriabetweenwhatwassubsequentlyUgaritandCarchemish,indicatethatagreat empirewithacapitalcityofEblaexistedpriortoandafterthe23rdcenturyB.C.Fifteenthousandcuneiformtablets withcommercialrecords,treatiesandchronicleshavebeenfound,writteninapreviouslyunknownSemiticlanguage. Thisisfourtimesthenumberofallpreviouslyfoundtextsofthisperiod.Itisevidentthatmetallurgy,textiles,ceramics andwoodworkingwerewelldeveloped.ThirtythousandpeopleintheCityweresurroundedbyabout250millionin theimmediatearea. Morethanvethousandgeographicnamesappear,indicatingfargreatersettlementoftheNearEastatthatancienttime thanpreviouslybelieved.BeirutandByblos,DamascusandGaza,aswellasSodomandGomorrahareallmentioned. 6 AswiththeHurriansandMitannianstobediscussedlater,itisprobablethattheCaucasianKassiteswereledbyanAryanIndo-European aristocracy.Ref.45[66]

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78 CHAPTER5.3000TO1500B.C. SomepeoplenamedmaybetheAbraham,EsauandSaul,oftheBible.ThelanguageandcultureofEblamayhave survivedinsuchlaterCanaanitecentersasUgaritandevenPalestine.Thrivingby2,400B.C.oreven2,500,Ebla's kingsapparentlycontendedwithSargonofAkkadfordominationoftheEuphratesarea.Sargon'sgrandson,NaramSin,conqueredEbla,butitroseagain,onlytofalloncemoreabout2,000B.C.,perhapswipedoutbytheAmorites. TheirlanguagehasbeenidentiedasaforerunnerofalltheCanaanitedialects,whichincludeUgaritic,Phoenician andHebrew.Translationbecamepossiblebecauseofthendingofsomeduallanguagedictionaries,containingboth SumerianandEblaite.Ref.117[164] Attimeswarandattimesperiodsofcooperationoccurredwithanotherpowerfulcity,Mari,abouthalf-waydownthe EuphratesfromEblatoBabylon.TheFrenchexcavationsatMarishowaroyalpalaceofthreehundredroomsand courtsandevidenceofEgyptiantrade.AtonetimeMariwasruledbyShura-Damu,sonofEbriumwhohadbeen probablyEbla'sgreatestking.ThesekingswereelectedandEbriumhadservedfourtermsofsevenyearseach.Ref. 117[164] TothenorthwestweretheAssyrianswhobegantoriseasamilitantpowerby1,700B.C.andtothesouthwest,between theAssyriansandtheEgyptians,wasanotherSemitictribewhichwasoriginallyaBedouingroupappearingfromthe Syriandesertandwhosedescendantsaretoday'strueSyrians.Theymayhavebeenpushednorthandeastasthe HyksoswereexpelledfromEgypt.TheymadeDamascustheirchiefcity.Ofgreatestimportance,however,wasthe migrationoftheAmoriteswhocameoutofthedesertabout2,100B.C.totakeovermostoftheentirearea,including thecityofBabylonandthentheentireEuphratesValley.PleaseseeparagraphsaboveonMesopotamia,properp. 76. Finally,comingoutoftheiroriginalhomelandeastandnorthofLakeVanArmeniaasearlyasthelate3rdmillenniumB.C.wereanAsianic-speakingpeoplecalledHurrians,whosettledinlargenumbersinnorthernSyriaand Mesopotamia.AlthoughtheHurrians,themselves,maywellhavebeenoftheold,originalCaucasianrace,theyapparentlyhadanaristocracyofIndo-Europeanorigincalled"Mitanni".By1,600B.C.theyhadaseriesofkingdoms. SomeauthoritiesbelievethattheyintroducedthehorseandchariottotheNearEastaswarvehicles.Whatisoften calledtheMitanniKingdomwasactuallyafederationofHurrianstatesunderthekingsofWahukanni.Atoneperiod, KingTushrattacapturedandheldthestonecapitalofAssyria,Nineveh.Ref.136[187],45[66] 5.3.1.4IRANPERSIA TheBronzeAgeontheplateauofcentralIranbeganabout3,000B.C.Abasicagriculturaleconomywassoonaugmentedbyexportoflapislazulifromthenortheastandsteatitesoapstonefromthesoutheast.Themetalindustry followedthatofElamandBabylonia.TheElamitecivilizationwithitscapitalatSusacontinuedtoourishinalimited geographicalareaandtheirantagonismsandmilitaryvigorweremanifestedintheirraidsofSumer.TheMitanniand theHurrianslivedinpartsofnorthernIranbeforetheirmigrationsintonorthernSyria.Writingsappearedearlyin Persia,notablyintheregionofElam,wheretheculturalrelationswereclosertoMesopotamiathantotheremainder ofPersia.ElamitesalsohadindirecttradewithEgypt.Ref.18[31],45[66] Thelinguist,PeiRef.168[229],believesthattheIndo-Europeanpeoplesandtheirbasiclanguageoriginatedby about2,500B.C.eitherontheIranianplateauorabouttheBalticSea,whileWellsRef.229[307]wouldput thedateseveralthousandyearsearlierSeealsoEasternEuropep.84.McEvedyRef.136[187]indicatesa southernRussiaandlowercentralAsianoriginaroundtheAralSea,withtheseearlyIndo-Europeans,whichhelabels "Iranians",asbeginningmigrationsfromcentralAsiadownintoIranby2,250B.C.andevenpushingintoSyriaby 1,600B.C.TheirgrayGurganpotteryisfoundattheexcavationsiteofTepeHissarjustsouthandeastoftheCaspian Sea.ThesesameIraniansspreadacrosscentralAsia,becomingthebasepopulationofthesteppe,whileanother segmentmovedsouth,eventuallyinvadingIndia.AstheIraniansstormedintotheMiddleEastattheendofthetime periodunderreview,theywereaccompaniedbyclansoftheCaucasianKassitesandHurrians,withwarchariots. PleasealsoseeEurope:5000to3000B.C.Section4.4.Ref.168[229],229[307],136[187],88[131]

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79 5.3.1.5ASIAMINORANCIENTANATOLIA PrehistoriccoppercultureshavebeenvalidatedbyexcavationsofTroy,000-2,400andAlisharHuyuk,0002,800.Asthesegreatcoppersuppliesweredeveloped,theaxisofhistorybegantoshifttothisMediterraneanregion andawayfromMesopotamia.About3,000B.C.therewereaseriesoflocalearlyBronzeAgecultures,includingthe YortanCultureofnorthwestAnatolia,whichhadcloserelationshipstotheCycladicCultureoftheAegean,andthe rstTroyKisarlik.TheTrojanartisanslearnedtotoughencopperbyalloyingitwithsmallamountsoftinbyabout 3,000butthesourceofthistinisun-known.Regionaldivisionsinthepeninsulabecamequitemarkedwitheach controlledbyanativedynastyandmetropolitancenterssoonbecamequitewealthy.Ref.88[131]By2,000B.C. theAssyrianshadtradingpostsinthearea,suchasatKaneshmodernKultepewheretheformofcertainnamesin tabletsindicatesthearrivalofanIndo-Europeanspeakingpeople,theHittites.By1,750B.C.thelatterhadbecomea dominantmilitarycaste,controllingimportantcities.Theymayactuallyhaveappearedrstsomevehundredyears earlier,settlinginthebendoftheHalysRiver,buttheiroriginismuchdisputed. TraditionallytheyhavebeendescribedascomingdownfromtheregionoftheCaspianSea,butmorerecentstudies wouldsuggestthattheyhadoriginfromtheAegeanSeapeoplesandcameatthisperiodfromtheshoresofGreece andtheAegeanIslands,alongwiththeirkinsmen,theLuviansalsoLuwians.TheHittitemigrationwasonlythe centralcomponentinatrioofdisplacements.FromnorthoftheBlackSeatheUsatoveweremovingintotheBalkan areaandatthebaseoftheAnatolianpeninsulatheCaucasianKhirbetKerakweremovingdownintoSyriaandeven intoPalestine.ThesepeoplehavealsobeencalledHattitesandrepresenttheoriginalpopulationofAnatolia. TheHittitelanguagehaddeclensionalandconjugationalformssimilartobothLatinandGreekandsomeoftheir simplewordswerevisiblyakintomodernEnglish,suchas: Vadar -water,and Essa -eat. TheHittiteshadsharp,aquilinenosesandWellsRef.229[307]feltthattheyhadfusedsufcientlywiththeearly Hebrewstogivethelatterthisnoseasatrademark.ThebasicpopulationofTurkey,today,alsohasthisphysical feature.TheHittiteshadironandusedit. TheirsocietywasprobablyrelatedinsomewaytotheSumerianandmanyoftheircustomsweresimilar.Politicallytheyhadawarrioraristocracy,buttheyalsohadart,religionandwriting,allexhibitingcloseafnitieswith Mesopotamianmodels.TherstknownrulersoftheoldHittiteKingdomwereLabarnasandhissonHattusilisII.In 1,595B.C.,underMuresilisI,theyconqueredBabylon.TheLuvians,relatedtotheHittites,hadpenetratedAsiaMinor duringthelatterpartofthe3rdmillenniumB.C.andweresoonactiveinthewestwithaprincipalcityofBeycesultan ontheRiverMeander.Thatcitywasdestroyedin1,750B.C.,perhapsbytheHittiteKingLabarnasI. EastoftheHittiteswastheareaofancientArmenia,knowninthattimeas"Urartu"andinsomeplacesintheBibleas "Ararat".Thepeoplewecall"Armenians"today,however,probablydidnotarriveuntilatleastthe8thcenturyB.C. EvenintheearlytimeofthethirdmillenniumtheoverlandtraderoutesoftraderstothesteppesofAsiacrisscrossed thisland,andtheindigenouspopulationwasskilledinthesecretsofancientmetallurgy.Inatleastthelaterpartofthe periodundersurvey,thebasicpopulationofUrartuwascomprisedofthenon-Semitic,probablyCaucasian,Hurrian andVannicpeoples.Ref.136[187],45[66],88[131] NOTE :Jemmeh,mentionedpreviouslyinanoteonpage1183,wasreoccupiedwithaMidoleBronzesettlementabout1,800B.C.Ref.295[300] NOTE :ItshouldbenotedthatSargonIandhis54,000menplunderedallofMesopotamiaaroundKish,devastatingthecountrysidetotheeast,therebypreventinganotherarmyfromgoingthroughuntilthepopulation andcropshadbeenrestored.Ref.279[191]ItwasintheMesopotamiaareathatthetwo-wheeledchariot wasinventedabout1,800B.C.asaresultofthedevelopmentofspokedwheelswithafriction-reducinghub andaxledesign.Thecompoundbowwasalsodevelopedsothatmobilityandrepowerinwarweregreatly

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80 CHAPTER5.3000TO1500B.C. increased.Thesteppepeoplewerebestabletotakeadvantageofthisandbetween1800and1500B.C. wavesofbarbariancharioteersoverrantheMiddleEast.Atthesametimerichmerchantswereusingdonkey caravanstomovetineastwardandtextileswestward,fromthePersianGulftoAnatolia,withprotsupto 100%inayear.Ref.279[191] ForwardtoTheNearEast:1500to1000B.C.Section6.3 ChooseDifferentRegion 1.IntrotoEraSection5.1 2.AfricaSection5.2 3.AmericaSection5.9 4.CentralandNorthernAsiaSection5.5 5.EuropeSection5.4 6.TheFarEastSection5.7 7.TheIndianSubcontinentSection5.6 8.PacicSection5.8 5.4Europe:3000to1500B.C. 7 5.4.1SOUTHERNEUROPE BacktoEurope:5000to3000B.C.Section4.4 5.4.1.1EASTERNMEDITERRANEANISLANDS TheBritishMuseumhasdisplaysindicatingtheoriginalcivilizationintheAegeanandeasternMediterraneanshould becalledthe"Cycladian",existingfrom3,000to2,000B.C.andtobeconsideredseparatefromtheCretanorMinoan Civilizationwhichfollowed 8 .Although,asnotedinthelastchapter,peoplewithanadvancedNeolithicCulturelived onCretefrom6,000B.C.onward,theBronzeAgestartedonlyabout2,600B.C. TherearesomewhobelievethattheEgyptianandAnatolianinuencesstimulatedthedevelopment,butmostnow feelthatthiswasapurelylocalprogressoverathousandyearperiod.Fortherst600yearsorsoofthisBronze Age,civilizationwasratherlowkey,anditappearsthattheremayhavebeenfolksofseveraldifferentoriginson theisland.Homerwasprobablytruthfulwhenhedescribedthreepeoples-theEteocretans,theKydoniansandthe Pelasgians.TherstofthesemaybeconsideredtheinitialtrulyCretanpeople,perhapsofLuvianoriginandspeaking theasyetundecipheredLinearAlanguage.TheBulgarianlinguist,VladimerGeorgiev,claimingdeciphermentof thePhaestosDiscfoundonCretein1910,believesthatthatrepresentedaLuvianlanguagewhichwasdominanton theislandaround1,700B.C.andthattheEteocretansandPelasgianshadsimilarlanguages.TheKydonianslivedin westernCrete,languageunknown,buttheyweredenitelynotGreekinorigin.ThePelasgianswereanAegeanpeople whooriginallymayhaveinhabitedalloftheAegean,ThraceandtheGreekmainland.Theirlanguagewasmid-way betweenThracianandHittite-Luvian.ObviouslyMinoawasamulti-lingualcivilization. TherstpalacesandcitiesofCreteappearedabout2,000B.C.,includingKnossus,Phaistos,MalliaandZakros.The rsthadabout80,000people 9 andthevastpalaceforthekingcalled"Minos",whichwaslocatedthere,wasthelargest andmostelaborateofall.Ithadexquisitepotteriesandtiles,bathroomswithrunningwater,toiletswithdrainage systemsandevidencesofrichappointmentsandjewelery.Theconstructionofsuchpalacesanditsaccouterments requiredanynumberofspecializedcraftsmen-architects,stonemasons,carpenters,plasterers,painters,potters, sculptors,gem-cutters,glassmakers,faiencemakers,smiths,weaversandprobablyothers. 7 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat. 8 Dr.FrankStubbingsRef.215[290],page114believesthattheCycladicandMinoanoriginatedataboutthesametime,800B.C.and existedsidebyside,alongwiththeMycenaeanontheGreekmainland 9 CotterellRef.41[62]saysnolessthan20,000betweentheyears2,000to1,700B.C.

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81 Thevehundredyearsfollowing2,000B.C.sawtheshipsoftheMinoansroamingunchallengedontheAegeanSea. TheCretannavyapparentlyclearedtheseasofpiratesandprotectedthehomelandfrominvasionsothattherewasno necessityforanykindofforticationontheisland.Thecommercialeetwasinvolvedinextensivecommercewith surroundingislands,theNearEastandEgypt.Thelattersuppliedscarabseals,carvedivories,copperandtin 10 and Egyptianlinen,whilereceivingoliveoil,paintedpottery,timberandwoolencloth.TheCretansaresaidtohavehad 100,000sheep.AnalabasterjarbearingthenameoftheHyksosKingKhyanhasbeenfoundandconrmsprobable delegationsandtradewithEgypt.Perhapsfromover-population,theMinoanssentcoloniststovariousotherislands andthemainlandofGreece.TheislandTherawasanimportantMinoansatelliteandacolonyontheislandofKythera, betweenthewesternendofCreteandthePeloponnese,wasstartedbefore2,000B.C.andwasstilloccupiedat1,450 B.C.CretanfashionsspreadthroughouttheislandsandeventoGreeceandAsiaMinor. RecentexcavationsnearArkhanes,southofKnossos,haverevealedatempleforthedead,datingto1,800B.C.with anoblewomanburialwhichincludedsuchthingsasagoldsignetringwithacultsceneconrmingthatMinoans, likeotherpeoplesofthattime,hadtheancientbeliefinthedyingandresurrectedgod.Thereisevidenceofanimal sacriceandapparentlyintimesofgreatstress,asintheearthquakeperiodabouttobedescribed,theyevenused humansacrices.Ref.18[31],136[187],129[179],215[290],109[155],186[254],211[284],213 [288],188[257] About1,700B.C.violentearthquakesdemolishedtheoldpalaces,buttheywereallrebuilt,forthemostpartonentirely newplans.Duringthisrebuilding,Minoancivilizationacquireditsdenitivecharacterandthebuildingsdeveloped theiruniquecharm,eleganceandgrace.Intheperiodofthenewpalaces,thepopulationofCretehasbeenestimated at256,000with50,000underthedirectruleofKnossos.Thepalaceshadgreatstoreroomsandworkshopsandthe earliestwritinghadtodowithaccountingforwheat,oil,barley,olives,gs,livestock,wineandhoney.Horsesare notdocumentedontheislandbeforethe15thcenturyB.C.whenthetechniqueofusingheattobendwoodforspoked wheelsbecameavailable.Theoverallsocietywasastratiedtheocracywiththepriest-kingatKnossossupremeand lesserpriest-kingsintheotherpalaces.Thelatter,inturn,weresurroundedbytheirnoblesandtheirwomenand beneaththemwasthepeasantry,stilllivingessentiallyinaStoneAgeeconomy.Incontrasttomostotherancient civilizationstherewerenoslaves.Amongtheupperclassesbothsexesworejewelryandparticipatedinart,dancing, musicandwhenyoungandsupple,inthefamousbullacrobatics.Themeaningofthelatterisstillnotclear. AlittlenorthofCreteintheAegeanSeaisthepeculiarlyshapedislandvariouslyknownasTheraorSartorini.This istheremnantofagreatvolcanowhichhaditsrsttraceableeruptionabout1,500B.C.buryingtheislandinashand pumice.In1967ProfessorMarinatosdiscoveredthetephra-preservedcoveredwithvolcanicdusttownofAkrotiri onthatisland.IneffectthisCretanextensionwasaBronzeAge"Pompeii"completewithterracottaplumbingand town-housearchitecture.ForftyyearsorsoafterthatrsteruptionTheraremainedquiet,butweshallhearmoreof itinthenextchapter.Ref.109[155]AdditionalNotesp.85 5.4.1.2GREECE IfoneacceptsthetheorythattheKurgansofsouthRussiamigratedtoGreecetobecometheMycenaeans,thedate of2,300B.C.isprobablyappropriate.SomebelievethereweretwowavesoftheseKurgans,withthesecondwave comingjustbefore1,600B.C.Thesewereahard-ridingwarriorclasswhodominatedtheirearlierbrotherstobecome asmall,powerful,rich,rulingclass.TheoriginalinhabitantsofbothmainlandGreeceandtheadjacentAegeanislands wereperhapsrelatedtotheCretansinspeechandrace,butthedevelopmentofcivilizationonthemainlandhadbeen arrestedbymassiveinvasionsattheendofthe3rdmillenniumbybarbarouspeoplesfromAnatolia,andacenturyorso laterbyinvadersfromthenorth.ThelattermayhavebeentheKurgans,therst"Greeks",althoughsomeauthorities believethattheGreek-speakersarrivedmuchlater.LiketheMinoans,theBronzeAgeGreeks 11 hadpassedthrough centuriesofhumblelivinginsmallvillages,obviouslypoorandwithlimitedtrade,chieywithCrete.Ofthevarious tribes,themenofMycenaeasoondominatedbyvirtueofchariotwarfareandby1,600B.C.therewasanadvanced styleoflife,centeredinthatcommunity,butwithinuencesextendingtoCreteandinuencedbyCrete,withships 10 CotterellIbidreportsthattherewasadequatecopperavailablelocallyandthattinwasimportedfromBulgariaandRomania 11 Theterms"Mycenaeans"and"Achaeans"bothsimplymean"BronzeAgeGreeks"

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82 CHAPTER5.3000TO1500B.C. ofbothvyingforcontroloftheMediterranean.PeiRef.168[229]saysthattheclassicalGreeklanguagewas welldifferentiatedbythattime.Thesailhadbeenusedafterabout2,000andthishadallowedforbettershingand increasedmaritimetrade.Withdomesticationofthegrapeandolive,newindustriesappearedandthrived.Magnicent tombs,withmassesofgoldartobjectsaredatedtothe16thcenturyB.C.Ref.215[290],8[14],168[229],41 [62] 5.4.1.3UPPERBALKANS ExcavationsatMaliq,Albania,haveprovedthatpeoplelivedtherein2,800B.C.,perhapsbeforethearrivaloftheIndoEuropeans,andtheymayhavemaintainedsomerelationswithMycenaea.InthethirdmillenniumB.C.andforawhile after2,000B.C.mostoftheBalkanswasoccupiedbytheTumulus,BattleAxeandCordedWarepeoplesPlease seeB.CENTRALEUROPE,thischapterwhomayhavedescendedfromthecopperandgoldsmithsdescribedinthe previouschapter.Intheearlysecondmillennium,however,theareawascrisscrossedwithmigratingtribes,particularly theGreekpeoples,describedimmediatelyabove.TheIllyrians,settlinginYugoslavia,wereanIndo-Europeangroup relatedtothepre-CeltswhowerelocatedjusttothenorthwestinthepresentareasofHungaryandAustria.Withthe developmentofagricultureinthesandy,glacialsoilofnorthernEuropeattheendofthistime-frame,theBalkans becamesomethingofabackwater.Ref.8[14],178[245] 5.4.1.4ITALY ThebasicpeopleofancientItalyweretheWesternIberiansoftheoriginalMediterraneanrace,andtheywereessentiallythesoleinhabitantsofallItaly,Sicily,SardiniaandCorsicaexceptforsomecoastalsettlementsbytheeastern Mediterraneanpeople,untilabout2,000B.C.wheninvadersdescendedfromthenorth.ThelatterweretheItalics,part ofthewesternbranchofearlyIndo-Europeanspeakers,relatedtothe"LigurianCelts".TheybuilthomesonfoundationsofpilesTerramaraandtheirdescendantsbecamethebasicstockofpresentdayItaly.By1,850B.C.these peoplehadoccupiedallofItalyexceptthenorthwesternone-quarterwhichwasoccupiedbyEtruscans,whoMcEvedy Ref.136[187]insists,wereremnantsoftheWesternIberians.AncientpeoplesalsoremainedonSicilyandthe westernislands,althoughby1,600B.C.so-called"CeltoLigurians"fromsouthernFrancehadoccupiedCorsicaand Sardinia.Ref.136[187] 5.4.2CENTRALEUROPE By3,000B.C.allEuropebutnorthernScandinaviahadfarmingcommunities.Indo-Europeanspeakinggroupslived throughoutcentralEuropefromthebeginningofthisperiod'svariousmodicationsofthebasiclanguage.Professor JanFilipRef.194[266],patriarchofCeltichistoryofCharlesUniversity,Prague,describeda"CordedWare" or"BattleAxe"peoplerepresentingtherstIndo-Europeanspeakersofthisarea,livingthereabout2,300B.C.as theprecursorsoftheCelts,anddominatingtheearlierNeolithicCulturesofnortherncentralandwesternEurope. TheAustrianSalzkammergutwassettledabout2,500B.C.withtheinhabitantsgettingsaltfromsaltwells.Ref.91 [135]Asageneralwestwardmigrationoccurredtheareabecamedominatedabout1,850B.C.bytheBell-beaker Culture,namedfromthebellshapedcupsfoundintheirgraves.Theoriginofthispotterysocietyhasbeenmuch disputed,someclaimingitstartedinSpainandspreadeasttoGermany,andsomethereverse,butifitwas,indeed,a cultureendemicwiththeearlyIndo-Europeans,thentheexpansionmusthavebeenwestwardfromtheoriginalIndoEuropeanzone.TheAunjetitzCulture,avariationoftheBell-beaker,oweredinsouthwesternGermanyandAustria fromthe18thtothe16thcenturiesB.C.Excavationsinthelattercountryhaverevealedbronzeneedles,armspirals, daggersandceramicswithintricatedetail.Asagriculturespread,sometimesasseedsweremovedtonewclimesthey wouldscarcelygrowandweedswouldtakeovertheelds.Onsomeoftheseoccasions,however,itwasdiscovered thattheweedsthemselvescouldbeusedandcultivatedinstead.Inthismannerryeandoatsdevelopedinnorthern Europe.Ref.45[66],136[187],194[266],211[284],91[135]

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83 5.4.3WESTERNEUROPE TherewasalateCopperAgeinSpainwithtechniquescomingacrosssouthernEuropefromtheCaucasus,after 3,000B.C.AsourceoftinwasfoundinnorthwestSpainsothattheareacouldreadilyparticipateinthebronze industriesbetween2,500and1,500B.C.Someofthemetal-usingcommunities,suchasthoseinsouthernSpainand Portugalabout2,500hadtobefortiedandsomehadtwohighwallswithoutlyingfortressestogivewarningofattack. Defendersfoughtwithbowandarrows.Ref.175[241] Inthelastchapterwediscussedthe4thmillenniuminhabitantsofEngland,theWindmillHillpeople.Itwasprobably thesewho,atthebeginningofthe3rdmillennium,startedtobuildaseriesofremarkablestonemonumentsinsouthern England.Thebestknownandmostthoroughlyinvestigated,writtenabout,photographed,paintedandromanticized ofthese,isStonehenge.Theoriginalstructure,Stonehenge1,datestonotlaterthan2,900whentherewerealready some180separatehabitationcentersinWessex.AtStonehenge,rstofalltherewasdugacircularditchsome1,050 feetincircumference,41/2to6feetdeepand12feetwide.Thepurposeofthiswastosupplythechalksoilforabank whichwasthusbuiltupalongtheinnersideoftheditch.Ithasbeenestimatedthatthisalonerequiredabout28,000 man-hoursofwork,usingred-deerantlersforpicksandwhateverforshovels.Thebankmeasures320feetindiameter andwasatleast6feethigh,althoughsomesay20feet,withacausewayentranceonthenortheast.Onlyafewstones wereusedinStageI,acoupleatthecausewayentranceandperhapsthefourStationStones,butamysteriousfeature wasagroupof53postholesalsointhecausewayentrance. Mostmodernscholarsareconvincedthatthesewereusedforpreciseandconstantobservationoftheextremenortherly risingsofthemoonforahundredyearsormore.Itrequiresnineteenyearsforthemoontoexactlyrepeatitscourse inrelationtotheearthandsun,sothatpredictionsofmoonpositions,possibleeclipses,etc.requirelongperiodsof observation.Theaveragediameterofthepostholesis3feet6inches,withadepthof21/2feet. Thereisnoevidencethattheyeverheldstonesorwoodenposts.Somehaveyieldedcremationremains,akesofint, cups,etc.alladdingtothemystery.ProfessorFredHoyleRef.99[144]believesthatthiswasnotbuiltbylocal people,butbysomewhocameespeciallytoplacethecircleattheexactspotneededforsomeastronomicalreasons. AfterPhaseIofStonehengewascompletedbutbeforePhaseIIanotherenormous,strangeconstructionappeared aboutone-halfmilenorthofStonehenge.Thisisanarrowhorse-shoeshapedearthworkswitheachlegrunningforone andthree-quartersmiles,andwhichiscalledthe"Cursus",becausesomehavefeltitrepresentsaNeolithicrace-track. ThereissomeevidencethatthebluestoneswhichweshallseewereusedinStonehengeIIhadearliereitherbeenused forsomepurposeorstock-piledatthewesternendofthisCursus.Thereareabouttwentysimilarconstructionsin Britainandthisoneisthesecondlongestanditmayevenpre-dateStonehengeI.ThelongestCursusisatDorsetand measures6.2milesinlength.Ref.7[12]TherearenoneoftheseconstructionsoutsideBritain. BeforethenextphaseofStonehengewasconstructed,theBell-beakerpeoplearrivedfromthecontinent,500-2,300 B.C.withtheircopperworkingskillsandtheirarrow-headsanddaggers.TinwasdiscoveredinCornwallandabronze industrycouldsoondevelop.ItwasthesesameBeakerfolkswhosubsequentlybridgedthetransitioninIrelandfrom theNeolithicperiodtotheBronzeAgebetween2,000and600B.C.,introducingcopperandgoldornamentation. ThesepeoplealsomigratedintoScotlandtofusewiththeearlierintuserswhohadcomefromIrelandandNorway atabout3,000B.C.McEvedyRef.136[187]callstheBell-beakerpeopleofthecontinent"Celto-Ligurians"and althoughwedislikegettinginvolvedinsemantics,wefeelthattheyweredenitelynotLiguriansandprobablynot rightlycalledCelts,asthelatterwerenotyetdenitelyseparatedfromthegeneralmassofIndo-Europeanspeaking peoplesofcentralEurope. ButtoreturntoStonehenge,PhaseIIdatestoabout2,100B.C.,withtheplacementofadoubleBluestoneCircle, withstonessixfeetapartinthecenteroftheoriginalconstruction.Partofthis,however,wasnevercompleted.The amazingthingisthat82oftheseophiticdoloritestonesweresomehowbroughtfromtheironlysource,thePrescelly MountainsofDyfed,Wales,-some135miles"asthecrowies"or240milesbyseaandland,eachweighingseveral tons,toStonehenge.ProfessorGeraldHawkins 12 hascalculatedthat209,280man-dayswererequiredtomovethese 12 AsnotedinBalfourRef.7[12],page90

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84 CHAPTER5.3000TO1500B.C. stones.InadditiontotheBlueStoneCirclesan"AltarStone"wasadded,theentrancewaswidenedandanewaxis alignmentmadeorastronomicalsightings.ThisPhaseIImayhavebeeninuencedbytheBeakerpeople. ThemostspectacularpartoftheStonehengedisplay,however,isPhaseIII,whichconsistsoftheSarsenCircleof thirtyuprightsandlintels,someweighingupto45tons.ThesemassivestonescamefromnearAveburyandalmostof necessityhadtobemovedoniceabouttheyear2,000B.C.whenEnglandwasmuchcolderthanbeforeorsince. ProfessorAlexanderThom,astronomerandmathematician,althoughdifferingfromHoyleastomanydetails,is equallysurethattheseancientstonebuilderswereabletopredicteclipses,andaftermanyyearsofstudybelievesthat allthemenhirslongstonesandcromlechscurvedstonesofBritainandBrittanyaswell,aresimilarinpurpose. Thereareofcourseotherstonecircles,some900alltogether,tobefoundthroughouttheBritishIsles.One,knownas DurringtonWalls,istwomilesnorthofAmesburyandwasbuiltbyskilledcarpentersofabout2,500B.C.probably withasloping,cone-shapedroofandacentralcourtyardopentothesky.Itis1,720feetindiameter.Areton?warriors undoubtedlyinhabitedtheseregionsafterabout1,900B.C.formingarulingpoweraristocracywhichlastedsome600 years.ThemysteriousstoneringofBrogarononeoftheOrkneyIslandsaswellasthegreattombatMaeshowedate to2,300B.C.,thesametimeastheconstructionoftheEgyptianpyramids.Later,atabout1,600B.C.,therewasatime ofhighsealevels,andthecoastalforestsofBritainwereinundatedbythesea.Ref.176[242],178[245],224 [299],7[12] Thelargestman-mademoundofantiquity,risingtoaheightof130feetandspreadingatitsbasewellover51/2acres, representinganamazingsurveyingandengineeringfeatofStoneAgeman,hasrecentlybeenexcavatedatSilbury Hall,notfarfromAvebury,inWiltshire,England.Multipletunnelsintothisgiantmoundhavefailedtorevealany skeletonsanditspurposeremainsunknown. Recentguresshow4,350dolmensusuallytombs,2,070menhirs,30cromlechsand110alignmentsinFrance.The mostimpressiveofallmaybethe3,000unitsmadeupof10to30columnsofmenhirsstretchedovertwomilesof countrysideatCarnac,France.Theremayhavebeenaselectclassofprieststrainedinstudyingtheheavens,andthese mayhaveoriginatedinEngland,withalaterpassingonofthesecretstothepriestsoftheCelts,theDruids.Caesar wrotethatthepriestlydisciplineoftheCeltswasdevelopedinBritainandwascarriedfromtheretoGaul,andby oral,notwritten,tradition.ProfessorThom'sstudiesindicatethatallthesestonemonumentswerebuiltonmultiples ofastandardunitofmeasurementcalledthemegalithicyardandwhichistheequivalentof2.72feet.Althoughmen hadworkedonthesemonumentsfor2,000years,afterabout1,500B.C.nomorewerebuilt.ProfessorHoylebelieves thatlatergenerationsofastronomer-priestslosttheabilitytokeeptheastronomicalsystemsuptodate,begantomake errorsandthenlosttheirfollowings.Ref.99[144],215[290],176[242],7[12] 5.4.4SCANDINAVIA About3,000B.C.afewimmigrantstoDenmarkbroughtagricultureandbig,polishedint-stoneaxestouseastoolsto cleartheforest.Theseaxeshavebeenfoundbythetensofthousands.Dolmensofstone,suchaswementionedunder WESTERNEUROPE,havebeenfoundintherangeofthreetofourthousandandaremorenumerousinDenmark thananyplaceintheworld.Megalithictombswereconstructedandmanydeadwerelaidtorestineach,someofthe deadwearinghundredsofamberbeads. Beginningabout2,500B.C.therewerepeopleofatleastfourdifferentcultureslivingsidebysideinsouthScandinavia. Theywere: 1.Thedecliningremainsofthemegalithiccivilization. 2.TheSingle-graveCultureofJutland,whichwasrelatedtothenext. 3.Boat-axeCultureofsouthSweden. 4.PittedWareorPit-combWareCulture,tobediscussedbelow. After2,000B.C.thesevariouspopulationsfusedtogetherinaNeolithicCulturewhichmadebeautifuldaggersand otherinstrumentsofint.By1,500metalworkhadappearedinauniqueNorthernBronzeAge.

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85 Afterabout2,000B.C.theamberbeadsnolongerappearedintombs,astheamberhadbeguntobetradedtothe Mediterraneancivilizations.StonecuttingandintquarrieswereearlyDanishindustries.TheBattle-axepeople, latertobecalled"Teutons",appearedabout2,000B.C.,buttheyusednobronzeforanotherthousandyears.Farming communitieswerepresentallthroughsouthernScandinaviathroughoutthethirdmillenniumB.C.anditwasthese StoneAgemenwholeftthehugegravechambers.FinlandandthefarnorthweresparselypopulatedwiththePitcombWareCulture,characterizedbyferociouslooking,rod-likearrowheads.Ref.215[290],117[164],88 [131] 5.4.5EASTERNEUROPE TheBalticareaandwesternRussiawerecolonizedchieybyIndo-Europeansafter3,000B.C.Anexceptionwasthe nomadicancestorsoftheEstonianswhoreachedtheBalticfromthevalleysoftheupperVolga.Theywererelatedto FinnsandHungarians,withalanguagewhichwasnotIndo-European.InthethirdmillenniumthePitGraveCulture oftheUkraniansteppesshowedwheeledcartsanddomesticatedhorses.Thismayrepresentthesiteoftheproto-IndoEuropeans,althoughasmentionedabove,theargumentgoeson.SovietandGermanphilologistsbelievethattheorigin ofthesepeopleandtheirlanguagehadtobenearthemouthoftheVolgaatthenorthendoftheCaspianSea,with spreadfromtherebothwestwardintoEuropeproperandsouthwardandeasterlyintoIranandthenIndia.Theyrefer tothepeopleas"Ur-people"andthelanguageas"Urlanguage".ThisconcepthasbeensecondedbytheUnitedStates archeologistofBaltdescent,MarijaGimbutas,afterherstudyofthekurgansburialmoundsofsouthernRussia.The Kurganpeopleseemtohavelefttheirhomesbetween2,400and2,300B.C.torstinvadethenorthshoreoftheBlack SeaandthentheterritoryoftheTrans-Caucasus.Themountainpeopleofthelatterareahadalreadyhadmuchcontact withtheMesopotamiancivilizationsandhadacivilizinginuenceonthebarbarianKurgans.TheHittitesmayhave movedoutfromthiscultureinabout2,000B.C.Ref.91[135]Oldrivernamessuggestthatby1,500B.C.the entireregionbetweentheBalticandtheAlps,theBritishIslesandHungary,wasoccupiedbypeoplespeakingasingle Indo-Europeanidiomcalled"OldEuropeanLanguage"bytheIndo-Europeanist,HansKrahe 13 .Aspecialsectionat theendofthischapterwillgiveamoreorlesscompletebreakdownofthevariousIndo-Europeanlanguages.Inthe meantimeletusreturntoournarrativeabouteasternEuropeinthisparticulartime-frame. TheUkraineandsomeareasfarthereastweresooncolonizedbypastoralgroups,someofwhichweretheancestorsof later-dayScythians.NorthofthesteppeanddesertbeltinRussia,aroundfty-vedegreesnorth,therewasathinbelt ofdeciduousforestwithsomefarmers,andstillnorthofthatwerescatteredhuntersofthereindeer.Copperworking extendedalmosttotheArcticby1,850B.C.PeasantfarmersfromcentralEuropecontinuedtopusheastwardalong theforestbeltofcentralRussia,growingthehardycerealsascropsandreachingMoscowandthesouthernUralsby 2,000B.C.Ref.8[14],225[301],45[66],88[131] TheBalticlinguisticgroupofnortheasternIndo-EuropeanscametotheeasternBalticandwesternRussiaareabefore andabout2,000B.C.asagriculturalistsandcattleraisers.TheyoriginallyreachednorthwardtoFinlandandeastward totheupperVolga 14 ,butonlythesoutheasternBalticgroupssurvivedthroughtheBronzeAge,theIronAgeand downtoaboutA.D.500,livingbetweentheOderandDvinarivers.TherearehundredsofBalticloanwordsinthe Finno-Ugrianlanguages.TheGalindiansGolyadofRussianchroniclesweretheeasternmostBalts,extendingupto theMoscowareaandexistingupuntilthe12thcenturyoftheChristianEra.Someislandsofthesepeoplestillexisted aroundSmolensk,VitebskandMinsk,almostupuntilthepresenttime.Theonlytruesurvivorstoday,however, aresomefamiliesinLatviaandLithuania,probablymixedwithinvadingGermans,PolesandRussiansthroughthe centuries.TheyatleaststillhaveBalticlanguages.Ref.8[14],61[90] Evenafter2,000B.C.theFatyanovoCultureexistedincentralRussia.By1,800threeratherdistinctpeoplesoccupied theirownzonesineasternEurope.InadditiontotheBalts,whichwehavedescribedasoccupyingtheBalticarea,to thesouthwasabandofSlavsextendingfromfarinRussiawesttotheVistula,andnallytheentiresouthernareawest andjustnorthoftheBlackSeawasoccupiedbytheThraco-Cimmerians.At1,600B.C.theBaltsandSlavswerestill 13 "Volga"isaBalticwordmeaning"long" 14 AsnotedbyHermRef.91[135],page71

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86 CHAPTER5.3000TO1500B.C. withouttheuseofbronze,althoughitwasincommonusetothewestwiththeproto-Celtsandtothesouthamongthe Thraco-Cimmerians.Ref.136[187] ForwardtoEurope1500to1000B.C.Section6.4 NOTE :AstheBronzeAgesetinabout2300B.C.Cypruscameintoitsownbecauseofitsgeologicgiftof copper.TheTroodosMountainsofthisislandwereonceoceaniccrust,thrustupsome70millionyearsago bytheadvancingAfricanandArabiantectonicplatesandtheyareloadedwithcopperandothermetals.At rsttheancientscouldsimplypickcoppernuggetsofftheground.Ref.281[113] 5.5CentralandNorthernAsia:3000to1500B.C. 15 5.5.1CENTRALANDNORTHERNASIA BacktoCentralandNorthernAsia:5000to3000B.C.Section4.5 Throughoutthefteenhundredyearscoveredinthischapter,theIranianIndo-Europeantribesslowlyexpandedinall directions,includingvarioussalientsacrosssouthernAsiabotheastandnorth.By2,500B.C.thehuntingeconomies hadbeguntogivewaytoherdingandagricultureinKazakhistanandcentralSiberia.Horsedrawncartswerein useinTurkistanbythesamedate.ThepotteryofallthesepeopleshowedafnitiestotheMiddleEast.Itwasthe domesticationofthehorsewhichallowedthemtospreadandpenetrateinalldirections. InthefarnortheastofAsia,theMongolpeoplescontinuedtheirowndevelopment,probablymorecloselyrelatedto theChineseculturethantotheIndo-Europeandevelopment.IntheareawhichnowcomprisesthewesternChinese provincesofKansuandSinkiang,butwhichgeographicallyaremoreapartofcentralAsia,thePan-Chanphaseof theYang-shaoCultureappearedabout2,500B.C.withlargeurnspaintedinspiralswithpurple,brown,redandblack. By1,500B.C.thisgavewaytotheHsien-tienCulturewhichincludedfarmingandtheuseofhand-madepottery andcoppertools.Farthernorthwest,intheYeniseiValley,theAfanasieveCulturewithstockbreedersandhunters, stampedpottery,andcopperornamentshavebeendatedtothis3rdmillennium.By1,500B.C.theAndrovonovo CultureexistedbetweentheDonandtheYeniseirivers,withsmallsettlementsofuptotensemi-subterraneanhouses. Theseindividuals,whoweretheancestorsofthelaternomadsofthecentralAsiaticsteppes,grewwheatandmillet andbredlive-stockatthattime.Ref.136[187],8[14],45[66],213[288] ForwardtoCentralandNorthernAsia:1500to1000B.C.Section6.5 5.6TheIndianSubcontinent:3000to1500B.C. 16 5.6.1THEINDIANSUBCONTINENT BacktoTheIndianSubcontinent:5000to3000B.C.Section4.6 InadditiontotheBrachycephalsdiscussedinthelastchapter,otherethnicgroupswerewellestablishedbythe3rd millenniumB.C.Negritos,Proto-AustraloidsandaMediterraneanpeoplenowmainlyassociatedwiththeDravidian CultureandnallytheMongoloidsofthenortheastandnorthernfringes,wereallpresent.Thelatterwereserpent worshipingNagas,whiletheDravidianswereadventuroussailingmerchantswithcitiesofrenementandluxuries. TodaytheDeccan,insouthernIndia,isessentiallyDravidianinstock,customsandlanguage. TheBrachycephal 17 developmentcametoowerintheIndusValleycitiesofHarappaandMohenjo-daronow allinPakistanwithacivilizationwhichsurvivedforalmostathousandyears,550to1,550B.C.withexcellent 15 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat. 16 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat. 17 ThereissomeevidencetosuggestthattheBrachycephalswerethemselvesDravidians.Ref.175[241]

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87 houses,elaboratedrainagesystems,bathrooms,etc.-allequaltoSumerianaccomplishmentsandprobablysuperior toBabylonianandEgyptiancultures.AtitsheightthissocietyextendedfarbeyondtheIndusValley,itself,seemap onnextpageandcoveredanareafargreaterthanthecontemporarystatesofMesopotamiaortheKingdomofEgypt. Ofthis,onlyhighcitadels,solidbuildings,uniformgridsofstreetsandtheelaboratedrainagesystemremain.Itwas asocietyofpriests,merchantsandpeasantfarmerswithextensiveseatradewithSumerandBabylonia.Therewas localscriptwritingby2,400B.C.butunfortunatelyithasnotyetbeenconvincinglydeciphered.Nooneknowseven thelanguagefamilytowhichitbelongs,althoughtherearethousandsofshortexamplesonstoneseals,metalobjects andpottery.ThiscivilizedareanotonlyextendedallalongtheIndusanditstributariesbutranforvehundredmiles alongthecoastoftheArabianSea,andFrencharcheologistshavealsodiscoveredremainsofamatureHarappan settlementupinnortheasternAfghanistanclosetotheRussianborder,athousandmilesnortheastoftheIndusmouth. TheHarappansdomesticatedtheIndianjunglefowl,latertobecometheworld's"chicken".Thewomenapparentlyall woreatleastloincloths,butthemenareoftenshownnaked,inthediscoveredgurines.Ref.8[14],176[242], 215[290],44[65],211[284] Thedisappearanceofthisasalivingcivilizationhasbeentraditionallyblamedonthedestructionwroughtbythe AryaninvadersfromBactriaandnorthernIranwhodescendedintothisareabetween1,600and1,500B.C..Although theycameprimarilyasimmigrantstondpasturelandfortheircattle,theywerealsostrongghterswhencombat wasnecessary,andgraduallyallHindustanthelandnorthoftheNarbadaRiverwasundercontrolofthesepeople, nowcalled"Vedics".TheyprohibitedintermarriagewithnativegroupsandthusinitiatedtheCasteSysteminIndia. TheirAryantonguewasancestraltoSanskritandSanskritwasawelldifferentiatedlanguageby2,000B.C..They hadasophisticatedtheologyandwellorganizedpriesthood,bothindicatinginuencesofSumerianandBabylonian religiousideas.SomeauthoritiesputthecollapseoftheHarappancivilizationsomewhatearlier,between1,800and 1,700B.C.andmentionthatthestreetsofMohenjo-darowhenrstexcavatedwerelinedwithcorpses.Iftheinvading Aryanswerenotresponsible,otherpossibilitiesincludedachangeinthecourseoftheIndus,oraterribledrought. ItisofinterestthatmanyIndussettlementswereinareaswheretodaythereisnothingbutdrysandandagriculture wouldbeimpossible.Apparentlyinthoseancientdaysrainfallandriverwaterhadbeenmoreplentifulandthishas beenconrmedbyarcheologicalpollencounts,Thesepollens,whichwereingreatnumbersinthelowermostlayers laterdroppedintheupperlayersofexcavationandwerethenchieyofdesertplants,indicatinganobviousdrought. OnetheoryofthecauseofthishasbeenputforwardbyReidBrysonoftheUniversityofWisconsin,whofeelsthat withincreasingpopulationoftheInduscivilizationtheforestsweredestroyedforfuelandtimbers,andtheresulting deforestationacceleratedtherun-offofrain,decreasingsoilmoistureandloweringthefertilityfromerosionandtopsoilloss.Thenwithovergrazing,aman-madedesertappeared,withrisingdustwhich,inturn,cloudedandcooledthe upperatmosphere,withtheresultingheavier,coolairsinkingdownwardandpreventingrain.Thusitispossiblethat theInduspeople,pushingtheirenvironmenttothelimit,causedtheirowndownfallandnearextinction.Inanyevent, lifedidcontinueinthevalleybutwithoutthehighlyorganizedculturepreviouslyknown.Ref.46[76],68[106], 176[242],45[66],215[290] Figure5.1: IndusCivilization By2,000B.C.PanchewingwasawellestablishedpracticeinIndia.PanistheBetelnut,andlikecocaineitispart narcoticandpartstimulant.WehavementionedthattheAryansbroughtlivestockwiththem,particularlycattle.They atebeef,mutton,milk,andcurdsandusedthecookingmedium"ghi",aclariedbutter,whichcanbekeptformonths. Theyintroducedthisheavydependenceondairyproducts,reinforcedbypreceptsfromtheVedas,whichledslowlyto abeliefinthesacrednessofthecow,apreceptstillexistingtoday.Ref.211[284]

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88 CHAPTER5.3000TO1500B.C. VeryrecentexcavationsatBalakotontheArabianSeacoastofsouthernPakistanindicatethepossibilityofacivilizationevenearlierthantheHarappan,withwelldevelopedceramicsandtheuseofcopper.InthefarsouthinSriLanka, therstinhabitantsweretheVeddas,whoemergedthereabout3,000B.C.Onlyafewofthedescendentsofthese aboriginesstillliveinthemountainousarea.Ref.44[65],38[59] ForwardtoTheIndianSubcontinent:1500to1000B.C.Section6.6 ChooseDifferentRegion 1.IntrotoEraSection5.1 2.AfricaSection5.2 3.AmericaSection5.9 4.CentralandNorthernAsiaSection5.5 5.EuropeSection5.4 6.TheFarEastSection5.7 7.TheNearEastSection5.3 8.PacicSection5.8 5.7TheFarEast:3000to1500B.C. 18 5.7.1CHINAANDMANCHURIA BacktoTheFarEast:5000to3000B.C.Section4.7 Chineselegendsarebountifulwithallegedrecordsatleastbackto3,000B.C.,allofwhicharenoteasytosubstantiate. ExcavationsinChekanyprovinceincentralsouthernChinahaverevealedaNeolithicCulture,theYang-Shao,which wehavementionedpreviously,withpaintedpottery,datingtoabout3,000BC.Themorewide-spreadLung-Shan, blackpotteryculturepeakedatabout2,000B.C.Thelegendsdescribeanumberofgreatemperorswhotaughtthe peoplemarriage,music,writing,painting,shingwithnets,domesticationofanimalsandthefeedingofsilkworms. TraditionhasitthatEmpressSi-Ling,wifeofthegreatHuang-Ti,discoveredsilkabout2,640B.C.Brickstructures mayhavebeenerectedabout2,600B.C.alongwithobservationsforthestudyofstarsandtheconstructionofacorrect calendar.ChinesemedicineallegedlybeganwiththelegendaryFuHsiin2,953B.C.followedbyShenNung,theRed EmperorHung-Ti,whocompiledtherstmedicalherbalmaterial,thePen-Tsao,about2,800B.C.Hesupposedly personallytested365drugsanddrewuptherstacupuncturecharts.Morefamousisthegreatmedicalcompendium, theNeiChingCanononMedicineallegedlydevelopedbyYuHsiung,theYellowEmperorHuangTi,about2,600 B.C..Thiswastransmittedorallyuntilprobablythe3rdcenturyB.C.andwasstilllaterrevisedinthe8thcenturyof theChristianEra.TheNeiChingdealswithallphasesofhealthandillness,preventionaswellastreatment,including acupuncture.Tea,whichgrowswildinManchuria 19 ,wascultivatedthereabout2,000B.C.AtrsttheChinesemerely chewedtheleaf.Ref.38[59],125[173],46[76],45[66],122[170],213[288] FromthemiddleofthethirdmillenniumB.C.theheartoftheYellowRivervalleywasdenselypopulated.Ittook alargeanddisciplinedforcetodrainandoodcontrolthisoodplain.Asmalltypeofpigwasfoundineveryhut andtheox-cartwasknownby2,000B.C.Thehorseandchariotcamealittlelaterwiththehorsessimilartothe wildMongolianponieswithheavyheadsandshortlegs.Foxtailmilletandasmallamountofwheatspreadfrom thewestweregrown.Ricewascultivatedmuchlater,beginningsouthoftheYangzte 20 ,aforeignland,wooded, marshyandpeopledwithnomadsofadifferentrace.Thersttrulyurban,knowncivilizationinChinawastheShang BronzeAgeCultureof1,700to1,600B.C..HuckerRef.101[146]saystheShangmonarchyemergedfromthe HonanbranchoftheLung-Shan,blackpotterycultureandperhapsbeganasearlyas1,176B.C.Recentexcavations 18 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat. 19 ThistellssomethingabouttheclimateofManchuria,inthatteacannottoleratefrostordrought 20 TragerRef.222[296]saysthericewasbroughtfromtheMohenjo-darocivilizationabout2,300B.C.,butthesourceofthisinformationis notgiven

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89 atLoyangandChengchowdemonstrateprogressivedevelopmentfromLung-ShanintotheevermorematureShang. Thereurbandevelopmentwasabout1,000yearslaterthanthatinMesopotamiaandabout500yearsafterthatinthe Indusvalley,sosomeelementsfromthewestundoubtedlydiffusedtoChina.ThelasttwelveoftheShangkings lived273yearsbeginningabout1,395B.C.intheAn-YangareaatYin-hsutheruinsofYin.Theentiredynastyis sometimescalled"Yin"afterthiscapital.TheShangcitieswerelargeandhadahighorderofbronzetechnologyand horse-drawnchariotsaswellasafullydevelopedChinesewritingsystemandaculturededicatedtowaragainstthe outlying"barbarians".Theirbowshada160poundpullandcouldkillat200yards,aweaponlaterusedbythesteppe nomadsandknowntothewesternersastheTurkishcompoundbow.AlthoughtraditionallytheShangwasdescribed ascontrollingmostofnorthernChina,actuallyitwasprobablyalooseconfederationofclans.TheHuang-Hosociety, ontheYellowRiver,hadanideographicscriptabout1,500B.C.Whereveritappeared,writinginChinaisgenerally admittedtobetheresultofdiffusionfromthewest.Ref.211[284],101[146],8[14],215[290],213[288] AdditionalNotesp.89 5.7.2JAPAN PeopledwithNeolithicsocieties. 5.7.3KOREA ThereisarcheologicalevidenceofpeopleonthispeninsulainaNeolithicsocietyby3,000B.C.Ref.113[161] 5.7.4SOUTHEASTASIA MostofthisareahadpeasantfarmersandhuntinggroupsandweknowthatbronzewasusedveryearlyinThailand. Ironobjectsseemtohavebeenmadethereabout1,600B.C.orevenearlier.Thiswas"wrought"iron,madebyheating oreonlytoabout1,083degreesCentigradeandthenhammeringawaytheslagfromtheironglobules.Ref.8[14], 215[290] WavesofStoneAgepeoplecolonizedtheIndonesianislandsfromthemainland.AnAustronesianpeopleusingLapita potteryappearedintheMoluccasareaofIndonesiasometimeinthisperiod,andtheybegantomigrateslowlyeastward. Fromabout3,000B.C.on,theMalaysinthePhilippineswerejoinedbyamoreadvancedracefromIndonesia.These twopeoplesmerged,buildingupatribalsystemknownasthebarangay.Ref.8[14],175[241] ForwardtoTheFarEast:1500to1000B.C.Section6.7 ChooseDifferentRegion 1.IntrotoEraSection5.1 2.AfricaSection5.2 3.AmericaSection5.9 4.CentralandNorthernAsiaSection5.5 5.EuropeSection5.4 6.TheIndianSubcontinentSection5.6 7.TheNearEastSection5.3 8.PacicSection5.8 NOTE :RecentexcavationsaroundShanghaishowevidenceofanearlyNeolithicSocietyatHemudu,where thepeoplecultivatedriceandhaddomesticateddogs,pigsandwaterbuffaloandlivedinwood-framehouses withplankoors.Theymadesilkandcreatedbaskets.ThiswasbeforetheShangperiod.Ref.314[255]

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90 CHAPTER5.3000TO1500B.C. 5.8ThePacic:3000to1500B.C. 21 5.8.1THEPACIFIC BacktoThePacic:5000to3000B.C.Section4.8 Aboriginaldevelopmentinreligion,politicalandeconomiclifecontinuedinAustralia.ImmigrantsfromIndonesia broughtLapitapotteryintotheMelanesianislandsby2,000B.C.andperhapstoMicronesia,justnorthoftheequator, byabout1,500B.C.Ref.8[14],134[184] ForwardtoThePacic:1500to1000B.C.Section6.8 ChooseDifferentRegion 1.IntrotoEraSection5.1 2.AfricaSection5.2 3.AmericaSection5.9 4.CentralandNorthernAsiaSection5.5 5.EuropeSection5.4 6.TheFarEastSection5.7 7.TheIndianSubcontinentSection5.6 8.TheNearEastSection5.3 5.9America:3000to1500B.C. 22 5.9.1FARNORTHANDCANADA BacktoAmerica:5000to3000B.C.Section4.9 TherewerealwaysmorepeopleontheAleutianIslandsthanonthemainland,becauseofamilderclimate.Nevertheless,from4,000to1,000B.C.anArcticSmallTooltraditionexistedinAlaska,spreadingacrossthearcticpartof CanadatoGreenland,givenitsnamefromtheminiaturebladeslashedtohandlesofboneorwalrusivoryusedfor cuttingandscrapingskins.Thebladeswerechippedfromacoreofchert,arockofmicro-crystallinequartz.These AsiaticpeopleevenmigratedtoEllesmereIslandinnortheasternCanada,lessthan800milesfromtheNorthPole, about2,300B.C.,crossingoverthemountainsinagreatnotch,todayknownasSverdrupPass,totheupperendof BafnBay,whichusuallyhasopenwateratleastinthesummer.Canadianarcheologistshaveexcavatedsomeofthese pre-historicsites,wheretheearliestarenowthirtytothirty-vemetersabovethepresentsealevel,althoughtheywere originallyonthebeach.Asinothernorthernareasoftheglobe,theearth'scrusthasrisenslowlyoverthecenturies aftertheliftingofthegreatweightoftheglacialice.FromEllesmereIslandprogressintonorthernGreenlandover wintericewasnoproblem.Byabout1,500B.C.inBritishColumbiaandWashingtonstatepeopleweresettledin villagesandshedforsalmon,althoughtheydidnotpracticecultivation.Ref.209[282],45[66],189[259] Thisistheeraoftheso-calledRedPaintCulture,withnativeAmerindianStoneAgetraditionsderivedfromold northeasternAsia.TheRedPaintorMooreheadCultureoriginallydescribedfromprehistoricgraveyardsinMaine -thegravescontainingredochrehasnowbeenidentiedaspartofalargermaritimeArchaictraditionextending fromnorthernLabradoratthe60thparalleltosouthernMainebetweenabout2,000and1,500B.C.Thisareawas deglaciatedabout7,000B.C.withtundrathenpresentuntilabout3,000whenspruceforestsnallyappeared.The settlementpatternandlifestylesoftheseRedPaintpeopleseemstohavebeendifferentfromboththeEskimosand theMontagnais-NaskopiIndiansofinlandLabradorandQuebec.Hunting,shing,tradingtoolsandrawmaterialsand buryingtheirdeadweredenableactivities.Therootsofthisculturemayhaveextendedbackseveralthousandyears tothePaleo-Indianhuntersofthenowsubmergedcontinentalshelf.Ref.69[107] 21 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat. 22 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat.

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91 5.9.2THEUNITEDSTATES ThereaderisadvisedtoreviewtheprecedingtwoparagraphsconcerningMaineandWashingtonState.Intheeast theeasternArchaicCulturewaschangingabout2,000B.C.inthattherewasthemanufactureofsomecrudepottery andtherewasanincreasedattentiontoburialobservances.SomecallthisthebeginningoftheWoodlandCultureand otherscallitsimplytheLatePeriodoftheArchaicoftheEasternWoodland.Atthesametime,inthesouthwestern states,specializeddesertculturescontinuedtodevelopfromtheArchaic.Asrecordedinthelastchapter,theCochise begancultivatingcornsometimefrom3,000to2,000B.C.,providingthemextranourishmentfortheiruncertaindiet. SquashnowwasalsobroughtupfromMexicoandtinygardensofbothhavebeenfoundallovertheCochisewandering area.SantaCatalinaIsland,twentymilesofftheCaliforniacoast,aspreviouslynoted,wasinhabitedandsomeforty Indiantownsiteshavebeenidentied.ItisobviousthatcoastalIndianshadfacilitiesforoceantravel.Ref.45[66], 64[94],210[283],187[256] 5.9.3MEXICO,CENTRALAMERICAANDTHECARIBBEAN The"Pre-ClassicAge"ofMiddleAmericatraditionallybeganabout2,000B.C.withMayanancestorsbeingsimple villagefarmers,althoughtheearliestMayacarbondatingontheCaribbeansideofYucatangoesbacktobetween2,750 and2,450B.C.ItisentirelypossibletheMayabeginningsmaygobacktoEcuadorat3,000B.C.whiletheOlmec civilizationbeganseparatelyontheGulfcoastmuchlater.In1977NormanHammondRef.85[126]published resultsofarcheologicalexcavationsinBelizeformerlyBritishHonduraswhichseemtoconrmtheoriginsofthe Mayabackatabout2,600-2,500B.C.Hedescribesalowlandpotterycalled"Swash",foundinburialsiteswith humanskeletons.Theadultsamongthelattershowedadvancedtoothwear,suggestingabrasivesintheirdiet.The Mayasteepedcorninslakedlimebeforeboiling,tosoftenitandincidentallyitreleasedcertainamino-acidsnot otherwiseabsorbableandthislime,alongwithgritderivedinthegrindingprocessprobablyaccountedforthetooth wear.Theseindividualsalsoconstructedraisedearthplatformsinswampsbydiggingoutdrainagechannelsand throwingthemuduptomakeplatformsonwhichvariouscropsweregrown.Thepresenceofjade,notnaturally presentwithin350kilometers,indicatesatradenetwork.TheirSwaseyceramics-colorful,decorativeandmaturearedifferentfromthatofMexicoandthesouthernUnitedStatesof2,500B.C.,butaresimilartoEcuadorianpottery ofthisperiod.ThroughoutCentralAmericamaize-farminghadbecomethebasisoflifeby1,500B.C.andthefarmers livedinpermanentvillages.BythesamedateintheTehuacanValleyofMexico,therewascomplexvillagelife, pottery,elaboratedreligiousritualsandintricatesocialorganization.Cornandpotteryhavebeendatedto2,000B.C. inPanama.Ref.45[66],95[140],85[126],64[94],62[91] 5.9.4SOUTHAMERICA Valdiva,asacoastalsocietyinEcuador,likePanama,hadcornandpotterybyabout2,000B.C. 23 .EvansandMeggers, oftheSmithsonianMuseum,areimpressedwiththesimilaritiesbetweenValdivianpotteryandtheJomonpottery ofJapan,believingEcuadormayhavebeenthelandingplaceofaJapaneseimmigration,thusbringingonemore possibilityofAsiandiffusiontotheAmericas.Weshallexamineotherideasinotherchapters.Potatoeswerecultivated intheAndesby3,000B.C.,maniocwasgrownonthetropicallowlandsandthereweredomesticatedanimalsinSouth Americashortlyafter2,000B.C.CeremonialcentersfoundalongthedesertcoastofPerudatetoaboutthesame timeasdidevidenceofmetalworking.TheAnconYachtsiteonthecoastofPeru,dated2,500to2,000B.C.showed chippedleafpoints,string,turnedclothandbaskets,woodentools,shellshhooksandcultivatedplantswhichincluded gourds,cottonandchilipeppers. ThePeruviansusedthepotatoby3,000andsoondomesticatedtheguineapigforfood.CoastalPeruviansgathered protein-richshellshoffthebeachesby2,800andby2,500B.C.,whenthevillageswerelarge,faroutoceanshing forlargershwascommon.Ref.62[91],45[66],209[282],211[284],222[296] EarlyfarmerswereprobablywellestablishedontheEcuadorianseacoastandriverplainsby3,000B.C.Contactwith Mesoamericawascertainlypossiblebywater,butotherwisetherewasa2,000milejunglestretchbetweenthem.What 23 ThomasRef.213[288]saystheEcuadorianshadpotteryevenearlier,at3,200B.C.

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92 CHAPTER5.3000TO1500B.C. EngelRef.62[91]callsthe"beanplanterssociety"cameintobeinginthelowercentralAndes,alongwithcotton clothesandunderwearatabout2,000B.C.Thebonesofsea-lionsaremixedwiththoseoftheseearlyagriculturalists. ExcavationsinVenezuela,likeadjacentareas,showevidenceofmaniocandsweetpotatocultivationfrombetween 3,000and2,700B.C.Bothofthesearerootcrops,butmaniocrequiredspecialpreparationtobemadepalatable.Ref. 95[140],62[91],209[282] ForwardtoAmerica:1500to1000B.C.Section6.9

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Chapter6 1500to1000B.C. 6.11500to1000B.C. 1 6.1.1CHAPTER515THTHROUGH11THCENTURYB.C. Backwardto3000to1500B.C.Section5.1 6.1.1.11,500TO1,000B.C. LiteracyinthiserawasconnedentirelytotheNearEast,Greece,Egypt,theIndusValleyandChina.TheSumerian cuneiform,carriedatrstbyAssyriantraders,wasadaptedtoHittite,LuvianandHattitelanguagesinAsiaMinor, anditwassoonalsousedbyAmorites,HurriansandMitanni.Finallythepharaohsofthe18thdynastyinEgypt conductedtheirforeignaffairsincuneiformandintheAkkadianlanguageratherthanintheirnativehieroglyphics. Theopensyllabarywhichhadmadeitsappearancebythe16thcenturyB.C.nowwasfollowedbytheconsonantal alphabet.Insomeareasthismayhaveactuallyprecededtheopensyllabary.Thiswasalsoaperiodofmilitarized, barbarianassaultsagainstthecivilizationcentersofEurope,themiddleEast,IndiaandChina.Chariotwarfaregave extraimpetustothebarbarianadvanceandtheirinvasionsincreasedinthewesternworldafter1,200B.C.Ref.136 [187]AdditionalNotesp.93 NOTE :Diffusionofiron-workingskillswiththeconsequentuseofshieldsandhelmetstoprotectagainst charioteers'arrows,facilitatedthenewroundofinvasionsandmigrationsbetween1200and1000B.C.Thus Hebrews,Persians,Doriansandothersenteredthescene.Ref.279[191] Forwardto1000to700B.C.Section7.1 ChooseDifferentRegion 1.AfricaSection6.2 2.AmericaSection6.9 3.CentralandNorthernAsiaSection6.5 4.EuropeSection6.4 5.TheFarEastSection6.7 6.TheIndianSubcontinentSection6.6 7.TheNearEastSection6.3 8.PacicSection6.8 1 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat. 93

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94 CHAPTER6.1500TO1000B.C. 6.2Africa:1500to1000B.C. 2 6.2.1NORTHEASTAFRICA BacktoAfrica:3000to1500B.C.Section5.2 ThestoryofNortheastAfricainthisperiodisessentiallythatofEgyptwithlittlechangeoccurringintheadjacent regions,exceptforCushorKush.AftertheoverthrowoftheforeignHyksosrulerslocalcontrolwasresumedwithin theestablishmentoftheNewKingdomoftheEgyptianEmpire,withthegreatpharaoh,ThutmoseIII,takingoverpart ofthecoastoftheNearEastandbringingEgyptincontactwithothercultures.HeeventookaninterestinAsiatic oraandfaunaandbroughtspecimenshome.ExtensivecommercialtiesresultedinimportsofCretanwares,Syrian amphoraeandAfricangold,ebony,ivory,hidesandexoticanimals.Atabout1,500B.C.theEgyptianshadpushed southtobecomethemastersofKush,"toprotecttheirsecurity"andincidentallytoobtaingold.TheKushites,who mayhavedescendedfromC-groupCaucasoids,becameincreasinglyEgyptianized.Ref.83[123]Thegreatest geographicalexpansion,however,wasreachedunderAmenhotepIII,about1,390B.C.Thisrulerhadhislikeness constructedintwocolossalstatuesacrosstheNilefromLuxor,bytransportinghugepiecesofquartzite 3 somefour hundredmilesfromaquarrydownstreamontheNile.Recentscienticresearch,identifyingtherock,wouldindicate thatthetransporthadtohavebeenaccomplishedonaspeciallybuiltlighterdrawnupstreambyoarsandgangsof draggersonthebanks.AboutacenturyearliersuchagreatbargewasengravedonthewallsofthetempleofQueen HatshepsutatDeir-el-Bahri.Ref.231[308],90[134] NOTE:InsertIllustrationpage103 AmenhotepIVallowedsomepoliticaldecline,but,changinghisnametoAkhnatonorIkhnatonheattemptedtoforce anew,strictlymonotheisticreligionontheEgyptianpeople,butthenewfaithdidnotlastlong.Tutenkhamonruledin 1,355andRamesesII,whoexhaustedhisresourcesinwarsagainsttheHittitesandthenmarriedanHittiteprincess, ruledabout1,250B.C.HebuilttherstSuezCanal,atasknottoodifcultthen,astheseawashigherthanatpresent. AvictoryinscriptionofPharaohMerneptahabout1,224-1,214B.C.mentionstheHebrews,andthismayhavebeen whenMosesledtheHebrewsbacktoPalestine.After1,165EgyptlostallterritorybeyondtheNilevalleyitself.In theearlypartofthisperiodundertheRamessidkingsoftheXXdynasty,thedominantreligionhadreturnedtothe worshipoftheSunGodReandAmon,butgraduallytheOsirianchurchbegantotakeoveramongthemajorityofthe people.ThisinvolvedtheworshipoftheGodOsirisandhissister-wife,thenatureGoddessIsisandtheirinfantson, Horus.Themysteriesofthisreligion,includingthedeathandresurrectionofOsirisandtheinterpretationofIsisas the"MotherofGod"spreadthroughouttheNearEastinthenextmanycenturies,andeventuallyservedatonetimeas bothamodelandarivalforChristianity,persistingwelluptothe6thcenturyC.E.However,atabout1,100B.C.the highpriestofAmontookoverthethroneandtheempirebecameastagnanttheocracy.EvenKushwasabletoregain itsindependence.Invasionsof"Seapeoples"-mixedarmiesofCretansandLuvians,perhaps-probablycontributed toEgyptiandecline.Ref.[48],46[76],38[59],8[14],224[299] ThegloryofEgyptiansciencewasmedicine.Publicsanitationwaspromotedandallwerecircumcisedandtaughtto useenemasascleansingprocedures.Theyusedglass,linen,paperandink,thecalendarandwaterclock,geometry andanalphabet.Theempirehadapeaceful,internalgovernmentwitharegularcensusandpost,bothprimaryand secondaryeducationforsomeandtechnicaltrainingschoolsforadministrators.Wheeledvehicleswerecommon,and theyutilizedbronzeandsuchtoolsasblacksmithbellows.TheNilevalleylackedironoressotheEgyptianswere limitedintheuseofthenewmilitarytechnologythatappearedinadjacentregionslateinthisperiod.Indynastic Egyptthebasicdietofthepeasantconsistedofbread,beerandonions,therstbeingaatbreadcalled"ta",but noblesandpriestscouldchoosefromsomefortytypesofbreadsandpastries. ChickenswereavailableandlatertheNilemarshessuppliedeel,mullet,carpandperch,andsomeoftheseshes, driedandsalted,wereexportedtoSyriaandPalestine.Ref.136[187],211[284] 2 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat. 3 Thepedestalblockswitheachstatuemadeatotalweightof720metrictonseachRef.90[134]

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95 6.2.2NORTHCENTRALANDNORTHWESTAFRICA NeolithicBerberscontinuedtoliveinNorthAfrica.ThepopulationofLibyawasaddedtobyAnatolianSeaPeople, perhapsCretansand/orLuvians,whoattackedEgyptabout1,400B.C.andthencolonizedLibya.Manyofthese invaderswerelateremployedintheEgyptiannavy.Herodotus,Plinyandotherancientwriters,describedapeople called"Garamantes"wholivedinpresentdayFezzanmilesnortheastofTimbuktuandwhotraveledintwowheeledchariotsdrawnbyhorses.Rockengravingsinthisareahaveconrmedthis.WeretheypartoftheSea Peoples?SomesaytheTauregsaretheirdescendants.DenitelyamongtheSeaPeoplewereShardanaorSherden whocarriedroundshields,broadswordsandwhoworefeatheredwar-bonnets.Phoenicianimmigrantssettledin Moroccoabout1,100B.C.andtheseareaslaterbecamepartoftheCarthaginianEmpire. ThiswasconrmedbytheGreekhistorian,Procopius,whowrotethatthisPhoenicianmigrationcameatthetimeof KingDavid'sHebrewwars.Ref.65[96],176[242],66[97],175[241] TheCanaryIslandsintheAtlanticjustoffthecoastofnorthwestAfricawereinhabitedbeforetheknownarrival ofEuropeansbytheGuanche,whowereamixedCaucasoidandNegroidpeople,varyingsomewhatfromislandto island,withblondandbeardedmenlivingnexttodark-skinned,clearlyNegroidindividuals.Thishasbeenconrmed bothbyearlydescriptionsandbymummiesfoundontheislands.The"CanaryCurrent"isastrong,westwardowing AtlanticoceancurrentgoingstraightfromtheseCanaryIslandstotheCaribbeanSeaandthebaseoftheYucatan peninsula.ItisofgreatinterestthattheOlmecs,livingatthewesternendofthisCanarycurrentinAmericaatthisera, wereidenticalphysicallywiththoseGuancheoftheCanaries.ThedistancefromtheseislandstoMiddleAmericais equaltothatfromAsiaMinortotheislands,buttheformertripisinnitelyfasterandsimpleronanything,suchasa reed-boatorevenaraft.Ref.95[140] 6.2.3SUBSAHARANAFRICA NegrofarmersinhabitedtheSudanicbeltandtheirpopulationcontinuedtoincreaseasfruits,vegetablesandcereals werecultivatedintheforestzone.Ghana,inwestAfrica,haddomesticcattleandgoatsby1,500B.C.Therewas alsopottery,stoneaxes,shalearm-ringsandnestonepoints,whoseuseisunknown.InsouthernMauretania,onthe southernfringeoftheSahara,excavationsatDarTichitthaverevealedtheso-calledNaghesphase,datedfrom1,200 to1,000B.C.andshowingcircularcompoundswithevidenceofcattleandgoatherding,shingandsomehunting. Thepeoplehadstoneaxes,arrowheads,gouges,andpottery.IncentralandsouthernAfricanomadicblackBushmen livedintheStoneAge.Ref.8[14],45[66] By1,000B.C.additionalCaucasoidgroupscalled"Azanians"broughtcattleandcerealstojointhepreviouslysettled darkwhitesintheKenyahighlandandadjoiningnorthernTanzania.Theyleftstoneburialchambers,hutcircles, terracedelds,roadsandtracesofirrigation.BytraditiontheAzaniansweretall,beardedandred-skinned.Inlater centuriesthesepeoplewereabsorbedbytheNilo-HamitesandtheBantuNegroids.Ref.83[123] ForwardtoAfrica:1000to700B.C.Section7.2 6.3TheNearEast:1500to1000B.C. 4 6.3.1THEARABIANPENINSULA BacktoTheNearEast:3000to1500B.C.Section5.3 ThereweremultiplenomadictribesintheArabianPeninsulaandverydryareaswereopenedforsettlementbytheuse oflimeplasterforwatertightcisterns.InpresentdayJordan,AmmonbecamethecapitaloftheAmmonitetribeand legendhasitthatthiscitywasconqueredbytheJudeanKingDavid.TheAramic-speakingArameanslivedprimarily aroundPalmyraandwiththeircamelstheybegantoattackthe"fertilecrescent"tothenorthandeast.Atabout1,000 4 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat.

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96 CHAPTER6.1500TO1000B.C. B.C.theybegantomigrateeasttoBabylonia,northtowardAsiaMinorandwesttoDamascus.Theirrelatives,the Chaldeans,begantoemergefromcentralArabiaandalsostartedtowardBabylon,andmoreparticularlytowardUr,in Sumer.Ref.8[14] 6.3.2MEDITERRANEANCOASTALAREASOFISRAELANDLEBANON About1,500B.C.anentirelynewtypeofwritingwasrecordedforthersttime,intheSinaiPeninsula.Thiswas analphabetinwhicheachsignrepresentedoneconsonant.ItsoonspreadamongthePhoeniciansandotherSemites onthecoast.Althoughoriginallywritteninacuneiform,thePhoenicianslaterreplaceditwithletterswhichcouldbe writtenfasteronpaper.Thederivationofvariousmid-easternscriptsisasfollows:Note:Insertchartfromp107 6.3.2.1ISRAEL:PALESTINE:JUDEA PeoplesofSemiticspeechoccupiedPalestineinsuccessivewaves,includingAmorites,Hebrews,IsraelitesandArabs. Egypt,underThutmosesIII,conqueredPalestinein1,479B.C.andcontrolledtheareaalmostcontinuouslythereafter inthisperiodunderreview.Thisisprobablythetimeofthe"Exodus"oftheJewsfromEgyptbacktothe"Promised Land"inthevicinityofPalestine.Thetruehistoryoftheirlongmigrationbackandthetrialsandtribulationswithother tribesalongthewayandintheregionsofJudeaandPalestinearemixedwithlegendandmythintheOldTestament, whichwaswrittenmuchlater.SaulbecametherstkingoftheJewsin1,025B.C.andsupposedlyDavidbecame kingin1,010B.C.UnfortunatelythereisnocontemporarymentionofthisinanyliteratureexcepttheBibleandthe laterGreekhistorian,Procopius.ThroughoutthiseratheJewsweredominatedbythePhilistineswhowereprobably refugeesfromthecollapsingCretancivilization,orwereLuvians,orboth.Inonebattle,datedat1,141B.C.byTrager Ref.222[296],theIsraeliteslost4,000menandlaterlostanother30,000.ThePhilistineinvasionwasapartofthe SeaPeoplesraidswhichplaguedtheentireMediterraneancoastatthatperiod.Ref.88[131]AdditionalNotesp. 98 6.3.2.2LEBANON:PHOENICIA ThePhoenicians,asapeople,cannotbedifferentiatedfromthegeneralmassofCanaanitesuntilsometimeinthis 2ndhalfofthe2ndmillenniumB.C.,butby1,200theyhadliberatedthemselvesfromEgyptiandominationandthey soonbecamethetruemastersoftheMediterraneanseaways,sailingtoItaly,Spainandallalongthecoastofnorth Africa.TheymayevenhavesailedaroundthecontinentofAfrica.PresentdayBeirut,however,wasstillsubjectto theAmoritesatthattime.Theimportanceoftheiralphabeticscriptisindicatedinthechartabove. 6.3.3IRAQANDSYRIA 6.3.3.1BABYLONIAMESOPOTAMIA Babylonia,onthelowertwo-thirdsoftheTigrisandEuphrates,remainedthroughoutthesevehundredyearschiey underKassiteruleandtherewaslittleprogressincivilizationexceptduringthereignoftheKassiteking,Kurigalzu II,whowasagreatbuilder.Heconstructedinnumerablemonuments,notonlyinUr,butinothersoutherncities.No oneknowsthereasonforthissuddenspurtofindustry,butthegrowingsignsofstrengthinneighboringAssyriaand MitanniandintheareaoftheHittitesmayhavebeenafactor.UnfortunatelynoneoftheKassitemonumentswere particularlyartistic.Asmentionedinthelastchapter,thesepeoplewereprobablyamixedbodyofwarriorswithat leasttwolinguisticelements,anoriginalCaucasianandanIndo-European.TheKassiteswereoverthrownbyraiding Elamitesin1,157B.C.andthepreviouslygreatcityofUrthensankintoobscurityforatleastthreeorfourcenturies. Ref.238[318] 6.3.3.2ASSYRIA TothenorthandwestofBabylonia,proper,theAssyrianswereaccumulatinginanincreasingnumberofcity-states,at rstjustintheareaimmediatelyaroundNineveh,Memrud,ArbilandAsher.In1,244B.C.,however,Tukulti-Ninurta tookoveragreatdealofoldBabylonandapparentlycontestedwiththeKassitesformostofMesopotamia,sothat

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97 thelatterweresqueezedbetweentheseinvadersandtheraidingElamitesfromtheeast.By1,115B.C.theAssyrian Tiglath-PileserIhadlostsometerritoryonthelowerTigrisbuthadgainedaprecariouscorridortotheMediterranean northofDamascus,betweenArwadandSidon. NOTE:InsertIllustration-MapReference97 Upto1,380B.C.variousMitannianlordshadbeendominantinthatarea,butafterShalmaneserIunitedtheAssyrian statesunderonecentralrule,theMitannianswerekeptinasmallkingdomjusttothewestofAssyria.TheAssyrians wereamixtureofwarriorSemitesfromthesouth,non-SemitictribesofHittiteand/orMittanianoriginfromthewest andKurdsfromtheCaucasus.TheyusedacommonlanguagetakenfromSumer,butmodiedittopracticalsimilarity withBabylonian.Multiplelanguagespersisted,however,makingworkdifcultforthescribes,sothatthoseofUgarit 5 nallyreducedtherepertoryofsignsfortheirownlanguagedowntothirty. Priorto1,250B.C.therehadbeenagreatstruggleforcontroloftheAssyrianlands,whichwasthesameareathat hasbeenknownwithvariationsinitsborders,throughouthistorychieyasSyria,includingthecitiesofByblosand Damascus.ThestruggleforcontrolbyEgypt,theHittites,theUgarits,BabyloniansandMitannis,allusingessentially theBabylonianlanguageandchariotry,occurredbecauseSyriawasthejunctionforalltraderoutesbetweentheEast, AsiaMinor,theAegeanandEgypt.From1,500to1,400 B.C.theMitanniintermittentlycontrolledallnorthSyriaandCiliciabutfrom1,380to1,346theHittitescutthemoff anddominatedtheregion.After1,200B.C.therewerewavesofbarbarianinvasionswhichincludedtheHebrews, PhilistinesandArameans,aswellastheSeaPeople,ChaldeansandMedes.Bythe12thcenturyB.C.thedominant peopleinSyriaweretheArameans,whobecamethegreatestinlandtradersandwhoselanguagebecametheparamount commercialtongue.Damascus,attheendofthemajorcaravanrouteacrossthedesert,becamethemostimportant cityoftheregion.Ref.8[14],118[95],28[48] 6.3.4IRAN:PERSIA InthenorthernandwesternpartsofPersia,culturaltraditionswerebrokenabout1,300B.C.withtheappearance ofmonochrome,polishedpotteryalongwiththedenitiveIronAge,andthearrivalfromthenortheastoftheIndoEuropeanlanguages,astheMedesandPersiansmigrateddownfromareasofcentralAsia.Inthesouthwest,Elam continuedasamoreorlessindependentstatewithahighculturallevelwhichreacheditsheightfrom1,300to1,100 B.C.,reachingaspecialpeakunderUntash-Gal.Thelargestsurvivingzigguratintheworld,some170feethighwith velevels,isatTchogaZanbil,someeighteenmilesfromSusa,theancientcapitalofElam.Inthemiddleofthe 12thcenturyB.C.ElamhadabriefexpansionintotheDujalaareaandeasternAssyriaoldMesopotamia,whenthe leaderswereprobablyseekingtogaincontroloftheZagrostraderoutes.TheElamiteshadaglasstechnologyandcast bronze.Ref.18[31],18[31],176[242],8[14] 6.3.5ASIAMINOR:ANATOLIA ThefamousTrojanWar,formerlyconsideredonlyanHomerianlegend,probablyactuallyoccurredabout1,200B.C. withAgamemnonleadingtheMyceneanGreekforcesagainstTroy.HomersaidthattheThracians,ledbyKing Rhesus,cametotheTrojans'aid,anditisknownthatatthattimetheMycenaeansdidassumepoweroverallthe easternMediterranean.HittiteandEgyptianchroniclesseemtoconrmthis.FartherinlandtheHittites,undertheir greatestking,ShubbiluliualsoSuppiluliumasreconqueredcentralAnatoliaandnorthernSyriaandreducedthe Mitannitoasmallvassalkingdombyabout1,350B.C.andallnorthSyriawasundertheircontrolby1,340.In1,250 theyforcedRamsesIIofEgypttoacknowledgetheirkingashisequal.Carchemish,inSyria,wasoneofthemore importantofthesmallerHittitestates,andthepeopleweretheHittitesmentionedintheBible.Atthattime,whatlittle ironwasavailableintheworldwasintheHittiteAnatoliankingdom,butitwasworthfortytimesitsweightinsilver. Infact,itissaidthattheChalybes,asub-tribeoftheHittites,evenmadesteelbarsbyabout1,400B.C.,usingthemin 5 Ugarit,ontheSyriancoast,wasthegreatCanaanitecapital.ExcavatedbytheFrenchin1921,thecityisthoughttohavecontainedabout 10,000peoplewithahighlydevelopedsanitationsystem.Ithadalibraryofcuneiformtablets.Ref.115[163]

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98 CHAPTER6.1500TO1000B.C. limitedquantitiesforknivesandswords.Ref.213[288],page282TheHittitelanguageistheearliestdocumented IndoEuropeantongueandwaswrittenusuallyincuneiformscriptborrowedfromMesopotamiaabout1,500B.C. Thecapitalcity,Hattusas,wasprotectedbyamassive,drystonewallthreeandthree-quartersmilesaround.Someof thestoneswereaslargeastwenty-sixbytwentyfeet.Whenthiscapitalwasmysteriouslysackedabout1,190B.C., thebrickhousesofHattusesweresubjectedtosuchintenseheatthatthebricksfused.Itshouldberealizedthatthe HittiteshadaccesstothesameLebanesecedarforestsasthePhoeniciansandthattheybuiltelaboratewoodenships evenbeforethelatter.AncientHittitesealsindicatethattheyalsobuiltreedships.Remarkableconformitiesexist ifonecomparestheearlyHittitecivilizationandtheearlyOlmeccivilizationatLaVenta,Mexico.Thesimilarities includemotifsandtechniqueofhighlyspecializedceramicefgyjars,stonestatueswithinlaidshellandobsidian eyes,adobemounds,asolardeitysculptedwithafeathercrownandabodyhalfserpentandhalfbirdplumedserpent andsomehieroglyphics-completelydifferentfromothermiddleeasternscripts.Ref.45[66],136[187],215 [290],95[140] Attheendofthe13thandinthe12thcenturyB.C.partoftheHittiteterritorywastakenoverbytheupsurgingSea Peopleandinthe11thcentury,theAssyrianstookovertherest,sothattheHittitecivilization,assuch,diedoutorwas absorbedinthenextfewhundredsofyears.PhrygeaninvadersfromThrace,andLuvians,mayhaveplayedamajor partinthisdestructionoftheHittiteEmpire.Asthepoliticalentitycollapsed,however,theseironsmithsofAnatolia thenspreadfarandwide,takingtheirironweaponswiththemsothattheircultureactuallysurvivedinneo-Hittite kingdoms,particularlyinnorthSyrianearCarchemish.Ref.45[66] Stillfarthereast,inUrartu,alsoknownastheKingdomofVanandlaterasArmenia,theHurrianandVannicpeoples relatedtotheMitanniwhoselanguageswererelatedcontinuedtheirownhighlevelcivilization. NOTE :JemmehwasapartoftheNewKingdomofEgyptandbetween1450and1200B.C.wasoccupiedby Canaanites.Thecityhadaverylargehouseorpalacemeasuring19.2metersby16.5meters,withapaved courtyard.TherewasalargeamountofimportedpotteryfromMycenaea,GreeceandCyprus.Whenthe SeaPeoplesarrived,theyactuallyoccupiedandsettledmanycoastaltowns,includingAshdod,Ashkelon, Gaza,EkronandGath.Ref.295[300] ForwardtoTheNearEast:1000to700B.C.Section7.3 ChooseDifferentRegion 1.IntrotoEraSection6.1 2.AfricaSection6.2 3.AmericaSection6.9 4.CentralandNorthernAsiaSection6.5 5.EuropeSection6.4 6.TheFarEastSection6.7 7.TheIndianSubcontinentSection6.6 8.PacicSection6.8 6.4Europe:1500to1000B.C. 6 6.4.1SOUTHERNEUROPE BacktoEurope3000to1500B.C.Section5.4 6 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat.

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99 6.4.1.1EASTERNMEDITERRANEANISLANDS TheCretancivilizationendedwithintherstftyyearsofthistimeperiodbuttheexactnatureandcauseofthe destructionisnotknown.SyridonMarinatos,lateInspectorGeneralofAntiguitiesofGreece,believedthatCretewas destroyedbyatremendousvolcanicactioninThera,theislandknownancientlyasKallisteandlateralsoasSartorini. ThislasteruptionoftheTheravolcanowasfollowedbymassivetidalwavesastheislandcentercollapsed,andthese wavessurgedoutwardperhaps650feethighatprobablytwohundredmilesanhour,dealingthesettlementsofCrete apulverizingblow.Theashwascarriedasfaras1600miles,killingvegetationandchokingharbors.Theforceofthis volcanicexplosionhasbeenequatedwiththatof500to1,000atomicbombs.TheashfalloutplungedtheAegeanSea areaintonightforweeks.TotaldepositsoftheashontheremnantofTheraarestilltwohundredfeetdeepandthe sameashhasbeenfoundrecentlytobealayersevenfeetthicksome9,850feetdeepontheooroftheMediterranean Sea,87milesfromthevolcano.ScandinavianscholarsdatethistremendousupheavaloftheMediterraneanworld aslateas1,200B.C.andfeelthattheSeaPeoplewhoroamedtheMediterranean,raidingthecoastsofAsiaMinor andEgyptweredisplacedpeoplesfromislandandothercoastalcivilizationsdestroyedinthisgreatcataclysm.The periodislikenedbyHeyerdahlRef.95[140]towhathehasdescribedasasimilargreatunknowntumultofjust before3,000B.C.ThereisnodoubtbutthattheblastcompletelychangedtheMediterranean,whetheritcompletely destroyedCreteorweakeneditforsubsequentinvasionbyMycenaeans,orwhatnot.TheTheraexplosionwasfour timesgreaterthantheA.D.1,883Javaeruptionthattook36,000livesandspreadacloudofasharoundtheearth'Ref. 129[179],176[242],109[155] ArgumentsstillgoonabouttheactualdatingofthegreatTheraincident,somerecentrevisionsofradio-carbon datingsindicatingthatitoccurredabout1,600B.C.andthuscouldnothavehaddirectbearingontheCretandemise. Regardless,thereisnodoubtthatevenbeforeitsnalend,Cretehadbeensubjectedtodevastatingattacksinits islandterritoriesbythePhoenicians,newmastersoftheMediterranean,andtoattacksathomebytheMycenaean, "barbarian"Greeks.Thelatter,perhapssimplyfollowingtheirownwarlikeinstinctsforplunder,denitelycame ashoreonCrete,atleastlater,andlefttheirmarks,destroyingwhateverremainedofallthepalacesexceptKnossos, whichtheyusedfortheirowncapital.TheMycenaeanrulerswrotetheirlanguageinLinearBwhichhasnowbeenat leastpartiallydecipheredandappearstobeaformofancientGreek.By1,375B.C.evenKnossoswasburnedtothe groundandwhetherthiswasdonebyrebelling,remnantMinoansorsquabblingMycenaeanschiefs,nooneknows. AdisastrousexpeditiontoSicilyhadbeenundertakenataboutthattime,anditsfailuremayhaveledtothefallof theKnossoslords.Stillanotherview,however,isthatKnossosremainedfunctionaluntil1,150B.C.whenitfellto invadingDorianGreeks.Ref.188[257]ThelastvestigesoftheCretanorMinoancivilizationintheircolonies alongthecoastofAsiaMinorwerealsodestroyedatastilllaterperiodbyIonianGreekswhothenmadetheirown settlementsthere.RemnantsorrefugeesfromtheCretansocietyaresaidtohaveedtothePalestinecoast,wherethey becameknownasPhilistines 7 TheTheravolcanowasnottheonlycataclysmicoccurrenceofthisperiod.Therewereearthquakesalloverthe MediterraneanandevennorthernEuropewhilevolcanoeseruptedinItalyandtheSinaiandseismictidalwaves "causedtheseatorecedefromthelandandevensuckedouttherivers" 8 .After1,100B.C.theDorianGreeks,who hadchargeddowntheGreekpeninsula,crossedovertoCretetorepopulateitandbecometheancestorsofitspresent population.Ref.127[176]RhodeswasalsocolonizedbyDoriansfromArgosinthe11thcenturyB.C.Ref.38 [59] 6.4.1.2GREECE MycenaeanpowerwasdominantintheMediterraneanatleastafter1,400B.C. 9 andtheirpotterywaspopularfrom ItalytotheTurkishcoast.Theyusedmanyslaves,especiallywomenwhowereusedinthetextileandbronzeindustries, aswellasinprivatehouseholds.Somewerecapturedinwar,manywerebought.Houseshadushinglavatoriesand bathroomssuppliedwithterracottapipesandslopinggutters.Ref.213[288]Inthe14thcenturyB.C.agiant 7 McEvedyRef.136[187]saysthatsomerefugeeAchaeansmayhavebeenwiththeCretansasthey"transformed"intoPhilistines,asthere arecloseparallelsbetweenPhilistineandMycenaeanpottery. 8 HermRef.91[135],page87 9 GrantRef.75[115]writesthattheMycenaeancivilizationstartedat1,700B.C.

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100 CHAPTER6.1500TO1000B.C. moundcoveringastonetombwasconstructedatMycenaewhichwas48feetindiameter,43feethightothetipofthe domeandhadadoorwaytoppedwithalintelmadeofa100tonstone. Ataboutthe13thcenturyB.C.attheheightoftheirpowerandwhentheMycenaeanscontrolledtheAegeanworld, theysuddenlybegantofortifyalltheircitiesandstrengthentheirdefences,indicatingapremonitionofdisaster.Other GreekspeakingtribeshadbeguntodriftdownintotheGreekpeninsulabyabout1,500B.C.butitwasnotuntilabout 1,300thattheyweresufcientlystrongtobegintousurptheMycenaeanpower,sothatbytheendofthatcentury theMycenaeancitiesandfortresseswereinruins,theartdegeneratedandthewrittenlanguageLinearBhadbeen forgotten.Ref.215[290],176[242]1,250B.C.isusuallygivenasthetraditionaldateoftheTrojanWar,with completecollapseofMycenaeaby1,200,butCotterellRef.41[62]givesthelatterdateas1,150B.C. Therewerethreemaintribesofthenew,invadingGreeks,eachwithitsownvariationoftheGreeklanguage-lonic, AeolicandDoric.TheDorians,descendingfromtheupperBalkansabout1,200B.C.aregenerallycreditedwith theactualdestructionoftheMycenaeanKingdom.Theytookthebestlandswiththelessfavoredregionslefttothe othertribes.AtticabecameIonian,alongwithagroupofcitiesacrosstheAegeaninthecentralsectionoftheAsia Minorcoast,andfromthesepeoplecamethemasterinstitutionofGreekcivilization,thatis,thepolis.Physicallythe polisconsistedofatownorcitywithanareaoffarmandpasturelandsurroundingit.Politicallyitwasacommunity governedbymagistratesandlaws.AlloftheinvadingwarriorshadancestraltieswithcentralAsianomadsandstill livedasimilarlife,eatingsheep,goatandwildhog.Stillanothertribe,theThessalians,enteredGreeceintheprovince whichnowcarriestheirname,sometimebefore1,000B.C.Ref.215[290],136[187],211[284] 6.4.1.3UPPERBALKANS Thrace,intheareaofpresentBulgariaandacornerofpresentGreecealongwithEuropeanTurkey,beganalively periodwithidentiablerulersandIndo-Europeangods,atabout1,500B.C.Thiscountryhadtwocoasts-oneonthe AegeanandtheotheronacorneroftheBlackSea-andthuswasatthecross-roadofWestandEast.TheThracians wereformidablehorsemenwithatasteforbattle,banditryandelegantgoldobjects.Theirgoldsmithswereproducing masterpiecesinthe13thand12thcenturiesB.C.OneofthelargestgoldndsofEurope'sBronzeAgecomesfrom Vulchitrun,Bulgariaanddatestothisperiod,withmanyresemblancestotheartofMycenaea.Theydidnothave awrittenlanguageandknowledgeofthemhascomechieythroughtheirGreekneighborsandrecentBulgarian excavations.ThiswasthehomelandofthePhrygeans,whobeganatthistimetospreadtoAsiaMinor.Ref.171 6.4.1.4ITALY Asnotedinthelastchapter,before1,200B.C.Italywasinhabitedbyathinlyscattered,backwardpopulationofdark whitesoftheIberianorMediterraneanrace.ThenmigratingAryanItalicsmoveddown,certainlybytheendofthis period,at1,000B.C.,settledmostofnorthernandeasternItaly,intermarriedwiththenativesandestablishedthe ItaliangroupsofAryanlanguages.ThisincludedtheLatintribesouthandeastoftheTiber,andtheUmbriansand theSabines.Theselatter,livingnearVillanova,mayhavebeentherstEuropeanstolearntheuseofiron.Extreme northernItaly,aswellastheMediterraneancoastsofFranceandpartofSpain,wasoriginallypeopledbyanonEuropeanspeakinggroupcalledLigurians.TheywereapparentlypushednorthbytheItalics,wheretheycamein contactwithearlyCeltssothatabout1,200B.C.thisLigurianculturewasabsorbedintotheCelto-ltalicApennineD andthepeoplegaveuptheirownlanguagetotakeontheCeltic-Ptongue.Subsequentlytheywerereferredtobysome EuropeanhistoriansasCelto-Ligurians.TheysoonadoptedthecremationritualsoftheUrneldCulture.TheItalics atthetoeofItalypushedtheSiclestowardSicily,whichwasinhabitedatthetimebytheSicantribe,ofunknown originandlanguage.InEtruria,ofcentralItalybetweentheTiberandtheArno,therewasaBronzeAgeCulture calledApennineandtherewasanabundanceofcopperandsometinforthemakingofbronze.Copperfromtheisland ofElbawasusedthroughoutthe2ndmillenniumB.C.SouthItalybegantoreceivecontactsfromMycenaeanGreece asearlyas1,300B.C.,particularlyontheislandofPithecusaeonthewest,andVivaraandLipara,andbythe13th centuryB.C.Mycenaeanimportswerealreadycommon.Ref.136[187],75[115] ForhundredsofyearsthepeacefulfarmersofCorsicahadburiedtheirdeadingreatstonechamberswithnearby single,standingmenhirswhichwereroughly-shaped,unadorned,raisedstones,andsomesevenfeethigh.After1,500

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101 B.C.therewasadramaticchangeandthesemenhirsbecamedistinctsculptureswithcarvedheads,tunics,daggersand swords.Whethertheyrepresentedwartrophiesormemorialstoacourageousenemyisstilldebatable.Ataboutthis sametime,oratleastbetweenthe14thandthe12thcenturiesB.C.,atribeoftheSeaPeople,theShardana,cameby wayofLibyaacrosstheMediterraneanandoverranthesouthernpartofCorsica,pushingtheremnantsoftheoriginal Corsicansnorth,andby1,000B.C.thelatterhaddisappeared.TheconqueringShardanaburnedtheirdeadanddid notputupmonuments.Ref.176[242] 6.4.2CENTRALEUROPE Inthistime-frameanIndo-Europeanspeaking,tall,blondepeopleemergedasaconfederationoftribesfromaprehistoriccomplexandbegantoinhabitthebulkofEurope,spreadingoutfroma"nest"aroundtherichoreeldsof BohemiaandthecentralGermanmountains.CalledUnetice,thedistinguishingfeatureofthisBohemian-centralGermancultureupuntilabout1,500B.C.wastheburialmound,butby1,300theyhadgiventhisupinfavorofcremation withtheashesofthedeadplacedinurnsincemeteries,andthusbecomingknownastheUrneldCulture.Thisbecame thecustomoflaterpeoples,includingtheItalics,VenetiansandIllyrians.,anditmayalsohavebeenthecradleofthe threelinguisticvariationsof"OldIndo-European"andpossiblyalsothatofthePhrygiansandArmenianswhosettled inAnatoliaabout1,200B.C.Allofthesepeoplewerefarmers,notmuchinclinedtovillagelife,raisinganimals,hunting,sacricingtosun-gods,usingthebattleaxeandbothtwoandfourwheeledchariots.Peoplelatertobeidentied astrueCeltshadprobablynotbecomedifferentiatedatthistime,althoughthereismuchconfusionintheliterature onthispoint,andmanywouldcalltheearlywavesofIndo-EuropeansoftheUrneldCulturebythisname.Ref.91 [135] Itisprobablethatafter1,220B.C.theScandinavianbranchesoftheoldIndo-Europeanpeopleswhichhadmigrated southafterthecatastropheswhichseemtohaveoccurredthereinthe15thcenturySeeSCANDINAVIA,thischapter, reachedcentralEuropeandspreadwiththelocalpeopleinvariousdirections-sometotheApenninepeninsulatobecometheAmbrones,laterUmbrians-somedrovetheVenetitonorthernItalyandtheforefathersoftheIllyriansto Yugoslavia,andthePhrygiansandArmenianstoAnatoliaandnallysomewenttoGreece.Inthefarnorthofthe continentproper,theThuringiansGermanizednorthGermanyandtheGoths,Burgundians,AlemansandMarcomans preparedtomovewestastheLausitzSlavsmovedinbehindthem.Ref.194[266],91[135] 6.4.3WESTERNEUROPE Itwasinthe12thcenturyB.C.thatPhoeniciansfromSidonrstsettledonthecoastofSpain,buildingalighthouse atLaCorunatobeusedasaguidefortheirshipsgoingtoEnglandfortin.Soonafter,otherPhoeniciansfromTyre establishedtradingpostsalongtheGuadalquiverRiverandnallyfoundedCadizabout1,100B.C.Ref.196[269] AtthisperiodSpainhadabasicpopulationofdarkwhiteswhomayhavebeentheancestorsofpresentdayBasques, andtherewereLiguriansonthewestcoast.ThelatterhadinvadedfromFranceandwereactuallyamixtureofearly orpre-CeltswithCelticspeakingLigurianswhowerenumerousinFrance.McEvedyRef.136insiststhatabout 1,200B.C.abranchofthesesamepeoplecrossedoverintoEngland,conqueringandintermarryingwiththenatives, whowerealreadyamixedgroupofdark-hairedanddarkskinnedpeople,possiblyIberianinorigin,andlight-haired Scandinavians.AllofthesepeoplespreadthroughoutEnglandandWales.TheareaofWessexwasparticularly prosperous,withtradingcontactswithmostofEuropeandtheMediterranean.Workingontheassumptionthatsome oftheseearlyinvadersoftheBritishIsleswereactuallyCelts,wecandifferentiatetwostocks: 1.TheGoidelsGaelsstillsurvivinginnorthernIrelandandnighScotland,representingasurvivaloftheearliest Beaker-folkwithaQ-Celtictongue 2.theCymriandBrythonsBritonsstillrepresentedinWalesastheP-Celtic,Urneldpeople.Thelatterwere closekintotheGaulicBelgi Ref.136[187],196[269]

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102 CHAPTER6.1500TO1000B.C. 6.4.4SCANDINAVIA AstheearlyCelticpeoplespreadacrossnorthernEurope,theydidnotenterScandinavia,andactuallyevenmadea typeofbarriercuttingoffsometradebetweenScandinaviaandtheMediterraneanareas.Inspiteofthissomeiron, whichwasthesecretweaponoftheCelts,seepedintoScandinavia,sothattheyalsohadwhatmightbecalleda "CelticIronAge",eventhoughtheirbasiceconomystilldependedmainlyonimportedbronzetotheextentthattheir uniquemetalworkdevelopedaspecialNorthernBronzeAge.Peopleburiedtheirdeadinlogcofnsinbarrowsand theclothingandhairwerepreservedintact.Rockscribingsofwildanimalsandlegendarysceneshewnintorock continuedtobeproducedthroughoutlargeareasofScandinavia,includingFinland,andevenpartsofnorthernRussia. TherichestndsofthesescribingsstraddlestheSwedish-Norwegianborder.Ref.122[170],228[304] TheclimateinScandinaviawasforawhilewarmeranddrierthantodayandthenitbecamecoldagain.Glaciers expanded,thesealevelsankandvinesstoppedgrowing.InthemoresouthernareastheTeutonicorGermanictribes wereingrowthandsomehadalreadymigratedtoBritainandbackandforthtothemaincontinent.Danishamber wasindemandonthecontinentandby1,000B.C.theDanesdeckedthemselveswithornateweaponsandornaments andusedbronzelursasmusicalinstruments.Navigationsciencemusthavebeenfairlywellestablished,astherewas muchsailingofnarrow,keelboatsaboutEngland,JutlandandBrittanyandperhapseventoGibralterandtheCanary Islands,whereboatdrawingssimilartotheScandinavianoneshavebeenfound.Ref.117[164] 6.4.5EASTERNEUROPE ThepreviouslydescribedUrneldCulture,involvingtheburialoftheashesofthedeadinurns,appearedinPoland about1,300B.C.andwasalsocalledtheLausitzCulture.TheseearlypeopleofPolandweretheLusatians,awestern branchofSlavs.TheeasternSlavsbythePripetmarshesofthemiddleDnieperRiverdidnotusethisburialmethod. NorthofbothoftheseSlavicgroupstheBaltsand/orLettslivedonthesouthshoreoftheBaltic.Asindicated previouslytheymaybeneitherpurelySlavonicnorTeutonicnorCeltic.TheirclassicalBalticBronzeAgeCulture, locatedbetweentheOderandDvina,includedlocalmetalobjects,potteryandburialritesinbarrowssurroundedby stonerings.TothenortheastoftheBaltsalllandareawassparselyinhabitedbyFinnsand/orLapps.Thebulkofthe southernbranchoftheBalticFinnswastheEstonians.OthersofthisgroupweretheLivsnowabout1,000remain onthetipofCourlandandtheVotes.ThereareperhapsafewofthelatterstillaroundNarva,buttheyoriginally occupiedallofIngria.AlloftheseFinns,liketheBalts,cameoriginallyfromthegreatarcoftheVolgaintherst halfofthe2ndmillenniumB.C.andprobablymetwiththeAesti,describedbyTacitus.AstheyreachedtheirBaltic homes,theyintermarriedwithBaltsandLappsinanamountunknown.SouthernRussia,fromtheCarpathianstothe CaspianSeawasinhabitedatthatperiodbytheAryanCimmerians,probablycloselyrelatedtotheThracians.The CimmeriannameispreservedintheCrimeanpeninsulaoftheBlackSea.Ref.136[187],61[90],144[197] ForwardtoEurope:1000to700B.C.Section7.4 6.5CentralandNorthernAsia:1500to1000B.C. 10 6.5.1CENTRALANDNORTHERNASIA BacktoCentralandNorthernAsia:3000to1500B.C.Section5.5 IranianIndo-EuropeantribesoccupiedalloftheareaofsouthcentralAsiafromtheAralSeatotheTarimBasin,and graduallyextendedtheirterritoriesoneasttowardChinaandsoutheastintotheIndianpeninsula.Atabout1,000B.C. IraniansofTransoxiafoundthataridercouldmanagehishorseonabattleeld,initiatingaweaponthatultimately outmodedthechariot.ItisassumedthattheMongolianandtheHunnish-Turkishpeoplesweremultiplyinginthe farthernorthandnortheasternreachesofAsia,butlittleactualinformationisavailable.Inthe13thcenturyB.C.in southSiberia,theKarasukCulturedevelopedfromtheAndrovonova,andtherewasachangefromsettledcommunities 10 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat.

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103 toseasonalnomadism.SmallcurvedknivessimilartothoseatAn-YanginChinahavebeenfound.Ref.136[187], 45[66] ForwardtoCentralandNorthernAsia:1000to700B.C.Section7.5 6.6TheIndianSubcontinent:1500to1000B.C. 11 6.6.1THEINDIANSUBCONTINENT Betweenabout1,500and1,200B.C.thereweresuccessivewavesofAryancharioteersandbowmenmovingsouth fromeasternIrantotheIndusValley.By1,050theseRig-VedicAryans,withtheirvigorous,objectiveandwarlike attitudetowardlife,hadextendedtheirdomainfromtheSwatValleyofAfghanistantothelandofthe"SevenInduses", andthentheymovedeastwardtowardtheGanges.IntheRig-Veda,orrstperiodoftheAryans,goat,horse,sheepand buffalocouldbeeatenbutonlybarrencows,butby1,000B.C.theAtharva-Vedaforbadeeatingevenbarrencows.The VediccivilizationaccumulatedagreatliteraturetransmittedverballyintheSanskritlanguageasthe"Vedas"Books ofKnowledge.Thesewerelaterwrittendown,butprobablyafter1,000B.C.Hinduism 12 developedfromtheancient SanskritchantswiththeconceptofBrahman,theSupremeBeing,rulingovermanandallofamultitudeofdeities, manyofthemanimistic.ThesoulofeachmanAtmanthroughmanyincarnationseventuallywinsliberationfrom worldlyexistencetoachieveunionwithBrahman.BelowthelevelofBrahmanintheHindupantheonisthetrinity ofBrahmathecreator,VishnuthepreserverandShivathedestroyer.Brahmaisheldtoosacredforpopularrites,but VishnuandShivaareworshipedinhundredsofguisesandformsandcustoms.Vishnuhastenchiefavatarsorforms inwhichhedescendstoearth,includingRamaoftheRamayanalegend,Krishna,herooftheMahabharataepic,and Buddha,ofhistoricalsignicance.Ref.8[14],211[284],25[45] AlthoughancientIndiansocietywasdividedintocolorsor"varnas",laterthelasttermstoodforagroupingaccording tovocation:Brahminsaspriestsandscholars;Kshatriyasasrulersandsoldiers;Vaishyas,themerchantsandfarmers; Sudras,thepeasantsandserfs.Allofthisdevelopedintothehereditarycastesystemwitheventualemergenceofsome 3,000sub-castes.Asearlyas1,000B.C.steelwasmadeinIndia,bymeltingironat1,500degreesCentigradeand addinglessthanonepercentcarbon.Forcontrast,coppermeltsat500degrees.Agriculture,asinancientIraqand China,dependedonirrigation,andthiswasthemosttimeconsumingpartofthefarmers'work.Ref.25[45],21 [34],213[288] Continueonpage146 6.7TheFarEast:1500to1000B.C. 13 6.7.1THEFAREAST BacktoTheFarEast:3000to1500B.C.Section5.7 6.7.1.1CHINAANDMANCHURIAShangDynastyuntilabout1,122B.C.,thenChou About1,500B.C.ChinapassedabruptlyfromtheNeolithicstatetoafullbronzeage,probablygettingbronze-working techniquefromtheNearEastorThailand,astheChinesescholarsclaim.Chinareceiveditsrstfarm-yardpoultryas thedomesticatedjunglefowlfromtheMalayanpeninsula.Ref.222[296]Thersthistoricaldynasty,theShang,as notedinthelastchapter,wasapowerfulpoliticalregimecontrollingmostofnorthernChina,eventhoughinactuality itwasalooseconfederationofclandomains,manylittlemorethanvillagesettlements.Twooftheirsixcapitals, atCheng-chouandAn-Yang,havebeenexcavated,thelattershowingaBlackPotteryCulture.Thepeoplewere 11 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat. 12 Thename"Hinduism"isderivedfromthenameoftheIndusRiver 13 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat.

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104 CHAPTER6.1500TO1000B.C. basicallyChinese,butsomethinkthatthearistocratic,charioteerwarriorleadersmayhavecomefromfartherwestin thesteppes.Theyusedcompoundbowsandbronzeweapons.Forticationsdatingto1,300B.C.alongtheYellow RiverhaveevidenceofthesesamewarriorbandswhomayhaveoriginatedontheIranianplateauandmovedstepby stepfromoasistooasis,conqueringtheNeolithicsocietiesintheirway.Thiswasanaristocraticagewithasharp cleavagebetweennoblewarriorsandhelplesspeasants.ArecentnewspaperarticlereportsthatChinesescientistshave uncoveredtheremainsof1,000slaveskilledashumansacricesnearAn-Yang.Supposedlytheseweresacriced forfuneralsortohonortheancestorsofthenobility,alldemonstratingtheextremecrueltyandbarbarityoftheslaveowningnobilityofthisShangDynasty.Thereligionwasamixtureofancestorandnatureworshipandtheirscriptwas ideographicandstrictlyChinese.About1,200B.C.ironwasusedinitsmeteoricformandtreatedlikeasemiprecious stone.Itwasoftenmountedinbronzettingsforceremonialweapons.Ref.136[187],235[313] Theconceptofheavendatestothebeginningofthisperiod,withtherulerstravelingnorthtoMountT'aiwhere sacricesweremade,sacredmusicplayedandceremonialdancesaccomplished.Shang-TiLordonhigh,ananthropomorphicgod,livedinheavenandwatchedovertheactionsofpeopleandruledtheheavenofvariousspiritualbeings whowereconsideredtobeancestors.Ref.26[47] In1,122B.C.orperhapsalittleearlier,theShangwereoverthrownbytheChou,aclientpeople,possiblyofdifferent ethnicorigin.HuckerRef.101[146]saystheywereChinesespeakingpeopleofLung-Shandescent.TheChou, theShangandthewarriorcharioteersmentionedabove,allmixed,providingthebiologicalpreludetothersttrue, historiccivilizationoftheFarEast.ToynbeeRef.168[229]callsthistheoriginalSinicSociety.Priortothe overthrow,theShanghadconsideredtheChouassemi-barbariansand"countrycousins"buthadnallyconferredthe titleof"ChiefoftheWest"ononeoftheirleadersandhadgivenhimaShangnoblewomanasawife.TheChouhad probablyearlyalliedwithandmixedwithproto-Tibetanpeoplecalled"Ch'iang",considerednobetterthananimalsat onetimebytheShang.ThisideaofunderminingShangauthoritybymakingallianceswithneighboringchiefswas conceivedbyadenitehistoricalgure,KingWen,andwhenhisson,Wu,cametopoweraskingoftheChou,hebuilt anewcapital,Hao,nearwhatisnowSian.Legendsaysthathethenaccumulated50,000troopsandin1,122B.C. overcameaShangarmyof700,000.ApparentlymanyofthelatterwereunhappywiththelastShangkingandactually joinedtheChou.TraditionalsogivesKingWu'sbrother,theDukeofChou,greatcreditforlayingthegroundwork forthelong-livedChouDynastyasheestablishedseventy-onenewadministrativeunitsandbuiltanewcityatmodern Loyangtoserveasanauxiliarycapital.Ref.168[229],101[146] 6.7.1.2JAPANandKOREA TheseareaswerebothstillinaNeolithicstagewithfarmersandgatherers. 6.7.1.3SOUTHEASTASIA ThereisarcheologicalevidenceoftheSomrong-SenCulturespreadingthroughoutallofIndo-China,includingpresent dayVietnam,Cambodia,Laos,etc.ThiswasafullNeolithicculture,withearlybronzeactivityapparentabout1,000 B.C.innorthernVietNam.H.O.Beyerfoundin1948thattangedandrectangularadzbladeswereusedinthenorthern Philippinesbetween1,750and1,250B.C.andnowhereelseinIndonesiaorMelanesia.Theinterestingsequelisthat thesearealmostidenticalwiththoseusedmuchlaterthroughoutPolynesia.Therouteofthisadzandthepeopleusing itfromthePhilippinestoPolynesiacanonlybeexplainedinonewayaccordingtoThorHeyerdahl-uptheJapanese CurrenttobelowtheAleutianstotheNorthAmericancoastandthenbackintothePacic.PleaseseethePacic Section6.8sectionRef.8[14],95[140] ForwardtoTheFarEast:1000to700B.C.Section7.7 ChooseDifferentRegion 1.IntrotoEraSection6.1 2.AfricaSection6.2 3.AmericaSection6.9 4.CentralandNorthernAsiaSection6.5

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105 5.EuropeSection6.4 6.TheIndianSubcontinentSection6.6 7.TheNearEastSection6.3 8.PacicSection6.8 6.8ThePacic:1500to1000B.C. 14 6.8.1THEPACIFIC BacktoThePacic:3000to1500B.C.Section5.8 NewCaledoniaissaidtohavehadhumanhabitation3,000yearsagoanditisknownthatLapitapotterypeoplereached FijiinMelanesiaby1,300B.C.LatertheyreachedTongaandSamoaonthewesternedgeofPolynesiasee6thcentury B.C.Section9.8discussionofthispoint.TheaboriginesofAustraliacontinuedunmolestedatthistime.Ref.8 [14],176[242] ForwardtoThePacic:1000to700B.C.Section7.8 ChooseDifferentRegion 1.IntrotoEraSection6.1 2.AfricaSection6.2 3.AmericaSection6.9 4.CentralandNorthernAsiaSection6.5 5.EuropeSection6.4 6.TheFarEastSection6.7 7.TheIndianSubcontinentSection6.6 8.TheNearEastSection6.3 6.9America:1500to1000B.C. 15 6.9.1AMERICA BacktoAmerica:3000to1500B.C.Section5.9 6.9.1.1NORTHAMERICA 6.9.1.1.1THEFARNORTHANDCANADA TheArcticSmallTooltraditioncontinuedacrossnorthernCanadatoGreenlandandthePaciccoastIndianscontinued theirsalmonshing,withoutattemptingcultivation.By1,000B.C.theywerebuildingvillagesalongtheSnake, ColumbiaandFraserriverssouthoftheSnake,therewerelargeovaldwellingswithoorsandatimberframe,usually abouttwenty-vebythirtyfeet.Ref.209[282] 6.9.1.1.2THEUNITEDSTATES TheIndiansofNorthAmericaoriginallyhadlivedbyhuntinggameandgatheringwildfoods,butabout3,000years agotheybeganmakingclayvessels,aninnovationthataccompaniedtheappearanceofagricultureinmanyareas.The potteryfoundinvariousexcavationsitesintheUnitedStateshasadistinctivegrittytemperandisoftendecoratedwith fabricorcordimpressions.Onevillage,calledtheBaumersite,insouthernIllinois,coveredmorethantenacresand 14 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat. 15 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat.

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106 CHAPTER6.1500TO1000B.C. wasmadeupofhousesaboutsixteenfeetsquare.Theuseoflocalstrainsofcorn,beansandsquashafter1,500B.C. gavepeoplethesurplusoffoodandtimeneededtoengageinsomecommunalactivities.Therstsignsofmound buildingappearedinthemiddlewestabout1,000B.C.assomevillagesbegantoburytheirdeadunderlowearth mounds.InthesouthwesttheCochisecontinuedtheirgradualtransitionfromhunter-gathererstotruefarmers.Ref. 215[290],210[283] 6.9.1.2MEXICO,CENTRALAMERICAANDTHECARIBBEAN VillagelifeinMexicocontinuedtoshowmoreadvancedsocieties.IntheOaxacaValleytherewerevillageswith agriculturedominantby1,300B.C.Eachvillagecontainedtentotwentyhouseswhichweresinglefamilyunitsmade ofwattleanddaub,allopeningintoacommonplaza.By1,200inSanJoseMogoteinthesamevalley,thepeoplebegan tobuildlargeplatformswithlimedwallsandoors.Ref.45[66],209[282]RecentexcavationsatDzibilchaltun innorthernYucatanindicatethatthissite,whichcontainedoneofthelargestoftheMayancitiesofthelatepost-classic periodofA.D.600orlater,hadbeencontinuouslyoccupiedsince1,500B.C.,sothatinallprobabilitypre-Mayanor Mayanpeoplelivedtherewithaneverincreasinglevelofcivilizationforover2,000years. Thebigstoryofthisperiod,however,isthatoftheOlmecswhohaddevelopedacivilizationinthehumid,low-lying, forestregionofsouthernVeracruzandwesternTabascoby1,200B.C.Mostauthoritiesagreewithafewdissenters thatthisremarkablesocietyappeared suddenly ,withoutknownantecedents.TheyweretherstMeso-Americans tohandlelargemassesofstoneinmonumentalsculpturesandtheymayhavebeenresponsibleforextendingthe growthofmaizeinthatarea,chieybyexampleorleadership,astheywerenotthebasicinhabitantsoftheregion. ThelatterwereethnicallyHuastecwhiletheOlmecswereapparentlyanhereditaryrulingclasswhopromotedefcient farmingtechniques,longdistancetradenet-works,largetemplesandpublicbuildings,neart,anofcialstatereligion andsocialstratication.Thequestionofpre-ColumbiancontactswithAmericahasbeenbroughtuptimeandagain, particularlyregardingthisadvanced,suddenlyappearingOlmeccivilization,butthenatureandmethodofsuchcontact andwhetherornotitoccurredatall,continuestobedebated. LiketheEgyptians,theOlmecsandlaterMayaswroteinhieroglyphs,developedacalendarandpredictedthemovementsofplanets.TheseCentralAmericansbuiltat-toppedpyramidssimilartothezigguratsofMesopotamiaand decoratedthosewithbas-reliefsshowingpriestswithSemiticfaciesandlongbeards.Thereisevensomebotanical evidenceofEuropeancontactinthattheOlmecsuccessorsworegarmentsfromastrainofcottonthatseemedtobea crossbetweenalocal,wildtypeandthelong-stapleEgyptiancotton.Thelatterhasthirteenlargechromosomesandthe nativecentralandSouthAmericancotton,whichwasshortstapled,hadthirteensmallchromosomespercell,butthe cottonusedforclothlaterinCentralAmericawasahybridofthetwoaboveandcontainedtwenty-sixchromosomes, thirteensmallandthirteenlarge.OnehastowonderifitisjustcoincidencethattheseOlmecsdevelopedwriting, calendarsystems,pyramidsetc.directlyattheterminusofthestrongAtlanticCanaryCurrent,owingfromthebulge ofAfricathroughtheCanaryIslandstotheGulfofMexicoatthebaseoftheYucatanpeninsula.Theswampy,unfavorablejunglecoastinwhichthiscivilizationdevelopedwouldsuggestthatitmusthavearrivedalmostinfullbloom, fromthesea.TheEgyptiansandPhoeniciansknewmoreaboutastronomy,thekeytooceannavigation,thanthelater EuropeancontemporariesofColumbusandPizarro,anditisdenitelyknownthatthePhoenicianshadsettlementsall thewaydowntheAtlanticcoastofMoroccoby1,000B.C.Ref.176[242],209[282],95[140] ThereisalsothepossibilityofstillotherpeoplesbeingthesourceofearlyforeigndiffusiontotheNewWorld. HeyerdahlRef.95[140]listsfty-twoexamplesofcommoncharacteristicsseenintheearlycivilizationsofAsia MinorHittite,CyprusandCreteandtheearlysocietiesofCentralAmericaandPeru.Theseincludepriest-king dynastiesinsun-worshippingadministrations,brother-sisterroyalmarriages,fullydevelopedscriptwriting 16 ,paper manufacturefromvegetablebers,stonemasonryofamazingaccuracywithouttheuseofmortarandwithmethods oflongrangetransportationofgiganticstoneblocks,colossalstonestatues,repetitiverepresentationsofabearded manalltrueAmerindiansofSiberianoriginshouldbebeardlessghtingagiantsnakestandingonitstail,abird-man standingonaplumedserpentSeeHittites,thischapter,constructionofziggurattypesofpyramids,mummicationof deceasedroyalty,trepanningofskulls,circumcisionasareligiousritual,citiesofadobehousesseparatedbystreetsand 16 NotinSouthAmerica.

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107 withwaterandsewersystems,largescaleterraceagriculturewithirrigationandfertilizers,similarcottonloomsand garments,identicalleatherandropesandalsalthoughthelatterwereuselessinthetropicalswamps,feathercrowns usedbynobles,similarorganizationofstandingarmiesandweaponry,similartoolsandutensils,useofreddyesfrom mollusks,identicalstagesofmetallurgywithoutstandinggoldwork,ceramic,polychromefuneralware,claymodels ofdailylife,aswellasauniversalfemalegoddess,stampedseals,curvedwoodengurines,understandingofthe "zero"concept,beliefintheirownoriginintherstcenturyofthe3rdmillenniumB.C.,remarkablyhighstandardof calendarsystemandnallythesameocean-goingreedshipswithcanvassailhoistedonadouble-leggedmast.We shouldalsonotethatthedateofthebloomingoftheOlmeccivilizationat1,200+200B.C.isthesametimeoften givenfortheTheraupheavalintheMediterranean,withthesubsequentpossibledisplacementoftheSeaPeoplewho rovedtheMediterraneanandpossiblytheAtlantic!SelfportraitsoftheOlmecsoncolossalmonolithshaveshowntwo contrastingtypes-onewithNegroidphysiognomyandtheotherwithtypicalSemiticfeatureswithlongowingbeard -allthisintheswamplandexactlyattheendoftheCanaryCurrent.Ref.95[140] ItisdifculttobecertainoftheexactphysicaltypeoftheoriginalCentralandSouthAmericanIndians,sincethe populationsthatcamebacktolifeaftertheterritoriesbecameindependentofSpain,arenowsocross-bredwith Europeans,ChineseandAfricansthatidenticationisimpossible.TheChinesefactorbringsupstillanotherdiffusion theorythathasbeenadvancedaslateas1975byBettyMeggersRef.141[194]oftheSmithsonianInstitute, whobelievesthattheinvaderswereChinesefromtheShangDynasty!Asothershave,shepointsoutthatinMesoAmerica 17 aslateas2,000B.C.therewasonlyonevillageperkilometerintheestuarysystemsalongtheChiapasGuatemalacoast,butabout1,200B.C.somethingunusualoccurred-thesuddenappearanceoftheOlmeccivilization infullower-andsherelatesthatthiseventwasfeltalmostsimultaneouslyoveralmostallofMesoamerica.This correspondsintimetotheendoftheShangDynasty,inChina.Meggersfeelsthatoneofthemoststrikingaspects ofthisnewsocietywastheextentoftrafcinrawmaterialssuchasobsidian,basalt,magnetite,ilmenite,himatite, serpentineandjadeite,alongwiththetransportationoftheheavy,basaltbouldersoverlongdistances.Shepointsout agreatnumberofsharedculturalfeaturesoftheShangandtheOlmecsocietiesincluding: 1.writing,statingthatafew,oftenrepeatedOlmecsymbolsresembleShangcharacters,andlaterMayaglyphs werereadtoptobottominShangfashioncharactersofMinoanLinearAofCretewerereadsimilarly 2.jade,aprimarycommodityoflongdistancetradeinbothsocieties 3.batonsasasymbolofrank,somewithbifurcatedtops 4.felinedeity,theShangtigerandtheOlmecjaguarbothassociatedwiththeearthgodandbothoftendrawn lackingalowerjaw 5.worshipofmountains 6.cranialdeformation,apparentlyarticiallyproducedinthecenteroftheheadofrulers 7.largegroupsofscatteredvillageswithcentralserviceCenters 8.theconstructionofrectangularplatformswithanorth-southorientation. WhenaskedwhytheMesoamericansdidnotusethewheel,whichwascertainlyusedbytheShang,shereplied,as othershave,thattheAmericanshadnouseforthewheelintheabsenceofroadsanddraftanimals,theruggednessof theterrainandtheabilityofamantocarrymorethanhisweightinfragilecargo. Asmightbeexpected,refutationsofMeggers'theorysoonappeared.DavidGroveRef.80[122]oftheUniversity ofIllinoissaysthatthesocietywhichwehavementionedasbeingintheOaxacaValleybetween1,500and1,400B.C. wasacomplexcultureandperhapsprecededthoseoftheGulfcoast,andwouldmoreapttobetheOlmecancestor thantheShang.Furthermore,hesaysthatthejadecarvingmaynotevenhavebeenOlmecandthatthefelinedeity ideacameupfromSouthAmerica.HealsomakesthepointthatexcavationsbyCoeatSanLorenzeontheGulf coastsince1970haverevealedsignicantOlmecculturallevelswhichpredatethoseatLaVenta,butalsopre-Olmec levels,suggestingthattheOlmeccultureappearedgraduallyratherthansuddenly.Meggersimmediatelyrepliedto thisinapublicationin1976Ref.142[195]statingthattwenty-threeofthereferencesshehadconsultedforher previouspublicationhadbeenwrittenbetween1970and1974andthatshewasstillconvincedthatShangrefugees wereinvolvedinCentralAmerica.TheconceptofthesuddenappearanceoftheOlmecsocietyseemstobegiven 17 Strictlyspeakingtheterm"Mesoamerica"includesGuatemala,Belize,WesternHonduras,ElSalvadorandonlysouthernMexico,including Yucatan.

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108 CHAPTER6.1500TO1000B.C. anotherboostbythe1977publication, TheEncyclopediaofArcheology Ref.45[66]whichdiscussesrecent investigationsatSanLorenzobyYaleUniversity,describingthatcenterashavingthelongeststratigraphichistoryof anyknownOlmeccenterandthatitwasconstructedonanarticiallyraisedmassofland,builtbytheOlmecsto supportanumberofearthernpyramidconstructions,plazasandmounds,alllaidoutalonganorth-southaxis.The writerindicatedthattheOlmecCulturewasemergingatthissitejustin1,250B.C.andthatmostofthepureOlmec monumentsandstructuresactuallydatefrom1,150B.C.onwards. WhetherornottheOlmeccivilizationwasimportedorlocalinorigin,thereisnodoubtbutwhatthiswasthemother ofalllatertruecivilizationsinCentralAmerica,includingtheMayan.ProbableextensionsoftheOlmecintomore centralMexicoareindicatedbyrecentexcavationsatChalcatzingointhestateofMorelos,about85milessoutheast ofMexicoCity.Radio-carbondatingsarefrom1,170B.C.on,andthendingsincludebas-reliefcarvings,platform complexes,etc.,alltypicaloftheOlmecstyle.Ithasbeenpostulatedthatitwasacenterforcontrollingthetrade ofhighlandrawmaterialsobsidian,jade,ironoreandpossiblycottonandchannelingtheseontotheGulfcoast centers.ContactswithnearbyOaxacaseemtohavestimulatedculturalgrowththere,aswellorwasitvice-versa, assuggestedbyGrove?.Atanyrate,withinafewcenturies,Oaxaca,withitsvastlygreaterresourcesandricher agriculturalpossibilities,withirrigation,actuallybegantobethedominantpartner.Ref.81[120],45[66] Stillanother,separatecultureissuggestedbyfairlyrecentexcavationsatLaVictoria,Guatemala,whereMichealCoe Ref.36[57]hasuncoverediridescentceramicpotteryasauniquetechnologicalfeaturedatingfrom1,500to800 B.C.ThissameunusualpotteryhasbeenfoundalsoinPeru,anditseemspossiblethatthetechnologymayhavegone fromGuatemalatoPeruwheretheearliestdatingbyradio-carbonis714B.C.+200years.Ifthisdiffusiondidoccur, itwasprobablybyboatforthatisonlya1,300mileseatripandhasbeenshownpossiblebyHeyerdahl'sraftvoyage andthepresenceofancientsherdsonGalapagosIslands,whichlie650milesofftheEcuadorcoast.Otherpottery ofMiddleAmericawashighlydevelopedbuthadnolocalancestryandCoesuggeststhatitpossiblymigrateddown fromtheWoodlandCultureofNorthAmerica. 6.9.1.3SOUTHAMERICA Severaloftheimmediatelyprecedingparagraphs,particularlythoseconcerningthepossibleculturalderivationsfrom pre-ColumbianEuropeanmigrationwereapplicabletopartsofSouthAmericaaswell.Weshouldnowmakesome observationspeculiartothelatter,however.Foronething,theSouthAmericansdidnothavewritingandwhythisdid notarrivewithotherMid-Americanculturalfeatures,iftherewasindeedearlycontact,remainsanenigma.Asfaras theilliteracyisconcerned,however,weshalldiscoverlaterinthistextthatilliteracydidnothampertheScandinavian VikingsortheMongolKhans.Themostspectacularexcavation,abandonedbetween1,500and1,400B.C.according tocarbon-dating,isElParaiso,nearLima,justthreemileseastoftheoceanontheChillonRivervalley.Thisconsistsof sevenarchitecturalunits,ofwhichonehasbeenprettywellrestored.Theunitswereenormousbuildingsmadeoftwo rowsofheavyquarriedandroughly-shapedstoneblockscementedwithunredclayandthegapslledwithrubble. Thebuildingswereofvarioussizesandshapes,someathousandfeetlong;somealmostsquare165by132feet.There werewidestaircasesandvarioushallsandrooms,someofwhichmusthavebeenforstoragewhileotherswerefor festivitiesandstillotherslivingquarters.Asinglebuildingwouldreachthirtyfeethigh.Asimilarbuildingcomplex hasalsobeenfoundhigherupinthevalley,thirty-sixmilesfromLima.Trepanationanddeliberatedeformationof skullsseealsoMexico,CentralAmericaandtheCaribbeanp.107waspracticedfrequentlyinthisperiod.Inthe lastchapterwediscussedthe"beanplanters"ofPeru.ArcheologyindicatesthatElParaisoandallthebeanplanters' villageswereabandonedataboutthesametime,apparentlyaround1,500to1,400B.C..Noexplanationhasbeen foundforthisrathersuddenandcompletedisappearanceofthissociety,andfurthermoreitappearsthatthePeruvian coastprobablyremaineddesertedforonetothreecenturiesthereafter.Skeletonssuppliedtophysicalanthropologists byFredericEngelfromthevicinityofthelastofthesepre-ceramic,beaneatersshowthepresenceofadifferentethnic groupwithcross-breeding,asevidencedbythepresenceofbrachycephalicandmesocephalicskullsinadditionto theolderdolichocephalic.Onecanimagethatforeignethnicgroupsmayhavebroughtaplaguethatkilledthebean planters,butonecannotruleoutsevereclimaticchangeasthecause. CorngrowinghadappearedinthecentralAndes,bothinthecordilleraandonthecoastby1,500B.C.Although

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109 previouslyusedontheCaribbeancoast,potterydoesnotseemtohavebeenintroducedinwesternPeruuntilabout 1,300B.C.EngleRef.62[91]hadfoundsomeinthecentralPeruvianlowerAndescarbon-datedinthe3,300 to3,500B.C.range,soperhapsbothcornandpotterywerebroughtoverfromtheeasternslopesofthemountains. NearLakeTiticacaandintheCordilleradelaViuda,northeastofLima,earlytypesofpotteryhavebeenfounddating between1,500and1,300B.C.andthispotteryhassubsequentlybeenfoundeverywhereincavesandrocksheltersin theupperAndes.Thecornraisersandpotterymakerswereapparentlyanew,migratingpeople,anddidnotrepresent merelyachangeincultureofthebeanplanters.Basicallyby1,320B.C.AmericansatecornastheEuropeansate wheatandtheAsiansrice.Seafood,especiallyshellsh,however,alwaysplayedanimportantpartoftheAndes peoples'diets,supplyingproteinthattheylackedintheabsenceofmeat.AdeeprefusemiddenonthecoastofPeru hasrevealedacultivatedgourd,usedforvariousartifactsinashingculture.ThesewereonlylaterfoundinPolynesia. By1,000B.C.Peruvianshadhallucinogensandalcoholandweresmokingcigars,althoughtheleafwasnottobacco. Ref.62[91],95[140] ForwardtoAmerica:1000to700B.C.Section7.9 ChooseDifferentRegion 1.IntrotoEraSection6.1 2.AfricaSection6.2 3.CentralandNorthernAsiaSection6.5 4.EuropeSection6.4 5.TheFarEastSection6.7 6.TheIndianSubcontinentSection6.6 7.TheNearEastSection6.3 8.PacicSection6.8

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110 CHAPTER6.1500TO1000B.C.

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Chapter7 1000to700B.C. 7.11000to700B.C. 1 Backwardto1500to1000B.C.Section6.1 Thesethreehundredyearswereaperiodofgreatactivityallovertheglobe,fromnorthernAfricaandtheNearEast acrosstoChinaandeventheAmericas.Aswillbenoted,therearemanynewideasrecentlyformulatedaboutdiffusion ofpeoplesandculturesaroundtheearthinthisperiod,ideasthatarequitestartlingtomostofusandnotgenerally accepted,apparently,bythetraditional,historicalestablishment.Wehaveintroducedtheseconceptsinthismanuscript becauseoftheirinterestandbecausetheauthorspresentsomeveryconvincingarguments,butonlytimewillgivethe naljudgmentontheirvalidity.WereferparticularlytothetheoriesofProfessorBarryFellandtosomeofthoseof ThorHeyerdahl.ThereaderisremindedthatwhentheprehistoriccavepaintingsofSpainandsouthernFrancewere rstdescribed,theorthodoxarcheologicalorganizationsuniformlydecriedthemasfakes!AdditionalNotesp.111 NOTE :CavalryraidsintheMiddleEastandeasternEuropebynomads,beginningwithScythiansafter900 B.C.,keptlimitingagriculturalexpansionshortofitsclimaticlimitsfor2,000years.Ref.279[191] ChooseDifferentRegion 1.AfricaSection7.2 2.AmericaSection7.9 3.CentralandNorthernAsiaSection7.5 4.EuropeSection7.4 5.TheFarEastSection7.7 6.TheIndianSubcontinentSection7.6 7.TheNearEastSection7.3 8.PacicSection7.8 7.2Africa:1000to700B.C. 2 7.2.1AFRICA BacktoAfrica:1500to1000B.C.Section6.2 1 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat. 2 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat. 111

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112 CHAPTER7.1000TO700B.C. 7.2.1.1NORTHEASTAFRICA AtthebeginningofthelastmillenniumB.C.KushorNubiawasanareaoffertilegrassland,althoughnowitisdesert. Prosperitythenintheareadependedonexportsofivory,ebony,gum,hides,ostrichplumesandslaves.Thenorthern Nubiansweredark-skinnedbutprobablyofAsianorigin,whilefarthersoutharoundpresentdayKhartoum,therewere Negroes.EthiopiabegantobecolonizedbySemitesfromShebainYemeninthe10thcenturyB.C.Ethiopianlegend saysthattheircountrywasfoundedbyMenelik,eldestsonofSolomonandtheQueenofSheba.Inthe8thcentury B.C.KushwasstrongenoughtoconquerEgypt,perhapswiththehelpofthoseEthiopians,andtheyestablishedthe XXVdynastyin725B.C.Ref.83[123] InEgyptthepost-empireperiodoftheNewKingdomlastedfrom1,090intermittentlyuntil525B.C.Theinternal decayofthetheocracywassoonfollowed,asiscommoninhistory,byinvasionanddominancebyforeignpowers. About950B.C.Shishonq,chiefoftheShardanatribeoftheSeaPeoplewhohadfadedintotheLibyandesertsome twocenturiesearlier,revoltedagainsttheEgyptianmonarchandinstalledhimselfaspharaohinthecityofBubastis, establishingtheLibyanDynasty,rulingbothEgyptandLibya.Egyptthenbecameamaritimepower,exporting alabastervaseswithvarioussealstoSpain.Thename"Shishonq"hasalsobeenfoundonsomeAmericaninscriptions, althoughtherelationshipisnotclearatthistime.Asmentionedabove,theLibyanswerefollowedin722B.C.by theKushitesandperhapssomeEthiopianscomingfromthesouth.NoculturaladvanceoccurredinEgyptinthose troubledtimes.Ref.46[76],175[241],66[97]. 7.2.1.2NORTHCENTRALANDNORTHWESTAFRICA WhiletheLibyanswereincontrolofEgypttheirinuenceandlanguagespreadfarandwide,eventotheIndo-Pacic regionwheretheEgyptianshadlongminedgoldparticularlySumatra.FellRef.122[170]saystheLibyan languagespreadwithGreekinuencesintoMelanesia.IntheMediterraneanafter813B.C.therewerecoastline coloniesofPhoenicia,notablythegrowingCarthage,locatedintheBayofTunisnearthemoderncityofTunis. Archaeologists,however,havefoundnothingatCarthagethatcanbedatedbefore735B.C.LiketheparentPhoenicia, Carthagealsomanufacturedapurpleclothbyasecretdyeingprocessutilizingthepigmentfromaseasnail,called "Murex",andtheGreeksnamedthetraderswhosoldthis,"Phoinikoi"or"ThePurplePeople".TheRomansthen calledthem"Punici"andlatertheword"Punic"cametoreferexclusivelytotheCarthaginians. InMauretaniathisperiodsawadecreaseinrainfallandshingwasnolongerpossible,butmilletwascultivatedinthe elds.ThiswastheChebkaphaseoftheDarTichittCulture.By1,000B.C.anew,Hamiticspeakingpeoplefromthe north,ancestorsofpresentdayBerbers,hadestablishedthemselvesintheSahararegion,withchariots,horses,goats andcattle.Ref.65[96],84[124],66[97],45[66] 7.2.1.3SUBSAHARANAFRICA MostofsouthernAfricaremainedmuchasinthepreviouscenturies.Sometimeinthis1stmillenniumB.C.abreakin theforestbeltintheeastallowedStoneAgefarmers,herdsmenandperhapscerealgrowerstospreaddowntheRift valleyfromEthiopiaintocentralKenyaandnorthernTanganyika.Ref.8[14] ForwardtoAfrica:700to601B.C.Section8.8 7.3TheNearEast:1000to700B.C. 3 7.3.1THENEAREAST BacktoTheNearEast:1500to1000B.C.Section6.3 3 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat.

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113 7.3.1.1THEARABIANPENINSULA NorthandsouthArabiapresentedtwoseparateethnicgroups,separatedbyavastcentraldesert.Thenorthernerswere nomads,butthesouthhadanadvancedculturewithurbanliving,ahighsocialorganization,auniqueirrigational systemandarelativelyadvancedtechnology.Severalkingdomsexisted,suchastheMinaeanandSabaeanYemen. TheQueenofSheba,alsocalledQueenBalkis,supposedlycamefromthelattercountry.Itisgenerallysupposed thatthisQueen,whohasreallyneverbeenfurtheridentied,camefromthelandofSheba,orYemen,yetthereis nohistoricalmentionofthecultureofthenationofShebauntilabouttwocenturiesaftertheQueenallegedlyvisited SolomoninPalestine.ExplorationandexcavationofthatareaofYemenhasbeenhinderedbyIslamicattitudes,for ShebawascursedbytheProphetMohammedasapaganland,andallrecentattemptsatexcavationshavebeentotally thwartedbythepresentMosleminhabitants.AtthetimeofthelegendaryvisitoftheQueenofShebatoPalestine, Solomon'spowerwasatitspeak.HisgarrisonscontrolledalltheroadsfromtheEuphratestotheSinaiandfromthe RedSeatoPalmyra.Hisarmyincluded12,000horsemenand1,400warchariots. Camels,whichhadbeenusedbytheArameansforalongtime,cameintocommondomesticuseabout1,000B.C. andbecamemoreandmoreimportantfordeserttraderoutesandwar.Fourcamelscancarryatonofmerchandise andgoforthreedayswithoutwater,coveringtwenty-vemilesaday.AmajorcamelroutefromYementoPalestine viaHejazcarriedArabia'sresinsmyrrh,frankincenseandbalsamusedinperfumes,incenseandmedicines,butalso musthavecarriedre-exportedgoodsfromEastAfricaandIndia.Thetriprequirednearlythreemonthsbythecoastal route.Thenomadcameldriversofthateraenjoyedadishofcamelhairandblood,mixedandcooked.Maribwas thecapitalofSabaea,oneofthecity-statesofnorthYemenwhichacquiredwealthandpowerfromthiscameltrafc. Anirrigationdam,perhapsbuiltthereinthatperiodlastedmorethanathousandyears.ThenativesofSheba,Ma'in, AqtabanandHazarmothwereSemitesfromthenorth,worshipingthesun,themoonandVenus,whichtheycalled Ashtar,andtheirgovernmentwassimilartothatofSumer.Theyweregeographicallyisolatedandtough.Thecity ofAmman,inJordan,gainedindependencefromSolomoninthe10thcenturyB.C.,but200yearslaterJordan,asa whole,wasconqueredbytheAssyrians.Ref.176[242],136[187],211[284],83[123]AdditionalNotesp. 115 7.3.1.2MEDITERRANEANCOASTALAREASOFISRAELANDLEBANON TheshorelineoftheMediterraneanassumedgreatimportanceinthisperiodofworldhistory,asseveralseparate centersofcivilizationdevelopedastheprobableforerunnersofourowncivilization.ThepromotionofHebrew monotheismforecastedthelaterdevelopmentofChristianity,andtheriseoftheGreekCulturewasthedawnofthe Greek-RomanworldwhicheventuallytookoverthatChristianityandbequeathedittothewesternworld.Professor ToynbeeRef.220[294]feelsthatthePhoenicians,IsraelitesandSyriansofthatage,alongwiththePhilistine refugeesfromtheCretanworldandHebrewnomadsfromArabia,alltogetherformedaseparateanddistinctsociety whichhecalledtheSyriac.HefeelsthatitwastheparentsocietyofbothwesternChristendomandtheIslamicSociety oflateryears.Thisisaninterestingtheoryandconvenient,butothersdonotassociatethesecommunitiesinthisway. ToynbeedatesthebeginningofthebreakdownofthisgrouptothedeathofSolomon,butclaimsthatitcontinuedon totheUniversalStateinthe6thcenturyB.C.undertheBabylonianNebuchadrezzar. NOTE:InsertMapfromReference97 7.3.1.3ISRAEL:PALESTINE SolomonslewallrivalclaimantstothethroneofJudea,includinghishalf-brother,andbecamekingoftheJewsfrom 974to937B.C.RichcopperminesfoundneartheRedSeaandPhoenicianmerchanttradehelpedthetreasuryandgold mininginArabiaallegedlypromotedthroughtheQueenofSheba,wasanextraboon.ThePhoenicians,inexchange foraccesstotheRedSeaandsometwentyGalileantowns,broughttechnicalexpertisetoIsrael.Ataplaceonthe GulfofAqabaperhapsmodernElat,thePhoeniciansconstructedthelongdistanceboatswhichweretheirspecialty andmountedjointtradingexpeditionswiththeIsraelites.WoodfortheboatscamefromLebanon'sgreatcedarsand wasoatedbyseatoJaffe.Asanincidentalnote,Solomonamassedseveraltonsofgoldeachyear,somuchthathe coveredthewallsofhisgreattemplewithit.Althoughinmanywaysunprincipledandwithanalleged700wives

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114 CHAPTER7.1000TO700B.C. hisrstwasthedaughterofthepharaohofEgyptand300concubines,hehadonlyoneGod,Yahweh.Thereis muchconfusionabouttheoriginofYahweh-hemayhavebeenoneandthesamewiththeCanaangodYahu,dating backinthattribeto3,000B.C.who,takenoverbytheHebrewswasre-createdintheirownlikeness,oritispossible thatthe"GodAbraham"wasahouse-holdgodbroughtfromancientUr,whilethe"GodMoses"mayhaveoriginated separately,withafusionofthesetwoaccomplishedlaterbyJewswhodidnotcomefromEgypt.Atanyrate,Yahveh originallywasagodofthedesertandwar,andcouldnevereasilybereconciledwithanagriculturaldeity.Shortly afterSolomon'sdeathhisson,Rehoboam,refusedtoreducetheterriblyhightaxesandtennortherntribesrevoltedto formanewnationofIsraelaroundthecityofSamaria.TwosoutherntribesremainedatJerusalemasthenationof Judah.EphraimtodaythisisinJordanbecamethecapitalofthenortherncountryandJerusalemthecapitalofJudea Judah.Ref.46[76],28[48],176[242] JudeawassoonconqueredbytheLibyanrulersofEgypt.AhundredyearslaterKingShab,ofIsrael,heldoff theAssyriansatQarqarB.C.butinanothercenturytheAssyriansdestroyedadjacentSamariaandbesieged Jerusalem,taking200,000Jewscaptive.Theseweretheso-called"LostTribesofIsrael".SargonIIactuallycarried outthedeportationwhichwaspreviouslyorderedbyhispredecessor,TiglathPileserIII 4 .Inthisatmosphereofpolitical disruption,economicwarandreligiousdegeneration,theJewishprophetsappeared.Theywereradical,anti-clerical andsocialistic.TherstwasAmosB.C.followedbyHoseaB.C.whodenouncedtheIsraelitesforthe worshipofgodsotherthanYahweh.AmosandIsaiah,whoappearedin702B.C.,maybeconsideredasthebeginning ofbothChristianityandsocialism,the" ::: springfromwhichhasowedastreamofUtopias ::: 5 InthisperiodJudah keptsomeindependencebutasavassalstateofAssyria.BiblicalHebrewmedicalideasweredrawnchieyfromthe adjacentMediterraneanconcepts.Theybelievedinsupernaturalcausationofdiseasealthoughtheydidnotenvision aworldlledwithdemonsandspiritsatthattime.Hygieniclawswereenforcedforreligiousanddisciplinaryrather thanmedicalreasons,andtheseregulationsreachedintoalmosteverycornerofdailyliving.Thetabooonporkwas probablynothygienicormedicinalbutsimplybecausepigscompetedwithhumansforthescarcegrainandwater, whilesheepandcattledranklittlewaterandateonlygrass.ManyoftheallegedleprosycasesoftheBiblewere probablyotherskindiseases.SomemedicineswerementionedintheBible-mandrake,balsams,gums,oils,and possiblynarcotics.Nosurgerywasmentionedexcepttheritualcircumcision.Physiciansweretakenfromthepriestly tribeofLevites,andwereapparentlyheldinhighesteem.Ref.125[173] 7.3.1.4LEBANON:PHOENICIA PleaseseemapinconnectionwithGREECE,thischapter ThiswasaperiodofgreatwealthandterritorialexpansionforthePhoenicians.KingHiram,ofthecityofTyre,had friendlyrelationswiththeHebrewkingsand,aswehavenoted,enteredintomanytradeagreementswiththem.The Phoeniciansdevelopedanoverseasempire,includingcoloniesonCyprus,theAegeanislands,inSpainandatCarthage innorthAfrica,carryingandteachingtheiralphabettothenationsofantiquityanddisseminatingtheuseofpapyrus. TheirsettlementatGadeslaterCadiz,Spaingavethemaccesstothegold,silverandcopperfromTartessus.They exportedivorycarvings,silver-work,coloredglassandnefabrics.Theyaresaidtobetherstpeoplewhowereable tonavigatebythestars,sailbeyondthesightoflandandatnightandtovoyageontheseasinwinter-time.Itisto berecalledthatthesepeoplewereprobablybasicallyCanaanitesandtheirchiefobjectofworshipwasthegoddess Ishtar,whosubsequentlybecametheGreekgoddessAstarte.TheBritishMuseumhassomeexcellentPhoenician ivorycarvingsofthisperiod.Ref.18[31],19[32],75[115] 7.3.1.5IRAQANDSYRIA JustoverthemountainsfromPhoeniciatheSemiticSyrianshadbeendevelopinganadvancedcivilizationwitha capitalatDamascus.AlthoughdominatedduringthethreehundredyearsofthistimeperiodbytheAssyrians,thetrue Syrianswereaseparatepeople,withtheirowncultureperhapsmorecloselyrelatedtothePhoeniciansandIsraelites thantotheirneighborstothenorthandeast.TheyworshippedAstarteandalsoAdonis,whoregularlyarosefromthe 4 BiblicalreferenceIIKingsXV,29on134 5 DurantRef.46[76],page319

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115 dead.TheAssyrianconquestssoguttednorthernSyria,however,thattheareasubsequentlyremainedunimportantfor thenext400years.TheAssyriansattackedinwaves.UnderAshurnasirpalIIandhisson,ShalmaneserIII-824 B.C.theypushedthroughtotaketheentireeasternMediterraneandowntoPalestineandnorthwardtotheTaurus, whichwasimportantasatraderoutetoEuropeandasasourceofmetals,andthensouthtowardDamascuswherethey cameintoconictwiththeArameansandtheiralliesinIsrael.Ref.8[14]SoonDamascusitselfwasconquered byShalmanesarIV,whowasfollowedafteranintervalbyTiglath-PileserIII.HethenreconqueredArmenia,northern Syria,BabyloniaandoverallextendedtheAssyrianrulefromtheCaucasustoEgypt.Theirmilitaryroadsactually facilitatedtradebythenativeAramean-Syrianswhospreadtheirlanguageandfosteredacosmopolitancultureinthe middleeast.ThelastofthewildelephantsofSyriawerekilledoffinthisperiod,althoughtuskswerestillimported fromAfricaandperhapsIndia,forcarving.Ref.45[66] Asimpliedabove,ancientBabyloniapassedfromKassitetoAssyriancontrolearlyinthisperiod,butbyabout900 B.C.,theChaldeans,whoweresimplyonegroupofArameans,begantoinltratetheregionandeventually,withhelp, theChaldeanaristocracrythrewouttheAssyrians.***Page1185AdditionalNotesp.116 7.3.1.6IRAN:PERSIA IntheearlypartofthisrstmillenniumB.C.thepeopleofwesternIranwerehassledbyAssyriaandUrartuaswell asbyraidingScythiansfromthenorth.Ataboutthistime,theIndo-EuropeanMedesbegantomigratedownintoIran fromjusteastoftheCaspianandbytheninthcenturyB.C.theystartedtowardAssyria,BabyloniaandElam,asthe latterstillcontrolledsouthernIran. 7.3.1.7ASIAMINOR:ANATOLIA TheHittiteEmpireslowlycrumbled,pushedfromthesoutheastbytheAssyriansandfromthewestbythePhrygians, newlyarrivedfromThrace.ThelastHittitecapitalatCarchemishfelltotheAssyriansin717B.C.Butmeanwhilethe Phrygianswiththeirmostfamousking,Midas,withacapitalcityofGordiumnearmodernAnkara,contendedwith AssyriaandEgyptformasteroftheNearEast.TheyworshippedthegoddessCybeleandtheyounggodAtys,who likeAdoni,annuallydiedandwasresurrected,intheinevitablepatternofthemid-east.Atthecloseofthe8thcentury B.C.,bandsofCimmerianhorsemenfromthesteppeofsouthernRussiaraidedfarandwideinAsiaMinor,eventually destroyingthePhrygiannation.TheLydians,livingbetweentheCaysterandtheHermusriverswereabletorepelthe invadersandsoontookovertheentirearea.Ref.28[48] InUrartuintheeast,theHurrianVannicnationrecoveredfromearlierwavesofAssyrianattacksandabout800B.C. becameaverypowerfulnationknownastheUrartianKingdomwithMountAraratasitscenter.Recentexcavations nearAltinepe,Turkey,haverevealedarchitectureandartthathaveleftheritagesinlaterpublicbuildingsinPersia andmetallurgythatperhapshadinuenceasfarawayastheEtruscancivilizationofItaly.Ref.161[220]They demonstratedgreatengineeringskillinirrigationworks.ProsperousunderasuccessionofkingsfromSarduriI B.C.toRusaIB.C.,UrartuattaineditsgreatestgeographicalextentinthereignofSarduriII-735B.C., withterritoryfromtheBlackSeatotheMediterranean.The"GoldenAge"mayhaveoccurredunderArgistisII B.C.whenthecountrygrewrichbyminingironandsellingittoAsiaandGreece.Someauthoritiesfeelthatthis wasthecenturywhentheArmenians,whoeventuallygavetheirnametothisarea,migratedacrosstheEuphratesand intermarriedwiththeindigenousVansandHurrians.OzgucRef.161[220],however,datesthatmigrationtothe next,7thcenturyB.C.Attheendofthisperiod,theHurriannationwasweakenedbycombinedAssyrianpressureand invasionofmigratingCimmerianhordesfromeastoftheBlackSea.Ref.8[14] NOTE :Assyriandocumentsof854B.C.tellhowGindibu,with1,000camelridersfromthe"Landofthe "Aribi"aidedtheKingofDamascusagainsttheAssyrianKingShalmaneserIIatthebattleofKarkor. OverlandtrafcwithcamelsnorthandsouthinthepeninsulabecamesaferthanwatertrafcontheRed Sea,withitsoff-shoreislandsandreefsandviciouspirates.Smallcitiesnearoasesorspring-fedwellsgrew intointernationalcenters,richingoodsandcultureinthisrstmillenniumB.C.AnexampleTaimainthe

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116 CHAPTER7.1000TO700B.C. north,whereareligiousreformer,Nabonidus,movedfromBabylonandbuiltagreatpalace.Thecitywas surroundedbysevenmilesofwall.Ref.315[125] NOTE :Thefundamentaladministrativedevicesfortheexerciseofimperialpowerweredevelopedbythe AssyriansandthesesubsequentlyremainedfairlystandardintheMiddleEastuptothe19thcentury.The Assyrians,ratherthanthesteppenomads,mayhavepioneeredcavalryintheuseofpairedhorsemen,with oneriderholdingbothsetsofreinssothatthesecondridercouldusebothhandsforhisbow.Ref.279 [191] ForwardtoTheNearEast:700to601B.C.Section8.3 ChooseDifferentRegion 1.IntrotoEraSection7.1 2.AfricaSection7.2 3.AmericaSection7.9 4.CentralandNorthernAsiaSection7.5 5.TheFarEastSection7.7 6.TheIndianSubcontinentSection7.6 7.TheNearEastSection7.3 8.PacicSection7.8 7.4Europe:1000to700B.C. 6 7.4.1EUROPE BacktoEurope1500to1000B.C.Section6.4 7.4.1.1SOUTHERNEUROPE 7.4.1.1.1EASTERNMEDITERRANEANISLANDS Thegreatislandempiresofpreviouscenturiesnolongerexisted,andalloftheseareaswereintegralpartsofeither GreeceorAsianstates.Forexample,thesouthernhalfofCypruswasnowunderPhoenicianinuence,whilethe northernhalf,alongwith RhodesandCretewereunderGreekcontrol.Atvariousperiodsaround800B.C.Assyrians,EgyptiansandPersians conqueredCyprus,butletnativekingsrule.DorianGreekscontinuedtocontrolCrete,however.Ref.38[59] 7.4.1.1.2GREECE AstheclassicalGreeksmultipliedandmigrateddownthepeninsulatheydidnotdevelopacivilizationoftheirown but,asbarbarians,theywreckedoneCretanandMycenaeanandthenbuiltanewoneoutoftheold.TheMycenaean citiesandcultureweresodestroyedthateventheartofwritingwaslostuntilabout800B.C.whentheGreeksadapted thePhoenicianalphabettotheirlanguage.Ref.28[48]"Alpha","beta","gamma"arenotGreekwords,butcome fromSemitictermsforox,houseandcamel. Thedevelopmentofironworkingtechniquesalsocontributedtoculturalchangeandawellproportioned"geometric" potteryappearedabout900B.C.ThislaterturnedupinEtruriainItaly,perhapsascopies.EarlyGreecewasnotfertile enoughtosupportafast-growingpopulationandtheneedformoreland,coupledwithpoliticaloppressionbythe rulingclassesledtotwohundredyearsofextensivecolonialexpansioninvolvingalltheshoresoftheMediterranean 6 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat.

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117 aswellastheAegeanislands,Sicily,andThrace.Thecoloniessoonbecameindependentofthemothercities,which continuedtoghtamongthemselves.Thucydidesdatestheearliestseabattleofhistorytoabout712B.C.between CorinthiansandCorcyraeans.Corinthwasformedfromtheunionofagroupofvillagesearlyinthe8thcenturyB.C. andsoonwaswealthybecauseitwasonthekeylandroutebetweenalltheHellenesso-namedfromthemythical KingHellen,progenitorofallGreekpeoples. TheGreeksaddedvowelstothePhoenicianalphabet,andsoontheirlanguageandtheirloveofbeautyfusedintothe Greekgeniuswhichtransformedtheworldofthattime. NOTE:InsertMapReference97:GreekandPheonicianColonies TherstOlympiadwasheldin776B.C.Ref.45[66],216[291],68[106],75[115] Thefertile,woodedislandofEuboea,justofftheGreekcoastbecameagreatmaritimepoweraboutthe9thcentury B.C.establishingatradingpostatAlMinaonthecoastofSyriawhichsubsequentlybecameagreatsourceofgold andsilver.Similarly,inthe8thcenturyB.C.theyestablishedatradingpostontheislandofPithecusaeoffthewest coastofItalyfordevelopmentoftradewiththeEtruscancity-states.R-75 7.4.1.1.3UPPERBALKANS TheupperBalkanareaseethedwithDacians,ThraciansandGreeksandatthistimeahordeofferocious,bearded, barbariangiants,theScythians,appearedaroundtheBlackSea,displacingtheCimmeriansfromaroundthenorth shoreandtheCrimea. Atthesametime,theGreekswerebringingcivilizationbackintotheareaofThracewithvariouscoloniesalong theAegeancoast.IronworkingwaswellestablishedalongtheThracianandIllyrianareas.ColinRenfrewRef. 179[244]believesthattheThraciangold-smiths,workinginBulgaria,werethedescendantsoftheCopperAge mound-makersdescribedinearlierchapters. 7.4.1.1.4ITALY TheTerramarepeopleshadalreadyspreadthrougheasternItalyandpartofSicilybytheeraunderdiscussionand probablybecametheSamnite,SabineandLatintribes,asmentionedinthelastchapter.InEtruria,betweentheArno andtheTiber,inthe10thand9thcenturies,B.C.thereweregroupsofIronAgevillagesandbythenextcentury specialbronzesbegantobeimportedfromSardinia.Between750and700B.C.varioushilltopvillagesinthis Etruscanareabegantobeconsolidatedintocity-states,withtrueurbanization.TherstwasTarquinii,somemiles northoftheTibermouthonthewestcoast;thenCaeretothesouth,reachingtheTiber;thenVulcitothenorthof Tarquinii;andnallyClusiumandVeii,asinlandcity-states.AllwerefundamentallyEtruscanpeople,speakinga non-lndo-EuropeanlanguagewhichwasknownlatertoeducatedRomans,butwhichremainsessentiallyuntranslated today.Therstthreecity-statesmentionedabovebecameindependentlystrongseapowers,withlargetradepotentials basedonenormouscopper,ironandtinminesinthemountainsoftheirrespectiveregions.Theytradedthesemuch wantedmetalsforgold,rstthroughthePhoeniciansfromSidonandTyre,thenafter800B.C.withCarthaginians whoestablishedcommercialoutpostsinItaly,SardiniaandSicily,aswellasinFranceandSpain.Inthe8thcentury itwastheGreeksfromtheislandofEuboeawhoestablishedtheirlargetradingcentersontheislandofPithecusae andonthemainlandnearbyatCumae,togetthemetalsfromthevariousEtruscancity-statesandtheEtruscanheld islandofElba.TheEuboeanconnectionswithSyriaandAsiaMinoralsoallowedthedistributionofOrientalobjects inEtruria.AnotherproductfromtheregionofCampigliesewasalum,usedparticularlyasabinderinthedyeingof fabricsandshoe-leather,bothofwhichwereEtruscanspecialties. About1,000B.C.VillanovanmigrantsfromtheDanube,usingiron,crossedtheTiberandsettledinLatium,exterminatingormarryingtheexistingpopulation.Therewasundoubtedlyagreatdealofshiftingofpopulationsandmanyof theVillanovansmayhavebecomeassimilatedintotheEtruscancity-statesandcertainlymanyGreeksbecamepermanentresidentsthere,bringingmuchoftheirculturewiththem.TheEtruscansofTarquiniispreadsouthwardacrossthe

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118 CHAPTER7.1000TO700B.C. TibertoCapuaasearlyas800B.C.probablytofacilitatetradewithCumae.ItisamistaketoconsidertheEtruscansas asingle,homogenousgroup,astheylivedintheirseparatecity-states,sometimestradingwitheachother,sometimes ghtingandusuallyfailingineveryattemptatanycoordinatedefforts.GrantRef.75[115]saysthattheywere muchlikethemodernJapaneseinthattheyweregreatimitatorsandtheycopiedallGreekworksofart,addingsome oftheirownimprovementsanduniquevariations. ThereweresettlementsofsometypeatRomeprobablythroughthe10thand9thcenturiesB.C.,butthetraditional datefortheofcialsettlementofRomeisalwaysgivenas753B.C.JustacrosstheTibertheEtruscancity-stateof Veiiwasformedbyacoalitionofvillagesbetween750and700B.C..Ancientwriterssaidthatithadapopulationof 100,000butthiswasundoubtedlyanexaggeration,althoughitprobablywasaslargeasAthens.Veiihadnometals, butbecamerichfromagricultureandthesaltbedsatthemouthoftheTiber.Rock-cutarcheddrainagechannelsand tunnels,sometimestwomileslong,weremadetofacilitatedrainageandtheirroadswereexcellent. BasedonHerodotus'reportsfromLydiansources,thetraditionalconceptwasthattheEtruscanscamefromLydiain AsiaMinor,butalmostallmodernauthoritiesfeelthatthisiscompletelyinerror.Ref.75.McEvedyRef.136 [187]believestheEtruscanswerenativesoftheoldIberiangroupandthattheirhigherculturedevelopedfromearly contactwithGreekswhowereinterestedintheElbanandEtrurianironandcopperdeposits.Thisviewisstrengthened bytheCambridgeUniversityEncyclopediaofArcheologyRef.45[66]whichsaysthatthe10,000knownEtruscan inscriptionsbelongtoanoldMediterraneansubstratumstilllargelyundeciphered.MichaelGrantRef.75gave furtherdocumentationofthisviewin1980.Itisofinterestthatnon-Indo-Europeanlanguageswerealsospokenby theLiguriansandRaetiansofnorthernItaly,theCorsicans,SardiniansandtheSicansofwesternSicily.Tharroswas aPhoenicianportonthewestsideofSardiniawhichreceivedgoldfromSpainandthentradeditextensivelywiththe Etruscancitiesfortheirownmetalandagriculturalproducts.ItwasthewealthiestofalltheSardiniancities,with multipleworkshopsforproductionofgold,silver,preciousgemjewelryandornaments.Ref.75[115]Bronze objectsfromtheseSardinianworkshopswerearrivingatEtruscanharborsthroughoutthe9thand8thcenturiesB.C.In otherpartsofItaly,proper,thereweretheIronAgegroupsofPicentes,VenetiandIapyges.SomeEtruscancity-states, particularlyVolaterraeandClusium,alsoextendedtheirtradeandinuencenorthintotheTransalpineregions.By750 B.C.,underthisimpulse,Felsina 7 hadbecomeaneconomicpower,asanamalgamationofvillageswitheasyaccess toEtruria. 7.4.1.2CENTRALEUROPE About1,000B.C.variousbranchesoftheUrneldCulture,agroupofrelatedtribeswithcommoncultureandburial practices,dominatedtheRhine/Danubeaxis,andbegantoexpandintovalleysofthemainriverthoroughfares.Four mainbranchesgaverisetoimportantgroupsofhistoricpeoples:CeltsinthewestalongtheupperMain,Moselleand theRhone,SlavsinthenorthfromtheElbetoeastoftheOder,Italic-speakersintheregionofHungaryandIllyrians inthesoutheastabouttheriverTiszaandMuresul.Ref.8[14]SomewouldsaythattheCeltsdidnotreallyemerge asadistinctpeopleofcommonlanguage,religionandcultureuntilaboutthe8thcenturyB.C.,andasmanifestedin theHallstadtCulture-500B.C. 8 ,locatedneartherichestsaltdepositsinEuropeanddenitelyinuencedby theEtruscansfromthesouth.In1846some1,100graveswereopenedintheNiederaswellastheHallstadtregions ofAustria,showingtheextensiveironutilizationanddecorationofthisCelticAge.TheCeltswereenergeticand inventive,usingironfortoolsandweapons."TheyintroducedsoaptotheGreeksandRomans,inventedchainarmor, werersttoshoehorsesandgiveshapetohandsaws,chisels,lesandothertoolsweusetoday.Theydeveloped seamlessironrimsfortheirwheels,setourstandard4feet81/2inchrailroadgaugewiththespanoftheirchariots, pioneeredtheironplowshare,therotaryourmill,awheeledharvestertwomillenniabeforeCyrusMcCormick 9 FarthernorththerewaseverincreasingpressurefromtheGermanictribeswithsomeTeutonsalreadymovingupthe ElbeandRhine.TheoldestGermanicwindinstrumentsdatebackto800B.C.InatriangularareainnorthernEurope boundedbytheriversAllerandSaalinthewest,alinerunningeastfromtheriverSommetotheTaunusmountains 7 "Felsina"wasanEtruscanname,latercalled"Bononia"byRomans,aftertheconqueringBoiiGaulictribe.Itisnow"Bologna". 8 HermRef.91[135]datestheHallstadtCulturefrom700to450B.C. 9 FromMerleSeveryRef.194[266],page588.

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119 totheheadoftheSaal,andbytheNorthSeacoastonthenorthwest,therewerenoCelts,andbeforetheGermanic tribesbegantheirmigrationsfromtheeastandnorth,thepeopleinthisareaspokeanolderlanguagethaneitherCeltic orGerman.Someplace-namesinthisregionstillbearthestampofthisunknowntongue,anotherexampleofancient EuropeanswhodidnotspeakanIndo-Europeantongue.Ref.8,91 7.4.1.3WESTERNEUROPE Intheearlypartofthisperiod,thepeopleofwesternEuropewereinamiddleBronzeAge,speakinglanguagesat presentunknown.InSpainthePhoenicianshadreachedthelowerreachesoftheGuadalquivirRiverinAndalusiaand theytradedformetalsminedbythenatives,whoseemtohavebeenmainlyBasques.ThelargestPhoeniciancitywas TarshishGreek-TartessosandthescripttheyusediscalledTartessian,anonlyslightlymodiedPhoenician.The shipsofTarshishwerethelargestsea-goingvesselsknowntotheancientworld. TherstIndo-EuropeanspeakingtribeswhoemigratedintoFrancebetween900and700B.C.ranintotheLigurians whowereshort,muscularfarmers,dangerousinbattle.TheyhadalreadyhadcontactwithGreektradersandGreek civilization.Ref.91Bytheendofthe8thcenturyB.C.Indo-Europeanpeopleswerepouringintoallareasofwestern EuropeandevenbeforethattherewasextensivetradingoccurringfromthecontinenttoBritain,asevidencedbythe importedtools,weaponsandtrinkets.ItwillberecalledthatthepossibilityofstillearliermigrationsofCeltic-speaking peopletotheBritishIsleswasmentionedinthelastchapter.ItispossiblethatthePictsofScotlandweredescended fromtheprehistoricAbernethyCulture,peoplewhomayhavemigratedfromGermanytoScotlandabout1,000B.C. OurverylimitedknowledgeoftheirlanguagesuggestsamixtureofCelticandsomeolderspeech.Theywereexcellent metalsmithsandhadasymbolicartwhichsurvivesonsomestones.Ref.65,43,45. 7.4.1.4SCANDINAVIA DenmarkcontinuedinanextendedBronzeAgewithanon-egalitariansocietybasedonamixedfarmingandherding economy.ButtheDaneswerealsohighlyskilledmetallurgistsandcarpentersandhadcontactswithcentralEurope. Thepoliticalleaderwasalsothereligiousleaderandtherewasaneliteclasswhocontrolledtradeandreligion.While intheearlyBronzeAge,precedingtheperiodunderdiscussion,thedeadwereburiedinwoodencofns,inlatertimes ,100-500B.C.cremationwascommonandtheasheswereoftenplacedinapotteryurn.Archaeologistshave uncoveredabout350hoardsofbronzeandoccasionalgoldobjectswhichmayhaverepresentedreligiousofferingsof somekind.Theobjectsincludedtools,swords,neckrings,armbands,brooches,beltornaments,buckets,cups,bridle bitsandshields,allofexcellentworkmanship,perhapsconstructedbyveryspecializedcraftsmen.Eighty-oneofthe hoards,datedfromthe9thtothe8thcenturies,B.C.,allcontainwomen'sornamentsinwhatappeartobespecialsets. Thepresenceofanimalbonesandharvestingsicklesinsomehoardssuggestthatpartofthepurposeofthehoardswas toinsurefertilityofthecropsandherds.Ref.257TheDanesalsodevelopedtheirownIronAge,usingbog-iron. ThepeopleofJutlandofthisperiodweretheVandalsaboutwhomweshallhearmuchmoreinlaterchapters. SouthernSwedenalsocontinueditsBronzeAgecultureatthistimeandtherewasageneralspreadofTeutonictribes throughoutthearea. 7.4.1.5EASTERNEUROPE AlongtheBalticcoastwereGermantribesandBalts.FromtheElbeeasttobeyondtheOderweretheproto-Slav, UrneldCultureLusatians,destinedtobecometheWesterngroupwhichhadmigratedfromtheeastCarpathiansto theDnieperareabecametheEasternSlavs.Some140milesnorthwestofWarsawtheLusatiantownofBiskupin hasbeenexcavated,showinganextra-ordinarystoneenclosedareaofveacreswithonehundredidenticalhouses arrangedinthirteenrows,allmadeofoakandpine.a130yard-longwoodencausewaylinkedthecity,whichwas originallyonanislandinalake,tothemainland.Itisobviousthatinadditiontobeingskilledintheuseofwoodthese peoplehadahighsocialdevelopment,andsomefeelthattheirknowledgewascarriedoverlatertotheDruidsofthe Celticpeople.

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120 CHAPTER7.1000TO700B.C. By800B.C.theEasternSlavswerecompletelyconqueredbytheferociousScythianswhotookovertheareaabout theBlackSea.TheSlavsofthisregionweretheancestorsoftheRussian,UkranianandWhiteRussianpeoples,and theyhadaninnateaptitudeforworkinmetal.TheScythianswereprimarilyofIndo-Europeanstockbutmayhavehad someaddedMongolelements.InadditiontodominatingthelocalSlavs,theScythiansdisplacedtheCimmerianswho hadpreviouslyoccupiedthenorthshoreoftheBlackSeaabouttheScythiansbecausemuchthathasbeendescribed aboutthemhascomefromHerodotus'ThePersianWarsRef.92andonemustalwaystakethistales"withagrain ofsalt".InBookIVhedescribedavisittoScythiaandwroteoftheirlegendsandcustoms.Theseincludedvarious barbarousactivitiesincludingtheirpropensityforbeheadinganenemy,thenskinninghimandmakingcoats,capsand cushionsfromtheskin.Theskullsmayhavebeenusedfordrinkingcups,aftergildingoftheinteriors.Thebloodof therstvictimwasalwaysdrunkandscalpsweretakentobelaterusedasnapkins.Herodutustoldofhard,cruelmen withleatheryskin,lthyhair,wildcavernouseyesandmanywives,alllovingstrongwineandsmokinghashishwhile livingchieyinthesaddle.Ref.92,176,8Theymustnothavebeencompletelysavage,however,asarcheologists haveshownthattheyproducedhighlydevelopedartsandcraftswithgoldnecklaces,miniature,castanimalgures anddelicateglassware.Ref.91****Page1185AdditionalNotesp.120 NOTE :TheScythianscamefromtheAltaimountainregionsofAsia.Ref.279 ForwardtoEurope:700to601Section8.1 7.5CentralandNorthernAsia:1000to700B.C. 10 7.5.1CENTRALANDNORTHERNASIA BacktoCentralandNorthernAsia:1500to1000B.C.Section6.5 SouthcentralAsiawasnowoccupiedbyvariousmigratingIndo-Europeantribes,somemovinggraduallysouthbetweentheAralandCaspianseasandothersmovingwesttowardthesouthernRussiansteppe.Ordos,theregionof MongolialyinginsidetheloopoftheYellowRiverwhereitturnsnorth,wasinhabitedbynomadictribes,including theHsiung-nu,anAltaic-speakingMongoloidpeople. 11 Broaddaggers,curvedknives,harnessornamentsandbelt plaqueswithanimalproleshavebeenamongtheremnantsfound.RockcarvingsinTibetalongtheupperIndus RivervalleyinLadakhontheTibetian-Kashmirborderdating2,000to3,000yearsagoindicateStoneAgehunters withbowsandarrows.DuetoagradualcontinuedriseoftheHimalayanarcandtheresultinglesseningoftheeffective rainfallthroughthecenturiesmuchofthisareaisnowdesert.Ref.8[14],45[66],182[250] ForwardtoCentralandNorthernAsia:700to601B.C.Section8.7 7.6TheIndianSubcontinent:1000to700B.C. 12 7.6.1THEINDIANSUBCONTINENT InthelastchapterwediscussedthesouthernandeasternexpansionoftheinvadingAryans.Theirmigrationsoon becamesharplylimitedbecausethe"forestpeople"theyencounteredhadendemictropicalandparasiticalinfestations ourishinginthemoist,warmclimatewhichmeantdeathanddestructiontotheinvaders.Theaboriginalforestpeople wereonlygraduallyincorporatedinspecialcastes,thruineffectisolatingthemfromtheconquerors,andthiswas anotherelementinthedevelopmentofthecastesystem.Itwasonlyaftersomeadaptationtodiseaseandtheadvent ofiron,inabout800B.C.,thattheAryanVedicsbegantoactuallycleartheforestofnorthernIndiapreparatoryfor farmingandlargescaleagriculture.Ref.140[190],8[14] 10 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat. 11 SomeauthoritiesdenythattheHsiung-nucanbeidentiedasaseparatepeopleonthebordersofChinauntilthe2ndcenturyB.C.Seereferences 45and127andthismanuscriptunder4thcenturyB.C.,CENTRALANDNORTHERNASIA. 12 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat.

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121 Inthesouth,tinycommunitiesdevelopedinthefragmentedland,eachwithitsownreligious,politicalandeconomic life.DistinctivemegalithicculturesgrewuparoundMadres,KeralaandMysore.Sea-faringpeoplesatthetipofthe peninsulatradedbyseawiththeMiddleEast,shippingivory,spicesandthecottonplantstoMesopotamia.Itisof considerableinterestthatdoimens,verysimilartothoseofEurope'ssecondandthirdmillenniaB.C.,havebeenfound throughoutIndia,butnoneseemtodatebeforethe8thcenturyB.C.andsomemuchlater.Ref.8[14],136[187], 215[290] TheorganizationandwritingoftheVedasritualsbeganabout1,000B.C.andprobablycontinuedfor500years.The writingoftheUpanishadsbeganabout800B.C.andcontinuedforabout300years.Thelatterconsistedof108 discoursesbyvariousteachers,saintsandsageswiththeresultingopinionsandphilosophiesofmanymen.Thebelief intransmigrationappearedthere.AccordingtoToynbee'stheoriesRef.220[294]thisistheheightoftheoriginal VedicSociety.OfincidentalnoteisthelegendinSriLankathatKingSolomonsentemissariestothefabledcityof Gems,Ratnapura,togetpreciousstoneswithwhichtowootheQueenofSheba.Ref.108[153] 7.7TheFarEast:1000to700B.C. 13 7.7.1THEFAREAST BacktoTheFarEast:1500to1000B.C.Section6.7 7.7.1.1CHINAANDMANCHURIAcontinuedChouDynasty TheleadersoftheChouDynastyrewardedtheiraidesbymakingthemalmostindependentrulersofthemanyprovinces intowhichthenewrealmwasdivided,thussettingthestageforafeudalismwhicheventuallyproveddangerousto government,butstimulatingtoChineselettersandphilosophy.AtsometimeduringthisperiodtheInstitutionsofChou wascompleted,detailingthedutiesandorganizationsorphysicians.Hao,southoftheWeiRiver,wastheChoucapital until771B.C.whenthelastkingoftheWesternChouDynastywaskilledbyanoble,ashiscapitalwasoverrunby Northerners.AyearlaterhissonproclaimedLo-Yang,southoftheYellowRiverinHonan,ashiscapital.Thisstarted thetimeoftheEasternChouDynasty,butthemainfunctionsofthekingthenbegantobechieyceremonial,asthe variousarealordscontrolledtheirownsections.Thisfeudalagewastolastforsome500years.Itwasdifferentfrom EuropeanfeudalisminthattheChourulingclasswasprincipallyuniedbykinshiptiesandthekingwasconsidered astheheadofavastfamily.By700B.C.therewerethreepowerfulfeudalstatesgivingonlylip-servicetotheChou king.ThesewereCh'inintheoldroyaldomaininShensi,ChininthenorthandCh'iintheeast.Thissubdivisionof theEasternChou,whichlastedover250years-481B.C.iscalledthe"SpringandAutumn"era,afterthename "Ch'unch'iu"whichhasthesamemeaning.Ref.101[146],125[173]AdditionalNotes Althoughthereweresome200Choustateletsbythe8thcenturyB.C.therewerestillmanynon-Chinesepeopleabout theborderswhostillhadsometimesmilitaryandsometimesdiplomaticcontactwiththeChoucourt.Inthenorthwere the"Ti",inthewestandcentraluplandsthe"Jung",ontheeasterncoastthe"I"andinthesouthallnon-Chinesewere lumpedtogetheras"Man".IntheYangtzedeltaregionwasaloosepoliticalentitycalled"Wu"andfarthersoutha Yuehstate. Fromthephilosophicalstandpoint,therewasnowashiftfromthefearofspiritualbeingstoemphasisonhuman behaviorandthegroundworkwaslaidforthelaterhumanisticthoughtsofConfucius.TechnicallytheChinesealso advancedandevenbuilticehouseswhichwerekeptcoolbyevaporation.Theydevelopedacurvedmouldboard plowwhichoverturnedtheslicedsod,andwasusedcontinuouslythereafterforricecultivation.Thisadvancementin agriculturewasnotusedinEuropeforanother1,400years.Ref.26[47],211[284],213[288] 13 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat.

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122 CHAPTER7.1000TO700B.C. 7.7.1.2JAPAN BythebeginningoftherstmillenniumB.C.,thenorthernAinupeoplehadextendeddowntothecentralislandof Honshu,whilethesouthernaborigines,speakingaformofJapanese,ledsedentarylivesasshell-sheaters.This situationcontinueduntilabout500B.C.Ref.12[21] 7.7.1.3KOREAandSOUTHEASTASIA Theseareasremainedessentiallyasnotedinthelastchapterp.104.AdditionalNotes ForwardtoTheFarEast:700to601B.C.Section8.4 ChooseDifferentRegion 1.IntrotoEraSection7.1 2.AfricaSection7.2 3.AmericaSection7.9 4.CentralandNorthernAsiaSection7.5 5.EuropeSection7.4 6.TheIndianSubcontinentSection7.6 7.TheNearEastSection7.3 8.PacicSection7.8 NOTE :SomescholarsthinkthatthecollapseoftheWesternChouDynastyin771B.C.mayhavebeena resultofaScythiancavalryraidfromtheAltairegion.TherecordsofcavalryharassmentfromMongolia arenotclearuntilthoseofthe4thcenturyB.C.Ref.279[191] NOTE :RecentaerialphotographyoverKhoratPlateauinThailandhasrevealedevidenceof60moated settlementsfrom1to400acresinsize,datingbacktothis1stmillenniumB.C.Thissuggeststhebeginning ofcentralizationinthatregion.Ref.297[232] 7.8ThePacic:1000to700B.C. 14 7.8.1THEPACIFIC BacktoThePacic:1500to1000B.C.Section6.8 Asmentionedinthelastchapter,FellRef.65[96]writesthatwesternPaciclanguagesweregreatlyinuencedby LibyansailorsastheyhelpedtheEgyptiansminegoldinSumatra.Fellactuallyusedtheterm"Polynesian"whenhe probablyshouldhaveused"Melanesian"or"Micronesian"whereNeolithiccultureswereknowntohaveourishedat thattime.Furthermore,itmustbenotedthatthiswholeidealacksconrmationbyanyothersourcematerialavailable totheauthor.Whileweareoncontroversialground,itseemsappropriatetointroducethetheoriesofThorHeyerdahl concerningtheentirePacicregion.Heyerdahlisabonadeprofessorofanthropologyandbiologywithhisown museumatOslo,withsomefollowingonthecontinent,butwhoseworkhasnotbeenwhole-heartedlyacceptedinthe UnitedStates.Whetherthisistheresultofthefrequentsuspicionofconservativeprofessionalsinanyeldforthose oftheirnumberswhowriteforpublicconsumptionandprot,ornot,remainstobedetermined.Thefactsremainthat hehasdoneseveralyearsresearchinthesouthernPacicandpresentsanenormousamountofmaterialthatwouldbe difculttorefute.Wethereforepresenthisideasforseriousconsideration. WemuststartwiththerealizationthatthePacicOceancoversone-halfoftheearth'ssurfaceandis,itself,ahemiglobewithonlyinnitesimalamountsoflandscatteredatgreatdistancesasislandsacrossitsvastexpanse.IfNew Zealandisexcluded,thecombinedsurfaceareasofthePacicislandswouldnotcoveranareahalfaslargeasNew 14 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat.

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123 YorkState.Micronesiaisthatgroupofcoralatollsbarelyrisingabovetheoceansurfaceandintotalsurfacearea lessthanthatofLongIslandandwhichislocatedeastofAsiaandnorthoftheequatorbutinanoceanareaequating thetotalwidthoftheAtlantic.SouthofMicronesiaandtheequatorisPapua-Melanesia,asimilarlywidewaterarea beginningwheretheIndonesianarchipelagoendsandstretching4,000milesfromwesternNewGuineatoeasternFiji. Thesearelarge,highislandsofcontinentaltype,formingalmostanuninterruptedbridgeeastward,leavingonlyFiji asanoceanicgroupdistinctfromtherest.EastofbothMicronesiaandMelanesia,runningbothaboveandbelowthe equator,liesPolynesia,agroupofislandsandatollslyinginatrianglewithHawaiiatthenorth,NewZealandinthe southandEasterIslandintheeast. ThesettlingofPapua-MelanesiabyStoneAgepeople,travellingalmostbyfootoverlandbridgesinprehistoric timesSeeThePacic:Beginningto8000B.C.Section2.8hasneverbeendisputed.ExceptperhapsforFiji,no navigationalproblemswereencountered.TheproblemofthesettlementofMicronesiaismorecomplicated,although mostscholarsareagreedthatthetribesthererepresentamixtureofunidentiedpeoplewithlaterintrudersfromboth MelanesianandPolynesianareas.Windsandoceancurrentswouldfavoroverseasdriftsfrombothoftheseareas. ThesettlingofPolynesiaisstillundercontroversy.Theclassicalconcept,stillpropoundedinmosthistories,isthat thePolynesianislandswereuninhabiteduntilfairlyrecenttimesi.e.A.D.600to1,000whenthepeoplespreadby outriggercanoesfromMelanesiaandSoutheastAsia.ButHeyerdahlandothershavequiteconvincinglydemonstrated twofallaciesinthisconcept.Firstofall,thereisnowarcheologicalevidencethatthePolynesianislandswereoccupied longbeforethetruePolynesiansasweknownthemtodayeverappeared,andsecondlyitcanbeshownthatitwas impossibletosailorcanoeeastwardfromAsiainthesouthernPacictotheeasternPacicuntilthetimeofvery modernsailingships.EventhegreatSpanishvesselsofMendanaandothersinthe16thcenturyoftheChristian EracouldnotsaildirectlyeastfromMelanesiaandMicronesia,becauseoftheverystrongwestwardcurrents.After arrivinginthewestPacictheyalwaysre-turnedhometoEuropebygoingonwestacrosstheIndianOceanand aroundthesoutherntipofAfrica.TheonlypossiblesearoutefromIndonesiatoAmericabyprimitivecraftwasnorth upalongJapanontheUrdanetaRoutetobetweentheAleutianislandsandHawaiitothecoastofNorthAmerica. AllofPolynesiacanbeeasilyreached,ontheotherhand,fromAmerica,evenbyprimitiverafts.Thislatterfacthas beendemonstratedbyHeyerdahlwithhisKonTikirafttripfromEcuadorwestwardacrossthePacic.Theessence ofHeyerdahl'stheoriesisthattheoriginalpeopleoftheeasternPacicislandscamefromtheancientcivilizations ofEcuador,PeruandperhapsMexicoandwerenotthepeoplewethinkoftodayasPolynesians.Thelattercame muchlater.Thesituationisbestexempliedbystudiesofthepeople,archeologyandhistoryofEasterIsland.An oldtraditionofthatislandinsiststhattheisland'searliestancestorscamefromavastdesertlandtotheeastandthat thesailingtimefromtheoriginalhome-landwassixtydays.Someoftheearlypeopleallegedlywereofwhiteskin andofthesesomehadredhair,whileothersweredark-skinnedwithdarkhair.Bothofthesetypesweredescribed byearlyEuropeanvisitorstotheisland,suchastheDutchRoggeveen,in1722.Wecannotheredetailallthedata whichhasbeenpresentedasevidence,butHeyerdahlisquiteconvincinginhistheorythatEasterIslandandothersof thePolynesiangroupwereearlypopulatedbypre-IncasailorsfromSouthAmerica,particularlyfromtheTiahuanaco civilizationwhichwouldhavebeentheclosesttoEasterIsland.Itmustbeemphasized,however,thattomakethis assumptionreasonable,onemustalsoaccepttheideathattheTiahuanacocivilizationandothersinearlyAmerica mighthavebeeninstigatedbyMediterraneanvoyagers.EarlygraveandmummystudiesintheTiahuanacoareaof the19thcenturyC.E.haveconrmedthatsomeweredenitelydifferentfromtypicalAmerindians.Particularlyithas beennotedthatthehairwasnotthatofAmerindians,butneintexture.Inpre-Incatimes,Peruprobablyhadamixed populationandfromtheresuchamixedgroupcouldeasilyhavereachedPolynesiainoneormoremigrationwaves. ThisentireconceptisstrengthenedbythewritingsoftheeminentFrencharcheologist,FredericAndreEngel,whohas workedforovertwentyyearsinPeruandwhosaysthattheGalapagosgroupandEasterIslandmusthaveplayedapart inearlySouthAmericanhistorysincepre-ColumbianpotteryhasbeenfoundontheGalapagosanditisnotdifcult tocomparethegreatstatuesofcertainSouthAmericanstatesandthoseofEasterIslandandthepolyhedralwallsof Cuzco,PeruandthoseoftheMarquesasislandsofPolynesia.Othersalsowritethatpermanentsettlementsweremade between1,000and500B.C.inPolynesia,fromwhateversource.Ref.95[140],62[91],134[184] ForwardtoThePacic:700to601B.C.Section8.5

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124 CHAPTER7.1000TO700B.C. ChooseDifferentRegion 1.IntrotoEraSection7.1 2.AfricaSection7.2 3.AmericaSection7.9 4.CentralandNorthernAsiaSection7.5 5.EuropeSection7.4 6.TheFarEastSection7.7 7.TheIndianSubcontinentSection7.6 8.TheNearEastSection7.3 7.9America:1000to700B.C. 15 7.9.1AMERICA BacktoAmerica:1500to1000B.C.Section6.9 7.9.1.1NORTHAMERICA 7.9.1.1.1THEFARNORTHANDCANADA TheArcticSmallTooltraditioncontinuedinthefarnorth.CenteredattheFraserRiverdeltaabout1,000B.C.and extendingfromsouthernAlaskadowntonorthernCalifornia,wastheNorthwestCoastTradition.EskimoandOld Cordillerantraditionsmayhavecontributedtothissocietywhichincludedhuntingandgatheringofmultipleriver andmarinefoods-mollusks,salmon,halibut,whale,sealandseaotter.Outofwoodthepeoplemadecanoes,plank houses,carvedhouseholditemsandwoodenslatarmorthatmayhavebeenderiveddirectlyfromAsia.Ref.45[66] 7.9.1.1.2THEUNITEDSTATES IntheUnitedStatesarea,theBurialMoundIperiodoftheWoodlandtraditionwastypiedbytheAdenaCulture ofOhio,Indiana,Kentucky,PennsylvaniaandWestVirginia.Similarareascouldbefound,however,fromCanada throughMinnesotaanddowntotheLouisiana-Texasborder.Thecharacteristictraitswerewoodlandpottery,burial mounds,someashighas66feet,andthebeginningsofagriculture.Indianslivedinsmall,scatteredvillageswith roundhouses,usingwattleforwallsandthatchforroofs.Ref.45[66],215[290]InsoutheastUnitedStatesan Archaictypeofcultureextendedthroughouttheperiodunderreview.StudiesofremainshavebeenmadeintheSt. JohnRiverofFloridaandtheSavannahRivercultureoftherivervalleybythesamename.Themajorweaponwas ashortheavyspearpropelledbyathrowingstickwhilebonesh-hooks,stonenetweightsandstoneaxeshavebeen found.Fibertemperedpotteryhadbeeninuseinthisareaforalongtime.Ref.258[264] AndnowwemustmentiontherecentandverycontroversialworkofoneBarryFell.ProfessorFellisateacher ofmarinebiologyatHarvardUniversity,buthealsoclaimsanextensiveeducationinancientCelticlanguagesat EdinburghUniversityandthusprofessestobeoneofthefewwhocanreadancientscriptsinCelticandotherancient tongues,includingEgyptian,PhoenicianandLibyan.ItishisassertionthatinvariouspartsoftheUnitedStateshe hasfoundstoneinscriptionsinthoseancienttongues,seemingtoprovethatthosepeoplevisitedorevencolonized partsofAmericainthisearlyperiod.Ofspecialnote,inthetimebracketofthischapter,ishisclaimofPhoenician inscriptions,writtenintheCelticalphabet,atasitecalledMysteryHill,NewHampshire,datedto800to600B.C. HefeelsthatGoedelicCeltsfromSpainandPortugalexploredandsettledmultipleareasinNewEnglandduringthe rstmillenniumB.C.andthatthePunicphasejustmentionedundoubtedlyfollowedanoriginalCelticoccupation.In addition,hehasallegedlytranslatedtheso-calledPontotocsteleofOklahomaasanextractfromthe"HymntoAton", achantofthepharaohAkhnaton,datingfromthe13thcenturyB.C.,althoughFellsaystheOklahomaversioncan 15 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat.

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125 scarcelybeolderthanabout800B.C.,believingitwastheworkofanearlyIberiancolonistwritinginthescriptfrom theCachao-da-RaparegionofnorthernPortugal.SimilarlyhewritesthattheDavenportsteleofIowahasthreeseparate scripts,-EgyptianhieroglyphicsalongsideIberianandLibyanscripts.Previouslythesestelaehadbeenconsideredas fakes.Fell'sinterestinghypotheseshavenotyetbeengenerallyacceptedandseemtohavebeenmoreorlessignored bytheprofessionalarcheologists.Ref.122[170] IntheCochiseareaofsouthwestUnitedStatesanewandmorevigorousstrainofcornwasimportedfromMexico about1,000B.C.Anewplant,theredkidneybean,alsoappearedastheCochisebegantobuildsimplepit-housesand groupthemselvestogetherinsmallvillages.Asagriculturalactivitiesmadeeasierliving,theyhadtimetodevelop earlypotteryformsandsoongurinesofpeopleandanimals.FindingsintherefuseoftheVentanaCave,some100 milesfromTucson,haverevealedthesegradualchangesfromhuntertofarmer.Ref.210[283] 7.9.1.2MEXICO,CENTRALAMERICA,ANDTHECARIBBEAN InpreviouschapterswehavementionedtheearlyculturesinbothOaxacaandTehuacanwhichareadjacentareasin southernMexico.AtTehuacantheAjalpanculturalphaseranfrom1,500to850B.C.andexcavationshaverevealed thatabout40%oftheirdietcamefromagriculturalproducts,31%fromwildplantsand29%frommeat.Various settlementswerescatteredalongthewaterways,withcavesforsummeroccupationtoescapetheheat.Population increasedrapidly,asagriculturewasimproved.Thenextphase,beginningin850B.C.,wastheSantaMaria,which sawtheriseoftempledvillages,agurinecult,andsomeirrigation.Ref.259[174]TheZapotecsofMonteAlban Oaxacadevelopedtruecivilizationswithpopulationsinthetensofthousands,ahierarchyofsocialclasses,acivil service,priesthoodsandspecialistsincommerce,administrationandgovernment. TheOlmecsatthebaseoftheYucatanpeninsulahadsimilarprogressandadistinctiveculturedominatedbyapowerful religionwithskyorraindeitiesintheformofjaguarpeoplewithdroopingorsnarlingfelinemouthsanddeformed heads.TheyoriginatedthebaranddotcalendarwhichtraditionallyhasbeencreditedtothelaterMayasandtheyhad nejadecarvings.Astheirpopulationincreasedtheycontinuedtoliveinvillagesscatteredthroughouttheforest,but atintervalstheybuiltimpressivecentersforceremonial,civicandperhapscommercialuse.Eachcenterwasthefocal pointforthelifeandcultureofsome10,000people. FourtypesofexoticmaizefoundinGuatemalawereentirelyconnedtothewesterncoastareaandallareofSouth Americanorigin,givingfurthersuggestionofmaritimecontactbetweenEcuador-PeruandGuatemala.CoeRef.36 [57]hasshownthatboats,evenwithoutthespecialPeruvianguarasasystemofcenter-boardsactingasadjustable keelscouldsailalongtheSouthAmerican-MiddleAmericancoasts,goingonedirectionatcertaintimesoftheyear andreversingdirectionatotherseasons,similartothemonsoonwindsystemoftheIndianOcean.Ref.45[66],155 [214],19[32],36[57]AdditionalNotesp.126 7.9.1.3SOUTHAMERICA About800B.C.oneofthePeruvianstates,theChavin,underwentanexpansionmuchliketheOlmecsdidinCentral America.Thiscivilization,withsocialclasses,bureaucracies,andpriests,soonspreadthroughoutthenorthernhalfof Peru.HeyerdahlRef.95[140]writesthatthiscivilizationappearstobeadirectextensiondownthecoastfromthe Olmecbe-causethereweremultiplecloselyrelatedjunglecivilizationsinanarrowcoastalline,apparentlyincontact onewiththeotherbysea,whileoutsidethisnarrowcivilizedstriptherewasnothingbutbarbarianjungletribesof AmerindiansthroughoutVenezuela,GuianaandallofBrazil.Andyetthereweremanydifferencesbetweenthe ChavinandtheOlmec'Mesoamericahadwriting,SouthAmericadidnot;Peruhadmetallurgyby300B.C.,Mexico notuntilaboutA.D.1000.EngelRef.62[91]doesnotrelatetheSouthAmericanculturetotheOlmecs,butdoes agreethatitapparentlydevelopedrapidly,perhapsinasinglegenerationandoccupiedmostoftheareaofpresent dayPeru.BeneaththeChavinlayerarchaeologicalspeaking,occasionallycomplete"pre-ceramic"villagescanbe found.TheChavintraitsincludedlow-reliefornamentsmadeonhammeredgoldleaf,cigarsbutnotfromtobacco, carvedandpolishedstonevesselsandtoolsincludingnotchedaxesandcylindricalmaces-someofthestonepiecesso perfectthattheyseemtobereplicasofobjectspreviouslymadeinmetal.TheChavinsalsousedanthracitemirrorsand

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126 CHAPTER7.1000TO700B.C. constructedverylargearchitecturalunits,someseveralhundredyardslong.Thedecorativethemesalmostallderived fromvebasicsubjects,asfollows: 1.Africanstylemouthwiththicklips.SeeHeyerdahl'sideasunderCentralAmericap.106 2.Snake-likebodiesprotrudingfromdemoniacalorhumangures.Somearereminiscentofacrocodilesnout, consideredsacredinAfrica 3.Fangs,shapedlikecurvedswords 4.Crenellations,staircasesorgeometricformsrecallingmodelsofbuildingsorfortresses 5.Vesselsrepresentinghumanordemonicheads,animalsandplants ThecenteroftheChavinsocietywasthevillageofChavindeHuantar,probablyatempleat10,000feetaltitude consistingofamassivebuilding500feetlonginaninter-AndeanvalleyonthewestbankoftheMosnaRiver.Engel thinksthatChavinartmaywellbetheproductofforeignimmigration,butfromwhere?SomehavesaidSouthAsia, someChinaandMeggersRef.141[194]saystheJomonCultureofJapan.Engelisimpressedwiththeresemblance toOaxacaandVeraCruz.LasHaldasbecameanothergreatChavincomplex,measuring1,220feetlongby260feet wideandcovering71/2acres,withaplatformoverhangingtheseaataheightof130feet.Chavininuencereached asfarsouthastheMantarobasinincentralPeru,asindicatedbypotteryfoundthere.Ref.255[9] SomewoulddatethebeginningoftheTiahuanacoSocietyto800B.C.Ref.255[9]butsincethisdateremainsvery debatableandsincethefulldevelopmentofthissocietywasreachedonlylater,weshalldeferdiscussionofituntilthe 5thcenturyB.C. Inthe2ndmillenniumandthispartofthe1stmillenniumB.C.adrierclimatereducedtheAmazonianforeststo scatteredrefugesandduringthisperiodmigrationofvarioustribesmayhavebeenrelativelyeasy.Theresulting spreadmayhelptoexplainthemultiplicityoflanguagesspokentheresincethen.Ref.256[151] NOTE :HabitationbeganatColhainBelizeabout900B.C.Thiswaslatertobecomeagreattoolproduction centerbecauseofadjacentdepositsofchertnodules,asdescribedintheAdditionalNotesofthe1stcentury C.E.Ref.304[138] ForwardtoAmerica:700to601B.C.Section8.6 ChooseDifferentRegion 1.IntrotoEraSection7.1 2.AfricaSection7.2 3.CentralandNorthernAsiaSection7.5 4.EuropeSection7.4 5.TheFarEastSection7.7 6.TheIndianSubcontinentSection7.6 7.TheNearEastSection7.3 8.PacicSection7.8

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Chapter8 700to601B.C. 8.1Europe:700to601B.C. 1 8.1.1EUROPE BacktoEurope1000to700B.C.Section7.4 Beginningabout700B.C.andlastingforthenext1,000yearsmostofEuropeseemstohavebeensomewhatcolder andmoisterthanitisnow.Ref.215[290] 8.1.1.1SOUTHERNEUROPE 8.1.1.1.1EASTERNMEDITERRANEANISLANDS CreteremainedunderDorianGreekcontrol,whiletheAegeanislandsoverallbelongedtoamixtureofIonianand Doriantribes.RhodesremainedindependentandevenhadacolonyonGela,inSicily.Ref.38[59] 8.1.1.1.2GREECE TheGreekcivilizationcontinuedtodevelopinGreeceproperaswellasonthecoastsofsouthernItalyandAsiaMinor. Therewasaseriesofcity-states,mostofwhichwerearistocraticrepublicsbytheendofthiscentury.Cavalryplayed adecisiveroleininter-statewarfareandonlythewealthycouldbecavalrymen,withtheresultthatnoblelandowners developedanincreasedinuence.SpartawassupremeinthePeloponnese,whileAthenswasthemajorpowerin Attica.ThehillsidesofAtticahadalreadybeendenudedoflumberforhouses,shipsandcharcoalformetalworking by650B.C.andtheconsequenterosionofthemarginallandremovedthesoiltothepointwherelittlewouldgrowand thepeasantsbegantogointodebt.AllofGreecehadpoorlandforlivestockandthuswithscarcityofanimalfats,the Greekscultivatedolivesfortheiroil,anddependedonfoodimportsfortheremainderoftheirfoodnecessities.The urgentneedforgrainstimulatedmuchoftheirlaterenterprises. Metalcoinswereintroducedstampedwiththelikenessofanearofwheat.Althoughgold,ivoryandmarblewereused onsculptureandpublicbuildings,thecommonpeoplelivedinhousesofsun-driedbrick,builtonrubbleinnarrow streetsstrewneachdaywithlitterthrownfromthehouses.Wiveswereheldtohousekeepingandchildbearingwhile husbands,iftheycouldaffordit,openlytookconcubinesandassociatedwiththehetairae,womenofeducation,wit andbeauty,groomedforthisprofession,notunliketheGeishaofmoremodernJapan.Therewereabouttenslaves foreveryfreecitizenanditwasfeltthataboutonehundredslaveswerenecessarytokeeponephilosopherincomfort. Ref.222[296],211[284],77[117] 1 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat. 127

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128 CHAPTER8.700TO601B.C. 8.1.1.1.3UPPERBALKANS TheGreekshadcitiesontheBlackSeacoastofpresentdayBulgariaandRomaniawhileThracebeganitsperiodof highestculture.TheMacedonianswereGreeks,speakingadialectremotelyconnectedtothoseinGreece,proper,but developedseparately.Aseriesoflocalchieftainsruleduntilthemiddleofthiscenturywhenthecountrywaspartially unitedbyKingPerdiccasI.Ref.180[246] 8.1.1.1.4ITALY OntheItalianpeninsulathereweremultipletribes,includingtheLatinsandtheSabines,butdominatingmostofthe northandcentralpartsweretheEtruscancity-states.Rome,itself,wasruledafter616B.C.byTarquiniusPriscus, sonofaCorinthianGreekmanandanEtruscanwoman.TheEtruscansabsorbedwritingandotherelementsofthe Helleniccivilization,assimilatedandchangedthemandpassedthemontootherItalicpeoples.TheLatinalphabet wasderivedfromtheEtruscans,butthelatterwereneverabletoinicttheirlanguageontheRomansandinessence Romeremainedacityofadualculture.TheEtruscans,themselves,hadattainedacertaindegreeofunityofculture andlanguage.TheyattemptedtoformanEtruscanLeague,butthetieswithadjacenttribesweremorereligiousand culturalthantrulypoliticalandconcertedactionwasdifculttoobtain.TheEtruscansweresuperiorengineers,and theRomanTheophrastus,writinglaterinthethirdcenturyB.C.statedthattheycultivatedmedicineandwererichin theirpharmacopoeia.Thereissomeevidencethattheyexcavatedtunnelsandleveledhillstodrainswampsasmalaria controlprojects.Theydenitelypracticedsomesurgeryanddentistry,usinggoldwiresinthelattereld.Ref.176 [242],28[48],8[14],45[66],185[253],75[115] TheEtruscansseemedtoparticularlylikethepaintedpotsandvasesbroughtfromCorinthinGreeceandweresoon imitatingthemonamassivescale.Neartheendofthiscentury,duetotheacquisitionofmoremetalresources,perhaps attheexpenseofTarquinii,thecity-stateofCaerebecameenormouslywealthy,coveredabout375acresandhada populationofabout25,000.Saleablecopperandironallowedthemtoacquiremassivequantitiesofgoldfromthe GreekmarketsofPithecusaeandCumae.ThereisastrongpossibilitythattheEtruscanalphabet,anadaptationof GreeklettersinuseintheGreekmarkets,wasintroducedtoEtruriabywayofCaere. Ataboutthissametimethecity-stateofVetuloniaapparentlybecameanotherprominentEtruscancommunity,lying justnorthwestofVulciandcharacterizedarcheologicallybygreatmoundtombs,someofwhichreachedaheightof nearlyftyfeet.Largestonesculptureshavebeenfoundinthesetombs,consistingofbothmaleandfemalegurines andapparentlyadaptationsfromSyrianoriginals.Bronzehorse-bucklesindicatemuchhorsetrafc.Jewelworkswith aspecialgranulationprocessofapplyingtinygrainsofgoldweretypical.Villageamalgamationintoasinglecity perhapsoccurredjustattheendofthecentury.Ref.75[115] TherewereGreekcitiesinSicilyandonthesoutherntipofItaly.Inparticular,therewasSybaris,acityofrenowned wealth,situatedinthetoeoftheItalianboot.Itsinhabitantsdelightedinluxuryandpleasures,featureswhichgave risetotheterm"sybarite",stillinourvocabulary.Ithasonlyrecentlybeenlocated,nowburiedtwentyfeetdeepin watersoakedsoil.TheCarthaginianshadatradingpostatMotyainwesternSicily,justafter700B.C. 8.1.1.1.5CENTRALEUROPE ThiswasanageofCelticdomination,butwithgraduallyincreasingpressurefromGermanicgroupsdescendingfrom thenorth.ItwasthelateIronAgeinAustriaandpeopleworebracelets,ankletsanddecorationsovertheirchests. Intricatedesignsinironwithpieceinterlockingwithclosedeyes,perfectanimalgurines,etc.canbefoundinthe collectionsfrommultipleexcavationsofthisera.CelticornamentationwasgreatlyinuencedbyScythianmodesand thelatteralsocontributedanewconceptofcavalry,includingsnafes,two-partbitsandmovablesidereins.Ref.91 [135]

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129 8.1.1.2WESTERNEUROPE 8.1.1.2.1SPAINANDPORTUGAL TheIberiansinmostofthisareawereoverrunbytheUrneldCeltsexceptinthesouth,wheretheTarshishCulture persistedandresistedtheCelticHallstattandlaterLaTeneIronAgeCultures.ContactwithPhoeniciansandrealization ofthelocalmineralwealth,resultedinthedevelopmentoftheonlyreallynativeunitinthisKingdomofTartessos. Greeksalsocametothisareaabout630B.C.,introducingolives 2 andgrapes.InvestigationsinPortugalandSpain in1975and1976revealedstonewritingintheCelticOgam,butusingLibyanandPhoenicianlanguages,indicating afusionofGaelsandnativeIberianswithSemiticandLibyansailors.FellRef.65[96]believesthatitwasfrom thisareathatmarinerssailedonacrosstheAtlantictoAmericaatthistime,andregardlessofone'sacceptanceornonacceptanceofFell'stheories,thereisdenitearchaeologicalevidencethatthesailorsofTarshishsaileduptheAtlantic atleastasfarasBrittany,toobtainCornwalltin.OnlylimitedexcavationoftheTartessianurbandevelopmentshave beenmadetodate.Ref.136[187],88[131] 8.1.1.2.2FRANCE,NETHERLANDSANDBELGIUM,ANDBRITISHISLES ThispartofwesternEuropewasnowalmostentirelyCeltic.TheCelticlanguageshadtwolargedivisionswhichthe WelshSirJohnRhyscalledtheQ-CelticandP-Celtic,withtheformerusingQ,KorChoftenwherethelatter usedPorB.TheancientrepresentativesoftheQ-CelticspeakersweretheGoidelsGaelsandprobablytheCelts ofSpainandPortugal,withthemoderndescendantsbeingthespeakersofIrishandScotsGaelicandManx.The ancientP-CelticspeakersweretheBrythonicpeoplesofBritain,theGaulsofcentralandeasternEuropeandthePicts ofScotland.TheirdescendantsarethecurrentBretonsofBrittainy,theCornishandtheWelsh.Ofinterestisthefact thatwhiletheP-CeltswroteusingGreekorLatinletters,theQ-Celtsoriginallywroteinanowdefunctscriptcalled "Ogam",whichhadanalphabetoffteenletters,allconsonantsanddevelopedfromangersignlanguage.Later sometribesaddedmoreconsonantsandvowelsigns.Ref.65[96],91[135] 8.1.1.3SCANDINAVIA WhileNorway,SwedenandFinlandremainedinaBronzeAgeculture,Denmarkhadbothbronzeandiron.Thiswas atimeofGermanictribegrowth,particularlyinthelattercountry.Ty,innorthernJutland,wastheallegedhomelandof theTeutontribe,whiletheCimbriansaresaidtohaveoriginatedinHimmerland.Thereisstillnocompleteagreement ontherelationshipoftheearlyGermanicandCeltictribes.Inancienttimestheywereoftenconfused,andapparently therewasnotagreatdealofdifferencephysiologically.Languagewassupposedlythechiefdifference,butevenwith thatproblemsarosewithsuchtribesastheTeutonesandAmbroneswhoselanguagesmayhavebeenmixtureswith bothCelticandGermanicelements.Ref.91[135] 8.1.1.4EASTERNEUROPE SouthernRussiawasdominatedatthis7thcenturyB.C.bytheScythianswhonallyabsorbedsomeculturefromthe risingPersiancivilizationononeankandtheGreekcitiesofthewesternandnorthernshoresoftheBlackSea,onthe otherank.SomeelaborategoldsculpturesofthattimehavebeenfoundinScythianburialmounds.NorthernRussia andtheBalticarearemainedasdescribedinthelastchapter.Ref.176[242] ForwardtoEurope600to501B.C.Section9.9 ChooseDifferentRegion 1.AfricaSection8.8 2.AmericaSection8.6 3.CentralandNorthernAsiaSection8.7 4.TheFarEastSection8.4 5.TheIndianSubcontinentSection8.2 2 TragerRef.222[296]creditsthePhoenicianswithbringingtheolivestoSpain

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130 CHAPTER8.700TO601B.C. 6.TheNearEastSection8.3 7.PacicSection8.5 8.2TheIndianSubcontinent:700to601B.C. 3 8.2.1THEINDIANSUBCONTINENT TheVedicCulturecontinuedinPakistanandnorthernIndia,buttherewasnowashiftofemphasisfromtheregionof theIndustotheGangesRiverplains,wherepreviouslyexistingvillagesnowbecametruecity-states.Thejunglesof theGangesareacouldnotbecleareduntilironaxesandplowswereavailable.Thatnewmetal-iron-alsochanged warfaretoregulationinfantryandcavalry.Farthersouth,KosalaandMagadhakingdomswerebuiltbymarcherlords ofthatarea.Ref.45[66],211[284]Continueonpage185 8.3TheNearEast:700to601B.C. 4 8.3.1THENEAREAST BacktoTheNearEast:1000to700B.C.Section7.3 8.3.1.1THEARABIANPENINSULA NorthernArabiaandtheregionofpresentdayJordanwerecompletelyunderthecontroloftheAssyrians,butindependentcivilizationscontinuedinthesouth,withregularcamelcaravanstravelingtoEgyptandtootherpartsofnorth Africa.Asnotedabove,YemenwasactuallyoverpopulatedandmanyfamiliesmigratedtoEthiopia.Ref.83[123] AdditionalNotesp.131 8.3.1.2MEDITERRANEANCOASTALAREASOFISRAELANDLEBANON ForashorttimetheAssyrianscontrolledtheentireeasternMediterraneanshore,butafterlosingthousandsofmen withadiseaseseeIraqp.130,theyretreatedtotheregionofSyria.InPalestineJosiahbecamekingin639B.C. andlaunchedacampaigntopurifythereligionofYahwehandtorepressalltracesofothercults.ThePentateuch,a codeoflawsdesignedtore-invigoratethemorallifeofthenation,wasstartedin621B.C.Thiscodesupportedthe prophetsbyembodyingthelessextremeoftheirideas.Tofacilitatetheacceptanceofthis,accordingtoDurantRef. 46[76],theelders,withJosiah'spermission,conveniently"found"ascrollallegedlyfromMoseshimself.Thiswas theBookoftheCovenantwhichisprobablypartoftheBiblicalbookofExodusorDeuteronomy.Itisinterestingto notethattheprophetsAmosandIsaiahhadnevermentionedMoses. AttheendofthecenturyJudeawasoverrunbytheEgyptians,underNecho,astheystartedtoattacktheAssyrians. Onlyfouryearslater,in605B.C.,however,theChaldeansofthesecondBabylonianEmpiresoundlydefeatedthe EgyptiansatCarchemish,Syria,andJudahthenpassedunderBabylonianrule.Ref.46[76] 8.3.1.3IRAQANDSYRIA TheAssyrians,underKingSennacherib,sackedanddestroyedBabylonin689B.C.andthenproceededundertheir GeneralEsarhaddontothebordersofEgyptwhere,accordingtotheBibleIlKings,apestilencestruckproducing "anhundredfour-scoreandvethousand"corpses,andthesurvivorsretreatedtoNineveh.Ashurbinipalbecameking in669B.C.andledAssyriatotheclimaxofitswealthandprestige,destroyingElamintheprocess.Inthisreign,the governorofUrwasoneSin-balatsu-iqbiwhodecidedtorestoretheancientcity,andmuchwasaccomplishedeven 3 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat. 4 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat.

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131 thoughlaterarcheologistssaythathisbrickworkwastheworstthattheyencounteredinthemanystrataatUr.Ref. 238[318]KingAshurbanipalwasalsotherstbookcollectorofhistory,accumulatinginthis7thcenturyB.C. alibraryof25,000claytablets,someofthemalready3,000ormoreyearsold,includingsomemedical"books"of ancientSumerandAkkadia,writteninprimitiveideographs.InmanywaystheAssyrianshadanadvancedcivilization, producing,forexample,manygreatengineeringfeatsforthattime.Theirmilitarymightwasingreatpartbasedoniron weapons,particularlytheiron-cappedbatteringram.Theyhadexcellentroadsandcommunications.KingSennacherib hadconstructeda919feetlongstoneaqueducttocarryacanalacrossavalleyandthencontinuedwithasixmilelong canaltobringwaterforhisorchardsandparks.Palaceshadlavatoriesandbathroomsasmodernassomeeventoday inpartsofEurope.Ref.213[288]Intheend,however,themilitaryactivityconsumedsomuchmanpowerthat localproductionatrophiedandallvitalshadtobeimported.Theconstantwarfarehadalsokilledoffthestrongest andbravestmen,andthebiologicaltypewasundermined.Thecaptivepeoplesbredandbecameadisintegrating forcefromwithin.In612B.C.anarmyofChaldeannomadsanAramaicpeopleunderGeneralNapopollaser,with thehelpofsomeScythiansandMedes,defeatedtheAssyriansinagreatbattleatNinevehandthelatterdisappeared fromhistory.TheseChaldeansfoundedthesecondBabylonianEmpirewhichcontrolledMesopotamiauntilwellinto thenextcentury.ItwastheirGeneralNebuchadrezzarwhodefeatedtheexpandingEgyptiansatCarchemishin605, givingthemaccesstoalltheoldAssyrianlandsinSyriaandPalestine.By600B.C.Babylonwasthegreatestwalled citythattheworldhaseverknown,andNebuchadressarhadbuiltit. Inthissameperiod,betweenabout630and610B.C.stillanotherpeopleappearedinthisarea.TheseweretheIndoEuropeanScythianswhoraideddownthroughSyria,destroyingandkillingastheywent.Theirraidswereforplunder onlyandnosettlementsweremade.Ref.45[66],238[318],15[26] NOTE:InsertMapfromReference97[13]..THEEAST 8.3.1.4IRAN IneasternIrantheIndo-EuropeanspeakingMedesweregrowinginnumbersandpowerinanindependentkingdom. Theirgreatestking,Cyaxares,startedhisreignin640B.C.buthehadhishandsfullghtingofftheAssyriansinthe westandthehorse-ridingScythianswhoperiodicallydescendedonthemfromcentralAsia,oftendefeatingthem 8.3.1.5ARMENIA IntheeasternpartoftheAnatolianpeninsula,UrartuortheKingdomofVan,afterbeingconqueredbytheAssyrians, madecommoncauseforawhilewiththeScythiansandunderRusaII-645B.C.successfullyraidedforslaves alongtheAssyrianfrontierastheseslavesweretheessentialfoundationoftheireconomy.Thekingdomcontinued toprosperunderSarduriIIIandbrieyunderRusaIIIuntil609B.C.whentheScythiansturnedonthemandsacked theimperialcityonLakeVan,whiletheMedescrushedtheAssyriansnearby.ThustheKingdomofUrartucameto anendabout600B.C.ThetrueArmenianswereprobablyaPhrygiantribewhichgraduallyoccupiedtheterritoryof Urartuperhapsnotuntilafter612B.C.TheyinitiallyadoptedthereligionofthePersiansandwereunderthekingsof Mediaforatime.Ref.160[219],18[31] ForwardtoTheNearEast:600to501B.C.Section9.7 ChooseDifferentRegion 1.AfricaSection8.8 2.AmericaSection8.6 3.CentralandNorthernAsiaSection8.7 4.EuropeSection8.1 5.TheFarEastSection8.4 6.TheIndianSubcontinentSection8.2 7.PacicSection8.5

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132 CHAPTER8.700TO601B.C. NOTE :Therich,wellwateredareaofYemen,whichwasthencalled"ArabiaFelix",producedadistinctive Arabicscriptabout700B.C. 8.4TheFarEast:700to601B.C. 5 8.4.1THEFAREAST BacktoTheFarEast:1000to700B.C.Section7.7 8.4.1.1CHINAANDMANCHURIAContinuedChouDynasty ThemanyprovincesofearlyChinagraduallycoalescedintovestatescoveringwhatisnowthedistrictofHonan andsomeadjacentareas.ThemostimportantprovinceswereT'si,wherethebasictypeofChinesegovernment developed,andChinorTsin,whichgavetoChinathenamebywhichitisknowntonearlyalltheworldbutitself. TheorganizinggeniusofT'siwasHuanChung,advisertotheDukeofHuan-640B.C..Asprimeminister, KuanChungreplacedbronzewithironweaponsandtools.Castironwasusedeitherinthiscenturyortheearly 6thB.C.,some1,000yearsbeforeitwasusedinEurope.Sophisticatedkilnsdevelopedforringceramicslaidthe foundationforthis,inreachingtheveryhightemperatures,835degreescentigradenecessary.T'sibecameawell orderedstatewithastablecurrencyandefcientadministration.Acodeofmanners,ceremoniesandasenseofhonor wasdevelopedandservedasasubstituteforreligionamongtheupperclasses.Extensivecanalsirrigatedeldsand agricultureandthesilkindustryprospered.HuanChungtaughtthefarmerstodigdrainageditches,storedsurplus grainandrentedfarmequipmentforthem.Ref.222[296]Cartswereused,leathershoeswereworn,andhouses werewellbuilt,withtablesandchairsavailable.IntheearlyyearsoftheSpringandAutumnEraoftheEasternChou, warfarewasreallymoreofapolitegamesmanshipwithverylimitedrealghtingandfewpeoplehurtorkilled.The artofdiplomacywassupreme.Ref.45[66],46[76],101[146] 8.4.1.2JAPAN ThreeelementsappeartobemingledintheJapaneserace:AprimitivewhitestrainthroughtheAinus,whoseemto haveenteredJapanfromtheregionoftheAmurRiverinNeolithictimes;ayellowMongolstrain,comingfromor throughKoreainthis7thcenturyB.C.;andabrown-blackMalayandIndonesianstrain,lteringinfromthewestern Pacicislands.Graduallyanewracedevelopedfromthis7thcenturyon.IntheJapanesemythology,660B.C.dates thelegendaryrstemperor,Jimmu. 8.4.1.3KOREAANDSOUTHEASTASIA Neolithicsocietiescontinuedaspreviously,withmetalinuseinThailand. ForwardtoTheFarEast:600to501B.C.Section9.3 ChooseDifferentRegion 1.AfricaSection8.8 2.AmericaSection8.6 3.CentralandNorthernAsiaSection8.7 4.EuropeSection8.1 5.TheIndianSubcontinentSection8.2 6.TheNearEastSection8.3 7.PacicSection8.5 5 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat.

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133 8.5ThePacic:700to601B.C. 6 8.5.1THEPACIFIC BacktoThePacic:1000to700B.C.Section7.8 AdvancedNeolithicculturesexistedthroughoutmanyofthePacicislands.InAustralia,theaboriginesdeveloped complexkinrelationshipsandareligioninvolvingtime-consuming,elaboraterituals.Stoneandwoodentabletscontainingsymbolswerekeptinsacredplaceswhichwomenoruninitiatedboyswereforbiddentoevenapproach.Some nepaintingwasdoneonrocksandbark.Ref.19[32] ForwardtoThePacic:600to501B.C.Section9.8 ChooseDifferentRegion 1.AfricaSection8.8 2.AmericaSection8.6 3.CentralandNorthernAsiaSection8.7 4.EuropeSection8.1 5.TheFarEastSection8.4 6.TheIndianSubcontinentSection8.2 7.TheNearEastSection8.3 8.6America:700to601B.C. 7 8.6.1AMERICA BacktoAmerica:1000to700B.C.Section7.9 8.6.1.1NORTHAMERICA 8.6.1.1.1THEFARNORTHANDCANADA TheArcticSmalltraditioncontinuedinthefarnorthaspreviouslydescribed. IndianlifethroughoutCanadawasessentiallyasrecordedinthelastchapter. 8.6.1.1.2THEUNITEDSTATES Hereagain,asinthelastchapter,werunintothecontroversialtheoriesofBarryFellRef.65[96].Variousrock inscriptionsofNewEngland,someoriginallyfoundyearsago 8 andothersjustrecently,asatUnion,NewHampshire, andonMonheganIslandoffthecoastofMaine,havenowbeeninterpretedbyFellasbeingTartessianPunic,recording arrivalsofPhoenicianshipsfromSpain.Itishishypothesisthatthesevoyagers,datedfrom700to600B.C.were probablynotexplorersbutmerchants,tradingwithalreadysettledNewEnglandCelts' Inthemidwest,theBurialMoundIperiodoftheAdenavariationoftheWoodlandtraditioncontinued.Hereagain BarryFellintroducesnewcontroversywhenhestatesthatexcavationofsomeofthemoundshaverevealedcopperand bronzetablets,pottery,gurines,etc.showingunmistakablesimilaritiestoancientPhoenicianconstructions.Hesays thesearelocatedinWestVirginia,lowaandOhio,alongmajorrivers.OtherstudentsoftheAdenaCulturemention onlystoneornamentsandengravedslabsinthesemounds,althoughthelaterHopewellmoundssee3rdcenturyB.C. 6 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat. 7 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat. 8 OnesuchinscriptionwasdescribedandrecordedfromMountHopeBay,Bristol,RhodeIsland,in1,780byEzraStiles,laterpresidentofYale College

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134 CHAPTER8.700TO601B.C. certainlyhadvariousmetals,butoflocalorigin.InthesouthwestUnitedStatestheSanPedrophaseoftheCochise Culturecontinuedasadesertsociety,withincreasingpopulationandimprovementsinfarmingandotherskills.Ref. 65[96],215[290],45[66] 8.6.1.1.3MEXICO,CENTRALAMERICA,ANDTHECARIBBEAN TheOlmeccivilization,nowsome600yearsold,reachedtheheightofitsdevelopmentwithacenteratLaVenta, Mexico.Everyvillagewaslinkedinanelaboratenetworkoftradeupanddownthevalleysandbetweenthehighlands andthecoasts.Salt,maize,obsidian,oystershells,stingrayspines,sharks'teeth,conchandturtleshellswerealltraded widely.TheOlmecswerenotonlygreatsculptorsbutalsocarversofjade,fromwhichtheymadestatuettes,jewellery andaxes.Tojudgefromtheirart,theOlmecshadtwocontrastingethnictypes,oneremarkablyNegroid,withthick lips,broadnosesandroundfacesandtheotherstrikinglySemiticwithsharpproles,hookednoses,narrowfacesand lipsandpronouncedbeards,usuallyshownaseithersquareorpointedgoatees.Neitherofthesetypeswouldseemto havecomeacrosstheBeringStrait.Pleasealsoseepages124to127andthechartwhichfollowsthenextsection inthischapter.TheMayancalendarindicatesactivityinCentralAmericaby613B.C.butlittleactualknowledgeof thosepeopleisavailableforanothercenturyortwo.Ref.95[140] 8.6.1.2SOUTHAMERICA TheChavincivilizationcontinuedinnorthernPeruandperhapstheTiahuanacoexistedinthehighlandsontheBolivian border,butweshallomitdiscussionofthisgroupuntilthe5thcenturyB.C.AsinCentralAmerica,therearemany equivocalndingssuggestingthepossibilityofmultipleoriginsofSouthAmericanpeoples,ratherthanasingle ancestralstrainfromBeringStraitmigrants.Someofthefeatureswhichcontributetothisconfusionarenowlisted. NOTE:InsertSPECIALSECTION,UNEXPLAINEDFEATURESOFNATIVEAMERICANS ForwardtoAmerica:600to501B.C.Section9.4 8.7CentralandNorthernAsia:700to601B.C. 9 8.7.1CENTRALANDNORTHERNASIA BacktotoCentralandNorthernAsia:1000to700B.C.Section7.5 TheHsiung-nuoftheMongolianregionhadhorsesofvariousbreeds,amongthemonewithanuprightmane.They, liketheHunsofprobablelaterdescent,wereexperthorsemen.EastofMongoliaexcavationshaverevealedtheTagar Culture,datingbackto700B.C.andcontinuingforabout600years.Thisincludedasemi-settledpeoplewhodesigned animalsonsmallknives,beltandharnessplaquesandbroaddaggers.ThelatterhavealsobeenfoundinSouthRussia andonthenorthernbordersofChina. TheIraniansofTranoxianawereamixedgroupoftribes.Some,whomovedonintosouthernRussiawereknown asScythianswhiletheirkinsmenwhoremainedbehindbecameknownasSakas.TheMedeshadprettywellleftthis areatosettleinIransouthoftheCaspian,butbehindthemcametheircousins,thePersians.Zorasterwasbornalong theOxusRiverinthiscenturyanddidmuchofhisteachinginKhurasan.Ref.136[187],8[14],45[66],127 [176] ForwardtoCentralandNorthernAsia:600to501B.C.Section9.5 9 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat.

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135 8.8Africa:700to601B.C. 10 8.8.1AFRICA BacktoAfrica:1000to700B.C.Section7.2 8.8.1.1NORTHEASTAFRICA OverpopulationinYemen,ontheArabianPeninsula,forcedbandsofArabstocrosstheRedSeaandsettleonthe northeasternedgeoftheEthiopianplateau.Theyweregoodfarmersandirrigatorsandgotalongwellwiththelocal Cushiticspeakingpeoplewhohadasimilardegreeofculture.Ref.83[123]ThereissomeevidencethatPhoenicians,withtheEgyptianpharaoh'ssupport,weremakingsailingtripssouthoutoftheRedSeaatthistime,andperhaps theyevencircumnavigatedAfrica. Earlyinthecentury,theAssyriansunderGeneralEsarhaddon,thenattheheightofhispower,sweptdownand subjectedpriest-riddenEgypttotributeandrestrictedthekingsofthe25thKushitedynastytothecountryupriver fromThebes.EsarhaddonputNecho,localprinceofSais,incontrolofthedeltaregion,butsubsequentlyNecho's son,PsammeticusIbrokeawayfromtheAssyriansandre-establishedanindependentEgyptiankingdomagainth dynasty-655B.C.andevenpushedtheNubiansandKushitesoutofupperEgypt.Thechiefcontributionofthe Assyrianstothisregionwastheintroductionofiron,whichsoonspreaduptheNile,astheKushites,retiringbackto theircapitalatNapata,tooktheknowledgeofironforweaponsandtoolswiththem.Ref.136[187],83[123],28 [48],175[241],213 Inmid-centurythereweremanyGreekimmigrantstoEgypt,includingmercenaries,colonistsandtraders.Newcrops wereintroducedsuchasgsfromTurkey,vinesfromGreece,sheepfromArabiaandpigsfromSicily.Currency replacedbarterandcaravanroutesweredeveloped.Slavelaborwasusedinminesandquarries.After609B.C. PharaohNechoalsoNikuIIattemptedtorunawidecanalfromtheNiletotheRedSeaandexpendedthelivesof some120,000menintheprocess,butitwasnevercompleted.NechoalsohadanarmyconquerPalestine,butthe Babyloniansranthemoutafteraboutfouryears.Ref.83[123] 8.8.1.2NORTHCENTRALANDNORTHWESTAFRICA Cyrene,Libya,wasthesiteofanimportantSpartanGreekcolonybyabout630B.C.Carthagehadcontinedtodevelopandhadiron-workinginitsvarioussettlements,askillwhichthencrossedthedesertthroughtrans-Saharan traderoutes.ItwasatthisperiodthattheAssyrianswereattackingthePhoenicianhomeland,andCarthagebecame increasinglymoreimportantasacenterforthatcivilization.GraduallytheCarthaginianorPunicdialectandalphabet cametodifferfromthatoftheLebanesePhoenicians.BytheendofthecenturyCarthagewasreceivingEtruscan metalsandpottery.SomeofthelatterwasoftrulyItalianoriginandsomeimitationsofCorinthianceramics.Ref.8 [14],66[97],75[115] 8.8.1.3SUBSAHARANAFRICA OnthewestsideofAfricatherewasfurtherclimaticdeteriorationafter700B.C.ThespreadofpeopledowntheRift ValleyintoeastAfricacontinuedandbothcattleandsheepwerekept.Thecentralandsouthernregionshadlittle changefromthesituationdescribedinthelastchapter. ForwardtoAfrica:600to501B.C.Section9.2 10 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat.

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Chapter9 600to501B.C. 9.1600to501B.C. 1 9.1.1600TO501B.C. Inorclosetothis6thcenturyB.C.anumberofreligiousgeniusesappearedintheancientworld.KarlJaspershas calledthisan"axialage" 2 .ItwastheperiodofConfuciusandperhapsLao-tzinChina,ofGautama,theBuddhain India,ofZorasterinIran,PythagorasinGreeceandofthegreatestoftheHebrewprophets,Deutero-lsaiahIsaiah40 to59.Therewasamovementtowardsabeliefinasinglespiritualreality,andtheGreeksweresearchingforasingle principletoexplainthematerialworld.Oneresultofthiswasthedevelopmentofmonotheism. Forwardto500to401B.C.Section10.1 ChooseDifferentRegion 1.AfricaSection9.2 2.AmericaSection9.4 3.CentralandNorthernAsiaSection9.5 4.EuropeSection9.9 5.TheFarEastSection9.3 6.TheIndianSubcontinentSection9.6 7.TheNearEastSection9.7 8.PacicSection9.8 9.2Africa:600to501B.C. 3 9.2.1AFRICA BacktoAfrica:700to601B.C.Section8.8 9.2.1.1NORTHEASTAFRICA AsthecenturyopenedEgyptwasagainattemptingexpansionintoAsiaundernativerulersandapunitiveexpedition wassentsouthtosacktheKushiteNapotaB.C.forcingthemovementofthisKushitecapitalsouthtoMeroe. Anotherview,however,isthattheKushiterulerssimplyelectedtomovetheircapital300milessouthbecausewood 1 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat. 2 AsquotedinReference8[14],page72 3 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat. 137

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138 CHAPTER9.600TO501B.C. forsmeltingironorewasbecomingscarcerandthelandwasbeingovergrazed.Atanyrate,Meroethenbecamea majorironcenter.KushhadamixedCaucasianandNegropopulationandthereafterremainedindependentofthe variousEgyptianrulers.Thenationoweditsprosperitytotradeinivory,ebony,gum,hides,ostrichplumes,ironand slaves,allofwhichwerecarriedeitherdowntheNiletoEgyptoracrosstheRedSeatoArabiaandMesopotamia. Theyalsohadgreatherdsofcattleandadequateagriculture 4 EgyptmaintainedclosecommercialrelationswithboththeGreeksandLydians.Inthelatterpartofthecentury,the EgyptianswerepushedbackoutoftheAsiaticmainlandagainbytherampagingPersians,andby525B.C.halfof EgyptitselfhadbeenconqueredbythePersianCambyses,sonofCyrus.AfterCambysescommittedsuicidein521 B.C.,Dariuscontinuedtorulemostofthisarea.Ref.175[241],8[14],68[106],28[48] 9.2.1.2NORTHCENTRALANDNORTHWESTAFRICA BythistimeCarthagehaddevelopedanempireofitsown,withsettlementsinwesternSicilyandSardiniaandwith contactsinSpainandalongtheAfricancoast.In520B.C.AdmiralHannolanded30,000settlersfrom60vesselsat themouthoftheRiodeOroinwhatisnowWesternSahara.Thecolonylastedaboutftyyears.Ref.222[296] HerodotussaysthatPhoenicianscircumnavigatedAfricain600B.C.,startingintheRedSeaandgoingclockwise. Himilco,sailingfromCarthage,touchedtheshoreofIrelandandfounditafertileland.Allofthisexplorationand expansionbroughtsometroublesclosertohome.Althoughtheyhadpreviouslybeentradingpartners,thecompetition betweentheEtruscanCaereandCarthagenowbecamesoacutethatconictbecameinevitable.Malchus,ofCarthage, consolidatedthePunicpositioninwesternSicilyandthentriedtodothesameinSardinia,althoughthenativeSardinianstatesfoughtbackviciouslyandtheyweresoonhelpedbythemaritimePhocaeanGreeks.Caerethrewinitslot withCarthageonthisoccasion.Herodotus,writinginthenextcentury,saidthatthePhocaeans 5 wonbutinsodoing lostfortyshipsandhadanothertwentyseverelydamaged.TheyreturnedtoAlalia,gottheirwomenandchildrenand resettledinRheguminsouthItaly,leavingCorsicaalsototheCarthaginiansandCaeritans.In509B.C.Carthage signedatreatywiththerisingRome,deningrespectivespheresofinuence.Ref.84[124] BarryFellRef.65[96]infersthatafterthePersianconquestofEgyptandtheriseoftheGreekandRoman empires,theeasternMediterraneanwasclosedtoCarthaginianshipping,soCarthageretaliatedbyclosingthestraits ofGibraltertoallEuropeanvessels.ThenundertheguiseofsupposedSpanishandnorthAfricantrade,theyexploited NorthAmericansilver,copper,hidesandfurs,bringingthembackforthemanufactureofbronzeandthemarketingof thefurs.HefeelsthatthissecrecyisthereasonRomanannalshavenomentionofthetrans-Atlanticvoyages.Todate noonehascomeforthwithanydirectconrmationofthishypothesis. 9.2.1.3SUBSAHARANAFRICA ThatpartofAfricasouthoftheSaharaandtheAbyssinianmassifwasoneofthevegreatremainingreservoirsof savageorbarbarianlife.TheotherfourareaswerethemonsoonforestsofSoutheastAsiawiththeislandsofIndonesia, thesteppeandforestzonesofnorthernEurasia,AustraliaandnallytheAmericas.Ref.139[192] ForwardtoAfrica:500to401B.C.Section10.2 9.3TheFarEast:600to501B.C. 6 9.3.1THEFAREAST BacktoTheFarEast:700to601B.C.Section8.4 4 TodaythisareaofancientKushisalmostcompletelydesert.Ref.83[123] 5 HerodotusdescribedthePhocaeansasplunderersandlooters.Ref.92[136],Book1,pp.89,90 6 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat.

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139 9.3.1.1CHINAANDMANCHURIAChouDynasty,continued AlthoughChinawasnominallystillundertheChouDynastyactuallyitwasessentiallyinafeudalisticagecalledthe SpringandAutumnperiod.Auniqueinstitutionofthisperiodwasthehegemonpawhichwasrulebyayearly conferenceofdukesfromthethreepowerfulstatelets,offsettingtheineffectivenessoftheChouking.From600 B.C.onthepeasantsmaderealprogressinfarmingtheoodplainoftheYellowRiver,byshiftingfrommilletto rice.Vastdiking,draining,canalizationandengineeringcontrolwasnecessarytocreateanunbrokencarpetofrice paddies.Theamountoflaborinvolvedinallthisisalmostunbelievable.Rice,originallyadrylandcrop,stillrequires goodoxygenationofitsrootsandthewatersofthepaddiescannotbecomestagnantbutmustberegularlycirculated, necessitatingconstantattendancetopumpsandvarioushydraulicsystems.FarthersouththeYangsteValleycouldnot befarmedsatisfactorilyatthattime,eventhoughtheriverwasmuchlesswildandgeologicallylessdifcult,because thewarmer,wetterclimateallowedagreatvarietyofparasites.Malariamayhavebeenoneoftheworst,alongwith denguefeverandschistosomiasis,whichhasbeendenitelyidentiedinalater,secondcenturycorpse.Ref.101 [146],140[190],259[174] ThiswastheageofLao-Tzu,thegreatestofthepre-Confuciusphilosophers.Hisidentityisdisputed,butatleast theTaoistphilosophybecameprominentwith"Tao"meaning"TheWay".Basicallythiswasawayofthinkingor refusingtothink,forintheviewofTaoiststhoughtisasupercialaffair,goodonlyforargumentandmoreharmful thanbenecialtolife.TheWayistobefoundbyrejectingtheintellectandallitserrorsandleadingamodestlife ofretirement,rusticityandquietcontemplationofnature.Knowledgeisnotavirtuebutonthecontrary,rascalshave increasedsinceeducationspread.Theworstconceivablegovernment,inthisphilosophy,wouldbebyphilosophers themselves,astheybotcheverynaturalprocesswiththeory.Silenceisthebeginningofwisdom.Disregardofthe Taoledtoillness,notsomuchaspunishmentforsinastheinevitableresultofactingagainstnaturallaws.Toaist philosophybecamethereligionofaconsiderablesizedminorityoftheChinesefromthiscenturydowntoourown time.Confucius,oftheimpoverishedbutnobleK'ungfamily,wasbornin551B.C.anditissaidthathehadsome contactwithandlearnedfromtheOldMaster,Lao-Tze.Histeachingwillbediscussedunderthissameheadingin thenextchapter.ThestandardoflivinginChinaatthattimewasprobablyhigherthaninthecontemporaryGreeceof Solon.Ref.46[76],260[29] 9.3.1.2JAPAN TheJomonCulturehuntingandshingsocietyofJapancontinuedthroughthiscentury. 9.3.1.3KOREA TheNeolithicsocietiesofKoreacontinuedasinthepreviouscenturies. 9.3.1.4SOUTHEASTASIA ThepeoplewhonowoccupysoutheastAsiabeganataboutthistimetoleavetheirancestralhomesinsouthernChina andTibetandstarttheirmigrationssouthward,displacingorabsorbingtheaboriginesofthearea. ForwardtoTheFarEast:500to401B.C.Section10.7 ChooseDifferentRegion 1.IntrotoEraSection9.1 2.AfricaSection9.2 3.AmericaSection9.4 4.CentralandNorthernAsiaSection9.5 5.EuropeSection9.9 6.TheIndianSubcontinentSection9.6 7.TheNearEastSection9.7 8.PacicSection9.8

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140 CHAPTER9.600TO501B.C. 9.4America:600to501B.C. 7 9.4.1AMERICA BacktoAmerica:700to601B.C.Section8.6 9.4.1.1NORTHAMERICA 9.4.1.1.1THEFARNORTHANDCANADA TherewasnorealchangeinthehumanconditioninNorthAmericaatthistime.TheArcticSmallTooltraditionis usuallydividedintotwostageswithwhathasbeencalledtheDorsetStageemergingatabout600B.C.Thiswasan harpoonbasedhuntingcultureextendingallacrossthefarnorth. 9.4.1.1.2THEUNITEDSTATES TheAdenaWoodllandCulturethrivedintheeastandthemiddlewestoftheUnitedStatesandtheinuenceofthe Adenaburialcustoms,religionandartcanbeidentiedoveralargearea,includingChesapeakeBayandNewYork state.Inthe1880sProfessorCyrusThomassurveyedover2,000moundsitesandcollectedover4,000specimensof thisandthelaterHopewellCulture.TheSanPedrophaseoftheCochiseCulturecontinuedinthesouthwest.Ref. 189[259],215[290] 9.4.1.2MEXICO,CENTRALAMERICA,ANDTHECARIBBEAN IntheOlmeccenteratLaVentaaclaypyramid103feethighwaserectedandsurroundedbyfourcolossalstoneheads. AtMonteAlban,Mexico,onecanstillseerowsofcarvingswithOlmecfeatures.AtTikal,Quatemala,potteryhas beenfounddatingto600B.C.similartosouthAmericanpotteryofthesamedate,suggestingthattradeexistedbetween thetwoareas.About500B.C.,however,theOlmecpeopleseemtohavecollapsedanddisappeared,perhapspassing ontheirknowledgetotheMayaswhobegantooccupysomeofthesameterritory.Archeologicalndsestablisha humanpresenceinVeraCruzasearlyas5,600B.C.andthismayhavebeenfromancienttimesathorough-farefor migrationofHuastecandOlmecsalongthecoastalplain.Ref.176[242],155[214],236[314] ThezeropointoftheMayancalendarcorrespondstoour3,113B.C.andbringsuptheinterestingquestionsastothe ultimateoriginofthosepeoplesandhowtheywereabletotriumphoverthejungletoestablishatypeofcivilization. Themostlikelyhypothesisisthattheywereagriculturalistsoriginallyandthattheymovedinfromadjacentriverestuarinelowlands.Thebulkofarchaeologicaldatapointstoanoriginalincursionofthelowlandsduringthersthalf ofthis1stmillenniumB.C.,buttheearliestceramicsfromTikalandUJaxactundatetoabout600B.C.Theremay havebeentwostagesinthedevelopmentoftheMayasociety,withtherststagecharacterizedbythedissemination ofriverinesettlementsfromthetropicalLowlandsofthePacicandGulfCoastsinthegeneralareaoftheIsthmusof TehuantepecandthesecondstageoccurringwhenPre-classicgroupsabandonedtheriversandmovedintotheinterior. ThislaterstageappearstobelinkedtothebeginningsofMayancivilization.Thechangetotheinteriorhabitatinvolved manyproblemsnottheleastofwhichwastheobtainingofdrinkingwater.Thesolutiontothisproblemwasapparently foundintheconstructionofarticialreservoirsinimpermeableclays.Fedbyarticiallyconstructeddrainagesystems theyallowedforthestorageofmillionsofgallonsofwater.Forcarbohydrates,therelativelysmallcropsofmaize thatcouldberaisedwiththeslashandburnmethod,wassupplementedbytheramon,atreeofthegfamilywhich producesdensecarbohydrateseedsintremendouslylargequantities.Storageplacesfortheseseedshavealsobeen found.Nowshutofffromriverproteins,deerhuntingwasofimportance,afactconrmedfromtheexaminationof hiddencontentsfromTikal.AsthePulestonsRef.261[237]havepointedout,thenecessityoforganizinglaborto constructthelargepublicreservoirsmaywellhavebeenacatalystforthedevelopmentofsocialstraticationandthe developingconceptofastate;andtheutilizationoftheramonwouldhaveallowedstablesettlementswiththerelease ofmuchmalelaborforuseinvariousotherchannels. 7 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat.

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141 9.4.1.3SOUTHAMERICA TheChavincivilizationcontinuedinPeruthroughoutthiscenturybutthenabout500B.C.theircitieswererather suddenlyabandoned 8 .SomewriterssaythatParacasdevelopeditsownindividualtypeofpotteryinthesouthatthis time,butEngelRef.62[91]doesnotdateParacasIuntilanother300years.MarvinAllisonRef.3[4]hasfound multiplemummiesfromvariousPeruvianandChileancoastalburials,somedatingto600B.C.,withtuberculosis, especiallyofthebonesandjointsandhebelievesthismusthavebeenacommondiseaseofthewesterncoast.The rstknowndenselypopulatedcentersonthenorthcoastofSouthAmericadatefrom600B.C.to150B.C.andhave beencalledthe"Salinarphase"byarchaeologists.Ref.255[9] InthelightofBarryFells'shypothesesconcerningpossibleEuropeanandMiddleEastvoyagerstothenewworld inancienttimes,itisofinterestthatastoneinscriptioninPhoenicianscriptwasallegedlydiscoveredinParahyba Province,Brazil,in1886andatranslationpublishedin1939indicatedthatithadbeenwrittenbyCanaanitesofSidon whohadlefttheRedSeaareain536B.C.the19thyearofthereignofHiramwithtenships,sailingalongthecoast ofAfricafortwoyears,undertheordersofNecho,pharoahofEgypt.Thewritersnotethattheybecameseparated fromtheiragshipandwerecarriedfarawayandlandedonthisunknownBraziliancoast.Whenrstputforththis ndingandtranslationwasdeclaredaforgery,butmorerecentlyithasbeenacceptedasgenuinebymanyauthorities. Ref.176[242]ThesouthAtlanticoceancurrentscomingfromtheAfricanCapecouldeasilyresultinthisdrift. OrnateceramicsdecoratedwithanimalandbirdgureswerecharacteristicoftheBrazilianBarrancoidtraditionof thisandmanyadjacentcenturiesRef.255[9] ForwardtoAmerica:500to401B.C.Section10.9 ChooseDifferentRegion 1.IntrotoEraSection9.1 2.AfricaSection9.2 3.CentralandNorthernAsiaSection9.5 4.EuropeSection9.9 5.TheFarEastSection9.3 6.TheIndianSubcontinentSection9.6 7.TheNearEastSection9.7 8.PacicSection9.8 9.5CentralandNorthernAsia:600to501B.C. 9 9.5.1CENTRALANDNORTHERNASIA BacktoCentralandNorthernAsia:700to601B.C.Section8.7 Therewasprobablyverylittlechangefromthesituationdescribedinthelastcentury.TheTagarculturepeople continuedinthenorth,theearlyMongoloidsinthenortheast,andtheproliferatingIraniantribes,especiallytheSakas andtheeasternMedes,inthesouth. ForwardtoCentralandNorthernAsia:500to401B.C.Section10.5 8 TheNationalGeographicSocietyRef.255[9]reportedin1982thatthissocietylasteduntil300B.C. 9 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat.

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142 CHAPTER9.600TO501B.C. 9.6TheIndianSubcontinent:600to501B.C. 10 9.6.1THEINDIANSUBCONTINENT TheVedicCulturebegantodecayoratleasttostagnate,sothatDariusIofPersiahadlittletroubleinseizingGandhara fromthedisunitedAryans,andtheentireareasoonbecamedividedintomanysmallstates.Darius'advanceintothe IndusValleymarkedtheintroductionofcoinage,ironworking 11 andwritingintoPakistan.Althoughpowerfuland extensivekingdomsdevelopedintheGangesValleyatthattime,theyalwaysremainedunstableandwerenever consolidatedintoanenduringwhole,asinChina,andonereasonwastheheavymicro-parasitismcharacteristicofthe warm,wetGangesclimate.Thisheavyinfestationandinfectionmusthavereducedindividualvigorandcapacityfor physicallabor,andisprobablyonereasonthatIndianempireswerefragileandsubjecttoeasyconquestbyinvaders fromthenorth,untiltheinvadersthemselvesbecameinfested.Thetranscendentalismthatbecamecharacteristicof theIndianreligionsaccordedwellwiththecircumstancesofpoverty-stricken,diseaseriddenpeasants.InToynbee's Ref.220[294]terminology,itwasa"timeoftroubles"andasusualinsuchsituations,newphilosophiesand religionsbegantoappeartosavemanorlifthimoutofthedrudgeryofhislife.Bythistime,thecastesystemwas wellestablishedatleastinnorthernIndia.Benares,atthegentlefourmilecurveoftheGanges,wasalreadythegoal ofthousandsofHinduswhowenttheretobatheanddrinkitswaterandtobeseechthefavorofsomegod.Ref.136 [187],140[190],37[58],220[294] GautamaBuddha,scionofthearistocraticGautamaclanlivingatthefootoftheHimalayas,wasbornin563B.C.He lefthisfamilyandafteraninitialwithdrawalperiodwithselfmortication,hereturnedtotheactiveworldtoteach hisideasofethics.Hedidnotwrite,buttalked,amanofstrongwill,authoritativeandproud,butofgentlemanner andspeechandofinnitebenevolence.HisideaofNirvanawascompleteannihilation.Later,alegendofdivinebirth appearedamongBuddha'sfollowers,buthe,himself,claimednodivineoriginandinfactwasinessenceanatheist, worshipingnogod,havingnoritualandinterestedonlyinethics. InthemiddleofthiscenturytherealsoappearedanotherreligionfoundedbyMahaviraandcalled"Jains".Mahavira taughtthattheroadtoreleasefromthetragedyoflifewastobefoundthroughasceticpenancesandcomplete"ahimsa". Thelattermeansabstinencefrominjurytoanylivingthing.Gandhiwaslaterstronglyinuencedbythissect.Neither BuddhismnorJainismacceptedthecastesystem,whichwasHinduinorigin,andbothwereopposedtoviolenceand toanyanimalslaughter.TheJainsevenhadtobecarefulineatinganyfruitorvegetable,asitmightcontainaninsect whichmightbeahumansoulinre-in-carnation.Finally,theonlyanimalproteinfoodinIndiawasanoccasional chickenor,onthecoast,shandseafood. AryaninvadersfromnorthIndiaarrivedinSriLankainthisortheprecedingcenturyandthepresentdaymajority SinhalesesevenoutoftenSriLankansclaimdescentfromthem.TheyareBuddhistsandtheirsistheofcial languageoftheisland.Ref.136[187],211[284] Continueonpage207 9.7TheNearEast:600to501B.C. 12 9.7.1THENEAREAST BacktoTheNearEast:700to601B.C.Section8.3 ThreepeoplesoftheNearEasthadabsolutemonarchiesinthiscentury-theLydians,MedesandtheBabylonians. Pleaseseemapthissection,lastchapter. 10 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat. 11 SomebelievetherewasironsmeltinginIndiaasearlyas800B.C.Ref.213[288],page271 12 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat.

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143 9.7.1.1THEARABIANPENINSULA Incenseandmyrrhmadefromgumresinwerenowfashionableasofferingstothegods,andtheywereproducedin southArabiaandsenttotheMediterranean.TheSabeansofYemenandHadramauttookoverdominancefromthe Mineansandpromotedadvancedengineeringprojects,includingalargedamnearMarib.StilllatertheHimyarites becameparamountinthearea.NorthernArabiawasconqueredbyDarius,thePersian,atthecloseofthecentury. AdditionalNotesp.145 9.7.1.2MEDITERRANEANCOASTALAREAS 9.7.1.2.1ISREALJUDEA:PALESTINE Asthecenturybegan,internalstrifeanddecayseemedimminentinPalestine.TheprophetJeremiah,writingatabout 600B.C.,deploredthestatusandwrotelikeanundercoveragentofBabylonia,seemingtohopethattheBabylonians wouldconquertheJews.Ifso,hishopesweresoonfullledandNebuchadrezzartookthousandsofJewsascaptives,to Babylon.Whilethere,theprophetEzekial,likeIsaiahandJeremiahbeforehim,madeercedenunciationsofidolatry andcorruptionofJerusalem,butatthesametimetriedtokeeptheJewsfrombeingabsorbedbytheircaptors.Evenin bondagetheystayedmoreorlessintact,andtheyprosperedandmultiplied.ButtheydidtakeovermanyBabylonian legends,whichappearedlaterintheOldTestament,intermingledandfusedwiththetrueHebrewstories.Seealso Syriap.143. TheJewswerenallyliberatedfromBabylonbyCyrus,thePersian,in540-538B.C.andtheymigratedbacktotheir homeland.Theprophet,the"2ndIsaiah"actualauthorunknown,whosewritingsmayactuallybeamixturefrom severalmen,begantolifttheJudaicreligiontoaloftystate,re-emphasizingthecomingofGodandtheMessiah.The JewishTemplewasrebuiltinJerusalem.Ref.45[66] 9.7.1.2.2LEBANON:PHOENICIA Phoeniciawasruledfrom586to538B.C.bytheChaldeanNebuchadrezzaralthoughthecityofTyredidnotfalluntil 573B.C.afterathirteenyearsiege.Laterthecountrywasdividedintofourvassalkindgoms,underthePersians. Extensiveseaactivitycontinued,however,anditispossiblethataPhoenicianshipcircumnavigatedAfricaaboutthis time.SeeIsraelp.143.Ref.222[296] 9.7.1.3IRAQANDSYRIA SeemingtoforetellthefutureimportanceofIraqasasourceofpetroleum,eveninthis6thcenturyB.C.oilwas foundonthesurfaceinvariouspartsofthecountryandwascallednaphtha.Bitumenwasusedtocalkships.Ref. 213[288]AnindependentBabyloniaprosperedunderthereignofNebuchadrezzarII,theChaldean,andBabylon becameafamedmetropolis,knownparticularlybecauseofitsfamedhanginggardens.Ass-drawnwheeledcarts,oar drivenriverboatsandcamelcaravansallbroughtamixtureoffood,preciousmetals,dyes,glasswareandtextilestothe city.Thetrafcalsobroughtanoccasionalplague.Ref.222[296]ThissecondBabylonianEmpirewasessentially aSemiticcivilization.AfteraninitialattackonJudea,Nebuchadrezzarcarriedabout10,000Jewsbacktothecapital, butlateralmostallthepopulationofJerusalemwasbroughtinbondagetoBabylon,withthecaptivityperiodrunning from586to538B.C.NebuchadrezzarsupposedlybuiltthezigguratofEtemananki,thoughttobetheinfamousTower ofBabel,whichhassincebeendestroyed.Thebaseofthistowermeasured300feetonaside.Neartheendofhis lifehealsotriedtoreconstructtheentirecityofUr,makingthereconstructedziggurataseven-stageone.Eventhese ancientsdidnotescapeperiodsofsevereination,andthewarsandbuildingactivitiesofNebuchadrezzarresultedin a50%riseinpricesbetweenabout560and550B.C.Ref.213[288]Afterthefamousking'sdeath,theempire crumbledrapidly,hastenedbytheaberrationofthepriestsofMarduk,andsubsequentlytheAchaemenidPersianshad notroubletakingcontrolofthearea.ThecontributionsofBabyloniatoposterityincludethelegends,carriedthrough thecaptiveJews,thatbecameapartofEurope'sreligiouslore,foundationsofmathematics,astronomy,medicine, grammar,lexicographyarcheology,historyandphilosophy,aswellasthedesignfortheziggurats,leadinglatertothe Moslemtowers.ThePersianCyrusbecamekingofBabylonin539B.C.andthecitylostitsimportanceforevermore,

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144 CHAPTER9.600TO501B.C. astherulerlivedinPersia.CyrusdidcompletesomereconstructionworkinUr,however,restoringagateinthegreat wallandprobablyworkingononeofthetemples.Thiswasdoneinspiteofthefactthattherewasthenlittletradeto thiscity.Ref.238[318],28[48],46[76] 9.7.1.4IRAN:PERSIA AsAssyriafell,Cyaxares,kingoftheMedes,extendedhisruleonwestacrossIran,butin550B.C.,Cyrus,princeof Persia,rebelledagainsttheMedesanddefeatedtheirthenking,Astyages,joiningthetwopeoplestogethertomakeIran adominantsouth-westAsianpower.Theyhadirontechnologyandwereabletoexploitthehorseforcommunication andwarfare.Theword"Iran"inPersianisthesameastheword"Aryan"inEnglish.Cyrusproceededtocapture BabyloniaandalmostallofSyriaandSardis,inAsiaMinor.ThisPersianEmpirebecameoneofthebestgoverned inhistory.Itsoonreachedthenaturallimitsinsizeandextentwhichweresetbytheconditionofthesoilandclimate restrictingpeasantagriculture,abuttingonthesteppeinthenorth,thedesertinthesouthandlimitedontheAegean onlybytheirlongsupplylineastheycameupagainsttheGreeks.Ref.140[190]Cyrus'son,Cambyses,extended theempireintoEgyptandthenwentmadandcommittedsuicide.Darius1,ofthejuniorAchaemenidline,became kingin521,thenconqueredthesickScythiansinRussiaandcarriedthePersianEmpiretotheIndusRiverinPakistan. TheofcialreligionoftheAchaemenidDynastywasZorastrianismbutinthewesternareasJudaismco-existedasa competingfaith,andinsomeareasthisresultedinacomplexfusionofbothreligiousthemes.ToynbeeRef.220 [294]considersthisempirethebeginningofthe"UniversalState"oftheoldSyriacSociety,butonemustrealize thattheSyriacstatewasSemiticandthePersianconquestendedtheSemiticruleinwesternAsiaforathousandyears. Ref.140[190],220[294] WeshouldmentionthatstillanotherIraniantribe,theParthians,existedatthistimearoundthesouthernshoreofthe CaspianSea.InthiscenturytheyfellunderthecontroloftheMedesandthenthePersians,butasweshallseethey willbeheardfromagaininthefuture. 9.7.1.5ASIAMINOR 9.7.1.5.1TURKEY AlthoughGreekloniancitiescontinuedtoprosperalongthecoast,thecountryofLydiaexpandedtooccupyalmostall theremainderofthepeninsula.ThefabulouswealthofthesepeopleandtheirfamousKingCroesus-546B.C. wasbasedonanaturalalloyofgoldandsilvercalled"electum",andcoinswereinventedtoactasastandardmeasure ofthissubstance.BetweentheseLydiansandtheMedes,thePhrygianandCimmerianpeoplesofAsiaMinorwere absorbed,althoughafragmentofthelatterpeoplesurvivedintheCrimeaasthe"Tauri".Bymid-century,justafter Croesushadsubduedlonia,onthecoast,evenLydiawasengulfedbyPersiaanddisappearedasanation.Ref.28 [48],136[187] AdditionalNotesp.145 9.7.1.5.2ARMENIA TheMedesdrovetheScythiansoutofArmeniaby590B.C.andthenewlyarrivedArmeniansofprobablyPhrygian origincontinuedtolivethereasavigorousrace.AlthoughtechnicallyunderthedominionofthePersianEmpireinthe lasthalfofthecentury,theyremainedessentiallyindependentinactionbecauseoftheirremotenessfromthePersian centerofgovernment.TheArmeniansretainedtheAnatolicorHittitenose. ForwardtoTheNearEast:500to401B.C.Section10.3 ChooseDifferentRegion 1.IntrotoEraSection9.1 2.AfricaSection9.2 3.AmericaSection9.4

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145 4.CentralandNorthernAsiaSection9.5 5.EuropeSection9.9 6.TheFarEastSection9.3 7.TheIndianSubcontinentSection9.6 8.PacicSection9.8 NOTE :Inthenorthwestpartofthepeninsula,nearestthecitiesofPhoenicia,wastheKingdomofDedan, whereLihyanitescarvedlionreliefsabovesandstonetombs,in600B.C.Thiswastheallegedretreatof Moses,wherehemettheBiblicalReuelatthewell.Ref.315[125] NOTE :Until600B.C.Ephesus,onthecoastofTurkey,wasaworld-classloniancity,butthereaftersiltbegan tolluptheharboranditdeteriorated.NowtheAegeanis11kilometersaway.AsimilarfateovertookTroy. Ref.281[113] 9.8ThePacic:600to501B.C. 13 9.8.1THEPACIFIC BacktoThePacic:700to601B.C.Section8.5 MostclassicalhistoriesrecordthatthisandadjacentcenturiessawcontinuedspreadofpeoplefromIndonesiathrough MelanesiaandMicronesiaeastwardintoPolynesiabutaswehaveindicatedinpreviouschaptersthiswasprobably impossiblewiththeseatechnologyavailableatthattimebecauseofthestrongwestwardoceancurrents.Ofinterest inthisregardisBraudel'sRef.260[29],page201statementthatevenin1696agalleon'stripfromManilato Acapulcotooksixorsevenmonthsandresultedinextremedifcultiesinthefeedingofthecrew.Again,weshould reiteratethatthePolynesiansarenotgeneticallyrelatedtoeitherMelanesiansorMicronesiansandtheirculturalhabits andphysicalcharacteristicsareentirelydifferent.Incontrast,ithasbeenfoundthattheIndiansofthenorthwest AmericancoastandcoastalislandsattheeasternendoftheJapancurrentacrossthefarnorthernPacicusedthesame adzesthatwereusedcenturiesbeforeinthenorthernPhilippines.CaptainCookfoundthesealsoinTahitiandother Polynesianislands,whileothersofthel9thcenturyfoundthattheadz-handleandthemethodofsecuringtheblade tothewoodenhandlewereexactlythesameamongthePolynesiansasamongthenorthwestAmericanIndians.20th centuryanthropologistshaveconrmedtheseobservationsandaddedmanyothersimilarities.Theinferenceregarding theoriginofthePolynesiansisclear.TheonlycontactthatthetruePolynesianshadwiththeMicronesianswasthrough theFijiIslandsontheborderofthetwogroupsofislandswhereitseemsthatthepigandthechickenspreadfromwest toeast,inalimitedarea.Onemustrealize,however,thatthesetrue,presentdayPolynesiansdidnotspreaddownthe eastPacicfromtheNorthAmericancoastalislandsuntilamuchlaterperiodthanthis6thcenturyB.C.andinthe meantimeotherpeoplesdidinhabitatleastmanyoftheseislands.Thesourceoftheseaboriginesremainssomewhat uncertain,although,asdetailedelsewhereinthismanuscript,itispossiblethattheycamefromCentraland/orSouth America.Ref.95[140] ForwardtoThePacic:500to401B.C.Section10.8 ChooseDifferentRegion 1.IntrotoEraSection9.1 2.AfricaSection9.2 3.AmericaSection9.4 4.CentralandNorthernAsiaSection9.5 5.EuropeSection9.9 13 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat.

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146 CHAPTER9.600TO501B.C. 6.TheFarEastSection9.3 7.TheIndianSubcontinentSection9.6 8.TheNearEastSection9.7 9.9Europe:600to501B.C. 14 9.9.1EUROPE BacktoEurope700to601B.C.Section8.1 9.9.1.1SOUTHERNEUROPE Inthisandtheadjacentcenturiestherewasextensiveadmixturenotonlyofculturesandmaterialsbutofpeoples, themselves,throughoutallareasofsouthernEuropeandevennorthernAfricaandtheeasternMediterranean.There weremigrationsofpeoplesfromGreecetotheAegeanislandsandAsiaMinorandtoItalyandsouthernFrance, whilePhoeniciansandCarthaginiansmovedtoItaly,SicilyandSardiniaandthevarioustribesinbothpeninsulas intermingled,fought,traded,usurpedterritoryandconsolidatedvillages.Peoplesofvaryingracesandlanguages seemedtolivesidebysideattimes,onlytoghtatothertimes.Justasdiverselanguagesseemtobenoimpedimentto students,businessmen,teachersandtravelersinEuropetoday,soitseemstohavebeentruethroughoutthecenturies. ThuseasternandGreekinuencesbecameprominentinItalyandthewesternMediterranean.Ref.75[115] 9.9.1.1.1EASTERNMEDITERRANEANISLANDS TherewasnogreatpoliticalchangeinthiscenturyfromthelastexceptthatPersiatookoverRhodesanditscolonies. Ref.38[59] 9.9.1.1.2GREECE ThenodeofGreektradingwasatthePeloponnesianisthmusandGreece'srstmajorcity,Corinth,haddeveloped there.About600B.C.apavedwayallowedshipstobehauledacrosstheisthmus.WhatCorinthowedtothis keypositiongeographically,AthensowedtothediscoveryofsilveratnearbyLaurion.ItwaswiththisthatAthens subsequentlynanceditsnavyusingaslavework-forcerunningtovegures.Ref.249[98]TheIoniansattained greatnavalstrength,butSamos,underPolycrates,becameagreatseapoweralso,usinglong-boatswithasmanyas ftyoars.GreececontinuedtobepolyglotwitheventheIonianshavingfourdifferentdialects.Ref.122[170],136 [187],216[291],58[86] Asthecity-statesincreasedinpopulationsubsistencebecameaprobleminviewofthepoorsoil,andvariouscities solvedthepotentialcrisisinvariousways.WhileCorinthandChalcisestablishedoverseascolonies,Spartaattacked andconquerednearbyGreekneighborsandthusdevelopedamilitarystate.Athens,ontheotherhand,developeda specializedagriculturalexporttradeandstartedmanufacturingbasedontheexportofwineandoilfromtheirgrapes andolives,inexchangeforgrain.MiletusandEretriaparticipatedalsointhistrade.InAtticathetyrant 15 Peisistratus startedapolicyofgrantingstateloanstofarmerswhoplantedtheirlandwithgrapesorolives.Solonforbadetheexport ofanyagriculturalproductexceptoliveoilandthiswasthenaltouchasfarasGreeksoilwasconcerned,because thedeeptaprootoftheolivetreesoakedupthemoisturefardowninthelimestoneanddidnothingtofeedtopsoil. EventhoughAthensgrewrichonthesilverandoliveoil,basicfoodsuppliesstillhadtobeimported,necessitating continuedtrade.TheuniqueartistictalentsoftheAthenianshelpedastheyexportedtheirfamous"black-gure"vases withtheblackshapesstandingoutfromanorange-redbase 16 .Meatwasararityexceptattimesofreligioussacrice. TherewerenopalmsinGreece,butgswereused,particularlydried,inwinter. 14 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat. 15 "Atyrantwasamanwhogainedpowerthroughcoupd'etatandruledextra-legally."Ref.139[192]page202 16 In1970alistshowedthat1,560ofthesevaseshadbeenfoundinEtruria,Italy,andmanymorehavebeenfoundsincethen.Ref.75[115]

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147 AchangeinwarfaretechniqueearlyinthiscenturywasanimportantfactorinchangingsocialrelationshipsinGreece. Thehorsemenofthebattleeld,heretoforechieyaristocratsbecauseofthecostinvolved,werenowbeingreplacedby heavilyarmedandarmoredclustersofinfantrymencalled"hoplites"whichweremassedtogether,shieldsoverlapping, ina"phalanx".Thefarmerswereabletotakeoverthisroleandthetendencytowardthedevelopmentofanaristocratic primacywaschecked.Eventhensomesocialstrugglesdeveloped.Peisistratus-527B.C.backedthecauseofthe poorerclassofhillmenagainstthearistocracyinonesuchuprising.Itispossiblethatthepsychologyofthephalanx helpedtopromotethedemocraticidealofallbeingequal,butcontrarytowhatonemightbelievefromperusingthe classicalschooltextbooks,Greekdemocracywasfarfrombeingtotal.Greatnumbersofslaves,whichweshalldiscuss moreindetaillater,lackedallpoliticalrights;womenwerealsodisfranchised;andresidentalienswereadmittedto citizenshiponlyveryrarely.Actually,throughoutthis6thcenturyGreececitizenrywasprettymuchaclosedand hereditarygroupunitedbytiesofkinship. NOTE:InsertMapstakenfromReference97ANCIENTGREECE,CENTRALGREECE Aesop,offablefame,livedinthersthalfofthiscentury,bornasaslave,physicallymalformed,rough,dogmaticbut brilliant.HebecametheGreekambassadortoLydia,butlater,afterchallengingtheintegrityofthepriestsofApollo, hewassentencedtodieandwasthrownfromacliff.Thales,afterreceivingpartofhiseducationinEgypt,founded theIonianSchoolofNaturalPhilosophyandsetuptherstsystemofabstractgeometryandissaidtohavepredicted theeclipseofthesunwhichoccurredin585B.C.CoinsofsmalldenominationwereintroducedinGreeceatthistime. ToynbeeRef.220[294]saysthat550B.C.markstheendofthetwohundredyearsoftheacmeoftheHellenic civilization,butinviewofthedevelopmentsinthelatterpartofthiscenturyandthenext,manywoulddisagree. 9.9.1.1.3UPPERBALKANS EarlyinthecenturytheScythiansextendedtheirpowerasfarwestaspresentdayHungary,butthentheywere decimatedbyamysteriousdiseaseandtheydrewbacktotheirhomelandaroundtheBlackSea.Herodotusmentions adiseaseoftheScythianswhichmadethemsterile,butitisnotknownifthiswasoneandthesamescourgewhich facilitatedtheirdefeatbyDarius,whenlateinthecenturyB.C.thePersianscrossedtheHellespont,conquered thesilverandgoldrichlandofThrace,makingabufferzoneagainstGreece.TheremainingScythiansinthenorth ed,burningthelandbehindthem.ThracehadbeenourishingwithanextensivetradeandGreekstylesandluxuries. Strangelyenough,thePersianinvasiononlyseemstohavestimulatedThracianart.Macedoniacontinueditsownmore orlessunmolesteddevelopment.TheIndo-EuropeanIllyrianshadsettledinpresentdayAlbaniaandtheirmineshad attractedGreekswhosettlednearthemontheAdriaticcoast.Ref.92[136],171,28[48] 9.9.1.1.4ITALY TheregionbetweenFlorenceandRome,nowknownasTuscany,waspopulatedbytheprosperousEtruscanswho capitalizedontherichcopperandirondepositsofthearea.TheyhadtwelvecitiesinTuscany,additionalsettlements inthePoValleyandtheycontrolledwesternItalydowntoCumae.Inthenorthafter600B.C.Bononiabeganto produceagreatseriesofbronzebucketsshapedliketruncatedconesandbearingguredreliefs.Thesehavebeen foundasfarawayasAustriaandSloveniaandtheBononianonesmaybecopiesofthelatter.OntheAdriaticSea,in thiscentury,severalvillageswerebroughttogethertoformtheportofSpina,notfarfrompresentdayVenice.Spina wascenteredonalong,widecanalwhichconnectedtheseatoalagoon.Thecitycoveredover700acres,chieyon peninsulaeconnectedtothemainlandonlybynarrowtonguesofland.ItwaspeopledbyEtruscansandGreeksaswell asthemorenativeVenetii,andsomeofthelatterapparentlyconvertedtotheEtruscanlanguage. AllofthewesternEtruscancity-stateshadtheirindividualmerchantnavieswhichwereactiveintheTyrrhenianSea, tradingattheGreekandCathaginianportsandtheirtrader-pirateswereactiveevenintheAegean,wheretheymay havehadacolonyontheislandofLemnos.ManyelementsintheirartandreligionhavebeeninterpretedasNearEast inorigin,andaspreviouslymentioned,traditionallyithasbeensurmisedthatatleasttheirrulerswereimmigrants fromAsiaMinor,Lydiainparticular,butthishasnowbeenprettywelldisproved.In1964therewasexcavatedat Pergi,Italy,aletterwrittenonsheetsofgoldleaf,inEtruscan,supposedlyfromHiram,LordofTyre,tothekingof LavinianearRomeandFellRef.65[96]interpretsthelanguageasbelongingtotheAnatoliangroupandrelated

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148 CHAPTER9.600TO501B.C. toHittiteandUrartian.Thisdoesnot,initself,proveNearEastancestryfortheEtruscanpeople.Ref.68[106],65 [96] OriginallythepeopleofRomewereruledbyEtruscankings,who,inturn,appointedornominatedthesenatefrom thepatricianfamilies.ThroughoutmostofthiscenturyRomewasactuallyanEtruscancity,eventhoughthecommon languagetherewasanIndoEuropeanone,destinedtobecomeLatin.Thedrainingofthemarshforerectionofthe RomanForumbyconstructionoftheimpressiveCloacaMaximawasatypicalEtruscankindofoperation.Etruscan metal-work,potteryandarmourappearedinRome,alongwithEtruscanimmigrants.Terracottafriezesareidentical inRomeandVeiiandthegreatsculptor,VulcaofVeii,madethestatueofJupiterforahugetempleinRome.The lastoftheRomankingswasanEtruscanandwhenhewasoverthrowntherepublicwasestablished.After510B.C. thesenatorswereappointedbytwoelectedconsuls.Oneofthese,ValeriusPoplicola,promotedtheLexValeria, sometimescalledthe"HabeasCorpus"ofRome,allowingtheplebianstoappealdecisionsofthemagistratestothe generalassembly,thusfreeingthemfromtheworstclassvindictiveness.Ref.229[307],75[115] Inthesouth,PompeiiwasanimportantharborforNolaandotherEtruscantownsinCampaniaandfragmentsof theirblackpotteryhavebeenfoundthere.AnotherEtruscansettlementwasnearSalerno.ThisEtruscanactivityin Campaniadidnotlastlong,however,asEtruscanCapuaandGreekCumaeclashedviolentlyabout525-524B.C.when aforceofEtruscansinvadedtheareainwhathasbeencalledthe"longmarch".Aristodemus,rulerofCumae,repelled theinvadersandlater,withthehelpofadjacentLatintribes,hefurtherdefeatedtheEtruscansnearAricia,between 506and504B.C.Ref.75[115]InaGreekcolonyinsouthernItaly,Pythagorasestablishedhisbrotherhoodand incidentallydevelopedhisfamousproofofC2=A2+B2inatriangle.Thegroupplacedsuchemphasisonthetheory ofnumbersthatultimatelyitinvolveditselfinaworldofmystical,mathematicalabstractions. SardiniaandthewesternhalfofSicilywereconqueredandoccupiedbyCarthageinthiscenturyandofcoursethere weremultipleGreekcoloniesallalongsouthernItaliancoastalareasaswellasonthesouthernandeasterncoasts ofSicily.SomewhatreplacingtheEubaeaninuenceintheMediterranean,anotherGreekcity-state,Phocaea,now sentitseetwesttoestablishtradingcoloniesatMassaliaandAlalianowAleriaoneasternCorsica.TheseGreeks wereinterestedmainlyintradeformetals,andEtruriawasthenalresource.ThecaptureofthePhocaeanandother IonianhomelandsbythePersiansactuallysentoodsofGreekrefugeestothewestandthusEtruscanartofthisperiod displaysmanyIoniancharacteristics.ThesouthernpartsofFrance,Italy,GreeceandTurkeyaretodayallverysimilar geneticallyintheirpopulations,indicatingtheprobableinuenceofthisearlyGreekcolonization. Fromabout540B.C.onwards,theCaeritans,guidedbylonianartistswhohadoodedthearea,developedanimpressivenewschoolofceramicswhich,amongotherthings,producedhandsomewaterjarswithrichpolychromepaintings ofGreekmythologicalscenes.ThenewwaveofPhocaeansettlerswhoarrivedatAlaliainmid-centuryextensively plunderedthesurroundingterritorieswithaconsequentreactionbyCarthaginianandCaeritannavies.Asnotedearlier inthischapterwhendiscussingCarthage,theseallieswereactuallydefeatedbythePhocaeans,butthelatteralsolost 40shipsandsoontooktheirfamiliesfromAlaliatoRhegum,insouthwestItaly.TheunfortunatePhocaeansailorsof the40capturedshipswereslaughteredontheadjacentshorebytheCaeritans.Ref.92[136],75[115] NOTE:InsertMaptakenfromreference97,GREEKANDCARTHAGINIANCOLONIZATIONOFSICILYAND SOUTHERNITALY Vetulonia,tothenorth,seemstohavereachedtheclimaxofitspoliticalpowerduringthiscenturyasawalledcity withatwomileperimeter.IthadcommercialrelationsacrosstheArnoandApenninesandreceivedamberfromthe Baltic.OneoftheVetuloniadominatedcitieswasPopuloniaonapeninsulaprojectingintotheseanotfarfromElba. Itparticipatedwiththeislandinironandcopperworksandeventuallybecametherealsmeltingcenter,asthesupply ofwoodfuelonElbadwindled. StillnorthofVetuloniaandborderingontheseawasVolaterrae,notedforitsfabricationofbronzesandsculptures ofvolcanicstone.Thecentralcitywassurroundedbyawallfourandone-halfmileslong,anditsareaofinuence extendedovertopresentdayFlorence,wheremoundtombshavebeenexcavated.Volaterrae'sinlandneighborwas Clusium,anareaoriginallyoccupiedbyItalicspeakingUmbrians,butwhicheventuallybecameEtruscanizedwhile

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149 yetremainingbiracial.KingLarsPorsennaofClusiumwasconsideredthemostpowerfulEtruscanofalltime,and histombhasbeendescribedasamagnicentedice,300feetsquare.Theprimaryproductsofthisinlandcommunity wereagricultural,eventhoughvastirrigationanddrainageprojectswerenecessarytolimitoodwaters.Ref.75 [115] 9.9.1.2CENTRALEUROPE InthiscenturytherewasacontinuingproliferationoftheHallstattCelticpeoplethroughoutcentralEuropewitha thinfringeofTeutonsinthenorth.TheScythiannomadsinvaded,particularlyinthegreatHungarianplain,and greatlyinuencedCelticartandsocietyingeneral.Fromthemmayhavecomethewar-horsewiththebronzebitsand harnessesandthehead-huntingcustom,allofwhichwerelaterconsideredapartoftheCeltictradition.BronzeAge Indo-Europeans,ScythiansandGreekconceptsapparentlyallcoalescedintothenewCelticpattern,withacenterat Heuneburg,ontheGermanDanube.Ref.116[165],91[135] 9.9.1.3WESTERNEUROPE By500B.C.theinuxofCeltsintosouthwesternSpainAndalusiawassogreatthatthelocalspokenlanguage changedfromPhoeniciantoCeltic,butevensotheTartessianculturepersistedwithCarthaginianstakingovertheold Phoeniciansettlements.ThePhocaeancolonyofMassiliawasfoundedontheMediterraneancoastofFrancein600 B.C.anditallowedcommercialrelationsbetweentheCeltsandtheMediterraneancultures.Vinyardsmayhavebeen plantedonFrenchsoilaboutthistime,aftertheGreeksstartedimportingtheirownwineintotheMarseillesarea.All theAtlanticcoastandBritaincontinuedunderCelticdomination.Ref.65[96],8[14],196[269] 9.9.1.4SCANDINAVIA Althoughinthiscenturyironwasusedexclusivelyforfarmingandwar,theScandinaviantribescontinuedtomake bronzeimplements,bibelotsandcostumejewelryofgreatexcellenceandintricacy.Thepopulationswereincreasing rapidlyandpeoplewerealreadybeginningtomigratetotheEuropeancontinent,proper.TheFinnishpeoplecontinued toliveinwidelyspreadvillagesthroughoutthenorthernregionsfromnorthernScandinaviatoandperhapsbeyondthe UralMountains.Ref.88[131] 9.9.1.5EASTERNEUROPE FinnsandLappslivedthroughoutthenorthernareasofRussiawhileBaltsinhabitedthesoutherncoastoftheBaltic SeaandoneasttotheDonRiver.SouthoftheBaltsweretheearlySlavs,andnowthroughthisareatheScandinavians pusheduptheVistulaRiverasfarastheCarpathians.InsouthernRussiatheScythiansweredecimatedbyamysterious disease,althoughDarius'invasionmayhavehadsomethingtodowithitalso.Inthespringof514B.C.Dariusof PersiacrossedtheBosporuswithavastarmyandmovedthroughThraceintoScythia,buthis700,000menwerevery nearlyconsumedbytheScythians'militarywizardryastheyretreatedusinga"scorchedearth"policy,sothatDarius nallyhadtowithdrawtheremnantsofhisstarvingarmy.Ref.176[242] Forwardto500to401B.C.Section10.4 ChooseDifferentRegion 1.IntrotoEraSection9.1 2.AfricaSection9.2 3.AmericaSection9.4 4.CentralandNorthernAsiaSection9.5 5.TheFarEastSection9.3 6.TheIndianSubcontinentSection9.6 7.TheNearEastSection9.7 8.PacicSection9.8

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150 CHAPTER9.600TO501B.C.

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Chapter10 500to401B.C. 10.1500to401B.C. 1 10.1.1500TO401B.C. Backwardto600to501B.C.Section9.1 Atabout500B.C.theculturalleadershipoftheMiddleEastbecameathingofthepast,butthedominanceofEurope stilllayfarinthefuture,sothatforthenext2,000yearsthefourmajorcivilizedareasoftheworld-theMiddleEast, AegeanandItaly,IndusandGangesvalleysofIndiaandChina-allpursuedtheirseparateways,oftenaffectedbywhat transpiredbeyondtheirfrontiers,sometimesborrowingculturalelementsfromQneanotherandrepeatedlyaficted bynomadattacks.Yeteachdevelopedaccordingtoaninnerlogicandmomentumofitsown.Ref.139[192] Forwardto400to301B.C.Section11.1 ChooseRegion 1.AfricaSection10.2 2.AmericaSection10.9 3.CentralandNorthernAsiaSection10.5 4.EuropeSection10.4 5.TheFarEastSection10.7 6.TheIndianSubcontinentSection10.6 7.TheNearEastSection10.3 8.ThePacicSection10.8 10.2Africa:500to401B.C. 2 10.2.1AFRICA BacktoAfrica:600to501B.C.Section9.2 10.2.1.1NORTHEASTAFRICA PerhapsasearlyasthiscenturytheartofironsmeltingwasimportedintoSudanfromEgyptviaKush,whichhad becomeanimmenselyrichcountry.TheearlyinhabitantsofAxumontheEthiopianplateausouthofKushwere 1 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat. 2 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat. 151

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152 CHAPTER10.500TO401B.C. probablyofmixedAsianandNegroorigin,andtheywerejoinedabout500B.C.bysettlersfromsouthernArabia, someofwhomwereapparentlyJews.AnEthiopian-Jewishcommunity,aswellasalaterChristianone,hasexistedin Ethiopia 3 uptothepresenttime.FromthosecontactsarosethelegendthattheQueenofShebaboreasonbySolomon, whobecameemperorofEthiopiaandfoundedtheSolomaicDynasty.TheQueenofSheba,ofcourse,livedinthe 10thcenturyB.C. EgyptcontinuedtoberuledbythePersians,withnoadvanceintheirowncivilizationexceptthattheireconomic isolationwaseliminatedandtheydidcompletetheNile-RedSeacanalwhichhadbeenbegunbyNecho.Apparently theoriginalEgyptiancottonwasapoorproductandlinenfromaxdominatedEgyptianclothing.Ref.213[288] TheEgyptianscienceofpreviouscenturiesbegantobepickedupbyGreekswhohadcoloniesatNaucratesonthe Niledelta,withothersalongthecoasttowardsLibya.AllofthiswasfurtherdevelopedinthesubsequentHellenic Culture.Ref.136[187],28[48],175[241],83[123] 10.2.1.2NORTHCENTRALANDNORTHWESTAFRICA InadditiontotheGreeksettlementsalongtheLibyancoasttherewerePhoeniciancoloniesallalongthewesternhalf oftheNorthAfricanshorefromLeptiseastofCarthagetothePillarsofHercules.Carthagewasrapidlydeveloping anempireofitsown,controllingtheoldTartessusareaofSpainby480B.C.andlatergainingallofthewesternhalf oftheAfricanMediterraneanshoreline.ItwasmentionedinthelastchapterthatattheendofthatcenturyHanno,of Carthage,hadestablishedalargecolonydowntheAtlanticcoastofAfrica.Otherwritershavedatedthiscolony,some 2,600milesdowntheAtlantic,at490B.C.,butinanyevent,archeologistshaveshownthatHannowasnottherst,as therewerealreadyruinsofalargemegalithiccityofLixus,farsouthofGibralter,justwheretheoceancurrentsweeps pasttogodirectlytotheGulfofMexico.TheRomanslatercalledthisancientcitythe"EternalCity"orbyastill oldername,"SunCity",asitwasapparentlybuiltbysun-worshipperswhoincludedastronomers,architects,masons, scribesandexpertpotters.TheSumerians,Assyrians,Hittites,Phoenicians,EgyptiansandtheLixuspeoplewereall fanaticsun-worshippers,justasweretheOlmecsandtheMochicainMexicoandPeru,respectively.TheCarthaginian HimilcoalsocontinuedhistripsuptothenorthernshoresofEuropetoobtaintinforbronze.Inhisefforttondthe ultimatesourceofthatmetal,andavoidtheCelticmiddlemenofFrance,Himilconallyfoundthechannelislands andthenthecoastofBritain,eitheratCornwallorDevon,eventuallytodiscoverthetinminesofCornwall.Ref.28 [48],136[187],95[140],66[97]TheCarthaginianpositionintheMediterraneanwasweakenedin480B.C. whenalargeCarthaginianforcesufferedanhumiliatingdefeatatthehandsofGreekSyracusansinnorthernSicily. CarthagethenseemedtoalsoloseitsformerEtruscanally,thecity-stateofCaere.PerhapsthisoccurredbecauseCaere hadtriedtoestablishacolonyontheAtlanticislandofMadeiraasameansofinterruptingtheCarthaginianmerchant marine'smonopolyofthetinsupplyfromGaulandCornwall.Ref.75[115] InadditiontothecivilizedcentersofEgypt,KushandCarthage,the4thcenturycenterofCyrene,inpresentdayeast Libya,mustbementioned.ThiswasaGreekcity,settledintheprevious-centurybutwhichnowdominatedanentire communityareawhichwasprosperousandcultured.Ref.83[123] 10.2.1.3SUBSAHARANAFRICA TheclimatecontinuedtodeteriorateintheSaharaandlifeintheAkanjeirCultureoftheTichitValleyofsouthern Mauretaniawasbecomingprogressivelymoredifcult.InthiscenturytheareasofGhanaandKanembegandevelopment,probablywiththehelpofBerbersfromthenorth,andwiththeeconomicfoundationoftheexportofgoldand slaves.ExcavationssouthofLakeChadgiveevidenceofpeople,stoneandboneimplementsandcattle-raisingatthe beginningofthiscentury.Ref.83[123]InNigeriaanironindustrydevelopedontheJosPlateau,andsculptured headsandgurinesinterracottadatingto500B.C.havebeenfoundnearNok,inthatcountry.Aboutthesametime, theNegroes,startingnorthwestoftherainforests,migrateddownthroughtheforestalongthegreatriverstothecentralpartofthesouthernsavannasandthenspreadoutinalldirectionstotheeasternpartofthecontinentandtoward thesouth.TheyspoketheBantulanguage,whichistheancestorofmostAfricanlanguagestoday.Thesementook 3 Theword"Ethiopia"isGreekfor"burnt-face".Actuallythisregionwasusuallycalled"Abyssinia"until1923.Ref.83[123],240[319]

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153 knowledgeofminingandironwiththem.Ref.45[66],8[14],175[241]HottentotsandBushmenstilllivedin thefarsouth. ForwardtoAfrica:400to301B.C.Section11.2 ChooseDifferentRegion 1.IntrotoEraSection10.1 2.AmericaSection10.9 3.CentralandNorthernAsiaSection10.5 4.EuropeSection10.4 5.TheFarEastSection10.7 6.TheIndianSubcontinentSection10.6 7.TheNearEastSection10.3 8.PacicSection10.8 10.3TheNearEast:500to401B.C. 4 10.3.1THENEAREASTTHE1STGREATCENTEROFCIVILIZATION BacktoTheNearEast:600to501B.C.Section9.7 10.3.1.1ARABIAANDJORDAN BetweentheGulfofAqabaandtheDeadSeaonthetraderoutebetweensouthArabiaandSyriatheNabataeanKingdomdevelopedwithacapitalatPetra.BecauseofitslocationitwasinuencedbytheAramaicSyriancivilization andstilllaterbytheGreeks.TheNabataeansmigratedupfromthesouthtosettleinthiscliffarea,levyingtollsonall caravangoodspassingthrough.Petrahadatheatre,thermalbaths,palacesandasystemofcanalsforwater.Thisonce thrivingcity,aboutninetymilessouthwestofpresentdayAmman,Jordan,wasburiedforcenturiesandonlyrecently excavatedbytheSwissBurckhardt.QatabanandHadramautweretwonewkingdomswhichappearedonthesouth coastofArabia.Ref.136[187],176[242] 10.3.1.2MEDITERRANEANCOASTALAREASOFISRAELANDLEBANON ManyPhoenicianportswhichwereconstructedatthisperiodoflowsealevelsaretodaybelowthewaterline.Both PhoeniciaandJudearemainedunderPersianrule,buttheirseparatereactionsdiffered.WhilePhoeniciafadedaway asacountry,livinginthefutureonlyinitscolonyofCarthage,theJewsstrovetokeeptheirnationalidentity. Thepriest,Ezra,calledtheJewstogetherandtheyreadandadoptedtheBookoftheLawofMoses,whichwas probablytherstvebooksoftheBible,the"Torah'orthe"Pentateuch".Thosestoriesweredrawnfromastorehouse ofMesopotamianlegendasoldas3,000includingthelegendsofParadise,theFlood,etc.Nehemiahrebuiltthewalls ofJerusalem-433B.C.andenforcedtheobservanceofthelaw.Ref.224[299],46[76] 10.3.1.3IRAQANDSYRIA ThisentireareawasapartofthePersianEmpire,buttherewasarevivalofDamascusasaculturalcenter.Attheend ofthecenturyDariusIIdiedB.C.andhissonArtaxerxesIIbecameemperorwhileabrother,Cyrustheyounger, becameIranianviceroyinthewest.ThelatterrecruitedaforceoftenthousandGreekmercenariesandmarchedthem acrossAsiaMinorintoSyriaandMesopotamiatorevoltagainsthisbrother.inagreatbattleatCunaxain401the GreektroopsdefeatedthePersians,butCyruswaskilledandthemercenariesretreatedwithsomedifcultiesbackto theshoreoftheBlackSeaandthenhome.TheGreek'svictory,however,gavethemrenewedcondenceandhelped 4 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat.

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154 CHAPTER10.500TO401B.C. setthestageforAlexander'slaterAsiaticinvasions.AtthattimemanyJewsstilllivedinBabyloniaandsomeinthe PersiancontrolledcityofUr. NOTE:InsertMapfromReference97.24.THERETREATOFTHETENTHOUSAND 401-399B.C. 10.3.1.4IRAN:PERSIA AsthecenturyopenedDariusIwascontinuinghisconquestsinto-apartofnorthernGreece,beingnallystopped atthefamousbattleofMarathon.ThePersianEmpirenowincludedthirtysatrapiesprovinceseachruledbya satrapappointedbytheking.Ineach,also,wasageneralandanancialofcerresponsibleonlytotheking.These territoriesincludedEgypt,Palestine,Syria,Phoenicia,Lydia,Phrygia,Ionia,Cappadocia,Cilicia,Armenia,Assyria, theCaucasus,Babylonia,Media,Persiaproper,Afghanistan,Baluchistan,IndiawestoftheIndus,Bactriaandother regionsofseveralcentralAsiatictribes.TheofciallanguagewasOldPersian,closelyrelatedtoSanscrit,andwritten incuneiform.Themoregenerallyusedlinguafrancaoftheempire,however,wasAramaic,writteninalphabeticform. ThePersianconquestsweremadepossiblebymountedbowmenandBactriancamels.Thelattermadethelonglances oftheScythiansandotherenemytribesineffective.Ref.28[48],213[288] ThatDariuswasatrue"GrandMonarch"isevidentfromthestorythatathousandanimalswereslaughteredeachday fortheroyaltableinPersopolis 5 .UponthedeathofDariusin485B.C.hisson,XerxesI,inheritedthegreatempire. Hewasasensualmanandwithhimthe"mobofnations",contaminatedwithdrunkennessandimmorality,begantofall apart.XerxesdispersedtheBabylonianpriesthoodanddestroyedtheirtempleofMarduk,butwhenhemadeanother attempttotaketheremainderofGreecehistroopswereturnedbackatThermophylaeandhiseetwasdefeatedat thenavalbattleofSalamis 6 .Stilllesserkingsfollowed-ArtaxerxesIandDariusII,etc.ThelaterAchaemenidkings demonstratedgreatbrutality,inspiteoftheirZorastrianreligion. ThemetalworkersoftheAchaemeniddynastyperiodhaveleftnumeroussmallobjectsofartmadeofgoldandsilver. Theuseofanimalshapeswascommonandthelion,symbolizingroyaltyandpower,andthebull,symbolizingstrength, vitalityandloyaltybeingtwoofthemorepopular.LaterChristianiconographyusedthesamesymbolsfortwoofthe evangelists-Markbeingrepresentedbythelionandthephysician,Luke,bythebull.TheIranianartistshadtheability todeveloplightreectionwhichissaidtobeacharacteristicofthelightonthelandscapeoftheIranianplateauitself. Ref.197[271]AdditionalNotesp.154 10.3.1.5ASIAMINOR IntheearlycenturythisentireareaalsowasmerelyapartofthePersianEmpire,butinthefareasternportionthe Armeniansretainedsomemeasureofautonomy.In499B.C.Ioniancitiesalongthecoast,ledbyAristogoras,revolted againstPersia.Thisso-called"IonianRevolt"washelpedbyshipsfromAthensandEretriaandtheysucceededin burningtheoldLydiancapitalofSardis.Withinveyears,however,therevoltwascrushed,anditwasmid-century beforetheGreekscouldagaincontrolthecoastalcities.Ref.28[48],88[131] NOTE :Xerxesdidnotdevastatethelandashisarmiestraveled,buthehadagentsgatherfoodsupplies fromhisownterritoriesanddeliverthemtostationsalongtheintendedroute.OnceinGreece,however,he eventuallyhadtowithdrawbecausetherewasnowayhecouldfeedhisentirearmyoverthewinter.Hehad exceededthepracticallimitofimperialexpansion.InthisandthenextfewcenturiesIranianwarriorsbreda large,powerfulhorsecapableofcarryingafullyarmoredmanandthehorses,too,wereprotectedbymetal. Althoughthisheavycavalrywasslowerthanthatofthesteppe,itwasmoreorlessarrowproofandcapable ofusewitheitherboworlance.Tofeedthesegreathorsesalfalfawassuppliedbythelocalpeasantsaspay fortheprotectiongivenbythose"cataphracts".Ref.279[191] 5 TragersoquotesthehistorianXenophon.Ref.222[296],page15 6 Xerxes'armycrossedtheHellespontbyjoiningabout700ships,anchoringthemandtyingtheendshipstoland,layingplanks,brushwoodand earthacrossthem.Ref.213[288],page193

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155 ForwardtoTheNearEast:400to301B.C.Section11.3 ChooseDifferentRegion 1.IntrotoEraSection10.1 2.AfricaSection10.2 3.AmericaSection10.9 4.CentralandNorthernAsiaSection10.5 5.EuropeSection10.4 6.TheFarEastSection10.7 7.TheIndianSubcontinentSection10.6 8.PacicSection10.8 10.4Europe:500to401B.C. 7 10.4.1EUROPE BacktoEurope600to501B.C.Section9.9 10.4.1.1SOUTHERNEUROPE 10.4.1.1.1EASTERNMEDITERRANEANISLANDS WiththeultimateGreekvictoryoverthePersians,manyMediterraneanislands,includingRhodesandtheCyclades, nowbecamedependentsofAthens.EventheEtruscanheldislandofLemnosfelltoAtheniancontrolinthatperiod. Attheendofthecentury,however,Rhodespulledaway,formingitsownconfederacyofthreecity-states.Ref.38 [59] 10.4.1.1.2GREECETHE2NDCENTEROFCIVILIZATION Inthersthalfofthecenturythecity-statesofGreecewereoccupiedwithcontinuouswarfarewithPersiawiththerst Persianattackcomingin490B.C.bysea.In480B.C.therewasthegreatbattleofThermophylaeandaconcurrent seabattleatSalamisinwhichXerxeswasdefeated.Between478and477AthensorganizedtheDelianLeagueas adefenseagainstfutureimperialism,withmembersbeingtheAegeancoastandislandallies,withheadquartersat Delos,butwithAthensastheleader.TheseAthenianimperialisticpolicieswereengineeredbyCimon,aristocratic successorofThemistocles.ThePerisanwarsendedabout449B.C.asthePersianEmpiredeterioratedandmostofthe Greekcities,eventhoseonthecoastofAsiaMinorandtheBlackSea,becamefree. ThekeytoAthens'extraordinaryaccomplishmentsinthersthalfofthiscenturylayinhereet,whichmaintained controloftheAegeanandallowedgoodsfromtheeasternMediterraneantoenterthroughtheportofPiraeus.The eetthusnotonlycarriedthewaracrosstheAegeantohelpliberatetheGreekcitiesthere,butalsoallowedforeign contact,thusbringingnewideasandconcepts,allofwhichsetthestageforculturalcreativity.Inthiscontextwemust notforgetthatbehindalltheshippingandtradewasthenecessityforGreecetoimportfood.Thelife-linedemanded grain,eventhoughthis5thcenturyB.C.didseetheuseofthedomesticheninalmosteveryAthenianhouseholdand Greecenowbecamethehomeofnewines.AlfalfawasintroducedbythePersiansandsubsequentlytheGreeksused thisashorsefodder.Ref.47[71],222[296] SomemodernwritershaveatendencytoidealizeGreeklifeofthiscenturyandunderplaysomeofthelesstasteful aspectsofthatcivilization.InallGreekstatesabortionorabandonmentofchildrenwaspermitted.Spartaarranged topreventparentsfromknowingwhichweretheirownchildrenandviceversa,whilethestatedecidedwhetheror notanychildwouldbepermittedtolive.Homosexualitywaswidespreadandpubliclyaccepted.Athenshadbetween 7 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat.

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156 CHAPTER10.500TO401B.C. 75,000and150,000slavesrepresentingsome25to35%ofthepopulation.Ref.213[288],222[296]Finley Ref.249[98]saysthatthisnumberispurelyaguess,andthatwhiletheexactnumberofslavesisunknown,the importantfactisthatthiswasaslavesociety.Urbanismandthegreatincreaseinwealthinitiatedcapitalismandwith theextensionoffullrightstothelowerclasses,freehiredlaborcouldnotmeettheneedsofthecapitalistswho,taking advantageofthealmostcontinuouswars,turnedtoeverlargerscaleslavelabor. AsinPhoenicia,someGreekportsconstructedinthattimeoflowsealevelsintheMediterraneanaretodaybelow sealevel.MedicineofthatperiodinGreecewasamixtureofreligiousmysticismwithsomerationalthoughtand procedures.AscelepioswasworshippedastheGodofHealingandtempleswereerectedforhimforthatpurposeover manycenturiesandwereinpresentdayterminologymixturesofreligiousshrinesandhealthspas.Alcaeon,possiblyof thiscentury,wroteabookConcerningNature,whichmaybethebeginningofGreekmedicalliterature,althoughonly afewfragmentssurvive.Heestablishedaconnectionbetweenthesensoryorgansandthebrain,describedtheoptic nervesandconcludedthatthebrainwastheorganofthemind,thereforealsoresponsibleforthoughtandmemory.A centurylaterAristotlethoughterroneouslythattheheartwasthecenterofsensation.Ref.213[288],281[113], 224[299],125[173] NOTE:InsertMap:GREECEDURINGTHEPERSIANWARS Theperiod475-429B.C.hasbeencalledthe"GoldenAgeofPericles",thegreatestrulerofAthens.Inviewof thethousandsofpagesthathavebeenwrittenconcerningancientGreece,itissometimesdifculttokeepthingsin properperspective.Atticawasactuallyasmallarea,withSunium,themostdistantpointfromAthens,beingonlyforty milesawayalthoughadmittedlythiswasalongwalk,withonlyfeetfortransportation.Itwas,however,aperiod ofliterature,plasticartsandthedevelopmentofthefoundationsofscience.ThiswasthetimeofSocrates,forwhom philosophywasneithertheologynormetaphysicsbutethicsandpoliticswithlogicanintroductionandameans.Ref. 47[71]ItwasthetimeofthehistorianHerodotusbornabout484B.C.andinloniathetimeofthegreatphysician Hippocrateswhofosteredthescienticapproachtothetreatmentofdiseaseasopposedtothepriests'explanation thatdiseasewastheresultofangerofthegods.HewasbornontheislandofCosin460B.C.andbecameknown eventuallyasthe"FatherofMedicine".Protagoras480-410B.C.wasthechiefproponentoftheSophists,who taughtthevirtueofproperuseofwordsandamethodofverbalreasoningaccordingtorulesofargumentwherebya manmighthopetounravelallthemysteriesoftheuniverse.Theirdoctrines,includingonethatstatedthatthelawwas aconspiracyoftheweakagainstthestrong,providedtheoligarchywithjusticationforviolenceandchicaneryused tooverthrowthedemocracyeventually-411B.C.OtherphilosophiesincludedthatoftheCynicswhocared onlyforvirtueandrelationofthesoultoGodwiththeworldanditslearningsamountingtonothing;andtheStoics andEpicureans,usinglogicandrhetorictowardasimilargoal.ParmenidesandZeno,ofthefamousparadoxes,were Eleatics.Ref.47[71],221[295] ThisgreatageofGreeceendedwiththePeloponnesianWar-awarofSpartaandheralliesagainstAthensandhers, whichragedforthirtyyearsbeginningin431B.C.andwhichwastedallthepowerofGreece.Fortyyearsofaggressive AthenianimperialismandlandgrabbingactivitieshadforcedmostmainlandcitiestolooktoSpartaforleadership. AthenshadcontroloftheseasbutcommandedfewmainlandareasoutsideofAttica,anditwasobviousfromthe beginningthatneithersidecouldwin.Thenin430and429B.C.apestilence,whichmayhavebeenamalignantform ofscarletfever 8 ,killedoff25%oftheAthenianlandarmy.ThucydidessaidtheinfectionhadbeguninEthiopia, runintoEgyptandLibyaandmostofPersia,thenthroughPiraeustoAthens,itself.Thelatterneverfullyrecovered andlostthewartoSparta.Apeacewhichwassupposedtolastftyyearswasdeclaredin421B.C.butAthens resumedexpansionistambitions,thistimewithcrueltyandslaughterinconqueredislands.Inreaction,thePersians nancedanewSpartannavycommandedbyLysanderandhecompletelydefeatedtheAthenianeetatagreatbattle atAegospotamiofftheHellespontin405B.C.TheendcameforAthenswhenLysanderthencutoffthegrainsupply lineandlaidsiegetothecityitselfin404B.C..Thenalslaughteroftheinhabitantsmatchedthepreviousplagueof 430-429.Plato,apupilofSocrates,grewupintheatmosphereofthisexhaustingwar.Ref.28[48],140[190], 47[71] 8 AnunsupportedstatementofTrager.Ref.222[296],page17

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157 NOTE:Insert21:GREECEDURINGTHEPELOPONNESIANWAR 10.4.1.1.3UPPERBALKANS TherewascultureinThraceandintheGreekcoloniesalongthecoastoftheBlackSea.Manycitieshaddeveloped inMacedoniaandby450B.C.,underthereignofAlexanderI,aveneerofHelleniccivilizationhadappearedonthe rulingclassesofthisarea.Ref.218[69] 10.4.1.1.4ITALY Italyatthistimewasamotleyofindependenttribesandtowns.TherewasstillanorthernEtruscanpresencenear thePoRiver,withvariouscitiesthere.Virgil,theRomanpoetofpartEtruscanorigin,describeshishomeofMantua ascomposedofthreeraceswhichapparentlyincludedEtruscans,VenetiansandUmbrians,thelattertwobeingIndoEuropeanItalicspeakers. InEtruria,itself,inadditiontoTarquiniiandCaere,whichwediscussedatsomelengthinthelastchapters,weshould nowdiscussVulci,thecity-statejustnorthofTarquinii. Inthis5thcenturyB.C.itshowedamarkedAthenianinuence,withtheAthenian"black-gure"potteryooding thecommunity.Nolessthan40%ofallAtticpotterythathasbeenexcavatedinEtruriaisfromVulci.Butthis city'srealclaimtofamewasitsbronze-work,withmultiplecastbronzestatueswhichwereinturnexportedafar, includingbacktoGreece.ItispossiblethatServiusTulliuswhoruledasKingofRomeafterTarquiniusPriscus,was aVulcentinewiththeoriginalnameofMastarna.Ref.75[115]EarlyinthecenturytheEtruscans,attheheightof theirpowerandalliedwiththeCarthaginians,wereatwarwiththeSicilianGreeksofSyracuseandtheirKingHiero 1.Pleaseseealso1,B,thischapter,andinagreatnavalbattleoffCumaeabout474B.C.theEtruscannavywas destroyed.TheywerethenforcedtowithdrawfromCampaniaandthissecuredtheliberationofRomefromEtruscan control.Eventhen,CumaeandCapuaalikewerestillsubjectedtoseveralyears-423B.C.ofghtingsome hard-nosedmountain,Italic-speakingtribes,theSamnites.Itwasthedescendantsofthelatterwhoeventuallyforged anewCampaniannation.InadditiontotheresistanceoftheCampanianGreeksthecity-stateofCaerewasfurther damagedbyanattackbysixtySyracusanwarshipswhichplunderedharborsonthemainlandandoverranElbaand Corsica.Ref.75[115] UptothispointRomehadactuallyonlycontrolledanareaofaboutnineteenbynineteenmiles,buttheysoondefeated theSabinesandexpandedintotheirarea.InspiteofthesmallnessofRome,thiswastheperiodoftheRomanRepublic. AtthebeginningB.C.therewastherst"secession"inwhichtheplebeswithdrewfromRometoformtheirown city,forcingconcessionsfromthepatricianssuchastherighttohaveofcersoftheirown,tribunesandaediles.Inthe Republictherewerefourclassesofcitizens;thePatricians,consistingofthesuperiorclanswhichsuppliedRomewith generals,consulsandlawsforvecenturiestheMantii,Valerii,Aemili,Cornelii,Fabii,Horatii,ClaudiiandJulii; theEquites,orbusinessmen;thePlebs,orcommons;andnallytheSlaves.TheRomanSenateconsistedof300 membersmadeupofclanheadsfromthreebasictribes,althoughoccasionallyanEquitegotintothatbody.Asaresult ofapoliticalbattleforbetterlawsforthePlebs,acommissionwassenttoGreecetostudythelegislationsofSolon andotherlawmakersandontheirreturn,tenmendecemviriformedanewcodecall"theTwelveTables"whichwere approvedbytheAssemblyandbecametherstwrittenformofalegalstructureofRomeB.C.,servingasthe basiclawforthenext900years.In443B.C.appearedtheinstitutionofcensorshipandin432therstlawdesignedto checkelectoralcorruptionwaspassed.AttheendofthecenturythelongwarofRomeagainsttheEtruscancity,Veii inTuscanywasstarted.AtthesametimetheGaulsdescendedagainfromthenorthandtheEtruscansweresqueezed inthemiddle.Ref.48[72] PeiRef.168[229]statesthatat500B.C.theLatinlanguagewasarough,elementaltongue,lackingmostofthe renementofsyntaxandvocabularytocomelater. TheGreekSyracusanswerebusythroughmostofthiscenturyghtinganddefendingtheirpossessions.Inthebattle ofHimeraonthenorthSicilianshorein480B.C.theydefeatedtheCarthaginiansandthenwereabletodominate

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158 CHAPTER10.500TO401B.C. thewesternMediterranean.WehavenotedabovehowtheysubsequentlydefeatedtheEtruscannavy.In414B.C.the AtheniansbesiegedSyracuse,buttheytooweredefeated,theireetdestroyedandthesurvivorsweretakenasquarry slaves. TheGreekEmpedocles,livinginSicily,developedatheoryofthemovementofbloodtoandfromtheheart,and performedvariousmedical"miracles".Heissaidtohaveraisedawomanfromthedead.Later,Galenwastocallhim theFatherofItalianmedicine.Ref.28[48] 10.4.1.2CENTRALEUROPE By500B.C.thegreaterpartofthenorthernEuropeancoastwasGermanic.Therst,orGermanic,soundshiftinthe AryantonguecreatedadividinglinebetweentheGermanicandotherIndo-Europeanlanguages.Farthersouththe GermanicgroupswerestillcheckedbyCelts.From500or450B.C.onwardistheageoftheLaTeneCelticCulture, namedafterexcavationsitesintheregionofLakeNeuchatelinSwitzerland. CorrespondingtotheGoldenAgeofGreece,therewasawaveofCelticexpansion,withbattlesagainstthecitiesof theclassicalworld.Theyusedtwo-wheeledchariotsascavalryintacticalunitsofthreeandtribalfootsoldiersarmed withspears,slingsandtallwoodenshieldsdecoratedwithmetalbosses,buttherewerenobowsandarrows.The SwitzerlandCeltsextractedtollsastheycontrolledtheheadoftheSeinenavigationonthetinroutefromBritainto thebronzeworkshopsofItaly.AtthattimetheRhinelandhadalreadybecomeimportantinironingotproduction.A reverseowofEtruscanbronzeswentbackuptheriverrouteandthoseartobjectsfoundinGermany,aswellasin BelgiumandLuxemburg,haddeniteinuenceonCelticart.Ref.168[229],194[266],8[14],75[115] RecentexcavationsatHochdorfnearStuttgartinsouthwesternGermanyindicatethattheCeltsofsouthGermanyhad astratiedsocietywithanaristocraticclassthatlivedinhilltopfortresses.Thewealthofthatclasswasbasedontrade linkswithGreekcoloniesinItalyandsouthernFranceandwiththeEtruscans.Thelargetombsofthearistocratswere sometimesonehundredmetersindiameterandheldMediterraneandrinkingvessels,furnitureandotherhousehold luxuries.Theaveragelifespanatthattimewasaboutthirtyyears.TheHallstattcultureexistedintwogreatregions, oneinthewestwithclearCelticfeaturesandaneasternoneinCarinthia,thenorthAdriaticandYugoslavia,which includedtheIllyriansandtheVeneti. 10.4.1.3WESTERNEUROPE OntheeastcoastofSpainandatMassiliaontheMediterraneancoastofFrancetherewereGreekcolonies,but otherwiseallFranceandtheAtlanticcoastwasGaulicCeltic.Thesepeoplealsooverranthebasicpopulationof Ireland,bringingirontothatlandaswellastoBritain,whereitsuserapidlyoutstrippedbronzeafter450B.C.The CeltswhoarrivedinBritaininthiserawereBrythonians,orP-Celticspeakers,fromtheearlyLaTeneCultureonthe continent.Ref.43[64],222[296] OntheNorthSeabetweentheSommeandAllerrivers,includingpresentdayHolland,northeasternFrance,northwesternGermanyandmostofDenmarkisanareawhereplace-namesstillshowremnantsofalanguageneitherCeltic norGerman.TheCeltsnevergotthisfarnorthandtheGermansforalongtimewerewestoftheAller.Aprehistoric peoplewereapparentlysqueezedbetweentheCeltsandtheGermansinthatlocation.Ref.8[14] 10.4.1.4SCANDINAVIA InthiscenturytherewasatrueIronAgeinScandinaviaandaperiodofcontinuedproliferationofGermanictribes, someofwhichwerespillingoverintoEuropeproper. 10.4.1.5EASTERNEUROPE TheFinnsandtheBaltsoccupiedthesamerespectiveterritoriesasintheprecedingcentury.IntheSlavzoneof PolandanewfashionofdecoratingurnswithfacesreplacedtheoldLausitzstyle.Thischangeappearstohavespread

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159 southeastwardfromtheBaltic.AreasofquiteadvancedcivilizationexistedintheGreekcoloniesontheBlackSea andatthePersianbordersneartheCaspian. OntheRussiansteppetheIraniantribesbetweentheDonandtheAralSeabecameknownastheSarmatianswhile thosefartherwestwereScythians,nowbecomingfarmers.SouthernRussiawasbothcoolerandmoremoistthan earlierorthannowandinsteadofthepreviouslyexistingsteppecountry,by500B.C.woodedorpartlywoodedcountry extendedfromRomaniaeastforonethousandmilestotheDonRiver.Thistendedtorestrictnomadicforagingand raiding.ItwasinthiscenturythatHerodotus,theGreekhistorian,visitedAlbiaonthenorthshoreoftheBlackSeaand wroteoftheScythians.Ref.92[136]HementionedthatsomeoftheScythiansgrewgrain,notfortheirownuse, butforsalechieytotheGreeks.EastofthesefarmerswerethelargestandbravestoftheScythiantribes,reachingas fareastastheDon.Theyusedlargecowstomachstoholdthirtytofortygallonsofwater.Itissaidthatthenativesof theCaucasusMountainswerestillpracticingcannibalismatthistime.Ref.215[290]Ref.176[242]Ref.92 [136]Ref.211[284]Ref.213[288] ForwardtoEurope400to301B.C.Section11.4 ChooseDifferentRegion 1.IntrotoEraSection10.1 2.AfricaSection10.2 3.AmericaSection10.9 4.CentralandNorthernAsiaSection10.5 5.TheFarEastSection10.7 6.TheIndianSubcontinentSection10.6 7.TheNearEastSection10.3 8.PacicSection17.8 10.5CentralandNorthernAsia:500to401B.C. 9 10.5.1CENTRALANDNORTHERNASIA BacktoCentralandNorthernAsia:600to501B.C.Section9.5 TherewerepeopleintheAltaiMountainsofsouthernSiberiaandanadvancedpeoplelivednearMinusinsk,some 800milesnortheastofLakeBalkashandsome200milesnorthofthenorthwesterncornerofMongoliaintheOrdos regionofSiberia.TheRockefellerCollectioncontainsabronzereindeermountedonamarblebaserepresentinga knownTagarPeriodofartfromthatlocation.AsmentionedinpreviouschaptersthissameTagarCulturehasbeen foundinmoresouthernareasofAsia,also.ThePersianEmpireextendedwellupintocentralAsiafromtheAralSea totheedgeoftheTarimBasinandnorthofthistheunconqueredSakasroamedatwill.JustnorthoftheAralSea,at IssiknearAlmaAlta,onethousandgoldobjectsdatingtothis5thcenturyB.C.havebeenexcavated,indicatingthat thishadbeenanimportanttraderoute.Ref.45[66],183[251],176[242] ForwardtoCentralandNorthernAsia:400to301B.C.Section11.5 ChooseDifferentRegion 1.IntrotoEraSection10.1 2.AfricaSection10.2 3.AmericaSection10.9 4.EuropeSection10.4 5.TheFarEastSection10.7 6.TheIndianSubcontinentSection10.6 9 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat.

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160 CHAPTER10.500TO401B.C. 7.TheNearEastSection10.3 8.PacicSection10.8 10.6TheIndianSubcontinent:500to401B.C. 10 10.6.1THEINDIANSUBCONTINENTTHETHIRDGREATCENTEROFCIVILIZATION BacktoTheIndianSubcontinent:600to501B.C.Section9.6 ThiswasacontinuedtimeoftroublesinIndia,withpoliticaldeterioration.Whilepreviouslytherehadbeensome sixteengreatrealmsalongtherichGangeticplain,thenumberwasnowgraduallyreducedtofour-thethreekingdoms ofKasi,KosalaandMagadhaandtheRepublicofVrijji.Nevertheless,someoftheartsandsciencesourishedinthis valley.MostoftheIndusValleyremainedunderPersiancontrol.Ref.136[187] ThedirectionofgrowthofIndiaandsomeofitslimitingfactorshadbeenprettywelldeterminedinthiscenturyin whichBuddhadied.BytheendofthecenturyBuddhismhadalreadyfadedinthislandofitsbirthandthemajor outlinesofthereligiousworld-viewwhichwastogovernallfutureIndianhistoryhademerged,althoughnotyet organizedinitspresentdayform.Ref.46[76] ForwardtoTheIndianSubcontinent:400to301B.C.Section11.6 ChooseDifferentRegion 1.IntrotoEraSection10.1 2.AfricaSection10.2 3.AmericaSection10.9 4.CentralandNorthernAsiaSection10.5 5.EuropeSection10.4 6.TheFarEastSection10.7 7.TheNearEastSection10.3 8.PacicSection10.8 10.7TheFarEast:500to401B.C. 11 10.7.1THEFAREAST BacktoTheFarEast:600to501B.C.Section9.3 10.7.1.1CHINAANDMANCHURIA.CONTINUEDCHOUDYNASTYUNTIL403B.C.THEFOURTH GREATCENTEROFCIVILIZATION TheearlycenturywastheproductivetimeofK'ungCh'iu,knowntousas"Confucius" 12 andoneofthegreatphilosophersofalltime.Hetaughtnosystemofphilosophy,merelyhowtothink.Hewasessentiallyanagnostic,butmade aheroicefforttomakemendecent.Therulesofproprietyandwaysoflivingwhichhelaiddowninhisve"Ching" orCanonicalBookswere,however,asortofstrait-jacketpreventingchangeinthecenturiestocome.Hiswasaprim 10 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat. 11 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat. 12 "Confucius"istheLatinizedversionofK'ungfu-tzu,thelatterwordbeingasuperlativevariationof"tzu",meaning"master",-thus"Master K'ung".Ref.101[146]

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161 andPuritanicalway,withoutanyplaceforpleasureandlittleforfriendshipandlove.Nobilitywasamatterofeducationandconduct.Confuciangentle-menruledChinaforovertwomillenniaandthroughmostofthattimegavea remarkablestabilityandcoherencetoChinesecultureandpolitics. Anotherphilosopher,MoTi,appearedinthelasthalfofthecentury,teachinganoppositedoctrineofuniversallove andpeace.AlthoughChinahadknownandusedironforsomepurposesforcenturies,onlyinthiscenturycanitbe saidthatthecountryreallyenteredtheIronAge,atapproximatelythesametimeasScandinavia,BritainandIreland. DuringthiscenturythepoliticalclimateofChinachanged.ThestateofChinbecameweakandwasdivided,leaving Ch'in,Ch'iandCh'uasthedominantpowersnominallyundertheChouDynasty.Warfarebecamelessgentlemanly andstatesnowwenttoseriousbattle,withtheperiodbeginningin403B.C.thereinaftercalledthe"WarringStates era".Thecrossbowandironweaponswereintroducedandaddedtothedeadlinessofwar.Castmetalcoinscameinto usenotlaterthanthiscentury.Ref.101[146] InChinesemedicaldiagnosis,thefeelingofthepulsehasalwaysbeenofprimaryimportanceandtheyhavefeltthat interpretationsofthiscouldreecttheconditionofeachinternalorgan.Apulsechartwasoriginallywritteninthisor theprecedingcenturybyPienCh'iao.Exercise,massageandcomplexcombinationsoffoodtogetproperrelationof yinandyangwereasmuchapartoftreatmentasmedicines,althoughtherewereeventuallysometwothousanditems intheirpharmacopoeia.Ref.125[173] 10.7.1.2JAPAN Atabout500B.C.thesouthernaboriginesofJapanbegantobereplacedbytheMongoliantypeofpeopleassociated withmoderndayJapan.Tracesofthesouthernaborigines'curlyhair,grayeyes,brownorevenredbeards,maystillbe foundinuplandvalleys,buttheirchiefcontributionstomodernJapanwastheirlanguage.ThenewcomerMongolians apparentlyjustdriftedinbyraft,canoeorboatandeachgrouplearnedtospeaktheexistingnativedialects,whilethey graduallybroughtinimprovedstonetechniques,thatchedroofs,potters'wheels 13 andnewagriculturalideas.Such artsseemtohaveallowedthenewcomerstosurviveandmultiplytotheextentthattheycouldpushtheaboriginesback intothehills.Ref.12[21] 10.7.1.3KOREA ContinuationofNeolithicsocieties. 10.7.1.4SOUTHEASTASIA Continuingthecenturies-longmigrationsfromthenorth,somepeoplesettledinVietnamandCambodia,becoming theChamsandKhmers;someinBurmaandeastThailandbecomingthePyusandMons;someinthelongpeninsula becomingtheMalays.Otherstooktothesea,spreadingthroughoutIndonesiaandeventuallyMelanesia.TheBronze Agebeganhereabout500B.C.withsomeevidenceoftheuseofironincentralSiamThailand.Wehavenoted beforethattheremayhavebeenbronzeinThailandthreemillenniapreviouslyandwemustassumethattheSiamese werefarmoreadvancedinmetallurgythantheirneighbors.Ref.8[14]MetalwasusedwidelyinthePhilippines by500B.C.andtherewasaspreadofagriculture,involvingriceandmillet.Ref.153[210] ForwardtoTheFarEast:400to301B.C.Section11.7 ChooseDifferentRegion 1.IntrotoEraSection10.1 2.AfricaSection10.2 3.AmericaSection10.9 4.CentralandNorthernAsiaSection10.5 5.EuropeSection10.4 13 TheBritishMuseumGuideRef.19[32]statesthattheMongoliansdidnotintroducethepotters'wheelintoJapanuntilabout300B.C..

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162 CHAPTER10.500TO401B.C. 6.TheIndianSubcontinentSection10.6 7.TheNearEastSection10.3 8.PacicSection10.8 10.8ThePacic:500to401B.C. 14 10.8.1THEPACIFIC BacktoThePacic:600to501B.C.Section9.8 Pleaseseetheimmediatelyprecedingmodules.Nonewinformationseemstobeavailableconcerningthisparticular century. ForwardtoThePacic:400to301B.C.Section11.8 ChooseDifferentRegion 1.IntrotoEraSection10.1 2.AfricaSection10.2 3.AmericaSection10.9 4.CentralandNorthernAsiaSection10.5 5.EuropeSection10.4 6.TheFarEastSection10.7 7.TheIndianSubcontinentSection10.6 8.TheNearEastSection10.3 10.9America:500to401B.C. 15 10.9.1AMERICA BacktoAmerica:600to501B.C. 10.9.1.1NORTHAMERICA ThefarnorthernEskimoCulture,themidwesternWoodlandAdenaCulturesandthesouthwesternCochisetraditions continuedasbefore.InsouthernUtah'sBarrierCanyonnowHorseshoeCanyonontheColoradoRiverjustbeforeit goesintoArizona,rockpaintingsandgurinesdatingbackatleastto500B.C.havebeenfound.Theymaydatemuch earlier.BarryFellRef.65[96]hasfurtherastoundinghypothesesdatingtothiscentury. Forexample,hehasidentiedastonetempleatSouthWoodstock,Vermont,tobeofCelticconstruction,datedafter 433B.C.andlikeothers,orientedwithitslongaxisatcompassbearing123degrees,whichisthehorizonazimuth oftherisingsunontheDecember22wintersolstice,importantintheCelticreligion.Hesaysthatmanymonoliths characteristicofanyCelticlandscapearefoundinNewEngland.Andstillmore-FellstatesthattheZunitonguein ArizonaisbasicallyLibyan,takenfromthelimited,racyandcolloquialvocabularyofLibyannavymensailinginthis centuryfromshipsofTarshishorCarthage.HeinsiststhatthebasicZunilanguageoftodayissimilartoCoptic,with borrowedelementsfromSpanishandEnglish.Oneoftheproblemsinvolvedinacceptingthisisthatmostauthorities donotthinktheZuniexistedasadenitepeopleatthisearlytime,andthattheydevelopedfromtheMogollonCulture muchlater.Ref.195[268],65[96] 14 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat. 15 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat.

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163 10.9.1.2MEXICOANDCENTRALAMERICA ThemiddleAmerica"ball-game",acurious,violentcrossbetweensoccer,volley-ballandpelotaseemedtohavesome religioussignicanceandappearstohavebeendevelopedbytheOlmecs,althoughitbecamepopularallovermiddle Americaby400B.C. 16 AsnotedinthepreviouschaptertheMayaprobablystartedtheirdifferentiationfromother primitivepeoplesinthescrub-coveredlowlandsofnorthernYucatanandGuatemala'sPetenabout2,500B.C. 17 ,slowly strugglingagainsttheinvadingforest.Clearinglandwasdifcultandwasdonechieybyburning.Theirstaplefood wasmaize,oftenwithseveralvarietiesgrowninthesameeld.Althoughtheirlandwasrelativelyinfertile,except alongtheriveroodplains,itwasrichinbuildingmaterials-limestonerock,sandstoneandvolcanicrockaswellas hardstones.Upuntil300B.C.isknownastheformativeperiodofMayanhistory,andthereisnodoubtbutwhat muchoftheiradvancedculturewastransferredfromtheprecedingOlmecSociety.Ref.176[242],263[127] CostaRica,onthenarrowisthmusleadingtoPanamaandSouthAmericahasalongprehistory,butavailableartifacts datechieyfrom500B.C.onwards.InanewchronologyforCentralAmericaproposedbyaseminarin1980,thetime from1,000B.C.toA.D.500intheCostaRicanstorywouldbePeriodIV.Atabout500B.C.theGuanacaste-Nicoya andsomeoftheCentralHighlands-WatershedregionwereinuencedbyMesoamericanculture,withproductionof thesamered-on-buffpotteryandatendencyforallsettlementstopreferlevel,fertilelandsuitableforagriculture. Ref.265[270] 10.9.1.3SOUTHAMERICA ThecompletedisappearanceoftheChavinsocietyofPeruinthiscenturywassosuddenthatacataclysmissuggested. Itmayhaveresultedfromaclimaticcrisisinthatitisknownthatthesealeveloscillatedasmuchas23feetinthis timeperiod.EngelRef.62[91]statesthatinthenorthcentralpartofPeruthereweretwonewsocietiesafterabout 500B.C.,theMochicaandtheGallinazo,bothinanareanomorethanabout240mileslong.Southoftherefromthe HuarmeyValleytotheLurin,southofLima,withanareaofalmost1,200squaremilesthereappearsanarcheological gapofabout1,000years. StillfarthersouththeParacasSocietyappearedattheendoftheChavintimeorafterashortgapandtheveryfarsouth hasnotreallybeenstudied. TheexacttimeoforiginoftheMochicansocietyisdisputedandevenradio-carbondatesaresomewhatconfusing. Engelfeelsthatitexistedfromthis5thcenturyB.C.untilatleastA.D.100andwascontemporarywiththeGallinazos withwhomtheMochicansfought.ThechiefphenonemonofMochicaisaclassicalpottery,handsome,ofvarious shapes,decoratedandsomeofitpink-red.Onsomepotterythepaintingsshowcircumcisedprisonersshackled together,butnoneoftheMochicasareshownnude.SincecircumcisionwasessentiallyunknowninearlySouth America,fromwhencedidtheprisonerscome? Ceramicportraitpaintingsofmanyclassesofmenarefound,includingwarriors,farmers,priests,etc..Thewarriors mayhavearrivedlater,representinganew,conqueringgroup.SomeoftheMochicansitescontainedmetalobjects butthesiteshadbeenlootedlongbeforeanyprofessionalarcheologistsarrived.PleasealsoseeSouthAmericainthe 2ndcenturyB.C.Section13.9.1.3:SOUTHAMERICAforBarryFell'sthoughts. InnearbyViruValleylivedtheGallinazo,namedafteravulture,withagreatbuildingsocietysuperimposedonanage oldstrataofpreviouspeoples.Oneziggurat,82feethigh,obviouslyhadreligioussignicance.Mostsiteshavebeen lootedcenturiesago,astheycontainedgoldobjects,andnallythevalleyseemstohavebeenconqueredanywayby theMochicans. Onatreeless,barrenplain12,500feetabovesealevelincentralPeru,thereexistedperhapsatthistime,theTiahuanaco civilization 18 ,similarineverywaytotheOlmecexceptinthedrasticdifferencesinclimateandgeology.Thesimilar16 Seethissamesectioninthe10thcenturyC.E.Section24.9 17 RecentexcavationsindicateaMayapresenceatCuello,Belizeat2,400B.C.Ref.263[127] 18 IthasbeenverydifcultforarcheologiststoaccuratelydatetheTiahuanacoSocietyformanyreasons.Mostofthegreatareashavebeen lootedextensivelyoverthecenturiesandatpresentallexcavationisrestrictedbytheBoliviangovernment.EngelRef.62[91]hasobtaineda

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164 CHAPTER10.500TO401B.C. itiesofthissocietyatLakeTiticacaandtheOlmecswiththeOldWorldculturesaremany,includingadomesticated, smalldog,withnowildprogenitorinAmerica,theuseofhybridlongstaplecottonandmanyotherbotanicalfeatures. BuildingmaterialsweretreateddifferentlythaninanyotherpartoftheAndes,withmonolithicblocksweighinga hundredtonscutwithgeometricprecision.Theblocksshowmortisedjointsandrecessesinwhichmetalhingescould havebeenplacedtoswingmonumentaldoors.Multipletempleswerebuiltandatleastonebuilding500feetinlength wasincluded. ForwardtoAmerica:400to301B.C.Section11.9 ChooseDifferentRegion 1.IntrotoEraSection10.1 2.AfricaSection10.2 3.CentralandNorthernAsiaSection10.5 4.EuropeSection10.4 5.TheFarEastSection10.7 6.TheIndianSubcontinentSection10.6 7.TheNearEastSection10.3 8.PacicSection10.8 carbon-datingofthedeepeststrataofthecityproperofabout2,000yearsago,butpotteryfragmentsatthatlevelalreadyweredecoratedinhigh classicalTiahuanacostyle,suggestingthatthiswaslateinthehistoryofthepeople.WeareempiricallystartingthediscussionofTiahuanacointhis centuryalthoughitmayhaveoriginatedeitherearlierorlaterbyseveralhundredyears.

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Chapter11 400to301B.C. 11.1400to301B.C. 1 11.1.1400TO301B.C Backwardto500to401B.C.Section10.1 ThiscenturyisparticularlynotablebecauseofthegreatandrapidconquestoftheentireMiddleEastandportionsof CentralAsiaand-IndiabyAlexander,pavingthewayforthespreadofGreekculture. Forwardto300to201B.C.Section12.1 ChooseRegion 1.AfricaSection11.2 2.AmericaSection11.9 3.CentralandNorthernAsiaSection11.5 4.EuropeSection11.4 5.TheFarEastSection11.7 6.TheIndianSubcontinentSection11.6 7.TheNearEastSection11.3 8.ThePacicSection11.8 11.2Africa:400to301B.C. 2 11.2.1AFRICA BacktoAfrica:500to401B.C.Section10.2 11.2.1.1NORTHEASTAFRICA Kushcontinueditsprosperitywithextensivetraderoutes.TheruinsofbothNapataandMeroestillstandtodayand therearetheremainsofpyramidslikethoseofEgyptbutalsoHellenisticpillars,Arabianarchesandevenhieroglyphs withHindu-likesymbols,allsuggestingacosmopolitanatmosphere.Axumcontinuedtoexiststillfarthersouth.Ref. 175[241] 1 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat. 2 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat. 165

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166 CHAPTER11.400TO301B.C. TheEgyptiansrevoltedsuccessfullyagainstthePersiansunderthe28th,29thand30thdynasties,butlateinthecentury, asweshallsee,theMacedonian-GreekAlexandertookovertheoldPersianterritories,includingEgypt.Thecityof AlexandriawasfoundedjustbeforeAlexander'sdeathinabout323B.C.andtherewassoonaccumulatedthereagreat researchlibrarycontainingperhaps400,000manuscriptsinliterature,mathematics,astronomyandmedicine.Later, asAlexander'sempirewasdivided,theMacedoniangeneral,Ptolemy,tookoverEgyptandhelpedmakeitintoagreat commercialnation. 11.2.1.2NORTHCENTRALANDNORTHWESTAFRICA AportionofwhatisnowLibyawentwithEgyptaspartofthePersianEmpireandthenlaterAlexander's.Otherwise thechiefpointofinterestwasCarthagewhichin-creasedinpopulationandpowerandparticipatedinintermittent warswithSicily.Between310and306B.C.thenaviesofCarthageandtheSicilianGreekswereinaterribleconict withtheCarthaginiansgatheringagreatinvasionforceofabout1,500vessels.Insodoing,however,theyhadto leavethegatesofHerculesunguarded,thusmakingitpossibleforthersttimeinsomeyearsfortheshipsofother MediterraneannationstoreachtheAtlantic.SeeWESTERNEUROPE,thischapter.Topaytheirsoldiers,after conqueringSicily,theCarthaginiansengagedthenestSicilianGreekartiststomakediesforcastingnewSicilianCarthaginiancoins,andtheseweresooncirculatingwhereverthenorthAfricanshadbusinessdealings. Inthepost-AlexanderperiodattheendofthecenturytheLibyanGreeksofCyrenebecamethemajorsourceoflearned menatthecourtofthePtolemiesinAlexandria.Cyreneexportedchieyhorsesandsilphium,anherbusedinRoman cooking.Ref.66[97],211[284] 11.2.1.3SUBSAHARANAFRICA By300B.C.permanentsettlementintheTichitValleyinthesouthwestSaharahadendedbecauseofdesiccation.The SudaneseNegroes,stretchingacrossthecontinentjustsouthoftheSaharanowhadirontechnologyandwithgreater population,betteragriculturalmethodsandpossiblygreatersocialcohesion,theywereabletoexpandsouthward throughoutAfricaattheexpenseofindigenousinhabitantswhomtheyconquered,absorbedordisplaced.Intheearly centuriestheyconnedthemselvestothedrierregionswheretheircerealscouldgrow.Thesewerethepeopleknown intheeastandsouthas"Bantu",althoughactuallythenamereferstotheirlanguage,ratherthantoanyparticulartribe. Ref.68,45 ForwardtoAfrica:300to201B.C.Section12.2 ChooseDifferentRegion 1.IntrotoEraSection11.1 2.AmericaSection11.9 3.CentralandNorthernAsiaSection11.5 4.EuropeSection11.4 5.TheFarEastSection11.7 6.TheIndianSubcontinentSection11.6 7.TheNearEastSection11.3 8.PacicSection11.8 11.3TheNearEast:400to301B.C. 3 11.3.1THENEAREAST BacktoTheNearEast:500to401B.C.Section10.3 3 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat.

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167 11.3.1.1ARABIAANDJORDANANDMEDITERRANEANCOASTALAREAS NomadictribesroamedthedesertsofArabiaandinthesouththerewastheHimyaritecivilization,aspreviously described.OtherwisethisentireareasharedacommonfateunderrstthePersiansandthenAlexander. 11.3.1.2IRAQANDSYRIA InthiscenturyXenophonremarkedonthesizeandsucculenceofthedatesfromthedatetreesofMesopotamia.Palms hadourishedtheresince50,000B.C.andthenet-workofcanalsthatwerebuiltwereidealforthepalmswhichlined them,andtheydidnotimpingeonthegraingrowingland.Anaveragedatepalmproducesonehundredpoundsof rich,sugaryfruiteachyearforsixtyyearsormore,andaverygoodtreemayproduceone-halfasmuchagain.Figs werealsogrownandeatenintheseancientdays.Ref.211[284] IraqandSyriawerecompletelydominatedbythePersiansuntiltheexcursionsofAlexanderlateinthecentury. HedestroyedthePersianarmyatGaugameleontheupperTigrisin331B.C.andbroughtanendtothePersian Achaemenidrule.ItissaidthatinthesameyearAlexandertriedtorebuildtheTowerofBabel,buttheinitialclearing ofthelandalonetook10,000mensometwomonthstocomplete,andhehadtogiveupthetask. Asothers,theancientcityofUrwasdyingandthenalblowcameattheendofthecenturyastheEuphrateschanged itscoursetorunsometenmilestotheeastofthiscityandtherewasnomorerivertrafc.Ref.8[14],176[242], 238[318]MoredetailconcerningAlexander'sconquestswillbegivenunderthesectionontheUPPERBALKANS laterinthischapter. 11.3.1.3IRAN:PERSIA AsnotedinthelastchapterthestatereligionofPersiawasZorastrianmonotheismandtheancientgodswereoutof favor.AsthecenturyopenedthePersianEmpirewasdeterioratingunderaseriesofweakrulers.FinallyDariusIII, thelastoftheAchaemenids-330B.C.losttheempiretoAlexanderofMacedonia.Weshallgivemoredetails alittlelaterinthischapter,butapointnotoftenemphasizedisthateveryPersiangrandeehadbodyguardsandtroops ofGreeksasmercenaries,andthismeantthatAlexander'schiefopponentswereoftenGreeks,andtheymaynothave resistedtoowell'AfterAlexander'sdeathPersiawasadministeredfromSyriabyGeneralSeleucus,whosoonbecame orientalizedandfoundedtheSeleucidDynasty.Ref.8[14] 11.3.1.4ASIAMINOR AsthePersianinuencewaned,GreekdominationincreasedandthebulkofAsiaMinoreasilybecamepartofAlexander'sempire.Intheeast,butstillwestofArmenia,intheregionsknownasPontusandCappadocia,aPersiannoble, Mithridates,independentofhiscousinsinIran,carvedouthisownempire.ThesameoccurredinArmeniaattheend ofthecenturywhenaPersiansatrapmadethecountryindependentoftheSeleucidsB.C.andfoundedadynasty thatruledforacentury.Inbothofthesesatrapies,aswellasinBithynia,fartherwest,thebasicpopulationwasstill Phrygian.Ref.28[48] ForwardtoTheNearEast:300to201B.C.Section12.3 ChooseDifferentRegion 1.IntrotoEraSection11.1 2.AfricaSection11.2 3.AmericaSection11.9 4.CentralandNorthernAsiaSection11.5 5.EuropeSection11.4 6.TheFarEastSection11.7 7.TheIndianSubcontinentSection11.6 8.PacicSection11.8

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168 CHAPTER11.400TO301B.C. 11.4Europe:400to301B.C. 4 11.4.1Europe BacktoEurope:500to401B.C.Section10.4 11.4.1.1SOUTHERNEUROPE 11.4.1.1.1EASTERNMEDITERRANEANISLANDS Inthelastthirdofthiscentury,alltheseislandswereconqueredbythemenofAlexandertheGreat,buthiscontrolwas short-lived.By323B.C.RhodeswasindependentagainandCyprusbelongedtoEgyptuntilDemetriusPoliocertes, aspiranttothethroneofMacedon,tookCyprusagain.Thenin307hebesiegedRhodes,using30,000mentobuild siegetowersandengines,butallofthisfailed.Ref.38[59],222[296] 11.4.1.1.2GREECE Throughoutthepeninsulatherewasendlessconictbetweentheslavesandtheruinedproletarianmasseswhodemandedthatthestatesupportthem.Upuntilabout378B.C.thepoliceforceofAthensconsistedofabout300 state-ownedScythianslaves.AtthebeginningofthecenturySparta,havingwonthePeloponnesianWarwiththe helpofsubsidiesfromPersia,dominatedsouthernGreece;then,byformingan"ArcadianLeague",Thebestookover controlfromabout370to360B.C.;thenAthens,withgrowingspecial-izationofprofessionalsoldiersandgenerals, professionaloratorsandnancialexpertsbe-camesupremeforawhile.Butinthelastpartofthecenturytheunity whichtheGreekscouldnotndamongthemselveswasforcedonthembyPhilipofMacedon.ThebattleofChaeronea B.C.wastheendofGreeklibertyandthebeginning,insomesense,ofGreekunity.Ref.28[48],8[14] Inspiteofthewarsthiswasoneofthegreaterasofculture.Platoliveduntilwellintothiscenturyandthepolitical problemsalwaysremainedacentralissueforhimandhebecameafrustratedpolitician.Themainlyhereditarytripartiteclassdivisionofthe"Republic"correspondedcloselytothedivisionsof6thcenturyB.C.Greeksociety,withan aristocracythatguidedthestate,citizenswhofoughtforthepolisandslavesandforeignerswholabored.Platobrought togetherdiverseintellectualstrandsfromdifferentpartsoftheGreekworldandhedidsowithaconsummateartistry thatfewhaveevenequaled,givingtosubsequentGreekandEuropeanphilosophyitscentralthemesandproblems, aswellasmuchofitsworkingvocabulary.ItisnotgenerallyrealizedthatPlatoalsowrotemedicalspeculations, logicalbutwithoutanydirectexperimentationandleadingtomanyfaultyconclusionsaboutthehumanbody,errors thatpersistedwellintolatercenturiesandweredifculttoeradicate.Ref.47[71],125[173] NeartheendofthecenturyAristotle,apupilofPlato,returnedfromhistravelswithAlexandertofoundthePeripatetic SchoolorLyceum.ScienticmaterialofallkindshadcometohimthroughtheGreek-Macedonianarmies'conquests PleaseseenextsectionUPPERBALKANSandhisworkbecamethebasisofknowledgeeven1,500yearslaterinthe MiddleAgesofEurope.Aristotlepioneeredinbiology,embryologyandphysiologyandwasachampionofinductive reasoning.Threegreatstructuralideasappearedinthiserawhichrulethemindofcontemporarymankindtoday:l Science,inthebroadsense,includinghistoryandrelationofmantothetotalenvironment;theideaofoneuniversal Godofrighteousness;andtheconceptofworldpolicy. TheophrastusfollowedAristotleasheadoftheLyceumandestablishedthebasicconceptsofbotanicalscience,collectingdatafromasfarasIndia.Democritus,earlyinthecentury,haddescribedtheuniverseasbeingcomposedof atomsindivisibleparticlesincapableofdestructionandavacuum.ThistheorywasrejectedbyAristotlebutwasto beemphasizedagaininthe1stcenturyB.C.byLucretium. Hippocratesalsolivedwellintothiscentury.Hedescribedamumpsepidemicandsomethreeandfourdayfevers whichmayhavebeentertianandquartanmalaria.Otherdiseasesdescribedsuggestdiphtheriaandeithertuberculosis orinuenza.Nothingwasmentionedthatsuggestedsmall-pox,measlesorplagueatthattime.Whetherallthe 4 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat.

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169 teachingsthatwehavecometoacceptasHippocraticwritingsareactuallytheworkofoneman,ormany,isnot known.ThereweresimultaneouslygreatmedicalcentersonCosandontheAsiaMinormainlandatCnidosandthe nalcollectionsof"Hippocratic"writingsatthegreatlibraryatAlexandriainthelastpartofthiscenturymayhave actuallybeencontributionsfrommanyGreekphysicians.Injuriestoboneandjointsmadeupalargepartofmedical practiceandmanipulationstoreducefracturesanddislocationsweresophisticatedandsometimesassociatedwith verycomplexbandagingandmechanicaldevices.Thecauterywasusedandtherewasextensiveuseofminorsurgical proceduresfortumors,stulas,ulcersandhemorrhoids.Thejuiceoftheopiumpoppyandofthemandragora 5 was availableforanesthesiaandpainrelief.Booksnumberingseventy-twoandtreatisesataboutfty-ninehavebeen creditedtoHippocrates.Casehistoriesofsomediseasesaresuperb,buttheanatomy,physiologyandtherapy,of course,wasoftenpoorandthespecicdiagnosisofanydiseasewasseldomgiven.Theethics,conductandappearance ofthephysicianwasemphasized.Ref.229[307],125[173],140[190] OfincidentalinterestisthefactthatitwasnotuntilthiscenturythatthenewraisedwheatbreadfromEgyptbecame popularinGreece.Ref.211[284]ThelastthirdofthecenturysawtheaffairsofGreecesubjectedtothedomination oftheirMacedonianneighbors-originallyenemiesandthenallies.Thissituationwillbediscussedatgreaterlength inthenextsection. 11.4.1.1.3UPPERBALKANS TheMacedonians,occupyingmostoftheareaweknowasYugoslaviaandBulgaria,werekintotheGreeksandtheir languagewasalmostGreek,buttheyweremorepurelyNordicthananypeopletothesouthandtheirappearancesand customsweresimilartothewildCeltsoftheperiod.PhilipII,whobecameMacedoniankingin359B.C.bysimply seizingthethroneafterhehadbeenappointedregentforhisnephew,wasaleader-kingoftheancientNordic-Aryan type.HavingpreviouslybeenheldhostageforashorttimeinThebes,hehadgainedmuchknowledgeoftheGreeks andheimmediatelydevelopedanarmytrainedintheeffectiveThebanphalanxformationandproceededtoenlargehis kingdomtothenorthbysubduingtheThracianswiththeirgoldminesofMountPangaionandtheneastandsouthto theupperpartoftheAegeanSea.Inspiteofdrunkennessandotherpersonalvices,hewasprobablythebesteducated manofhistimeandwithhisson'stutor,Aristotle;itwashewhoplannedmostofthegreatnessthathissonAlexander achieved.AfterhegainedanAegeancoastlineandtheThraciangoldhesoonconqueredthecoastlineofThessaly. AlthoughtherewasmuchbickeringandchangesofalliancesinGreecethemainobstacletoPhilip'scontrolofthe entirepeninsulawasalwaysAthens,whereDemosthenesconstantlyusedhisoratoricalabilitiestodenouncehim. HistroopsnallydefeatedanAtheniancoalition,however,in338B.C.atChaeroneainBoeotia.Subsequently,ata congressofGreekstatesPhilipwaselected,oratleastrecognized,asCaptain-GeneralofalltheGreeksforanall-out waragainsttheoldenemy,Persia.ThusMacedoniarosetopoliticalimportancebyassimilatingaspectsofHellenism. Ref.28[48],72[110],179[244] ActuallythegreatbattlewithPersiawasnotenjoineduntilafterPhilip'sassassinationandAlexander'scoronation asking.WithinafewyearsAlexanderhadconqueredallwesternAsiaandapartofIndiaandEgypt,carvingout anempire3,000mileswideandinmostregionsupto1,000milesfromnorthtosouth,thusapproachingthesize oftheUnitedStates.Asaccompanyingmapswillshow,theboundarieswerealmostidenticalwiththepreviously existingPersianEmpire.Allofthiswasconqueredwithinabouttwelveyearswithoutmotorizedvehiclesandonly about35,000menincludingsome5,000mercenaries.Heinitiatedtheuseofatorsioncatapulttoshootarrowsand stones,beginningawholenewerainsiegewarfare.Ref.222[296],213[288]Atleastthousandsandperhaps hundredsofthousandsofGreeksfollowedinAlexander'sfootsteps,emigratingtotheEastandgivingadeepHellenic imprintoverandabovethepurelymilitaryconquest.Alexanderdiedin323B.C.attheageofthirty-threeyears,a manoftremendousvanity,attimeskindandconsiderateandatothertimesvicious,cruelanddestructive.Hediedin Mesopotamia,possiblyofmalaria.Ref.125[173] Alexandersetupnocompetentadministrationsinthevariousconqueredareasandafterhisdeaththeempirerapidly collapsed,withdivisionoftheterritoryamongthevariousGreekgenerals.Initiallythedivisionswereasfollows: 5 Thisishyoscyamusalsoscopolamine,aningredientof"twilightsleep"

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170 CHAPTER11.400TO301B.C. 1.GeneralSeleucuscontrolledtheAsianpartoftheoldPersianEmpireandthesouthhalfofAsiaMinorexcept thecoast,clearacrosssouthwestAsiatotheIndus 2.GeneralAntigonuskeptMacedoniaitself,butby301B.C.hewaskilledinbattleandhissonDemetriusIwas defeatedasLysimachustooktheareaofThraceandCassandertookMacedoniaandGreece 3.GeneralPtolemytookEgypt,alongwithmostofthecoastoftheeasternMediterranean,includingJudeaand theoldPhoeniciaandthecoastofAsiaMinor NOTE:InsertMap22.THEEMPIREOFALEXANDERTHEGREAT 11.4.1.1.4ITALY In400B.C.theGaulsplunderedEtruriainnorthernItaly,conqueringFelsina,whichsubsequentlybecameknownas Bononia.Tenyearslater,underKingBrennus,theysackedRomeitselfandretreatedonlyafterthepaymentof1,000 poundsofgold.ThusbeganthelongRoman-GallicwarswhichdidnotenduntilthetimeofJuliusCaesarinthe 1stcenturyoftheChristianera.InspiteoftheGauls,Perusia,whichhadbrokenfreefromClusium,wasthemost powerfulEtruscancenterintheupperTiberValley.TheClusinesspreadtheiralphabetuptheAdriaticcoasttoVenetia andthenortheastanditbecamethebasisofthealphabetsofVenetia,IllyriaandRaetiaaswellasoftheGermanand Scandinavianrunes.MeanwhiletheRomansalsohadtocontinuetoghttheEtruscancity-stateofVeii,destroyingit about396B.C.andthentakeonthepowerfulandhighlycivilizedSamnitetribesofsouthernItaly.TheonlyEtrurian powerleftintheimmediatevicinityofRomewasTarquiniiandasevenyearwararedupwithitin358B.C.In343 B.C.theGreekcitiesinCampaniaNaplesareajoinedtheSamnitesintheircampaignagainstRome,butinspiteof allthiswarfaresomeadvancementofcivilizationdidoccurinRome.TheCompromiseofCamillusin367B.C.gave concessionstothePlebesandinternaldissensionstopped,leavingenergiesfreeforexpansion.TheAppianWaywas startedatthistime.WhiletheEtruscantownshadalwaysremainedsmall,chieyinthe5,000to10,000bracket,early inthiscenturyRomeprobablypassedthe10,000markanddrewlevelwithTarentum,thelargestGreekcityinItaly. Ref.75[115],8[14],136[187] AlthoughafterthedestructionofVeiibytheRomanstheEtruscanpreponderanceincentralItalycametoanend,some Etruscancitiesstillourished.VulcihadfailedtohelpVeiiinitsdeathstruggleandcontinuedtoexistasathriving city.Afterafortyyeartruce,ghtingagainaredupbetweenRomeandTarquiniiwiththeformerthenalvictorin 314B.C.AtlonglastCaerehadnallybrokenwithRomeandhadjoinedTarquiniiinitslastdays.Itsindependence gone,CaerestillwasagreatcosmopolitancitytowhichRomansonsweresenttolearntheEtruscanlanguageand literature.Ref.75[115] InthelastofthecenturytheGaulsactuallysettleddowninnorthernItalyCisalpineGaullayingthefoundationsfor thecitiesofTurin,BergamoandMilan.TheKyllyrioidisappearedfromSicilyintheearlycenturyandslaverybecame theonlyformofinvoluntarylaborandthisremainedsoaftertheislandwasconqueredbytheRomans.Ref.249 [98]FormoreaboutSicily,seeNORTHCENTRALAFRICA. 11.4.1.2CENTRALEUROPE ThepopulationofthisregionwasessentiallyCeltic,particularlyinAustriaandGermany,althoughsomeGermanic tribeswerewanderingdownfromScandinaviaabouttheVistulaRiverandthesemayhavebeenpushedsomewhat westatthistimebyHunsleavingtheregionoftheVolga.McEvedyRef.136[187]writesthattherewerestillno TeutonssouthofthelatitudeofBerlinandthatthiswastoremainsofortwomorecenturies.EastoftheGermanic tribesweretheBaltsandtheSlavs. TheHallstattCelticcultureinAustriawasbasedonsaltwhichwasminedparticularlyatSalzburgandatDurrnberg nearHallein.InBohemiatinbecameanimportantexport.ThenewerLaTeneCultureevolvedfullowerintheold Celtichomelands,markingthesecondphaseoftheP-Celticspeakers'expansion.Theydevelopedanoriginalart,part ofwhichinvolvedcoveringtinysurfacesofpots,swordsheathsandornamentswithmazesoflines,tinyanimalgures andfaces,allcutinminutedetail.Theymanufacturedbrassandcoveredcopperobjectswithtinandsilveredthem overwithmercury.

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171 IntheirrstcontactswiththeMediterraneanworldtheCelticpeoplestruckterrorthroughouttheexistingcivilizations. Theyweretall,blond,withhairstandingupstifffromtheirforeheadsfromlimewashings,andthenhanginglong behindlikehorses'manes.Theyworelongmustachesanddressedinbrightlycoloredshirtsandbreecheswithcloaks fastenedattheshoulderwithbrooches.Thecloakswerestripedorcheckered.Someworebronzehelmetsandchain breastarmor,althoughotherswentnakedintobattlewheretheychargedwithwildscreamingandsinging,someon footandsomeinfour-wheeledchariotsdrawnbytwohorsesandcarryingonedriverandonejavelinthrower.Cavalry operatedinthesameway,eachmountwithtworiders.Butthemostterrifyingofallwastheircustomofcuttingoff theirenemies'headsandnailingthemoverthedoorsoftheirhuts. IngeneraltheCeltspreferredtoremainpotentiallymobileandkepttheirpossessionsallinastateofreadinessfor travel,butinsomelocationstheydidbuildratherimpressivesettlements.OnesuchwasnearManching,Bavaria, wheretheouterwallwasfourmileslong,enclosinganareaofsomefortythousandacres.Thereisevidenceof goldsmiths,bronzefoundries,ironandglassworks,potteriesandtradinghouses.Notfarawaywasafoundrywhere sixty-twosmeltfurnaceshavebeenexcavated.EveryCeltictownhadsmallfoundriesandmosthadsaltsourcesnearby. Ref.91[135] 11.4.1.3WESTERNEUROPE TheLaTeneCeltswereattheirpeakofpowerthroughoutFranceGaul,England,Wales,ScotlandandIreland.In SpaintherewerealsoCelts,butCarthagehadestablishedaprotectorateoveralltheIberiantribesupasfarasthe Pyrenees.Aninterestingside-lightonthenatureoftheearlyIberianlanguageisofferedbyBarryFell.Ref.66 [97]WehavegenerallybeentoldthattheearlylanguageoftheMediterraneanworldwasuniqueandthatperhaps remnantstodayaretobefoundinBasqueandtonguesoftheCaucasus.Fellsaysthatarecentstudywouldindicate thattheoldIbericlanguagewasSemiticandcloselyrelatedtoclassicalArabic.Arecentlyfoundstoneinscription fromeasternSpainatPujolwasintheancientIberianlettersbutwasGreekinlanguage.Thisprobablydatestoabout 300B.C.whenCarthagestilldominatedMediterraneanshipping. TheentireBritishIsles,called"PretanicIslandsofAlbionandIerne"werecircumnavigatedbyPytheasofMarseilles, buthisstorywasnotbelievedatthattime.HisjourneyhadbeenmadepossiblebytheopeningoftheStraitsofGibralter astheentireCarthaginiannavyhadbeenwithdrawntoattackSicily.Asaresultoftheastronomicalobservationsmade byPytheasonthattriptoBritain,hebegantogetthersthintofthecurvatureoftheearth,andheincidentallylocated theCornishtinmines.Londonmayhavehaditsoriginabout400B.C.whenaCelticking,Belin,rebuiltanearth wallaroundafewdozenhutswheretheWalbrookjoinstheThamesandthencutanopeninginthesouthwallfora landingspot.Ref.222[296]ThatCarthaginianswerealsoinBritaininthiscenturyisat-testedbythendingof Carthaginiancoinsintwoprimaryareas,datingtothisperiod. ThisisprobablythetimewhenthePictseitherinvadedScotlandormadethemselvesknownasanaboriginalpeople. Theirrealoriginisunknown,althoughthemostrecentthoughtisthattheymayhavemigratedfromthenorthofthe continent.InlatertimestheyspokeP-Celtic,butthismayhavebeenacquiredfromawaveofCeltsandprobablydoes notrepresenttheirnativetongue.TheRomansnamedthem"Picts",meaning"paintedones".Ref.91[135],170 [234],196[269] 11.4.1.4SCANDINAVIA AperiodofcontinuedmultiplicationoftheGermanictribes. 11.4.1.5EASTERNEUROPE Thebasicpopulationsofthisregionshowednobasicchangefromthepreviouscentury.Fromthenorthdownthere wereFinns,Balts,SlavsandnallytheScythiansjustnorthoftheBlackSea.Theuncertainhistoryandlegendsofthe Scythianswereclaried,inpartatleast,byexcavationsofburialmoundsinthe18thcenturyC.E.,withrecoveryof sometwentyexquisitelycarvedgoldobjectsfoundinamineshaftandgiventoCzarPeterofRussia.Thearcheologists foundsubsequentlythatHerodotus'descriptionsofroyalfuneralswasaccurate,inthatconcubine,butler,cook,groom

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172 CHAPTER11.400TO301B.C. andstewards,allstrangled,wereburiedwiththeroyalpersonage.Inadditiongoldcups,largecollarsmadeoftwisted metalandothertreasures,wereincluded.ItisapparentthatgoldwasasacredpartofScythianlife,themetalcoming fromtheCaucasus,UralanddistantUralmountainranges.Wehavethen,anancientbarbarous,bloodypeoplewho atthesametimewerecreativeartists,workingingold.About350B.C.astillstronger,crueler,butrelatedpeople, theSauromatae,begancrossingtheDon,scatteringtheScythiansbeforethem.SomeofthelatterwenttoThrace RomaniaandsomestayedintheCrimea,withacapitalatNeapolis.IfwearetobelieveHerodotus,writingacentury earlier,theSauromataespokealanguagesimilartoScythianbecausesomeAmazonwomenhad,ineffect,seduced someSythianboysandtakenthembacktotheirhomeacrosstheDon.Itwasperhapsthesewomenwhoallegedlyrode andfoughtalongsidetheirmen,givingrisetothelegendthatScythianwomenwerewarriors.Herodotuswritesthat noSauromataeAmazoncouldmarryuntilshehadkilledamaninbattle.Ref.176[242],136[187],92[136] ForwardtoEurope:300to201B.C.Section12.4 ChooseDifferentRegion 1.IntrotoEraSection11.1 2.AfricaSection11.2 3.AmericaSection11.9 4.CentralandNorthernAsiaSection11.5 5.TheFarEastSection11.7 6.TheIndianSubcontinentSection11.6 7.TheNearEastSection11.3 8.PacicSection11.8 11.5CentralandNorthernAsia:400to301B.C. 6 11.5.1CENTRALANDNORTHERNASIA BacktoCentralandNorthernAsia:500to401B.C.Section10.5 AtPasyrykintheAltaiMountainsofsouthernSiberiaeightburials,datedfromthe4thtothe2ndcenturiesB.C.,have beenexcavated.Thesecontainedwoodenchariots,textilesandfurnitureaswellasmenwithskintattoos,allwell presevedbytheperpetualfrost.TheTagarCulturecontinuedthroughoutmuchoftherestofSiberia.Southcentral AsiawasoverrunbyAlexanderashewentfromAfghanistanthroughtheHinduKushtoBukharaandTashkent.At theveryendofthecentury,however,theMauryanDynastyofIndiatookoveralargepartofAfghanistan. AsweshallseeinthesectiononCHINA,below,thenon-ChinesepeopleofMongoliaandtheadjacentpartofSiberia hadnowaboutcompletedtheirslowtransitionintofullhorsenomadismandtheybegantoattacktheChineseperimeter, aswellaseventakingtotheseatowardJapan.SkullsfromtheLakeBaikalregionofnorthernMongolia,datedtothis era,arelowfacedskullsofthepre-Hsuing-nupopulation,andweredifferentfromthelaterhigh-facedskullsofthe trueHsuing-nu.Ref.45[66],8[14],101[146],127[176] ForwardtoCentralandNorthernAsia:300to201B.C.Section12.5 ChooseDifferentRegion 1.IntrotoEraSection11.1 2.AfricaSection11.2 3.AmericaSection11.9 4.EuropeSection11.4 5.TheFarEastSection11.7 6.TheIndianSubcontinentSection11.6 6 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat.

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173 7.TheNearEastSection11.3 8.PacicSection11.8 11.6TheIndianSubcontinent:400to301B.C. 7 11.6.1THEINDIANSUBCONTINENT BacktoTheIndianSubcontinent:500to401B.C.Section10.6 Afteracenturyofwars,thekingdomofMagadhaabsorbedtheotherthreegreatrealmsofGangeticIndiaandestablishedacapitalatPataliputraBatnaonthelowerGanges.In327B.C.AlexanderreachedIndia,takingaboutone-half ofthecountryandmakingKingPorusapuppetruleroverthemostnorthernportion.Onlysevenyearslater,however, ChandraguptaMauryaovercametheMacedoniangarrisonsandannexedalllandeastoftheIndusandsouthtothe NarmadaRiver.In303B.C.hedefeatedAlexander'ssuccessor,SeleucusNicator,andobtainedtheGreekprovinceof Trans-lnduswhichincludedalargepartofAfghanistan.ThisMauryangovernmentthenbecamethemostpowerful thenexistingintheworld,withacivilizationatleastequaltothatoftheGreeks.Taxilawasacityofgreatuniversities; therewerenoslaves.Cottonclothing,madefromaBurmeseimport,waswidelyworn,althoughlndiasoondeveloped itsowncottonsupply.Governmentadministrationwascontrolledbythevizier,Kautilya,aBrahmanwhoknewthe politicalvalueofreligionbuttooknomoralguidancefromit.ThisbecameanautocracywhichToynbeerecognizesas the"universalstate"oftheoriginalVedicSociety.ThisisthoughttobethetimeofPanini'sSanscritGrammar,which codiedtherulesfor"classical"Sanscrit,asderivedfromtheVedas.Ref.8[14],213[288],220[294] TheancientcityofAnuradhapurawasbuiltinSriLankainthiscenturyanditlasteduntilthe11thcenturyofthe ChristianEra.ItwaslocatedinthelowlandsnorthwestofPolomnaruwaandwassuppliedbyawatersystemwhichis stillinusetoday,althoughthecityitselfisburied.Therearemultiplelakereservoirsandbell-shapedhousingrelicsof theBuddha,someashighasfortystories.Ref.108[153] ForwardtoTheIndianSubcontinent:300to201B.C.Section12.6 ChooseDifferentRegion 1.IntrotoEraSection11.1 2.AfricaSection11.2 3.AmericaSection11.9 4.CentralandNorthernAsiaSection11.5 5.EuropeSection11.4 6.TheFarEastSection11.7 7.TheNearEastSection11.3 8.PacicSection11.8 11.7TheFarEast:400to301B.C. 8 11.7.1THEFAREAST BacktoTheFarEast:500to401B.C.Section10.7 7 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat. 8 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat.

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174 CHAPTER11.400TO301B.C. 11.7.1.1CHINAANDMANCHURIAWarringStatesPeriodoftheChouDynasty The"WarringStates"periodcontinued,withchaos,corruptionanddivisionofthecountry.Evenso,inthemidstof thistherewasaprofusedevelopmentofphilosophieswithrabidintellectualdiscussionsasinearlierAthens.Mencius wasasuccessortoConfuciuswhore-statedthelatter'sviewsandmodiedthemsothathecontributedgreatlyto thesurvivalofConfucianism.VerydifferentalthoughnotincompatiblewithConfucianistsweretheLegalists,who believedmanbasicallybadandthereforemustbecurbedbystringentlaws.TheNaturalistshadintroducedtheYin femaleandYangmaleprincipleswhichpersistinChinesethoughteventoday.Taoismwasexpandedinthisperiod tosaythateverythinginamaterialworldwasrelative,andthatconceptsexistedonlyascontrasts.Elevencitieswere consideredtobeverylarge,includingtheCh'icapital,Lin-tze,consistingof70,000households,inmodernShantung province.By325B.C.regionallordshadbeguntocallthemselves"kings".ChopstickswereusedinChinaatleastby 400B.C.AlthoughChinesetraditionteachesthatirrigationpracticeswerestillmoreancient,itwasinthisandthenext centurythattheywereusedonalargescale,alongwithintensivelandclearingandthenecessaryhydraulics.Ref.46 [76],213[288],260[29] Themarshycoastaldistrictsdidnotlendthemselvestocharioteeringsotheinfantryarmiesofthesoutheasternstates ofWuandYuehbegantodominatethebattles;chariotghtingdeclinedandby300B.C.therewereinfantrymasses inthehundredsofthousands.Butinthefarwestandnorth,thenon-Chinesenomadshaddevelopedcavalryfornew assaultsonChina.Ref.101[146] Itissaidthatabout329B.C.aChinesegeneralconqueredtheTienKingdomofYunnanandsettledthere,introducing theChineseculturetothisregionalthoughitdidnotcomeunderdirectChinesecontroluntilthe7thcenturyC.E.. RecentexcavationshaveshownaBronzeAgeculturetherewithsomeindicationoftheuseofiron.Theartofthe Yunnanpeople,includinganimaldrawings,seemsrelatedtothepeopleofthesteppesofAsia.Ref.101[146],176 [242] 11.7.1.2JAPAN TheJomonhuntingandshingculturecontinued,withamixedpopulation,asindicatedpreviously.Ref.45[66] 11.7.1.3KOREA Nonewinformationavailableforthiscentury. 11.7.1.4SOUTHEASTASIA ThepeoplesofSoutheastAsiahaddevelopedacomplexagriculturalcivilizationbythisperiod,growingchieyrice butalsodomesticatedtubersandlegumes,especiallyyams 9 .Theirworkanimalsweretheoxandwaterbuffalo. BronzewasnotusedinVietnamuntilthiscentury,althoughithadbeenusedinThailandforsome3,200yearsand inChinafor900years.Thereasonfortheslowspreadofthemetalisunknown.Burmesecottonwasthebestinthe worldandwasexportedinlargequantitiestoIndia.Ref.176[242],213[288] ForwardtoTheFarEast:300to201B.C.Section12.7 ChooseDifferentRegion 1.IntrotoEraSection11.1 2.AfricaSection11.2 3.AmericaSection11.9 4.CentralandNorthernAsiaSection11.5 5.EuropeSection11.4 6.TheIndianSubcontinentSection11.6 9 ThisreferstolargetuberousrootsoftheclimbingvinesofthegenusDioscoreaandisnotthesameplantasthesweetpotatoofAmericawhich issometimescalleda"yam"butistherootoftheConvolvulaceaefamily

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175 7.TheNearEastSection11.3 8.PacicSection11.8 11.8ThePacic:400to301B.C. 10 11.8.1THEPACIFIC BacktoThePacic:500to401B.C.Section10.8 Australiacontinuedtobeisolatedandunknowntotherestoftheworld.MayRef.134[184]statesthatTongawas probablysettledby400B.C.anditclaimstohavetheworld'soldestmonarchy,althoughnofurtherdocumentation isoffered.Althoughaccuratedatinginformationislacking,wemightmentionatthistimethatthreeislandsofthe CarolinegroupofMicronesia-Yap,LeleandPonapeformerlyAscensionIsland-allhaveprehistoricstonework. Ponapeisoneofthetwovolcanicislandsinthisgroupandhastheruinsofanancientstonecityanddikeworks. Becauseofthe250inchesofyearlyrainfallarchaeologicalinvestigationontheislandhasbeendifcult.Theoriginal peopleofMicronesiamaywellhavecomefromthePhilippines.Ref.134[184] ForwardtoThePacic:300to201B.C.Section12.8 ChooseDifferentRegion 1.IntrotoEraSection11.1 2.AfricaSection11.2 3.AmericaSection11.9 4.CentralandNorthernAsiaSection11.5 5.EuropeSection11.4 6.TheFarEastSection11.7 7.TheIndianSubcontinentSection11.6 8.TheNearEastSection11.3 11.9America:400to301B.C. 11 11.9.1AMERICA BacktoAmerica:500to401B.C.Section10.9 11.9.1.1NORTHAMERICA TheDorsetArctic,theAdenavarietyoftheWoodlandsandthesouthwestCochisetraditionscontinuedasdescribed intheprecedingtwochapters. 11.9.1.2MEXICO,CENTRALAMERICA,ANDTHECARIBBEAN IntheCentralAmericantropicalforestsofGuatemalaandHondurastheMayanCulturecontinuedtodevelopwithan increasingcomplexityindicatedbytheconstructionofmoundplatformsfortemplesandpalaces.Recentexcavations atCuello,aceremonialcenterofnorthernBelizewhichmayhavehaditsoriginsasfarbackas2,400B.C.,have revealedevidenceofwhatwasprobablyabarbaricreligiousritualofabout400B.C.Twentyskeletonswerefound, somecompletebutotherswithdetachedskullslyingbesidelopped-offlimbs.Thesewerelyinginthecenterofa massive,raisedplatformsome200feetsquareandstanding12feethigh.Ref.263[127]Anothercityonthe 10 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat. 11 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat.

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176 CHAPTER11.400TO301B.C. MayantraderoutealongtheeasterncoastoftheYucatanpeninsulainmodernBelizewasCerros.Thiscommunityhas beenremarkablewellpreservedalthoughitwasabandonedmanycenturiesago.Forthreehundredyears,beginning inabout350B.C.itexistedasamodestshingandtradingvillage.Inthebeginningtheinhabitantslivedonorclose tothecurrentgroundleveloronlowclayplatforms.Inlatercenturiesmarkedchangesoccurredinthemannerof livingandweshallrefertotheseinsubsequentchapters.Ref.264[105]ThemoundplatformsoftheearlyCentral Americanpeopleinitiatedthebuildingofpyramidswhichwasavirtualobsessionforthenext2,000years.Mexico alonemayhavesome100,000asnotuncovered.Ref.45[66],176[242] 11.9.1.3SOUTHAMERICA ThepeopleofnorthernPeruweremeltinggoldandcopperby300B.C.Sincethemeltingpointofthesemetalsisa littlemorethan2,200degreesFahrenheit,onewondershowtheyreachedsuchtemperatures.Thelaterchroniclersof theSpanishsaytheIndiansblewonthereandinstalledtheirhearthsonhilltopswheretheyhadthehelpofthewind. FineColumbianmetallurgyusingthelostwaxmethodwastolaterfarsurpassinqualitythatofeitherPeruorMexico. Ref.62[91] ThehighlightoftheParacasCultureinsouthernPeruwasembroidery."AsintheearlierChavinCulture,thestylized felineanimalplayedanimportantpartinthedecorationoftheirpotteryaswellastheirtextiles. 12 Hybridbirds, beasts,sh,snakesandmenalsomovedupanddownthefabricsinrows,ascottonandalpacawoolwerefabricated intomantlesandotherfabrics,withasmanyas190differentshadesofcolors.Manyoftheirceramicvesselswere characteristicChavinsteep-mouthedjars.MummiesfrommajornecropolisesontheParacaspeninsula,carbon-14 datedtoabout300B.C.,havebeenfoundnearlargequantitiesofhardwoodguara,atypeofcenterboardusedinthe navigationofsail-carryingrafts,attestingtoextensivemaritimeactivity.Thephysicalattributesofmummybodies differedmarkedlyfromthoseofknownSouthAmericanIndians;themummiesbeingforonethingmuchtallerand havingdifferentskullshapes. AllstudiesofTiahuanacoskullshavealsoshownamixtureofskullshapes,withthecranialindicesvaryingfrom71.97 to93.79andhaircolorandshapevaryingalso.InterestingfeaturesofthetremendousTiahuanacostatuesarethedeepseteyesandstraightnoses,quitedifferentfromtheroundChavineyesandthedeer-shapedonesatMochica.Most statuescalltomindtheonesonEasterIslandinthesouthPacic.Ref.3[4],62[91]AtonepointTiahuanaco reproducedanartthemetypicaloftheoldChavinstylewithserpent-likeanimalsprotrudingfromthebodiesofarmed gureswithanimalheads,sometimesfelineandsometimesthatofaneagle.Ahot-landitem,thefeatheredshield, hasalsobeenfoundintheJojoProvinceoftheeasternshoreofLakeTiticacaandthegreatestnumberofTiahuanaco stoneshasalsobeenfoundinthisarea.Somearcheologistshavedescribedthreephasesofpotterydecorationinthat society.Ref.95[140],62[91],10[18] RegardingtheeasternsideoftheSouthAmericancontinent,wemightmentionthatBarryFellRef.122[170] writesthathehastranslatedrockinscriptionswrittenintheancientOgamCelticalphabetincavesneartheupper reachesoftheParaguayRiver,thesedatingprobablybetween500and500B.C.Thewritingallegedlydescribesavisit bymarinersfromCadiz,SpainandthelanguagesupposedlywasavariantofPhoeniciancalled"Iberian".Othershave describedastonefoundonaBrazilianplantationwithallegedPhoenicianwriting 13 ForwardtoAmerica:300to201B.C.Section12.9 ChooseDifferentRegion 1.IntrotoEraSection11.1 2.AfricaSection11.2 3.CentralandNorthernAsiaSection11.5 4.EuropeSection11.4 12 QuotationfromTaylorandBelcher,Ref.10[18],page85. 13 ThisinterpretationhasbeenbackedbyLadislauNetto,DirectoroftheNationalMuseuminRioaswellasbyCyrusGordonofBrandeis UniversityinMassachusetts,butisscoffedatbyEuropeanscholars.

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177 5.TheFarEastSection11.7 6.TheIndianSubcontinentSection11.6 7.TheNearEastSection11.3 8.PacicSection11.8

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178 CHAPTER11.400TO301B.C.

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Chapter12 300to201B.C. 12.1300to201B.C. 1 12.1.1300TO201B.C. Backwardto400to301B.C.Section11.1 ThiscenturymarkedthepeakofGreekcultureatthecityofAlexandriainEgyptandthebeginningofRomandominanceoftheMediterraneanasCarthagewasdefeatedinthersttwoofthePunicwars.Indiahadoneofitsgreatest periodsunderAshokaVardhanaandChinaendeditsformativeagewithunusualprogressiveactivitiespreparingitfor thefabulousHaneratofollow. Forwardto200to101B.C.Section13.1 ChooseRegion 1.AfricaSection12.2 2.AmericaSection12.9 3.CentralandNorthernAsiaSection12.5 4.EuropeSection12.4 5.TheFarEastSection12.7 6.TheIndianSubcontinentSection12.6 7.TheNearEastSection12.3 8.ThePacicSection12.8 12.2Africa:300to201B.C. 2 12.2.1AFRICA BacktoAfrica:400to301B.C.Section11.2 12.2.1.1NORTHEASTAFRICA OnethousandmilessouthoftheMediterraneaninwhatisnowtheRepublicofSudantheKingdomofMeroe ourishedthroughthisperiod.AtrsttheculturewasEgyptianbutlateritdevelopedauniqueAfricancharacterwith itsmainindustrybeingironworking.Italsohadgold.ThissocietywasasuccessortoKush,simplywithanewcapital 1 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat. 2 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat. 179

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180 CHAPTER12.300TO201B.C. atMeroe.StillfarthersouthwastheSemiticHabashatKingdom,establishedbymigratingYemenites,withacapital atAxum.ThelocalCushitessoonbegantoacceptthelanguageandcustomsoftheseSemitesandthecountrybegan toprosper,exportingivory,tortoiseshell,rhinoceroshornandnallygold,throughtheRedSea.Ref.83[123] TherealstoryofthiscornerofAfrica,however,remainedinEgypt.InspiteoftheGreekconquestoftheprevious centurymostofEgyptremainedEgyptianandtherewasareturntoEgyptianpoliticalideas.PtolemyIIPhiladelphus,reigningfrom309to246B.C.tookthetitleofPharaoh,theGod-King,althoughpersonallyhewasamodest man,intelligentandcreative.UnderhimtherewascontinuedexpansionalongthePhoenicianandAsiaMinorcoasts. PtolemyIII-221followed.AninterestingaspectofPtolemaicEgyptisitsextensiveexperimentinstatesocialism.Althoughroyalownershipofthelandhadlongbeenacustom,thekingnowsupervisedalleconomicactivity. Thegovernmentdecidedwhicheldsweretobeplantedandwithwhat,wherecropsweretobesoldandforhow much.Itregulatedtransportation,processing,manufacturing,tradeandbanking,soldabandonedbabiesandtaxed everything.Fromabout275to215B.C.thissystemmadethePtolemiestherichestHellenisticrulers.Thiswealth waslavishedonthecityofAlexandriawhichbecamethegreatesttradecenterintheworldandactedasafusioncenter forpeopleofmanyreligions,includingagreatnumberofJews.TheAlexandriaMuseumwasactuallyauniversity, engagedinresearchandrecordsandacertainamountofteaching.DuringitsactivephaseithelpedtoproduceEuclid, Eratosthenes,Apollinus,Hipparchus,HeroandArchimedes. AtthistimethecenterofGreekmedicinealsoshiftedtoAlexandria,withHerophilus,anatomist,andErasistratus, regardedbysomeasthefounderofphysiology.Hedistinguishedbetweenmotorandsensorynerves,gavenamesto theheartvalvesandstudiedarteries,veinsandlymphaticducts.Actuallyanumberofdifferentsectsofmedicinesuch asDogmatism,Empiricism,Methodism,PneumatismandEclecticismdevelopedorradiatedoutfromAlexandria. OneoftheDogmatists,Herophilos,wasresponsibleforanumberofhumananatomicaldescriptionsincludingvarious partsofthebrain,theintestinaltract,lymphatics,liver,genitalorgans,eyeandthevascularsystem.TheMuseum functionedatahighlevelforonlyacentury,however,andafterPtolemyIIitwasswallowedupbytheEgyptian priestcraft.Attic-Greekwasthelanguageofeducationandadministration.Ref.47[71],125[173],15[26],224 [299] TheAlexandrialibrarywasmorepermanent.Includedinthetremendouscollectionofsome700,000volumes 3 was the"corpusHippocratum"madeupofsomegenuineHippocraticwritingsbutalsotreatisesandnotesofhispupilsand evensomematerialfromarivalmedicalschoolatCnidus.Eratosthenesbecamelibrarianin235B.C.andbecamethe founderofthescienceofgeographybymakingmapsandconceivingtheideaofprojections.In239B.C.hecalculated thecircumferenceoftheearthat28,000miles,anerrorofonly13%.Thismeansthatadegreeoflatitudewasthought tobe60miles,ratherthanthetrue69miles,anerrornotgreatenoughtoforestalloceancrossingswithafairdegree ofcertainlanding.Hebasedhiscalculationsonthepropositionthattheearthwasasphereandthatthesun'sraysfor practicalpurposesmaybeconsideredtobeparallel.Longitudewascalculatedbydeadreckoning.Eratosthenesalso reportedthatpapyrusships,withsailsandriggingasontheNile,sailedasfarasthemouthoftheGangesandCeylon, takingperhapstwentydaystogofromtheformertothelatter,thusaveragingabout75milesperday,aspeedofmore thanthreeknotsanhour.Ref.15[26],65[96],66[97],95[140] Towardtheendofthecenturyradicaldecaysetin,withbureaucraticcorruptionandslackness.Asthecenturyendedthe aggressiveSyrianking,AntiochusIII,defeatedthechildPtolemyVandtooktheMediterraneancoastalpossessionsof Palestine,PhoeniciaandAsiaMinorawayfromtheEgyptianDynasty.Thereissomeindicationthatbubonicplague, orsomethingverysimilar,madeitsrstappearanceinEgyptandadjacentLibyainthiscenturyandthendisappeared againforanother800years.Ref.140[190] 12.2.1.2NORTHCENTRALANDNORTHWESTAFRICA CarthagewasnowtherichestoftheMediterraneancities,tradinginslaves,Egyptianlinen,ivory,animalskins,Greek potteryandwine,ironfromElba,copperfromCyprus,silverfromSpain,tinfromBritainandincensefromArabia. SomeCarthaginianplantersoccupyingfertilelandinLibyamayhavehadasmanyas20,000slaves.Ref.222[296] 3 Equalto50,000modernbooks.Ref.15[26]

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181 In261B.C.Carthagesupposedlyhad1,500shipswithapproximately150,000crewmen.Thisistobecomparedwith thefamousSpanishArmadaofA.D.1588whenSpainhad120shipsand27,000crew-men,Carthagesoonreduced NumidiatoaseriesofvassalstatesandbecamethecapitalofaSemiticempirewhichspreadallalongnorthAfricaas wellasintheislandsoftheMediterraneanandinSpain.Althoughthelevelofcivilizationwashighinmostrespects, someoftheircustomswerebarbaric,suchassacricinglivingchildrentocertainmaleandfemalegods.Thedetailsof Carthage'sgreatstruggleswithRomewillbegiveninlatersectionsunderITALYandSPAIN.Itwillsufcetosayat thistimethatattheendoftheFirstPunicWaralocalrevolutionbrokeoutinCarthagewhichragedforfortymonths. AndstillCarthagebouncedbacktoghtthegreaterSecondPunicWarwithRome.Attheendofthissecondconict, whenHannibalwasdefeatedbyScipioatthegatesofthecity,itwasthebeginningoftheendofthisgreatcity-state, althoughitstruggledonuntilthemiddleofthenextcentury.Ref.48[72],66[97] ItissomewhatdifcultforustodaytograspthemagnitudeofthePunicWars.TheFirstwasmarkedbysomeofthe greatestseabattlesinhistory.Considerthefollowing,ascollectedfromancienthistoriansbyFellRef.66[97]: Date Name RomanShips CarthageShips CarthageLosses 260B.C. BattleofMylae 150ships 150ships 50ships 256B.C. BattleofEconomus 230ships 230ships 84ships 255B.C. BattlepfHermaeanCape 200ships 200ships 100ships 242B.C. BattleofAegatesIsland 200ships 100ships 100ships Totalshipslost 334ships Table12.1 EachCarthaginianshiphadacrewofatleast250rowers,with120moreofcersandmarines.Thelossesofmenin thesegreatseabattlesmusthavebeenstaggering. AnotherinterestingfactaboutCarthageatthisperiodisthattheircoinschangedfromsilvertogold,butwithjust asmallamountofgold-theamalgamcalled"electrum"-atabout300B.C.Thedesignalsochangedtodepictthe nativeCarthaginiangoddess,Tanith,spouseofBel.Basedonndingssince1976ofallegedCarthaginiancoinsofthis periodfoundinvariousnorthAmericansites,FellRef.66[97]believesthatthesourceoftheCarthaginiangold wasAmerica,obtainedfromAmerindiansinbarteringwithbronzemanufacturesoftheCypriotPhoenicians.Such bronzeworksarenowheldinstorageroomsinCuenca,Brazil,collectedbyProfessorPaulCheeseman.Thisregion wasaformerIncanortherncapital,notedforburialhoardsandundergroundvaluables.Fellalsobelievesthatthese sameNorthAfricanmarinerstradedwithNorthAmericanAlgonquintribesfortimberwhichtheyusedforships.After theterriblenavaldefeatsbyRomeandtheabsenceofanavy,tradewithAmericawasnolongerprotableoreven possible. 12.2.1.3SUBSAHARANAFRICA InnorthernNigeriatheso-calledNokCulturehasbeenidentiedwithterra-cottagurines,andevidenceofironslag andtin-mining,datedbyradio-carbontechniquetoabout300B.C.AlongthehighcliffsofBandiagaraontheedge oftheHomboriMountainsnearthebendoftheNigerRiverinMali,theToloypeoplebuiltgranariesofmudcoils andstoredthemingiantcavesinthecliffs,whiletheirvillageswereprobablyontheplainsbelow.Ref.251[17] AlongtheCongoRivertherewereStoneAgegathersandshermenabout270B.C.Intheeastandsouththerewas acontinuedtake-overbytheSudaneseNegroeswhowerenowcalledBantu,aftertheirlanguage.Ref.45[66],8 [14] ForwardtoAfrica:200to101B.C.Section13.2 ChooseDifferentRegion 1.IntrotoEraSection12.1

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182 CHAPTER12.300TO201B.C. 2.AmericaSection12.9 3.CentralandNorthernAsiaSection12.5 4.EuropeSection12.4 5.TheFarEastSection12.7 6.TheIndianSubcontinentSection12.6 7.TheNearEastSection12.3 8.PacicSection12.8 12.3TheNearEast:300to201B.C. 4 12.3.1THENEAREAST BacktoTheNearEast:400to301B.C.Section11.3 12.3.1.1ARABIAANDJORDAN InYemen,ShebaabsorbedMaanabout250B.C.butotherwisetherewasnosignicantchangefromtheprevious century.Ref.136[187] 12.3.1.2MEDITERRANEANCOASTALAREASOFISRAELANDLEBANON ThiswasapartoftheEgyptianPtolemaicEmpireuntiltheveryendofthecentury,whenitwastakenbyAntiochus IIItheGreat,ofSyria,fortheSeleuciddomains. 12.3.1.3IRAQANDSYRIA AsthecenteroftheSeleucidDynasty,thisareamaintainedaGreekculturewithanorientaltwist.Throughtheuse ofrecordsofthemovementsoftheheavenlybodieskeptfromthe8thcenturyB.C.theBabyloniansdiscoveredthe periodicityoftheeclipsesandthemathematicalcoordinatesdeningtheexactpathsofthemoonandthesun.The poweroftheSeleucidsbegantowaneinthiscenturyandmuchoftheirempirefellaway,althoughattheveryendofthe periodKingAntiochusIII,calledtheGreat,restoredtheSyrianfortunesbyreconqueringtheirfareasternrealmsand addingtothedomainalongtheMediterraneancoastfromAsiaMinordowntothebordersofEgypt.Heestablisheda libraryatAntiochandpromotedliterature.Ref.47[71] 12.3.1.4IRAN:PERSIA AfterAlexander'sdeaththeParthiansinthenorthhadrevoltedagainsttheGreekdominationandhadformedaseparate kingdomunderArsaces1.Thesepeopleandthe Persiantribesfarthersouth,graduallyerodedagooddealoftheSeleucidpower.TheParthianKingTiridates212B.C.transferredhiscapitaltoHecatompylosonthesoutheastcorneroftheCaspianSea,tobeonthecaravan routefromSeleuciatoBactriaandatthesametimeheevacuatedSeleucusII.Attheendofthecentury,however, AntiochusIIIreconqueredmostofthisterritorytemporarilyfortheSyrianDynasty,reducingtheParthianArsacesIII Priapatiustovassalship.Ref.8[14],28[48] 12.3.1.5ASIAMINOR AlthoughmostofAsiaMinorwasnominallyunderGreekcontrol,dividedbetweenthePtolemiesandtheSeleucids, severalstatesmaintainedmoreorlessindependentkingdoms.Inthesouththesmallbutneandpowerfulkingdom ofPergamumhaddevelopedasaGreciancityunderSeleucusbutitbrokefreeunderEumenesIashealliedwiththe 4 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat.

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183 Ptolemiesin262B.C.Othernon-GreekbutHellenizedkingdomswereBithynia,CappadociaPontus,Armeniaand MediaAtropatine.PontusandBithyniainvitedsomewildCelts,whohadjustdevastatedtheGrecianpeninsula,to cometoAsiaMinorandsettle,hopingthattheywouldactasabufferbetweenthenorthernstatesandtheSeleucids. ButtheseCelticGalatians,onceestablishedincentralAnatolia,terrorizedthecitiesalongthecoast.Thekingsof Pergamum,however,withPtolemaichelp,stoodoffboththeGalatiansandtheSelucids. Pergamumhadbeenfoundedbytheeunuch,Philetairos,formertreasureroftheDiadochLysimachoswhohadabscondedwiththetreasury,goneovertotherivalSeleucusandusedthisfortunetonagleanewstateofhisown.His armywasmadeupofhiredmercenaries.Uponhisdeathhisnephew,Eumenes,defeatedAntiochusandbecamethe mostpowerfulmaninAnatolia.Usinghisinheritedmoneyhefurtherbuiltuphisarmy,foundedcities,pushedouthis bordersandpaidhightributetothewildGalatianstokeepthematadistance.Ref.91[135]Eumenes'nephewand successor,Attalos1,actuallydefeatedtheCelticGalatiansandthensetaboutestablishinglibraries,arts,museums,etc. withsomeofthegreatartistictreasuresofmankind,andthecapitalcityrivaledAlexandriaasacenteroflearning.An exampleofthearchitectureisshowninthepictureonthenextpage-atemplealtarofPergamum,nowreassembled inanEastBerlinMuseum.ThepharaohofEgyptjealouslyforbadetheexportofthepapyrusplantoritsproducts, soPergamumhadtodevelopawritingmaterialofitsownfromanimalskin,subsequentlycalled"pergamentum"or "parchment".Withthistheyaccumulatedsome200,000books 5 .Unfortunatelythisfabulouslittlenationlastedlittle morethanacentury.Ref.28[48],125[173],15[26] InthefareasternpartofthepeninsulaArmeniaremainedunderitsowndynastyuntil211B.C.whenAntiochusIIIof Syriatookcontrolanddividedthecountryintotwosatrapies. ForwardtoTheNearEast:200to101B.C.Section13.3 ChooseDifferentRegion 1.IntrotoEraSection12.1 2.AfricaSection12.2 3.AmericaSection12.9 4.CentralandNorthernAsiaSection12.5 5.EuropeSection12.4 6.TheFarEastSection12.7 7.TheIndianSubcontinentSection12.6 8.PacicSection12.8 12.4Europe:300to201B.C. 6 12.4.1EUROPE BacktoEurope:400to301B.C.Section11.4 At300B.C.therewereCeltsineverypartofEuropeexceptingScandinavia,thesouthernportionsofItalyandGreece andRussia.MostoftheEuropeanrivernamessuchastheRhine,MainMoin,Neckar,Lahn,Ruhr,Isar,etc.are Celticinorigin.IfthevariousCeltictribescouldhavegottenalongtogetherandmadeaconcertedefforttheycould havecreatedoneofthegreatestempiresinEuropeanhistory,buttheydidn't.Ref.91[135] 5 Between10and30"books"ofantiquitywouldcomprise1booktoday,becauseeitherpapyrusorparchmentmadeaverythickroll.Ref.15 [26] 6 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat.

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184 CHAPTER12.300TO201B.C. 12.4.1.1SOUTHERNEUROPE 12.4.1.1.1EASTERNMEDITERRANEANISLANDS CretehadbecomeahavenforMediterraneanpirates.TheCyladeswereunderGreekcontrol.SouthofAsiaMinor Rhodeshadbecomeapowerfulcommercialstate.The"ColossusofRhodes"wascompletedin280B.C.bythe sculptor,Chares,aftertwelveyearsofworkwiththespoilsleftbyDemetrius'unsuccessfulsiegeintheprevious century.Rising120feet,thisbronzestatueofthesungodwassolargethatashipcouldpassbetweenitslegs.Ref. 28[48],222[296] 12.4.1.1.2GREECE ThiswasatimeofconsiderablechaosandconfusionintheGreekpeninsula.TheGalatianCeltsinabout280B.C. raidedfromhighupintheBalkansdownthroughMacedoniaandintoGreeceproperandweredefeatedonlywith greatdifculty.TheCelticarmyprobablyhadnomorethan30,000menandwasledbyBrennus,ofthesamename asthechieftainwhohadsackedRomeoveracenturybefore.GreecewasdividedamongtheAetolianLeague,which expandedinthenorthcentralandwesternareabyforce,theAchaeanLeague,whichexpandedbycontractandthe independentstatesofSpartaandAthens.Theformerwasdefeatedin222B.C.byacoalitionofAchaeanswiththe MacedonianKingAntigonusDoson. AlthoughtherewasashiftofGreekscienceandmedicinetoAlexandria,philosophywasstillprevalentinthehomeland.EpicurusfoundedEpicureanism,abeliefthatpleasureisthechiefgood,butthatthegreatestpleasuremaybe obtainedthroughalifeoftemperanceandsimplicity.Thegreatevilthatafictsmanisfearofgodsandfearofdeath. TheultimateaimofallEpicureantheoriesandteachingwastoridhumanityofthesetwofears.Ref.47[71],91 [135] 12.4.1.1.3UPPERBALKANS WhentheMacedonianleader,Cassander,diedin297B.C.,DemetriusIPoliocertesreturnedagaintotryforthe king-ship.HedidtakeAthensin295B.C.butwaseventuallydesertedbyhisowntroopsandbecameaprisonerof Seleucusfortherestofhislife.Ref.222[296]CelticpeopleswerecollectingintheupperBalkanarea,ghting amongthemselvesandperiodicallyraidingsouthward,shatteringallbalanceofpowerinAlexander'soldempireand therstdivisionsamonghisgeneralsandtheirimmediatesuccessors. TheMacedonians,themselves,werecompletelyoverrunforashortwhile.AttheendofthecenturyasHannibalgave Romeitsmostterriblewar,PhilipofMacedonsidedwithHannibalandtheskirmishesofMacedoniansoldierswith RomansinthisissueofthemainwarwascalledtheFirstMacedonianWar. AnIllyriankingdomwassetupatthisperiodwithacapitalatScodramodernScutari,Albaniabutbecauseof IllyrianpiracytendenciestheRomanshadcausetowaralsoagainstthemandultimatelydefeatthem.Southandwest ofMacedonia,thesmallbutstrongkingdomofEpirusourishedandevenattackedItalyacrosstheAdriaticSeaatthe instigationofthelocalGreekcity-states.Ref.28[48] 12.4.1.1.4ITALY ThiswasacenturyofgreatRomanactivity.By290B.C.allterritoryoftheSabineshadcomeunderRomanrule, andafterthebattleofLakeVadimoabout280B.C.theSamniteresistancewascrushedandRomecontrolledallthe harborsofItalyaswellashavingperhaps40,000slave-captives.In281B.C.aRomangeneralhadalsotriumphedover EtruscanVolsiniiandVulci.Italywasdenselypopulatedbyahardypeasantry,whichgavetheRomansadependable poolofmilitaryman-power.Theirlaborforce,liketheGreeksbeforethem,wasslaves.Rome,too,wasaslavesociety. Ref.249[98] NOTE:Insert23:ITALYBEFORETHEFIRSTPUNICWAR264B.C.

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185 Inthemeantime,Pyrrhus,kingofEpirusintheBalkans,andakinsmanofAlexandertheGreat,respondedtopleasof theGreekcity-statesofSyracuseSicilyandTarentumontheheelofthebootandhelpedthemghttheRomansfor controlofsouthItaly.RomewasevenjoinedbyCarthageinthisparticularght,intheattempttokeepPyrrhusoutof Sicily.KingPyrrhusbrought25,OOOmenandmanyelephantswhichterriedtheItaliansandheinitiallywonsome victoriesatHeracleaB.C.andAsculumB.C.butlostmanymenandmuchstrength,sothatby275Rome hadwonandhadreachedthetoeandheelofthebootofItaly.CarthagestillheldthewesternendofSicily.Ref.8 [14],28[48] By260B.C.Romecontrolled10,000squaremilesofItaly,andwithheralliesanother52,000squaremiles.Ithad about292,000menanditsalliesabout750,000,withatotalpopulationofabout3,000,000.Thispowerfulconfederacy hadnowbecomeapotentialchallengetoCarthageandwarbetweenthetwogreatpowersbrokeoutin264B.C.This FirstPunicWarbeganacenturyofwarfareforthemasteryoftheMediterranean.WithHamilcarseefootnoteon page243leadingtheCarthaginiansandRegulusbecomingtheRomanhero,thiswasessentiallyaseriesofgigantic seabattleswithafewlandskirmishesinSicilyandthesoutherntipofItaly.TheRomanswontheseabattlesby the"corvus",aboardingcranethatallowedtheirsoldierstoboardtheCarthaginianships.SeeNORTHCENTRAL AFRICA,earlierinthischapter,page233.Carthagesuedforpeacein241B.C.,givingSicilytoRomeandremoving restrictionsonRomantradeintheMediterranean.Inthenextfouryears,whileCarthagewastornbyabloodyinternal revolution,RometookSardiniaandCorsicaintreatyviolations.Ref.48[72],8[14] ThesetreatyviolationssetthestagefortheSecondPunicWarbeginningin219B.C.andcontinuinguntil201.The CarthaginianGeneralHannibalSeefootnoteonpage243enteredSpain,enlistedGaulmercenaries 7 ,gothelpfrom MacedoniaandSicily,crossedtheAlpswithmenandelephants,conqueredmostofItalyexceptRomeitself,and inanalwinter,beddedhisarmydowninCapua,southofRome.HewaspoorlysuppliedfromCarthagethrough Tarentum,whichhadfallenin209B.C.andhistroopsnowseemedtolosetheirvigor.Ref.229[307]In202B.C. HannibalwascalledbacktoCarthagewherehewasnallydefeatedbytheRomanGeneralScipio,whowashelpedby NumidiancavalryunderKingMassinissa.Intheend,RomecontrolledallofItalyandSpain,butitwasacostlywar whichchangedRomanlifeconsiderably.Therewasanincreaseinurbanitywithdamagetotheconceptofdemocracy andthebeginningofimperialisticexpansion.Otherfactorsmayhaveplayedadditionalrolesintheendingofrural simplicity.Apparentlyadecliningrainfallabout250B.C.provokedamarkeddecreaseintheowofItalianrivers, withresultingformationofmosquito-breedingmarshesandstagnantpools.Themosquitoes,inturn,broughtmalaria. Grainproductiondroppedandthegrapevineandtheolivebegantobethebigcrops,sothatevenwhentherains returnedlateinthecentury,Romewasalreadydependentforeveronimportedgrain.Thetensofthousandsofslaves obtainedinwarfareaugmentedtheslavesociety.ButthecapstoneandtriumphofRomandemocracyalsooccurredin thiscenturywiththeLexHortensia,in287B.C.,alawinwhichtheSenateagreedthatdecisionsofthetribalassembly shouldhavetheforceoflaw,evenwhencontrarytotheresolutionsoftheSenate. NOTE:Insert25.THEPUNICWARS264-146B.C. InSicilyitwasthetimeofArchimedesandhisgreatscienticaccomplishments.WhenKingHieroofSyracusewent overtoHannibal'ssideintheSecondPunicWar,theRomanssiegedSyracuseandArchimedes'inventionofthewater screwheldtheRomansatbayforsometime.Inthenalattackonthecityin212B.C.,however,thescientistwas killed.Hehadalreadyestablishedthelawsoflevers,methodsofmeasurementofasphereandacylinder,thevalue ofPiandvariouslawsofhydrostatics.HehadeitherstudiedinAlexandriaorhadbeeninclosecontactwithscholars fromthere. 12.4.1.1.5CENTRALEUROPE TheCelticsettlementofAustriawaswellunderwayby279B.C.andthegreatsaltminesofSalzburgandadjacent areaswereinoperation.Atribecalled"Teutones"hadsettledclosetotheMainRiverandsomehaveinterpretedthis 7 14,000GaulmercenariessignedupwithHannibalandinadditionawholeseriesofCelticunitsintheRomalegionskilledtheirofcersand takingtheirvictimsheadsalong,desertedtotheCarthaginians.Ref.91[135]

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186 CHAPTER12.300TO201B.C. tomeanthatGermanictribeswerealreadyinthisarea,butthesewereactuallysimplyanotherCeltictribe,andthetrue TeutonicorGermanictribeshadnotyetleftthenorthernreachesofGermany. 12.4.1.2WESTERNEUROPE 12.4.1.2.1SPAINANDPORTUGAL InthersthalfofthecenturySpainwasessentiallyunderthecontrolofCarthageandtherewerevariouswarsofthe localIberian,LigurianandCeltictribesagainsttheseoverlords.TheFirstPunicWarhadstimulatedtheCarthaginians toincreasetheirdominanceofIberia.In238B.C.aftertherstPunicwar,HamilcarBarcalcrossedtoSpainand recapturedthosecitiesforCarthagewhoseallegiancehadlapsedduringthewaryears.Traditionhasitthathefounded BarcelonaandCartagenaandthatinaccordancewithhisrecommendationstohistroopstointermarrywiththenatives, hisownson,Hannibal,didso.HediedduringachargeagainstaSpanishtribeandHasdrubal 8 ,nephewofHamilcar, continuedathreeyearcampaignandthensignedatreatyatCartagenawithRomanenvoysagreeingnottogonorthof theEbroRiver.RomefearedCarthaginianalliancewiththeCeltsinthePyrenees.By221B.C.,however,Hamilcar's son,Hannibal,incorporatingmanyIberiansinhisarmyhadcapturedRoman-GreekSaguntumontheeastcoastand precipitatedtheSecondPunicWar.By218B.C.HannibalhadcrossedthePyreneestoadvancethroughFranceto Italy. TheRomanGeneralScipiotheelderwentfromhishomeinRometoSpaintoghttherearguardoftheCarthaginian armywhichwasstillunderthecommandofHasdrubalandby205B.C.SpainhadbecomeaRomanprovincealthough thecompleteconquestactuallytookanother200yearswithheavytollinmenandmoneybecauseofconstantguerilla warfare.Scipio,however,tookhisarmytoAfricatoattackCarthagedirectly.Itwashisson,ScipioAfricanus, however,whofoughtthenalbattlesinAfrica.Ref.91[135],196[269] 12.4.1.2.2FRANCEANDNETHERLANDS&BELGIUM AspreviouslymentionedconcerningtheCeltsingeneral,theGaulsbleachedtheirhairandworejewelrybuttheywere alsoviciousghters,chargingintobattlesome-timeswearingchainmailandsometimesnakedorwearingonlycollars andbraceletsandformidablemustaches.Somewereverytall,fair-hairedandblue-eyedandmayhavebeenaruling classoverothershorteranddark-hairedpeople.AsdidtheircentralEuropeanbrothers,theycutofftheirenemies headsandhungthemaroundtheirhorsesnecks,oftenlaterliningtheskullsofenemygeneralswithgold.Whennot ghtingtheyfeasted,drankandhunted.TheGallicwomenoftenfoughtbesidetheirmenSeeQueenBoadiccain1st centuryC.E.underBRITISHISLES.OntheirsouthernankstheCeltictribeswereshowingagradualrisingoftheir culturallevelascontactwasmadewiththesoutherncivilizations,particularlyRome.Ref.194[266] 12.4.1.2.3BRITISHISLES ThenewwavesofLaTeneCeltswereevenmorewarlikethantheirpredecessorsandbecameawarrioraristocracyin WalesandCornwall.TheWelshandCornishlanguagesaresurvivorsofthesegifted,virilepeoplewhowereproneto inter-tribalwarfareanddynasticfeuds.Theysquanderedtheirforceinendlesscompetitiveness.BarryFellRef.66 [97]hasallegedlytranslatedanancientIrishmanuscriptofthe2ndcenturyB.C.whichappearstobeacopyofa3rd centurydocument,becauseofreferencetocertainItalianandSiciliancoinsofthelattercentury,andwhichappears tobeacodeoflawsforIrishCelts,writtenbyaSpanishGael.ThiswouldindicateamuchearlierpresenceofCelts inIrelandthenusuallystated.ThePictsofScotlandwereneveraunitedpeopleintheseearlycenturiesandthetribes warredwitheachotherconstantly. 12.4.1.3SCANDINAVIA ScandinaviantribescontinuedtoexpandandthismayhavebeentheperiodwhentheydisplacedaMongolianpeople akintoorantecedentsoftheLaplandersandEsquimos,pushingthemintothefrozennorth. 8 ThereweregeneralsnamedHamilcar,HannibalandHasdrubalinthe5thcenturyB.C.aswellastheseapparentdescendantsinthis3rdcentury B.C.

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187 12.4.1.4EASTERNEUROPE SouthernRussiaandtheEurasiansteppewasstillthebreedinggroundofvariousbarbarianAryantribeswhichperiodicallymovedtowardEuropeproperanddownintosouthwesternAsia.TheScythiansweregraduallybeingreplaced bytheirracialandlinguistickinsmen,theSamaritans,aboutwhomwehavewrittenpreviously. ForwardtoEurope:200to101B.C.Section13.4 ChooseDifferentRegion 1.IntrotoEraSection12.1 2.AfricaSection12.2 3.AmericaSection12.9 4.CentralandNorthernAsiaSection12.5 5.TheFarEastSection12.7 6.TheIndianSubcontinentSection12.6 7.TheNearEastSection12.3 8.PacicSection12.8 12.5CentralandNorthernAsia:300to201B.C. 9 12.5.1CENTRALANDNORTHERNASIA BacktoCentralandNorthernAsia:400to301B.C.Section11.5 ThehomelandoftheParthianswasontheeasternshoreoftheCaspianSeaandabout247B.C.theymovedsouth, takingterritoryawayfromtheSeleucids,undertheirleader,Arsaces.Bactriabecameindependentat250B.C.asa Greco-BactriankingdomunderDiodotus,anditbecamethecenterofawebofcaravanrouteslinkingSiberiaand ChinawithIndia,PersiaandtheMediterraneancities.Ref.8[14]FarthernorthinSiberia,TagarCulturegroups continuedasinrecentcenturies.InInnerMongolia,theHsiung-nuwasjustformingastherstgreatconfederationof Altaic-speakingnomads.Ref.101[146]AfghanistanwasruledbytheMauryaDynastyofIndia,untilthisentire areawasreclaimedbytheSyrianAntiochusIIIattheendofthecentury. ForwardtoCentralandNorthernAsia:200to101B.C.Section13.5 ChooseDifferentRegion 1.IntrotoEraSection12.1 2.AfricaSection12.2 3.AmericaSection12.9 4.EuropeSection12.4 5.TheFarEastSection12.7 6.TheIndianSubcontinentSection12.6 7.TheNearEastSection12.3 8.PacicSection12.8 12.6TheIndianSubcontinent:300to201B.C. 10 12.6.1THEINDIANSUBCONTINENT BacktoTheIndianSubcontinent:400to301B.C.Section11.6 9 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat. 10 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat.

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188 CHAPTER12.300TO201B.C. AshokaVardhanaalsoAsoka,grandsonofChandragupta,cametothethronein273B.C.,monarchofAfghanistan, BaluchistanandallofmodernIndiaexceptTamilLandintheextremesouth.Atrstheruledwell,althoughcruelly. InmidlifehebecameintenselyinterestedinBuddhism,changedhisways,joinedaBuddhistorderandbecamean ardentmissionaryandzealousadministrator.HewashatedbytheBrahmins,thepriestlyclassoftheoldreligion,and inspiteofAshoka'sBuddhismitwasinthiscenturythatHinduismnallyevolvedwithanewgenerationofgods; Shiva,Vishnu,RamaandBrahma.Ref.213[288] Onthe"RockEdictsofAshoka"appear"Arabic"numerals-athousandyearsbeforetheyappearinArabicliterature. ThesenumeralsareoneofourgreatheritagesfromIndia.Amonginscriptionsofthiscenturyarestatementsthat hospitalshadbeenestablishedforhumansandforanimals,althoughitisnotcleariftheseweretherst.Elaborate dispensariesandspecialmaternalandoperatingfacilitieswerealsodescribed.Ref.125[173]Mostartisansof theMauryaEmpireworkedinguildswhicheventuallydevelopedmanyfeaturessimilartotradeunions.Ref.213 [288]AfterAshoka'sdeath,theempirewassplitintoanumberofparts. ForwardtoTheIndianSubcontinent:200to101B.C.Section13.6 ChooseDifferentRegion 1.IntrotoEraSection12.1 2.AfricaSection12.2 3.AmericaSection12.9 4.CentralandNorthernAsiaSection12.5 5.EuropeSection12.4 6.TheFarEastSection12.7 7.TheNearEastSection12.3 8.PacicSection12.8 12.7TheFarEast:300to201B.C. 11 12.7.1THEFAREAST BacktoTheFarEast:400to301B.C.Section11.7 12.7.1.1CHINAANDMANCHURIAWarringStatesperiodofChouuntil221,Ch'into207thenHanfrom 202B.C.on TwofundamentalChinesesocialaspectshadbecomeapparentbytheendofthisFormativeAgeoftheearlydynasties: lTheconceptofthepatrilinealfamilyasthebasicunitinsociety,withbloodkinshipsofthehighestimportanceand theconceptofnaturaldifferentiationintoclasses,eachregardedinproportiontotheircontributionstothewhole society. InShangtimesslaveryhadbeencommonwiththeslavesbeingwarcaptivesorcriminals,butthisdecreasedwiththe ChouDynastyandnallydisappearedassocialstatusbecamemoreuidandtransitory.Withthedisappearanceofthe earlyfeudalism,free-holdfarmingbecamethedominantfoodsupportinthesmallamountofarablelandavailable. Aspopulationhadgreatlyincreased,therewasnolongerroomforgrazingherdsandtheChinesehadsettledfor scavenger-breedinganimalhusbandryconsistingofplowoxen,pigs,chickensandoccasionallydogs.Nomadsrst startedbotheringnorthernChinainearnestinthiscentury.Thenomadswereallmilk-drinkersandstillhadthe necessarylactosefordigestingthatintheirphysiologicalmake-up,whilemostChinesedidn'thavethatenzymeafter infancybecauseofthelongscarcityofmilk-givinganimals.Yettoday,Chineseasawholendmilkindigestible becauseofthislackoflactoseandtheclassicalChinesehaveconsideredmilkproductsuncleanortaintedsince 11 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat.

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189 2,000B.C.Yogurt,curdsorcheesecanbeeaten,however,becausethelactosesugarhasbeenbrokendown.Stirfry cookingdevelopedontheoodplainsasaresultoftheverylimitedfuelsupply,usingwaferthinfragmentsofmeat andvegetableswhichcookinminutes.Anotherinnovationcanbeseenwhenabasicbeanistakenthroughseveral processesandallowedtofermentinaloafinadarkareaoverwinter-thenthefungusisscrapedoffandtheleaves aresoakedinbrine.Thebrinyliquid,whenstrainedoff,is"soysauce".Thedebrisoftheloavesismadeintoathick "cheese",nowpartiallyblamedforthehighincidenceofstomachcancerinAsia.Ref.101[146],211[284] EarlyinthiscenturyascontinuedfromthelasttheConfucianprincipleswerekeptaliveandelaboratedforposterity byMasterMengK'o,Meng-tzuLatinized-"Mencius"anextravagant,arrogantaristocratwhoneverthelessrecognizedthatpublicmoraleshouldbetherstconcernofeveryrulerandhedidnothesitatetotellthemso.Butperhaps thegreatestConfucianthinkerofthecenturywasHsu n-tzu.aruthlesslytough-mindedrationalistwhosetdownhis philosophyinawellorganizedbook.Inaddition,thepresentformoftheLao-tzu,theTaoistphilosophy,wasmadein thiscenturywithauthorshipreallyunknown.Ithasbeencalledthemostprofoundandbeautifulbookeverproducedby theChineseandhasbeentranslatedintoEnglishmoreoftenthananybookexcepttheBible.Itsmeanings,however, canstillbeelusiveanddebatable.Ref.101[146] TheeraofWarringStatescontinueduntil230B.C.whenShihHuang-tibeganacampaignofconquestandunication ofChinawhichwascompletedby222B.C.,establishingtheCh'inDynasty.ComingfromtheWeiValley,atrue frontiercountry,theleaderadoptedthistitleofHuang-ti,meaning"AugustLord",butusuallytranslated"Emperor", and"Shih"simplymeans"rst".HebeganasKingZhengofQinatthirteenyearsofage,whenthecountrywas initiallyruledbythechancellor,LuBuwei.ThisFirstEmperorbuilttheGreatWallofChina,oneofthegreatest constructionfeatsofalltime,toprotectthenationagainstbarbarians.Sevenhundredthousandforcedlaborerswere usedinbuildingthewallandthousandsofthemdied,crushedbeneathsomeofthemassivegrayrocks.Thewallwas roughly1,500mileslongandwideenoughforsixhorsestogallopabreastalongthetop.Thenation'srststanding army,consistingofperhapsmillions,wascreatedtoguardthewallfromnortherninvadersanditdiddiscouragethe Huns,whothenturnedwestintoEurope. ShihHuang-tispentthirty-sixyearsbuildingasubterraneanpalaceinwhichhecouldspendeternityandusedseven hundredthousandconscriptstobuildthis,also.Recentexcavationsofhistombindicatethataguardianarmyofsix thousandlife-sizepotterymenandhorseswereconstructedtostandeternalguardathistomb.Inaddition,however, hedidbuildgreathighwaysandencouragedsciencewhilediscouraginglettersandespeciallyConfucianscholars.He buried460ofthelatteralive.Chinawasdividedintoprovinceswithcivilandmilitaryofcialsinahierarchyofranks; writingwasstandardizedandtherewasanelaboratepostalsystemandagreatirrigationsystemintheChengturegion ofSzechwan.ItwastheChinesewrittenlanguageinideographiccharacterswhosemeaningistotallyunrelatedtolocal variationsinpronunciationandspokendialects,andwhichcanthereforebeunderstoodthroughout,thatprovidedan importantunifyinginstrument,eveninthesouthwhichwasoccupiedbypeopleofnon-Chineseorigin. TheYangtzeValleyandothersouthernterritories,althoughunderpoliticaldominationbytheChinese,couldnotbe fullyincorporatedintotheChinesesocialstructurebecauseofdiseasebarriers 12 .Huang-tididbuildtheLingCanal, joiningtheYangtzeRiverbasintotheCantonareaviatheLiRiver,andthiscanalhelpedsupplyone-halfmillion Chinesetroopsconqueringthelandstothesouth.Thecanalisnowusedchieyforirrigation. Inthecountrysidesouthandwestofthecanalone-thirdofthepeopleeventodaybelongtominoritygroupssuchas theZhuang,consideredbarbariansbytheHans. FollowingthedeathoftheFirstEmperor,disorderandcivilwarbrokeout,withnatureaddingitsbitbyoodsand droughts.Shih'ssonwaskilledandchaosreigneduntilKoa-tsu,apettyofcial,turnedgeneralandemergedasthe supremerulerandfounderoftheHanDynastyin202B.C..TheFormativeAgeofChinahadended. Huang-tiisgenerallyregardedastheauthorofthecanonofinternalmedicinecalled"NeiChing",butthismayhave originatedmuchearlierSection5.7.Thisworksaysthatthebloodcurrentowscontinuouslyinacircleandnever 12 Evenatthetimeofthe"FlyingTigers"ofWorldWarII,GeneralChenaultwrotethatcholera,malaria,typhoidandotherlesserknowndiseases plaguedthepeopleofthisarea.Ref.69[107]

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190 CHAPTER12.300TO201B.C. stops.Itdescribesacupuncturewithneedlesfrom1"to10"long,asystemwhichisstillusedtorestorethebalanceof YinandYanginthebody.ItwasinthiscenturythatironweaponsnallybecamecommoninChinaalmostathousand yearsafteritsuseinThailandandintheWest,althoughthemetalhadbeenintroducedsometwocenturiesbefore. AninterestingpointisthatwhentheChinesedidstarttouseironitwascast,ratherthanwroughtiron,andcastiron requiresaheatof1,400degreesCentigradeatwhichtemperaturetheironmeltsandtheslagisdrawnoff,allowingthe moltenirontobepouredintomolds,likebronze.FromthebeginningtheChinesesmithsknewonlythismethod,and theheatrequired,whichneedssometypeofblastfurnace,wasnotproducedintheWestuntilmanycenturieslater. Ref.89[133],219[293],69[107],221[295],215[290],140[190],211[284]AdditionalNotes 12.7.1.2JAPAN About300B.C.,anewwaveofMongoloidimmigrantsfromthemainlandintroducedriceculture,bronze,andifitwas notalreadythere,thepotter'swheeltoJapan,beginningtheYayoiPeriod.AlthoughChineserulershadkepttheseri culturesecretuntilthiscenturyitnowcametoJapan,perhapsthroughKorea.Ref.19[32],122[170]Bergamini Ref.12[21]statesthatinadditiontothebronzeandrice,tradersbroughtinironatthistime. 12.7.1.3KOREA TheKoreanpeoplearerelatedracially,linguisticallyandculturallytotheancientpeoplesofManchuriaandSiberiaas wellastotheJapanese,buttheirpost-NeolithiccivilizationcamelargelyfromChina.Inthiscentury,amongseveral existingstates,themostcivilizedwasChosen,asemi-sinicizedcommunityinthenorthwest.Ref.119[166] SOUTHEASTASIA Distinctive,massive,bronzedrumsdecoratedwithimagesofanimalsandmendateto300B.C.atDongSonNorth Vietnam.FromthestudyofmaterialintheNationalArcheologicalMuseuminTripoli,NorthAfrica,BarryFellRef. 66[97]writesthatinscriptionscopiedfromacaveinnorthwesternNewGuineain1974appeartobetheworkofa LibyannavigatorwhosignedhisnameM-WEgyptian"Mawi"means"navigator"soundinglikePolynesian"Maui". ThedateoftheNewGuineainscriptionwas"the15thyearofPtolemyIIIofEgypt"or232B.C.Furthercomments regardingthepossiblesignicanceofthisndingwillbegiveninthenextsection.In218B.C.theChineseHuang-ti, inhisconquests,tookovertheRedRiverdeltaareanowHanoiandHaiphongandbroughtstrongChineseinuences aswellasChinesebloodtothisarea. ForwardtoTheFarEast:200to101B.C.Section13.7 ChooseDifferentRegion 1.IntrotoEraSection12.1 2.AfricaSection12.2 3.AmericaSection12.9 4.CentralandNorthernAsiaSection12.5 5.EuropeSection12.4 6.TheIndianSubcontinentSection12.6 7.TheNearEastSection12.3 8.PacicSection12.8 NOTE :EversincethebeginningofthisHanDynasty,orslighterearlier,jadehasbeenimportedtotheeastern coastalregionsome3,000kilometersfromSinkiangalongtheoldSilkRoad.Thatvarietyofnephriteis consideredtheonlytruejade.JadeveilshavebeenfoundinseveralaristocraticburialsofthelateEastern Chouperiodupto256B.C.inLuoyang.SeealsoAdditionalNotesin1stcenturyC.E.Ironbattle suitscameintouseinthiscenturyorearlier.Ref.306[157]

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191 12.8ThePacic:300to201B.C. 13 12.8.1THEPACIFIC BacktoThePacic:400to301B.C.Section11.8 WenowcometoamostinterestingnewconceptconcerningtheearlyinhabitantsofthePacic,basedonFell's interpretationofthecaveinscriptionsofNewGuineamentionedjustabove.Theseinscriptionsincludestarmaps, navigationdiagramsandevencalculationsattributedtoEratosthenes.Furthermore,infarungPolynesianislands therearelegendsofagreatsailornamedMaui,who"shedupnewlandsfromthesea".Heyerdahl,althoughmaking nomentionofFell'swork,hasattemptedtoshow,andquiteconvincingly,thatnodirecteastwardsailingfromIndonesiaandMelanesiawaspossible,butthatpeoplecouldreachtheeasternPacicislandsbysailinguptheJapanese currenttoornearthecoastofNorthAmericaandthenbackintotheeasternPacicviacurrentsandwindsthatstill prevail.Perhaps,then,bothFell'sandHeyerdahl'stheoriesarecompatibleinsomedegree.Fellclaimstohavefound insouthwesternNorthAmericaMaui'schartsoftheHawaiianIslandsshowingGawiKaui,UwahuOahu,Mawi ZaraMauiandwhathecalledthe"GreatVolcanicIsland"Hawaii.Therelativepositionsoftheseislandsarethe sameasthosegivenonWilliamBligh'smapof1779,exceptthattherelativelylargesizeofHawaiiwasnotrecognized byMaui,indicatingthatheprobablyonlysighteditfromadistanceanddidnotreallyexploreit.OnMaui'schart theentireislandgroupiscalled hawa andtheislandsareplacedincorrectrelationshiptothewesterncoastofNorth Americaonsomeadditionallargermapsshowingtheentirecontinent. ProfessorRaymondA.Dar,distinguishedSouthAfricananthropologist,andagroupfromtheUniversityofAlabama ledbyProfessorAlbertE.Casey,havegivensomesupporttoFell'shypothesisinthattheyhavefoundskullmeasurementsoftheancientpeopleofNewZealandi.e.beforetheadventoftruePolynesiansindicatelinkswithboth NorthAfricans,IberiansandZuniArizonaIndians,aswellassometribesinNewEnglandandNortheasternCanada. TheinhabitantsofNewZealandpriortothearrivalofthePolynesiansinamuchlatercentury,weretheMoriorisand theyweredriventotheChathamIslandswhentheMaoriarrived.TheseChathamIslandershadArabic-Semiticcountenances,oftenwithlarge,hookednosesandreddishhair.ThisinformationfromHeyerdahliscertainlycompatible withFell'sLibyanoriginconcept.AnotherhypothesisdealingwiththepossibleAmericanoriginoftheaboriginesof theeasternPacicislandswillbegiveninthenextchapter.Ref.66[97],95[140] ForwardtoThePacic:200to101B.C.Section13.8 ChooseDifferentRegion 1.IntrotoEraSection12.1 2.AfricaSection12.2 3.AmericaSection12.9 4.CentralandNorthernAsiaSection12.5 5.EuropeSection12.4 6.TheFarEastSection12.7 7.TheIndianSubcontinentSection12.6 8.TheNearEastSection12.3 12.9America:300to201B.C. 14 12.9.1AMERICA BacktoAmerica:400to301B.C.Section11.9 13 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat. 14 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat.

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192 CHAPTER12.300TO201B.C. 12.9.1.1NORTHAMERICA InthefarnorththeDorsetphaseoftheArcticSmallTooltraditioncontinued.ThisDorsetSocietywastolastoverall, somesixteencenturies.Ref.189[259] Bythiscentury,forreasonsunknown,theAdenaCulturehadfadedandalmostdisappeared,butanewNorthAmerican IndianculturemadeitsappearanceinIllinoisandsoonspreadtoOhio.Namedthe"Hopewell"afteranIllinoismound group,thiseventuallyspreadwidelyoverahugeportionoftheeasternUnitedStates,stretchingfromtheMississippi RivertoFlorida.Althoughthepeopleprobablycultivatedcornandothercrops,huntingandgatheringwerestill ofcriticalimportance.Theybuiltelaborateearthworks,somefordefensivepurposesandsomeasburialmounds. Theyworkedincopper,mica,obsidian,soap-stoneandwoodaswellasclay.Copperandmicacutoutsinvarious designswereseeninefgypipesandoccasionalpottery.Rockcarvingsofsatyrmasksalmostidenticalwithsomeof CarthaginianoccupiedSardiniaandCarthaginiancoinsofthe4thand3rdcenturiesB.C.haveallegedlybeenfound alongtheArkansasRiverbothaboveandbelowWichita,Kansas,accordingtoBarryFell,andhefeelspositivethat theCarthaginianstradedontheAtlanticsideofAmericaforlumber,goldandfurs.Ref.45[66],66[97] Inthesouthwest,insouthernNewMexicoandeasternArizona,CoshiseIndianscontinuedtheiragricultural,hunting andgatheringsociety,butwithstillmoreimprovementinthetypeofcorn,squashandbeans,sothatatruefarming communityhadmaterialized. 12.9.1.2MEXICOANDCENTRALAMERICA AstheMayanSocietybegantoourishwemustnotfailtorememberthattheOlmecsleftaheritageofreligiousbeliefs, artisticsymbolismandotherculturaltraditionstoallsubsequentMexicanpeople.RecentexcavationsnearCoba, Mexico,ontheYucatanpeninsulahavebeencalledtheLatePre-classicMayaperiodbyMexicanarcheologists,with adatinggoingbackto300B.C.andwithapeakatA.D.200.TheMayasexcelledinastronomyanddevelopedavery complexsystemofchronologyperhapsoriginatingwiththeOlmecswhichwasremarkablyexactinitscalculation. Forexample,theycalculatedthat405fullmoonsoccurredinaperiodof11,900days,whiletodayastronomersmake it11,959,888days,thusdifferingby1dayevery292yearsorlessthanveminutesayear!Theyrecordedtheir languageinacomplexhieroglyphicscriptcomposedpartlyofideogramsrepresentingwholewordsorideasandpartly ofphoneticsymbolsforsounds,muchasdidancientEgyptianandmodernJapanese.Scholarsarestillworkingon decodingthislanguage,whichisstillspokenbysometwomillionpeople.Ref.176[242] InCostaRicathisMiddletoLatePeriodIVcanbeviewedasatimeofcontactwithmoredevelopedMesoamerican cultures.Superbhumanandzoomorphicceramicefgieswereproducedatthistime.IntheCentralHighlandsAtlanticWatershed,householdremainsalsoresembleMesoamericanpatterns;small,rectangularhousesaresometimes accompaniedbybell-shapedstoragepits.Thepotterywasadornedwithanynumberoftropicalreptileswiththecolor chieyredonbuff.Ref.265[270]ThearcheologicalrecordofwesternPanamabeginsatabout300B.C.and includesceramicsfoundintheRioChiriquirockshelters.TheyweresimilartothosedescribedinCostaRica.We shallnoteinlaterchaptersthatthiswasanareawherebigchiefdomsdeveloped.Ref.266[67] 12.9.1.3SOUTHAMERICA Therewereapparentlyanynumberofsmall,localizedalthoughprosperoussocietiesinvariouspartsoftheEcuador, Peru,Boliviacomplexinthiscentury.AboutthistimeanumeroustribearrivedintheChilcaBasinjustsouthofpresent dayLima,buildingclustersofdwellinghousesmadeofconical,handmoldedclayblocks,atempleandstore-housefortress.TheirtempleresembledaPolynesian"marae",andlargeandimpressiveadobepyramidswereconstructed. Therewereperhaps2,500peopletoavillage,livingoncorn,sea-foodandpotatoesofcultivatedspecies,therstin Peru.SevenLapaLapa 15 systemswithsome10,000structuresmadeofheavystonehavebeenmappedout.Theyhad sometraitsincommonwiththeNazcaswholivedfarthersouthandweretheircontemporaries-suchthingsaspipes withtenholes,triangularobsidianprojectilepointsandcertaintypesofdishes.Ref.255[9],62[91] 15 AtermEngelRef.62[91]usesfortheChilcaBasindwellers.

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193 TheParacasceremonialcenteronthesouthcoastofPerufadedatabout200B.C.althoughthereappearssomeconfusionaboutdatesinregardtotheParacas-Nazcatimeperiods.FellRef.66[97]reportscarbondatingofthe ParacasinthemiddlesouthPeruareabackaboutthe5thcenturyB.C.,whileEngelRef.62[91]makesitmuch later,althoughheagreesthatwhathecalls"ParacasI"wasgonebefore200B.C. 16 Thisterritorywasoriginallypartof theChavinsocietyareaandsomeChavindecorationswerecontinued.TherenowappearedarecentlyidentiedVicus CulturewhichexistedatthebendoftheMaranonRiveralmostonthepresentEcuador-Peruborder.Thisappearsto havebegunabout220B.C.andlastedforapproximatelyvehundredyears.Fromtheartisticstandpointthesepeople areidentiedbyintricatesheet-goldgures.Noseandearornamentsemployingbothgoldandsilverweredeveloped thereandcarriedonevenintomuchlaterIncadays.Ref.45[66],124[172] ThehighcultureTiahuanacomadesmallmicriolithicprojectilepointsofobsidian,quartzorint,andbolasusedfor catchingcamelidsweretypicalofthearea.SomeTiahuanacoidpotteryoftheerashowsaneyeonguresthatbecame Nazcoidoralmondshaped,suggestingahybridizationofthesetwocultures.ThejewelsofTiahuanacowereveryne andwhenfaceswerecarvedthenoseswereaquilineratherthanstraight,asshownonthewingedgodofthefamed GatewayoftheSun,andasfoundonthegodsofEasterIsland.Ref.62[91] AtChiripa,ontheshoresofLakeTiticacathereareinterestingexcavatedarchitecturalstylesdatingtoabout300B.C., wherethewallswerebuiltwithunredclaybrickspaintedred,greenandwhite,restingonapebblebase.Allwalls weredoublewiththespacebetweenapparentlyusedforstoragebinsandsomeasstablesforguineapigs.Theroofs musthavebeenofstraw.Theattachedgravesshowedmalachitebeadsandhammered,thinsheetsofgold.Thepottery hadastylizeddecorationusingGreek-likesteppatternsandothergeometricforms. ForwardtoAmerica:200to101B.C.Section13.9 ChooseDifferentRegion 1.IntrotoEraSection12.1 2.AfricaSection12.2 3.CentralandNorthernAsiaSection12.5 4.EuropeSection12.4 5.TheFarEastSection12.7 6.TheIndianSubcontinentSection12.6 7.TheNearEastSection12.3 8.PacicSection12.8 16 In1982theNationalGeographicSocietyRef.255[9]datedtheParacasPeriodas550to200B.C.

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194 CHAPTER12.300TO201B.C.

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Chapter13 200to101B.C. 13.1200to101B.C. 1 13.1.1200TO101B.C. Backwardto300to201B.C.Section12.1 ThiswasacenturyinwhichtheRomanEmpireballoonedoutparticularlysouthandeast.Incentralandwestern EuropetheCeltsandGermanictribesviedforposition,bothpushedfromthesouthbytheRomans.Meanwhileinthe eastathriving,expandingandcivilizedChinabegantohaveincreasingtroublewithAsiaticnomads,particularlythe Hsuing-nu.CentralandSouthAmericanculturescontinuedtheirslowbutprogressivedevelopments. Forwardto100B.C.to0Section14.1 ChooseRegion 1.AfricaSection13.2 2.AmericaSection13.9 3.CentralandNorthernAsiaSection13.5 4.EuropeSection13.4 5.TheFarEastSection13.7 6.TheIndianSubcontinentSection13.6 7.TheNearEastSection13.3 8.ThePacicSection13.8 13.2Africa:200to101B.C. 2 13.2.1AFRICA BacktoAfrica:300to201B.C.Section12.2 13.2.1.1NORTHEASTAFRICA InthesouthernpartofthisareaKushaswellasAxumcontinuedtoourish.About200B.C.EgyptlostallitsacquisitionsoutsideofcontinentalAfricaasthePtolemaicarmiesweredefeatedbytheSeleucidsatPanion.TheMacedonian 1 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat. 2 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat. 195

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196 CHAPTER13.200TO101B.C. dynastycontinuedtoreign,however,andtheiradministrationspromotedcontinuedintellectualandcommercialactivity,particularlyatAlexandria.TheweldingofEgyptandSyriaontotherejuvenatedIonicGreekworldcreatedahigh economicunitandallowedcitiesofthemagnitudeofninetytoonehundredandftythousandpeopletodevelop,the rstofthesebeing,ofcourse,Alexandria.BytheendofthecenturytheEgyptianswerechangundertheHellenic Ptolemyrulingclass,however,andeventuallytheEgyptianpriesthoodswallowedupthePtolemiesastheyalsodestroyedtheAristotelianmentalityoftheMuseum,andscienticenergywasextinguished.Ref.46[76],28[48], 206[83] 13.2.1.2NORTHCENTRALANDNORTHWESTAFRICA CarthagerecoveredfromtheSecondPunicWarandregainedconsiderableprosperityalthoughitwassubjectedto frequentraidsfromneighborssuchasKingMassinissaoftheNumidians,whoweretheancestorsoftheBerbers.In 151B.C.CarthagenallydeclaredwaronNumidianowprimarilyAlgeriaandayearlaterRomejoinedthebattle, initiatingtheThirdPunicWar.ForthreeyearsCarthagevaliantlywithstoodtheRomansiegeengineeredbyScipio Aemilianus,butthecitynallyfellandin146B.C.theRomansbrutallyplunderedandburnedit,possiblytoprevent itsfallingintothehandsoftheNumidians.Ref.83[123]ThisprettywellterminatedtheoldPhoenicianEmpire, butthePuniccisternsremainedandstreetplanswerepreservedandlaterusedaspatternsforRomanreconstruction. AfterthislastPunicWarMassinissa'sson,Micipsa,ruledNumidiaandremainedanallyofRome.Misipsa'sheirs includedanephew,Jugurtha,alongwithhisowntwosons.By116B.C.Jugurthahadoneofthesonsassassinated andhadrunofftheotherandtakenhisowncaseforcontrolofNumidiabeforetheRomanSenate.Thelattergave mostofNumidiatoJugurthaexceptforthecityofCirtawhichwasgrantedtotheremainingsonofMisipsa,Adherbal. JagurthapromptlysetsiegetoCirt,killingoffalltheinhabitantsincludingsomeRomanbusinessmen,thusincensing RomeandparticularlytheEquestrianbusinesscommunity.ArmiesweresenttoNorthAfricaonceagain,thistime againstNumidia,butJugurthawasnotdefeateduntilhisfather-in-law,Bocchus,KingofMauretania,waspersuaded byLuciusCorneliusSullatobetrayhim.TheAfricanstruggleendedin105B.C.withJugurthaaprisonerandstrangled inRome.TheRomansthenspreadwestfromCarthage,alsocontrollingMorocco.Ref.53[79],28[48],175 [241] Polybius,theRomanhistorian,regardedtheNorthAfricanGreeksasapeopleconsiderablydifferentfromthoseof Greece,itself.Theywereolive-skinnedandrepresentedafusionofGreekandNorthAfricannatives.Thesewerethe Libyansandtheyweredevotedtothesea,livingallalongtheNorthAfricancoastfromCyrenenexttoEgypt,westto MauretaniaontheAtlantic.TheareaincludednotonlywhatwenowcallLibyabutalsoTunisia,AlgeriaandMorocco. Alongchainofruined,oncegreat,beautiful,marbleandlimestonecitiesnowmarktheplaceswheretheseseafarers oncelived.WhenLibyankingsruledEgypttheirshipssailedtotheAtlanticportsofSpainandFellRef.66[97] saystotheAmericasacrosstheAtlanticandtothePacicviatheIndianOceanandtheMalaccaStrait.Theancient LibyanslivingwestofCyrenespokeadialectofpre-classicalArabiccontainingmanyBerberloanwords.According toFell'shypothesesthismaybetheoriginoftheArabicfoundinsomeAmericanlocations. 13.2.1.3SUBSAHARANAFRICA Radio-carbondatingsfromthewallsandpotsherdsofthemudbuildingsintheMaliregioncavesoftheToloypeople indicatethattheywerestillthereinthiscentury,butnotsubsequently.Ref.251[17]Thiswasaneraofcontinued Negromigrationsdowntheentirecontinent.ThisgradualoccupationofalmostthewholeofthearablesoilofAfrica inthewestbyNegroesandoftheeastandsouthbytheBantu-speakinggroups,overalltookabout1,500years,during whichtimesub-SaharanAfricawaslargelycutofffromtherestoftheworld. ForwardtoAfrica:100B.C.to0Section14.2 ChooseDifferentRegion 1.IntrotoEraSection13.1 2.AmericaSection13.9 3.CentralandNorthernAsiaSection13.5

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197 4.EuropeSection13.4 5.TheFarEastSection13.7 6.TheIndianSubcontinentSection13.6 7.TheNearEastSection13.3 8.PacicSection13.8 13.3TheNearEast:200to101B.C. 3 13.3.1THENEAREAST BacktoTheNearEast:300to201B.C.Section12.3 13.3.1.1ARABIAANDJORDAN ArabiandromedarycaravantrafcwasnowthemonopolyoftheNabataeanArabswhomaintainedaseriesofcaravan stations.UponthecollapseoftheSeleucidslateinthecenturytheseArabsthenacquiredDamascusitself.Ref.136 [187] 13.3.1.2MEDITERRANEANCOASTALAREASOFISRAELANDLEBANON TheBookofDanielwaswrittenabout165B.C.andtheBookofEnochperhapsslightlylater.Intheformeryear JudahMaccabeeandhisbrothers,aftertakingJerusalembackfromtheSyrians,restoredthemonotheisticreligion.It waslatersaidthattheyfoundonlyenoughoilleftinthetempletokeepalightburningforoneday,butsomehowit lastedeightdaysandthisistheeventcelebratedannuallyastheHanukkah.By143B.C.SimonMaccabeehadfreed Judeaentirely,beginningtheHasmoneanDynastyofpriestkingswhichruledJudeaandsomelandseastoftheJordan until104B.C.,afterwhichAristobulusIandhisbrother,AlexanderJannaeus,ruledsavagelyuntilwellintothenext century.Ref.222[296] 13.3.1.3IRAQANDSYRIA NeartheMediterraneancoasttherewasathrivingHellenicculturecenteredonthelargecityofAntiochandthe supportingcitiesofLaodiceaandApamia.ThegreatSeleucidKingAntiochusIIIinvadedGreecein192B.C.butwas soonpushedbackbyRomanarmiesandtheRomaneet.In190twooftheScipiobrotherscrossedtheHellespont anddefeatedAntiochusinthegreatbattleofMagnesia,nearSmyrnainAsiaMinor.TheresultwasthattheSeleucids lostallEuropeanandAsiaticpossessionsasfarastheTaurusMountainsandfromthenontheoldSyrianDynasty continuedtodecline.BytheendofthecenturyalmostthisentireareawastakenoverbytheParthians. 13.3.1.4IRAN:PERSIA EasternPersiawasruledbytheParthianArsacidDynastyandtheycontinuedtodevelopapowerfulempire,keepingthe administrativestructureoftheprecedingSeleucidgovernment.In141B.C.MithridatesIofParthiaenteredSeleucia, itself,ontheTigrisRiverandforthenext775years,withonlyafewminorsetbacks,Persiaremainedoneofthe richestandmostpowerfulregionsoftheancientworld.Ref.8[14]TheirmilitarysystemwasbasedonanIranian nobilitybuttheyaccordedtheHelleniccitiesfullautonomyanddidnothingtoweakentheHellenicstamp. ThewesternspreadoftheParthianswastheresult,inpartatleast,ofpressureontheirnortheasternfrontierby migratingpeoplesfromtheAsiansteppes.SomeofthesemayhavebeenaMongolianpeoplecalled"Hsiung-nu" bytheChinese,butprobablythechiefoffendersweretheYue-chi,anotherIraniantribereturningfromaprevious expansionintoAsiaproper.Theirimmediatedescendantswerecalled"Kushans"andtheypushedtheircousinsthe ShakasandSamartiansaheadofthemtowardsouthernRussiaandtheParthiansdownintoPersia.Ref.136[187] 3 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat.

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198 CHAPTER13.200TO101B.C. 13.3.1.5ASIAMINOR 13.3.1.5.1TURKEY EarlyinthecenturytheRomanarmiesbegantobeactiveinAsiaMinor,drivingtheinvadingCeltsfromthenorthback outofthepeninsula,anddefeatingtheSeleucidAntiochus,inthebattleofMagnesia,thusinauguratingtheRoman conquestoftheHellenicEast. MeanwhileinnortheasternAsiaMinoractivitywasrampantintheregionsofBithyniaandPontus.Thepeopleofboth weremixturesofThracians,GreeksandIranians,overlyinganantiqueHittitestock.MithridatesVI,whonowinherited thethroneofPontus,wasastrong,educatedman,speakingtwenty-twolanguagesandwiththehelpofGreekofcers andmercenariesheconqueredArmeniaandtheCaucasusandenteredtheCrimeaofsouthernRussia,controllingthe BlackSeaonallsidesexceptthesouthwest.HetheninvadedBithynia,arousingfearsfortheBosporusStraitsinthe mindsoftheRomanmilitary.SothelatterorderedMithridatesoutofBithynia,settingthestageforactualwarinthe nextcentury.TheGalatianscontinuedtoopposePergamum,sometimesallyingthemselveswithBithynia,butthey receivedacrushingdefeatbyEumenesIIin166B.C.,andhadgreatdifcultyholdingPontusofftheirterritory.When thePergamumKingAttalusdiedin133B.C.helefthiskingdomtoRome.ItwasatthisperiodthatHipparchusof Nicaeaelaboratedtheschemeofspheresandepicyclesthatbecametheclassicalconstructionoftheuniverse.Ref.48 [72],91[135] NOTE:InsertMap:26:ASIAMINORIN189B.C 13.3.1.5.2ARMENIA WenotedatthecloseofthelastcenturythatArmeniawasconqueredbyAntiochusIIIanddividedintotwosatrapies. Thewesternone,ArmeniaMinor,wasgiventoZadriadesandtheeasternone,ArmeniaMajor,toArtaxis.After Antiochus'defeatatMagnesiain190B.C.thetwogovernorsmadethemselvesindependentrulers,foundingtwo separatedynasties.AttheendofthecenturytheareawastemporarilyoverrunbyMithridatesVI,theambitiousking ofPontus.Ref.119[166] ForwardtoTheNearEast:100B.C.to0Section14.3 ChooseDifferentRegion 1.IntrotoEraSection13.1 2.AfricaSection13.2 3.AmericaSection13.9 4.CentralandNorthernAsiaSection13.5 5.EuropeSection13.4 6.TheFarEastSection13.7 7.TheIndianSubcontinentSection13.6 8.PacicSection13.8 13.4Europe:200to101B.C. 4 13.4.1EUROPE BacktoEurope:300to201B.C.Section12.4 4 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat.

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199 13.4.1.1SOUTHERNEUROPE 13.4.1.1.1EASTERNMEDITERRANEANISLANDS AsthecommerceofRhodesdeclinedthegovernmentallieditselfwithRome,asituationwhichwastocontinuefor severalcenturies.IntheCycladestherewerefrequentchangesofcontrol.Creteremainedasomewhatwildareawith nestsofpirateswhileCypruswasstillsubservienttoEgypt.Ref.38[59] 13.4.1.1.2GREECE FromthistimeonforanumberofcenturiestheaffairsanddestinyofGreecebecameintimatelyconnectedandalmost inseparablefromtheRomanEmpireandthemilitaryandpoliticalexpansionofHellenismlostmomentum.The RomansfastenedtheircontrolonMacedoniaandGreecewithremarkableeasebetween200and146B.C..Sparta, underNabis,attemptedarevivalofindependencein195B.C.butitendedwithRomanconquest.Attherequestofthe Aetolians,AntiochusIIIbroughtSyrianforcesintoGreecein192B.C.,butthey,too,wereroutedbytheRomansin thefollowingyear.VariousmembersoftheAchaeanLeaguefoughtaslateas146B.C.,buttheydidsoinadivided wayandfell,tobecomeamerebackwateroftheRomanEmpire.AsapoliticalentityGreecedisappearedfromhistory for2,000years.Ref.28[48],222[296],77[117] 13.4.1.1.3UPPERBALKANS ItwasmentionedinthelastchapterthatPhilipofMacedoniahadgivensomehelptoHannibalandthathadstartedthe SecondMacedonianWarin200B.C.AlthoughPhilipwasbeateninanalbattleatCynoscephalaein197B.C.hewas graciouslyrestoredtohisthronebytheRomanvictor,T.QuincteusFlamininus.Ref.8[14]AsRometookover moreterritoryinAsiaMinorGreek-MacedonianandRomaninterestsagaincollided,openingthewayfortheThird MacedonianWar-168B.C.inwhichPerseuswasdefeatedatPydna.AfterseventyMacedoniantownswererazed theRomanstookdirectruleofthecountryin146B.C.Inthelatterhalfofthecenturywithitsgolddepositsexhausted anditsmanpowerweakenedbywarsandemigration,Macedoncouldhardlymaintainitsformerplaceamongthe worldpowers. OnthewesterncoastoftheBalkanareatheRomansconqueredScodraAlbaniawithitsKingGenthius,andestablishedIllyriumasoneoftheearliestoftheRomancolonies.LivingintheareasofmodernYugoslaviaandSerbiathe DalmatianssplitfromtheIllyriansandinseverallaterbattlesDalmatiawasalsothenconqueredbytheRomans.The rstGermanictribetoreachintothisareawastheeastGermanBastarnian,whichsettledbetweenthelowerDanube andtheBlackSea.Ref.8[14],136[187] 13.4.1.1.4ITALYThemaponpage242willbeapplicableagain InthersthalfofthecenturyRomecontinuedtheimperialisticconquestsintheMediterraneanbasinsothatby 150B.C.itsterritoriesincludedmostofSpain,allofItalytotheAlps,Sardinia,Sicily,IllyriaandtheentireGreek peninsula.AlliesincludedNumidia,Egypt,Pontusandafter133B.C.Pergamum.In159B.C.afterencouragingthe NumidianstoencroachuponCarthagetostimulateaghtlocally,Romemovedinonthepretextofabrokentreaty, declaringtheThirdPunicWar.Asnotedinanearliersection,by145B.C.CarthagelayinburnedruinsandRome wasincontroloftheMediterranean.AtypicalRomanofthistimewasCato,asour,revengefulman-publiclymoral, butindividuallycruelandselsh.HecouldnotstandhappinessinotherpeopleanditwashewhourgedontheThird PunicWarwiththeslogan"Carthagemustbedestroyed".Ref.48[72] Meanwhileathomeallwasnotwellandthesignsofsocialdownfallwerealreadyappearing.Anuprisingofslaves andfreeworkersbeganin196B.C.andgraduallyincreasedinintensity.In193TiberiusGracchuspassedtheAgrarian Lawwhichwasanattemptatreform,dividinglargefarmsintosegmentstobegiventothepoor.Octavius,another tribune,opposedthereformandTiberiushadhimthrownout,dividingRomeintotwobitterfactions.Tiberiuswas soonmurderedandalthoughhisbrother,GaiusGracchus,becametribuneandcontinuedthereforms,thearistocrats wonintheendandthelandagainbegantobeaccumulatedinlargetractsandwealthconcentratedinthehandsof

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200 CHAPTER13.200TO101B.C. afew.Coupledwiththiswasageneralmoraldegenerationwithrestrictionofthesizeoffamiliesbyabortionand infanticide.Theplunderfromtheprovincesprovidedfundsfororgiesofcorruption.Thegreatindemnitiesexacted fromthecapturedcountries,withgoldandsilverseized,turnedthepropertiedclassesofRomefrommenofmeansto personsofopulencesothatrecklessluxuryresulted.Itwasatimeoftheriseandprominenceofwomen,sexuality, andlicentiousness. In144B.C.anotherAgrarianRevoltbrokeoutasaresultoffourfactors: 1.Theimportofgrainfromabroadreducingthedomesticprice 2.Thegrowthoflargefarms,asmentionedabove 3.Theinuxofslavesforfarmlabor,whichledto 4.Themigrationofthesmallfarmertothecity Thisrevolutionragedfor73yearsandgraduallypassedintoanactualcivilwarattheendofthecentury.Relatedwere revoltsofslavesonSicilianplantationsin135and103B.C.Ref.222[296]FinleyRef.249[98]writesthat "therewasnoactionorbelieforinstitutioninGreco-Romanantiquitythatwasnotonewayorotheraffectedbythe possibilitythatsomeoneinvolvedmightbeaslave" 5 .Millionsofslaveownersboughtandsoldslaves,overworked them,beatandtorturedthemandsometimeskilledthem,withoutlegalretribution. OthertroublesalsodevelopedwiththeinvasioninthenorthbytwoCeltictribes,theCimbriandtheTeutones,who defeatedRomanarmiesastheyrolledondownthroughGaul.InadditiontheNumidiansinNorthAfricaturnedon themandattackedundertheLeadershipofJugurtha,aswehavedetailedinsection1,Bofthischapter. OriginallyRomanmedicinehadbeeninheritedfromtheEtruscansandwasbasedchieyonreligioushealing,but GreekmedicinegraduallyinltratedfromAlexandria.TherstwellknownGreekphysiciantogotoRomewas ArchagathosofSpartawhohadarrivedwithmuchcelebrationandhonorjustbeforethiscenturyopened,butwhowas laterrepudiatedandcalled"butcher".Ref.125[173],249[98] 13.4.1.2CENTRALEUROPE TheGermanicorTeutonictribesnowbegantodominatecentralEurope.Theywerefair-hairedliketheCelts,but taller.By150B.C.thepressureofthesetribesinthenorthandtheRomansinthesouthhadbeguntotipthemilitary balanceagainsttheCeltsandtheirculturestartedtodisappearincentralEuropeexceptinthekingdomofNoricum presentdaysouthernAustriafromwhichtheRomanshadbeenforcedtowith-draw,andSwitzerland.Bytheendof thecenturytheRomanshadprettywellreconqueredtheseareasalso. 13.4.1.3WESTERNEUROPE TheCelticpeopleswerenowconcentratedallalongtheAtlanticstates.Weinsertatthistimeafewremarksaboutthe Celticreligion,sincetheonlysourceofinformationhasbeenfromtheRomanrecordsastheyconfrontedtheCeltsin Gaul.Throughoutalltheirtribes,theCeltshadapriestlycasteofDruids,althougheachgroupseemedtohaveitsown localdietiesandcults.TheDruidswereteachersoftheyoungnobilityandtheyforecastedthefuture.Onceayear, DruidpriestsfromallovermetinsolemnassemblynearChartres,France.Theymediateddisputesbetweentribesand enforcedtheirjudgmentsbyexcommunicationorexclusionfromthesacrices,whichseemedcentraltothisreligion. Thesacricesincludedhumans,oftencriminalsorprisonersofwar,andtheywereoftenburnedinaseaofames. Ref.194[266]ThesuggestionhasbeenmadethattheastronomicalknowledgeandthebasiccultoftheDruids mayhavebeenpassedtothemfromprehistoricpeoplesinEngland. TheGermanictribescontinuedraidsintowesterncontinentalEurope,pushingtheCeltsintomoreandmorerather narrowbandsalongtheAtlanticandintotheBritishIsles.TheCimbersandtheTeutonshadleftJutlandandSchleswigHolsteinabout120B.C.,migratedintoGaul,defeatingseveralRomanarmiesandspreadingfearandterror.Thetwo 5 Reference249,page65

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201 tribesnallyseparated,however,andwerethendefeatedbytheRomanMarius,in102B.C.TheCimbriansmettheir defeatatAquaSextiaandtheTeutonsatVercellae.ButtheCimbrihadalreadysentforcesintoSpainfromGermany andinPortugaltheLusitaniantribes,ledbyViriathus,defeatedallRomanarmiesforeightyearsbeforetheynally fellastheirleaderwasassassinated.InGaul,Romehadtoght"barbarians"allalongtheRhoneRivertoprotect Massilia,andby120B.C.theyhadorganizedsouthernGaulintoaseparateRomanprovince.Ref.8[14],196 [269] WhatappeartobePhoenicianbeadshavebeenexcavatednearSt.Sampson,Cornwall,datingfromthe2ndcentury B.C.on,seemingtoconrmthepresenceoftheCarthaginiansthereastradersfortin.Ref.66[97]InScotland thefusionofPicts,Celts,NorwegiansandBell-Beakerpeoplecontinued,withthePictsprobablythedominantgroup, althoughacceptingsomeCelticspeech.Ref.170[234] 13.4.1.4SCANDINAVIA TheGermanictribesspreadallthroughScandinaviamovingupacrosstheSkaggerakandKattegotintoNorwayand evennorthernSweden.Manyofthetribesseemtohaveoriginated,oratleastmadetheirpreliminaryproliferations,in theDenmarkarea.Thisperiodappearstohavebeentherstofsomerecurringtimesoftremendouspopulationgrowth insouthernScandinaviawiththeresultingnecessityformigrationofmultitudesofpeoplefromthearea. 13.4.1.5EASTERNEUROPE AnIraniantribe,theSarmatians,hadconqueredandgraduallydisplacedalmostalltheScythians,althoughafewof thelatterremainedeastoftheCaspianSea.AftertheSarmatianshadextendedallacrossthewholeoftheRussian steppethey,inthesecondhalfofthecentury,dividedintothreegroups: 1.Iazygians,westofthelowerDneiper 2.Roxolani,betweentheDneiperandtheDon,and 3.Alans,totheeastandjustnorthoftheCaspianRef.136[187] GreekcoloniesaroundtheBlackSeafellintodecayandtheKingdomofPontus,underMithridatesIV,tookcontrolof mostoftheBlackSeashore,includingtheCrimea.IntheupperDneiperbasin,thenorthwardadvanceoftheDneiper SlavsbegantoresultintheejectionorabsorptionoftheBaltsinthearea. ForwardtoEurope:100to0B.C.Section14.4 ChooseDifferentRegion 1.IntrotoEraSection13.1 2.AfricaSection13.2 3.AmericaSection13.9 4.CentralandNorthernAsiaSection13.5 5.TheFarEastSection13.7 6.TheIndianSubcontinentSection13.6 7.TheNearEastSection13.3 8.PacicSection13.8 13.5CentralandNorthernAsia:200to101B.C. 6 13.5.1CENTRALANDNORTHERNASIA BacktoCentralandNorthernAsia:300to201B.C.Section12.5 6 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat.

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202 CHAPTER13.200TO101B.C. Bactria,astridetheHinduKushandmakingupthenorthernpartofpresentdayAfghanistan,wasruledbyGreek kingsasremnantsofAlexander'sempire,andthecountryallowedIndian,Chinese,IranianandGreekculturestomeet andintertwine.Forthenexttwoorthreehundredyearsthiswasthehuboftheeast-westEcumene,eventhoughthe Yue-chidestroyedthepoliticalunityoftheKingdomofBactria.Ref.139[192]Thistake-overwaspartofanew turmoilwhicharoseincentralAsiaabout130B.C.asHunsfromfareasterncentralAsiaperhapsMongoliastarted topushtheYue-chiTocharianswestwardandtheyinturnchasedafewremainingScythiansbeyondtheJaxartes River 7 .TheScythians,inturn,headedsouthwardanddestroyedtheGreco-Bactriankingdomjustmentioned,ontheir waytothePunjabofIndia,withtheYue-chifollowinglaterinabout100B.C.vianorthernAfghanistan. TheHunsjustmentionedwerechieytheHsuing-nu,underChiefModok,andtheysoondominatednotonlyMongolia buttheIndo-EuropeanoasisstateletsofChineseTurkestanaswell.Armorcalled"chia"waswornatleastbythenobles intheHsuing-nuarmy. Thewordmaymean"hidearmor"butingravesatNoinUla,MongoliaandTuva,Siberiaarmormadeofironscales attachedtofabrichasbeenfounddatingtothiscentury.Bronze,ironandleatherwereprobablyallused.Afterthe conquestofTuva,theHsuing-nupopulation,whichwasalreadyraciallymixed,becameevenmoreEuropoid 8 .Ref. 127[176] TheChineseruler,Wu-Ti,spenttheresourcesandenergiesofChinaforeighteenyearsingreatcampaignsagainst theHsuing-nuandtheywerenallydrivenoutofInnerMongolia,KansuandChineseTurkestan.Ferghana,westof theTarimBasinwasthehomelandof"heavenlyhorses"whichtheChinesefelttheyhadtohaveintheircavalryto counteracttheagileponiesoftheHsuing-nuandotherraiding-nomads.AttheendofthecenturyWu-Tisentarmies tosubduethenomadsofSinkiangandgothroughthisareatogetthehorses.AChineseexplorerhadreachedthis FerghanaValleyin128B.C.andamilitarygarrisonhadbeenestablishedby101B.C.Thewesternedgeofthearid TarimBasinwasthesourceofjadefortheChinesecarvers.Fartherwest,theParthianshadextendedtheirempire southandeasttotakeinpartofKhurasanandtheedgeoftheHinduKush.TheBactriancamel,inthisandadjacent centuries,servedallthebarbariansfromtheGreatWallofChinatotheCrimeaaspackandridinganimals.Ref.139 [192],101[146],8[14],127[176] ForwardtoCentralandNorthernAsia:100to0B.C.Section14.5 ChooseDifferentRegion 1.IntrotoEraSection13.1 2.AfricaSection13.2 3.AmericaSection13.9 4.EuropeSection13.4 5.TheFarEastSection13.7 6.TheIndianSubcontinentSection13.6 7.TheNearEastSection13.3 8.PacicSection13.8 13.6TheIndianSubcontinent:200to101B.C. 9 13.6.1THEINDIANSUBCONTINENT BacktoTheIndianSubcontinent:300to201B.C.Section12.6 7 Thisclassicalviewofonepeople"chasing"or"driving"anotheraheadofthemisnotacceptedbythescholarlyMaenchen-HelfenRef.127 [176]whobelievesthemigrationstookplaceforotherreasons 8 "Europoid"isatermusedbySovietanthropologiststoindicate"non-Mongoloid" 9 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat.

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203 TheIranianYue-chiTocharians,runoutofcentralAsiabytheHsuing-nu,endedupsouthofthePamirs,innorthern Pakistan.Ref.101[146]ThegreatMauryaDynastyendedwiththedeathofKingBrihadrathain185B.C.and thehistoryofthenextvecenturieshasbeenprettywelllostinobscurity.ItisknownthattheMauryawereatleast partiallyoverthrownbythePushyamitrafromtheGangesValleyandthattheythenestablishedtheSungaDynasty. ThiswasaBrahmindominatedgroupwhichcausedtheBuddhiststoretreattootherareaswheretherewassoona oweringofBuddhistsculpture.SomeGreeks,SyriansandScythiansconqueredthePunjabandestablishedaGrecoBactrianCultureunderDemetrius,theGreekBactrianking,anditexistedforsome300years.TheDeccaninthesouth becameseparatedfromtherestofIndiawiththeformationoftheTamilstates.ThesepeoplewereDravidians,a dark-skinnedracewhichsomebelievetobeamixturefromMediterranean,AustraloidandMelanesianorigins. ForwardtoTheIndianSubcontinent:100B.C.to0Section14.2 ChooseDifferentRegion 1.IntrotoEraSection13.1 2.AfricaSection13.2 3.AmericaSection13.9 4.CentralandNorthernAsiaSection13.5 5.EuropeSection13.4 6.TheFarEastSection13.7 7.TheNearEastSection13.3 8.PacicSection13.8 13.7TheFarEast:200to101B.C. 10 13.7.1THEFAREAST BacktoTheFarEast:300to201B.C.Section12.7 13.7.1.1CHINAANDMANCHURIAThe"Former"HanDynastycontinued Asbrieynotedinthelastchapter,between206and202B.C.Kao-tsu,acondot-tier,hadseizedthethroneofChinaand foundedtheHanWesternorFormerDynasty.Freedomofspeechandwritingwasrestoredandalaissez-fairestyle ofgoverningallowedprosperityandpopulationgrowth.AlthoughKao-tsudiedin195B.C.hiswifeanddescendants ruledconservativelythroughthersthalfofthecentury.Taxeswerecutmarkedly,butstillthestategranarieswere fullandthegovernmenthadvastcashreserves.ThegreatestHanemperorwasWu-Ti,whointhelasthalfofthe centurypushedbackinvadingbarbariansandextendedChina'sruleoveravastterritory,includingKorea,Manchuria andevenpartofTurkestan.ThiswesternterritoryTarimBasinandtheTurfanOasiswasobtainedbywaragainst theHsuing-nu,thetribalfederationofcentralAsiathathaddevelopedalongwiththeChineseEmpireandwhichhad previouslyraidedChinaaswell.ThewesternareabecameimportantbecauseoftheChineseSilkroutestotheWest. EvenbythiscenturytheChinesehadbecomeveryactiveinthesilktrade,startingcaravansatPaochi,movingalong insidetheGreatWalltoitswesternend,thenacrossChineseTurkestan,theneithernorthorsouthoftheTarimBasin, throughthePamirMountainstoMerv.Thesilkroadhadnotfunctionedwellbeforethetimeoftheprotectionofthe ChineseHans,becauseofthenomadpirates. Wu-tiexperimentedwithsocialism,foundinggreatgovernmentindustries,transportationservices,deliveriesandmiscellaneousservices,developedgovernmentalcontrolofprofitandlevieda5%incometax.HemadeConfucianism ofcialandtheConfucianclassicswerereassembledandtranscribed.Throughhisconquests,southandwest,contact wasmadewiththeIndianculturalsphere.Thiswasaccomplishedbysailing3,000milessouththroughthestraitsof MalaccaaroundtheMalayanpeninsulaandthe1,200milesacrossopenseastotheIndianshorenearwhatisnow Madras.Seasonalmonsoonwindswereusedforpoweronboththeoriginalandreturntrips,indifferentseasons. 10 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat.

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204 CHAPTER13.200TO101B.C. Chineseocean-goingjunkshadamuchbettersailarrangement,bettercargoandcabinspaceandmanyotherfeatures unknowntowesternshipsformanyhundredsofyearsinthefuture.Cowrieshells,therstChinesemoney,probably camefromthefarawayMaldiveIslands.TheChineseambassador,ChangChien,spentmorethantenyearsinthe middleeast,gatheringinformationondrugs,viticultureandmanyothersubjects.SometimeduringthisHanDynasty anotedclinician,TsangKung,describedmanydiseases,includingcancerofthestomach,aneurysmandrheumatism. Ref.101[146],68[106],215[290],43[64],8[14],125[173] AdditionalNotes 13.7.1.2JAPAN Megaliths,similartotheancientonesofEurope,appearedinthiscenturythroughoutJapanandtheycontinuedto bebuiltforthenexteightorninecenturies.StrangelynoneappearedinChina.Thiswasthebeginningofthe YayoishikiCultureperiodinJapan,butthepeoplewerestillinaneolithicstage.Theseinhabitants,whonowbegan ricecultivation,weavingandtheuseofmetalssuchasbronzeandsomeiron,mayallhavebeenimmigrantsfrom ManchuriaandperhapsKorea,replacingthemorenativeaboriginalsoftheJomonperiod.Theydenitelyhadsome relationshipwithKorea.Ref.215[290],45[66] 13.7.1.3KOREA ThestateofChosencontinuedtoprosper.Neartheendofthecenturyatabout108B.C.anallianceoftheKoreans withtheHsiung-nuprovokedtheChineseemperor,Wu-ti,whopromptlysenttroopsandestablishedanHancolonyat Lo-lang,nearthemodernP'yongyang.Ref.45[66] 13.7.1.4SOUTHEASTASIA MuchofthemainlandareaofsoutheastAsiawasnowcontrolledbyChinawithnorthVietnambeingsubjecttothe Chineseforthenext800years.ButtherewasalsoforeigninuencefromIndia.DevelopmentofseafaringintheIndian OceanandtheChinaSeaallowedthepeopleoftheGanges,alreadytoleranttotropicalparasites,toimplantIndian courtculturealongtherivervalleysandislandsofsoutheasternAsia,eveninIndonesia.Inspiteofthetremendous geographicalareainvolved,however,powerfulcivilizationsdidnotdevelop,probablybecauseoftheattenuating effectsofmalaria,dengueandwaterborneinfectionsofthegastro-intestinaltract.TheuseofironspreadfromSiam toBorneoandPalawanbyabout200B.C.Ref.8[14],140[190] ForwardtoTheFarEast:100to0B.C.Section14.7 ChooseDifferentRegion 1.IntrotoEraSection13.1 2.AfricaSection13.2 3.AmericaSection13.9 4.CentralandNorthernAsiaSection13.5 5.EuropeSection13.4 6.TheIndianSubcontinentSection13.6 7.TheNearEastSection13.3 8.PacicSection13.8 NOTE :DuringthereignofEmperorWu-86B.C.theuseofjadeburialsuitsforthearistocratscame intoitsown.ThetombofLiuSheng,Wu'sbrother,providesthebestearlyexampleofthistypeofjade burialshroud.Ref.306[157]

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205 13.8ThePacic:200to101B.C. 11 13.8.1THEPACIFIC BacktoThePacic:300to201B.C.Section12.8 WehaveintimatedpreviouslythatPolynesiaappearstohavebeeninhabitedbysomepeoplepriortothetruePolynesian migrationsoflatercenturies.WhethertheseaboriginaldwellerscameentirelyfromprehistoricAmericaorfrom someotherclimeisnotknownwithcertainty.WearequitecertainthatEasterIslandandperhapsadjacentSouth Pacicislands,suchastheMarquesas,hadimmigrantsfromSouthAmerica,butwhataboutHawaii?Recentlyon anhelicoptertriptoaremote,presentlyuninhabitedpartofKuaui,themostnorthernofthechiefHawaiianIslands, welandedinwhatthepilotcalledtheValleyoftheLostTribeandhedescribedanoldHawaiianlegendthathad thisasthelocationofthelaststandoftheaboriginalpeopleagainsttheinvadingPolynesians.Therewereremnants ofpreviousterracinginthisvalley.WhethertheseoriginalshadcomefromtheAmericasorrepresentedLibyans andotherscomingviatheJapaneseCurrentfromIndonesia,apossibilitysuggestedbythendingsofFellSeeThe Pacic:300to201B.C.Section12.8,isnotknown.Thelater,truePolynesiansdidnothavepottery,butmany ancientsherdshavebeenfoundonHawaii,apparentlyleftfromanearlierpeople.Heyerdahl'sargumentsinfavorof originalsettlementfromSouthAmerica,particularlyPeru,areimpressive.Ofrstimportanceistheora.InHawaii thehusktomato,Physalisperuviania,called"poha",isanAmericancropplantnativefromMexicotoPeru.Cotton, thesweetpotatoandHibiscusofHawaiiallpointtoPeru.ThewhiteoweringHawaiianArgemoneiscloselyrelated totheArgemonegrowninancientPerufornarcoticandanestheticpropertiesandwassimilarlyusedinHawaii.We mustrememberthathumansbroughtalmostalltheplantstothevolcanicandcoralPacicislands,astheywere"born" completelybareandonlyalimitednumberofplantssuchasthescrewpine,sandalwoodsandpossiblylauansand breadfruitcouldhavearrivedbyseaorbirdsbeforetheadventofman.Ref.95[140],134[184]Thequestion ofhowthesweetpotatogottoHawaiiandtheMarquesashasbeendebatedforalongtime.Itwasonceallegedto havebeentakentherebyshipwreckedSpanishcrewsin1528,butDahlgreenofSweden,afterlongstudy,saysthat thereisabsolutelynoevidencethatHawaiiwasevervisitedbytheSpanishpriortoCaptainCook'svisitationsinthe l9thcentury.SomeironimplementsfoundbyCookontheislandsarethoughttobetheresultofdriftagefromJapan. ThesweetpotatoisnativetobothSouthandCentralAmericaandoldHawaiianlegendsaresuggestiveofseacontact withAmerica.Legendsoftheislandsalsorelatethatthesweetpotatowasdriedandusedforfoodonlongvoyages, apparentlytootherPacicislandstheMarquesas?.Ref.207[279]Thereisalsoaremarkablesimilaritybetween theHawaiianat-irontypeofgrinderforpoiandtheCentralAmericanandMexicancorngrinders. ForwardtoThePacic:100B.C.to0Section14.8 ChooseDifferentRegion 1.IntrotoEraSection13.1 2.AfricaSection13.2 3.AmericaSection13.9 4.CentralandNorthernAsiaSection13.5 5.EuropeSection13.4 6.TheFarEastSection13.7 7.TheIndianSubcontinentSection13.6 8.TheNearEastSection13.3 13.9America:200to101B.C. 12 13.9.1AMERICA BacktoAmerica:300to201B.C.Section12.9 11 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat. 12 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat.

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206 CHAPTER13.200TO101B.C. 13.9.1.1NORTHAMERICA 13.9.1.1.1THEFARNORTHANDCANADA TherewasnointerruptionoftheDorsetSocietypreviouslydescribedintheArcticnorth.InsoutheasternCanada, particularlyintheregionofNovaScotia,theMicmacIndianseventuallyhadscriptwriting.Althoughusuallycredited toworkoflaterFrenchpriests,FellRef.65[96],66[97]givessomeevidenceindicatinganeastLibyanorigin fromneartheEgyptianborderwhereHerodotussaidthatanAdrymachidtribehadadoptedEgyptianmanners.He datesthecontactofLibyansailorswiththeMicmacstothiscenturybutonlyfurtherinvestigationcanreallysettlethis onewayoranother. WehaverecordedpreviouslythatsomeauthoritiesfeelthatAsianmigrationstoNorthAmericaviaaPacicnorthern routecontinuedbyboatdowntoabout2,000B.C.Iftrue,thenoverthevastexpanseofsome20,000to30,000years agreatvarietyofpeoplecouldhavemadethistrek.WeknowforcertainthattheAleutsandtheEskimosareseparate fromtrueAmerindiansandthattheAthabascansofcentral,northCanadawererelativelylatecomers,differentin cultureandlanguagefrommostotherIndians.Nowweshalldescribestillanothergroupofpeople,occupyingthefar westernshoreandtheoff-shoreislandsofCanada,whoappeartobedifferentfromallotherearlyNorthAmerican inhabitantsinmanywaysandwhodevelopedinanisolatedsituationalongtheCanadianwaterways,shutofffrom inlandCanadabyprecipicesandwildmountains.ThesearetheHaidaoftheQueenCharlotteIslandsandtheKwakiutl ofnorthwesternVancouverIsland,bothrankingamongthetallestpeopleintheworld.Theyappeartoberelatedto theSalishorFlatheadIndianswholaterinhabitednorthernMontana,apparentlycomingdowngraduallyfromBella CoolaandBritishColumbia.ThesepeoplearedolichocephalicwhilemostAmericanIndiansarebrachycephalic; theircomplexionsarefairandtheirhairoftensoftandbrown,ratherthanMongoliancoarseandblack.Theearliest EuropeanvisitorstothewesternCanadianislands-Cook,DixonandVancouver-allemphasizedthosefeatures. Inadditionthosenorthwestcoastpeopleoftenhadstrongmustachesandbeards,incontrasttotheusuallytotally beardlessAmerindians.ThustheyhavemanyCaucasianfeaturesandarephysicallyidenticaltotruePolynesians. TheirhomesitesintheCanadianislandsprobablyrepresentway-stationsonthetripthesepeoplemadefromsomeplace inAsiainancienttimestotheeventualdestinationofsomeofthem,inPolynesia.IftheyarerelatedtoMalaysiansit isaverydistantrelationshipandthetwophysicallydissimilarpeoplesmusthaveseparatedfromanoriginalstemin veryancientdays,beforetheMalayasiansevenmigrateddownintothepeninsulanowbearingtheirname.Thetheme oftheunityofthenorthwestAmericanIndiansandthePolynesianswillbefurtherdevelopedinsubsequentchapters. 13.9.1.1.2THEUNITEDSTATES TheexpandingHopewellsphereextendedfromtheAllegheniestothewesternborderoftheMississippialley,north totheGreatLakes,southtoFloridaandtheGulfStates.Theircraftsmenobtainedobsidianforknivesandarrowheads fromtheYellowstoneareaofWyomingaswellasotherrocksfromMontanaandNorthDakota.WehavenotemphasizeditpreviouslybuttheWoodlandCulturewithitsburialmounds,pipes,stoneandcoppergorgets,woodencarvings, potteryefgiesandearringsexistedinthesouthasearlyas1,000B.C.ontothis2ndcenturyB.C.andbeyond.Burial moundsuptofortyfeetinheightarescatteredthroughoutthesouth.Ref.267[321] WedonotliketobelaboracontroversialpointbutisperhapsworthmentioningthatFellRef.66[97]insiststhat Celt-IberianswerescatteredthroughouttheeasternUnitedStatesbythisperiodandthatcoinsfoundinquantityin OhiowerelocalcopiesofancientbronzecoinsofEvia,anoldPortuguesecity.ThisentirequestionofEuropean and/orNorthAfricanvisitorsinAmericaatamuchearliertimethanheretoforeevermentionedinclassicalhistories isaninterestingone.AlthoughFellandThorHeyerdahl 13 ,bothofwhomhavewrittenextensivelyonthissubject independently,havenotobtainedanysignicantagreementfromothersintheeld,thisdoesnotnecessarilymean thattheyareinerror.Wemustrememberthatinthelatterpartofthe19thcenturytheinitialreportsontheextensive andnowfamousprehistoriccavepaintingsandengravingsfrompartsofSpainandLesEyziesregionofFrancewere metwithcompleteskepticismbytheInternationalCongressofPrehistoricArcheologyandAnthropology.Ref.215 [290],66[97],130[180] 13 Heyerdahl'stheoriesapplyonlytoCentralandSouthAmerica,nottheUnitedStates.

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207 InthesouthwesternUnitedStateswherethecornersofArizona,NewMexico,UtahandColoradojoin,theso-called Basket-makerIperiodoftheAnasaziIndianCulturewasinprogressbutfewdetailsareavailablefromthiscentury. FarthersouththeSanPedroCulture,apparentlyamodicationoftheCochise,continuedtobeviable.Ref.45[66] 13.9.1.2MEXICO,CENTRALAMERICA,ANDTHECARIBBEAN InMexicotheTeotihuacancity-statecontinuedtogrow.ThelatePre-ClassicperiodofCentralAmericacontinued withprogressivepopulationgrowth.TheMayainthePetenareasubsistedoncorn,beansandsquash,astheycleared landbyaslashandburnsystem.Therewerenolargeceremonialcentersasyet. 13.9.1.3SOUTHAMERICA TheVicusCultureourishedinnorthernPeru.AtLakeTiticaca,ontheborderofpresentdayPeruandBolivia,on ableak13,000feetplateauinthemiddleofthepreviouslydescribedTiahuanacoCultureareatherenowwasbuilt abut200B.C.thedenitivecityofTiahuanaco.Itsremainingstonesgiveevidenceofacolossalstyleofbuilding, withformidablemathematicallyorderedwallsandimposingmassivestonesteps.Agiantstoneidol,24feethigh, wasexcavatedin1932byanAmericanarcheologicalteamunderW.C.Bennett.Anotheridol,only8feettallbut ofacompletelydifferentstyle,althoughalsoofredsandstone,wasfoundbesideit.Shrunkenhumanheadshave beenfound,suggestingthebloodycultofhead-huntingand/orhumansacrices.ABolivianscholar,PonceSangines, believesthisculturelastedfrom200B.C.toA.D.1,200withperhapsveburiedcities,oneoftenoverlappinganother inthearcheologicalstrata.LakeTiticacaisthehighestnavigablelakeintheworldanditslargestisland,theIsland oftheSun,hashillswithancientcrop-growingterracesandbeneathitswatersarehighwallsandpavedpaths.The lake,covering3,200squaremilesnowisthoughttohaveoncereachedthewallsoftheancientcityofTiahuanaco, therunsofwhichnowlie25milesawayinBolivia.Thecitymayhavebeenbasicallyareligiousormeetingcenter, asthelargepublicbuildingscouldholdthousandsofpeople.Thereseemstohavealsobeensuburbswerecraftsmen, weavers,smithsandfarmerslivedinmud-brickhouses.Potatoesandcornweregrownastheyareeventoday.The stoneswhichmadeupthelargepublicbuildingsandwallsappeartohavebeenbroughtfromquarriesbetween60 and200milesawayandthemethodoftransportbringsupthesamequestionsandpossibleanswersthathavebeen issuedaboutthegreatstonesofStonehenge,theEuropeanmegalithsandthestatuesofEasterIsland.SomeAmerican prehistorianshavesuggestedthattheTiahuanacopeoplesimplyfusedtogetheralltheupperAndessocietiesthathad beenfragmentedsincetheendoftheChavinCulture. HeyerdahlRef.95[140]quotesmanyoftheveryearliestSpanishchroniclersastheyhaverecordedthenatives' legendsofthegreatpre-Incapast.Inthesethereistherecurringthemesuggestingimmigrantsfromacrosstheocean. LakeTiticacaisgivenasapossiblebeginningpointforIngaViracochaorthecompositeCon-Tici-Viracocha,abearded deitywho"broughthispeoplefrothesea."LegendsamongtheChimuhavethissamedeityarrivingbysealongthe coastmuchfarthernorth.OneofthestatuesunearthedbyW.C.Bennettin1932wasthatofCon-Tica-Viracochain Tiahuanaco,completewithbeardandlonggirdledrobe,decoratedwithanhornedserpentandtwopumas,symbolsof theSupremeGodinbothMexicoandPeru. Ataboutthissametimeof200B.C. 14 andrunningtoaboutA.D.900thereappearedinthenorthofPeruthemysteriousMochicaCulturecompletewithpotteryandclaygurinesandmusicalinstrumentsandclothingresemblingthat ofclassicaltimesintheMediterranean.TheMochehavesometimesbeencalled"theGreeksofSouthAmerica."Fell believesthattheyderivedfromaLibyancolonywhichwasoriginallyinthesouthwestUnitesStatesbecauseofsimilarityofsomedragon-shipartworkandotherfeaturesfoundinancientNevadaandCaliforniadesertsites.Hebelieves extensionsofMaui'svoyagesPleaseseeThePacic:300to201B.C.Section12.8includedthesouthwestern UnitesStatesandthatvisitorsfromtheretonorthernPeruaccountforthecivilizationoftheMoche. MeanwhileonthemiddlesouthcoastthesocietywhichEngelRef.62[91]callsParacasIIdevelopedasacoastal societywithlimitedarchitecture,someuseofcopperandgoldandaveryadvancedstateofweaving.Allskullswere deformedtoapear-shapeandmanyweretrepanned.SomeelementssuggestthattheycameupthecoastfromChile 14 EngelRef.62[91]datesthisearlier,between500and400B.C.Section10.9.1.3:SOUTHAMERICA

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208 CHAPTER13.200TO101B.C. andtheirmanyidentiedweaponsindicateterricbattles.TheNazcasweredirectsuccessorsoftheParacasandthey tooremainedacoastaltribe,althoughwithafardifferentsocialsystem.Thetransitionwasapparentlysomewhat gradualandalthoughtheNazcaSocietymayhavetakenshapeinthiscentury,itdidnotblossomuntillongafter.Ref. 176[242],66[97],95[140],62[91] ForwardtoAmerica:100to0B.C.Section14.9 ChooseDifferentRegion 1.IntrotoEraSection13.1 2.AfricaSection13.2 3.CentralandNorthernAsiaSection13.5 4.EuropeSection13.4 5.TheFarEastSection13.7 6.TheIndianSubcontinentSection13.6 7.TheNearEastSection13.3 8.PacicSection13.8

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Chapter14 100B.C.to0 14.1100B.C.to0 1 14.1.1100B.C.TO0 Backwardto200to101B.C.Section13.1 InthislastcenturybeforetheChristianEratheMediterraneanareawasentirelydominatedbytheRomanEmpirewith intervalstrongresistanceintheeastbytheParthians.Bothofthesepowers,however,hadtokeepwatchfuleyeson theirfrontiers-theRomanstothenorthwherebothCeltsandGermanswereproliferatingandtheParthianstothe northandeastwherenewAsiatichordeswerebeginningtobuild.IntheFarEastthegreatHanDynastyofChina probablyequaledorsurpassedtheRomansinmanyculturalaspects,sizeandaccomplishments. Forwardto0toA.D.100Section15.1 ChooseRegion 1.AfricaSection14.2 2.AmericaSection14.9 3.CentralandNorthernAsiaSection14.5 4.EuropeSection14.4 5.TheIndianSubcontinentSection14.6 6.TheNearEastSection14.3 7.ThePacicSection14.8 14.2Africa:100B.C.to0 2 14.2.1AFRICA BacktoAfrica:200to101B.C.Section13.2 14.2.1.1NORTHEASTAFRICA Meroe,nowtheRepublicofSudan,continuedtoourishonethousandmilessouthoftheMediterraneanandAxum continuedwithsomeprosperityintheareaofnorthernAbyssinia,nowEthiopia. 1 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat. 2 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat. 209

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210 CHAPTER14.100B.C.TO0 IntherstpartofthiscenturyEgyptremainedundertheMacedonianPtolemyDynastybutCaesarmarchedintothe countryandtookcontrolbetween48and47B.C.,makingthefamousalliancewithCleopatra,Egyptianqueen.Upon hisdeathCleopatramadeasimilarallianceanddalliancewithMarcAntonyandsuchwasherapparentcharmthatin 37B.C.AntonygaveupallinterestinhisgovernmentandsettledwiththequeeninAlexandriatoalifeofpleasure. StrippedofhisofcebytheRomanSenateanddefeatedatseabyOctavian,hecommittedsuicidein30B.C.along withCleopatra.EgyptwasthenformallyannexedtotheRomanEmpireundertheEmperorOctavian,althoughthelife oftheaverageEgyptianwasprobablylittleaffectedbytheseadministrativechanges.Attheendofthiscenturythere wereabout8,000,000peopleinthiscountry. 14.2.1.2NORTHCENTRALANDNORTHWESTAFRICA Numidia,nowAlgeria,joinedCarthagetobecomeRomanduringthiscentury.Thethickbeltofmegalithictombs whichhavebeenfoundacrossnorthAfricadatetothisandthenextcenturyandthushavenochronologicalrelationship tothesimilarbutmuchmoreancientonesofEurope.Noexplanationhasbeenoffered.TheRomanhistorian,Sallust, ofthiscentury,writesthattheLibyansweredescendedfromapeoplewhocamefromAsiaMinorandwerealliedto thePhoeniciansthroughtheirlanguage.Arabhistorianshaverecordedsimilarbeliefs.Ref.215[290],176[242], 66[97]Cyrene,withitslargeGreekcomponent,becameaprovinceofRomein74B.C.Ref.222[296]Inthe Sahara,itself,waterholeshadessentiallydisappearedandtherewasnowtrulydesert.Thegreatdunescalled"ergs" hadformedandtherainshadbecomemostirregular. 14.2.1.3SUBSAHARANAFRICA Therewasnogreatchangeinthesoutherntwo-thirdsofthecontinent.Ironworkingcontinuedtospreadataslowpace intheNigerBasin.ThecamelwasintroducedintotheSaharafromAsiaabout100B.C.TheBantuspeakerscontinued theirslowmigrationdowntheeasternlands.Ref.8[14]Onetheory,basedonarchaeologicalandskeletalremains, suggeststhatatabouttheendofthecenturyafewoftheCaucasoidpastoralistsdescendedfromtheeasternhighlands intoSouthAfrica.FromthemsomeBushmenacquiredcattleandevolvedintothecultureoftheHottentots.Ref.83 [123] ForwardtoAfrica:0toA.D.100Section15.2 ChooseDifferentRegion 1.IntrotoEraSection14.1 2.AmericaSection14.9 3.CentralandNorthernAsiaSection14.5 4.EuropeSection14.4 5.TheIndianSubcontinentSection14.6 6.TheNearEastSection14.3 7.PacicSection14.8 14.3TheNearEast:100B.C.to0 3 14.3.1THENEAREAST BacktoTheNearEast:200to101B.C.Section13.3 14.3.1.1ARABIAANDJORDAN DuringtheHellenisticeratheHimyaritesofsouthernArabiahadlosttheirchiefsourceofprosperitywhenpartofthe IndiantradewasdivertedthroughEgypt,butin24B.C.,theywerestillstrongenoughtodefeattheRomanGeneral 3 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat.

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211 Gallus,whohadbeensenttoconquerthemandtheinvadersweredrivenintothedesertwheremanydiedfromheat andthirst.TheNabataeankingdom,inpresentdaysouthernJordan,becamepowerfulatthistime,withacapitalat Petra.Amman,innorthernJordan,wasrstdestroyedandconqueredandthenrebuiltbytheRomans.Ref.176 [242] 14.3.1.2MEDITERRANEANCOASTALAREASOFISRAELANDLEBANON By78B.C.inJudeatheHasmoneanshadenlargedtheirrealmsothattheirterritorywasasextensiveasithadbeen underSolomon,buttherulersbegantolosetheirreligiosityandyieldedtoHellenizingelements.ToynbeeRef.221 [295]saysthattheJews'CanaaniteculturewasnotabackwardoneandwasprobablyequaltotheHellenicin achievement,butitwasdifferentinethosandtheHellenicwasthemorepotentandsoondominated. In63B.C.,however,JudeawasconqueredbyPompeyforRome.AshelaidsiegetoJerusalem,theJewishKing AristobulustookrefugeinthewalledprecinctsoftheTempleandheldoutforthreemonths.Whentheramparts nallyfell12,000Jewswereslaughtered,withsomeleapingtodeathfromthewalls.Nonesurrendered.Pompeyleft theTempleuntouchedbutexacted10,000talents$3,600,000fromthenationandtransferredallHasmoneancities totheRomanpower.HyrcanusIIwasmadehighpriestandnominalrulerofJudea,butasthewardofAnatipater theIdumean,whohadhelpedRome.TheindependentmonarchywasendedandJudeabecamepartoftheRoman provinceofSyria.HerodtheGreatbecamesubjectkingin37B.C.andusingRomanfunds,nancedalocalarmyto drivetheinvadingParthiansbackoutofthisterritory.HerodwasalsoanIdumeanandnotaJeweitherbyoriginor conviction 4 .Ref.48[72]He,likeotherrulersofhistime,hadloosemorals,tenwives,nineatonetime,metedout cruelpunishmentsandhadanHellenicleaning.ThePharisees 5 wereagainstHerodandbythetimehediedin4B.C. hewashatedbyallthepeople.Hisrealmwasdividedamonghisthreesons.OnourpresentcalendarJesusappearsto havebeenbornbetween7and4B.C.Ref.222[296] Therewereabout2,500,000peopleinPalestineinthiseraandmostofthemspokeAramic,althoughthepriestsand scholarsknewHebrewandtheofcialsandforeignersusedGreek.TherewasconstantstrifebetweentheJewsinthe interiorofPalestineandGentilesonthecoast,andtherewasstrifewithintheGreatCounciloftheEldersofIsraelwho ruledoverthepeopleforreligiousoffenses.ThehigherpriestsandSadduceeswereaconservativeelementholding forthewrittenlawoftheHebrewsTorahandthePhariseesandScribes 6 werealiberalelementvotingtoacceptoral traditionsaswellastheTorah.ThePsalmsofSolomonandtheBookofJoshuaEcclesiasticuswerewritteninthis century,althoughthelatterisnotacceptedbytheJews.Ref.48[72] 14.3.1.3IRAQANDSYRIA DuringthiscenturySyriaandIraqbecameprimarilyabattlegroundbetweenthetwoformidableforcesoftheRomans inthewestandtheParthiansintheeast.AlthoughAntiochusVIIIandIXandSeleucusVIeachreignedbriey,in83 B.C.theshrunkenSeleucidKingdomwastakenoverbyArmeniaandtwentyyearslateritbecameaRomanprovince. Ref.222[296]PleaseseemapintheITALYsection,thischapter.AttheancientMesopotamiancityofCarrhae, justnorthoftheupperEuphrates,theRomanGeneralCrassusmettheParthiansandwasdefeatedandkilledbythe ShakabowmenoftheParthians'Surenally.Ref.28[48],8[14] 14.3.1.4IRANPERSIA TheParthianswereincontrolofIranandwereprettywellabletocontaintheRomansinSyriaontheirwesternank, buttheywerenowhavingadditionaltroublesontheirnorthernandeasternborders.In88B.C.TigranesIIofArmenia invadedParthia,overrunningfourvassalstates,reducingthesizeofParthiancontrolledterritory.Ref.222[296]In additiontheYue-chiandtheneighboringIranianShakahadalreadytakenBactriaandwerestartingtomoveintothe 4 TragerRef.222[296]claimsthatonthecontraryHerodconvertedtoJudaisminhisyouthandatthetimeofhisdeathwasrebuildingthe greatTempleatJerusalem.Hedoesnotgivethesourceofthisinformation 5 ThePhariseeswereagroupofJewishElders 6 TheScribeswerescholarsoftheLaw

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212 CHAPTER14.100B.C.TO0 MiddleEast,attackingeasternIran.ToholdofftheseattackstheParthiansusedverylarge,heavilyarmoredhorses andmenincavalryunitscalled"cataphracts",againsttheinvaders'light,nomad,bowcavalry. 14.3.1.5 ASIAMINOR:ANATOLIA 14.3.1.5.1 TURKEY WenotedinthelastchapterthatKingMithridatesIVofPontushadlaunchedanimperialisticcampaignwhichhad broughthimintocontactwiththedispleasedRomans. TheFirstMithridaticWarbrokeoutin88B.C.andMithridatessurgedoutofAsiaMinortotaketheCyclades,Thessaly, MacedoniaandThracebeforehewasstoppeddowninGreece,proper,bytheRomanSulla.Thekingwasgivena lenientpeaceandreturnedtoPontustoraiseanotherarmyandeet.TheRomanlegateinAsia,Murena,realizing thatthekingwasrearming,attackedPontusintheSecondMithridaticWarbetween83and81B.C.,butwasdefeated. TheRomansreturnedtotheattackintheThirdMithridaticWarof75to63B.C.andthistimeallAsiaMinorbecame Roman.WellsRef.229[307]statesthat 100,000RomanItaliansweremassacredduringthiswar.TheRomanconquestwascompletewhenKingNicomedesIII gavehiscountryofBithyniatoRomein75B.C.About350milessouthofpresentdayAnkarawasthesmallcountry ofCommagene,ruledbyCeniochusI,whoclaimeddescentfrombothGreekandPersiankings.Hehadcolossal statuesmade,includingoneofhimself,andsomeofthesethirtyfoothighconstructionshavesurvivedearthquakes, stormsandwars,remainingerectatthepresenttime.Ref.229[307],176[242] 14.3.1.5.2 ARMENIA TigranestheGreat,actuallyason-in-lawofMithridates,unitedArmeniaonceagainin95B.C.andaddedterritory fromSyriaandCappadocia,makingArmeniathemostpowerfulnationinwesternAsia.By70B.C.hisempire extendedfromtheAraratValleytothePhoeniciancityofTyreontheMediterraneancoast,muchofthisterritory havingbeentakenfromtheParthians.By66B.C.,however,TigraneshadfallenintothehandsofPompeyasthelatter wasdrivingMithridatesofPontustotheeasternedgeoftheBlackSea.ThereaftertheArmeniankingruledmerely asavassalofRome.Ref.222[296]BytheendofthecenturywhenemissariesoftheHanDynastyofChina reachedtheeasternshoresoftheCaspianSea,theyfoundonlystoriesofacivilizationthathadreceded.Thememory ofAlexanderremained,butofRomemenknewonlythatPompeyhadcometothewesternshoreoftheCaspianand thengoneawayandthatCrassushadbeendestroyed. ForwardtoTheNearEast:0toA.D.100Section15.3 ChooseDifferentRegion 1.IntrotoEraSection14.1 2.AfricaSection14.2 3.AmericaSection14.9 4.CentralandNorthernAsiaSection14.5 5.EuropeSection14.4 6.TheFarEastSection14.7 7.TheIndianSubcontinentSection14.6 8.PacicSection14.8

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213 14.4Europe:100B.C.to0 7 14.4.1EUROPE BacktoEurope:200to101B.C.Section13.4 14.4.1.1SOUTHERNEUROPE 14.4.1.1.1EASTERNMEDITERRANEANISLANDS ThiswasthecenturywhenRomegainedcontrolofmostoftheMediterranean.AugustustooktheCycladesand conqueredCretein68-67B.C.andCyprusin58.RhodeswasalreadyunderRomanjurisdiction.Ref.38[59] 14.4.1.1.2GREECE GreecebecameabattlegroundforseveraldifferentcampaignsincludingtheFirstMithridaticWarwhenthePontus kingwasstoppedonlyafterhehadgottenwelldownintothispeninsula.Athens,whichhadallieditselfwithMithridates,haditsprosperitycometoanendwhenitwassackedbythetroopsoftheRomanSullain87and86B.C.. AftertheseabattleofActiumof31B.C.inwhichAntonyandCleopatralosttoOctavian,Romelegallyaswellas effectivelyheldthewholeofAlexander'sheritageinthislandandGreecebeganareignofpeaceasanintegralpartof theRomanEmpire.TheislandofDeloshadnowbecomethecenteroftheAthenianworldandservedasthegreatest tradingcenterforslavesinthecivilizedworld. 14.4.1.1.3UPPERBALKANS ThebasicpopulationofthisarearemainedCelticandasafrontieroftheRomanEmpireitservedasabattlegroundfor theRoman-Celticconicts,aswellaspartoftheFirstMithridaticWar.ThesouthernIllyrianswerenallyconquered bytheRomanAugustusbetween35and34B.C.TheKingdomofThraceremainedintactandnorthofthisthelarge DacianKingdomalsokeptitsindependenceintheareaofRomania.TheGreekscalledthesepeople"Getas". 14.4.1.1.4ITALY AsthecenturyopenedtherewasstillsomeindecisionastotheactualscopeandpowerofRomeovertheremainder oftheItalianpeninsula.In91B.C.therewasonenalwarbetweenRomeandherneighborsovertheideaofaunited ItalyandthescopeoftheruleoftheRomanSenate.ItendedbythepracticalsurrenderoftheSenatetotheconcept ofreformwhichallowedthereafterallItalianstobecomeRomancitizensbydecree.TheclassicalLatinlanguage emergedabout100B.C.aftersomeimprintsfromthelanguagesofAsiaMinor,theBalkansandGreeceandthis classicaltonguethenheldswayforabout300years. Onthegovernmentscene,whileSullawasinAsiaMinorandtheBalkans,theconsulsCinnaandMariushadinstituted areignofterror,dissolvedtheSenateandruledwith"ironhands"untilMarius'death.WhenSullareturnedhemade himselfadictatorandwhilerestoringlawandorderandtheSenatetopower,hedesolatedlargepartsofItaly,executing over5,000people.Hetriedtoestablishapermanentlyaristocraticconstitutionbutthiswasfollowedbyallsortsof complications.AmongthesewastherevoltoftheslavesunderSpartacusin73B.C.,justafterSulla'sdeath.Theslaves heldoutinsouthernItaly,usingVesuvius'craterforatimeasafortressbutwhentheywereatlastcapturedaftertwo yearsbyCrassusandPompeysome6,000werecruciedalongtheAppianway.Thetwogenerals,formercroniesof Sulla,hadrisentopowerthroughseparateandoriginallyconictingways.GnaeusPompeius,afterprevailingupon SullatogivehimthetitleofMagnusTheGreat,wonprominencebysubduingthetraitorQuintusSertorius,whoas agovernorofSpainhadattemptedtosetupaseparatistregimeofhisowninthatprovince.Crassus,inadditiontohis victoryovertheslaves,hadmadehimselffabulouslywealthythroughvariousandsundryunscrupulousdealsandnow thetwomenunitedtoundueSulla'sconstitutionandhadthemselveselectedconsulsin70B.C.Thiswastheeraof MarcusTulliusCicero,alawyerwhohadashisfondestdesiretobeacceptedintotheinnercircleoftheSenatorialclass 7 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat.

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214 CHAPTER14.100B.C.TO0 andhiswholecareerwasgearedtothataim.ByprosecutingoneofthecorruptprovincialgovernorsCicerogaineda praetorshipandarisetopower.MeanwhilePompeygainedstillmoreesteembyconqueringtheCilicianandCretan pirateswhohadbeenpreventingnormalseacommerceintheMediterraneananddisruptingthegreatslaveemporium atDelos.Soon,therefore,withCicero'shelp,Pompeywasgivenabsolutepoweroverbothlandandseaforcesthrough theentireempire.ItwasthenthathewenttoreorganizetheentireNearEast.Whenhereturnedafterseveralyears involvementintheMithridaticwars,organizingAsiaMinorandSyriaandconqueringJerusalemheallegedlybrought backsometwomillionslaves.Ref.213[288] GaiusJuliusCaesarwastheyoungestrulerofthelateRepublic.By58B.C.hehadbeenahighpriest,staffofcer, nanceminister,militarygovernor,senatorandconsul.Hehadmarriedthreetimes,hadcountlesslove-affairs,led campaignsandbeeninvolvedinvariousintrigues 8 .Asheascendedtheladderofpoliticalpowerhisofcesentailed enormousexpensesandthisgothiminvolvedwiththemulti-millionaire,Crassus,fromwhomhehadtoborrowlarge sumsofmoney.AfteraperiodasgovernorofSpain,CaesarreturnedtoRometojointhepowergroupofCrassusand Pompey. AlthoughmeetingsomeoppositionintheSenateledbyCatotheYounger,afollowerofGreekidealsandstanding foranhonestnancialpolicyingovernment,Caesar,CrassusandPompeyformedanextra-legalcoalitioncalled"the FirstTriumvirate".Eachsoonwenthisseparateway,however,withCaesarconductinghisvictoriouscampaignsin Gaul 9 ,GermanyandBritain,thenreturningtotakecontrolofRome,overPompey'sobjections.Thiswasfollowedby avictorioustriptotheMiddleEastinSyriaandEgypt.WhenCaesarthenreturnedtoRometherewasgreatination andthe"annona",orfreegraindistributionfromthepublicgranarieswasexcessive.Evenby71B.C.some40,000 adultmalecitizenshadbeenreceivingfreegrain,andinthenextdecadesitincreasedgreatlysothatCaesarthought hedidwelltocutbackto150,000free-loaders. MeanwhileCrassushadobtainedcommandoftheeasternforcesandpreparedtoemulatethegloriesofLucullusand PompeyinAsiaMinorandArmenia,butCrassusranintotheParthians.TheseerceIranians,perhapswithTuranian Mongolianmercenaries,killed20,000RomansoldiersalongwithCrassusandcaptured10,000moreattheBattleof CarrhaeB.C.inSyria.TheholdoftheRomansonMesopotamiawasneververysecure. AfterCrassus'deathCaesarandPompeyfacedeachotherasantagonistsandasthemonthswentbydenitelines ofbattleandforcesweredrawnupandactualcivilwarfollowed.CaesarsoonwoncontrolofallItalyandgained Sardinia,SicilyandNorthAfrica.AfterdefeatingPompey'sforcesatIlerdainSpainhereturnedtoRometobemade dictator.PompeyedtotheeastwherehebuiltupaloyalmilitaryestablishmentbutallfornaughtasCaesarcaught uptohiminThessalyin48B.C.anddefeatedhim.PompeyedtoEgyptonlytobeassassinatedbytheteen-aged PtolemyXIII.Afterhavingbeenmadedictator"forlife"bytheSenatein45B.C.,Caesarwasassassinatedby"friends" towhomhisdivineaspirationswereintolerable.TheextentoftheRomanRepublicatthedeathofCaesarisshownin themapbelow. NOTE:InsertMap28:THEROMANREPUBLICATTHEDEATHOFCAESAR MarcAntony,whohadsharedaconsulshipwithCaesar,consideredhimselfthesoleheirofCaesarandhe,withthe latter'snephew,GaiusJuliusCaesarOctavianuslaterOctavianandMarcusAemiliusLepidus,whohadfollowed Sullaasconsul,alltogetherformedtheSecondTriumvirate.Publiclythepurposeofthisassociationwastoavenge thedeathofCaesarbutactuallyitmerelysetuppowerbasesforAntonyandOctavian.Inevitablytheycouldnotabide eachotherandthequarrelsterminatedwiththeBattleofActiumofftheGreekcoastin31B.C.withOctavianwinning andsubsequentlyrulingaloneasemperor,calledAugustus.Thepeopleacceptedhisdictatorshipbecausetheyhad beenfaringsopoorlyundertheprevioussenatorialoligarchy.Areignofpeace,another"GoldenAge",resulted. BeforethistimetheRomanshadraisedarmiesonlyforspecictasks,disbandingthemafterthemissionwasaccomplished,butAugustuscreatedastandingarmyof25legionswiththeequivalentofanother,thePraetorianGuard, 8 TheseremarksaboutCaesarweretakenalmostverbatimfromHermRef.91[135],page164 9 ThereaderwillndsomeinterestingmaterialregardingthedifcultiesofCaesar'sconquestsoftheGaulsundertheheadingofWESTERN EUROPE,inthissamechapter

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215 inItalyashispersonalprotection.Oftheothers,8legionswerestationedalongtheRhine,3alongtheDanubein theBalkanarea,4intheYugoslavterritory,4inSyriaandLebanon,2eachinEgyptandPortugal,andoneeachin northernSpainandCarthage.Eachlegioncontained5,000mendividedinto10cohortsof480each. Inspiteofthe"GoldenAge",thereliefroleshadagainbuiltupinRometo320,000sothatjustunderone-thirdofthe populationhadtoreceivefreegovernmentgraintoexist.Ittooksome14millionbushelsofgraineachyearjustto supplythecityitselfwhere1,500,000citizenslived,housedinsome46,600insulaeapartmentblocksthreetoeight storieshigh,madeofwood,rubbleandbrick.Windowsweresimplywallopeningsandwerecoveredwithshutters orhangings.Onlytherichhadwellsortapsintothecityconduits;therestgotwaterfrompublicfountains.There werepubliclavatoriesandtoiletreceptacleswhichwerefrequentlyemptiedintothestreet.Menialworkwasdoneby about2,000,000slaves,amiddleclasscitizenowningabouteightwhiletherichmighthaveuptoonethousandand anemperortwentythousand.Slavesmadeup35%ofthepopulationofItaly.Ref.249[98]Livystatedthatitwas commonforRomanoratorstostatethat"Jews,Syrians,Lydians,Medes,indeedallAsiaticsareborntoslavery" 10 HorseswereoflittleuseasasourceofenergyinthisRomanperiodastheywerebadlyharnessedwiththeyoketending tothrottlethemandtheycoulddrawonlyalightload.Fourslavescoulddoasmuch.Engineersdidmanagetochange waterwheelstotheverticalpositionandaddgearswhichgreatlyincreasedtheirefciencyforturningmill-stones. Ref.260[29] NOTE:INSERTMap30:ROME100B.C. HellenicculturecontinuedtopourintoRomeandliteratureandarttooknewdignity.Cicero,Catullus,Virgil,Horace andLiviusthehistorian,alltranslatedandadjustedGreeklearningtotheLatintongue.Agreatphilosophicalpoem, givingtheviewsofDemocritusandEpicuruswaswrittenbyLucretius,theRomanEpicurean,duringthiscentury. ThewealthyhiredGreeknursesandteachersfortheirchildren.TheRomanphysiciansofthisperiodwerechiey GreeksoratleastGreek-trained.Asclepiades,originallyofBithynia,developedahighreputationasaphysicianand wasafriendofCiceroandLucretius.HeabandonedtheoldHippocratesdoctrineofthefourhumorsandfeltthatthe physician,notnature,cureddisease.MostRomanpractitionerswereeitherfreedmenorslaves.Ref.48[72],21 [34],1[2],28[48],136[187],125[173],185[253],91[135] LuciusLiciniumLucullus,oneoftheRomangeneralsintheThirdMithridaticWar,iscreditedwithbringingthecherry intoEuropefromthe-shoresoftheBlackSea.EveryRomanaswellaseveryGreekhadhisbeehives,ashoneywas theonlysweeteningcommonintheWest.Indiancanesugarwasmoreexpensiveandtherawcanewasactuallyless tastythanhoney,sotherewasnoattempttoimportit,exceptformedicinalpurposes.Ref.48[72],122[170] 14.4.1.2CENTRALEUROPE 14.4.1.2.1GERMANY TherewasnowapredominanceofGermanictribesintheareaofpresentdayGermanyandCaesarandtheRomans neveractuallypenetratedthatareaalthoughRomanmerchantsandtradersdidappearwithgoodstotradeforfurs andslaves.AstheGermanictribescamesouththeirrstencounterswerewithCelts,butwhethermuchghting wasinvolvedornotisunknown.ActuallytheGermanswereverylittledifferentfromtheCelts;theirreligionsand theirlanguageshadcommonorigins.TheRomanssaidtheGermanswereratherblonder,butotherwiselittlephysical distinctionwasmade. DrususconqueredtheBavarianregionforRomefromtheCeltsin15B.C.andRhaetia,whichincludedpartsof southernBavariaalongwiththeTyrolandeastSwitzerland,wasestablishedasaRomanprovincelateinthecentury. 14.4.1.2.2AUSTRIAANDHUNGARY HavingconqueredtheCelticCimbriandTeutonescomingdownattheedgeofItalyandAustria,theRomansnow squeezedtheCeltsoutofAustriaandconsolidatedtheirauthorityalongtheDanubecleartoBudapest.Someofeastern 10 AsquotedbyFinleyRef.249[98],page119.

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216 CHAPTER14.100B.C.TO0 presentdayHungaryappearedtobeapartoftheKingdomofDacia,whichheldoutagainstRomancontrolforanother century. 14.4.1.2.3CZECHOSLOVAKIA TheCelticBoiipeople,forwhomBohemiawasnamedweredrivenoutofBohemiaatthistimebytheGermanictribes descendingfromthenorth. 14.4.1.2.4SWITZERLAND AsnotedaboveeastSwitzerlandwasincludedintheRomanprovinceofRhaetia.ThecrowdedHelvetiiaroundLake Neuchatelbeganamigrationwestwardwithcattleandwagons,leaving400villagesandthousandsofhomesteads. FearingathreattoherMediterraneancoastalprovince,RomesentCaesarnorthtointercepttheHelvetiiandthishe didastheypouredthroughagorgeleavingtheLakeGenevaarea.Of368,000Helvetii,only110,000gotbackto SwitzerlandastheRomansretainedcontrolofthearea.Ref.194[266] 14.4.1.2.5WESTERNEUROPE 14.4.1.2.5.1SPAINANDPORTUGAL BothoftheseareascontinuedaspartoftheRomanEmpire.IthasbeennotedunderITALYabovethatJuliusCaesar wassenttoSpainin59B.C.tosuppresstheguerrillawarfareandhedidgetsomehelpfromlocalgroups.Itwasstill later,however,afterhehadbeengivenGaulintheFirstTriumviratethathebecamelockedinapowerstrugglewith PompeyandreturnedtoSpain,defeatingPompey'ssoninthegreatbattleofMundanearCordobain45B.C.,thereby gainingmasteryoftheworld.TheIberiansthenadoptedtheRomanlanguageandculture.Ref.196[269] 14.4.1.2.5.2FRANCEANDNETHERLANDS&BELGIUM GaulFrancewasstillessentiallyCelticandCaesar'sconquestsbegantheLatinizationofthecountryandhelpedto containtheTeutonicpeopletotheeastoftheRhine.Thecurly-headedParisii,aCeltictribeconsistingofshermen andnavigators,settledaveacreIledelaCeteintheriverwhichisnowinthecenterofParis.TheBataveGermanic tribesettledintheRhinedelta,nowknownastheNetherlandsabout14B.C.andtheyandtheFrisiansbecamethe ancestorsofthemodernDutch.Ref.175[241] AfterJuliusCaesarmassacredtheSwiss,asnotedinaparagraphabove,heproceededinthenexteightyearsto"pacify" allofGaul,takingsomeeighthundredtownsandkilling,byhisowncount,1,292,000men,womenandchildren.He mayhaveenslavednearlyanother2,000,000.In55B.C.Caesarexperiencedanddescribedthegreatestnavalbattle thathehadeverbeencalledupontomount 11 .HisopponentsweretheCeltsofBrittanyandtheiralliesfromBritain, whohadnolessthan220ships,alllargerthanandsuperiorinconstructiontothoseoftheRomansunderAdmiral Rutus.Thesevessels,whichtoweredovertheRomangalleys,hadthecapabilityofcrossingtheAtlanticBarryFell's conceptandwereapparentlyundertheleadershipoftheVenetiofArmoricawiththeirallies,theCuriosolites,the VenellioftheChannellIslandsandCherbourg,theNamnetesandLexoviiofNormandy.Thehigh-bowed,graceful shipspropelledbythewindwereonlydefeatedwhentheRomanshurledfalcesintotheriggingoftheCelticvessels, thenrowingaway,tearingouttherigging.Thengrapplingironswerethrownandthe200menineachtriremewould boardtheCelticvesselandinhand-to-handcombattheynallywon.Ref.194[266],65[96] NOTE:InsertMap27:GAULINCAESAR'STIME OnlanditrequiredagreatengineeringfeatforCaesar'slegionstobreachthe"murusgalliciul",abox-likegridof timberslledwithrubbleandstonethatsurroundedtheCelttownofAvaricumpresentBourges,inthecenterof Franceandthenslaughterthe40,000peoplewithin.TheGaulsatlastralliedbehindayoungchief,Vercingetorix, whorsthadhispeopleburntheireldsandtownsastheyretreatedsothattheRomantroopscouldnotliveoffthe 11 AccordingtoBarryFellinAmericaB.C.Ref.65[96],Caesardescribedthisseabattlein"DeBelloGallico"

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217 land,andthenheinitiatedguerrillawarfaretocutoffnewsuppliestotheRomantroops.Vercingetorixwasnally corneredinthehillsofeastern,centralFrancebehindsomefortications.Caesarfurthersurroundedthesewithnine andahalfmilesofforticationsofhisowntotryandcontaintheCelticchieftain.EventhenVercingetorixslippedout somecavalrybynightandhadthemgatheranadditionalquarterofamillionGaulsfromsomefortydifferenttribes. IntheinterimCaesarhadbuiltstillanothercircleofforticationsfourteenmilesincircumference,facingoutwardto meettheGallicreinforcements.Fordaysthebattlesraged,withthemethodicalbutcheryofthe40,000legionnairesof Romenallyprevailing.VercingetorixemergedalonefromthefortofAlesia,surrenderedandwastakenprisonerto RomewherehewasparadedthroughtheForumandnallystrangledtodeathsomesixyearslater.Caesarallegedly obtainedenoughslavesafterAlesiatogiveonetoeachofhislegionaires.ThecourseofGalliccivilizationwasall down-hillfromthistimeon.Ref.194[266],91[135],213[288] 14.4.1.2.5.3BRITISHISLES TheBelgictribeswerethelastofthesuccessivewavesofCeltsintoBritain.Theywereapeopleofchariotsandhorses whointroducedacoinageofsilverandcopperandestablishedthemselvesasatribalaristocracy.TheBelgiccapital wasColchester.ThemostancientletteringknowninBritainistobefoundontheBelgiccoins.Thistribeseemsto havebeenamixtureofCelticandTeutonicoriginfromtheregionofthelowerRhine.Theirnewcountryproduced corn,cattle,gold,silver,iron,hides,slavesandhuntingdogs.CaesarcrossedthechannelstartingatmidnightAugust 26,55B.C.with80transportsforhislegions,experiencingconsiderabletroubleinsodoing,withthelossofsome shipsandmen.HewonafewvictoriesovertheBelgaeundertheirleader,Cassivellaunus,buthastilydepartedEngland beforewintersetin.Ref.43[64],91[135] ScotlandandIrelandwereprobablynotyetinvolvedinthesenewinvasionsandremainedessentiallyasinthelast century. 14.4.1.2.6SCANDINAVIA AccordingtoTacitus,writingaboutA.D.100,SwedenintherstcenturyB.C.wasdominatedbytheSuioneTeutonic tribe.ScandinaviawasneverenteredbytheRomans,althoughtradewascarriedonwithDanishamber,furandvarious slavesexchangedforseveralRomanproducts,includingwinesandsomeironobjects. 14.4.1.2.7EASTERNEUROPE InthisandthepastcenturytheGermanicGothshadappearedaroundSwedenandtheBalticSeaandstartedmigration downintonortheasternGermany.JusttotheeastofthemweretheFinno-UgricspeakingEstoniansandjustsouthof theminthePolishareaandextendingintomiddleRussiawereSlavs.InsouthernRussiatheSarmatianswereinthe ascendancyandtheyspreadoutwelltotheeasttotheCaspian. ForwardtoEurope:0toA.D.100Section15.4 ChooseDifferentRegion 1.IntrotoEraSection14.1 2.AfricaSection14.2 3.AmericaSection14.9 4.CentralandNorthernAsiaSection14.5 5.TheIndianSubcontinentSection14.6 6.TheNearEastSection14.3 7.PacicSection14.8

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218 CHAPTER14.100B.C.TO0 14.5CentralandNorthernAsia:100B.C.to0 12 14.5.1CENTRALANDNORTHERNASIA BacktoCentralandNorthernAsia:101to0B.C.Section13.5 InthenorthChina,underEmperorWu-ti,againtooktheoffensiveagainsttheHsiung-nuandrebuilttheoldCh'in wall,thenopeneduptheroutetocentralAsia,extendingcontrolovertheoasisstatesoftheTarimBasin.In44B.C. Wu-tidefeatedtheHsiung-nualongtheborderandpushedthemwestwheretheyedtotheLakeBakalregionalready occupiedbytheYue-chi.ThelatterwerethenpushedwestandsouthtotakeoverBactriaandconfronttheParthian EmpireofPersia.ThelastdefeatoftheHunsHsiung-nubytheChinesemilitaryforcescamein36B.C.whenan expeditionaryforcecompletelybrokeuptheAsiatic'spower.Ref.136[187],8[14] AtthebeginningofthecenturytwoGreekprincipalitiesremainedjustsouthofthecentralAsianMassiveandsouth ofthem,extendingintopresentdayPakistanweretheIranianSakasintheeastandtherelatedIranianSurenKingdom tothewest.AboutthemiddleofthecenturythelatterinvadedtheIndusValley,breakingthepoweroftheSakas anddeposingthelastoftheIndo-Greekprinces.AtaboutthesametimetheHunsalsorecoveredandbegantomore southagainagainsttheGreaterYue-chiKushans,thenoccupyingtheentireregionbetweentheOxusandtheJaxartes rivers,andsoonextendingthroughtheirSurencousins,theircontroldowntheIndusinpresentdayPakistan.Inthis eraTibetwasclosertoIndia,culturally,thantoChinaorotherAsiancenters.Ref.136[187],8[14] ForwardtoCentralandNorthernAsia:0toA.D.100Section15.5 14.6TheIndianSubcontinent:100B.C.to0 13 14.6.1THEFAREAST BacktoTheIndianSubcontinent:200to101B.C.Section13.6 14.6.1.1CHINAANDMANCHURIA"Former"HanDynastycontinued AtitspeaktheHanEmpireunderWu-Tiwasexceedinglyprosperous,rivalingRomebothinsizeandwealth.The capitalcityCh'ang-anhad250,000inatotalempirepopulationofabout57,000,000.WhiletheprogressofmechanizationwasimpededinGreeceandRomebythenumberofavailableslaves,Chinahadtoomanyefcientcoolies. Ref.260[29]WenotedabovethatWu-TiexpandedintotheTarimBasininthewestbydefeatingtheHsiung-nu andthispursuancecontinuedevenafterWu-Ti'sdeath.In51B.C.thechieftainofthesouthernHunscametoCh'angantosubmitasanHanvassal,whilethenortherngroupcontinuedtobechasedfarwestwardintoSamarkand,there tobenallydefeatedbyave-prongedHanforcein36B.C.ButinChinapropertheeconomiccontrolslapsedand nepotismandcronyismresultedinthelossoftheimperialfamily'spower. Atypeofnationaluniversityhadcomeintoexistencetopreparemenforbureaucraticcareersandbytheendofthe centurytheenrollmenthadreached3,000.IntheHanmilitiasystemallmalesregisteredformilitaryserviceat21years ofageandwereeligibleforservicebetweentheagesof23and56years.Allegedlyeverymalewastohavemilitary serviceinhishomecountyonemontheveryyearandoneyearofcontinuousservicesometimeinaguardunit,but soonapracticeofpayingpoorermentoserveone'stimebecamestandardpractice.Inadditiontousingcowrieshells ascurrency,coppercoins,latercalled sapekes bytheEuropeans,cameintouse.Bothofthesecompetedwithsaltand grainasamediumofexchange.Ref.260[29]InthiscenturytheChinesedrilleddeepholes,presumablyforwater, inSzechwanandtheirdrillingmethodswerecopiedcenturieslaterintheUnitedStates.Ref.213[288] InearlyChinathelawsrequiredpunishmentsandtorturethatequaledthatseeninEuropeatamuchlaterperiod. Deathpenaltieswerecarriedoutbybeheadingorbychop-pingtheoffenderintwoatthewaist.Incasesoftreasonor 12 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat. 13 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat.

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219 someequallyseriouscrime,alltheoffender'srelativesmightalsobeputtodeath.Lesseroffendersmightsimplybe mutilatedbytattooing,amputationofnoseorfeetorcastration.Imprisonmentwasrare,buthardlaborongovernment constructionwasusedforminoroffenders.InEmperorCh'eng'sreign-7B.C.authoritywasdelegatedtohis mother'sfamily,theWangclan.Ssu-meCh'ienwasagreatChinesehistorianofthisera.Ref.8[14],101[146] InManchuriaanewstateofKoguryowasfoundedinthiscenturyandsoonalsoincludednorthernKorea. 14.6.1.2JAPAN TheYayoishikiCulturecontinuedintothiscenturywithricecultureappearingabout100B.C.Animismandtotemism, sexandancestorworshipsatisedthereligiousneedsoftheseearlyJapanese.Outofthelatterworshipcametheoldest ofciallivingreligionsofthenation-Shinto.Thisfaith,calledtheWayoftheGods,tookthreeforms;thedomestic cultoffamilyancestors,thecommunalcultofclanancestorsandthestatecultoftheimperiallinewithitsfounding gods. AMongoliancastawaygrouponKyushumultipliedsorapidlyasfarmersthattheytookoverallthearablelandonthe islandandwhilesomeoftheaboriginesbecameserfs,otherstooktothehillsfromwheretheycontinuedtoraidthe farmersforcenturies.ThenewKyushucommunitywasorganizedasalooseconfederacyofvillages,eachruledby itsownmatriarchorfertilitymother,andthewomanleaderofthemostpowerfultownwascalledthe"SunGoddess". EarlyChinesetraderscalledher"Pime-ko",or"Hime-Ko",meaning"SunshineChild".Ref.213[288],136[187], 12[21]Inanattempttoobtainmoresea-foodtofeedtheexpandingpopulation,agreatship-buildingeffortwas madein81B.C.Ref.222[296] 14.6.1.3KOREA MostofKoreawascontrolledbytheHanChineseatthistime,butthenorthernportionwasalliedwithManchuriain thenewstateofKoguryo. 14.6.1.4SOUTHEASTASIA AlreadycontrollingNorthVietnam,theChinesenowaddedcentralVietNamtotheirterritorywhichtheywereto maintainforcenturies.Noothersignicantchangesoccurred. ForwardtoTheIndianSubcontinent:0toA.D.100Section15.6 ChooseDifferentRegion 1.IntrotoEraSection14.1 2.AfricaSection14.2 3.AmericaSection14.9 4.CentralandNorthernAsiaSection14.5 5.EuropeSection14.4 6.TheNearEastSection14.3 7.PacicSection14.8 14.7TheFarEast:100B.C.to0 14 14.7.1THEFAREAST BacktoTheFarEast:200to101B.C.Section13.7 14 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat.

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220 CHAPTER14.100B.C.TO0 14.7.1.1CHINAANDMANCHURIAFormerHanDynastycontinued. AtitspeaktheHanEmpireunderWu-Tiwasexceedinglyprosperous,rivalingRomebothinsizeandwealth.The capitalcityCh'ang-anhad250,000inatotalpopulationofabout57,000,000.Whiletheprogressofmechanization wasimpededinGreeceandRomebythenumberofavailableslaves,Chinahadtoomanyefcientcoolies.Ref.260 [29].WenotedabovethatWu-TiexpandedintotheTarimBasininthewestbydefeatingtheHsiung-nuandthis pursuancecontinuedevenafterWu-Ti'sdeath.In61B.C.thechieftainofthesouthernHunscametoCh'ang-anto submitasanHanvassal,whilethenortherngroupcontinuedtobechasedfarwestwardintoSamarkand,theretobe nallydefeatedbyave-prongedHanforcein36B.C.ButinChinapropertheeconomiccontrolslapsedandnepotism andcronyismresultedinthelossoftheimperialfamily'spower. Atypeofnationaluniversityhadcomeintoexistencetopreparemenforbureaucraticcareersandbytheendofthe centurytheenrollmenthadreached3,000.IntheHanmilitiasystemallmalesregisteredformilitaryserviceat21years ofageandwereeligibleforservicebetweentheagesof23and56years.Allegedlyeverymalewastohavemilitary serviceinhishomecountyonemontheveryyearandoneyearofcontinuousservicesometimeinaguardunit,but soonapracticeofpayingpoorermentoserveone'stimebecamestandardpractice.Inadditiontousingcowrieshells ascurrency,coppercoins,latercalledsapekesbytheEuropeans,cameintouse.Bothofthesecompetedwithsalt andgrainasamediumofexchange.Ref.260[29].InthiscenturytheChinesedrilleddeepholes,presumablyfor water,inSzechwanandtheirdrillingmethodswerecopiedcenturieslaterintheUnitedStates.Ref.213[288] InearlyChinathelawsrequiredpunishmentsandtorturethatequaledthatseeninEuropeatamuchlaterperiod. Deathpenaltieswerecarriedoutbybeheadingorbychoppingtheoffenderintwoatthewaist.Incasesoftreasonor someequallyseriouscrime,alltheoffender'srelativesmightalsobeputtodeath.Lesseroffendersmightsimplybe mutilatedbytattooing,amputationofnoseorfeetorcastration.Impriconmentwasrare,buthardlaborongovernment constructionwasusedforminoroffenders.InEmperorCh'eng'sreign-7B.C.authoritywasdelegatedtohis mother'sfamily,theWangclan.Ssu-meCh'ienwasagreatChinesehistorianofthisera.Ref.8[14],101[146]. InManchuriaanewstateofkoguryowasfoundedinthiscenturyandsoonalsoincludednorthernKorea. 14.7.1.2JAPAN TheYayishikiCulturecontinuedintothiscenturywithricecultureappearingabout100B.C.Animismandtotemism, sexandancestorworshipsatisedthereligiousneedsoftheseearlyJapanese.Outofthelatterworshipcametheoldest ofciallivingreligionsofthenationShinto.Thisfaith,calledtheWayoftheGods,tookthreeforms;thedomestic cultoffamilyancestors,thecommunalcultofclanancestorsandthestatecultoftheimperiallinewithitsfounding gods. AMongoliancastawaygrouponKyushumultipliedsorapidlyasfarmersthattheytookoverallthearablelandonthe islandandwhilesomeoftheaboriginesbecameserfs,otherstooktothehillsfromwheretheycontinuedtoraidthe farmersforcenturies.ThenewKyushucommunitywasorganizedasalooseconfederacyofvillages,eachruledby itsownmatriarchorfertilitymother,andthewomanleaderofthemostpowerfultownwascalledtheSunGoddess. EarlyChinestraderscalledherPime-ko,orHime-Ko,meaningSunshineChild.Ref.213[288],136[187], 12[21].Inanattempttoobtainmoresea-foodtofeedtheexpandingpopuations,agreatship-buildingeffortwas madein81B.C.Ref.222. 14.7.1.3KOREA MostofKoreawascontrolledbytheHanChineseatthistime,butthenorthernportionwasalliedwithManchuriain thenewstateofKoguryo. 14.7.1.4SOUTHEASTASIA AlreadycontrollingNorthVietnam,theChinesenowaddedcentralVietNamtotheirterritorywhichtheywereto maintainforcenturies.Noothersignicantchangesoccurred.

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221 ForwardtoTheFarEast:0toA.D.100Section15.7 ChooseDifferentRegion 1.IntrotoEraSection14.1 2.AfricaSection14.2 3.AmericaSection14.9 4.CentralandNorthernAsiaSection14.5 5.EuropeSection14.4 6.TheIndianSubcontinentSection14.6 7.TheNearEastSection14.3 8.PacicSection14.8 14.8ThePacic:100B.C.to0 15 14.8.1THEPACIFIC BacktoThePacic:200to101B.C.Section13.8 TruePolynesiansprobablycolonizedtheHawaiinIslandslessthan2,000yearsagobutpossiblyinthisrstcentury beforeChrist.SimilarlytheMarquesasandSocietyIslandswerepossiblyreachednearthebeginningoftheChristian erabutintheabsenceofmoreprecisedatingweshallpostponefurtherdiscussionofthisdebatableissueuntilthe 4thcentury.Asindicatedinpreviouschapterstheseislandswerealreadyinhabitedeitherbyanearlierwaveacross thenorthernPacicfromtheNewGuinearegionorfromAmerica.PotsherdshavebeenexcavatedintheMarquesas groupandonislandsnearFijiandtheyareofaSouthAmericannotaMelanesiantype.Thecottonplantthehybrid 26chromosometypefromMexicoandPeruspreadfromtheGalapagosIslandstoFijibutnofarther. ShardsofpotteryhavebeenfoundontheGalapagosofftheSouthAmericancoastdatingto2,000yearsago,but whetherthismeansapermanentsettlementormerelythatsomeshipshadtakentemporaryrefugethereisunknown. Ref.176[242],95[140] ForwardtoThePacic:0toA.D.100Section15.8 ChooseDifferentRegion 1.IntrotoEraSection14.1 2.AfricaSection14.2 3.AmericaSection14.9 4.CentralandNorthernAsiaSection14.5 5.EuropeSection14.4 6.TheFarEastSection14.7 7.TheIndianSubcontinentSection14.6 8.TheNearEastSection14.3 14.9America:100B.C.to0 16 14.9.1AMERICA BacktoAmerica:200to101B.C.Section13.9 15 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat. 16 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat.

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222 CHAPTER14.100B.C.TO0 14.9.1.1NORTHAMERICA 14.9.1.1.1THEFARNORTHANDCANADA AllacrossnorthernCanadaasfarnorthasEllesmereIslandandnorthernGreenlandanddowntothenorthernshores ofHudsonBayandtheeastsideoftheUngavaPeninsula,theDorsetpeoplecontinuedtothrive.Theycarvedgures ofanimalsfromwalrus'stusksandbone,decoratingthemwithpeculiaroutermarkswhichSchledermannRef.189 [259]hascalledanoutlineofanimals'skeletons.Inthepicturesheshows,however,ithardtoidentifytrueskeletal structuresandthemarksaremorereminiscenttothiswriterofthelunarnotationsofancientEuropeansdescribed previouslybyMarchack.Ref.139[192]ThenorthwestAmericanIndiansoftheCanadianwaterwayscontinuedin activeexistenceatthistime. 14.9.1.1.2THEUNITEDSTATES AccordingtoBarryFell'soriginalhypothesisNorthAmericantradefromsouthernEuropeceasedaftertheconquest ofBrittanyB.C.andtheBattleofActiumB.C.becausetheRomanshadnonavyandneedednoneandthe memoryofAmericawaslost 17 .Inhislatestbookof1980,however,FellRef.66[97]revisesthismarkedly,having allegedlyrecentlybeendelugedwithndingofEuropeanRomancoinsandrockinscriptionsinagreatvarietyof placesinNorthAmerica.RockengravingswhichhebelievestobecopiesofmultiplecoinsmintedlocallyinSpain about20B.C.inimitationofRomancoinsofthesameeraandbearingportraitsofCaesarAugustus,havebeenfound atCastleGardens,Wyoming.FellisconvincedthatthisWyomingsitewasactuallyanearlybankandcenteroftrade withcustomersusingCeltiberianGaedelicastheirmainlanguage.HehypothesizesthatpeopleofWyomingtraded withCeltiberiansandtheirIndianwives,afterthelatterhadmigratedacrossthecontinentfromNewEnglandtoBritish ColumbiaandthentonorthwestUnitedStates.WestArkansasandOklahomahavealsoyieldedcoinswhichseemto tintothissamecategory.Lackingfurtherconrmation,thereadermaymakehisowninterpretation. InthecentralandeasternUnitedStatestherewascontinuedHopewellexpansionwithadistinctiveritualandartistic tradition,probablyindicatingalooselyknitgroupofsocietieswithcommonreligiousandartisticconventions.The Gulfstates,too,wereheavilyinhabitedprobablyasfarbackasthisera.InsouthernColoradotheAnasazipeople enteredintowhatwehavealreadylabeledtheBasket-makerperiod.ExcavationsatDurangoshowbothcaveandopen villagesites,withevidenceofmaizegrowingaswellashuntingactivities.Basketsweremadeofplantbersloosely plaited,coiledorstitchedanddecoratedinredandblack.Ref.215[290],45[66],210[283] TheMogollonCultureinsouthernNewMexicoandeasternArizonaapparentlydevelopedfromtheCochiseCulture andwasmanifestedbyasedentarylifestyleutilizingaplainpotteryandexistingonmaizealongwiththefruitsof somegatheringandhunting.Thename"Mogollon"isonelatelyapplied 18 ,andrstgiventoarangeofmountains runningalmosteast-westacrosscentralArizonaandNewMexico,markingthesouthernedgeofthenorthernhigh plateaucountry.SouthofthisMogollonridgetheterraindropsseveralthousandfeetintothesouthernbasinwith meagerrainfallandhotdesertvalleyswithdesertgrasses,mesquiteandcactus.Inthemiddleofthatbasinthere arenorth-southrunningmountainrangesgoingfromNewMexicowelldownintoOldMexico.About100B.C.the MogollonIndianshavebeenidentiedasinhabitingthisregion.Theycontinuedtoliveinthatlargeareafor1,500 years,constantlyimprovingtheircropsandtools. AtaboutthesametimeanothergroupofIndians,whomayhavebeenstillanotherbranchoftheancientCochise, settledinthehotaridvalleysofthelowerGilaandSaltrivers.TheyhavebecomeknownastheHohokam 19 ,surviving throughtheirdescendants,thePimaandthePapago.TheHohokamlivedinArizonafor1,200years,buildingat Snaketownmorethan5,000housesatarateof400ayear.Ref.45[66],210[283] 17 From AmericaB.C. byBarryFellRef.65[96]. 18 Thenamewastakenfroman18thcenturySpanishofcial. 19 InthemodernPimalanguagethismeans"thosethathavegonebefore".

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223 14.9.1.2MEXICO,CENTRALAMERICAANDTHECARIBBEAN TheOlmeccivilizationseemstohavefadedoutatthistimeandnoclearcutexplanationhaseverbeengiven.But intheValleyofMexicothebrilliantcity-stateofTeotihuacnbegantoblossom.Originallyasettlementofmoderate sizesurroundedbyanumberofsimilarsettlementsthiswassoonafulledgedcityandnotjustaceremonialcenter likemanyofthoseoftheOlmecs.Therewerelargescaleirrigationworks,cultivatedtomatoesandpeanutsaswellas maizeandothergrainsandthedomesticatedturkey.ThereisevidenceofafarungtradewithotherareasofCentral AmericaandperhapstheNorthAmericansettlements.FarthersouthinGuatemalatheMayanpeoplecontinuedto expand,beginningwhathasbeencalledtheClassicalAgeandthepeoplesofCostaRicaandPanamalivedaboutas describedinpreviouschapters.Ref.215[290],64[94] RecentexcavationsattheancienttownofCerrosinmodernBelizeindicatethatabout50B.C.theMayainhabitants undertookamassiveurbanrenewal.Thisinvolvedtheconstructionofamassiveurbancomplexwithlargeopenplazas, greatpyramidsand103publicbuildingsanddwellingsarrangedinacarefulplanwiththeentirecentersurroundedby acanal1,200metersinlength.ApparentlyallthiswasundertakenbecauseoftheexcellenttradingpositionofCerros onaYucatanbayatthemouthoftheNewRiver.Thelargestpyramidhadsome30,000cubicmetersofrubblell, twicethesizeofafamousNorthAcropolisatTikalandrepresentsaconsiderableengineeringfeat.Ref.164[223] 14.9.1.3SOUTHAMERICA MultipleculturescontinuedintheareaofGreaterPeru.OnthenortherncoasttherecontinuedtobetheVicusSociety. Theirpottery,featuringresistivei.e.negativepainting,resembledtheGallinazo.Inthemiddlesouthcoastthe polychromepotteryandembroideryfabricsoftheNazcadevelopedaboutthistimebutactualdatingisdifcultbecause oftheextensivelootingofancientdwellingsitesthathastakenplaceinthepast.TheTiahuanacoSocietycontinued tothriveinthehighAndesintheLakeTitacacodistrict.ContactbetweenthesehighlandersandtheNazcaandHuari peoplesofthelowerlandsundoubtedlyoccurredwithexchangeofpotterydyesandothermaterials.Thetwoareasare only120difcultmilesapart.Ref.45[66],62[91] ForwardtoAmerica:0toA.D.100Section15.9 ChooseDifferentRegion 1.IntrotoEraSection14.1 2.AfricaSection14.2 3.CentralandNorthernAsiaSection14.5 4.EuropeSection14.4 5.TheFarEastSection14.7 6.TheIndianSubcontinentSection14.6 7.TheNearEastSection14.3 8.PacicSection14.8

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224 CHAPTER14.100B.C.TO0

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Chapter15 0toA.D.100 15.10toA.D.100 1 15.1.10TOA.D.100 Backwardto100B.C.to0Section14.1 ContrarytowhatdevoutChristiansmightliketobelieve,thebirthofChristhadverylittleeffectontheworldatlarge duringthisrstonehundredyears.PaganRomecontinuedtodominatewesternEurope,theMediterraneanandnorth Africa,dividingtheMiddleEastwiththegreatParthianEmpire.AnewpowerdevelopedinsouthcentralAsiaandpart ofIndia-theKushanEmpire,whilethefaradvancedChinesecontinuedundertheHanDynasty.Sincethischapter doesbegintheChristianera,however,weshallstartourregulardiscussionsoftheChristianchurchatthistime. 15.1.1.1THECHRISTIANCHURCH InthisrstcenturyPaulwhohadactuallyneverseenthelivingJesusandothersgraduallychangedthesimple teachingsofJesusintothecomplexsacerdotalreligionofChristianity,mergingtheprincipleideasofmanyoriental faithsintothenewreligion.EachofthegreatcultsoftheMediterraneanregionhad"mysteries"whichwereusually ceremoniesofpurication,sacrice,initiation,revelationandregenerationcenteringaboutthedeathandresurrection ofthegod.Allsectsassumedthepossibilityofmagicandmiracles,aswellasthepromiseofpersonalimmortality,of anendlesshappinessafteralifeofsubjection,povertyortoil.Thiswasthenalandirresistibleattractionoftheoriental faithsandoftheChristianitythatabsorbedandnallysucceededthem.Theentirewesternworldseemedreadyand preparedforthenewChristbutinitiallythefollowingwasconnedlargelytoGreeksandtourbanmerchants.Ref. 48[72],213[288] Veryrecentlysomefty-twopapyrustexts,includinggospelsandothersecretwritings,somedatingfromthisearly Christianera,werefoundnearNagHammadiintheupperEgyptiandesertinanearthenwarejar.Theseso-called "Gnostic"writingsdescribemanyofthepeopleandeventsfoundintheNewTestament,includingmanyalleged quotationsfromJesus,butwithagreatlydifferentperspectivethanfoundinorthodoxChristianity.Thesetextswere apparentlyhiddenatsomelatertimewhentheirproponentswereunderindictmentas"heretics".Thewritingsincluded, forexample,the"GospelofMary",whichdepictsMaryMagdaleneasonefavoredwithvisionsandinsightsurpassing evenPeter.SomeoftheseGnosticGospelsdiscussthepossibilityoftheultimateGodbeingfeminineandmostindicate abeliefthatJesusneverwashumanandexistedentirelyasaspirit. TheGnosticsgaveabetterplaceforwomeninreligionandhadnohierarchyofelders,priests,bishops,etc.,feeling thateachindividuallookedwithinhimselfforGodandguidance.Dr.ElainePagels,authorofthetextdescribingthese recentnds,feelsthatthisindividualismintheirphilosophyisthereasonthatthe"orthodox"church,withitssocialand 1 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat. 225

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226 CHAPTER15.0TOA.D.100 politicalorganization,wonoutovertheGnostics.Ref.163[222]StillfurthersourcesofearlyChristiandoctrine willbediscussedunderNORTHEASTAFRICA,below.ContinuetoChristianChurch2ndCenturySection16.1 ForwardtoA.D.101to200Section16.1 ChooseRegion 1.AfricaSection15.2 2.AmericaSection15.9 3.CentralandNorthernAsiaSection15.5 4.EuropeSection15.4 5.TheFarEastSection15.7 6.TheIndianSubcontinentSection15.6 7.TheNearEastSection15.3 8.ThePacicSection15.8 15.2Africa:0toA.D.100 2 15.2.1AFRICA BacktoAfrica:100B.Cto0Section14.2 15.2.1.1NORTHEASTAFRICA InthesouthofthisregionthekingdomofMeroecontinueditsiron-makingandgoldproduction,unmolested.The kingdomofAxuminnorthEthiopiaandsouthwesternArabianowbecameastrongempire,withacapitalcityofthe samenameandAdulisnowMassawaastheRedSeaportandwithawealthfoundedonivory.Axumwasapagan cityofpalacesandtempleswhichnowhadmanyJew 3 andGreekimmigrants.ThecountryhadmanyGreekinsignias andaGreekeducatedking.Ref.45[66],175[241],83[123] EgyptcontinuedunderRomanrule.InAlexandriatheJewishpopulationincreasedreachingperhapsto40%ofthe totalofthecity.AmongthosewastheJewishphilosopherandtheologian,Philo,whodevelopedtheLogosideasofthe GreekStoicsintoaconceptwhichhascomestraightdownthroughthecenturiesintheChristiantheology."God,in Philo'swritings,istheessentialbeingoftheworld,incorporeal,eternal,indescribable;reasoncanknowhisexistence, butcanascribenoqualitytohim." 4 Inordertocreatetheworldandestablishrelationswithman,PhilofeltthatGod usedagroupofintermediarybeings.WhilethesehadbeencalleddiamonesbysomeGreeksandIdeasbyPlato,they werecalledangelsbytheJews.Althoughpopularlyconceivedaspersons,PhilothoughttheyexistedonlyintheDivine MindsasthethoughtsandpowersofGod,suchpowersastheStoicscalledLogos,whichcreatedandthenguidedthe world."PhilosometimesthinksoftheLogosasaperson.InapoeticmomenthecalledtheLogos'Therst-begotten ofGod',sonofGodbythevirginWisdom,andsaysthatthroughtheLogosGodhasrevealedhimselftoman.Since thesoulispartofGod,itcanthroughreasonrisetoamysticvision,notquiteofGod,butofLogos 5 .DurantRef.48 [72]feltthatPhilo'sLogoswasoneofthemostinuentialideasinthehistoryofthought,althoughitsantecedents inHeracleitus,PlatoandtheStoicsareobvious."PhilowasacontemporaryofChrist,butheapparentlyneverheard ofhimalthoughhesharedunknowinglyinformingChristiantheology.PhilotriedtomediatebetweenHellenismand Judaism.FromtheJudaicpointofviewhefailed;fromthehistoricalpointofviewhesucceeded,andtheresultwas therstchapteroftheGospelofJohn. 6 DuringtheperiodoftheRomanadministrationofEgypttheirrigationsystemswereraisedtogreatefciency.While thegovernmentremainedRoman,thepeopleremainedEgyptianandJewishinthecities.AdditionalNotesp.227 2 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat. 3 TheFalashaoftodayarethedescendantsoftheseJewsRef.83[123] 4 AsquotedfromDurantRef.48[72],page501 5 ThetranslationsoftheseancientwritingarethoseofFellRef.86[129],page54,andtomyknowledgenototherwiseconrmed 6 QuotationtakenfromDurantRef.48[72],page502

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227 15.2.1.2NORTHCENTRALANDNORTHWESTAFRICA RomanCarthagewasthecapitalofproconsularAfricaandsecondonlytoRome,itself,inthewesternMediterranean. Itbecameacenterforeducationandsoonastrong-holdforearlyChristianity.Plutarch,livinginthiscentury,allegedly describedvoyagesoftheCarthaginianstoNorthAmericaEpeiros,inhislanguageviaIcelandOgygiaandareturn routefollowingtheanti-tradewindsaroundlatitude40degreesnorth,backtoSpainandCarthage.DiodorusofSicily describedasouthernroutewhenhespokeofthediscoveryofanislandbyCarthaginianswhichmayhavebeenCuba. Ref.84[124],66[97] TherulerofMauretanianorthernMoroccoandwesternAlgeria,anotherPtolemy,wasmurderedinA.D.40onthe orderoftheRomanCaligula,butitdidnotdestroytheBerberspiritofindependenceandtheynevercompletelygave uptotheRomans.Thedromedary,one-humpcamelsrstwerebroughttotheSaharainthiscenturybuttheywerenot usedtoanygreatextentforanothersevenhundredyearswiththeArabinvasion.Ref.260[29] 15.2.1.3SUBSAHARANAFRICA InWestAfricaontheinlanddeltaofthegreatNigerRiverthereexistedatthistime,andprobablyithadexistedforover twohundredyears,thevillageofJenne-jeno,whichhasjustrecentlybeenexcavated.Situatedonlyabout300miles upriverfromTimbuktuitisprobablethateveninthisearlytimetherewerebeginningtraderelationshipsbywater. PotteryinusethroughthisperiodwasofadesignseenseveralcenturiesearlierinthesouthernSahara,indicatingthat theoriginalpopulationmayhaveoriginatedthere.Weshallhearmuchmoreaboutthiscommunitywhichdidnot reachitspeakofdevelopmentuntilaboutA.D.100.Ref.268[189] MadagascarhadprobablybeenunknowntomenuntilaboutthetimeofChrist,whenIndonesiansarrivedwithoutriggercanoesandeventuallysails.Beginninginthiscenturythesesea-farersbrought"wet-zone"cropsliketheAsian andCocoyamsandbananatoMadagascarandthustoEastAfrica 7 .Madagascarhadprobablybeenunknowntomen untilaboutthetimeofChrist,whentheIndonesiansarrivedwithout-riggercanoesandeventuallysails.Withtheirnew cropstheNegroesfounditpossibletostartmovingintothehumidforestsandlow-lyingrivervalleys,thusbeginning thesettlementofmorecentralAfrica.TheBantu-speakingpeoplecontinuedtheirslowmigrationdowntheeastcoast ofAfrica.TherewasironsmeltinginKenyabyA.D.100.Ref.222[296] ForwardtoAfrica:A.D.101to200Section16.2 ChooseDifferentRegion 1.IntrotoEraSection15.1 2.CentralandNorthernAsiaSection15.5 3.EuropeSection15.4 4.TheFarEastSection15.7 5.TheIndianSubcontinentSection15.6 6.TheNearEastSection15.3 7.PacicSection15.8 NOTE :Fromthiscenturyonuntilthe19thcenturyrsttheAksumiteandthentheChristianAmharawere expansionist,seizinglandandincorporatingpeople.Ref.311[40] 15.3TheNearEast:0toA.D.100 8 15.3.1THENEAREAST BacktoTheNearEast:100B.C.to0Section14.3 7 HallettRef.83[123]putsthisatthe4thcenturyC.E. 8 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat.

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228 CHAPTER15.0TOA.D.100 15.3.1.1ARABIAANDJORDAN AsdirectvoyagesacrossthefullwidthoftheArabianSeahadbecomeroutine,tradeacrossthepeninsulaincreased, linkingAlexandriawithIndia.TheHimyariteArabsabsorbedOatabanaboutA.D.50andtheHadramautaboutA.D. 100,whilefarthernorththeNabateanEmpirewasconqueredbyRome.AcrossthegulffromEthiopiatheKingdom ofAxumdevelopedasapartofitsEthiopiancounterpart,butonArabicsoil.AttheendofthecenturyChristianity graduallylteredintothepeninsula.Ref.136[187] 15.3.1.2MEDITERRANEANCOASTALAREASOFISRAELANDLEBANON RomeformallyannexedPalestineinA.D.6andinA.D.44JudeawasnallyplacedunderdirectruleofRoman procurators.TheearlycenturyistheperiodofJesus'teachingofuniversalloveandforgiveness,butingeneralthe Jewswerenotwonover.TherstoftheRomano-JewishWarsoccurredinthelastthirdofthecenturyA.D.66when theJews,underJohnofGiscala,revoltedagainstRomanmisrule.ItendedinagreatbattleA.D.70with600,000 to1,000,000Jewskilled,theirtempledestroyedandthesurvivorsforcedtoundergoanother"dispersion".Whenthe newChristianshadfailedtosupportthisJewishuprising,anti-Christianriotsalsobrokeout.AftertheRomanvictory, theSadduceesdisappearedentirelyandthePharisees,previouslyasortofpriest-eldergroup,nowbecametheRabbis, orteachersofthepeople.OverallatthattimetherewereintheRomanpopulationJewsintheratioof7%,anumber twicethatoftheJewsintheUnitedStatesintheMid-twentiethcentury.Ref.8[14],222[296] 15.3.1.3IRAQANDSYRlA ThiscenturywasoneofrelativestabilityalongthefrontierdividingtheParthianandRomanEmpires.Syriaalthough perhapsitwasEgyptwasprobablythesiteoftheinventionofatechniqueofglassblowingsothatsoonglassutensils wereingeneraluseallovertheMediterranean.ChristianitycametoMalulainthemountainsjustnorthofDamascus andstilltodaysome1,500Christianslivethere,speakingWesternAramic,thelanguageofJesus.Adjacentcavesmay havebeenusedinthisrstcenturyasplacesofrefuge.Ref.136[187],118[95] 15.3.1.4IRAN:PERSIA PersiawasthehuboftheParthianEmpire.ThepeoplespokePahlaviandwroteinAramiconparchment,butunfortunatelynotalineoftheParthianliteraturehasbeenpreserved.Theywereeithertoorichortoopoortoindulge inliterature,buttheydidexcelinself-adornment,withbothsexescurlingtheirhairandenjoyingelaborateclothing. Theyhunted,ateanddrankabundantly,werebravewarriorsandusuallyhonorablefoes.Polygamywaspracticed andwomenwereveiledandsecluded,withdivorceeasyforeithersex.Theywereperhapslesscivilizedthanthe AchaemenidPersiansbutmorehonorablegentlementhantheRomans.Theyweretolerantofreligionswhilethey worshippedthesunandthemoonandpreferredtheGodMithrastoAhuraMazda,muchaslaterChristianspreferred ChristtoYahveh.TheArsacidDynastyruledfromjustbeforethebeginningofthiscenturyfortwohundredyears. Ref.48[72] 15.3.1.5ASIAMINOR MostofAsiaMinorwasrmlyunderRomanrulewithCommagenefallingtothembyA.D.17.Armeniawasdivided andactuallywasanotherfrontierbetweentheRomansandtheParthianswhiletheculturalorientationofthatcountry wasdenitelytowardPersiaandParthia.Inthemiddleofthecentury,inNero'sreigninRome,hislegionshadaten yearwarwithParthiaoverArmenia.ThisendedinA.D.63withascionoftheParthianroyalhouserecognizedasking ofArmenia,althoughunderRomansuzerainty.SevenyearslaterVespasianmovedsomeeasterntroopsfromSyriato fortsontheupperEuphratestoconsolidatetheeasternfrontieragainstArmeniaandParthia,thuspavingthewayfor laterexpansionbyTrajan.Ref.176[242],136[187] ForwardtoTheNearEast:A.D.101to200Section16.3 ChooseDifferentRegion

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229 1.IntrotoEraSection15.1 2.AfricaSection15.2 3.AmericaSection15.9 4.CentralandNorthernAsiaSection15.5 5.EuropeSection15.4 6.TheFarEastSection15.7 7.TheIndianSubcontinentSection15.6 8.PacicSection15.8 15.4Europe:0toA.D.100 9 15.4.1EUROPE BacktoEurope:100B.C.to0Section14.4 Aninterestingbitoftriviaisthatwhilefermenteddrinkshadbeenknownandusedbymankindforthousandsof years,theprocessofdistillingwasdiscoveredonlyinthisrstcenturyoftheChristianera.TheGaelic uisgebeatha wascorruptedto"whiskey"andtheGermanic Gebrannterwein or Brandewin meaning"burntwine"waseventually Anglicizedto"brandy".Ref.211[284] 15.4.1.1SOUTHERNEUROPE 15.4.1.1.1EASTERNMEDITERRANEANISLANDS ApartoftheRomanEmpire. 15.4.1.1.2GREECE Thecity-statesofGreececontinuedtogovernthemselvesalthoughtheoreticallytheywereunderRomanrule.They werepoorbyvirtueofRomantaxationandwerealmostdestitutemorally,spirituallyandphysically.ThiswasthetimeofPlutarchandofEpictetus,theslavephilosopherwhocombinedtheconceptsoftheStoicsandCynicsinto manyideasparallelingtheattitudesofearlyChristianity,includingtheGoldenRule.ThusStoicism,originallythe proudandscornfulphilosophyofaristocrats,founditsnalandmosteloquentvoiceinaslave.Itsdoctrineofanal conagrationoftheworld,itsrejectionofallpleasuresoftheesh,itshumblesurrendertothehiddenwillofGod, allwerepreparingforthetheologyandethicsofChristianity.TheageoftheCyricspavedthewayfortheChristian monks. CorinthbecamethewealthiestcityofGreecewhileAthensremainedanintellectualcenter.Eleusis,acrosstheAegean Sea,becameareligiouscenterofsacramentsand"mysteries".Ref.48[72] 15.4.1.1.3UPPERBALKANS TheRomanprovinceofPannonia,themostsouthernportionofwhichcomprisespresentdayYugoslavia,wasestablishedinA.D.9afterdefeatofthenativeIllyrians. Moesia,whichhadneverbeenpenetratedbyGrecianinuence,wasorganizedasaprovinceinA.D.44.Theupper Balkansnowshowedincreasedactivitiesofallkinds.Therewasconsiderableagriculture,miningandherding,aswell ascommercewithAsiathroughtheportofSalonikainMacedonia.Greatcitieswerebuiltandroadsconstructed,such astheViaEgnatia,thatranacrosstheAlbanianalpstoSalonikaandConstantinople.InDaciaRomaniatherewas astrongtribeofthesamenamewhowereneversubduedbytheRomansinthiscentury.InA.D.85theysurgedout acrosstheDanubeintoMoesianowSerbiaandpartofBulgariabutwerepushedbackbyDomitian.TheRomans 9 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat.

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230 CHAPTER15.0TOA.D.100 couldgonofurther,however,astheMarcomanniandQuadi,whohadoccupiedBohemiawestofDacia,joinedthe frayanddefeatedDomitian.ApeacewassignedwiththeDacianking,Decebalus,andhesubsequentlyturnedonthe Germanictribesanddefeatedthem.IazygianswerealsosqueezinginbetweenQuadiandDaciansandRoxolaniwere approachingDaciafromtheeast.Intheareathattheydidcontrol,theRomansfoundThraciansusefulassoldiers, slavesandespeciallyasgladiators.Ref.206[83],48[72],136[187],171 15.4.1.1.4ITALY ThiswasacenturyofsomegreatandsomelesseremperorsofRomeinwhathasbeencalledthe"SilverAge"toindicatethatitwasnotquiteasgoodastheprevious"GoldenAge"underOctavian.TheJulio-ClaudianDynastycontinued underTIBERIUSClaudiusNerowhoreformedthegovernmentandlaw,advancedconstructionofpublicworks,elevatedthelegalstatusoftheprovincesandre-subduedandRomanizedGaulandBritain.Tiberius'reignhadbeen savedfromanyseriousParthianthreatbecauseofdynasticquarrelswithinParthia.InA.D.37whenTiberiuswasdyingheindicatedashissuccessorshisyounggrandsonTiberiusGemellusandthesurvivingsonofGermanicus,Gauius CaesarGermanicus.Thelattersoonputtheformertodeathandruledaloneas"CALIGULA",aprobablyinsane, megalomaniacgiventoexcessesandobscenitiesofallkinds.Hewasassassinatedin41andTiberiusCLAUDIUS Drususbecameemperor.Hisfourwiveswerehisundoingbutheactuallywasafairlyablemanandinstitutedsome deniteadministrativeimprovements. HewasfollowedbyNerowhobeganhisreignwellundertheguidanceofSeneca,butinspirithewasanactorandhad toplaythemonarchinthegrandmanner.Hewasrecklesslycrueltothearistocrats,butgeneroustothepoor,withthe possibleexceptionofthenewChristianswhowererstpersecutedaboutA.D.64,whenRomewasburned. ThereafterfollowedtheFlavianDynasty.Vespasianwasamanofsense,abilityandhonorwhodirectedthewar againstJudeaandestablishedtherstsystemofstateeducation.ThelastofthislinewasDomitianA.D.81-96who managedtheourishingempirewellduringagreatageofconstruction.Attheend,however,likemanyothers,he becameverycruel,deiedhimself,indulgedinsexualdiscrepanciesandbecameparanoidaboutpossibleconspiracies againsthim.ThroughoutthisagetherewasadecayofthenativereligioninRomeandthemultiplegodsofJove,Mars, Mercury,JupiterandothersbegantogivewaytotheStoicphilosophy.SeeGREECE,above Weshouldmentionsomeofthenon-politicalguresofthiscentury.SenecawasborninSpainin4B.C.andbecame acopiouswriter,tutortoandlaternancialbackertoNero.PlinytheElderA.D.23-79wasagreatmindofthe day,buthisbookNaturalHistorywithdissertationsonhumans,animals,metals,chemistry,medicineandastronomy, wasactuallyamonumenttoRomanignorance.Healsocompiledanencyclopediaciting150Romanand400Greek scholars,beforehewaskilledintheeruptionofthevolcanoVesuviusinA.D.79.OfinterestalsoisDeMateria Medicabya-Greekbotanist,PedaniosDioscorides,whohadservedasamilitarysurgeoninNero'sarmy.Hedetailed thepropertiesofsome600medicinalplantsinthistext,whichremainedanauthoritativeguidefor1,500years.Ref. 222[296]Ataboutthesametimeapatricianlayman,Celsus,triedtosummarizeallknowledge.Onlyeightofhis manybookshavesurvived,theDeMedicina,andeventhesewerelostforcenturies.Ref.125[173] Asnotedaboveitwasintheyear79thatMt.VesuviusontheBayofNapleseruptedafter16yearsofviolent surroundingearthquakes.ThecitiesofHeraculaneumandPompeiiwereburiedandthousandswerekilled.At95a severeformofmalariaappearedinthefarmingareassurroundingRomeandbecameendemicthereforthenext500 years.AtthattimetenaqueductssuppliedRomewith250milliongallonsofwaterperday.Ref.125[173],222 [296] ThroughoutthiscenturyRomanlegionscontinuedtoprobethefrontiersinGaulandintheeast,graduallyextending theempireboundaries.Commentsaboutsomeofthebattleswillbefoundintheparagraphsconcerningtheregions involved.ThepopulationoftheRomanEmpireatthistimewasabout54million,whilethatofHanChinawasan estimated57,600,000.RomenowbegantobreaktheArabmonopolyonspicesfromtheeastbybuildingshipslarge enoughtosailfromtheEgyptianSeatoIndia.Thejourneywasstillhazardousandatonetimepeppercost$125,000 per12ounces.AsthesecretofthechangingmonsoonwindsintheIndianOceanwassolved,however,pepperbecame cheaper.GoldwastakentoMalabartobeexchangedforpepper.PlinywrotethatRomanshipsofthisperiodsailed

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231 fromthemouthoftheGangestoCeyloninsevendays.Thesailingshipswereupto420feetlongwith50footbeams. Onecommercialshiphadroomfor200sailors,1,300passengersand93,000bushelsofwheat.Winesmadefromthe veryprolicItalianvineswerenowgenerallypreferredtotheGreekproduct.Ref.48[72],28[48],211[284], 95[140],185[253] AdditionalNotesp.233 15.4.1.2CENTRALEUROPE 15.4.1.2.1GERMANY InthiscenturytherewerethreetofourmillionpeoplelivingintheareaofmodernGermanywiththreemaindivisions oftheGermanictribes;TheeasternGermansontheOderandVistulawhoweretheVisigoths,Ostrogoths,Burgundians andVandals;thenorthernGermansofthesouthernpartofScandinavia,theBalticislandsandJutland;andthewestern onesbetweentheElbe,theNorthSea,theRhineandtheMain.ThelastgrouppreservedtheirancientGermanictraits andarethepresentdayGermans,Dutch,Flemings,Anglo-Saxonsand,inpart,theFrench. TheearlyGermanicpeopleslivedsimply,eatinghorsemeatandlivinginloghouses.Theyweremonogamousand heldslaves.Super-individualmotivationssuchaspatriotismorreligiousidealismwerestrangelylackingasthese peoplewerehighlypersonalistic.TheboundarylinebetweentheRomanEmpireandtheGermaniclandsbecame fairlywellestablishedattheRhine,butbattlesragedbackandforthfromtimetotime.DomitiancrossedtheRhineat MainztocampaignagainsttheChattiandearlyvictoriesallowedhimtoconstructaseriesoffortswhichwerelater extendedalongthecentralRhineandthenacrosstotheupperDanube.Wherethisjoinedanolderlineoffortsonthe Danubepartofthisforticationlinebecameknownas"thelimes". 15.4.1.2.2AUSTRIAANDHUNGARY TheEmperorTiberiusstartedasearlyasA.D.25tostrengthenthefrontierfortsoftheDanubelimestokeepout thenorthernbarbarianhordes.VindobonaViennawasoneofthreeimportantmilitarybasesoftheDanubeValley andwatchtowerswereerectedallalongtheriverandboatswereonconstantpatrol.Attheendofthecenturythere wasacompletelyfortiedmilitaryroadfromtheBodenSeeLakeConstantinetotheDanubelimes.Thesouthern portionofwhatisnowAustriaandHungary,alongwiththewesternBalkans,wasincludedintheRomanprovinceof Pannonia. CZECHOSLAVAKIA Aswenotedearlier,theMarcomanniandQuadiGermanictribeshadoccupiedtheareaofBohemiaandthenwent southtohelptheDaciansdefeatDomitian,slowingdowntheRomanadvanceinthisarea.TheDaciansthenturnedon theGermans,however,anddrovethemfromtheterritory. 15.4.1.2.3SWITZERLAND AllunderRomancontrol. 15.4.1.2.4WESTERNEUROPE 15.4.1.2.4.1SPAINANDPORTUGAL AllofthisareaalsowasRomancontrolled.Inadditiontoslaves,therewereseveralgroupsoffreemeninRoman Spain-landholdingaristocrats,amiddleclassofmerchants,professionalpeopleandbureaucrats,manualworkers, soldiersandsmiths.TheSenecafamilyofRomehadoriginallycomefromCordoba.Ref.196[269]

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232 CHAPTER15.0TOA.D.100 15.4.1.2.4.2FRANCE TheGaulsofFranceprogressivelyreachedhigherlevelsofcultureandwereenfranchisedasaprovinceoftheRoman Empire.ThomasRef.213[288]saysthataboutA.D.100theCeltsinventedthemetal-hooped,woodenbarrel whichchangedthewineindustrygreatlysincethedrinkcouldbestoredmuchbetterinbarrelsthaninemphorae.He doesnotsaywhichCelticgroupmadethisprogress,butweknowthatadvancesintheGaulicwineindustryoffered suchachallengetotheItalianvineyardsthatDomitianorderedhalfthevinesintheRhoneregionuprooted. 15.4.1.2.4.3THENETHERLANDSANDBELGIUM TheBatavioftheNetherlandswerealliedwiththeRomansuntilA.D.70whenachieftaincalledCivilisrevolted, buildingalineoffortsalongthesouthernbankoftheRhinetomarkoffhisownempire.TheFrisiansstayedinthe northina"no-man'sland".Ref.175[241] 15.4.1.2.4.4BRITISHISLES RomeconqueredBritaininthiscenturybutitwasnoteasy.IttookaboutfourdecadestocompletelyRomanize EnglandaftertheA.D.43invasionbythearmyofClaudius,usingfourRomanlegionsoutof29intheentireempire, eachlegioncontainingabout5,600men.Ref.18[31]BoadiceaorBoudicca,awidowedqueenoftheIceni tribebecameafamousheroinebyleadinghertribeagainsttheRomansinEastAngliaasshemovedagainstvarious RomanizedtownsinA.D.61andmassacredall,atotalofabout70,000people,including30,000to40,000inLondon alone.ShewasnallydefeatedinaterriblebattlebySuetonius,whohadonly10,000fullyarmedmenagainstsome 80,000Britons,buttheseincludedwomenandchildren.EmperorClaudiusnallymanagedtohaveelevenBritish kingssurrendertohimatColchester. AtthisperiodtheCelticBritonsstillfollowedtheirDruidphilosophersinareligionthatapparentlyinvolvedhuman sacrices.TheCeltshadthreegroupsoflearnedmen: 1.Bards,whocomposedandpreservedpoetryandmusic 2.Vates,whowerepriestsresponsibleforcarryingoutsacricestothegods 3.Druids,whostudiednaturalscienceandphilosophy MylesDillon,whowasaprofessorofCelticattheUniversityofDublin,contendedthattheDruidsshouldbelikened totheBrahminsinIndia,sincetheycarriedouttheirprofessionsincludingteaching,study,poetryandlawinasimilar way 10 JuliusCaesarwrotethattheCelticDruidshadknowledgeofthestars,theuniverse,thedimensionsoftheearth andotherrelatedmatters.Standingstonesinlinearorcirculargroupingsservingasastronomicalmarkingsarefound inallCelticlands.Ref.65[96] PerhapsitwasinthiscenturythatthePictsnallygroupedthemselvesintwodominanttribes;oneinthenorthto becalledinthenextcentury"Caledonii"bytheRomans,andsecondlyasoutherntribeofthesouth,latercalled "Maeatae".TheRomanhistorian,Tacitus,saysthatinthiscenturytheRomansfoughtagreatbattleofMons Grampius 11 againstheavylegged,tall,red-hairedmenwhofoughtsavagelywithlongswordsandroundshields, ledbyamancalled"Calgacus,theSwordsman" 12 EarlyCelticIrelandhadnotwritinguntilthe4thcenturyC.E.,andtheearlyhistorythatdescendedorallythroughthe centuriescontainssomuchmythandlegendinthesagasthatitisdifculttoseparatefactfromction.Apparentlyin oldCelticfashion,youngmenofupperclasswereconsideredtobemenat16or17,inessence"knights",andtheyhad todemonstratetheirmaturitybyraidingenemyterritoryforcattleandhumanheads.ItissaidthatthemenofUlster didnotkeeptheskullsofvictimsastrophiesbutonlytheirbrains,formedintolittleballswithgypsum.Themenliked tosit,eatanddrinktogetherinlargebanquethalls,withthewomenlookingonfromabalconyabove.Irelandhadve 10 AsrelatedbyHermRef.91[135],page146. 11 MountainsofcentralScotland. 12 AsrecordedbyPrebbleRef.170[234],page1.

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233 mainareas,eachcalleda"fth"-Ulsterinthenorth,Munsterinthesouth,Con-naughtinbetweenontheAtlanticside andMideandLeinsterontheeastside.Ref.91[135] PrinceCaradoc,called"Caractus"bytheRomans,wasaWelshleaderwhowasnotdefeateduntilA.D.50afterhewas betrayedbyQueenCartimandusoftheBrigantesRef.18[31]andhewastakenprisonertoRome.InWales,the Romansputinroadsandworkedcopperandgoldmines,buttheycouldnotpacifytheWelshwhowerenotactually consideredwonforRomeuntilA.D.78. 15.4.1.2.5SCANDINAVIA TherewasaproliferationofvariousGermanictribesthroughoutNorwayandDenmark.TheSwedishpeninsulawas dominatedbytheSuionetribe,whiletheislandofGotlandandotherBalticislandswereprobablyinhabitedchiey byGoths.SnorreSturlasson,alearnedIcelandicscribe,describedtheoriginandancestralhomeoftheScandinavian kingsasontheborderbetweenEuropeandAsiaalongtheeasternshoresoftheBlackSea. ThisworkhasbeentranslatedbyHoltsmarkandSeip 13 Snorregivesadetailed,geographicalaccountoftheearly migrationthroughEurope,passingfromSaxonyintoDenmark,SwedenandNorway,havingbeenchasedoutofthe CaucasusbytheravagingRomanarmiesandledbytheVikingKingOdin.Snorrenamedthirtykingsbeforereaching thegenerationofHaroldFairhair,ofwhichweshallhearmorelaterinthe9thcentury. RichStoneAgendsshowthatfromprehistorictimestheFinnishpeninsulahasbeenthemeetingplaceofpeoples fromRussia,ScandinaviaandcentralEurope.AncientLappandNordicstockswentnorth,asFinno-Ugrianspeaking peoplescameinfromtheeast. Inthecenturyunderconsiderationtherewerethreegroupsofpeople:TheKarelians,whowereadark,short,brachycephalicpeopleenteringfromthesoutheast;theTavastians,withhighcheek-bonescomingacrosstheGulfofFinland; andtheFinns,proper,fromthesouthernshoreoftheGulfofFinland.Ref.95[140],61[90]Allofthesenorthern peoplewereprobablyexcellentseamen.Aforty-twofoot,slender,rowingcanoehasbeenfoundinDenmarkdatingto thiscentury. 15.4.1.2.6EASTERNEUROPE 15.4.1.2.6.1BALTICAREA EstonianshadalreadysettledonthesouthernBalticcoast,whileGothsinhabitedtheBalticislandsandperhapssome ofthesouthshore,particularlyintheVistulaRiverbasinofPoland.EastwardweretheBaltsLetts,whoeventually becametheLatvians,LithuaniansandthenowextinctOldPrussians.Thelanguagewasanindividual,separateIndoEuropeangroupentity,neitherGermanicnorSlavic.TheRomanTacitus,writinginthiscentury,calledtheEstonians the"Aesti".Ref.48[72],175[241] 15.4.1.2.6.2RUSSIA MostofRussiawasstillsparselyinhabitedbutinthecentral,westernpartwerechieySlavsandfarthereastandsouth therewereHuns.IntheCaucasusanewSarmatianpeople,theAlans,mayhavebeenpushedtherebythewestern expansionoftheKushans,whomwehavemetinCentralAsia.TheseAlans,inturn,pushedthewestwardlying lazygiansentirelyoutofRussiaintotheTheissplainofmodernHungaryandYugoslavia.Ref.136[187] NOTE :TheBayofNapleswasabeautifulresortareawithpalatialsummervillasfortheemperorsandother highofcials.Becauseoftheseveregeologicalinstabilityoftheregion,however,earthquakesandadjacent volcanoeshavesubsequentlyresultedinasinkingofthelandandmarkedshiftingofthecityofNaples.Ref. 281[113] 13 TakenfromThorHeyerdahlRef.118[95],page127.

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234 CHAPTER15.0TOA.D.100 ForwardtoEurope:A.D.101to200Section16.4 ChooseDifferentRegion 1.IntrotoEraSection15.1 2.AfricaSection15.2 3.AmericaSection15.9 4.CentralandNorthernAsiaSection15.5 5.TheFarEastSection15.7 6.TheIndianSubcontinentSection15.6 7.TheNearEastSection15.3 8.PacicSection15.8 15.5CentralandNorthernAsia:0toA.D.100 14 15.5.1CENTRALANDNORTHERNASIA BacktoCentralandNorthernAsia:100toB.C.Section14.5 TheSilkRoadtradereacheditspeakinthiscentury,sustainingastringofstatesextendingalongthecaravanroads fromRomanSyriatothenorthwestborderofChina.InBactria,aunionofveYue-chitribestooktheKabutValley, drivingoutthePahlavasandsoonestablishinganempirewhichcomprisedallofAfghanistanaswellasnorthwestern India.TheKushanswereapparentlyoneclanoftheYue-chiwhichincludedorwassynonymouswiththeTocharians, buttheyweredominantinthisexpansionistdriveandtheentireempiresoonboretheirnameonly.TheseKushans evensentanembassyacrosstheCaspianSeaandintoArmeniatomeetwiththeRomansinA.D.58.Theempirewas ameltingpot,withIndian,Chinese,centralAsianandHelleno-Romancultureandtheircoinsshowedawiderangeof deities,someHellenisticHeliols,Hephaistos,IranianMithra,NanaandIndianSiva,Buddha.Ref.140[190], 8[14],19[32] TheKushanspushedtheiradministrationonintoIndiasubjugatingtheSurensandSakas.Theythenreversedtheir armiesandturnednorthwardtowardChina,butweredefeatedbythegreatChineseGeneralPanCh'aowhowasona campaigntocontrolSinkiangTarimBasininA.D.90.PanCh'aothenledhisarmyacrossthePamirMountainsto reachtheCaspianSea. Inthemeantime,theTibetianshadattackednorthwestChinawithoutmuchsuccess.Inthefarnorth,thenorthern Hsuing-nuHunsweredefeatedbythesouthernHsuing-nuinA.D.85andthenwerefurtherbeatenbytheMongol Sien-piin87andbytheChineseGeneralTouHsienin89.Itisnowonderthatalthoughpartofthemsubmitted tooverlords,agreatpartofthesurvivorsmigratedwestward,leavingtheirlandstotheMongols.Thiswestward migrationoftheHunswasfurtheredbyfamineandanthraxamongtheircattleandhorses.Alongthesteppeadjacent toChinatheywerejoinedbyIranianherdsmen,MongolsfromtheforestsofSiberiaandevenChineserenegadesand captiveEuropoidsofvarioustribes,allofthemsubsequentlycalled"Huns"astheygraduallyheadedtowardEurope. AgreatpartoftheHsuing-nuconfederacy,however,consistedofMongoloidsoftheBaikaltype,butthisdoesnot meanthatallMongoloidsofthistypewereHsuing-nu.Ref.127[176]Theery,black-browedhorsemenofthe steppe,normallywellnourishedonanimalproteinfoods,couldeasilyovercometheirmoreslated,carbohydratefed Chineseneighbors,exceptwhenstrongdynastieswereinpowersuchastheHan,incontrolatthattime.Ref.222 [296] ForwardtoCentralandNorthernAsia:A.D.101to200Section16.5 ChooseDifferentRegion 1.IntrotoEraSection15.1 14 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat.

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235 2.AfricaSection15.2 3.AmericaSection15.9 4.EuropeSection15.4 5.TheFarEastSection15.7 6.TheIndianSubcontinentSection15.6 7.TheNearEastSection15.3 8.PacicSection15.8 15.6TheIndianSubcontinent:0toA.D.100 15 15.6.1THEINDIANSUBCONTINENT BacktoTheIndianSubcontinent:100B.Cto0Section14.6 InthersthalfofthecenturyforabriefperiodthegreattradingcityofTaxilainnorthIndianowPakistanwas controlledbyIndo-Parthians,andthesurroundingSakaareahadpredominantlyaGreekcultureinspiteoftheIranian genealogy.AllthisendedaboutA.D.60astheTochariansandthemightyKushantribestookoverthisarea.The KushansreachedBenaresmileswestofPatnadestroyingtheSakasastheywent.Inthefareast,aBuddhist civilizationourishinginBengalwasforcedtoabandonthatfaithbyaHindudynastywhichsubsequentlyoppressed thenativepeople.Ref.8[14],19[32],37[58] TheDeccanofIndiawasruledbytheBuddhistSatavahanaDynastywhiletheMundakingscontinuedtocontrol southernIndia.ThesoutherncoastnowassumednewimportancebecauseofthesealinksbetweenChina,Indiaandthe Mediterraneanworld.PlinycomplainedthatIndia'sspices,jewels,muslinsandexoticanimalswerecostingRomans 550millionsestercesayear.Alsoshippedoutwereturquoise,diamonds,spikenard,indigo,silkyarnandtortoise-shell, whileimportswerewine,pearls,copper,dates,goldandslavesfromEthiopia,ArabiaandtheMediterranean. ChristianitymayhavereachedIndiaeventhisearlyinthattheapostleThomasissupposedtohavefoundedtheSyrian ChurchinMalabarbeforebeingkilledinA.D.68.ThisisusuallygivenasthetimeofCharaka,thegreatIndian physicianwhocomposedanencyclopediaofmedicinestillusedinthatcountry,buthemayhavelivedmuchearlier. Helisted500medicinalplantsanddevelopedaratherunsystematiccatalogueofdiseasesandcures.Hisdescription ofwhatconstitutedagoodhospitalwoulddocredittoanytoday.ThePrakritlanguagebecamethechiefmediumof theBuddhistsandJainsandSanskritfadedexceptintheprofessionalwritingoftheBrahmins.Ref.213[288],19 [32],8[14],125[173] ForwardtoTheIndianSubcontinent:101A.D.to200Section16.6 ChooseDifferentRegion 1.IntrotoEraSection15.1 2.AfricaSection15.2 3.AmericaSection15.9 4.CentralandNorthernAsiaSection15.5 5.EuropeSection15.4 6.TheFarEastSection15.7 7.TheNearEastSection15.3 8.PacicSection15.8 15 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat.

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236 CHAPTER15.0TOA.D.100 15.7TheFarEast:0toA.D.100 16 15.7.1THEFAREAST BacktoTheFarEast:100B.C.to0Section14.7 15.7.1.1CHINAANDMANCHURIA"Former"HantoA.D.9,HsintoA.D.25,then"Later"Han AtthebeginningofthiscenturyChina'spopulationwasjustshortof60,000,000.InterruptingtheHanDynasty,the Wangclanwasactingasregentsforaboyemperorandthelastoftheseregents,WangMang,graduallyoutmaneuvered alloppositionuntilbyA.D.9hecoulddeclaretheHanDynastydefunctandtakethethronehimself.Evenso,hewas thehighesttypeofChinesegentlemanandpromotedmanyimprovementsforthecountry,includingtheabolitionof slaveryandtheredistributionofsomeverylarge,landedestatesamongthepeasants.Hecontinuedstatemonopoliesof saltandironandaddedotherstateownerships.Asoftenhappenswithsuchplannedeconomies,however,somenatural calamities,includingaseriesofpoorharvests,droughtintheShensibasinandaseriesofbreaksinYellowRiverdams resultinginvastoodingwithchangesintheriver'scourseandthousandsofdrownedandhomelesspeople,upset everything,revoltsbrokeoutandhewaskilledA.D.25.Thingsrevertedtotheprevioussituationandtherulefell toascionoftheHouseofHan,inauguratingthe"Later"HanDynastywhichwastolastuntilA.D.220.Itwasthis dynastywhichhelpedtodefeattheHsuing-nuasdetailedunderCentralAsiaSection15.5.TherestorerofthisHan Dynasty,Kuang-wu-ti,movedthecapitaltoLoyanginHonanandthustheterm"EasternHan"issometimesused assynonymouswith"Later"Han.Kuang-wu-tiatthesametimeallowedagroupofsouthernHsuing-nutosettlein northernShensiandShansiprovinces.Heandhisimmediatesuccessorswerevigorous,conscientiousrulersandthe populationandeconomyrapidlyrebounded. TheHanemperorssentsoldier-farmerstothefarwesternextensionsoftheGreatWallintheregionofpresentday Jiayuguan,tosecuretheirfrontier,evenastheCommunistshavedonerecently.Theywateredthedesertbybuilding irrigationsystemstobringdownmountainsnow-waters,setupmulberryplantationsforsilkwormsandprospered. Thiswasontheoriginalsouthernsilkroute.TheChinesepreferredtoletothersdotheirhaulingandinthesecenturies silkeitherwentover-landonthesilkrouteortoIndiainIndianboatsandfromthereonineitherIndian,GreekorArab vessels.Ref.101[146],46[76] Theyear67marksthecomingofBuddhismtoChina.TherstknownmanufactureofpaperdatestoaboutA.D.100. Inthiscenturythesefareasternersusedpowerdrivebellowsandblastfurnaces,suchobjectsnotseeninEuropeuntil theMiddleAges.TheprincipleofthecompasswasalsoknowninChinaatthistimeandwasusedonChineseships longbeforeitappearedinthewest.Ref.215[290]AdditionalNotes 15.7.1.1.1JAPAN AtaboutthetimeofChristthecurrentSunGoddessSeeprecedingchapteralliedherselfwithamaraudingpirate traderfromKarak,KoreamodernPusanandlaterarrangedforhimtomarryhergranddaughter.Asonandgrandson ofthismarriagerangedwidelyuptheInlandSea,exploringandprovisioningalongthesouthernHonshucoast. Whenthegrandson,Jimmu,becameofage,hemovedhisentirepirateeet-ships,warriors,womenandutensilsaway fromthematriarchalKyushuacrosstoHonshu,atwhatisnowOsaka.Becausethelocalsouthernaboriginesthere neededhelpagainstthehairyAinuhuntersfromthenorth,theywelcomedJimmu'swarriorswhoalsofoundaniron orewiththerightimpuritiesformakingsteel.WithinafewgenerationsJapanwasinthesteelage,makingthenest bladesoftheworld.Afterthreeyearsofcampaigning,aboutA.D.50 17 ,JimmuproclaimedhimselfEmperorofanarea whichincludespresentdayOsaka,KobeandKyoto,andhecalledthis"Yamato".JimmuwasthepresentdayEmperor Hirohito'sancestor,69generationsremoved,andpracticallyallpresentdayafuentJapanesearehisprogeneyorthat ofhisthreemostablelieutenants,Nakatomi,MononobeandOtomo.Jimmuandhisimmediatedescendantspracticeda 16 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat. 17 Thechronologyusedhere,ofJimmu's"coronation"atA.D.50,isthatofthearchaeologistEdwardKidder.OfcialJapanesedating,adopted forideologicalpurposes,placesthissome600to800yearsearlier.Ref.12[21]

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237 savage,spartanpuritanismwhichequatedcleanlinesswithgodliness,usingcountlessceremoniesofritualpurication. Theyseemedtobeterriedofthepollutionofdeath,andwhenanemperorpassedaway,theentirecapitalwasmoved toanewsite. OnthelocalspiritworshipJimmubuiltthebasisforlaterShintoism,addingthecontinentalworshipofancestralghosts. Heshowedhispeopleabronzemirror,abrightswordandastringofsemi-precious,half-moonshaped,smoothstones andmadethesethetalismansofhisdivinity,allegedlybestowedonhimbytheSun-Goddess.Theseobjectshavebeen protectedassymbolsofthedivineemperordowntothisday.Ref.12[21] DuringtherstfourcenturiesoftheChristianerathisimperialYamatoclanseemsgraduallytohavetakenovermost ofcentralandwesternJapaninalongseriesofwarswithotherclansandtheAinuintheeastandKumasointhewest. Thelatterappeartohavebeenofalienandquitepossiblysouthernorigin.AJapaneseembassywasestablishedin Chinain57.Ref.119[166] 15.7.1.1.2KOREA RecordsfromKoreankingdomsshowthatfromA.D.42to562Karak,Miniana,astheJapaneselatercalledit,and whichwenowknowasPusan,wasrecognizedasanindependentJapanesecity-state.Thismayoriginallyonlyhave beenaway-stationforraidersgoingtothefarsouthMalayanarea.Inthenorth,Koguryoandotherstatesat-tempted toasserttheirindependencefromtheChinesecolonyintheregion.Ref.12[21] 15.7.1.1.3SOUTHEASTASIA TheChineseHanEmpireextendeditsciviladministrationoverChinesecoloniesinNorthVietnam.InSouthVietnam andpresentdayCambodiatherewasthestateofFunan,perhapsstartedbyKhmerswithanIndianspiritualbackground. ItprosperedbyitspositiononthetraderoutebetweenIndiaandChina.IntheMekongdeltathepeoplebuiltcanalsto controloodsandtolimittheintrusionofsaltwaterontotheland.Javaandneighboringislandswereconqueredby HinduprincesfromIndiaandthereafteranumberofHinduempiresdividedtheregion.Ref.8[14],176[242], 119[166] ForwardtoTheFarEast:A.D.101to200Section16.7 ChooseDifferentRegion 1.IntrotoEraSection15.1 2.AfricaSection15.2 3.CentralandNorthernAsiaSection15.5 4.EuropeSection15.4 5.TheIndianSubcontinentSection15.6 6.TheNearEastSection15.3 7.PacicSection15.8 NOTE :Althoughjadesuits,constructedlikeacompletesetofarmor,wereusedasburialshroudsforroyalty throughouttheHanDynastyperiod,oneofthebest,completelyrestoredsuitsisprobablythatofLiuGong, PrinceofPengchengandsonofEmperorMingA.D.58-76Ref.306[157] 15.8ThePacic:0toA.D.100 18 15.8.1THEPACIFIC BacktoThePacic:100B.C.to0Section14.8 18 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat.

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238 CHAPTER15.0TOA.D.100 AboriginalpeopleslivedonmostoftheislandsofthePacicatthistime,withMelanesialongpopulatedfromthe IndonesianchainandMicronesiaperhapshavingreceivedpeoplefromthePhilippines.TheeasternPacicislands wereoccupiedbyeitherMexicanandSouthAmericansorpossiblybyLibyanmariners,orboth.Themigrationoftrue PolynesianstoHawaiiwillbediscussedinthe4thcenturyC.E.Section18.8 ForwardtoThePacic:A.D.101to200Section16.8 ChooseDifferentRegion 1.IntrotoEraSection15.1 2.AfricaSection15.2 3.AmericaSection15.9 4.CentralandNorthernAsiaSection15.5 5.EuropeSection15.4 6.TheFarEastSection15.7 7.TheIndianSubcontinentSection15.6 8.TheNearEastSection15.3 15.9America:0to100A.D. 19 15.9.1AMERICA BacktoAmerica:100B.Cto0Section14.9 15.9.1.1NORTHAMERICA 15.9.1.1.1THEFARNORTHANDCANADA IntheveryfarnorththeDorsetArctictraditioncontinuedtothrive.Seeparticularlythe6thSection9.4and1st centuries,B.C.Section14.9.SomefurtherremarksabouttheIndiansonthewesterncoastandislandsofCanada seeminorder.Theirhouseswerelargeandrectangularwithwallsandroofsmadeofhandsplitboards.Theroofs weregabledandtherewerenowindows.Theshortfrontwallshadsmalldoors,usuallyhighlydecorated,sometimes withcarvings,sometimeswithpaint.Therewereplaitedamtsonthedirtoorsandnofurniture.Housescouldbeas longas70feet.Socialclassesincludedarulingaristocracy,commonersandslaves.Beingbasicallyaseapeoplethey builtsea-goingcanoes,some170feetlong,61/2feetwideand41/2feetdeep,whichcouldaccommodate100people. Theynavigatedtheopenseaseasilyandasweshallnoteinalaterchapter,someoftheirvoyagesundoubtedlywentto theHawaiianIslandswerethepeoplebecamePolynesians.Thecurrentsandwindsalonesometimescarrylargelogs fromnorthernVancouverIslanddirectlytoHawaii.Thecanoesweremadeofone-halfofalargetreetrunkandcarried onlyamatwhichcouldbeusedasapoorsail.Forseavoyagestwocanoescouldbetiedtogetherandaplatformput overboth.Onemansteeredwithapaddleinthesternandkneelingpairsofmenpaddledstrongly.Threetypesof sh-hookswereused,noneofwhichhaveeverbeenseeninIndonesiaorSoutheastAsia.ThesenorthwestIndiansdid nothavepottery. 15.9.1.1.2THEUNITEDSTATES ThiswasthebeginningofthemaximumexpansionoftheHopewellCulturewithsecondaryareasofinuencein theso-calledMarksvillegroupneartheMissisippideltaandtheSantaRosagroupsatthebaseoftheFloridapeninsula.TheirratherelaboratedecorationsusuallyforthedeadincludedcopperfromLakeSuperior,micafromthe Appalachians,obsidianfromtheRockyMountains,alligatorteethandconchshellsfromFloridaandtheGulfand stonefromMinnesotaandWisconsin.Attheriskofover-emphasizingtheratherbizarrehypothesesofBarryFell, weshallmentionthathewritesthatthebuildersoftheHopewellmoundsweremainlyLibyans,assistedbyNegroid 19 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat.

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239 NubiancrewmemberswholeftsculpturesofheadsandAfricananimalsalongtheMississippiRiversysteminOhio, Iowa,OklahomaandArkansas.HeevensuggestthatJewishrefugeesfromtherstRomano-Jewishwarendedupin KentuckyandTennessee. 20 InhismostrecentbookFellRef.66[97]givesatranslationfromPlutarchwhichallegedlytellsofhowGreekNorth AfricansLateCarthaginianssailedwestwardfromBritainpassingthreeislandgroupsequidistantfromoneanother Orkneys,ShetlandsandFaeros?,andthentoOgygiaIceland?vesailingdaysawayandthenontothenorthern coastofacontinent,Epeiros,thatrimstheocean.SouthGreenlandwouldttheallegeddistanceanddirection.Then, saysPlutarch, 21 ifonesailssouthalongthecoastonewillpassafrozenseaandcometoalandwheretheGreekssettled andmarriedwiththenativebarbarians.TheDavisStraitbetweenLabradorandGreenlandbecomesanimpassable massofoatingiceduringthesummerseason.AsfortheplacewheretheGreeksmarried,Plutarchsaysitwasinthe samelatitudeastheCaspianSea,thusNovaScotiaandNewEngland.ItisinconnectionwiththisthatFellquotesDr. SilasRand 22 whospentalifetimeinthelastcenturyamongtheMicmacandwhowrotea DictionaryoftheMicmac Language ,asindicatingaprevalenceofGreekrootsintheirlanguage.Anillustrativelistofover50suchGreekroots aregivenbyFellalongwiththeMicmacequivalents,implyingaderivationfromtheGreekspokeninNorthAfricain Ptolemaictimes,wordsthatwereapartoftheeverydaylanguageofLibyaandEgypt.Thisconcepthasbeenreported falsebytheSmithsonianinstitute. SometimeduringtheWoodlandPeriodmaizehadmadeitswayfromSouthAmericaand/orMexicotothesouthern UnitedStatesandhadspreadfromthereevenintoNewEnglandandtheMid-Atlanticstates.Varietiesoflintcornor popcornappearedintheSouth.Ref.267[321]. InsouthernNewMexicoandChihuahua,MexicotheMogollonpeoplecontinuedtoliveintheirsemi-subterraneanpithousesandappearedtohaveselfgoverningvillagesundertheleadershipofcivilandreligiouseldersdemocratically selected.Animportantfeaturewasalargeceremonialhouseknownasthegreatkiva,threeorfourtimesthesizeof theusualdwellings.InsouthernArizonaandtheneighboringMexicanstateofSonoratheHohokampeoplebegan extensiveirrigationsystemswithdamsonriversandsomecanals30feetwideand25mileslong.Thissociety developedforover1,000years,buttheexactdateofitsoriginhaslongbeendebated,estimatesvaryingfrom300 B.C.toA.D.500.Pleaseseethe5thcenturyC.E.Section19.9.Atanyrate,theymadeexquisitejewelryand potterypyramidsandusedastronomy.ThisisanotherAmericanculturewhichBarryFellRef.66[97]believesto beofLibyanorigincarryingthetraditionandnavigationalandastronomicalknowledgeoftheOldWorldandwhich hadarrivedviaPacictravelersasmanifestedbytheoriginalmapsmadebythefamousMaui.SeeThePacic: 300to201B.C.Section12.8.ThefrontispieceonFell'slatestbookRef.66[97]isamapsupposedlydrawn byMauishowingNorthAmericaandtheeasternPacic,usingtheprimarymeridianasalinethroughAlexandria, EgyptasusedbyEratostheneswithaninternationaldatelineat180degrees,passingabout10degreeseastof Hawaii.ItshowsHudsonBayandtheisthmusofPanamaandsurvivesonrockdrawingsinNevada.Fellsaysthat additionstotheoriginalLibyanletteringhavebeenmadelaterinKucArabic,showingthatthemapwasstillinuse, probablyforeducationalpurposesaslateasA.D.750.ItishiscontentionthatpetroglyphsandwritingsfromNevada andCalifornia,carefullyrecordedandledattheUniversityofCaliforniaandotherplaces,couldnotbepreviously interpretedbecausethenatureofthewritingArabicwasnotrecognized.Thedifcultyinallthisisthatcurrent authoritiesincludingsouthwestmuseumdirectorsandsouthwestanthropologyprofessorsinrecentpublicationsmake nomentionoftheseconceptswhatsoever.Ref.66[97],210[283],269[193]. 15.9.1.1.3MEXICO,CENTRALAMERICAANDTHECARIBBEAN PeopleinthefarnorthofMexicoparticipatedintheSouthwestAmericansocietiesarerelatedintheparagraphs immediatelyabove.MuchfarthersouththerewasrapidgrowthintheTeotihuacanareaandcontinuedevidence 20 Suchconceptsarereallynotnew.EarlyAmericancolonists,particularlyoneJamesAdair,persistentlyheldthatoneofthelosttribesofIsrael hadcometoAmericaandmixedwiththesouthernIndians.OthersthoughtthattheWelshPrinceMadocorevenPhoenicianshadearlycometo America.Ref.267[321] 21 TheexactsourcesofthePlutarchmaterialarenotgivenbyFell.HesayssimplythatPlutarch,writinginthe2ndcentury,allegedlygothis materialfromoldrecordsinCarthage. 22 Similarly,wehavenosourcereferenceconcerningDr.Rand.

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240 CHAPTER15.0TOA.D.100 ofhumansacrice,commontoallMesoAmericansocieties.Skeletonswrappedinnets,rituallyburnedchildren's remainsandburiedheadsalltestifytothis.Ref.273[6]. TheMayancivilizationcontinuedinGuatemala,HondurasandElSalvador.TheMayascountedin20sandhadamuch moremanipulativerepresentationthantheclumsyRomannumeralsofthesametime.TheMayazero,representedby ashell-shapedsign____,wasaconceptwhichdidnotreachEuropefromIndiaforalmostanother1,000years.The numbers1,2,3and4wererepresentedsimplybythecorrespondingnumberofdots,while5wasasinglebar.Thus5 was______,7was____-,etc.,while10wastwobars.Eighteeninthissystemwas______and20,ofcourse,was fourbars,oneundertheother.Fornumbershigherthan20anewrowwasstartedabovetherst,tomarkthenumber of20sintotal.Thusthenumber234wouldbeexpressedbyonlytwoMayansymbols0ontopsignfor11meaning 11setsof20or220andunderneaththesignfor14,thus:_________ InthelastchapterwenotedtheMaytradingcenterofCerrosnearthebaseofYucatan.Inthisrstcenturyofthe Christianerathiscitywentintoasteepdecline.Itisprobablethatwithincreasinglystrongandwell-managedoverland tradingroutestheriverseanetworksdecreasedinimportance.Ref.264[105].AdditionalNotesp.240 Pre-civilizationsocietiescontinuedtobuildupinCostaRicaandPanama.Dozensofsettlementseachalmosthalf akilometerinlengthinCerroPunta.Panama,suggestconsiderablepopulationbuild-upinthevalleyssouthofthe ContinentalDivideinthisera.TheceramicsofthisstagearesimilarinbothPanamaandCostaRica.Ref.266[67], 265[270] 15.9.1.2SOUTHAMERICA TheearlyIntermediatPeriodofPeruvianhistorycontinuedwithadevelopedVicusCulturedominatingthenorth. Thereissomeevidencethatthetrephiningofskulls,usingknivesofhardobsidian,wasacommonpracticeinPeruat thistime,forwhateverreason.OntheairdplainbetweensouthernPeruandtheAndeanfoothillstheNazcaIndians lived,makingfeatherdturbansandnecottoncloaksembroideredinmulti-coloredwools.Manyofthesehavebeen recoveredinNazcacemeteries.EngelRef.62[91]saysthatatthisperiodtherewasnoevidenceofmaritime activityamongthesepeopleandshermenwerestilldepictedonceramicsswimminginthewatercatchingshin nets.Recentexaminationofskeletonsofthiserashowanumberofear-canalosteomas,probablysecondarytothis workinthewater.Graduallytherewasarejuvenationoftheso-calledclassicalNazcaart,afteraninitialperiodof decline.TheTiahuanacosocietycontinuedinthehighAndes.Ref.176[242],62[91],3[4] NOTE :IntheMiddleAmericalatePreclassicperiodB.C.toA.D.250,thecityofColha,Belize,was acenterforcraftspecialistswhomassproducedsuchstonetoolsasadzes,axes,daggersandhoes,aswell asspecialceremonialitems.ThesewereapparentlyexportedallovertheMayaregion.Todatesome32 work-shopshavebeenexcavated.Ref.304[138]. ForwardtoAmerica:A.D.101to200Section16.9 ChooseDifferentRegion 1.IntrotoEraSection15.1 2.AfricaSection15.2 3.CentralandNorthernAsiaSection15.5 4.EuropeSection15.4 5.TheFarEastSection15.7 6.TheIndianSubcontinentSection15.6 7.TheNearEastSection15.3 8.PacicSection15.8

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Chapter16 A.D.101to200 16.1A.D.101to200 1 16.1.1A.D.101TO200 Backwardto0toA.D.100Section15.1 TheworlddidnotchangegreatlyashistoricallywemoveintothissecondcenturyafterChrist.TheChristianChurch stillmadeonlyalimitedimpressionatthetimewhentheRomanEmpirewasatitsfullextent,blockedstillinthe eastbytheParthians.BeyondthelattertheKushanEmpirereacheditszenith,controllingcentralAsiaandmuch ofIndia.TheHanDynastycontinuedtoruleChinaandthereweresomegreatculturaladvancesthereinspiteof manydifcultieswhichappearedfromyeartoyear.Pleaseagainrefertomapofpage61.TheMayacivilization approacheditsClassicPeriod. 16.1.1.1THECHRISTIANCHURCH Bymid-centurychurcheshadbeenestablishedinItaly,theRhineValley,northAfrica,perhapsSpainandmanyin theeasternprovincesoftheRomanEmpire.Themysticalbelief,Gnosticism,continuedtoexpand.Seepage296. Valentinius,anEgyptianeducatedatAlexandria,wasoneofthechiefexponentsofthisGnosticismandperhapswrote the"GospelofTruth",oneofthemanuscriptsrecentlyfoundatNagHammadi.Eventhoughwomenhadparticipated extensivelyinChristianityintherstcentury,bythissecondonethemajorityofchurchesbegantoopposeequality andendorsedthepseudo-PaulineletterofTimothywhichstressedPaul'santi-feministviews.ByA.D.122anygroups whichcontinuedtohavewomeninleadershiproleswerebrandedasheretical.Ref.38[59],163[222] ForwardtoA.D.201to300Section17.1 ChooseRegion 1.AfricaSection16.2 2.AmericaSection16.9 3.CentralandNorthernAsiaSection16.5 4.EuropeSection16.4 5.TheFarEastSection16.7 6.TheIndianSubcontinentSection16.6 7.TheNearEastSection16.3 8.ThePacicSection16.8 1 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat. 241

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242 CHAPTER16.A.D.101TO200 16.2Africa:A.D.101to200 2 16.2.1AFRICA BacktoAfrica:0toA.D.100Section15.2 16.2.1.1NORTHEASTAFRICA ThekingdomsofMeroeandAxumcontinuedtodevelop.Seepage292EgyptwasundertheruleoftheRoman emperor,butbeyondthemouthoftheNile,thecountrywasactuallylittletouchedbyRomanization.Theroyalcustom ofbrother-sistermarriagehadbeencopiedbythelowerclasses,andithasbeenestimatedthatbythiscenturytwothirdsofthecitizensofArsinoewereoffspringofsiblingunions.Alexandriawasnowagreattradecentercontaining some500,000people,receivinggoodsfromRedSeaportsandexportingitsownmanufacturedproductssuchaslinen, processedArabiandrugs,Indianperfumes,papyrus,glass-wareandEgyptiangrain.Thiscitywhichoriginallywas oneofthegreatestoftheGreekcities,graduallybecamemoreandmoreoriental.StrifebetweenGreeksandJews resultedinmassacres;soldiersmutiniedandtaxessoared. Ptolemy,orClaudiusPtolemaeus 3 ,wasagreatscientistconcernedwiththeAlexandrianlibraryinthiscentury.InspiredbyHipparchus,whoappearedtohaveprovidedoneofthelinksbetweenBabylonianandGreekscience,Ptolemy wroteamathematicaltreatisewhichbecameknownastheAlmagest.The360degreecircleoftheBabylonianswas used,trigonometrywaspromotedandastronomyadvanced,althoughwithsomeerrors.With1,002starscatalogued theheavenwasconsideredsphericalandasrotatingaroundtheimmobileearthsphere.ThisconceptmadePtolemy's theoriesveryacceptabletothetheologiansofthelaterMiddleAges.Hedidhaveasystemshowingrelationships ofstarsandplanetswhichwaseffectivefromthepracticalstandpoint.HealsowroteaGeographicalTreatisewhich includedthegeographyofMarinusofTyre.Ref.48[72] 16.2.1.2NORTHCENTRALANDNORTHWESTAFRICA NorthAfricaremainedthegranaryofRome,withtheMoorsasthedominantpeopleoftheareanowdevelopingconsiderablesea-powerandprestige.TheMoorswereofBerberoriginlaterwithanArabmixtureandcameoriginally fromsouthofMoroccointhecountryofpresentMauretania,onthegreatAtlanticbulgeofAfrica.InaboutA.D.125 alocustinvasiondestroyedlargeareasofcroplandandthiswasfollowedbyaplaguewhichkilledperhaps500,000in Numidiaandpossibly150,000moreonthecoast.Ref.222[296] 16.2.1.3SUBSAHARANAFRICA Thechangesincentral,easternandsouthernAfricawereveryslow.Asnotedinthelastchapter,theintroductionof wetzonecropsliketheyamandbananaallowedbetterpenetrationoftheBantu-speakingblacksintotheforestand low-lyingrivervalleysandcoastalplains.TheyalsocontinuedtodriftsouthalongtheIndianOceancoast.Ref.68 [106] ForwardtoAfrica:A.D.201to300Section17.2 ChooseDifferentRegion 1.IntrotoEraSection16.1 2.AmericaSection16.9 3.CentralandNorthernAsiaSection16.5 4.EuropeSection16.4 5.TheFarEastSection16.7 6.TheIndianSubcontinentSection16.6 7.TheNearEastSection16.3 2 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat. 3 NottobeconfusedwiththepharoahsoftheB.C.centuries

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243 8.PacicSection16.8 16.3TheNearEast:A.D.101to200 4 16.3.1THENEAREAST BacktoTheNearEast:0toA.D.100Section15.3 TheincreasinglandandseatradebetweentheMediterranean,IndiaandChinaincreasedchancesofunfamiliarinfectionsspreadingtosusceptiblepopulationsandsevereepidemicsareknowntohavehittheMediterraneanpopulations andprobablyChinatoointhiscentury.Ref.140[190] 16.3.1.1ARABIAANDJORDAN ThetraderoutesacrosstheArabianpeninsulawereveryactiveatthistime.ThecitizensofPalmyraownedand escortedcaravansbetweentheRomanEmpirecontrollingJordanandsomeofnorthernArabiaandthePersianGulf portsofCharaxandApologos,thusaccumulatinggreatwealthwhichpermittedthenancingofspectacularpublic buildings.PetraperformedthesamefunctionsfarthersouthbetweenthePersianGulfandtheRedSeaports.Ref.8 [14] 16.3.1.2MEDITERRANEANCOASTALAREASOFISRAELANDLEBANON TheindustryandtradeofJudeaandtheareaofLebanonwereintimatelyconnectedwiththewholeofSyriaand Iraq.AlthoughtheentireregionremainedunderRomancontrol,thebasicpeopleoftheselandsremainedJewishand Phoenicianinderivation,asalways.Thedyeindustry,inheritedfromoldPhoeniciacontinuedtofunctionalongwith schoolsofmedicineandlawatBeirut.TheupperclasseswereofHelleniccultureandtheGreeklanguagewasused inliteratureandgovernment,whilethelowerclassesremainedorientalandspokeAramaic. InA.D.132undertheleadershipofSimeonBarCocheba,whoclaimedtobetheMessiah,theJewsmadetheirlast effortinantiguitytorecovertheirfreedomandtheirhomeland.InthelastoftheRomano-JewishWarstheyfought desperatelyforthreeyearsagainsttheRomanlegions.One-halfmillionmenwerekilledandmorestarved.Afterthe Jewishdefeat,HadrianforbadeanyJewishritualandthevanquishedwereshutoutoftheirHolyCityandscattered again. InthenextfourcenturiestherewerewrittentwoTalmuds,onefromJerusalemandamuchlongerBabylonianversion containingarichcollectionofmedicalloreamongtheotherauthoritativeJewishtraditions.Someofthemedical materialcamefromAlexandriawhereJewshadockedinthe4thcenturyB.C.Althoughdeadbodieswereavoided asunclean,RabbiIshmaelissaidtohaveboiledandthenstudiedthebodyofaprostitute.InsurgerytheTalmud discussesmeansofreducingdislocationsandperformingcertainotheroperations.Ref.48[72],125[173] 16.3.1.3IRAQANDSYRIA AtthebeginningofthiscenturythereweretenmillionpeoplelivinginGreaterSyria,whichprobablyencompassed modernLebanonandIraq,andtherewasgreatprosperityduetothedyeandglassindustries.Todaythereareonly threemillionpeoplelivinginthesamearea,mostndingonlyaprecariousexistence.InA.D.114theEmperorTrajan exploitedamomentofParthianweaknessandadvanceddowntheTigresandEuphratesriverstothePersianGulf,thus puttingtheruleofRomeoverthisentireancientland.IntheHadrianPrincipatetofollow,however,A.D.117-138, theRomantroopswerewithdrawntotheEuphrateswhichthenbecametheeasternboundaryoftheempire.Inthearea betweentheRedandtheBlackSeas,ahundredcitiesourishedinthiseraofrelativeRomanpeace.Thepoliticaland militaryreversesoftheJewsinJudeainnowayaffectedthelargenumberofthemlivinginBabyloniaandelsewhere intheempire.Ref.8[14] 4 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat.

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244 CHAPTER16.A.D.101TO200 16.3.1.4IRAN EmperorTrajanalsoinvadedpartofIranandbetweenA.D.115and117allofMediaandpartofParthia,itself, belongedtoRome,butasnotedintheparagraphabove,HadrianwithdrewalltroopstotheEuphrates,freeingthe mainareasofPersiaandtheParthianEmpireremainedprettywellintact.LateinthecenturyRomangeneralsagain attemptedtoinvadethisregionand198butwithnolastingeffect.Ref.8[14] 16.3.1.5ASIAMINOR:ANATOLIA 16.3.1.5.1TURKEY EvenundertheyearsofRomanrule,theIonianGreekculturestillourishedalongthecoastofAsiaMinor.Soranus ofEphesuswroteatreatiseondiseasesofwomen,birthandcareofchildrenA.D.116,aworkwhichmarkshimas agreatgynecologist.OnlyHippocratesandGalenrankabovehiminthemedicineofancienttimes. 16.3.1.5.2ARMENIA Armeniawasasiteofalmostconstantwarfare.JustbeforethebeginningofthiscenturythatcountryandParthiawere allied,butwhentheParthianKingChosroessetupapuppetgovernorinArmenia,Trajandeclaredwar,claiminga treatyviolation.In114,onthedeathoftheParthianpuppet,Trajanannexedthecountry.Afterhisdeath,however, HadrianwithdrewthetroopstoalessadvancedpositionandArmeniawasagainleftaloneuntilMarcussentGeneral Verusbacktotheareain162.VeruscruisedthroughSyriaanduptoArmenia,whereheputaRomanpuppetonthe throne.TheArmeniansmaygavegottentheirrevenge,however,becauseuponVerus'returntotheWest,histroops broughtwiththematerribleplaguewhichseriouslydepopulatedtheempireinA.D.166and167.Ref.119[166] ForwardtoTheNearEast:A.D.201to300Section17.3 ChooseDifferentRegion 1.IntrotoEraSection16.1 2.AfricaSection16.2 3.AmericaSection16.9 4.CentralandNorthernAsiaSection16.5 5.EuropeSection16.4 6.TheFarEastSection16.7 7.TheIndianSubcontinentSection16.6 8.PacicSection16.8 16.4Europe:A.D.101to200 5 16.4.1EUROPE BacktoEurope:0toA.D.100Section15.4 16.4.1.1SOUTHERNEUROPE 16.4.1.1.1EASTERNMEDITERRANEANISLANDS PartoftheRomanEmpire. 5 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat.

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245 16.4.1.1.2GREECE ThehomeplaceoftheHellenicworldenjoyedan"Indiansummer"whichwasmistakenfora"GoldenAge".A thousandcity-stateslivedpeacefullytogetherbutanimpalpablecensorshipfromtheRomanoverseerswasalready slowlyeliminatingintellectualandartisticvitality.AttheendofthecenturytheGermanicCostobiiraideddown throughGreecetowithin14milesofAthens.Ref.48[72] 16.4.1.1.3UPPERBALKANS AlmostallofthepresentdayBalkansbelongedtotheRomanEmpire,includingDaciaorRomania,MoesiaorBulgaria,ThraciaandDalmatia.TheverynorthernportionsofRomaniaandBulgariamayhavebeenoutsidetheRoman jurisdiction,inthelargeareaknownthenasSarmatiaandextendingoverintoRussiaonthenorthshoreoftheBlack Sea.IntheupperBalkanarea,however,onlyRomaniacanbesaidtohavebeentrulyLatinized. 16.4.1.1.4ITALY Thersthalfofthecentury,underEmperorsTrajanandHadrianandtheirimmediatesuccessors,wasoneofthegreat periodsoftheempire,withgeneralprosperityandwithlimitedexceptions,suchastheRomano-JewishWarsand Armeniansquabbles,aperiodofpeace.TheMediterraneanworldhadafullnessoflifenotseenbeforeorsince.The GreekspiritruledthemindandtheEast,whiletheRomanspiritruledthestateandtheWest.UnderTrajantheempire reacheditsgreatestgeographicalextent,asindicatedonthemapandinthesummaryoftheempireatA.D.117to follow. 1.AFRICA.AllofEgyptandthenorthAfricancoast,includingMauretania,SyrticaandMarmarica. 2.THENEAREAST.AportionofArabia,alloftheeasternMediterraneancoast,allofSyria,Iraq,Mediain Persia,AsiaMinor,includingBithynia,PontusandCappadocia,Cilicia,Lycaonia,GallatiaandArmenia. 3.EUROPE aSOUTHERNEUROPE.GreeceandmostoftheBalkanarea,includingDaciaRomania,MoesiaBulgaria,ThraciaandDalmatiasouthernBulgaria,EuropeanTurkey,YugoslaviaandCroatia,andallof ItalyandSicily. bB.CENTRALEUROPE.TheAustrian-Hungaryarea,knownthenasPannonia,NoricumandBaetia,and thosepartsofpresentdayGermanywhichliewestoftheRhineandsouthoftheDanube,includingBavaria, SwitzerlandandthepartsofGermanyabouttheBlackForest. cNOTE:InsertMap29.THEROMANEMPIREATTHEDEATHOFTRAJANA.D. dWESTERNEUROPE.HispaniaSpainandPortugal,BrittanicaEnglandandWales,GalliaandBelgica, etc. TheempirewassurroundedbyGermania,Sarmatia,ParthiaandtheremainderofArabia. Afewwordsabouttheemperorsthemselvesseemsindicated.Trajanwastherstemperortohavebeenbornoutside Italy,comingfromaRomancolonialfamilylivinginSpain.Helivedsimplyandwasatirelessadministratorwho completedextensivepublicworksincludingroads,buildings,bridgesandaqueducts.Heawarded5,000scholarships toneedystudentsandhenancedsecondaryschoolsandpensionsforteachers.Romaniawasconqueredbecauseit wasontheroadtoByzantiumattheBosporus.WhenhisarmiesreachedtheIndianOceanandTrajanwenthome, revoltsspreadandhisnephew,Hadrian,incommandinSyria,withdrewtotheEuphrates.Tacitusdidhishistorical writingduringthisreign. Hadrian-138wasthemostbrilliantoftheRomanemperorsandhisreignthemostprosperous.Underhimthe Pantheon,whichhadpreviouslyburned,wasreconstructed. LaterinthecenturyA.D.161MarcusAureliuscametopowerandbroughtthousandsofGermansintotheempire, bothassettlersandassoldiers.Theultimateeffectwasthatthe"barbarians"graduallybegantodominateRome. MarcuswasoneofthegreatestexponentsoftheStoicphilosophyandagoodpublicservantandadministrator.Itwas

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246 CHAPTER16.A.D.101TO200 duringhisadministrationthatagreatplaguewasapparentlybroughtbackbyarmiesfromtheEast.AlthoughRome hadepidemicsasfarbackas387B.C.theoneofA.D.165wastheworst.Thedisease,perhapssmall-pox,remained epidemicinvariouscitiesforfteenyearsandinsomeareas25to35%ofthepeopledied.Thepopulationofall Mediterraneanlandssubsequentlydecreasedoverallforthenext500years.FollowingMarcus'death,Romebeganto visiblydecay.Atthelastofthecenturythebarbariantribesbegantoattackagaininvariouspartsoftheempire,with theChatti,ChauciandLombardsraidingItalyfromGermanyandotherGermanictribesraidingthroughtheBalkans intoGreece.Ref.48[72],136[187],185[253],140[190] Overallthereweresome54,000milesofRomanroads,makinganetworkforcommunicationsthroughouttheempire. Themiddleofeachroadwasraisedandcoveredwithgraveltoallowdrainage.Therewerepoststationsevery10to 12milesonmainroadsandeachstationhadhorses,veterinarians,surgeons,cartwrights,carriagesandwagons.Inthe outerempiredonkeysandcamelswereavailable.Still,thebulkofinternaltradewentbywater.Ref.213[288] Onthemedicalscene,Galen,borninPergamum,AsiaMinorpracticedmedicineinRomeandwasphysicianto EmperorMarcus.HedissectedtheBarbaryApeandleftsomegoodanatomicalandphysiologicalknowledgefor posterity.Hisworkswereconsideredasanunimpeachableauthorityfornearly1,500yearseventhoughmuchwasin error. GalenusedanoldAsiaMinorcombinationofmedicinalscalled"theriac"FOREIGNrelatedtoGreekwordfor"wild beast"andheincreasedthenumberofingredientstoover70.ThisalsopersistedasatreatmentwellintotheMiddle Ages,butatleastsomeofitspopularitymayhavebeenduetothepresenceofopiumamongitsingredients.Other2nd centurycontributorstomedicineincludedSoranus,writingespeciallyondiseasesofwomen,andRufus,alsofrom Ephesus,whomadeimportantanatomicalobservationswhileinRomeparticularlyabouttheeyeandbrain.Celsus,a Roman,wroteDeMedicinawhichactuallycodiedGreekmedicineofthepreviouscentury.Ref.125[173] AdditionalNotesp.247 16.4.1.2CENTRALEUROPE NorthernGermanyseethedwithamultitudeofGermanictribes.BorderingontheBalticweretheGepidsandfarther westtheGoths,whilejustsouthofthemweretheBurgundians,borderedontheeastbytheencroachingSlavs.On theNorthSeacoastwereFrisians,thenSennones,Hermanduri,MarcomanniandQuadi,inturngoingeast.Thelast twonamedtribeswereactuallyintheregionofBohemia.AnIraniantribe,abranchoftheSarmatians,nowoccupied mostofpresentdayHungary.TheRomanshadtheirfarthestadvanceagainsttheGermanictribesinA.D.110,under Trajan,whentheyfortiedboundariesfromHollanddowntheRhinetonearMainzandtheneasttonearFrank-onMain,andthendowntheDanube.AllareassouthofthislineweredominatedbytheRomansforfourcenturies,and wereeventuallylledwithcitiesandroads.AfterChristianitydominatedthearea,thefewregionsofGermanyand AustriabelowtheabovementionedlinelaterremainedCatholic,whilenorthofthislinecivilizationdevelopedmuch slowerandChristianityappearedmuchlaterandthenoftheArianvarietyfromtheEast.Thesenorthernareasarenow essentiallyProtestant.Toreturntothe2ndcentury,however,theFranks,asalooseconfederacyofGermanictribes, developeduptoA.D.200betweentheWeserandtheRhine.Ref.136[187],45[66] EmperorMarcusdiedatVindobonaViennainA.D.180after8wintersofcampaignsonthefrozenbanksofthe DanubeghtingagainsttheMarcomanniandQuadi.TheywerenallydestroyedaskingdomsinA.D.165aboutthe timethattheLombardsalsoLongobardsbegantheirrstraidsdownintoRomanterritoryandtheyneverwerequite conqueredbytheRomans. 16.4.1.3WESTERNEUROPE InSpain,althoughRomansbuiltroadsfortheirlegionnaires,itwasstillfarcheapertocarrywheatbyshipfromSyria toAndalusiathantocarryitoverlandfromsouthtonorthSpain.Thesouthofthiscountrywasthemostprosperous, growingwheat,grapesandolives.AttheendofthecenturySpainwasinvadedbyMoorsfromnorthernAfrica.

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247 GaulFrancewasruledcompletelybytheRomansbutagainattheendofthecenturytherewererumblingsof GermanictribespushingagainsttheeasternbarriersintoGaul.Ref.196[269],213[288] AllofwesternEurope,includingEnglandandWales,enjoyedaneraoflawandorderandpeaceunderRomanrule. TheHadrianicfrontierwasgenerallymaintainedinBritainbythelegions,modiedonlybytheconquestofsouthern ScotlandinA.D.142.ThecompleteannexationofScotlandwasattemptedfromtimetotimebutalwaysfailedbecause thelegionscouldnotsupplythemselvesinsuchasparselypopulatedcountry.InadditionthePictshadbecomeaforce tobereckonedwith.Inthelastfewyearsoftheirindependencetheyhadnallyunitedunderthestimulationofsavage battlesagainsttheScotsandNorsemen.EmperorHadrian,feelingthatCaledoniawasnotworththepotentiallossof menifitwastobeconquered,builthisgreatwallA.D.12270milesfromseatosea,withacausewayofstone, forts,campsandsignaltowers,fromtheSolwayrthtothenortheast.Becauseofconstantbarbarianattacksonthe wall,however,theRomanslateradvancedtheirfrontierandbuiltstillanotherwall,Antoninus'A.D.140,between theForthandtheClyde.Thisonewas39mileslongandhad20forts.Ref.170[234]TheRomanportofDover, protectedbytwogreatlighthouses,helpedkeepimmensetradegoingtofromEngland.Vesselsbringingjarsofwine, oilandsh-pastecamefromSpainandItaly,whiletablewarewasbroughtfromGaul.Ref.136[187],43[64], 175[241],222[296] InIrelandtherulerofConnacht,Conn,formedalargekingdomaboutA.D.150butneitherhenorhissuccessorscould managetounifytheentirecountry. SCANDINAVIA TheScandinaviantribeshadconsiderabletradewiththeRomanworld,chieythroughtheMarcommanickingdom inBohemiaandaftertheannihilationofthelatterlateinthecentury,thequalityandquantityofgoodsimportedinto thenorthdeclinedconsiderably.InA.D.150Ptolemy,theEgyptianscientistwroteaboutseveralfarnortherntribes, includingtheGoestoialsoGautorandGeatasandtheChaideinoi,whowereprobablytheNorwegianHeidnir.Ref. 34[54] 16.4.1.4EASTERNEUROPE AnoldernamefortheBaltswasAistrians,takenfromAestiorumgentes,mentionedbyTacitusA.D.98.Sometime nearthis2ndcenturytheseBaltsseparatedintoLithuanians,LettsLatvians,OldPrussians,Curonians,Semigallions andSelonians.TheeastGer-manGothswhohadbeenbuildingupapopulationpressurealongtheBalticfortwoor morecenturiesparticularlyaboutthemouthoftheVistula,aboutthistimemovedsouthtotheCarpathiansandthe BlackSea,dominatingallthepeoplewithwhomtheycameincontact.OnceinsideRussiathesepeople,thencalled "Ostrogoths"EastGoths,soonformedakingdomoftheirownandrapidlybegantospreadstillfartheralongtheriver systems.AlongtheBlackSeatheyabuttedagainsttheIranianRoxolanialsoRhoxolanibranchoftheSamartians, whowerethesuccessorstotheScythiansinthisarea.Ref.61[90],8[14],136[187] TheterritorybetweentheBlackandCaspianSeaswasoccupiedchieybytheIraniaAlans,closelyrelatedtothe Samartians.JustsouthoftheseAlanstheoldCaucasiankingdomofIberiaremainedasaRomanprotectorate,although thoseancientpeoplewereonlynominallysubservienttoRome.Otherwise,inmorecentralRussia,theSlavicpeople continuedtoliveandexpandunobtrusively,whileinthefarnorththeFinns-Lappscontinuedtheirsparseexistence. Ref.136[187] NOTE :Eveninthisearlytime,inFlorencecreditwascentraltotheentirehistoryofthecityand,infact,to thewholeMediterraneanworld.Ref.292[28] ForwardtoEurope:A.D.201to300Section17.4 ChooseDifferentRegion 1.IntrotoEraSection16.1 2.AfricaSection16.2

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248 CHAPTER16.A.D.101TO200 3.AmericaSection16.9 4.CentralandNorthernAsiaSection16.4 5.TheFarEastSection16.7 6.TheIndianSubcontinentSection16.6 7.TheNearEastSection16.3 8.PacicSection16.8 16.5CentralandNorthernAsia:A.D.101to200 6 16.5.1CENTRALANDNORTHERNASIA BacktoCentralandNorthernAsia:0toA.D.100Section15.5 InfareasternandnorthernAsiaMongoliannomads,perhapswithsomeadmixtureofTurkish,Europoidelements,all ofwhicharetraditionallyconsideredasancestorsoftheHuns,livedasharsh,bow-leggedmenwithlargeheadsand massivechestswhichapparentlyhelpedthemtowithstandtheblazingdaysandfreezingnightsoftheGobidesert. Theirchiefmeatwasmutton,butoccasionallytheyatebeef,horseorcamelandthehumpsofthelatterwereconsidered agreatdelicacy.Ingeneral,inthewilderareasthecattledidnotadaptwellandcamelswerenotsufcientlyproductive, havingonlyasinglefoaleverythreeyears.Theyakwasusedformilk,ratherthanfundamentallyformeat.Ref.211 [284] AspackanimalsthehorseandBactriancamelwerethemeansofopeningthegreatcommercialroutesacrossthe centralAsiansteppe,withmanychange-overpointsalongtheway.StoneTower,somewherenorthofthePamirs,was thegreatmeetingplacewhereexquisiteChinesesilksandexoticspiceswerebarteredforRomanglassware,pottery, asbestoscloth,coralbeads,gems,grapewinefortheemperorofChina,silverandgold. ThedrainofgoldfromtheWestwasfantasticinamount.InthedesertatthenorthoftheTarimBasinatpresentday TurpanorTurfanabout950undergroundcanalscalled"Karez"wereconstructedtobringirrigationwaterfromthe TianShanCelestialMountainstothedesert,whereamelonandgrapegrowingoasiswasthusdeveloped.TheHan ChineseruledTurpanatthistime,butthroughthecenturiesitwascontrolledbynumerousCentralAsianpeoples. The"blue-print"forsuchanundergroundwatersystemwasbroughtalongthesilkroutefromPersia,wherethecanals werecalled"Qanats".Ref.211[284],73[112] Asnotedinthelastchapter,theTochariansandotherYue-chitribeshadcombinedtocreatethevastKushanEmpire whichinthiscenturycoveredalmosttheentirecentralAsianlandmassinitssouthernportion.Theirgreatestking, Kanishka,ruledthisempirefromIndia,andmoredetailswillbewritteninthatsectionofthischapter.OntheTurkistan frontierwithChina,MongolHsiung-nu,TibetansandothertribesmenlivedsidebysidewiththeChinese,whostill ruledatleastthemosteasternportionofthisarea,althoughtheirprotectorateovertheTarimBasinhadlapsedinA.D. 106.Ref.136[187] toCentralandNorthernAsia:A.D.201to300Section17.5 ChooseDifferentRegion 1.IntrotoEraSection16.1 2.AfricaSection16.2 3.AmericaSection16.9 4.EuropeSection16.4 5.TheFarEastSection16.7 6.TheIndianSubcontinentSection16.6 7.TheNearEastSection16.3 6 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat.

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249 8.PacicSection16.8 16.6TheIndianSubcontinent:101A.D.to200 7 16.6.1THEINDIANSUBCONTINENT BacktoTheIndianSubcontinent:0toA.D.100Section15.6 Undertheirgreatestking,Kanishkaca.120-160,theartsandsciencesourishedamongtheKushans.After experimentingwithmanyreligions,thekingnallychosethenewmysticalBuddhismandcalledagreatcouncilof Buddhisttheologianstoformulatethiscreedforhisrealm.ThecouncilloweredBuddha'sphilosophytotheemotional needsofthecommonsoulbutraisedBuddhatoadivinity,thuslayingthebasisfortheMahayanaorGreaterVehicle BuddhismwhichlaterhelpedtowinChinaandJapan.ItisavariationofBuddhismwhichshowsdeniteinuence fromtheGreekreligions.TheKushanruleextendedfromBenaresandKabuttotheVindhyas,withacapitalat Peshawar. SomefurtherdiscussionoftheconfusionswhichsurroundthehistoryoftheKushansseemsrelevant.Ithasbeen mentionedpreviouslythattheywereamixtureofYu e-chitribessomesayvetribes,buttheChinesenameis misleadinginthattheyspokeavarietyofIranianlanguages.WellswrotethattheYue-chihadoriginallybeenpushed overintowesternTurkistanbyHunpeopleswhoconqueredtheBactriansandthenmixedwithAryanelementsthereto createthefusionknownasIndo-ScythianswhothenwentovertheKyberPassdownintoIndia.Thisisnotthecurrent conceptwhichisthattheKushanswereentirelyIndo-European.Afterthemiddleofthecentury,foreignkingdomsin thenorthbegantofadeandindigenousIndiangroupsemerged.Ref.229[307],8[14] Buddhismnowbecamedividedintotwoschools,themysticalMahayana,orGreaterVehicle,mentionedabove,and theHinayanaorLesserVehicle,alsocalledTheravadaBuddhismorWayoftheElders,whichretainedmuchof theprimitivesimplicityoftheoriginalphilosophy.TheparticularbranchofthisreligiondominantinKashmir,the Sarvastivadin,wasoneoftwomainoff-shootsoftheHinayanabutHindufaithsexistedatthesametime,withSiva asthemostfavoreddeity.KanishkaestablishedacityinhisownnameinKashmirinthiscentury.Throughoutall theseearlycenturiesoftheChristianera,theregionofKashmirwassubjecttoincursionsofSakas,Kushans,Tibetans andHunsfromthenorthaswellasmigrationsofGujarasfromthesouth.KashmirkeptcontactwithGandharain presentdayPakistanandsharedsomeoftheartisticblendingofHellenicandParthianinuences.Ref.114[162], 275[99] TheDeccanwasstilldominatedbytheMundakings.InMalwatherewasadynastyofSatrapsofUjjain,acommunity whichbecameacenterofSanskritlearningandwastakenasthebasicmeridianbyIndianastronomers.Inthefarsouth ofIndiaitwasHinduismwhichourished.SanskritinuenceisclearintheTamillanguagegrammaralthoughnot muchelseofAryanIndiapenetratedTamil.ThebasicdevotionwastotheHindugodsofVishnuandSiva.Indianart wasinuencedbyGreeksculptureandtheirsciencewasinuencedtosomedegree.SriLankawasbrieyoccupied bytheTamilsinthiscentury.Ref.8[14] ForwardtoTheIndianSubcontinent:A.D.201to300Section17.6 ChooseDifferentRegion 1.IntrotoEraSection16.1 2.AfricaSection16.2 3.AmericaSection16.9 4.CentralandNorthernAsiaSection16.5 5.EuropeSection16.4 6.TheFarEastSection16.7 7 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat.

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250 CHAPTER16.A.D.101TO200 7.TheNearEastSection16.3 8.PacicSection16.8 16.7TheFarEast:A.D.101to200 8 16.7.1THEFAREAST BacktoTheFarEast:0toA.D.100Section15.7 16.7.1.1CHINAANDMANCHURIALaterHanDynasty IntheentirersthalfofthecenturytherewereaseriesofHanDynastyempressesrulingweaklyforthemselves and/orvariousinfantsandyouths,withthehelpofsomeveryclevercourteunuchs.ByA.D.157thepopulationhad reachedapeakofalmost55,000,000.HancourtrecordsrefertoRomanambassadorswithdatesofvisitsandthe namesofcurrentRomanemperors,butconverselytheseembassiesarenotmentionedinanyknownRomanrecords. TheChinesegovernment'sreturntolaissez-fairepoliciesallowedthegreatland-ownerstoagaindominatetheserfs andavoidtaxes.Thenaseriesofnaturaldisastersoccurred,beginningwithmassiveoodsandlocustinfestationsat A.D.175.Ataboutthesametime,inatleasttwodifferentyears,thereweregreatpestilenceswhichbrokeoutinthe armyghtingonthenorthwesternfrontier,withthreeorfouroutoftendying.Thisplague,whateveritmayhave been,apparentlyseepeddownallthroughAsiatosomedegreeinthenext20years.Peasantsbeganseekingrefugein Taoistinspiredreligiouscults,whichofferedfaithhealingandalchemicalprescriptions.Ref.65[96],101[146], 140[190] Itwasthemassivereligiousuprisingofthe"YellowTurbans"againstthepalaceeunuchsinA.D.184whichnally begantobringdowntheHanDynasty.TheremainingeunuchswerenallymassacredbyYuanWarLordShaoin 189andthecapitalLoyangwassizedbyGeneralTungChoin190.Some700otherofcialsandsome1,000students werethrowninprisonandtorturedandcannabalismhasevenbeenalleged.InthisLaterHanperiodthestudentbody ofthenationaluniversityhadswelledtosome30,000youths,manyapparentlyevadersofmilitaryandotherstate service.Localmilitiaswerenowabolishedtolessenlocalwar-lordismandalthoughthedynastycontinuedofcially onintothenextcentury,inactualitythelastfewyearswereaneraofchaosanddividedstates.Ref.8[14],119 [166],101[146] Chineseart,astrologyandastronomyappropriatedsomeHellenisticelements,butitisofinterestthatinmanysimple itemstheChinesewerefaraheadofthewesternworld.Forinstance,inthiscenturytheChineseusedwheelbarrows, cranks,objectsmountedingimbalstokeeplevelasshipboardlamps,treadlesandrotatingfans,noneofwhichwere usedinEuropeuntilvariouslythe9thtothe18thcenturies.PaperwasinventedbyTshaiLuninA.D.105andwas madefromdecayedvegetablematter,althoughtheprocesswaskeptsecretbytheChineseformanycenturies.The chairwasintroducedinthisorthenextcenturybutdidn'tcomeintogeneraluseforseveralhundredyears.Mostof southernChinaremainedinthehandsofaboriginalpeoplesforcenturiestocome.Ref.215[290],8[14],213 [288],260[29]AdditionalNotesp.251 16.7.1.2JAPAN ForvegenerationsafterJimmu,theYamatoemperorswereverycarefulnottomixtheirbloodwiththeaborigines andtheyimportedwomenoftheirownracefromthehomeefinKorea.Eachprinceandvassalhadasmanywives ashecouldaffordandtheoldrecordstelloffamilieswith100children.Aftertherstvegenerations,Jimmu'scourt descendantsbegantomarrytheirowncousinsandalthoughtheinbreedingwasgreat,thestockwashealthyandalarge percentage,probablymorethanone-half,ofmodernJapanesearedescendedfromit.AtA.D.200theEmpressJingu issaidtohavesentavasteetofmulti-oaredshipstodominatetheKoreansandexacttribute.Ref.12[21],222 [296] 8 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat.

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251 16.7.1.3KOREA Koguryocontinuedasanindependentstate,andtherewerenowothercommunitieswhichcouldbreakawayfromthe weakenedHancontrol.AttheendofthecenturypartofKoreawasforcedtopaytributetoJapan.Ref.222[296] 16.7.1.4SOUTHEASTASIA WenotedinthelastchapterthatChinahadoccupiedNorthVietnamandChampa.InthiscenturytheHinduinuenced stateoftheChamsaroseintheareanowknownasSouthVietnam,butnorthofSaigon.Forthenext1,200yearsthey struggledtoremainindependentoftheexpandingVietandKhmerkingdoms.Funanexistedasaprosperousstatein theCambodiaandextremesouthernVietnamareas,developinganetworkofirrigationandtransportationcanalsthat madethehugeMekongRivervalleyfertileandthecountryrichwithcommerce.Burma,Thailand,Cambodiaand LaosbecamethechieflandsfortheHinayanaorLesserVehicleBuddhism.Ref.8[14],176[242],114[162] AdditionalNotesp.251 NOTE :Althoughtheexacttimeoftherstuseisunknown,thecross-bowwasinuseinChinaatleastby Hantimes,whenitbecametheprincipalweapon.Thisexcellent,lethalinstrumentwasaboutaseasytouse asahandgunandneedednospecialstrengthtocockit,whilethelongbowrequiredyearsofpracticeto developsufcientthumbandngerstrengthtodrawthebowtoitsfullarc.Technically,manufactureofthe cross-bowinvolvedamostdifcultlaminationprocedureusingwood,bone,hornandsinew,aswellasthe skilledconstructionofametaltriggerapparatus.Ref.279[191] NOTE :TheChinesemetresistanceintryingtoconquerVietnamcompletelyand,nolongerabletofeed theirarmiessofarfromtheirbases,theyhadtoretreat,allowingVietnamitshistoricalindependence.Inthe Mekongdeltaaninlandcentercalled"Oc-eo"wasasmallscaleVenice.Ithadmanygoldartifacts,including asealringwithSanskritinscription,alife-sizedHindustatueandgoldmetalfromRome,datedA.D.152. Ref.297[232] ForwardtoTheFarEast:A.D.201to300Section17.7 ChooseDifferentRegion 1.IntrotoEraSection16.1 2.AfricaSection16.2 3.AmericaSection16.9 4.CentralandNorthernAsiaSection16.5 5.EuropeSection16.4 6.TheIndianSubcontinentSection16.6 7.TheNearEastSection16.3 8.PacicSection16.8 16.8ThePacic:A.D.101to200 9 16.8.1THEPACIFIC BacktoThePacic:0toA.D.100Section15.8 Theknowntime-framesforchangesinthePacicaresoindenitethatwecannotmakeacentury-by-centuryaccount inthislargeareaoftheworld.Pleaseseeadjacentcenturies. ForwardtoThePacic:A.D.201to300Section17.8 ChooseDifferentRegion 9 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat.

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252 CHAPTER16.A.D.101TO200 1.IntrotoEraSection16.1 2.AfricaSection16.2 3.AmericaSection16.9 4.CentralandNorthernAsiaSection16.5 5.EuropeSection16.4 6.TheFarEastSection16.7 7.TheIndianSubcontinentSection16.6 8.TheNearEastSection16.3 16.9America:A.D.101to200 10 16.9.1AMERICA BacktoAmerica:0toA.D.100Section15.9 16.9.1.1NORTHAMERICA Inthefarnorththerewasverylittlechangefromthepreviouscenturies.Seeparticularly6thSection9.4and1st centuriesB.C.Section14.9.AboutthecentralandeasternUnitedStatesthereissomedisagreement.BrianFagan, theDistinguishedProfessorofAnthropologyattheUniversityofCaliforniaatSantaBarbara,writesthattherewas continuedHopewellexpansionwithincreasedculturaldevelopmentevenupuntilthe5thcenturyC.E.Ref.215 [290],butthe EncyclopediaofArcheology Ref.45[66]statesthattherewasarapiddeclineoftheHopewellat aboutA.D.200.WeknowthatthesoutheasternUnitedStateswasinhabitedbutwehaveavailableonlyverylimited informationatthisearlyperiod.FellRef.66[97]describesndingofwhathebelievestobeHebrewshekelsdating fromtheSecondRevoltofA.D.132invariouspartsofKentuckyandanearbydistrictofArkansas. TheMogollon,HohokamandAnasaziculturescontinuedtodevelopinthesouthwesternUnitedStates.Pleasesee adjacentmodules.TheMogollonpeoplelearnedtogrindandpolishsmallstoneslabstomakeusefularticlessuchas paintpalettes,dishesandstonesmokingpipesfortobacco.Theirspearpointswereusedwitharudethrowingstick calledtheatlatl,anancientweaponoftheAmericas.Ref.210[283] 16.9.1.2MEXICO,CENTRALAMERICA,ANDTHECARIBBEAN TheTeotihuacanpeopleofMexicoincreasedtheircitysizetoaneightsquaremilearea,inthecenterofwhichrose thetruncatedpyramidofthesun-210feethighand750feetsquare.Itwasaslargeatthebaseasthegreatpyramidof CheopsinEgypt.Attheheightofitsprosperity,whichwassometimeintheseearlyChristiancenturies,Teotihuacn hadapopulationof120,000withanaddednetworkofvillagessurroundingthemaincity.Over5,000buildingshave beenexaminedinthisarea,including400work-shopsformakingobsidiantoolsandweaponsandsome300potteries. Irrigationchannelsweredugforbothcityandfarmwater.Thiscenterwas30milesnortheastofpresentdayMexico City. AtIzapaontheMexico-Guatemalaborder,therewasadistinctiveartstyleresemblingtheearlierOlmecCultureand itmayrepresentaconnectinglinkbetweenthatandthelaterclassicMayaCulturewhichdevelopedtotheeast.In approximatelythissametimeframe,ElTajin,locatedintheVeracruzareaafewmilesinlandfromSantaLouisa, emergedasamajorHuastecadministrativeandreligiouscenter.TheHuastecswere"cousins"oftheMayaandEl Tajin,astheirmajorcity,sooncountedapopulationinthethousands,withhundredsofbuildings,temples,palaces, ball-courtsandcountlessindividualdwellings. OntheclassicaldatingscaletheMayancivilizationwasnearingitspeakwithmanygreatscalecitiesintheforests, particularlyinPetenandtheregionoftheceremonialcenterofTikal.Forthemostparttheywereapeace-loving 10 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat.

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253 peoplewhofarmed,wovecottonandmadepaperfromthebersoftheg-tree 11 .Theydevelopedasystemofwriting whichwaspartlyphoneticandbelievednowtohavebeeninheritedingreatpartfromtheOlmecs.Onthenewdating systemsthispeakperiodoftheMayasmayhavebeenabout250yearslater.PleaseseeAmerica:300to201B.C. Section12.9Ref.146[199],176[242],215[290],45[66],236[314] ItisinterestingthattheprominentBritishhistorian,HughThomasRef.213[288],deniesthattheMayahad signicantwriting,apparentlybasinghiscommentsonasinglegivenreferenceina1978 ScienticAmerican article. Buthisreference,inthe"ScienceandtheCitizen"departmentoftheMay,1978 ScienticAmerican Ref.193 [263]givesmeanentirelydifferentconcept.AlthoughadmittingthatmuchMayawritinghadbeendestroyed bytheinvadingSpanishconquistadorsinthemid-16thcentury,thearticlelistsseveralsourcesofremainingMayan hieroglyphics.Therearemanuscriptspaintedondeerskinwhichareapparentlyinmuseumsscatteredacrossthe world,astheyareknownastheDresden,MadridandPariscodexes;thenthereare64hieroglyphsthatwerewritten downin1566fortheBishopofMeridabyasurvivingMayascribe;andnallythereisalonginscriptionfound insidethreestructuresatPalenquedated7thto9thcenturiesC.E.,consistingofsome600glyphs,thetranslationof whichisstillproceedingunderanthropologistsandepigraphersfromYaleUniversity.Thepartthathasbeentranslated describestwelvesuccessiverulersofthepastanddetailsofacurrent13thrulerwithbirth,pedigree,accession,military achievements,ritualacts,etc.ofall.Moreinscriptionsturnupeveryyear,onpottery,monumentstones,buildings, etc.Thewrittenlanguageinvolvedatleast600individualglyphswhichcouldstandaloneorbeusedincombinations oftwoormore. ThiswasamajordevelopmentalperiodinCostaRicanhistorywithadramaticincreaseinsitesandpopulationalong withatrendtowardsocialstratication.Manynewartifactsappearedincludingelaboratelysculptedmetatesofvolcanicstone,ceremonialstonemace-heads,carvedjade,gurines,ocarinas,whistles,stampsandrattles.Panama developedsimilarlyandtherewereundoubtedlylongdistanceMesoamericantradenetworks.Ref.265[270] 16.9.1.3SOUTHAMERICA SometimeinthisorthenextcenturyParacasinthemiddleofsouthPeruwasabandoned,perhapsbecauseofasevere tidalwaveorothernaturaldisaster.SomeNazcavillages,however,survivedforseveraladditionalcenturiesandthe TiahuanacoCultureofthehighAndesremaineduntouched.ThepotatowasusedasdecorationonPeruvianpotteryas earlyastheendofthiscentury.Ref.213[288] ForwardtoAmerica:A.D.201to300Section17.9 ChooseDifferentRegion 1.IntrotoEraSection16.1 2.AfricaSection16.2 3.CentralandNorthernAsiaSection16.5 4.EuropeSection16.4 5.TheFarEastSection16.7 6.TheIndianSubcontinentSection16.6 7.TheNearEastSection16.3 8.PacicSection16.8 11 IncontrasttherewasnopaperinEuropeatthistime.Chinainventedapaperbutkeptitsecretforcenturies.SeeTheFarEast:A.D.101to200 p.250.

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Chapter17 A.D.201to300 17.1A.D.201to300 1 17.1.1A.D.201TO300 BackwardtoA.D.101to200Section16.1 Thethreegreatempires-Roman,KushanandHan-whichwedescribedinthelastcenturyallshowedsignsofdecay inthis3rdcenturyoftheChristianera.Althoughstillmaintainingitsextensiveborders,Romehadevenmoretroubles withPersiaandthelocalsituationinItalydeterioratedrapidly,sothatbytheendofthecenturytheEmperorDiocletian eventransferredhiscapitaltoNicomedia,neartheBosporusStrait.AlthoughsomeoftheKushanEmpireremainedin CentralAsia,itlostterritorybothtothePersiansandtovariousfactionswithinIndia.TheHanDynastydisappeared in220andChinaagainbecamedivided.ThegreatMayaCulturedominatedCentralAmerica. 17.1.1.1THECHRISTIANCHURCH EpidemicswerewidespreadinthiscenturyandtheChristiandoctrineofcareofthesickandthefaiththatmade lifemeaningfulevenamidsuddenandsurprisingdeathgavethisnewreligionagreatboostoverpaganism,inthese difculttimes.Tertullian,oneofthegreatbelieversinthevalueofmartyrdom,asexempliedbyJesus'crucixion, eventuallylefttheOrthodoxChurchtojointheMontanists,aradical,propheticcircle,andthenevenformedhisown "church"scorningtheCatholicgroupas"thechurchofanumberofbishops".TheGnosticsneveracceptedmartyrdom asabasisofChristianbelief.Ref.163[222],140[190]Continueonpage354 ForwardtoA.D.301to400Section18.1 ChooseRegion 1.AfricaSection17.2 2.AmericaSection17.9 3.CentralandNorthernAsiaSection17.5 4.EuropeSection17.4 5.TheFarEastSection17.7 6.TheIndianSubcontinentSection17.6 7.TheNearEastSection17.3 8.ThePacicSection17.8 1 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat. 255

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256 CHAPTER17.A.D.201TO300 17.2Africa:A.D.201to300 2 17.2.1AFRICA BacktoAfrica:A.D.101to200Section16.2 17.2.1.1NORTHEASTERNAFRICA ThekingdomofKushfellpreytodesertnomadsbutinEthiopiaAxumcontinuedasapowerful,welldevelopedentity. CoinsweremintedandmuchoftheSudantothewestwasconquered.Ivory,rhinoceroshorn,hippopotamushides andslaveswereallexportedthroughtheRedSeaharborofAdulis.Unfortunatelyevenatthisearlyperiodexcessive rainswithooding,alongwithforestclearingandcultivationofhilltopsandslopeshadstartedsoilerosionthatwas toeventuallybepartofthedownfallofthisunusualkingdom.Ref.175[241],270[36] Egyptianprestige 3 begantodeclineunderdestructivefactionalism,amassacreofalladultmalescapableofbearing armsbyEmperorCaracallatopreventrevolt,hightaxes,listlessforcedlaborandRome'sannualexactionofgrain. SeatradefromtheMediterraneanwentprincipallyuptheNiletoThebes,thenovertotheRedSeaandonbyboat.The refurbishedNile-RedSeacanalwasadisappointmenttotheRomansasithadbeentothePtolemiesandthePersians becausewindsinthenorthernRedSeawereunreliableandmerchantsdidbetterwiththeNiletoThebesroute.Atthe lastofthecenturyto272,QueenZenobia'sconqueringofEgyptandsiegeofAlexandriaresultedinthedeathof halfthepopulationandhelpedEgypt'sdecline.SeeIRAQANDSYRIA,belowInA.D.272Egyptwasreconquered byRome.Ref.136[187] 17.2.1.2NORTHCENTRALANDNORTHWESTERNAFRICA RomecontinuedtodominatethecoastlineofnorthAfrica,butinthefarnorthwestMoorishchieyBerberculture andactivityincreasedwithexpansionoftheterritorytheycontrolled.ThecitiesoftheSaharahadaourishing commercewithcoastalcities,probablysendingpreciousstones,slavesandivoryfortrade.Ref.83[123] 17.2.1.3SUBSAHARANAFRICA AtthistimetherewasthebeginningofthedevelopmentoftheEmpireofGhanaatthenortherncurveoftheNiger River.ThevillageofJenne-jeno,whichwehavepreviouslymentioned,mayhavebeenapartofthisprocess.Onthe easttheironandcattleculturesspreadalmostcompletelytothesoutherntipofAfrica.Blackburnwasestablished inA.D.105andtheuseofironspreadfromtheFunaRiverofftheCongotoKatangaandtheLakesregion.In thesouthwest,theKhoikoipeoples,speakingtheKhoisanlanguage,onlyslowlygavewaytotheaggressiveBantuspeakers.Indonesiantradersappearedinincreasingnumbersalongtheeastcoastinthisandthefollowingcenturies. ForwardtoAfrica:A.D.301to400Section18.2 ChooseDifferentRegion 1.IntrotoEraSection17.1 2.AmericaSection17.9 3.CentralandNorthernAsiaSection17.5 4.EuropeSection17.4 5.TheFarEastSection17.7 6.TheIndianSubcontinentSection17.6 7.TheNearEastSection17.3 8.PacicSection17.8 2 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat. 3 Diophantus,aGreekofAlexandria,wroteatreatiseofalgebra,solvingdeterminantquadraticandindeterminateequationsuptothe6thdegree, inaboutA.D.250.

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257 17.3TheNearEast:A.D.201to300 4 17.3.1THENEAREAST BacktoTheNearEast:A.D.101to200Section16.3 17.3.1.1ARABIAANDJORDAN JordanbelongedtotheRomans,butmostofArabiawasuntouchedbytheRomanarmies.Inthesouthofthepeninsula thecitiesbegantodeclineandthenomadsagainassumedrule.BytheendofthecenturytheAksumitekingsof EthiopiawereincontrolofYemenandtheSassanianKingShapurannexedOmanontheArabianGulfshoreabout A.D.260.Ref.8[14] 17.3.1.2MEDITERRANEANCOASTALAREASOFISRAELANDLEBANON LebanonwasapartofRomancontrolledSyriaandevenJudeawasnon-existentasaseparateJewishstate.The commonpeopleofmostoftheseareastendedtoremainunchanged,centuryaftercentury,however,andbasicallyonly thegovernmentsshifted. AtthebeginningofthecenturytheRabbiJudahcodiedJewishlaw,bothcivilandreligious,inaworkcalledthe "Mishnah"whichbecamethebasisofcontinuousstudyintheMiddleEastandwaslaterpreservedintheTalmud. Ref.8[14] 17.3.1.3IRAQANDSYRIA AsthecenturyopenedthisentireareawasdominatedbyRomebutintheoldareaofMesopotamiainwesternIraqthe PersianKingArdashirinvadedaboutA.D.230,butshortlywithdrewagain.ThiswasfollowedinA.D.260byShapur IwithcloudsofcavalrythatraidedthroughoutallofSyriaandreturnedtoPersialadenwithspoilsandthe RomanEmperorValerian.whowascapturedatEdessa,whereSyriajoinsAsiaMinor.Itwasonlyafterthisthat OdenathusoftheSeptimiitribe,governorofPalmyrainSyria,crownedhimselfapuppetkingundertheRomans andpromptlydrovethePersiansbackacrossMesopotamia,defeatingthemnallyatCtesiphon,theancientPersian capitalnearpresentBaghdad.HethendeclaredhimselfkingnotonlyofSyriabutofCilicia,Arabia,Cappadocia andArmenia.AfterhisassassinationinA.D.266hissontookhistitle,buthiswidow,Zenobia,tookhispower.She beautiedthecapitalandbroughtscholarsandartiststohercourt,butalsofoundtimetoleadanarmyintoAsiaMinor, conqueringCappadocia,GalatiaandmostofBithynia.Then,withagreateetandarmysheconqueredEgypt.The RomanEmperorDomitiusAurelianussoonreconqueredthisland,however,andthenhisarmiesproceededtobeat PalmyrafromagreatcentralSyriancityof30,000peopletoadesertvillageasithadbeenbeforeandremainsyet today.Ref.48[72],136[187] 17.3.1.4IRAN PersiancitiessatonthesilkroutefromChinatotheRomanEmpireandregardlessofthelocaladministrationand anyhostilities,thePersianscontrolledthistrafc.RayynearmodernTehranaswellasHeratnowovertheborder inAfghanistanbecamemajorcitiesandenjoyedgreatprosperity.InaboutA.D.224,ArdashirI,originallyafeudal lordofPersia,overcametheweakenedParthianArsacidDynastyandbecamekingofallthePersians,foundingthe SassanianorSassanidDynasty.ThisfamilystronglyidentiedwiththeoldAchaemenianEmpireandZorastrianism wasrestoredasthestatereligion.NewconquestswereundertakenasArdashirinvadedSyriaalthoughhismain purposewastodethroneandkilltheArsacidkingwhowasrulingArmenia.Ardashir'ssuccessor,ShapurI,-271 builtanewcityinhishomeprovinceofFars,theSassanian"Versailes",andhealsopromotedagricultureandseveral irrigationsystems.Asmentionedabove,however,heismostfamousforhisextensivecavalryraidsthroughoutSyria andhiscaptureoftheRomanEmperorValerianatEdessa.ThousandswerekilledinAntiochandTarsuswasabout 4 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat.

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258 CHAPTER17.A.D.201TO300 destroyed.VictorymayhaveresultedastheresultofthePersiancavalry'suseofdamasksteelsabres,superiorto anythingmadeintheWest.SeeSUBCONTINENTOFINDIA,thischapter.Shapureventuallywentdowntodefeat atthehandsofOdenathus,anArabprincefromPalmyra,whosetroopschasedthePersiansbackanddefeatedthemat Ctesiphon,aswehavenoted.Ref.48[72],18[31] InA.D.242Manibeganhisreligiousteachings,takingZorasterismasabasebutacceptingMoses,JesusandBuddha asprophets.HetraveledtoTurkistan,IndiaandChinaandhisideasspreadwidely,becomingafruitfulroot-stock ofChristianheresiesforalmostathousandyears.Ref.229[307]AtrstShapurfavoredMani,butlaterhewas banishedandwhenShapur'ssecondson,VarahranIbecamekingin272Maniwasexecuted.Ref.119[166] 17.3.1.5ASIAMINOR:ANATOLIA 17.3.1.5.1TURKEY TheentireAnatolianpeninsulawaspartoftheRomanEmpire,butthiswasaneraofmultipleraidsfrombothnorth andsouth,withtheGothsandotherRussiantribescomingdowntoravagethecitiesoftheBlackSeasuchasPontus, Chalcedon,Nicomedia,etc.,whilethePersianslateroverranCiliciaandCappadocia.ItwasinEdessa,thenpartof Syria,butnearthemoderncityofUrfa,TurkeythatthePersiankingShapurcapturedValerian.Thiswassomewhat nulliedastheQueenMotherZenobiatemporarilytookoveradditionalterritoryinthisregion.Bytheendofthe centuryRomanrulehadbeenprettywellrestoredandtheEmperorDiocletianestablishedhiscapitalfortheentire empireatNicomedia.GreekwaswrittenandspokeninthiseasternRomancapitalexceptforpurelyadministrative andoccasionalliterarypurposes.Thegreatplaguewhichreachedmostoftheempireinthemiddleofthecentury struckPontusparticularlyviolently.Ref.136[187],127[176],222[296] 17.3.1.5.2ARMENIA Thepuppetking,Chosroes,wasoftheIranianArsacidline,andasnotedabove,hewasmurderedbythePersian ArdashirIandArmeniacameunderthePersianwing.InA.D.284,afterQueenZenobiahadnallybeendefeated, EmperorDiocletianhelpedTiridates,thesonofChosroes,toagainascendthethroneofthiscountry. ForwardtoTheNearEast:A.D.301to400Section18.3 ChooseDifferentRegion 1.IntrotoEraSection17.1 2.AfricaSection17.2 3.AmericaSection17.9 4.CentralandNorthernAsiaSection17.5 5.EuropeSection17.7 6.TheFarEastSection17.7 7.TheIndianSubcontinentSection17.6 8.PacicSection17.8 17.4Europe:A.D.201to300 5 17.4.1EUROPE BacktoEurope:A.D.101to200Section16.4 5 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat.

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259 17.4.1.1SOUTHERNEUROPE 17.4.1.1.1EASTERNMEDITERRANEANISLANDS|GREECE|UPPERBALKANS ThisentireareawasanintegralpartoftheRomanEmpireandwasadministeredinthreeparts:TheDaciandiocese, comprisedofeasternYugoslavia,westernBulgaria,MoesiaSuperior,Daciaandsomesmallerareas;theMacedonian dioceseconsistingchieyofGreece;andtheThraciandiocese,whichwasmadeupofeasternBulgariaandthe EuropeanpartofTurkey,whichinturn,includedLowerMoesia,Scythia,Thrace,etc.OftheseonlyDaciausedthe Latinlanguage,whiletheothersallspokeGreek.TheGothsarrivedintheBlackSeaareabyA.D.214andsoon occupiedalltheregionwestofthissea,splittingintotwodivisions,tobeknownasOstrogothsEastGothsand VisigothsWestGoths.TheybattledtheRomansinthisareathroughoutthecenturyandtheRomanEmperorDecius wasslainbytheminDaciaastheRomanswithdrewinA.D.275tosafetysouthoftheDanube.ManynativeDacians tooktothehillswiththeirLatinlanguage,toreappearcenturieslaterasancestorsofthemodernRomanians.Gallus,a formerlegateofMoesiachieytheareaofBulgaria,becameemperorofRomein251.In268ClaudiusIIGothicus becametherstofaseriesofemperorsfromIllyria.TheywereacapablegroupandpreparedthewayforDiocletian. Ref.127[176],206[83],48[72] 17.4.1.1.2ITALY Althoughalreadydiminishedbysomeseverepestilence,thepopulationofRomeatthebeginningofthis3rdcentury wasatleastonemillion.Anepidemichitagainbetween251and266,with5,000dyingeachdayatitspeakinRome andwiththeruralpopulationsalsoheavilyaffected.Thediseasemayhavebeeneithermeaslesand/orsmallpox.Civil disordersandbarbarianinvasionssimplyaddedtotheproblem.VacancieswithinthelegionsontheRomanfrontiers, causedbydeathsfromdiseaseandmutinies,resultedininvitationstothebarbarianstobothenterthelegionsandsettle thelands.Rapiddie-offaroundtheentireMediterraneanhamperedcommerceanddiminishedtheowofcashtothe imperialtreasuryandthisresultedinnopayforthesoldiers,thusfurthermutinies,militaryuprisingsandcivilwars inoutlyingareas.Ref.140[190]Armiesindifferentprovincestriedtosetuptheirowncommandersasemperors the"ThirtyTyrants",butthissituationwaseliminatedbetween268and284.Ofcoursealmostconstantwarwiththe powerfulPersiansintheeastdidnothelpandasuccessionofemperorsofanarchycameandwent,usuallybymurders. Theresourcesoftherichwereconsumedbywarandbythegovernment.ThemenialworkofRomewasperformed byabout400,000slaves,withevenmiddleclasscitizensowningabout8andtherichfrom500to1,000.Ref.222 [296] Theeasternpartoftheempirewasmomentarilysavedinname,ifnotintruth,byOdenathusandZenobia,aswehave reportedinthesectiononTHENEAREAST.GaulhadrevoltedandassumeditsownautonomyunderrstPostumus andthenTetricus.Aurel-ian,emperorfrom270to275,however,temporarilyrestoredGaul,SpainandBritainto thefoldandbuilttheexistingwallsofRomeasaprotectionagainstfutureincursionsbybarbarians.Tokeepthe expandingpoorofRomereasonablyhappy,Aurelianaddedfreepork-fatandwinetothe"Annona",aswellasgiving breadinsteadofjustgrain.Inordertopaytroops,thegovernmentgraduallydebasedthesilvercurrencyandalong withdevaluationthisculminatedinrapidination.Increasinglyslaveswereusedinallcapacities,eveninpositionsof dependentmanagementoffarms,shops,shipsandbanks.Ref.8[14] ThewholeRomanrealmhadashortperiodofpeaceunderoneoftheBalkanemperors,Probus,untilhistroopsmurderedhimin282.ThenDiocles,orDiocletian,amanofgeniusandstatesmanshipbecameemperorandreorganized theempire.AnativeIllyrianandDalmationsoldier,heabandonedRomeandmadehisheadquartersatNicomedia,a fewmilessouthofByzantiuminAsiaMinor.Hedelegatedcontrolofthewesternhalfoftheempiretohisgeneral, Maximian,asco-rulerinthecityofRavenna,Italy,andthenmadeextensivepoliticalreformsincludingthedivisionof theempireintofourmajorprefecturesandthenformingfurthersubdivisionsasdiocesesandnallyprovinces.Ref. 28[48]Atthattimetheempirewassaidtohave435,000menunderarms,chieyinfantry.FinallyDiocletian, fallingpreytothecommoncurseofancientmenofpower,claimedthathewastheearthlyembodimentofJupiter, whileMaximianconsentedtobeHercules.Thisidenticationofgodandkingmeantthenalfailureofrepublican institutionsofantiquityandareversiontotheformsandtheoriesofAchaemenidandEgyptiancourts.FromthisorientalizedmonarchcamethestructureandformofByzantineandtheEuropeankingdomsuntilthetimeoftheFrench

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260 CHAPTER17.A.D.201TO300 Revolution.Allthatwasneedednowwastoallytheorientalmonarchinhisorientalcapitalwithanorientalfaith. ByzantinismbeganwithDiocletian.Ref.48[72],127[176] 17.4.1.1.3CENTRALEUROPE AstheGermanictribesmigratedwestward,behindthemtheSlavsbegantocrosstheElbeandlterintomodern Bohemia,MoraviaandpartsofeasternGermany.TheMarcomanni,whowerealreadyinthisarea,raidedwestward andsouthward,evenintoItalyitself.TheFrankishtribesinvadedacrosstheRhineandalongwiththeAlemannialso attackeddirectlyintoItaly.InbattlesfromA.D.270to275theEmperorAureliannallystoppedtheseinvasions andheldtheGermanictribesessentiallyattheRhineonceagain.InthePannoniandiocese,whichincludedmostof Austria,HungaryandthewesternedgeofYugoslavia,theAsdingbranchoftheVandalshadreplacedtheIazygiansas thedominantelementinthesouthernportion,whiletheGepidsrelatedtotheGothsoccupiedthenorth.Ref.136 [187],127[176] 17.4.1.1.4WESTERNEUROPE Spainbecamealargescaleproducerofwine,oliveoilandotherproducts,includingadelicioussh-paste.Some insurrectionsinthiscountry,asinotherpartsoftheempire,wereeventuallyputdownbyAurelian.Revoltleaders PostumusandTetricusinGaulwerealsoeventuallydefeated.InBelgiumtheFranksswepttheGaulicCeltsinto thesouth,givingrisetotheoriginallanguagebarrierwiththenorthernGermanictonguedominantatthattime.In England,lateinthecenturythepiratesweresonumerousaroundthecoaststhatCarausius,whohappenedtobea Belgiansailor,wasassignedbytheRomanauthoritiestocleartheNorthSeaandthechannelofthesebrigands.He didso,usingmercenariesofGermanicandFrankishorigin.ButhemadeenemiesinRomeandwasmurderedin A.D.293byhisnanceofcer,Allectus,whothenkeptEnglandindependentofRomancontrolforthreeyears,until ConstantiusChlorusre-conqueredtheareausinganewnavyandfreshtroops.Ref.8[14],43[64],136[187], 24[44] 17.4.1.1.5SCANDINAVIA InthisareathemostsignicantchangefromrecentcenturieswasthereplacementofallLappsandFinnsinDenmark byGermanictribesbyA.D.250.IncludedinthelattergroupwerethedenitiveDanes.Romancoinsofthe3rd centuryhavebeenfoundonIceland,presumablytakentherebytheRomanEmperorConstanswhosailedinpursuit ofCelticpirateswhohadraidedWalesandthenledtheirpursuertoanarcticisland. Ref.175[241],66[97] 17.4.1.1.6EASTERNEUROPE Travelingfromnorthtosouthinthisregion,wewouldndFinnsinthesparselysettledfarnorth,butsouthofthem goingfromwesttoeastalongtheBaltic,wewouldndrsttheBalts,thenalargeareaofSlavsandnally,justnorth oftheBlackSea,variousIraniantribes,includingtheRoxolaniandAlans.ByA.D.300theOstrogothshadexpanded eastwardacrosstheUkrainetodominatetheRoxolani,butotherwisetherewasnotmuchchangethroughoutthis centurywiththepossibleexceptionthattheremayhavebeensomeTurkish-speakingHunnishpeoplealreadydrifting intothisarea.Ref.136[187],127[176] ForwardtoEurope:A.D.301to400Section18.4 ChooseDifferentRegion 1.IntrotoEraSection17.1 2.AfricaSection17.2 3.AmericaSection17.9 4.CentralandNorthernAsiaSection17.5 5.TheFarEastSection17.7

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261 6.TheIndianSubcontinentSection17.6 7.TheNearEastSection17.3 8.PacicSection17.8 17.5CentralandNorthernAsia:A.D.201to300 6 17.5.1CENTRALANDNORTHERNASIA BacktoCentralandNorthernAsia:A.D.200to301B.C.Section16.5 IntheregionsofAfghanistanandwesternTurkestantheKushanEmpiresplitintoseveralprincipalitiesandthePersian Sassanidsappeartohaverapidlyestablishedsomedominanceoverthenearestofthese,buttheirclaimtohavemade theOxusandtheIndustheirfrontiersseemsover-stated.TheKushanstatescertainlycontinuedtoexistaspolitical entitiesuntilthe5thcentury.WiththefalloftheHanDynastyinA.D.220,ChinalostcontrolofeasternTurkestan, andtheKushans,withsomePersianinuence,onceagaingainedcontrol.StillfarthernorththeHunnishtribeswere ourishing. Bytheopeningofthiscenturyallpartsofthe2,500miletraderoutefromSyriatotheTarimBasinwereunderpressure bybarbariansandagreatdealofthetradehadalreadyshiftedtosealanesintheIndianOcean.Alongthesilkroute, however,artourishedfromthiscenturyforthenext700yearsasaremarkablecombinationofstylisticelements drawnfromIndia,PersiaandChina.Stonewasscarce,butdecoratedwoodpiecesandtemperapaintingonwoodwas common.Ref.136[187],8[14],19[32] ForwardtoCentralandNorthernAsia:A.D.301to400Section18.5 ChooseDifferentRegion 1.IntrotoEraSection17.1 2.AfricaSection17.2 3.AmericaSection17.9 4.EuropeSection17.4 5.TheFarEastSection17.7 6.TheIndianSubcontinentSection17.6 7.TheNearEastSection17.3 8.PacicSection17.8 17.6TheIndianSubcontinent:A.D.201to300 7 17.6.1THEINDIANSUBCONTINENT BacktoTheIndianSubcontinent:A.D.101to200Section16.6 TheKushanruleinIndiafadedaway.Ujjain,inMalwa,continuedasacapitalandcenterwithacontinueddynastyof WesternSatraps.TheBuddhistcommunitywasnowdenitelydividedintoHin-ayanaandMahayanagroups,butin thefarsouthHinduismwasthemoreimportant.BrahmancolonieswithHinduismandthecastesystemwereimported fromtheGangesValleyatvariousperiodsandendowedbylocalrulers.ThiswasdoneinBengal.About225in Maharashra,thebreak-upoftheSatakaniEmpireledtotheestablishmentoftheTraikutkaDynastyfromlocalpastoral tribes.TheyeventuallyeventookoverthethroneatUjjain. 6 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat. 7 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat.

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262 CHAPTER17.A.D.201TO300 Sanskritnowbegantoberevisedasamorecommonlanguage,afterseveralhundredyearsofpartialbanishment.This attestedtheprestigeoftheBrahminicaltraditionandprovedtheeffectivenessofthenumerouseducationalinstitutions oftheland.Itmightbeappropriatetoinserthere,thatnotalloftheBrahmancastewerepriests.Althoughtheywere, inHindutradition"borntwice",onceatdeliveryandonceatagesixwhenadoublestrandedgutofsacredthread wasloopedaroundtheirnecks,theirprivilegeswerenotnecessarilyeithereconomicnorpurelyreligious.Somewere poorfarmers,somemailmen,someworkersofothertrades,butallsupposedlylivedbymanydailyrituals.Ref.119 [166],37[58] PossiblyoriginatinginIndiainthiscenturyotherwiseinChinawasahighqualitycarbonizedsteelmadebyacrucible smeltingprocessunknowninEuropeuntilthe19thcentury.ThiscametobeknownasDamascusordamasksteelin Europeandwasusedparticularlytomakeswordsofamazingsharpness.IngotsofthiswereexportedfromIndiato theFarEast,Arabia,Syria,RussiaandPersia.Ref.260[29] ForwardtoTheIndianSubcontinent:A.D.301to400Section18.6 ChooseDifferentRegion 1.IntrotoEraSection17.1 2.AfricaSection17.2 3.AmericaSection17.9 4.CentralandNorthernAsiaSection17.5 5.EuropeSection17.4 6.TheFarEastSection17.7 7.TheNearEastSection17.3 8.PacicSection17.8 17.7TheFarEast:A.D.201to300 8 17.7.1THEFAREAST BacktoTheFarEast:A.D.101to200Section16.7 17.7.1.1CHINAANDMANCHURIAHanto220,ThreeKingdomsto280,thenChin AtthebeginningofthecenturythecapitalwasatLo-yangandnortheasternChinagrewinimportance.TheHan EmpirenowreachedasfarsouthasHaiphong,but"Theforceoftheimperialunityplayeditselfoutin220,when thelastoftheHanemperorsofciallyabdicatedatthebiddingofageneralwhohadalreadykepthimincustodyfor severalyears."Therefollowedaperiodofdisorderedlifeandastalematedcivilization,duringwhichtimethere werethreekingdoms:Wei,inthenorth,directlyfollowingtheHanDynasty,underTs'aoP'ei;Wu,inthesoutheast, basedatNankingunderSunCh'u an;andShu,controlledbyLiuPeiandbasedatChengtuinthesouthwest.Liu Peiandhisfamily,originallylieutenantsofGeneralTs'aoTs'oa,protectorofthelastoftheHans,thenbecamethe greatestenemyoftheWei,givingrisetolegends,ctionanddramainChinaforcenturiestocome.Evenso,ShuHan wasabsorbedbyWeiinA.D.263andWugavewayin280,endingtheThreeKingdomsera.Inthemeantime,the Ssu-mafamilygeneralshadtakenoverWeiandchangedthenametoChin,andforagenerationafter280Chinaagain hadafragileunity.Thepopulationatthattimewasonly16,163,0009adropfrom55,000,000inthemiddleofthe 2ndcentury.Aseverepestilencewasamajorfactorinthispopulationdecline,asinEuropeatthesametime,butat leastpartofitwasduetowide-spreadcannibalism.Chinahadenteredherfourcenturiesof"darkages".Thesouthern Hsiung-nulivedonthefrontierasahostileminorityandthelongdelayedclashwasabouttooccur.Ref.8[14],139 [192],68[106],101[146] 8 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat.

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263 MoChingwrotethePulseClassic,anintensivemethodofdiagnosisfromstudyofthepulse,aprocedurestillused inChinaandwhichhadoriginallybeendescribedinthe6thor5thcenturyB.C.ChangChung-chingwroteaclassic treatiseon"TyphoidandotherFevers"anditwasperhapsinthiscenturythatKoHungdescribedberiberi,hepatitis, andplagueandgaveanearlyreportonsmall-poxwithanaccuratedescriptionofthepustules.Chinesemedicine continuedtoprogressfromthistimeuntilthe10thcentury,whenitbecamestatic.Althoughsugarcanewasknown nearCanton,itwasnotcommutedtosugar,proper,andhoneyremainedtheuniversalsweetener.Ref.136[187], 125[173],213[288] 17.7.1.2JAPAN SometimebetweenA.D.200and250the10themperor,Sujin,hadtheroyalbronzemirrorandtheswordp.237 enshrinedoutsidethepalaceforalltoseeandadmire.Themirror,called"themirrorofknowledge"washousedat ashrinecalled"Ise",whicheventodayisaprimeholyplaceofJapan.TheYamatoCultureofKoreanoriginwas introducedwithironimplementsandmegalithicburials.Handicraftsweresoonorganizedintoguilds.Beneaththis artisanclasswasaslaveclass,recruitedfromprisonsandbattle-elds.Socialorganizationwaspartlyfeudal,partly tribalandeachclanhadasovereignhead.Governmentwasprimitivelylowandweak,althoughitwasaperiodof geographicalexpansionandvictoryovertheAinu.Ref.12[21],19[32] 17.7.1.3KOREA Thiswasaperiodofsometurmoil,withearlycenturyinvasionsbyKungsunManchuriansandlatecenturyconquests bytheChineseoftheWeiDynasty.AboutA.D.250northerninvadersestablishedthestateofPaikche,inthesouthwest. 17.7.1.4SOUTHEASTASIA BurmawasunderIndianinuenceandbythiseraHindupeopleshadestablishedcommercialsettlementsonthe coastandrivermouths.ThesesettlementsdevelopedintosmallkingdomsincontactwithTibeto-Burmesetribes. Champa,Funan,VietandKhmerkingdomscontinuedrivalries.TheChinesecontrolledHaiphonganditisprobable thatChineseandIndiantradersmetatGoOcEoinsouthernCambodia,fromwhencetheIndianscarriedtheChinese goodsonacrosstheMalayPeninsulaandontoIndia.FromA.D.200ontheislandkingdomsofIndonesiaderived theircivilizationfromIndia,throughcontactswithHindutradersandBuddhistmonks.Ref.8[14],176[242] REFERENCEQuotationtakenfromMcNeillRef.139[192],page324. ForwardtoTheFarEast:A.D.301to400Section18.7 ChooseDifferentRegion 1.IntrotoEraSection17.1 2.AfricaSection17.2 3.AmericaSection17.9 4.CentralandNorthernAsiaSection17.5 5.EuropeSection17.4 6.TheIndianSubcontinentSection17.6 7.TheNearEastSection17.3 8.PacicSection17.8 17.8ThePacic:A.D.201to300 9 17.8.1THEPACIFIC BacktoThePacic:A.D.101to200Section16.8 9 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat.

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264 CHAPTER17.A.D.201TO300 Pleaseseetheseveralprecedingandthefollowingcenturies. ForwardtoModuleThePacic:A.D.301to400Section18.8 ChooseDifferentRegion 1.IntrotoEraSection17.1 2.AfricaSection17.2 3.AmericaSection17.9 4.CentralandNorthernAsiaSection17.5 5.EuropeSection17.4 6.TheFarEastSection17.7 7.TheIndianSubcontinentSection17.6 8.TheNearEastSection17.3 17.9America:A.D.201to300 10 17.9.1AMERICA BacktoAmerica:A.D.101to200Section16.9 17.9.1.1NORTHAMERICA 17.9.1.1.1THEFARNORTHANDCANADA ForinformationconcerningtheDorsetInuitsofthefarnorth,pleaseseethe6thSection9.4and1stcenturiesB.C. Section14.9andthe9thcenturyC.E.Section23.9ForthenorthwestcoastalIndiansseetheprevioustwoorthree centuriesunderthissamecategory.BarryFellRef.66[97]insiststhatthroughoutthelastpre-Christianandthese earlyChristiancenturiestheNewEnglandCelts,whichhehasdescribed,graduallymigratedwiththeirIndianwives andchildrenacrossCanadawestwardeventuallyreachingBritishColumbia.Hereportsthatmuchofthevocabulary andgrammaroftheTakhelnelanguageoftheFraserLakesareaspokenyettoday,isaCreoleCeltictonguerelated toGaelicandderivedfromGodelic.InAmericaRef.66[97]helists54wordsstillusedtodaybytheTakhelne peoplealongwiththeGodelicandGaelicwordsandtheirmuchdifferentEnglishequivalents 11 .Thetableisquite convincing,butwhyisthisnotevencommentedonelsewhereintheliterature? 17.9.1.1.2THEUNITEDSTATES SometimeintheseearlyChristiancenturiesthe"EfgyMound"CulturedevelopedintheupperMississippiValleyasa regionalvariationoftheHopewellCulture.TheretheIndiansbuiltgiganticmoundsintheformofanimals-panthers, lizards,deer,bearsandbirds.Mostofthemoundshadburials,oftenatcriticalpartsoftheguresuchasattheheart, hiporknee.Althoughprobablyofreligioussignicance,noonereallyknowswhattheseMinnesotaandWisconsin moundsactuallymean.Ref.215[290]ThesoutheastIndianswillbediscussedatmuchlengthinlaterchapters. InthesouthwesttheMogollon,HohokamandAnasazipeoplescontinuedtheirdevelopment.Amoredetailedlookat theircultureswillbegiveninlatercenturies,correspondingtothetimeoftheheightsoftheirdevelopment. 17.9.1.2MEXICO,CENTRALAMERICA,ANDTHECARIBBEAN WehavementionedpreviouslyrdcenturyB.C.Section12.9thatrecentexcavationsnearCobaontheYucatan peninsulahaverevealedmuchoftheLatePre-ClassicMayaperiod.Thepeakofthiscivilizationappearstohave beenreachedinthis3rdcenturyC.E.andthendinghaveincludedtheNohosmulpyramid,rising157feetoutofthe 10 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat. 11 Ref.66[97],page198.

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265 jungle,5.4squaremilesoftemplebuildings,streetsandplazas,187milesofroadsandstreets,some80feetwide withtrafccirclesandunderpasses 12 .Thisdevelopmentapparently followed theGuatemalaMayaSociety,although itisknownthatbyA.D.250therewasatrueurbanMayanzonepersistingatKaminaljuyuatthesiteofpresent dayGuatemalaCity.ThiswasthebeginningofthegreatesteraofMayacivilization,withoneoftheearliestlarge, ceremonialcentersatTikal,datingtoA.D.292,inwhatiscalledtheearlyClassicperiod.Therewasastrongcentral MexicanTeotihuacnpresence,asthatcitywascontinuingdevelopmentwithobsidianminingasamajorenterprise. Ref.215[290],45[66] TheMayas,evenforgenerationsaftertheirpeak,spokeoftwodistinctcultureheroes,ItzamnaandKukulcan,both bearded,althougharrivingatdifferenttimesandfromoppositedirections,leadingtheMayastoYucatan.Their legendssaidthatthelargestandmostancientimmigrationwasfromtheeastthroughtheoceanandledbyItzamna, guide,instructorandcivilizer.Kukulcan,alaterarrival,wasdifferent-arrivingwith20menwearingowingrobesand sandals,withlongbeardsandbareheads,orderingthepeopletoconfessandfast 13 .HeallegedlyfoundedMayapan andcausedmuchbuildingatChichenItza,andtaught"peace".Hishumanitarianteachingscoincidecompletelywith thoseofQuetzalcoatl,ofthelaterAztecs."Kukul"istheMayawordforquetzalbirdand"can"isaserpent. AcoloredpaintingfromaninteriorchamberofapyramidatChichenItza,copiedbyMorris,CharlotandMorrisin 1931andnowdestroyedbyhumidityandtouristsshowedaseashorebattleinvolvingtworacialtypes,onewith whiteskinandlong,owingyellowhairarrivinginboats,andtheothertypedark-skinnedandwearingfeathered headdressesandloincloths.AreedvesselonthepyramidpaintingrecallsthereedboatsusedatLuxusinMorocco andtheoldEgyptianpaintingsofreedboatsoftheNile.Wheredidtheseblondmencomefrom?Wedoknowfrom writtenaccountsofthediscoveryoftheCanaryIslandsbyEuropeansafewgenerationsbeforeColumbus,thatthose islandswereinhabitedbyamixedpopulationcalled"guanches"-somesmall,swarthyandnegroid,otherstall,whiteskinned,blondandbearded,alljustliketheMayapyramidatYucatan.TheBerbersofNorthAfricaweresimilarly mixedandremainsotoday.Blondandred-hairedpeopleareknowntohavebeenintheCaucasianplainseastofAsia MinorandnowhereonthecontinentisredhairmorecommonthaninLebanon.Ref.95[140]So,dowetakeour pick?AsfurtherconrmationofthepresenceofbeardedmeninthisCentralAmericanarea,wehaveStephensRef. 203[277]accountofhisexplorationofCopan,Honduras,inthe1830s.Hedescribesndingmultipleidolswiththe malesallidentiedbybeardsandsomewithmustaches.ThebeardswerelikethoseonEgyptianstatuesbutthelatter didnothavemustaches.Oneoftheat-toppedaltarsdescribedhadornamentssuggestingthetrunksofelephants!All ofthemonumentsatCopanhadsculpturesandhieroglyphics. 17.9.1.3SOUTHAMERICA InsouthernPerutheremainingNazcaIndiansmadefancifulbirdsandanimalsofgoldmetalsheetsanddecorated theirpotterywithanimals,demonsandgeometricformsinmultiplecolors.Theirtextileworkwasalsointricateand colorful.WeassumethattheTiahuanacopeoplecontinuedtoliveinthehighcountryalthoughnoparticulardatings fromthiscenturyhavebeenrecorded.AcrockofcoinsofalltheRomanemperorsoftherstthreecenturiesafter ChristhavebeenfoundburiedonthecoastofVenezuela.Nooneknowsthesourceofthesecoins.Ref.176[242],66 [97]AsthisisbeingwrittenanewspaperitemreportsthendingofhundredsofpiecesofRomanamphoraeatthe bottomofaBrazilianbay.TheunderwaterarcheologistresponsibleanticipatesndingasunkenRomanship,soon, andtheamphoraewillbedatedwithsomeaccuracybythepotteryluminescencemethodinthenearfuture,butheis condentthatthedatewillbethe2ndor3rdcenturyC.E. ForwardtoAmerica:A.D.301to400Section18.9 ChooseDifferentRegion 1.IntrotoEraSection17.1 2.AfricaSection17.2 12 OneofthestrangefeaturesofallearlyCentralAmericansocietiesisthefactthatnoneofthemusedthewheel.Children'stoycartswithwheels havebeenfound,butnowheelswereusedotherwise.Oneexplanationhasbeenthatthejunglesandmountainsmadewheelsuseless,andyetwhy weretheynotusedincitieswithmilesandmilesofroadsasjustdescribed? 13 Thislegendfrom LasCasas'HistoriadelasIndias of1559,asrelatedbyHeyerdahlRef.95[140],pages113and114.

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266 CHAPTER17.A.D.201TO300 3.CentralandNorthernAsiaSection17.5 4.EuropeSection17.4 5.TheFarEastSection17.4 6.TheIndianSubcontinentSection17.6 7.TheNearEastSection17.3 8.PacicSection17.8

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Chapter18 A.D.301to400 18.1A.D.301to400 1 18.1.1A.D.301TO400 BackwardtoA.D.201to300Section17.1 Althoughthebeginningshadbeenseenearlier,thiscenturyisusuallylistedasthecrucialoneforthefallofRome. CentralandwesternEuropebecamemoreandmoreimportantasbothCelticandGermanicpeoples,nowmoreorless "civilized",begantodominatetheirrespectiveareas.TheNearEastslowlydeclinedastheRomanEmpirewaned, withonlyByzantiumshowingsignsofvigorouslife.EvenChinawasindisarrayandIndiawasprobablythemost stableandprogressiveofalltheOldWorldareasatthistime. 18.1.1.1THECHRISTIANCHURCH ThenewlyorganizedChristianChurchbegantomakeitselffeltinworldaffairs,eventhoughtherewasalreadya splittingoftheChristiansintomanyfactions.TheCouncilofNicaeain325condemnedArianismasheretical,tobegin oneofthemajordivisions.ThepriestAriushadsubordinatedthe"Son"tothe"Father".Otherheresiesincludingthe Manichists,DonatistsandMonophysiteswillbementionedbelow.Inthemainlineofthechurch,the"elders"were alreadybeingsupersededbyahierarchyofbishopsandnowafull-scalediocesanframeworkappeared,modeledon thatoftheRomanEmpire.Threeofwhathavebeencalled"thefourfathers" 2 oftheLatinchurchlivedinthiscentury: St.Jerome-400,translatoroftheBiblefromGreektoLatin;St.Ambrose-397,ArchbishopofMilan, whowroteDutiesoftheClergy;andSt.Augustine-430,BishopofHippo,whointroducedanessenceofGreek philosophyintoChristianity.Thefourth"father",PopeGregory,weshallmeetinthe6thcentury.Ref.213[288] InA.D.367Athanasius,thepowerfulArchbishopofAlexandriaorderedallapocryphalbookswith"heretical"tendenciestobepurgedanditisprobablethattheGnosticGospelsreferredtoinpreviouschapterswerehiddenatthistime. InthesectiononASIAMINORinthischapter,weshallexaminetheeffectoftheEmperorConstantinetheGreaton Christianity. 18.1.1.2INTERNATIONALJEWRY ThusfarwehavelimitedourdiscussionsoftheJewsandtheirreligiontothesectionsonISRAEL,butsincemany werewidelydispersedaftertheRomano-JewishWars,itseemsappropriatetorelatethefateofthesepeopleonan internationallevelfromthischapteron.TheadoptionofChristianityintheRomanEmpireinthiscenturymade 1 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat. 2 Reference213[288],page143 267

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268 CHAPTER18.A.D.301TO400 achangefortheworseforthemanyJewsdistributedthroughout.Itwasnotlongbeforetheywereforbiddento proselytize,buildnewsynagogues,ownChristianslavesorholdpoliticalofceinmanyareas.Ref.68[106] ForwardtoA.D.401to500Section19.1 ChooseDifferentRegion 1.AfricaSection18.2 2.AmericaSection18.9 3.CentralandNorthernAsiaSection18.5 4.EuropeSection18.4 5.TheFarEastSection18.7 6.TheIndianSubcontinentSection18.6 7.TheNearEastSection18.3 8.PacicSection18.8 18.2Africa:A.D.301to400 3 18.2.1AFRICA BacktoAfrica:A.D.201to300Section17.2 18.2.1.1NORTHEASTERNAFRICA IntheregionofSudantheoldKushiteKingdomhadbeenreplacedbytheKingdomofMeroi,althoughthebasicpopulationremainedaKushpeople.ThenewkingdomhadauniqueAfricancharacterbutitdidnotthrivelong,apparently conqueredsometimebetween320andtheendofthecenturybyneighboringAxumofnorthernEthiopia.Thename "Kush"nowdisappeared,tobereplacedby"Nubia".TheNobatae,comingfromKordofanandtheBlemmyesBela comingfromtheNileValleytotheeast,blendedwiththeoldKushitestoformthepopulationofmedievalNubia. BeforeChristianitycametothisareathereareindicationsthatthiswas,inmodernterminology,a"swingingplace". RemnantsofalargetavernconstructedinthemiddleofthecenturyatIbrimindicatethatthewineowedfreelyup toaboutA.D.500.Ref.271[7],83[123]ThepopulousAxumhadadoptedtheMonophysiteChristianfaithand thisnewreligionwasthefoundationofthekingdomwhichwassoontobecalledAbyssinia.By362thiskingdom alsoincludedaportionofthesouthernArabianarea.AdistinguishingfeatureofAxumwastheuseofstone-masonry withoutmortar.Thereisstillstandinga23meterhighobelisk,simulatinganine-storypalace,constructedinthis4th centurywhenthisstatewasconsideredoneofthefourworldpowers.Ref.270[36]TheAxumemperor,King Ezana,hadbeenconvertedtoMonophysitismbytheSyrianFrumentiuswhohadoriginallybeenshipwreckedonthe RedSeacoast. TheresultingEthiopianOrthodoxChurch,actuallyabranchoftheEgyptianCoptic,spreadoverthehighlandofnorth Ethiopia.Ref.8[14],175[241] InEgypttherewaspoliticalandculturaldecline.ChristianitymademanyconvertsalongthecoastbutoftheMonophysitevariety.ThissectbelievedthattherewasonlyonenatureinGodandJesus,withacompletedenialofthe Trinity.Thisfaithsurvivestodayinsomeeasternareasand,assuggestedabove,particularlyinEthiopia.Arianism, anothergreat"heresy"whichwasmentionedabove,alsooriginatedinAlexandria.Incontrasttothedogmaofthe Monophysites,AriuspreachedthatChristwasnotonewithGodbutrathertheLogosSeePhilo,page297,therst andhighestofallcreatedbeings.TheSonwasneithercoeternalwithnorconsubstantialwiththeFather.Politically, EgyptremainednominallyundertheRomanEmpire,evenasitbegantocollapse.ApopularliteratureintheCoptic languageappearedinthiscentury.Ref.48[72],127[176] 3 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat.

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269 18.2.1.2NORTHCENTRALANDNORTHWESTAFRICA ThecoastlineofNorthAfricaremainedsubjecttoRomancontrolastheChristianfaithspreadacrossthearea.As inthelastcentury,inthewesttheBerber-Moorsbecamemoreandmoreprolicandindependent.Althoughcamels hadbeenpresentinAfricapreviouslytheynowcameintoextensiveusebytheBerbers,afeaturewhichhelpedthem tobecomeformidableopponentstoallforeignersalongthecoast.Inthe370sFirmus,aMoorishchieftain,rebelled againsttheRomanValentianIandwasstoppedonlyafteraseriesofmassacres.Ref.127[176],83[123] 18.2.1.3SUBSAHARANAFRICA Therewasverylittlesignicantchangefromthelastcentury.InthewesttheEmpireofGhanacontinueditsdevelopment,whileallalongtheeastcoasttheBantu-speakersexpandedandmoreIndonesiantradersappearedbringingthe AsianyamandtarofromSoutheastAsia.ThelatestestimateofthetimeoftheestablishmentofGreatZimbabweby Bantu-speakingblacksisA.D.320years.TheseweretheGokomerepeopleandtheymayeitherhavelivedthere orsimplyuseditasacamp.Thereissomeevidencethattheyhadiron.Ref.176[242],8[14],83[123],222 [296] ForwardtoAfrica:A.D.401to500Section19.2 18.3TheNearEast:A.D.301to400 4 18.3.1THENEAREAST BacktoTheNearEast:A.D.201to300Section17.3 ARABIAANDJORDAN TheAbyssinianshadconqueredthesouthernangleofthepeninsulaby362andtherewerestillsomefairlyprosperous townsalongtheRedSea.Inthenorththerewasanincreasinglevelofcivilizationwithmoreandmorecontactwith Syria,whileinthedesertthenomadtribesgraduallyencroachedonthetowns.Ref.8[14] 18.3.1.1MEDITERRANEANCOASTALAREASOFISRAELANDLEBANON&IRAQANDSYRIA TheeasternportionofSyria,comprisingessentiallypresentdayIraqandancientMesopotamiawasunderthedominationandactuallyapartofthenewPersianEmpire.ThewesternpartofSyria,includingtheareasofLebanonand Judea,werepartofByzantium,theeasternrealmofthefadingRomanEmpire.MonophysiteChristianity,whichbegan aperiodofextremeascetismamongmanymonksoftheEast,becamewidelyacceptedinSyriaandparticularlyinthe Lebanonregion.Judgingfromtheirrigationsystems,thepopulationofMesopotamiamaywellhavereacheditspeak atthistime,whileepidemicsandotherproblemswerecuttingtheItalianRomanpopulationRef.140[190]The BibleandvarioustheologicalworksweretranslatedintoSyriacandthenacopiousoriginalliteraturewasdeveloped. IncentralSyria,sincethecitiesofPalmyraandHatrahadbeendestroyedinthepreviouscentury,thesilkroutenow wentfarthernorthfromAntiochonthecoastthroughnorthernSyriatoSeleucia,anancientcitynowgone,whichwas locatednearpresentdayBaghdad.Ref.127[176],137[188] IRAN:PERSIA IntherstdecadeofthiscenturyPersiawasinvadedbyArabsfromMesopotamiaandBahrainandCtesiphonwas sacked.At17yearsofageShapurIlbecameemperorandheimmediatelyinvadedArabiaandexactedaterrible revengeupontheArabs.Thenbetween337and376heengagedinthreewarswithRome,withneithersidegaining anygreatadvantage.WhenShapurIIdiedin379thePersianEmpirewasatitspeak,controllingallterritorythatDarius Ihadruledathousandyearsbefore.Zorastrianism,tiedupwiththepoliticaldestinyoftheempire,waswinningagainst bothJudaismandHellenization. 4 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat.

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270 CHAPTER18.A.D.301TO400 IraniansocietyinthisSassanianperiodconsistedessentiallyofthreeclasses: WARRIORS.Thelandowners,greatandsmall,furnishedtheheavycavalryandthemountedarcherswhowere theeffectivestrengthofthearmy.Theinfantryconsistedoftheirvassalsandserfs.Atthetopofthisclasswereseven greatfamiliesdatingbacktotheAchaemenidtimesandholdinghereditaryrightstovariousofces.Thekingwas amemberofoneofthesegreatfamiliesandtheinternalhistoryofIrancontinuedtobeoneofnoblesjockeyingfor power. PRIESTS:MAGI.TheAvesta,writtensometimeduringSassaniandomination,orderedeveryaspectoflifein Persia.TheMagihadgreatauthority,includingsomejudicialfunction.Theyownedlargeestatesandhadconsiderable politicalinuencewhenMazdaismnallybecamethedominantreligioninthenextcentury. PEASANTSANDCRAFTSMEN.Thiswasthemostnumerousgroupbutithadnopowerandnochancetorise inrank.Thegreatmajoritywerepeasants,almostatthelevelofserfdom. Intherulingclasstherewasmuchfamilyintermarriage,father-daughterandbrother-sistermarriagesbeingcommon. AfterShapurII,therebeganadeclineinroyalpowerandmanydynasticdisputes,ragingover11/2centuries.In additiontherewerefrequentwarswiththeByzantinebranchoftheremainsoftheRomanEmpireandin395large hordesofHunscrossedtheDon,thentheCaucasusandenteredPersia,drivenperhapsbyfamine.Theytookthousands ofprisonersforlatersaleasslavesanddroveoffmanyherdsofcattle.OnegroupcrossedtheEuphratesandwere beatenbackbyRomans,anotherretreatedfromCtesiphonasthePersianarmyapproachedandathirdgroupravaged AsiaMinorandSyria.Ref.119[166],48[72],127[176] ASIAMINOR:ANATOLIA InthisandthenextcenturyitisofvaluetothereadertostudythesectionsonASIAMINOR,THEBALKANS, AUSTRIA,HUNGARYANDITALYalltogether,astheinteractionsbetweentheseareasisalmostcontinuous. OurparagraphaboutByzantiuminthelastchapterclosedwiththeascensionofDiocletiantothethroneoftheeastern portionoftheRomanEmpire,ashegaveMaximiancontrolofthewesternportion.Bothofthesemenabdicatedin A.D.305.TheRomanpoliticalandmilitaryscenesbecomeverycomplicatedfromthispointon,withthetwohalves oftheempireruledsometimesbyoneman,butatothertimestwoorfoursharedthepowerasco-emperors,westand east.ThedesignationofvariousgeneralsasCaesarsandprefecturesdoesnothelpintheclarication.Weshalltry togiveonlythesalientpoints,andavoidgettingboggeddowninminutedetails.ConstantiusandGaleriussucceeded DiocletianandMaximian,butConstantiusdiedayearlaterandhisson,Constantine,wasproclaimedemperorby histroops,whilejustshortlythereafterMaxentius,sonofMaximian,seizedpowerinItaly.Constantineoverthrew MaxentiusjustoutsideRomein312,makinghimselfmasteroftheWestandelevenyearslaterhetookovertheEast, also.Thus,by323hehadbecomethesoleemperorandhisinaugurationwasgiveninConstantinoplein330afterhe hadspentfouryearsconstructingitonthesiteofancientByzantium.KnownsubsequentlyasConstantinetheGreat thismaninthemeantimewagedwarallacrosssouthernEurope,inGreeceandtheEastandsincemanyofhissoldiers werealreadyChristians,heusedtheircrossesashisbattleensignia.FinallyhebecameanavowedChristianalthough heattendednoritualsanditispossiblethathisconversionwasmoreofapoliticalmaneuverthanaspiritualone.Its effectswereneverthelessfarreachingandpromotedthespreadandorganizationoftheChurchthroughouttheRoman domain.Ref.137[188],48[72],127[176],222[296] ConstantinegavetheChurchvastestatesandbuildings,empoweredbishopstomakeslavesofRomancitizensand permittedcivilsuitstobetransferredtobishops'courtsifeitherpartysodesired.Ref.213[288] BesidesbeingconstantlyatwarwithPersiaunderShapurII,ConstantineIhadtoputupwithbitterbattleswhich developedovercreedsinhisnewlyrecognizedChristianhierarchy.Heattemptedtoresolvethesedifferencesby callingacouncilofNicaeawhichproceededtoestablishtheorthodoxcreedthatinessencesaidthattheLordJesus Christ,theSonofGod,begottennotmade,beingofoneessencewiththeFather,wasmadeeshforthesalvationof men.Ofsome318bishopspresent,onlytwoplustheunrepentantArius,refusedtosigntheformula.Thesewere exiledandanimperialedictorderedthatallbooksbyAriusshouldbeburned.AllChristianswereagreedthatpagan

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271 templesmustbeclosedbutArianismremainedinAsiaMinorandthroughouttheNearEastand"paganism"inthe formofMithraism,Neoplatonism,StoicismandCynicismwaswidespread.Constantinealsohadseriousnancial troublessothathehadtoconscatepropertiesofcitiesandtemplesandnallyimpoverishedthemiddleclassand thepeasantsbytremendoustaxationandlandtransfers.ByA.D.350,someyearsafterhisdeath,therewere80,000 peoplegettingfreebreadinConstantinople.Ref.48[72] Afterafewmurdersofotherclaimantstothethrone,Constantine'sson,ConstantiusII,becameemperorin337but heruledforonlynineyearsandaccomplishednothingexcepttochooseasCaesaratopgeneralthehalf-brother ofGallus,FlaviusClaudiuslulianus,soontobeknownasJulian.HewasgivencommandagainsttheAlamanniand theFranks,butafterveyearsheapparentlysoughtgreaterthingsandmarchedagainstConstantius.Thelatterdied beforeJulianreachedhimsohebecameemperorin361withoutfurtherdifculty.KnownasJulianus,theApostate, hereversedthetrendtoChristianity,upholdingpaganismwhileattemptingtomakeMithraismthesupremereligion. Hewasalearnedmanwhodevotedmuchtimetobooksandthestudyofphilosophies,whileallowingfullfreedomto Christians.Athisdeathin364whileghtingwithhisarmiesinPersia,Hellenismanditsphilosophiesdisappearedfor 11centuries.Aftersomefurtherjugglingofeastandwestemperorselectedbytheirtroops,ValentinianusIbecame emperorinthewestin364andhenamedhisbrotherValensasco-Augustusintheeast.Hehadhishandsfullbattling VisigothswhowonindependencenorthoftheDanube.Alloftheemperors'mostdangerousenemy,however,still remainedtheSassanidDynastyofPersia,andthissqueezingeffectwiththeGothsinthenorthandthePersiansin thesouthresultedinByzantiumgivinguppartofArmeniaandGeorgiaintheCausasustoPersia.Finallyin378the VisigothscrossedtheDanube80,000strong,engagedtheeasternco-Augustus,Valens,inagreatbattleatAdrianople andthelatterwaskilled.GratianusappointedTheodosius,astrongChristianandsonofasuccessfulgeneralin Britain,tosucceedhimasco-emperoroftheEast.Heimmediatelybannedthepracticeofallcurrentreligionsexcept ChristianityalthoughitwasstillinaminorityatthetimeandhandedoverallChristianchurchestotheTrinitarians Athanasiasts,beinggreatlyinuencedbySt.AmbroseofMilan.WhenTheodosiusmassacred7,000peopleat ThessalonicainGreeceinrevengeforaninsurrection,however,BishopAmbroseforcedhimtodopenance,thereby emphasizingtheindependenceofthewesternchurchfromimperialdomination.WhentheFrankCountArobast murderedthewesternemperor,ValentinianII,andsetupthepaganEugeniusasRomanEmperorin392,Theodosius, withGothicauxiliaries,ledbyAlaric,defeatedandkilledbothArbogastandEugeniusatFrigidusinnortheastern Italy.Theodosiusdiedsoonafterthisvictoryandhewasthelastemperorservingjointlywithawesterncounterpart. FollowingthedeathofTheodociusin396theeasternandwesternemperorswerecompletelyseparateandserved onlyintheirownregions.TheEastbenetedfromthissplit,retainingthetaxesandtributethathadpreviouslybeen remittedtoRome.EgyptianwheatwasreroutedtoConstantinopleandthenewcapital,whichincorporatedthecityof Byzantium,soongrewtometropolitansize.Theodocius'son,Arcadius,governedtheEastundertheprefectRuna, butontheirreturnfromItalyTheodocius'easternarmyassassinatedRunusandeffectiverulefelltotheeunuch, Eutropius,whointurnwasmurderedin399inpartbyaconspiracyofGothsinPhrygia.H.G.WellsRef.229[307], page414wrotethatthisnewByzantiumwasadamagedresumptionoftheHellenicEmpireofAlexander,although themonarchhadaRomantitle.Ref.48[72],8[14],221[295],229[307],213[288] AtthebaseoftheAnatolianpeninsula,Armenia,underTerdat,apro-Romanruler,becametherstentirelyChristian stateasitadoptedtheMonophysitevariationinA.D.303.ChosrovIIreignedfrom330to338butbyatreatyof 386followingoneoftheinnumerableRoman-Persianwars,ArmeniawasdividedbetweenByzantiumandPersia,the lattergettingthelargershare.TheArmenianalphabetwasintroducedbySt.MesropaboutA.D.400,suchalphabet containing38lettersanddesignedtohandletheArmenianvariationoftheIndo-Europeanlanguage.Ref.8[14] ForwardtoTheNearEast:A.D.401to500Section19.3 ChooseDifferentRegion 1.IntrotoEraSection18.1 2.AfricaSection18.2 3.AmericaSection18.9 4.CentralandNorthernAsiaSection18.5 5.EuropeSection18.4

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272 CHAPTER18.A.D.301TO400 6.TheFarEastSection18.7 7.TheIndianSubcontinentSection18.6 8.PacicSection18.8 18.4Europe:A.D.301to400 5 18.4.1EUROPE BacktoEurope:A.D.201to300Section17.4 18.4.1.1SOUTHERNEUROPE 18.4.1.1.1EASTERNMEDITERRANEANISLANDS AttheendofthecenturyCreteandmostoftheCycladespassedfromRomantoByzantinecontrol.Ref.38 18.4.1.1.2GREECE GreeceremainedanintegralpartoftheByzantineEmpireandinthisperiodwasintimatelyconnectedwiththeactivitiesoftheupperBalkans.AftertheVisigothswerevictoriousatAdrianoplein378theysubsequentlytriedtosettlein Greece-399butaftertheAthenianspaidthemalargeransom,theywanderedbacknorthandwesttowardItaly. 18.4.1.1.3UPPERBALKANSPleasealsoseeRUSSIAandASIAMINOR,thischapter Therewasmuchmigratoryactivityandinter-tribeghtingintheBalkanarea.TheOstrogothshadsufferedamilitary defeatontheDniepnerbytheHunsandastheyretreatedwestwardtheyinturnpushedtheVisigothsaheadofthem. Onegroupofthelatter,underAthanaric,wentonintoPannoniaHungarywhileasecondgroupunderFritigens appearedonthelowerDanubeandaskedEmperorValen'spermissiontoenterDacia.Therequestwasgrantedbut faminein377resultedintheGothsraidingsouth. JoinedbysomeOstrogoths,some federati 6 ,renegradesandlaterevensomeHunsandAlani,theycrossedtheDanube in378,killedValensandannihilatedtwo-thirdsofhistroops.TheGothsthenravagedtheBalkansfromendtoend. SeparatepeacetreatieswithvariousGothicgroupswereforgedbetween380and381andmanyotherGothsindividuallyoringroupseventuallyjoinedRomanforces.TheoriginalVisigothictroopshadbeenthinnedbyepidemicsand desertions.In384or385HunscrossedthefrozenDanubeandraideddownthewestshoreoftheBlackSeaandin 386struckbotheastandwestoftheGoths'areaontheDanube.TheOstrogothsdeedtheirHunoverlords,striking violentlyingreatnumbersfromtheeast,butevenso,by392theHunswereraidingthroughtheBalkans,notundera singleking,butasindividualtribes. AttheendofthecenturytherewerethreepowerfulgroupsprowlingthroughtheBalkans.Wehavementionedinan earlierparagraphthatasthedeadTheodocius'troopsreturnedfromItalytheyraidedthroughthisareauptothewalls ofConstantinople.TheVisigoths,afterraidingGreecewenttoEpirusontheAdriaticandrenewedanalliancewith theeasternRomangovernment,andasjustnotedabove,theHunswereforagingintotheareafromtheeast.Ref.229 [307],127[176] Althoughaproto-GermanictonguewasprobablyspokensimultaneouslywithSanskrit,earlyGreekandotherearly languages,theGothictranslationoftheBiblebyBishopUllasinthiscenturyistheearliestsatisfactoryrecordofa Germaniclanguage.HavingbeentakentoConstantinopleinhisyoungeryearsasahostage,hemasteredLatinand Greek,inventedaspecialalphabetontheGreekpatternandreturnedtohisVisigothicpeopleonthelowerDanube preachingtheAriancreedwhichthenspreadthroughouttheGermanictribes.HisBibleisvirtuallytheonlysourceof knowledgeoftheoriginalGothiclanguagewhichsiredalltheGermanictongues,includingRunic.Ref.168[229] 5 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat. 6 Gothmercenariespreviouslywithimperialunits

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273 18.4.1.1.4ITALY InthewesternRomanEmpiretherewasacomplexpictureofrecoveryanddecline,literaryactivityandsterility, politicalpompandmilitarydecay.Gaul's20,000,000peopleprosperedandthreatenedItalianleadershipinevery eld.Therewere6,000,000Italianswhileintheempiretherewereanother44,000,000Greek-speakingorientalsand Rome,itself,wasanorientalcitywithagreatmiddleclassnowweakenedbyeconomicdeclineandrisingtaxes. AmongbothpagansandChristiansaliketherewasanimmoralityrarelyknowninhistory.Untilthelastthirdofthe centurythewesternemperorsweremilitarymenwhokeptstrongholdschieflythroughtheirarmies.Theseincluded Julian,whoasaCaesar,hadfoughttheAlamanniandFranksin355andthenmarchedagainstEmperorConstantius oftheEast,tobecomeemperoroverallin360.HewassuccededalmostimmediatelyinthewestbyValentinianIand thenbyGratian-383,abookishadolescentwholostcontrolandthebarbarianssooncrashedthroughtheborders. InitiallyGratianhadservedasco-emperorwithhisfatherValentinianbutuponthedeathofthelatterhewasjoinedby hishalf-brother,ValentianII. MagnusMaximususurpedtheemperor'sarmyandmurderedGartianin383andthenruledthewesternempirewiththe childemperorValentianassistedbytheboy'smother,Justina,andapagangeneralBauto,aFrank.In387Maximus' armywasneededtorepelbarbarianinvadersfromPanonniaandhetooktheopportunitytoalsoswoopdownandtake Italyitself,runningValentianIIandhismothertotheEast.ThiswasthetimewhentheeasternEmperorTheodosius marchedwithaneasternarmychieyofGothicmercenaries,anddefeatedandkilledMaximusin388.Arbogast, aGermanandpaganwasthenthechiefministertotherestoredValentinianII,butconictsoondevelopedandthe emperorwaskilledorcommittedsuicide.Thus,in392FlaviousEugenius,anominalChristian,buthavingpagan sympathies,becameemperor.HealsowasdefeatedinnorthernItalybyTheodosiusin394andpaganismasapolitical forcealmostdisappeared.ThesonofTheodocius,thechildHonorius,wassetuptoruleundertheadministrationof Stilicho,thesonofaGermanofcerandhusbandofTheodocius'niece. AllhistoriansareprettywellagreedonacertainsequenceofeventswhichledtothefallofthewesternRomanEmpire, thisincludingthewesternmovementoftheHuns,whointurn,putgreatpressureontheGermanictribes,whointurn, theninvadedtheempirewhichwasalreadydecayingfromitsowninadequaciesandproblems.Buteachhistorian mayhavehisownconceptoftherelativeimportanceofeachofthesefactorsinthedown-fall.Therearethosewho thinkthatthe"barbarian"advancewasthemajorfactor,andthereisnodoubtthattheGermanshadalreadyheavily inltratedtheranksoftheRomanarmy,particularlythecavalryunitsandthelesserofcialdom.Furthermore,the Germansoldierhadabettersword,madeofbettersteel.RichardLewinsohnRef.122[170]insiststhatthehorse broughtthecollapseoftheempire.CavalryhadalwaysbeenaneglectedpartoftheRomanarmyandinRome,the horsewasmoreasymbolofafuencethanofrealpower.ThemountedtroopsofthebarbarianscuttheRomanlegions topiecesandcavalrymenbecametheconquerorsandfor1,000yearsretainedmasteryoverEurope. OthersweremoreconcernedwiththeinternalproblemsofRome,itself.Throughoutitshistory,theimperialfrontiers werecloselyalignedwiththebordersofthewheatgrowingregionsoftheclassicalworldandnowmuchofthiswheat growingareawasotherwiseoccupied.EgyptianwheatnowwenttoConstantinople;southernItalianagriculturewas decliningandlosingouttoAfricanandSpanishcompetition,sothatthewestwascaughtinthespiralofdwindling revenueandincreasingexactions.Inationwasatremendousfactor.EveninA.D.302Diocletianhadinictedthe deathpenaltyforanyinfringementofxedpriceswhichhehadestablishedinanattempttopresentfurtherination. Ref.213[288]Evenso,ameasureofwheatforwhichtheRomanshadpaidsixdrachmainEgyptintherst centuryC.E.costtwomillionshortlyafterA.D.344.Thisresultedinasubsequentdriftbacktoabartereconomyofa thousandyearsearlierandhelpedtoruinnotonlyinternationaltradebutthewesternempireaswell.AboutA.D.350 therewere120,000peoplewhoreceivedsixhalf-poundloavesofbreadfree,daily,fromthegovernment. BythistimeRomehad12aqueducts,largelyunderground,feeding352fountains.Onetunnel,takingwaterfrom LakeFucinointheApennines,was31/2mileslong.Astheempirefell,however,therewerenolongerslavestocare forthissystemandthefountainsbecamedry.Ref.213[288]Perhapsscarcityofbothfoodandwaterwerevery importantinthedeclineofRome'ThereisstillanotheremphasisbyKennethClarkRef.33[55]-"Soifoneasks whythecivilizationofGreeceandRomecollapsed,therealansweristhatitwasexhausted.""Thelateantiqueworld wasfullofmeaninglessrituals,mysteryreligionsthatdestroyedselfcondence.Andthenexhaustion,thefeelingof

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274 CHAPTER18.A.D.301TO400 hopelessnesswhichcanovertakepeopleevenwithahighdegreeofmaterialprosperity. 7 OfcoursetheGreek-speakingeasternrealmsurvivedtobecomethe-EmpireofByzantium.Partofthesuccessofthis easternpartwasduetoitsurbanizationandtheWest'sfailuretourbanizehadmadethatarealesseasytotaxandmore expensivetoadminister.Failingtocollecttaxes,themilitarycouldnotbepaid.Furthermore,thegovernment'spricexinghadmademanyprofessionsprotlessanditsattemptstoavoidtheeconomicconsequencesofsuchbymaking thepracticeofsuchprofessionsobligatoryandliabilityhereditarymusthavecreatedmanywhite-collaroutlaws.We havealreadymentionedthatasizeableportionofthemasseswereslaves 8 whohadalowreproductionrateandthere wasahighdeathrateintheurbanpeoplefrompestilence.Aplaguewhichmayhavebeenanthraxreducedtheempire's populationby5%earlyinthecentury.Caughtinthespiralofdwindlingrevenueandincreasinglydemandingexactions andination,theWestwasdoomed.Ref.48[72],229[307],122[170],211[284],137[188],213[288], 222[296] Bytheendofthiscentury,althoughwrittenLatinhadnotchangeditsappearance,spokenLatinhaddevelopedanew soundpattern.Stressedvowelsweredrawled;unstressedvowelsweredulled,weakenedandoftendropped.Asthe greatcivilizationwhichhadbeenuniedbytheLatinlanguagecollapsed,whatFreemanDysonRef.56[81]callsa "clade"ofnewLatin-derivedlanguages-French,Spanish,Italian,Portuguese,Romanianandafewlesserones,grew anddevelopedinrelativelyrapidfashion.Atmost,20generationsseparateuniedRomanEuropefromtheEuropeof well-establishedlocallanguages.Ref.168[229],56[81] 18.4.1.2CENTRALEUROPE Thiscenturysawthebeginningof"DieVolkerwanderungen",meaning"peoples'migrations".TheAlemanswereon theupperRhinewhiletheAngles,Saxons,JutesandFrisianswerealongtheNorthSea.TheVandals,relatedtothe Goths,wereontheupperreachesoftheOderRivermovingorperhapsbeingpushedbyGothsfromtheareaof modernPrussiaandpossiblyDenmark,southtotheDanubeintheareaofPannonia,aportionofmodernHungary. TheLombardslivedbetweentheOderandVistulainmodernPolandandalsoonthelowerElbeinGermany.The BurgundiansdriftedwestwardtotheMainRiverandtheThuringiansheldtheirancient,centralpositioninBavaria andnorthward.Allthesetribesforthemostpartwereantagonistictoeachother. Intheearly370sOstrogoths,ledbyAthanaric,migratedfromtheBalkansintoPannoniaandaftertheFritigenled OstrogothshadtheirgreatvictoryatAdrianople,theyalsoplunderedPannonia.TheHunswerefollowingcloselyand theysetupcampsinPannoniaalsoby378,enslavingtheGepidsrelatedtotheGothsintheprocess.TheHunswith theirocksnowoccupiedpasturelandextendingfromtheCaspianSeatoHungary.In383JuthungiGermansinvaded Austria,perhapswithpermissionofMaximus,butin384HunnichorsemenrodethroughthemontheirwaytoGaul. GeneralBauto,oftheRomanforces,persuadedtheHunstoattacktheGermansandtheyobliginglycrushedthem inonegreatsweepbeforecontinuingontowardGaul.Bautothenapparentlygotnervousabouttheiradvanceand boughtofftheHunswithgoldandtheyretreatedtotheirbaseinHungary.ThereafterindividualHuntribespillaged Hungaryatwill.By396agroupofVisigoths,headedbyAlaric,hadsettledinIllyrium,thewesternpartofpresentday Yugoslavia.Ref.139[192],127[176],136[187]InBohemiatheGermanictribeswereslowlybeingpushed westthroughoutalltheseearlyChristiancenturiesbytheSlavs,movinginfromRussia.Switzerlandremainedquiet undertheRomanyoke. 18.4.1.3WESTERNEUROPE 18.4.1.3.1SPAINANDPORTUGAL TheIberianPeninsularemainedunderRomanrule,butsomewhatrestlesslyandoccasionallytheemperorhadtosend outexpeditionaryforcestoputdownuprisingsofrebelliouspeasants.TheCatholicchurchwasrecognizedtobeon equalfootingwithotherreligions,butthereweremanylocalheresies.Bytheendofthecenturytherewereabout 9,000,000peopleinthisarea.Ref.127[176],196[269] 7 QuotationsfromClarkRef.33[55],page4 8 Christianemperorsstillorderedtheexecutionbycrucixionorburningofslaveswhobroughtaccusationsagainsttheirmasters,withouttrial. Ref.249[98]

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275 18.4.1.3.2FRANCEANDNETHERLANDSANDBELGIUM TheGaulsofFrancenownumberedabout20,000,000andhadreachedahighlevelofcivilizationandscarcelyrated thetitleof"barbarian"atthistime,althoughmanyhavelabeledthemassuch.They,inturn,werenowhavingpressure putuponthembynewbarbariansoftheTeutonicvariety.Acompetentgeneral,EmperorJulian,haddefeatedthelast Franco-AlemannicinvasionofFrance,althoughheallowedsomeoftheFrankstosettleinBelgium,keepingtheir tribalorganizationwhilebowingtoRomeA.D.358.Theterm"foederatii"FOREIGNwasusedtodescribesuch tribes.BytheendofthecenturytheSalicFranksexpandedoutofBelgium,movingtothesouthwestandoccupying theregionbetweentheMeuse,theoceanandtheSomme.Theoriginofourword"enfranchised"isfromthisancient tribalnameofFrank,whichmeant"free".TheFrisians,whowerethemainpowerontheNorthSea,werefriendlyto theRomansthroughthisperiod.Ref.137[188]AdditionalNotesp.276 18.4.1.3.3BRITISHISLES OfallwesternEuropeonlyIrelandandPictishScotlandremainedcompletelyfreeoftheRomanyoke.Thepopulation ofRomanizedBritainwas1,000,000ormore,withlittlenumericalchangesincethetimeofCassivellaunus.The BritishlivedbetterasRomancitizens,however,thaneveragainuntilabout1900.Thewealthyhadcentralheatand warmbaths,bothofwhichwerenearlyabsentagaininBritainfromA.D.400to1900.Inthis4thcenturycitieshad beguntodecline,butcountryvillasstillourished,asdidtheRomancapitalofLondon.Therewasnonewscience,no newthrustofpoweruntilA.D.367whenPicts,Scots,FranksandSaxons,asthegreat"barbarianconspiracy"joined inamaritimeraidonsouthernEngland,ataboutthesametimeasotherPictsat-tackedandankedHadrian'swall innorthEngland.FinallyCountTheodosiusdefeatedtheraiders,usinglargedetachmentsofGermanicmercenaries, aswellasmodifyingbothcoastalandinlanddefenses.ArcheologicalndingsnowindicatethatastheGermanic mercenarieswerebroughtin,therewerealreadyseparateSaxonforces,perhapslivingamongthelocalsasasortof peasantmilitia,andthusgraduallythedefenseofBritainbegantorelyupontheseforeigners.Attheendofthecentury, Ninian,aBritishchieftain'sson,wenttoRomeandwasmadeabishop,after15yearsofstudy.Ref.136[187],29 [50],43[64],91[135]InIreland,after700yearsofBelgicandotherBrythonicCelticmigrationstheBrythonic kingdomofTaraMidewasnowsupreme,butbytheendofthecenturyalltheIrishhadrelapsedtotheolderGaelic dialect.Itwasatthistime,probably,thattheIrishstartedtousetheprimitiveOgamalphabetoflinesanddashes. HermRef.91[135]saysthattheseIrishinventedOgam,butothersseemtohavedemonstratedthatitwasinusein SpainandPortugalmanycenturiespreviously.Ref.119[166],122[170] 18.4.1.4SCANDINAVIA ArcheologistshavecalledtherstfourcenturiesoftheChristianerainScandinaviathe"RomanIronAge"even thoughnoRomansappearedinthenorth.Thepeoplewerechieyagriculturalistsorseamen,illiterateandpaganbut theyalreadyhadextensivetradewithRomansandtheMediterranean,exchangingfurs,skins,robesofseal-skin,dairy produceandcattleforsilks,gold,wine,jewelry,glassbowls,etc.Theylivedinlargehallsorhouses,raisedsummer wheat,barleyandrye.Theirboatswereofallsizesupto75feetlongandtheywerepropelledbyoars.Theareasof Swedes,Norse,Danes,JutesandAngleswerealreadyquitewelldelineated.Ref.237[316],136[187] TheGothiclanguagewaswellestablishedandwritingbegantoappearinthesystemofrunes,with24clumsycharactersbroughtfromthecontinentandchangedbyedgingtoadaptthecharacterstowood.Seealsonextchapter,please. AfterConstantinoplebecametheRomancapital,Denmarkfoundhertradeinthesouthhadbeentransferredeastward totheBalticandviaRussianriversontothesouth.IslandsintheBaltic,suchasGotlandandBornholm,thusbecame tradingstationsenrouteandatthesametimeworthplundering.Ref.237[316]AdditionalNotesp.276 18.4.1.5EASTERNEUROPE 18.4.1.5.1BALTICAREA WehavejustmentionedthenewimportanceoftheBalticislandsintradebetweenScandinaviaandtheByzantine Empire.OnthesouthshoreoftheBaltic,theGermanictribesmigratedandchangedpositions.Forexample,the

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276 CHAPTER18.A.D.301TO400 LombardswerepartiallyineasternGermanyandpartiallyinPoland,butlateinthecenturyalmosttheentireareawas atleastgovernedbytheOstrogothsundertheirgreatleader,KingErmanarich,whoextendedhisrealmbackfrom theBlackSeatotheBaltic,largelyattheexpenseoftheSlavs,someofwhomednorthwardamongtheFinnsand preservedtheirfreedom.Ref.137[188] 18.4.1.5.2RUSSIA InthefarnorthsomeFinnsremainedwithalargecontingentofSlavscrowdingnorthwardinthewesternportion. VisigothsTervingiandOstrogothsGreutringilivedonbothsidesoftheDniestr.ThelatterwereruledbyKing ErmanarichinanorganizedgroupwhiletheVisigothshadalooserpoliticalsituationandanalliancewithRome, after332.LargenumbersoftheseGothshadalreadybeenwonovertoArianChristianitybythehereticalmissionary, Ullas.TheDonRiveroriginallyseparatedtheOstrogothsfromtheIranianAlanstotheeast,butsometimeinthe earlypartofthecenturytheseAlansattackedtheOstrogoths,startingtheircollapseasapoliticalentity.Fromthe easttheHunshadadvancedintoRussianorthandwestoftheCaspianSea,crossingtheDonandovercomingmany oftheAlansandattackingthealmostcivilizedOstrogothsintheUkraine.AlongwithmanyoftheAlans,partofthe OstrogothsjoinedtheHunswhileothersedwestandsouthtojointheircousins,theVisigoths.Thelatter,under Athanaric,foughttheHunsontherightbankoftheDniestrbutcouldnotholdandretreatedwest,tenthousandstrong, encampingeventuallyjustnorthoftheDanube.TheHunsnowruledalargeareaofsouthRussiaandstoodatthe mouthoftheDanube,aboutA.D.370.AfragileHunno-Alanicalliancelastedabout30years.Judgingfromthe namesofsomeofthetribesoverrunbytheHunsatthenortheasternshoreoftheBlackSea,otherTurkishtribesmust alreadyhavebeeninthisareaandsomeofthesemayalsohavejoinedtheHunhordesastheywentwest 9 .Ref.127 [176],8[14] IntheCaucasusregionLaziliaandIberiaweretwokingdomsoftheancientGeorgianswhichhadbeenprettywell ChristianizedunderRomansuzeraintybutthemoreprimitiveAbasgians,alsoofGeorgianstock,remainedheathen andoutsideRomanjurisdiction.Asdetailedonpages358and369theHunswentthroughtheCaucasusonraidsto PersiaandMesopotamiaandontheirreturntheymayhavebroughtsometwo-humped,Bactriancamelswiththemto theUkraine.Ref.8[14],137[188],127[176] NOTE :InsouthernFrancetheRomansdemonstratedampleengineeringinventivenessinthiscentury.Using thewaterintheMassifCentralofthearea,theyusedovershot,verticalwatermills,usingwaterchanneled intobucket-likecontainersbuiltintothecircumferenceofwheels2.2metersindiameter,withtheweightof thatwaterturningthewheel.Sixteenwheelsusedinpairsoneightterracesproducedatotalofabout8Horse Powerfortheadjacentourfactory,whichinturn,producedenoughourforArles,withapopulationof 80,000.Ref.307[102] NOTE :Tradewiththesouthwasquiteactivewithglassbowls,silverandbronzeladlesandjewelry,ne pottery,andweaponsreceivedinexchangeforamber,fursandleather.Thelargestpieceofambersentto Romeweighed13pounds.EvenafewLatinwordsfoundtheirwayintotheScandinaviantongues.One wasleather,therewereseveralmeaning"trader"and"caupo",whichwastheultimatesourceofKobenhavn andLinkoping.BeforetheRomanIronAgethechiefmethodofdisposalofthedeadwascremation,but graduallythischangedinsomeareastoinhumation.Inthis4thcenturyvillagesbecamelarger,aswellas theindividualhouses.Inone500squarekilometerareaofnorthJutlandtherewereatleast46settlements. Forestswerereducedaswoodwasusedforbuildingsandfuel.Itwasaperiodofremarkableexpansionin DenmarkaswellasinsouthwestNorway,southernSwedenandGotland.InDenmark,easternSjaelland seemstohavebecomeanimportantcenterofpower-achiefdom.Ref.301[258] ForwardtoEurope:A.D.401to500Section19.4 9 ForcommentsconcerningtheoriginalgroupofHuns,seepage331,andfordetailedinformationconcerningtheirlivesandcharacteristics,see thesectiononHUNGARY,5thcenturyC.E.

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277 18.5CentralandNorthernAsia:A.D.301to400 10 18.5.1CENTRALASIA BacktoCentralandNorthernAsia:A.D.201to300Section17.5 InthiscenturythePersianscontinuedtoruleandpopulatebothAfghanistanandTurkistan,introducingZorastrianism tothearea.In371theEphthalitesWhiteHuns 11 invadedtheupperOxusancientBactriabutthePersianShapurII cametoanunderstandingwiththemandsubsequentlythesepeopleactuallyguardedthispartofthePersiandomain. Itwasapparentlyasharpeningoftheclimateinthispartoftheworldwhichforcedthenomadictribestootherpastures towardtheendofthis4thcentury.RatherthangoeastagainststrongChina,evenafterthefalloftheHanDynasty, manyoftheHunsturnedwest,ridingbony,roughhaired,smallheadedhorseswithshort,stronglegs,needinglittle waterandcoveringover60milesaday.Seefootnoteonpreviouspage.Aswehaveseenintheparagraphsabove, otherpeopleswereaheadofthem,inthegreatestmassmigrationsknown,beforeorsince.Ref.33[55] UpthroughthiscenturyTibetwasdividedinto13principalitieswithwarcontinuallyragingbetweenthem.Ref.272 [292] ForwardtoCentralandNorthernAsia:A.D.401to500Section19.5 ChooseDifferentRegion 1.IntrotoEraSection12.1 2.AfricaSection12.2 3.CentralandNorthernAsiaSection12.5 4.EuropeSection12.4 5.TheFarEastSection12.7 6.TheIndianSubcontinentSection12.6 7.TheNearEastSection12.3 8.PacicSection12.8 18.6TheIndianSubcontinent:A.D.301to400 12 18.6.1THEINDIANSUBCONTINENT ThepoweroftheKushanscontinuedtofadeandalineofnativekingsappearedintheGuptaDynasty,beginningwith ChandraguptaIinA.D.320,basedinMagadha.Hissuccessor,Samudragupta,ina50yearreign,becameoneof theforemostmonarchsinIndia'slonghistory.HeconqueredBengal,Assam,NepalandsouthernIndiaandwiththe wealththusgainedpromotedliterature,science,religionandthearts.ItwastheGoldenAgeofIndia,whileEurope andChinawerefallingintowhatmanyhavelabeledthe"DarkAges".Buddhistartreacheditszenith.Thedecimal systemwasusedherelongbeforetheArabsandSyriansusedit.Chemistrydevelopedfromtwosourcesmedicine andindustriessuchasdyeing,soapmaking,tanningandthemanufactureofglassandcement.Themakingofsolid sugarbyboilingcanejuicewasbeguninthiscentury.TheIranianfrontierstandingbetweenthesteppesandIndia securedthelatteragainstinvasionandthusindirectlycontributedtotheoweringoftheIndianculture.Toynbee Ref.220[294]considerstheGuptaDynastyasaresumedIndianuniversalstateaftertheHellenicinterruptionof Alexander'sconquests.Ref.46[76],229[307],220[294],213[288] ThegreatHinduepicpoems,theMahabharataandRamayana,werewrittendowninSanskritinthisperiod.Therst ofthesewasthreeandone-halftimesaslongastheentireBible.TheBrahmans,thepriestlyclassoftheHindus, 10 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat. 11 SeefootnoteunderIRAN,5thcenturyC.E. 12 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat.

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278 CHAPTER18.A.D.301TO400 wereagaingrowinginwealthandpowerandbytheendofthecenturytheynallywonoutovertheBuddhists andestablishedauniversalreligionofHinduism.ThisemergedfromolderBrahminismthroughre-evaluationofa multiplicityoflocalworships. SushrataalsoSusrataorSusrutawasagreatIndiansurgeonwhodidmanyadvancedsurgicalprocedures,including cataractoperations,herniarepairs,lithotomiesandCaesariansections.Cataractwastreatedbycouchingdisplacing thelensdownward;amputationswerecommonandseveraltypesofplasticsurgeryproceduresweredone.Since cuttingoffthenosewasanofcialpunishmentforadultery,Indiansurgeonsdevelopedelaborateapoperations turningskindownfromtheforeheadtoreconstructanose.Sushrataalsoexcelledatplasticrepairoftornearlobes. Hisarmamentariaincluded121surgicalinstruments.Herecommendedtheobservationsofcorpsesasameansof learninganatomybutdemandsofritualpuritypreventeddissection.Some1,120diseasesand760medicinalplants wereclassied.Physiciansweretaughtinapprenticeshipsandthensubjectedtocerticationbytheruler.Theneophyte nallytookanoath,notunliketheHippocraticoathofGreece.Ref.46[76],125[173]Continueonpage400 18.7TheFarEast:A.D.301to400 13 18.7.1THEFAREAST BacktoTheFarEast:A.D.201to300Section17.7 18.7.1.1CHINAANDMANCHURIAChinto316,thennorth-southdivisionwithWei WeendedthelastcenturywiththenewChinDynastyrulingasomewhatuniedChinabutthiserawasdominated bygreatlandowningfamilies,eachwithhundredsofserfsandprivatesoldiers.InA.D.304asinicizedHsiung-un chieftainestablishedastatecalled"Han"laterChaoinShansiandfromtherehesackedtheChincapitalatLoyang sevenyearslater.Atthissametimeagreatpestilence,precededbylocustsandfamine,leftonlyoneortwopeopleout ofahundredaliveinthenorthwesternprovincesofChina.In322anotherepidemic,whichmayhavebeensmall-pox, hitwiththreeoutofeachtendying.Maximalpoliticalfragmentationcoincidedalmostexactlywiththearrivalofthis diseaseandthepopulation,overall,wasnearlyhalved.Thepoliticalupheavalsinvolvedseveralshort-liveddynasties offoreignersfromthesteppes,someHsiung-nu,someproto-MongolianHsien-pei,someTurkicandAvarandeven someTibetantribes.ItwastheShansiHsiung-nuwhoagainoverwhelmedthenewChincapitalatCh'ang-an.They wereledbyLiuYuanwhowassixfeettallandhadredstrainsinhislongbeard 14 .Subsequentlythisareaofnorthern Honan,incentralChina,wasruledbytheChieh,oneofthe19tribesoftheHsiung-nu.TheseChiehhadhighnoses andfullbeardsandweredenitelynon-Mongolian,perhapsTocharian,inorigin.Theywerenallymassacred,all 200,000ofthem,inA.D.349byJanMinwhothenbecamelordoftheregion.Ref.101[146],140[190],8[14], 127[176] RefugeesfromthenorthsetupanewEasternChinDynastyatNankingandin347theyreconqueredSzechwanbutin thelatterhalfofthecenturyaTibetangeneral,FuChien,temporarilyconsolidatedthenorth.Hisplantoaddthesouth waswreckedatafamousbattleoftheFeiRiverin383whenhewasdefeatedbytheEasternChin.Finallyin386a powerfulTurkicpeople,theTobaNorthernWeiwhobecameavidBuddhists,succeededinre-unifyingnorthernChina onceagain.TheirkingdomactuallyincludedalargepartofSiberiaandManchuria,carryingtheabsorbedChinese civilizationtotheArctic.ThishasbeencomparedtoCharlemagne'sEmpireinthatinboththebarbariansbecame civilized-"Chinicized"or"Romanized"respectively.TheBuddhistartofnorthChinawasprofoundlyinuencedby CentralAsiaforthenext200years,althoughinthesouth,astheChineseachievedsomemasteryoftheconceptsand termsofIndianBuddhism,theybegantodevelopschoolsoftheirownRef.8[14],19[32],101[146] 13 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat. 14 Maenchen-HelfenRef.127[176]givesthisasadditionalevidencethattheHuns,whichpresumablydescendedinpartfromtheHsiung-nu wereamixedgroup,probablyincludingsome"Europoid"elements

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279 18.7.1.2JAPAN SouthernJapanwasstillintheGreatTombsorKofunPeriod,inwhichthenoblesusedpotterycofns,high-red stoneware,ironandbronzeimplementsandweapons.Ref.19[32]Thevictoriesofthehalf-legendaryPrince YamatodakeovertheKumasoandtheAinuseemtoreectaperiodofrapidexpansionintheearlydecadesofthis century.ThereweremanyJapanesecampaignsnowontotheKoreanpeninsulabythearmiesoftheEmpressJingo, withtheestablishmentofaJapaneseprotectorateoveragroupofminiaturestatesknownasKaraorImna,insouthern Korea. The12themperor,Keiko,whoreignedprobablyfromA.D.280to316returnedtoKyushuandaftergettingridofthe queensoftheancient,savagetribep.236henegotiatedapermanentmergerofYamatoandKyushu. AsYamatogrewingeographicalsize,chieybydrivingtheAinufartherandfarthernorth,thepopulationincreased andtheemperors,liketheEgyptianpharaohs,begantoconstructvastmausolea.Eachsuccessiverulerwanteda biggertumulusandalargercompanyofvictimvassalstobeburiedwithhimandconveyhimtothespiritworld. Forcedretainersacricewaspracticedroutinelyinthisandthenextcentury.Ref.12[21] 18.7.1.3KOREA ByA.D.313thelastremnantsofChinesecolonieswereextinguishedbythenativestatesofKorea,althoughChinese cultureremaineddispersedthroughoutthepeninsula. Threekingdomsemerged:Koguryointhenorth;Paekcheinthesouthwest;andSillainthesoutheast.Allhadhighredpotteryofgreatexcellence.TheJapanesefoothold,mentionedinthesecondparagraphabove,wasestablished betweenthetwolatterkingdoms.Ref.19[32] 18.7.1.4SOUTHEASTASIA Tibeto-BurmesetribesmenmigratedfromthenorthintopresentdayBurma,formingthePyuKingdom.Chenlawas thecountryofKhmerpeopleoccupyingwhatisnowThailandandLaos.Funan,underitsKhmerrulers,continuedas aprosperousagriculturalandtradingcountryontheCambodianplateau.ActivecivilizationsexistedintheIndonesian areawithsea-faringmentradingwithAfricaandEurope.CinnamonfromMalayaandIndonesiawassentalltheway toRome.Ref.176[242],211[284] ForwardtoTheFarEast:A.D.401to500Section19.7 ChooseDifferentRegion 1.IntrotoEraSection18.1 2.AfricaSection18.2 3.AmericaSection18.9 4.CentralandNorthernAsiaSection18.5 5.EuropeSection18.4 6.TheIndianSubcontinentSection18.6 7.TheNearEastSection18.3 8.PacicSection18.8 18.8ThePacic:A.D.301to400 15 18.8.1THEPACIFIC BacktoThePacic:A.D.201to300Section17.8 15 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat.

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280 CHAPTER18.A.D.301TO400 ClassicalhistoriesrelatethatwhileLapitapotterywasdisappearinginMelanesia,prehistoricSamoansventuredeastwardincanoestosettletheMarquesasandfromthispoint,inthenext450years,thePolynesianstooktheirplants, animals,adzes,shinggearandornamentsalloverthePolynesianworld.Thistraditionalviewisprobablynolonger tenable.Exceptforrootvestigesinabout1%ofthetotalvocabularytherearenotracesofPolynesianlanguageties toanyregioninthewestPacicandbybloodtypingstudiesitisapparentthatthetruePolynesiansarerelatedtothe aboriginalpeoplesofAmerica,nottotheMelanesians.Ref.45[66]Wehavechosenthismoduletodiscussthe probablemigrationoftheNorthwestAmericanKwakiutl-Haida-SalishpeopletoHawaii,althoughthetime-frame hasnotbeendenitelyestablishedanditmighthaveoccurredanytimeintheearlyChristianerauptotheclassicaldate ofA.D.750,whichhasbeenacceptedbymanyforthetimeofthesettlementofHawaii.Asstatedonpages269and 270,theCanadiancoastalIndiansandthePolynesiansallseemidenticalphysically,andneitherofthesegroupshave anyrelationshiptotheinhabitantsofpresentdaySoutheastAsiaand/orIndonesia.GeneticallybloodgroupBhasa maximumoccurrenceinIndonesia,MelanesiaandMicronesiabutitistotallyabsentamongpure-bloodedPolynesians andNorthAmericanIndians.Thebloodsub-groupsofthePolynesiansalsofollowthoseoftheaboriginalAmericans. Thesestudieshavebeenrepeatedbyseveralinvestigatorsandconrmedbyaninternationalworkgroupin1972. SuperciallythegutturalpresentdaylanguagesoftheNorthwestIndiansdonotresemblethesofterspeechofPolynesia,butsomelinguistshaveconrmedarelationshipofthelatterwiththeHaidalanguageofthecentralnorthwest Canadiancoast.Thehouses,mats,sh-hooks,stoneadzes,poipounders,warclubsandinsomeinstancesthetotem polesareidentical,withinnarrowvariations,inthetwogroups.Thelegendsofthesepeoplegivefurtherclues.A legendaryherofromwhosebrotherthechiefsoftheKwakiutlgottheirdivinedescentwascalled"Kan-e-a-ke-luh" 16 Similarpronunciationsareusedbyadjacenttribes,alwayswiththebeginning"Kan-e".Thelegendcontinueswith thestoryofKaneakeluhmarryinga"womanofthesea"andthetwodisappearing,leavingthesuntorepresentthem. TribalmemoriesofHawaiidescribethediscoveryoftheirislandsbyawanderingchiefwhocamefromavastisland ormainlandinthenorthcalledthe"losthomeofKane".KanewasthechiefHawaiiangodandconsideredthedirect ancestoroftherulingfamilies.WhiletheKwakiutlclaimeddescentfromtheyoungerbrotherofKane.Itisfeltthat thenewlyarrivingPolynesiansonHawaiitendedtoabsorbthebeliefsandcustomsoftheformerinhabitants,rather thanexterminatingthemandthatthemixtureoftheracesbeganatthattime.Ref.95[140]AdditionalNotesp. 280 Ithasbeenestimatedthatinthiscenturystone-masonswereatworkmakinggiantstatutesinthemid-southPacic onEasterIsland.ThorHeyerdahlbelievethatthereisarcheologicalandethnologicalevidencethatthesepeoplehad migratedbyraftsfromapre-IncancivilizationinPeru.Wehastentosaythatonlyafewothersacceptanyofthis theory,althoughbloodfactorsinSouthAmericaandonEasterIslandsuggestthatthepeopleontheislandresemble theAmericansmorethaneitherofthesegroupsresembleAsianMongoloidsandthattheyhaveprobablyreceived genesfromboththeEastandtheWest. Recentarcheologicalexcavationsandcarbon-datingonthatislandbyHeyerdahlandhisassociateshaveestablished threeculturalperiodswiththerst,orEarlyPeriod,datingfrombeforeA.D.380toaboutA.D.1100.Byisland traditionthepeopleofthisperiodarrivedfromtheeastunderKingHotuMatua,afterasixty-dayjourneyonthesea. These"long-ears"peoplehadraisedmoaiorstatuesandmadetheirhomesfromstone,althoughwoodwasplentiful ontheislandatthattime.TheyalsobuilttotorareedboatsidenticalwiththoseofinlandTiahuanacowaterwaysand thedesertcoastregionofPeru.Whathappenedtothisearlyculturebyabout1100isunknown,butthesubsequent historyofthisislandwillbetakenupagain,then,inalatermodule. NOTE :SinotoRef.300[267]saysthatmostauthoritiesdenythesetheoriesofThorHeyerdahl's,which havebeenputforwardinthetext.HeinsiststhatPolynesiawassettledfromthewest,buthedoesnotseemto considerthepossibleJapanesecurrent-CanadianIslands-Hawaiiatall,andhedoesnotmentionanything aboutbloodtypes,whichwouldseemtoprovethatthePolynesiansdidnotcomethroughthewestern Pacicislands.SinotogivestherouteatamuchearlierperiodeastfromTongatoSamoatotheMarquesas andshortlythereaftertotheSocietyIslands.AslateasNovember,1983,theNationalGeographicSociety 16 Phoneticalspelling,asgivenbyHeyerdahl,Ref.95[140],page177,quotingG.M.Dawson,wholivedamongthesepeopleinthe1880s.

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281 apparentlystillsubscribestotheideathattheHawaiianIslandsweresettledbytravelersindoublecanoes going2,000milesnortheastfromtheMarquesas.Ref.309[286] ForwardtoThePacic:A.D.401to500Section19.8 ChooseDifferentRegion 1.IntrotoEraSection18.1 2.AfricaSection18.2 3.AmericaSection18.9 4.CentralandNorthernAsiaSection18.5 5.EuropeSection18.4 6.TheFarEastSection18.7 7.TheIndianSubcontinentSection18.6 8.TheNearEastSection18.3 18.9America:A.D.301to400 17 18.9.1AMERICA BacktoAmerica:A.D.201to300Section17.9 18.9.1.1NORTHAMERICA 18.9.1.1.1THEFARNORTHANDCANADA Pleaseseepreviouschapters,particularlythe6thSection9.4,4thSection11.9and1stcenturiesB.C.Section14.9 andthe3rdcenturyC.E.Section17.9,aswellasThePacic:A.D.301to400Section18.8. 18.9.1.1.2THEUNITEDSTATES ItisapparentthatIndianpeopleinhabitedmostoftheAmericancontinentthroughoutalltheseearlyChristiancenturies.MostAmericanchiefdomswereagriculturalHopewell,Mogollon,HohokamandAnasazibutalongthe northwestcoasttherewereunusuallyrichshinggroundswithwhalesandsealswhichsupportedlargevillagesand acomplexceremoniallife.InthesouthwestitwasneartheendoftheEarlyBasketMakerperiodoftheAnasazi.In theirexcavatedgraves,alongwiththebasketshavebeenfoundskeletalremainsoftheseancientpeople,burieddressed instringapronsandloinclothsmadeofhair,fursandfeathers.Noclayvesselsorredpotteryhavebeenfound.Ref. 8[14],210[283] 18.9.1.1.3MEXICO,CENTRALAMERICA,ANDTHECARIBBEAN Atthistime,thebeginningoftheClassicPeriodinMiddleAmerica,Teotihuacnhadbecomethelargestoftheancient Mexicanempires,extendingfromtheValleyofMexicotoGuatemala.InadditionanewempireoftheMayasappeared inYucatan,withpavedroadsextendingthroughouttherealm.Althoughthecitywasancient,therewerenowprobably 1,000peoplelivingaroundCuella,innorthernBelize.Atwelvefoothighplatform,spreadovermorethananacre, hasbeendatedtothis4thcenturyinthatplace.Increasinglytallerpyramidselevatedtemplesashighas30feetabove theground.NormanHammondRef.263[127]whohasrecentlyexcavatedmanyarchaeologicallayersatCuello, saysthathehasdemonstratedanindependentMayaculturaltraditionthereatleast4,000yearsold,andhebelieves thatthisareawasthemainspringofMayacivilization-nothighlandMexicoorhighlandCentralAmerica,assome haveclaimed.TheentireMayanCulturewasmarkedbyadistinctiveartstyle,theuseofthecorbelledvaultand advancedmathematicalconcepts,includingtheuseofzero,acomplexcalendarandtheNewWorld'smostadvanced 17 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat.

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282 CHAPTER18.A.D.301TO400 writingsystem.SeealsoAmerica:300to201B.C.p.192,America:0toA.D.100Section15.9.1.1.3:MEXICO, CENTRALAMERICAANDTHECARIBBEANandAmerica:A.D.101to200p.253.Mayanastronomers calculatedtheexactlengthofthesolaryear,thelunarmonth,therevolutionofplanetVenusandwereabletopredict eclipses.ForthelattertheyusedmonumentssimilarinfunctiontoStonehengeinEngland.Theirsistercivilization inPetenalsocontinuedonahighlevelandtheskilledHuastecbuildersofElTajunatVeracruzdivertedfresh-water canalstofertileterracesbetweentidalriversandbrackishestuaries.Thiscivilizationourishedfor800to900years. Ref.8[14],39[60],236[314] 18.9.1.1.4SOUTHAMERICA MoreinformationabouttheinterestingMocheCultureofPeruiswarrantedatthistime,eventhoughtheymayhave livedatamuchearlierperiod,andtheaccomplishmentsweshallmentionnowmaybeconfusedwiththelaterChan ChanSociety.Ahistoryoftheirraceandcustomsseemstohavebeenleftintheirceramicart.Portraitceramicsshow theroundface,highcheekbonesandhookednose,witharingnostrils.Theguresfrequentlydepictvividmovement. Theirlandscapeshadunusualdetailandtheirgoldworkemphasizedmosaicsofturquoiseencrustedongold.Using silverandcopperinsmeltingtechniques,theyhadthe"lost-wax"methodofcastingandtheirownformsofwelding, soldering,hammering,gildingandrepousse.Althoughtheiroriginanddateofappearanceishighlydebated,the societyapparentlyexistedforabout1,000years. InthehighcountryofthePeruvian-Bolivianborder,theTiahuanacocivilizationpersisted.InthesouththeNazcasmay havehadacloserelationshipwiththeParacas,andaplaceknownasNecropolismayhavebeenusedasacemetery forchiefsandpriestsofbothtribes.Morethanfourhundredmummies,allwrappedinshroudsandelaboratecloaks havebeenfoundthereinabuildingunderthesands.Someoftheembroiderydesignsshowstrange,maskedpeople whoappeartobedescendingfromabovewiththehelpofmanyribbons,thesignicanceofwhichremainsunknown. Ref.10[18],176[242] FowardtoAmerica:A.D.401to500Section19.9 ChooseDifferentRegion 1.IntrotoEraSection18.1 2.AfricaSection18.2 3.CentralandNorthernAsiaSection18.5 4.EuropeSection18.4 5.TheFarEastSection18.7 6.TheIndianSubcontinentSection18.6 7.TheNearEastSection18.3 8.PacicSection18.8

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Chapter19 A.D.401to500 19.1A.D.401to500 1 19.1.1A.D.401TO500 BackwardtoA.D.301to400Section18.1 Theclassicalworldexperiencedanextensivecrisisinthiscenturyasnomadpeopleseruptedallalongtheedgesfrom ChinatoEurope.Thelattercontinentwasthrown-intowhathasbeencalledthe"DarkAges"andonlyChinacoped successfullywiththeinvaders,althougheventhereaperiodofpoliticalfragmentationoccurred.Thenewinvaders werenotbasicallyIndo-European,asinpreviouscenturies,butchieyAsiaticslinkedbycommontraditionsand sometimeskinshipsoftheirleaders.MostwereMongoloid,withAltaiclanguagesnowbestrepresentedbyvarieties ofTurkish.SomesmallgroupsofIndo-Europeansdidaccompanythemeitherassubjectsorallies. 19.1.1.1THECHRISTIANCHURCH ChristianitywasalmostcompletelytriumphantintheNearEastalthoughmuchdissensionregardingcreedremained. Fromthisperiodonthisreligionbecamethedominantpoliticalandsociologicalfactorintheprogressofwestern civilization.ThefollowingquotationfromDurant 2 statesthesituationatthistimeveryeloquently. "TounderstandtheMiddleAgeswemustforgetourmodernrationalism,ourproudcondenceinreasonandscience, ourrestlesssearchafterwealthandpowerandanearthlyparadise;wemustentersympatheticallyintothemoodof mendisillusionedofthosepursuits,standingattheendofathousandyearsofrationalism,ndingalldreamsofutopia shatteredbywarandpovertyandbarbarism,seekingconsolationinthehopeofhappinessbeyondthegrave,inspired andcomfortedbythestoryandgureofChrist,throwingthemselvesuponthemercyandgoodnessofGod,andliving inthethoughtofHiseternalpresence,Hisinescapablejudgment,andtheatoningdeathofHisSon." SomeoftheaspectsofpaganismsurvivedintheformofancientritesandcustomstransformedintoChristianceremoniesandsomeofthepagangodswerereplacedbysaints.StatuesofIsisandHoruswererenamedMaryandJesus; theRomanLupercaliaandthefeastofthepuricationofIsisbecametheFeastoftheNativitywhiletheSaturnalia werereplacedbyChristmascelebrations.TheFloraliawasreplacedbyPentecost,thefestivalofthedeadbyAllSoul's DayandtheresurrectionofAttisbytheresurrectionofChrist.Theharshslaughterofalivingvictimwassublimated inthespiritualsacriceoftheMass. Magic,astrologyanddivinationweredenouncedbythechurchbutmedievalliteraturewasstillfullofthemandsoon peopleandevenpriestswouldusethesignofthecross-asamagicincantationtoexpeldemons.Thechurchcreed 1 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat. 2 DurantRef.49[73]page74 283

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284 CHAPTER19.A.D.401TO500 becameverydogmaticandanydoubtwasasin,sothattheredevelopedanunendingconictwithuentintellectand changeableideasamongmen. ThedecayoftheWestandtheresultinggrowthofpovertyandviolencegavecauseformentoseekconsolationin theirsufferingwiththeresultthattheageofpowergavewaytoanageoffaith.ThusintheseearlyChristiancenturies menturnedfromscience,knowledge,powerandprideandtookrefugeforathousandyearsinhumblefaith,hopeand charity.Ref.49[73]SeealsoadditionalmaterialunderAFRICAandTURKEY,intheparagraphstofollow. 19.1.1.2INTERNATIONALJEWRY AfterthedeathofJulianinthelastcenturythefateoftheJewsintheByzantinelandstookaturnfortheworse. Theoldrestrictivelawswerere-enactedandmademoresevere.TheJews,excludedfromPalestine,returnedtothe villagesandthereremainedonly10%oftheformerJewishpopulationinPalestine.In425TheodosiusIIabolished thePalestinianpatriarchateandGreekChristianchurchesreplacedthesynagoguesandschools.SomeJewsmoved eastintoMesopotamiawheretheybecameprosperousfarmers,brewersandtradersandsomewenttoPersiawhere theexilarch,orheadoftheJewishcommunity,wasrecognizedbythePersiankings.OtherswenttoNorthAfrica, Italy,Sicily,SardiniaandSpain,wheretheyprosperedundertheVisigoths.Alwaystheykepttheirreligionandstudied theTalmud.WhilethelanguageofworshipwasHebrew,theyusedAramaicfordailyspeechintheEast,Greekin EgyptandEasternEurope,butelsewheretheyadoptedthelanguageoftheirhostpopulation.LikemostMediterranean peopletheJewsslippedbackintovariousmedicalsuperstitionswhichfoundtheirwayintotheTalmud.Ref.49 [73] ForwardtoA.D.501to600Section20.1 ChooseDifferentRegion 1.AfricaSection19.2 2.AmericaSection19.9 3.CentralandNorthernAsiaSection19.5 4.EuropeSection19.4 5.TheFarEastSection19.7 6.TheIndianSubcontinentSection19.6 7.TheNearEastSection19.3 8.PacicSection19.8 19.2Africa:A.D.401to500 3 19.2.1AFRICA BacktoAfrica:A.D.301to400Section18.2 19.2.1.1NORTHEASTAFRICA EthiopiacontinuedtobeaChristianareaincommunicationwithsouthernArabiaandEgypt.Axumexpansioninthe rsthalfofthecenturywasfollowedbyaperiodofstagnationinthelasthalfalthoughByzantinemissionariesand traderscontinuedtovisittheregion.NominallyunderAxumitecontrol,NubiaapparentlywasnotreallyChristianized inthiscentury.Thereligiousandpoliticalconfusionofthisperiodisapparentinfourpapyrirecentlydiscovered atQasrIbrim.ThreewerewritteninSahidicCopticandthefourthinprovincialGreek.TheCopticoneswereall addressedtoTantani,GovernorofNubiaandapparentlyChristian.TheGreekdocumentisfromapagankingofthe BlemmyestothekingofNoubadesandreferstoaformersupremekingofNubia,calledSilco.Ref.270[36],271 [7] 3 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat.

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285 NominallystillundercontrolofRome,EgypticSociety,accordingtoToynbeeRef.220[294],becameextinctin thiscenturyleavingno"off-spring"inanysubsequentsociety,todate.Thelittleintellectualactivitythatremainedin theremnantsoftheRomanEmpirewasnowcenteredinByzantium,butconsiderablereligiousmaneuveringcontinued inAlexandria.Cyril,PatriarchofAlexandria,andlateroneofthetwoorthreeSt.Cyrils,ledagreatstruggleagainst NestorianismwhichnallyculminatedintheCouncilofEphesusin431.CyrilpresidedandhadthesupportofPope Celestine1.Hisdoctrines,althoughconsideredorthodoxatthetime,wereactuallyinpartthoseofMonophysitism andafterhimthisbecamethenationalfaithofEgypt-eventuallytheCopticChurch.Ref.220[294],48[72] 19.2.1.2NORTHCENTRALANDNORTHWESTAFRICA IncontrasttoEgyptthispartofAfricawasaverybusyplace.InthefarwestMoroccowasinvadedandconquered byBerberscomingfromthesouthwest,andthentheyevenattackedtheRomanholdings,usingnewlydomesticated camels.In427Bonifatius,RomanmilitarycommanderinnorthAfrica,wasabouttobecutoutofcommandby enemiesintheemperor'scourtinRavenna,soherebelledandcalledupontheVandalsofSpaintocometohisaid.In thefollowingyear,AsdingVandalsfromSpaindidgotonorthAfrica,sailingwithalargeeetunderKingGaiseric whoproceededtoconquermostofnorthAfrica,eventuallyevenCarthageA.D.455andthenSardinia,Corsicaand thewesternpartofSicily.ThetotalnumberofVandalsleavingSpainwasprobablynotover80,000buttheyhadthe advantageoflocalsocialunrestandthecooperationofBonifatiusandthusmetlittlelocalresistance.ManyBerbers andtheDonatisthereticgroupofChristianswithaboutone-halfoftheirbishopsalsohelpedtheinvadersagainstthe Romans.TheDonatistswerethefollowersoftheonceBishopofCarthage,Donatus,whodeniedtheefcacyof sacramentsadministeredbypriestswhowerethemselvesinastateofsin,andtheChurch,willingtorisksomuchon thevirtuesoftheclergy,repudiatedtheidea. AsaresultoftheirpersecutiontheDonatistsbecamebandsofrevolutionists,atoncebothChristianandcommunist, condemningpovertyandslaveryandendinginfanaticism,happytohelptheVandals,whowereArianChristians. OnceGaiserichadobtainedCarthageheusedthefacilitiestheretogreatlyaugmenthisnavyandsubsequentlywas abletoactuallysackRome,itself.BarryFellRef.66[97]believesthatsomeorthodoxChristiansactuallysailedto NorthAmericaatthistimetoescapetheVandals.AccordingtoHerodotus,theGaramantesofFezzaninthedeserthad horse-drawnchariots,probablyobtainedfromEgypt.Ref.206[83],8[14],127[176],137[188],83[123] AmongthemoreorthodoxChristiansofNorthAfricawasSt.Augustine,whohadbecomeconvertedfrompaganism andsinasayouthandwholaterwroteextensivetheologicaldissertationsrationalizingthereligionandestablishing manyCatholicdoctrines,asheintroducedsomeelementofGreekphilosophyintoChristianity.Itwasmentionedin thelastchapterthatThomasRef.213[288]considershimoneofthefourgreat"fathers"oftheCatholicchurch. HewaskilledduringoneoftheVandals'sieges. 19.2.1.3SUBSAHARANAFRICA IntheSudan,therootsofthegreatAfricanKingdomofGhanamaydatebacktoA.D.400.Certainlythetownof Jenne-JenowasprosperingattheinlanddeltaoftheNiger.Theerodedfoundationofahousehasbeenexcavated alongwithpotteryandurnsforburialandremainsofawallaboutthreemeterswideandfourormoremetershigh thatgirdedthecity.Allofthesethingshavebeendatedtothisorthenextcenturyortwo.IncentralAfricatherewas continuedproliferationoftheblackpeople,particularlytheBantu-speakers.Ref.268[189],154[212] ForwardtoAfrica:A.D.501to600Section20.2 19.3TheNearEast:A.D.401to500 4 19.3.1THENEAREAST BacktoTheNearEast:A.D.301to400Section18.3 4 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat.

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286 CHAPTER19.A.D.401TO500 19.3.1.1ARABIAANDJORDAN ArabiawasprimarilyaBedouinland,withsocialorganizationpivotingaroundthetribe.BothByzantineandPersia triedtoprotectthemselvesbysupportingnewbufferArabborderstatesandthroughthesebufferzones,foreigncustoms andideaslteredintotheworldofthenomads.FarsouthArabiaremainedacivilized,Christiancommunitywithclose tiestoEthiopia.InNorthYemenrepairswereattemptedonanoldearthendamstretchingsometwothousandfeet acrosstheWadiDhana,using20,000men,14,600camelsand12,000donkeyteams.Thedamdivertedoodwaters toirrigateabout4,000acresoflandbutitlastedforonlyaboutacentury.Ref.82[121] 19.3.1.2MEDITERRANEANCOASTALAREASOFISRAELANDLEBANON&IRAQANDSYRIA ThisregioncontinuedaspartoftheByzantineEmpire.MonophysitismdominatedinwesternSyriawhileNestorians wereprominentintheeastuntilexpelledinthelaterpartofthiscentury. 19.3.1.3IRAN:PERSIA TheSassanidEmpirecontinuedtoourishandafteratreatywithByzantiumtherewasrelativepeaceandtoleranceof Christians.TheNestorianswereparticularlyprevalentinIraninthelatterpartofthecenturyaftertheyhadbeenrun outoftheByzantinearea,proper,andlateroutofSyria.ThecityofBandorShahpuronthePersianGulfwasthesite ofagreathospitalandtranslationcenterofGreektextstoArabic.TheNestorianswereactiveinthesetranslationsand infoundingthehospital.ParticularlyfamouswasJurgisBukht-Yishu,rstofsixgenerationsoftranslators. ThecenturybeganwithZorastrianismcontinuingasthemajorreligionwithtaintsofHellenismstillremaining,but nowappearedMazdak,anewpreacher,revivingakindofManicheandoctrine,whichwastranslatedintoakindof communism.ItcausedmuchpoliticaltroubleforKavadhI,whooriginallyhadsupportedthedoctrine.Thisking marriedaHepthalitealsospelledEphthaliteandsometimescalled"WhiteHun",probablyerroneously 5 princessof thetribethathadtakenovertheoldKushanterritoryandwhowerebeginningtoabsorbmuchlandfromPersia.These people,aswellasChionitenomadswerethreateningfromthenorthmostofthiscentury.Oneofthemostfamous oftheSassaniankingswasVahramValsoVarahran,surnamedGor,greathunter,poetandmusician,wholeftthe administrationofthecountrytohischiefmagus,MihrShapurA.D.420-440. InA.D.484thePersianarmywasnallyannihilatedandtheirkingkilledbytheHepthalites.Duringtheirperiodof controlofPersiaintheremainderofthecenturyanexiledPersian,Kobad,whohadbeenlivingamongtheinvaders, tookthethrone,onlytobedrivenoffagainbyhisownnoblesin489,perhapsbecausehesupportedthepriestMazdak's theories.Ref.137[188],8[14],38[59],119[166] 19.3.2ASIAMINOR:ANATOLIA 19.3.2.1TURKEYBYZANTIUM Asinthepreviouschapter,thereaderisadvisedtostudythesectionsonTHEBALKANS,CENTRALEUROPEand ITALYalongwiththissection.Forthetwocenturiesjustpreceding,theByzantinemonarchyhadkeptupRoman institutionsandhadcontinuedtouseLatininitscourts,butinthiscenturythecentraladministrationstoppedtheuse ofLatininfavorofGreek.Littlewasaccomplishedfromthepoliticalandsocialstandpointduringtheentirecentury. Forthesakeofcompletenessonly,therulersofByzantiumarelistedasfollows: 5 Theoriginandethnicafnitiesofthesepeopleisunknownbuttheyprobablyhavenorelationshiptothe"Attilic"Hunswhichwillbedescribed laterinthischapter.TheEphthalitesmayhavebeenofTibetanorTurkishorigin.Ref.38[59],127[176]

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287 TheDynastyofTheodosius TheDynastyofLeo 395-408Arcadius 457-474LeoI 408-450TheodosiusII 474-LeoII 450-457Marcian 475-491Zeno 491-518Anastasius Table19.1 AsthiscenturybeganGoths,underaformerRomanarmygeneral,Gainas,occupiedConstantinople.Theyweresoon eliminated,however,bymobsandtheimperialarmyandthereafterGothswerenotallowedtoserveintheimperial forcesasunits,butonlyasindividuals.WhenTheodosiusIIbegantorulehewasyoungandweakandtheempire wasactuallycontrolledbyhisEmpressEudoxia.Thereignwasatranquilperiod,however,andeventhewarswith Persiaceased.AnofcialcollectionofimperiallegislationwaspublishedastheCodesTheodosianus.Thegreat issueoftheadministrationwasNestorianismversusMonophysitism.In428TheodosiusmadeNestoriusthepatriarch ofConstantinopleandthelatterthenstartledtheChristianworldbypreachingthatMarywasnottobeconsidered theMotherofGod,butonlyMary,motherofthehumanChrist,andthusanotherheresywasstarted.Atthethird EcumenicalCouncilofEphesusof431MonophysitismtriumphedandNestoriuswasexcommunicatedandbanished totheLibyandesertwherehesubsequentlydied.HisfollowersestablishedtheNestorianChurchandedtoeastern SyriaandlatertoPersia,eventuallyfoundingcommunitiesinBalkhandSamarkand,inIndiaandevenChina.Scattered throughAsiaafewsurvivetothisday,stilldenouncingMariolatry.Ref.127[176],8[14],49[73] TheonethornofTheodosius'otherwisepeacefulreignwastheinvasionoftheBalkansbyAsiaticHunswhichhad beguninthewinterofA.D.404-405undertheleadershipofUldin.By408theywereterrifyingtheBalkanpopulation. WhenmanyoftheHunsdefectedtotheByzantinetroopsinthearea,however,Uldinretreatedforthemoment.Periodic invasionsofThracerecurred,however,throughthefourthdecadeofthiscentury,requiringlargetributepaymentsfrom theByzantinegovernment.Therewerestillmoreanattackin441and442andtheeasternRomanarmy,underaGoth GeneralAspar,wasbeatentimeandagain.TheHunsbrokeofftheengagementonlyafterarrangementsforlarge tributepaymentsbyTheodosius.AftertheHunsretreatTheodosiusstoppedtheagreeduponpayments,probablynot becauseofalackoffunds.IthasbeenestimatedthattheaverageyearlyrevenueoftheEasternEmpireatthattime wasabout170,000poundsofgold,withonly45,000poundsofthisspentonthearmy.Atanyrate,becauseofthelack ofpaymentthegreatestHuninvasionofallinThracewaslaunchedin447withAttilaatitshead.Theodosiusbegged fortermsandAttilagot6,000poundsofgolddueasbackpaymentaswellasapromiseof2,100poundsannuallyin thefuture.Attoday'svalue,thiswouldbeintheneighborhoodof$29,000,000andover$10,000,000respectively.In addition,therewastobea"demilitarizedzone"fromPannoniatoSistovanorthBulgaria.Ref.127[176] ThefourthEcumenicalCouncilmetatChalcedonin451underTheodosius'successor,Marcian,andthistimeMonophysitismwascondemnedaswellasNestorianism,settingthestageforcontinuedreligiouscontroversyforanother twocenturies.OnMarcian'sdeath,thebarbarianGeneralAsparwasinuentialingettingamilitarytribune,LeoI,as emperor.He,too,hadHuntroubleasAttila'sson,Dengizic,ledaninvasionintoThraceagain.Thistime,however, manyoftheHunsdidnotjoinhimandin469theeasternarmydefeatedhim,killedhimandtookhisheadtoConstantinople.ThiswasthelastorganizedHunexpeditionbutmanyofthosemensubsequentlyjoinedtheeasternarmy forceswheretheybecameknownas"Massagetae".Ref.127[176] WhenZenobecameemperorin474hefollowedpolicieswhichincreasedtheschismbetweentheeasternandwestern domainsoftheoldRomanEmpireandthewesternpositioncompletelycollapsedin476. 19.3.2.2ARMENIA TheMonophysiteChristiansofArmenianowformedtheirownchurch,independentofConstantinople,andcalledit simplytheArmenianChurch.WhereastheyhadformerlyusedtheGreeklanguage,theynowgotanationalalphabet

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288 CHAPTER19.A.D.401TO500 andhadtheBibletranslatedintoArmenian.Thiscountryhadafullydevelopedfeudalsystemfromroyalfamilies downtopeasants,butatthistimethenationwasnominallysubservienttoPersia.ThepeoplerevoltedagainstPersia whenheavytaxeswereleviedandthereweresomereligiouspersecutions,buttherevoltwasnotsuccessful.In455 and456thePersiansforciblyconvertedArmeniatoZorasterismbutneartheendofthecenturytheArmenianleader, Vahan,helpedthePersianKingVolagasesinacivilwarandinanEdictofToleration,theChristianswereagaingranted freedom. ForwardtoTheNearEast:A.D.501to600Section20.3 ChooseDifferentRegion 1.IntrotoEraSection19.1 2.AfricaSection19.2 3.AmericaSection19.9 4.CentralandNorthernAsiaSection19.5 5.EuropeSection19.4 6.TheFarEastSection19.7 7.TheIndianSubcontinentSection19.6 8.TheFarEastSection21.3 9.PacicSection19.8 19.4Europe:A.D.401to500 6 19.4.1EUROPE BacktoEurope:A.D.301to400Section18.4 ThisisusuallyconsideredthebeginningoftheEuropeanMiddleAgesanditwasaperiodofwarmingclimaticchange. Ref.215[290]ThetownsoftheRomanEmpirehadbeendecliningevenbeforethearrivalofthe"barbarians",but now,withtheendoftheempire,theWesttrulylostitsurbanframework.Ref.260[29] 19.4.1.1SOUTHERNEUROPESeealsoTURKEYandCENTRALEUROPE 19.4.1.1.1EASTERNMEDITERRANEANISLANDS MostoftheseislandswereunderByzantinecontrolandbothscienceandliteratureourished,particularlyonRhodes, intheseearlyChristiancenturies.Ref.38[59] 19.4.1.1.2GREECE GreecewassubmergedintheaffairsofConstantinople.TheonlyuniquefeaturewasaraidonthecoastlinebyVandals fromtheirbasesinAfricaattheendofthecentury. 19.4.1.1.3UPPERBALKANS IntheearlypartofthecenturytheareaofpresentdayYugoslaviawaspartoftheVisigothkingdomandaftertheGoths weredefeatedwhileinvadingItalyin402and403byStilicho,theyretiredagaintothatregion.Inthissamearea andinnorthernpresentdayAlbaniathelastrealwesternRomanEmperorlivedfrom476to480,isolatedintheold RomanprovinceofDalmatia.MeanwhileinthewesternpartoftheupperBalkans,Slavictribesrstsettledinwhatis nowBulgariawiththeBulgarsprobablyamixtureofHunsandothernomadsrightbehindthem.TheBlackHuns, probablyencouragedbythewarmingEuropeanclimatewhichmadenepasturelandfortheirhorses,raidedthroughouttheBalkansandruinedtheareaforsomethreecenturiestofollow.TheyhadarrivedaboutA.D.400undertheir 6 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat.

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289 ruler,Uldin,whoproceededtoleadthemintoThraceonraidsinthewinterof404-405.Thishappenedagainin408, 422andseveraltimesinthe430s.In441Illyriumwasthetarget.ResumptionofBalkanraidsin442broughtbig tributeconcessionsfromtheByzantineemperor,Theodosius.WhenhelaterrenegedonthepaymentsAttillahimself ledagreatHunnicinvasionofThracein447anditcosttheemperorstillmoreingoldpayments.SeeTURKEY, above AheadoftheHunshadcomeSlavicpeoples,somefromtheso-calledeasternSlavgroups,butchieflyfromthe westernSlavtribesandthesesettledtobecometheancestorsoftheSerbs,Croats,SlovenesandMacedonians.The Huns,themselves,hadactuallysettledinHungary,butmadetheirperiodicraidsbackintotheBalkansasnoted.During theirvariousinvasionsandraids,manyoftheHunsoldierstooknativewomenaswives,thusputtingAsiaticblood fromtheBlackSeatoBavaria.AfterA.D.455therewereonlytwopocketsofHunsremainingintheBalkans-oneina portionofmodernBulgariaalongthewestshoreoftheBlackSeaandthesecondinDacia,-somewhatwestoftherst group.In465theseHunsattackedtheGothswhowereinPannonia,buttheyweredefeated.AsecondGothic-Hunnic WardevelopedsouthoftheDanubein465.Ref.137[188],175[241],215[290],127[176] 19.4.1.1.4ITALYPleasealsoseeTURKEY,THEBALKANS,andCENTRALEUROPE AtthebeginningofthecenturytheweakRomanEmperorHonoriusputtheVandal,Stilicho,incommandofthe armyoftheWestandhewasimmediatelyputtotestbyinvadingAlansandVisigoths.Stilichodefeatedthemusing VandalsandevensomeAlanicmercenariesintwogreatbattlesin402.TherewereseveralotherinvasionsbyAlani, VandalsandGothsinthenextfewyears,duringwhichtimeHonoriusmovedhiscourttoRavenna,supposedlyout ofharm'sway.Intheearlybattles,StilichohadtostriptheRhinefrontieroftroopssothatinthefollowingyears anewcoalitionofOstrogoths,QuadiandAsdingVandals,alongwithaclanofAlanswhohadedfromtheHundominatedCaucasus,movedwestalmostunopposedandcrossedthefrozenRhineintothenowalmostdefenseless France.Stilichowasexecutedbyhisownemperorin408,thusopeningthegatestoKingAlaricandhisVisigoths, whonowleftYugoslavia,enteredItalyandby410hadsackedRome 7 .AlaricdiedshortlythereafterandAthaulf becamekingoftheVisigothsastheymovedtoGaulinA.D.411. UponthedeathofHonoriusin423theEmperorTheodosiusIIofConstantinoplebecamethesolerulerofbothEast andWest.TheusurperJohnwasproclaimedWesternemperorbytheRavennacourtin424butEasternarmiesunder theAlanGeneralArdaburandhissonAspar,defeatedtheforcesatRavenna,executedJohnandmadeValentinian IIItheemperor.Johnhadexpectedhelpfrom60,000HunswhohadbeenrecruitedinPannoniabyAetius,butthey arrivedtoolateandweresentback.Fromthistimeonthemilitaryhadthegreatestpowerandusedincreasingnumbers ofGermanicandHunnicauxiliaries.Aetiusbecametheseniorgeneralin430.UnderEmperorValentinianIII,LeoI, surnamedtheGreat,becametheBishopofRomeandinessencethePopeofWesternChristendom.Bycourageand statesmanshipheraisedtheApostolicSeetonewheightsofpoweranddignityandweshouldnotethatthis,ineffect, marksthebeginningoftheverydeniteseparationoftheheadofthewesternChristianChurch,soontobeknownas thePope,fromthefewremainingweakWesternRomanemperors.Fortherecordtheseemperorsareasfollows: 455-PetroneusMaximus 456Avitus 457-461Majorian 461-465LibiusSeverus 467-472Anthemius 472-Olybrius 473-474Glycerius 474-475JuliusNepos 475-476RomulusAugustulus.EndoftheRomanEmpire,West Toreturntoournarrative,in440theVandalslandedinSicilyandin452AttilainvadedItalywithhisHuns.After plunderingEtruria,however,heretreatedbecauseoffamineandepidemicandapparentlysomegoldpaymentfrom 7 ItisofinterestthatAlariccaptured5,000poundsofpepperinRome.Ref.260[29]

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290 CHAPTER19.A.D.401TO500 Rome.GeneralAetiuswasmurderedin454byValentianIIIandhisassociates,butthentheemperorhimselfwas murderedayearlaterandtheVandalsattackedRomeagain,plunderingthecityfortwoweeks.Noaidcamefrom theEast,andthenewEmperorPetroniusMaximuswaskilled.Thenextemperor,AvituswithsomealliesfromGaul wonsomevictoriesovertheVandalsinSicilyandoffCorsica,butthenAvitus'general,Ricimer,revoltedanddeposed theemperor.ButRicimerwasaGermanandcouldnotbecomeemperor,soMajorianusassumedthatrole.Hebuilt anavyandbeefedupthearmywithOstrogothsandrestoredsomevestigeofimperialprestigeinGaul.Buthewas decapitatedbythewilyRicimerafterlossofaseabattleoffthecoastofSpain.TheWesternRomanEmpirewas nowinpoverty.InthisonecenturyRomeshrankfromapopulationof1,500,000to300,000asItalywasinvadedsix times.FinallyinthesixthdecadeofthiscenturytheEasternemperor,LeoInottobeconfusedwiththeBishopof Rome,decidedtohelpdefendItalyagainsttheVandalsandsentalargeeasternarmyandeettojoinwiththewestern EmperorAnthemius'forces.In468anarmyof100,000andnavyof1,100shipsstilllosttotheVandals. Asindicatedabove,thelineofWesternRomanemperorscametoanendandZenoinConstantinoplehadjurisdiction overall.TheGermanswhohadbeenbroughtintoItalyineverincreasingnumbersnow,asaresultoftheirmultiplicationandintermarriage,becameaveryprominentfactioninItaly.Within20yearssouthernGaul,DalmatiaandItaly wereallGermankingdoms.Odoacer,thesonofEdecon,aministerofAttilabuthimselffromGermantribeunder Attila'srule,governedItalyas"Patricius",underthedistantEmperorZeno.Thelattersoonbecameafraidofthepower ofOdoacerandactuallyencouragedtheOstrogothKingTheodorictoinvadeItaly.Afterfouryearsofwar,from489 to493,TheodoricbecamemasterofanenlargednewGothic-ltaliankingdomwithacourtatRavenna.TheOstrogoths wereAriansandthisreligiousheresysituationbecameapartofthecivilwarsthatdisruptedthepoliticalunityofthe empire.Ref.137[188],127[176],136[187],8[14] Stillunconquered,theVandalscontrolledwesternSicilyandSardiniaaspartoftheirnorthAfricankingdomthroughout theremainderofthecentury. 19.4.1.2CENTRALEUROPESeealsoTURKEY,THEBALKANSandITALY 19.4.1.2.1GERMANY "Germanic"isadesignationofagreatmanytribeswhospokerelatedGermaniclanguages.Several,suchasthe Saxons,EastFranksandAlemannieventuallysettledintheregionbetweentheAlpsandtheNorthSea,theRhineand theBohemianmountainsandtheirlanguagesgraduallyevolvedintomodernGerman.Others,settlinginScandinavia, EnglandandalongthechannellaidthefoundationforsuchmodernlanguagesasSwedish,Norwegian,Englishand Dutch.Germany,inthis5thcentury,wasaseaofslowlychangingandmigratingpeople.TheHunswerepushingin fromtheeast,drivingaSlavicpeoplebeforethemwhosettledinwhatisnoweasternGermany,asWendsandPoles. TheHunsthemselvesveeredtothesouththroughwhatlaterbecameAustria-HungaryandthenpushedonintoBavaria andtotheRhine,engaginginatremendousbattlewithRomanizedVisigothsatTroyesin451.Theeffectofthese migrationsandraidswastopushtheoriginalGermanictribeswestandsouthwiththeVandals,SueviandAlaniending upinSpain.TheHunsdecimatedtheBurgundianswiththeremnantssettlingas"federates"nearGeneva.Ref.177 [243],180[246],137[188] Bythelastofthecentury,theFrankswerewellestablishedonbothsidesoftheRhineinalargeareaincludingparts ofbothmodernFranceandGermany.In481ClovisbecamekingofalltheFranksandformedtherstofthelarge, centralEuropeanmonarchies.WhenheadoptedChristianityaboutA.D.500hiswesternFrankishfollowersreadily joinedhisconversion,buteastoftheRhinetherewasnotapre-existinglocalChristianpopulationandtheRhenish Franksremainedpagan.AtthissametimetheMarcomannileftBohemiaandinvadedBavaria.Ref.177[243],180 [246],222[296] 19.4.1.2.2AUSTRIA ForawhileAustriawasonthemarchrouteoftheHunsandweshalldiscussthesepeoplemoreindetaillater.After OdoacerSeeITALYaboveannihilatedtheRugiertribein488theLombardsmoveddownintonorthernAustriaand southernMoravia.Vindo-bonaViennaremainedasafortressandapparentsanctuarytoallofCeltic-Romandescent.

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291 RomehadcompletelywithdrawnfromtheDanubeareaby488andthevacuumwaslledbytheHuns.Ref.181 [247] 19.4.1.2.3HUNGARY By406theHunswereineasternHungarywithOstrogothsjusttotheirwestandLombardsandRugiersintheCzech areajustnorthwest.AtthistimeUldinwasruleroftheHunsinRomaniaandaftermakinganalliancewithStilichoin 406togethertheydefeatedawaveofGothsinvadingVenetiaandLombardy,withthecaptivestakentobesoldlater intoslavery.TherewerenoAlansinHungaryafteraboutthisdateandthereaftertheHunsdominatedthearea.Very littleisknownabouttheminthe2nddecadeexceptthattheyhadaKingCharatonwhoreceivedgiftsfromHonoriusof theRomanEmpire.TheclimaxofHunnicpowercameafter420butin427theywereattackedbyRomansandsome wereconqueredsothatasapeopletheylostcohesionandhadnocentralauthority.By432Rugawaskingofsomeof theHuns,buthisexactterritoryisunknown.TheEastRomanswagedwaragainsthimuntilhisdeathinthelate430s. TheHunsthenhadtwokings-BledaintheeastandAttilainthewest.Thesemenwereapparentlybrothersandtheir forcestogetherbrokeintoIllyriumin441.In445Attilamurderedhisbrother,however,andbecamethesoleruler. FouryearslaterhemetwithEastRomanambassadorsjustovertheIllyriumborderonItaliansoilandAttilawasmade a"militarymagistrate"andgivenlandalongtheSavaandayearlysalary.InspiteofthisheraidedItalyin452aftera relativelyunsuccessfulinvasionofGaultheyearbefore.HewasboughtoffbeforehecrossedthePo,butMilanwas takenandmuchbootyfound.Diseasewasprobablyabigfactorinpreventingfurtherforays.Attiladiedin453and whilehissonswerequarrelingovertheestateacoalitionofGermantribesledbyArdaric,kingoftheGepids,revolted againsttheiroverlordsandafterseveralbattles,defeatedtheHunsatNedaoRiver 8 ,withallegedlysome30,000Huns slain,includingEllac,Attila'soldestson.ThusendedtheheightoftheHunpowerandalthoughtheymadeafewmore raidsoftheEasternEmpire,theynallyreturnedtotheRussiansteppeabout470andsettledontheshoresoftheSea ofAzov.Atabout444AttilahadbeenthemostpowerfulmaninEuropeandacontemporaryofValentianinRome andTheodosiusIIofConstantinople.Hewasnotentirelyasavagebutactuallyhadsomesenseofhonorandjustice, inspiteofthefactthathismenattimesdidpillageandravageandthathemurderedhisownbrother.Suchatrocities asthelatter,however,werecommonamongallrulingfamiliesofthattimeandevenmuchlater,inhistory.Ref.137 [188],38[59],127[176] SomefurtherdescriptionoftheHunsandtheirlivesiswarrantedatthistime.Theorigin,raceandlanguageofthese peopleisstillinsomedispute.Paleo-anthropologicalevidenceindicatesthattheywerearaciallymixedgroupwith bothMongoloidandEuropoid 9 elements.Upuntilthe1940stheclassicalconceptwasthattheEuropeanHunswere oneandthesamepeoplewiththeHsiung-nuoriginatinginMongoliaonthenorthernborderofChina.Thesedenite MongoloidsallegedlymovedrsttomiddleAsiaandthenspreadwestward.ButtherewereEuropoidsineastern AsiaandwesternChinaalso,someofwhichwereconqueredandenslavedbytheHsiung-nu.Someskeletonsonthe bordersofChinadatingto450-230B.C.showfeaturesofbothgreatraces-atfacesoftheMongoloidandyetthe wideopeneyesoftheEuropoid.OneofthenineteenHsiung-nutribes,theChieh,wasmassacredinnorthernHonan inA.D.349andthegreatmajorityofthemwerefoundtobeEuropoids.TheWu-sunpartoftheJungneighborsof theHsiung-nuhadceruleaneyesandredbeardsandwerepredominantlyEuropoids.Wemustconcludethatatsome pointintimeagroupofthesemixedpeoples,partMongoloidandpartEuropoid,startedwestthroughthesteppearea tobecomeknownasHuns. WehavenowrittenlanguagefromtheHuns-theirscribeswereborrowedorenslavedRomans,writinginLatinor Greek.ButtheHunaristocracyhadchieyTurkishnames,withsomeGermaniconesapparentlyborrowedfrom theirsometimesallies,theGothsandGepids.ManyoftheirnamesandplacenameswereLatinizedbytheirLatin chroniclers.ManylanguageswerespokeninAttila'skingdom-Hunnish,Gothic,Alanic,LatinandGreek,butitis probablethattheirnativetonguewasTurkic,fromtheEurasiansteppes.Thename"Attila"comesfromtheGepid "Atta"meaning"father"andhisbrother'sname,BledasisalsoGerman.Othernamesandparticularlytribalnames, however,weredenitelyTurkish. 8 ThisriverwasapparentlyinsouthernPannoniaHungary,southandwestoftheDanube 9 Theterms"Mongoloid"and"Europoid"asusedherearebasedonaclassicationbyRussiananthropologistsRef.127[176]

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292 CHAPTER19.A.D.401TO500 TheHunsweresemi-nomadic,keepingallkindsofdomesticanimals,butessentiallylivingontheirhorsesandoff theirsheep.Fromthelattertheyhadmutton,milk,cheese,felt,tents,shoesandcapscurvedandpointed.They spunthesheepwoolandmadelinenbutagriculturewasapparentlyataminimum.ByAttila'stime,Hunnobles hadhouseswithwallsofwell-planedplanksandpanels,containingseats,bedsanddraperies.Theylovedgoldand extractedextremelylargesumsatregularintervalsfromtheRomans.Inthe440sEastRomanspaidtheHunsabout 13,000poundsofgoldandtheyalsoreceivedsomeforauxiliarieslenttotheRomansandasransomforprisonersand throughthesaleofslavesobtainedasprisonersofwar.Tradewasbriskattimes,involvingnotonlyslavesbuthorses inexchangeforgold,wineandsilk,whichwasgreatlyprizedbyallthe"barbarians".TheHunshadanaristocracy andtheyhadslaves,althoughmostofthelatterwerequicklysoldtotheRomans.Theirwharfarewasrathertypicalof allbarbariansfromthesteppes-connedprincipallytowildcavalryattacks,accompaniedbymuchterrifyingnoise, lightlyequippedbutwithaccuratebows,lances,swordsandshields.Thereissomeevidencethatthenobleshadsome typesofarmor,chieyscalearmormadefromhorseshoofs,butthecommonersoftenfoughtnaked,afeaturewhich addedtotheterrorexperiencedbytheir"civilized"enemies.Theyappearedtobegluedtotheirshort-legged,bigheaded,shaggy,long-bodieduglyhorses.Theyhadnospurs,butdidusewhips.Thequestionofwhetherornotthey hadstirrupsisstillnotsettled.Somenomadbarbariansdenitelyhadwoodenorevenmetalstirrupsasthelater MagyarsandtheHunsworesoftshoesadaptabletoround,woodenstirrupsanditispossiblethattheyhadthem. Accuratebowshootingisdifcultandlanceghtingwithoutstirrupsisalmostimpossibleunlessthelanceismore orlesstiedtothehorse.Saddleswithawoodentreehavebeenidentied.Horseswerebrandedandear-markedfor identicationandthewarriorhorseswerealmostallgeldings.Althougharcheologicalevidenceisscant,itisassumed thattheHunsusedhorsedrawncartsforsuppliesandloot.Thestoriesoftheiratrocitiesarelegionandmostmustbe lookedatsomewhatskepticallyandtheywereprobablynotmuch,ifany,worsethananyofthenomadicinvadersfrom thesteppesoreventheRomans,themselves. Theirbowswerereex,composite 10 types,140to160centimetersinlengthandveryaccurateupto50to60meters, withaneffectiverangeupto160to175meters.AnunusualweaponoftheHunswasthelasso,withwhichthey entangledthearmsandlegsoftheenemysothathecouldnotrideorwalk.TheHunnicshieldswereprobablyof wickerwork,coveredwithleatherandtherearenoarcheologicalremainsofthese.Theydidhavesomeartworkand manydiademsofgoldsheetoverbronzeplaqueshavebeenexcavated,alongwithgoldandsilverearrings.Hunnic bronzecauldronsareplentifulfromHungaryandtheupperBalkans. ThecontemporarydescriptionofthephysiognamyoftheHunsareundoubtedlyinuencedbytheextremeterrorthey producedinthoseabouttobeattacked,butthereisnoquestionbutwhattheywereashort,thick-limbedpeoplewith atnoses,thelatterhavingbeenproducedininfancybybinding,todeformthedevelopingskull.Ithasbeensurmised thatthisallowedthewearingofaspecialhelmutwithaatnose-pieceextension,inlaterlife.Inaddition,themale's faceswereearlyscarredbyintentionalknifecuts,sothatbeardscouldnotgrowinthemature,scarredfaces.These oldhealedcutsandscars,withtheirresultingat,uglyfacescertainlydidnotdetractfromtheoverallimpressionof thedevilincarnate.Ref.127[176] 19.4.1.2.4CZECHOSLAVAKIA AboutA.D.400theLombardsLangobardsdrovefromtheElbeeastwardandsouthward,appearingabout430in BohemiaandlatermovingintoMoraviaandAustria.TheRugianscrossedtheDanubesouthfromBohemiabutwere annihilatedbyOdoacerwhohadtakenoverDalmatiaonthedeathoftheWesternEmperorin480.Aconfederacy ofSuevicbands,theBavariansandMarcomanninowoccupiedBohemia.Ref.136[187]TheBavarians,of course,werelatertomovewestintoGermany,buttheSlavswhostayedandsettledpermanentlyinBohemiawerethe ancestorsoflaterdayCzechs,VlachsandSlovaks.ItwasonlyaftertheretreatoftheHunsthatthefullextentofthe Slavmigrationwouldberealized.Ref.137[188] 10 Abowwithlaminatedconstruction,usingwood,sinewandhorn.ThesehadbeenexcellentlycraftedandusedinAsiaandChinaformany centuries

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293 19.4.1.2.5SWITZERLAND InthiscenturySwitzerlandwasinvadedbythemigratingAlemanniandBurgundiisothatnallythedomainofthe latterstretchedfromSwitzerlandsouthtotheMediterranean.TheHunsthenalmostannihilatedtheseBurgundiansin theirwestwardraidsinthemiddleofthecenturywiththeremnantsremainingunderRomandominationnearGeneva. Ref.137[188],127[176] 19.4.1.3WESTERNEUROPE 19.4.1.3.1SPAINANDPORTUGAL TheFranks,BurgundiansandAlemanniwhohadannexedtheleftbankoftheRhine,allowedtheAlans,Vandalsand SuevitocrossthePyreneesandseizelandalongtheAtlanticseaboardofSpain.TheywenttotheStraitsofGibralter andsomeevencrossedtotheAfricanCoastandtheoldRomano-Hispanicrulingclasseswereoverthrown.Laterin thecentury,afterhavingmadeatreatywithEmperorHonorius,about100,000VisigothsunderKingWallia,successor toAlaricandAtaulf,enteredSpainandnearlyexterminatedtheAlansandtheSilingVandals.TheSueviandthe AsdingVandalsretiredtothenorthwestcornerofthepeninsulaandthenorthernareasoftheBasqueswasnevertaken. Ref.136[187]SomeoftheVandalsretreatedtoAndalusiainthesouth,fromwhichtheylatercontinuedtheir conquestofNorthAfrica.Finallytherewereabout200,000Visigothsagainstanativepopulationofsome6,000,000, buttheformerweremuchmoremobileanddynamicandeasilycontrolledSpain.Ref.211[284],127[176], 196[269]UnderTheodoricII-466theVisigothsnallydefeatedtheSueviatOportoandthenbrokewith theRomanEmpire.Euric-484,brotherofTheodoricII,completedtheconquestofthepeninsula,butlostthe originalVisigothichomebaseinGaultothesurgingFrankswhodetestedtheVisigothsbecauseoftheirArianism. Ref.196[269] 19.4.1.3.2FRANCEANDNETHERLANDANDBELGIUM WehaveseenaboveSeeITALYthatStilicho,ineffectKingofItaly,withdrewtroopsfromtheRhinetoghtvarious GermanictribesincentralEuropeandthentheMarcomanni-Quadigroup,collectivelyknownasSuevi,easilycrossed thedefenseless,frozenRhineintoFrance.Ref.137[188]MeanwhiletheFrankshadsettledonthewesternslope oftheRhine,hadcapturedCologneandwereinFranconiaontheeast.By430GaulwasabouthalfFrankishand halfGothicandCeltic,anditwasthemostprosperousandintellectuallyadvancedofthewesternprovinces.The agricultureoftheGermanictribeswasbettersuitedtothatclimatethantheRomanMediterraneanstyleofagriculture soaGermanstyleoflifetookitsplace. Asrecordedabove,inA.D.451AttilaandhisGermanauxiliaries,possiblyattherequestofGaeseric 11 ,theVandal king,movedfarintoFrancetoOrleansandafterabattlenearbyagainstamixtureofBurgundians,Romans,Franks andVisigoths,AttilanallywithdrewtoHungaryaftermassivecasualtieshadbeenexperiencedbybothsides.Only theSalianFranksinthenortheastofFrance,escapedtheHunsdominationintherstsurge.In470theVisigoths againexpandedtotheLoireandtheRhoneandthenagainconqueredSpain,exceptforafewnorthernareas,aswe havementionedabove.ClovisstartedhiscontroloftheFranksbyconquestin481andhisconversiontoChristianity occurredin496.TheCeltsonthewestsideoftheRhinehadbeenexposedtothisreligionforalongperiodandClovis' conversiononlysolidiedhiscontroloverthem.Althoughhisoriginalterritoryincludedonlythenorthernareasabout Cologne,Hesse,Tournai,CambraiandTreier,hesoondestroyedotherchieftainsoftheRhine,MoselleandMeuse valleys.HisnalmasteryoverallGaulbeganwithhisdefeatofSyagrius,"KingoftheRomans"atSoissonsin486 andhethenbecametruly"KingoftheFranks"-Ref.137[188],8[14] BRITISHISLES 11 Maenchen-HelfenRef.127[176]saysthisideais"grotesque"Page130andsaysthereasonAttilawentintoGaulinsteadofItalyis unknown

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294 CHAPTER19.A.D.401TO500 19.4.1.3.2.1ENGLAND RomanevacuationofEnglandwasprobablycompleteby407,andin410theRomanEmperorHonoriuswrotetothe leadersofBritishtownstellingthemtolookaftertheirowndefence.Thiswasalmostsimultaneouswiththerevoltof peasants,rampantdiseaseandraidsbyPicts,Irish,Angles,Saxons,JutesandFrisians.Ref.136[187]Inthe420s Vortigern,oneoftheBritishtyrants,rosesomeinpowerandusedthepreviouslytriedRomanpolicyofusingGerman mercenariestoswellhisarmies.OtherssoondidlikewiseandthefateofCelticEnglandwasprobablysealed.There wasacontinuousinuxofnewSaxonimmigrantsandfrom440ontheyoccupiedtheeasternandsoutherncoastal areasofEssex,KentandSussexandcontrolledthemouthoftheThames.TheAnglescamefromSlesvigandbrought withthemtoEnglandaknowledgeofNordicmythology,asfoundinthe"SongofBeoweulf".Inthesouthwestthe BritonskeptouttheSaxons,undertheleadershipofKingAmbrosiusandtheshadowyKingArthur.InA.D.500these BritonswonapitchedbattleatMountBadon,somewhereinthesouthwest.Ref.43[64]SomeBritonsescapedthe GermansbygoingtotheBrestpeninsulaofFrance,subsequentlybecomingknownasBretons.Ref.137[188],222 [296] 19.4.1.3.2.2SCOTLAND InScotlandtherewerenowfourpoliticalnuclei;Picts,Dalreada,WelshrefugeesandIdaofBernicia'srealm.Atthe endofthecenturytheGaelicScottimigratedfromthenorthofIrelandtoScotland,givingthecountryitsnalname. ThekingdomofthePictsandScotsresultedfromthefusionoftheseIrishraidersandthePictishtribes-men.Bythe endofthecenturytheIrishhadtakentheHebrides,theretocontestwiththeVikings,andmanyhadbeachedtheir shipsonthewesternPictishcoast.Ref.65[96],170[234] 19.4.1.3.2.3IRELAND Apowerfulnewfamily,theUiNeillsonsofNiallburstoutofMidetotakevirtuallytheentirenorthernhalfofthe islandundercontrol,includingalargepartofConnaughtanddemolishingUlster.TheiroriginalhomenearTarain Mide,nearmodernDublin,appearstohavebeenanearlysacredplace,andperhapsusingthisasalever,theUiNeill laidclaimtokingshipovertheentirecountry.Whethertheirclaimwasgenerallyrecognizedisnotknown,butcertainly theEoganachtafamilydidnot,astheysetuptheirownstateinMunsterandpartofLeinster.TheUlsterremnants crowdedintoasmallareaontheIrishseacoastofDalRiataandfromtheretheymigratedontoPictishterritoryof Scotland,calledArgyll.TheRomanscalledtheseIrish"Scotti"andsothisnameandtheirGoideliclanguagewas giventothisneighboringisland.Ref.91[135] IrelandstartedtobecomeChristianizedabout431andshortlythereafterPatrickbecametheIrishbishop.Hewas originallyaslavetakenfromaChristianhomeinRomanBritainIrishraiders,butheescapedandwenttoFrance,where hereceivedmonastictrainingbeforereturningtoIreland.Pioustraditiontellsofhundredsofmiraclesperformedby Patrickandthenun,St.Brigid,includingrestorationsofsighttotheblindandhearingtothedeaf,raisingpeoplefrom thedeadandsimilarprocedures.Ref.29[50] 19.4.1.3.2.4WALES WaleswasnowbecomingoccupiedbyIrish.CelticpeoplerelatedtotheFeniofcentralIrelandgaverisetothe GwyneddinnorthWalesandtheDesiofsouthernIrelandbecametheDyfedofsouthWales.ButtheseIrishwere laterexpelledbytheP-CelticspeakingCymruandtheformerleftbehindonlyOgammonumentsintheGaelictongue. Ref.65[96] 19.4.1.3.3SCANDINAVIA TheSveasorSviarestablishedtheirkingdomonthewestsideofSwedenandlegendhasitthattheGothsdeveloped theircivilizationinsouth-centralSweden.Helgo,anislandinLakeMalar,becameatradingpostinthecenterofthe SviarKingdom.

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295 Archaeologicallythiseraiscalledthe"TeutonicIronAge"inDenmark.Ref.117[164]ANydamboatover60 feetlongwithanoutwardresemblancetobigboatsoftoday,withoarsandperhapssailandverylittlekeelhasbeen foundthere,datingtothisperiod.TheseboatsweresimilartotheonestheAnglessailedtoEnglandfromSlesvig throughoutthecentury.TherewerenumerousinternecinewarsandwarsbetweenNorwegiansandDanesandSwedes. Itwasawealthyperiodfortheregionbutalsoatimeoftroubles,withconstructionoffortsforeachcommunity.At theendofthecentury,eachcommunityhoardedgold.Theuseoftheruniccharacters,theScandinavians'ownsystem ofwritingtoshowthesoundoftheirlanguages,hadbeenquitefullydevelopedbythistime.Asmentionedinthe previouschapter,therunes,orletters,wereedgedandparticularlyadaptedforwritingonwood. TheancestorsoftheFinns,aFinno-Ugrianfamilyofpeoples,mayalreadyhavebeeninFinlandbythistime.They wereatleastdenitelyintheregionoftheBaltic. AdditionalNotesp.295 19.4.1.3.4EASTERNEUROPE AsmentionedpreviouslytheFinno-UgrianpeopleswerespreadfromtheBaltictothemiddleUralsandwereprimitive huntersandshermen.SomeofthesepeopleweretheancestorsofthepresentdayFinnsandthoseintheUralarea werenowcalledMagyars.Inthiscentury,forsomeunknownreason,thelatterstartedtomigratewestward. TheoriginalhomeofatleastpartoftheSlavsseemstohavebeenthemarshesofthewesternUkraineinsouthwestern Russia.Originallytheywereadrunken,unclean,cruelpeoplewithapassionforpillagebutneverthelessagood naturedfolklovinggames,dancesandsongs.TheyfelleasypreytotheHunswhodrovethemaheadwestward,much asonedrivescattle,usingthemasavanguardandinasense,asslaves.Ref.49[73]ByA.D.420almostall ofPolandwasSlavic.RelatedtotheSlavsweretheBaltsonthesoutheasternshoreoftheBalticbutbyA.D.450 alloftheseweresubservienttotheHuns.Ref.137[188]Afterthelatter'sdefeatinthePannoniaarea,mostof themretreatedtotheRussiansteppeA.D.470wheretheysettleddownwithrelatedtribesonthenorthoftheBlack SeaalongtheshoresoftheSeaofAzov,wheretheybecameknownasKutrigursandUtigurs.OntheCrimea,there remainedasmallpocketofOstrogoths. Inthelastquarterofthecentury,thefullextentoftheSlavsinRussiaandwesttotheElbeRiveranddowntothelower DanubeineasternEuropecouldbeappreciated.TheAntesofsouthRussiawerethewealthiestandmostpowerfulbut politicallyallSlavsaswellastherelatedBaltswerenaiveandeasilydominatedbyothers.Ref.137[188] NOTE :WiththecollapseofRomanauthorityinthewest,therewaslesstradeoutofScandinavia,although largequantitiesofRomangoldstillseemedtoreachthere,includingtheislandofGotland.Perhapsthegold waspaidtosoldiersorfrontiertribes.Asthelandrouteswerecuttherewassomeincreaseinseatrade,so JutlandandNorwaybeneted.Norwegianboatsofthiscenturywere20to37meterslong,butarcheologists havebeenunabletotellhowtheywerepropelled.InSwedenthecityofHelgobegantoourishandit remainedanimportantcenterforthenext500years.Ref.301[258] ForwardtoEurope:A.D.501to600Section20.4 19.5CentralandNorthernAsia:A.D.401to500 12 19.5.1CENTRALANDNORTHERNASIA BacktoCentralandNorthernAsia:A.D.301to400Section18.5 BythiscenturytheKushanshadbecomecompletelyPersianizedandbyA.D.440theyweresweptawaybythe EpthalitescomingdownfromtheAltaicregioninrepeatedraids.AfterterrorizingthePersiansandconquering 12 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat.

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296 CHAPTER19.A.D.401TO500 AfghanistaninA.D.460thesemisnamed"WhiteHuns" 13 leftPersiaaloneandwentontoIndia.Thecenterof poweroftheAltaicnomadswasthecountryalongtheGreatWallofChinaandinMongolia,northoftheGobidesert andfromtheretheystruckbothsouthwardandwestward.ThisgreatnomadpowerhadbegunwiththeHsiung-nuwho, afterbeingdefeatedbytheChineseHaninthe1stcenturyC.E.hadre-establishedthemselvesincentralAsiaandhad takensomeIraniansandMongoloidtribesfromtheforestsofSiberiaintotheirfold.Ref.137[188],8[14] ForwardtoCentralandNorthernAsia:A.D.501to600Section20.5 ChooseDifferentRegion 1.IntrotoEraSection19.1 2.AfricaSection19.2 3.AmericaSection19.9 4.EuropeSection19.4 5.TheFarEastSection19.7 6.TheIndianSubcontinentSection19.6 7.TheNearEastSection19.3 8.PacicSection19.8 19.6TheIndianSubcontinent:A.D.401to500 14 19.6.1THEINDIANSUBCONTINENT BacktoTheIndianSubcontinent:A.D.301to400Section18.6 TheGuptacivilizationcontinuedtoourishinnorthernIndia,butatthecloseofthecenturyanewbarbarianeruptionshatteredthepeaceastheEphthalitesoverranandinvadednorthwesternIndiafromcentralAsia.Thereisstill apparentlysomeconfusionaboutthemake-upandoriginoftheseinvaders.McNeillRef.139[192]callsthema branchoftheMongolJuan-JuanbutotherauthoritiesRef.8[14]insistthattheywereofawhite,Turkishrace,not Mongoloid.Atanyevent,althoughtheyhadmadesomeraidsasearlyas455by480theyhaddestroyedtheGupta Empire,nevertoberestored,andtheyhaddemolishedtheBuddhistmonasteries. InwesternIndiamanyimpregnablefortressesinRajputanakepttheAsianinvadersoutandthelocalpowerwasdivided amongseverallocaldynasties.APallavawarriordynastycontrolledtheDeccanandthereweremanylocalaltercations withtheadjacentChalukyas. IndividualaccomplishmentisoftenindependentofexternalruleandsoinspiteoftheturmoilofthisperiodinIndia, AryabhataA.D.499wroteamathematicalworksforuseinastronomicalcalculations.Muchwasborrowedfromthe Greeksbutsomeinnovationsappeared,includingauniquesystemofnumericalnotation.Hewasfamiliarwiththe decimalsystemandwithzero,althoughhedidnotactuallyusethelatter.Hetaughtthetheoryoftherotationofthe earthandgavethevalueofPiat3.141. ForwardtoTheIndianSubcontinentA.D.501to600Section20.6 19.7TheFarEast:A.D.401to500 15 19.7.1THEFAREAST BacktoTheFarEast:A.D.301to400Section18.7 13 SeefootnoteonCentralandNorthernAsia:A.D.301to400Section18.5 14 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat. 15 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat.

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297 19.7.1.1CHINAANDMANCHURIANorthernandsoutherndynasties TherulingTobaWeihadbecomecompletelySinicizedbythistimeandhadcarriedoutaredistributionoflandto bringmoreundercultivationandrehabilitatetheeconomyinnorthernChina.Thesoutherndynasty,theEasternChin, pushednorthwardregainingaccessthroughKansutothecentralAsiantraderoutesbutthroughcourtintriguesand usurpationstherewasaneverincreasinglyweakerseriesofdynasties,includingSung?-429andsouthernCh'i -502.Evenso,thesesoutherners,consideringthemselvesthesaviorsoftheoldHancivilization,absorbedmost oftheaboriginalpeoplesofthesouthChinaareaintotheChinesemainstream,asBuddhismbecamethepredominant intellectualandreligiousforce.Ref.101[146] Therewasalsointenseactivityinphilosophicalaswellasreligiousthought.Taoismbrokeintosectsandneverbecame auniedreligion.Ch'anBuddhismsimilartoJapaneseZenwasbroughttoChinaallegedlybyBodhidharama. ChinesejunkssailedregularlytotheheadofthePersianGulfwithcargoesforBabylon,althoughlittleornoapparent exchangeofideasandtechniquesoccurredbetweeneastandwest.Thejunks,formanycenturies,hadhadsingle rudders,watertightcompartmentsandstaterooms,allfaradvancedinventionsnotusedbywesternersforupto1,600 yearslater.Theshipscarriedfreshgingergrowinginpotsandthusunknowinglypreventedscurvy.Ref.8[14],215 [290],211[284] 19.7.1.2JAPAN ThemausoleumconstructedforEmperorNintoku,whomayhavediedin427 16 ,isamoat-girdedarticialmountain, 80acresinarea,morethanone-halfmilelongandafter1,500yearsofweatheringstillover100feethigh.Ittook 20yearstobuildbyconscriptionlabor.Japan'sroyalfamilyhasrefusedanyexcavationofanyoftheroyalmounds tothisday.Inthis5thcenturytheChinesesystemofideographicwritingwasbroughttoJapanbutphoneticsymbols hadtobeinventedtoexpresstheJapanesewordendingsanditwasactuallyanother200yearsbeforeitbecameareal vehicleforJapanesethoughtandrecord.Inthemeantime,duringthereignofInkyo,musicanddancewerepromoted andChineseBuddhismwasintroducedandbegantorivalShintoisminpopularfavor.Ref.12[21],46[76],213 [288] 19.7.1.3KOREA TheThreeKingdomsperiodcontinued.KingChangsubroughtKoguryatotheheightofitspowerandmovedthe capitalfromtheYaluRivertoP'yongyang.Sillacontinuedexpansioninthesouth.Ref.222[296] 19.7.1.4SOUTHEASTASIA Noimportantchangesfromthelastcenturyhavebeenidentiedfromtheliteratureandthereaderisreferredtothose previouscenturies. ForwardtoTheFarEast:A.D.501to600Section20.7 ChooseDifferentRegion 1.IntrotoEraSection19.1 2.AfricaSection19.2 3.AmericaSection19.9 4.CentralandNorthernAsiaSection19.5 5.EuropeSection19.4 6.TheIndianSubcontinentSection19.6 7.TheNearEastSection19.3 8.PacicSection19.8 16 ThisdateisfromBergaminiRef.12[21]butthereissomeconfusionhereinthatDurantRef.46[76]indicatesthatthenextemperor, Inkyo,startedhisreignin412

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298 CHAPTER19.A.D.401TO500 19.8ThePacic:A.D.401to500 17 19.8.1THEPACIFIC BacktoThePacic:A.D.301to400Section18.8 Were-stateherethatintheabsenceofdenitetimemarkersforthePacicweshallnotattemptcenturybycentury documentation.Pleaseseeprecedingcenturies.TheclassicallegendofthediscoveryoftheHawaiianIslandsinthis centurybyaPolynesianchieftain,HawaiiLoa,aftersailing2,400milesfromanislandnearTahiti,asmentionedby TragerRef.222[296]isnolongertenableinthelightofrecentdiscoveries. ForwardtoThePacic:A.D.501to600Section20.8 ChooseDifferentRegion 1.IntrotoEraSection19.1 2.AfricaSection19.2 3.AmericaSection19.9 4.CentralandNorthernAsiaSection19.5 5.EuropeSection19.4 6.TheFarEastSection19.7 7.TheIndianSubcontinentSection19.6 8.TheNearEastSection19.3 19.9America:A.D.401to500 18 19.9.1AMERICA BacktoAmerica:A.D.301to400Section18.9 19.9.1.1NORTHAMERICA 19.9.1.1.1THEFARNORTHANDCANADA Pleasesee6thSection9.4and1stcenturiesB.C.Section14.9and1stSection15.9,3rdSection17.9and9th centuriesC.E.Section23.9regardingArcticCultures.AtUngavaBay,750milesnorthofQuebecCity,therearerock wallsdatingtoA.D.500.Eskimolegendsaystheywerebuiltbyaraceofgiantswithastrangelanguage-Vikings? Ref.176[242]ProfessorFellRef.66[97]andLibyancolleagueshavefounda5thcenturyinscriptionatFigiug Oasis,eastMorocco,recordingaightofChristianmonkstoNorthAmericatoescapetheVandals.Thescriptwas Libyan,thelanguageLibyanArabic.AnearlyChristianinscriptioninLibyanArabicdialecthasallegedlyalsobeen foundbyFell'sassociatesatOakIsland,NovaScotia. 19.9.1.1.2THEUNITEDSTATES InthiscenturytheHopewelltradingnetworksbrokedownforsomeunknownreasonandtheHopewellinuencedeclinedsharply.Itispossiblethatapopulationexplosionstrainedthelimitsoftheeconomicsystemandthebreakdown resulted.ButalongtheMississippitheMoundBuildersappeared,andtheseweretheantecedentsoftheChoctaws Chickasaw,Natchesandothers.PerhapsthegreatestIndianmonumentofalltimewasconstructednearChillicothe, Ohio.ThisGreatSerpentMound,representingaserpentwithopenjawsclaspinganegg,is1,254feetlong,winding alonghilltopswithacoiledtail.Itdoesnotappeartohaveanyconnectionwiththeefgymoundsfarthernorth.See alsoAmericainthe3rdcenturyC.E.Section17.9Ref.215[290] 17 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat. 18 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat.

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299 InthesouthwestthiswastheBasketMakerIIIorLateBasketmakerperiodoftheAnasaziIndianswhowereusingred earthenwarepottery,thetechniqueprobablylearnedfromtheMogollonstothesouth.Thewatersupplyfortheircrops hadbecomeinconsistentdroughtalternatingwithoods,buttheAnasazisolvedthisproblembyspecialterracingand thebuildingofsmalldamswithirrigationchannels.Onewater-wayinsouthwesternColorado,however,wasfour mileslong.Thesepeoplehadbecomeskillfulbuilders,usingstoneandbeginningtoconstructcomplexhomeswhich wenowcallpueblos.Ref.45[66],210[283] Onceagainwemustreportsomealmostunbelievable,unconrmedstatementsofBarryFell.InhislatestbookRef. 66[97]hewritesthatmathematicalnotationwasrevolutionizedinthiscenturywhenNevadavoyagersbrought backthedecimalsystemfromIndia.SinceEuropeandecimalcipherswerenotuseduntilthe11thcentury,this,iftrue, wouldplaceAmericanmathematiciansfaraheadoftheirMediterraneancontemporaries.Thedecimalsystemrequired anewtypeofabacus,tothebaseten,andsuchhasallegedlybeenfoundinIndianaandisnowintheEpigraphic Museum.AbacifromNevadahavepreviouslybeenmistakenforgamingboards,accordingtothissameauthor.Itis verydifculttoacceptalltheseconceptsatfacevalueatthistimewithoutmorecorroboration,butFelldoespresent hisevidenceinaconvincingmannerandwhoknowsbutwhattimemayyetprovehimright? ThepioneeringphaseoftheHohokamendedaboutA.D.500.InterchangewithMexicohadcontinuedthroughthe centuriesandnowthebloody,Mexicanballgameassociatedwithreligiousritualwasintroduced.Platformmounds similartothoseinMexicowerealsoerectedforuseofdancersandmusicians.AfavoritedesignonHohokampottery wasthesnake,oftenshownbeingattackedbyabirdfeatheredserpentmotive.Aftertheendofthiscenturythe Hohokambegantospreadoutfromthedesertvalleys,movinguptheriversnorthandnortheast.Ref.210[283] TheMogollonCulturefarthertotheeastcontinuedaspreviouslyanditisapparentintheliteraturethatnotallwriters separatethisfromtheHohokamand/orAnasazicultures,butinsomerespectsitisdenitelyunique.Ref.210[283] 19.9.1.2MEXICO,CENTRALAMERICA,ANDTHECARIBBEAN ThismayhavebeenthezenithoftheTeotihuacancivilizationwhichwasthespiritualmetropolisofMexico.Despitea centuryofmodernresearchnoonestillisabletosayforcertainwhobuiltthisgreatcity,whatlanguagetheyspokeor whytheysuddenlyseemedtovanish.Itoverlookedafertilevalleywithplentyofwaterandgreatsuppliesofobsidian, therawmaterialforutensilsandweaponsofgreatsharpness.Nine-tenthsofthecityisstillburiedtoday.Ref.176 [242] TherewasalsocontinuedgrowthoftheMayacentersofYucatanwithextensivetradingincludingtheimportationof salt,obsidianandothermineralssuchashematite,pyriteandjade.Craftsmen,accountants,commercialdiplomats andotherexpertswereneededtorunthisnetwork.Ref.215[290]AccordingtoPrincipalEpochsoftheAncient HistoryofYucatan,writtenintheMayalanguagefrommemorybyanelderlyIndianandtranslatedbythe19thcentury DonPioPerez 19 theMayasthoughtthattheyweredescendantsoftheToltecsofMexicowhohadarrivedinYucatan between144and217ofourera,butBacalarandChichenItzewereapparentlynotestablisheduntilbetween360and 432.AfewpeoplecontinuedtoliveindispersedsettlementsaroundtheoldcenterofCerrosuntilabout450,butthis wouldneveragainrecoveritsplaceinthegreattradenetwork. ThiscenturymarkedtheendofthePeriodIVinCostaRicanhistoryandwasmarkedbytheprolicjadecarvings. ThebestqualityjadeitemayhavebeenbroughttoCostaRicafromthenorth,indicatingmoreandmorecontactwith otherMesoamericancultures. Perhapsceremonialmetates,maceheadsandjadeswereusedtherebyanelitegroupwhoheldtheseitemsasbadges ofofce.Mostofthejadestaketheformoftheaxe-godinwhichaforestclearingtoolmakesupthelowerhalfofa pendant.Ref.265[270] 19 AsquotedintheAppendixofStephensbookRef.205[276].

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300 CHAPTER19.A.D.401TO500 19.9.1.3SOUTHAMERICA IntheheartofthecentralcoastofPeruthereisalongarcheologicalgapfromthetimeoftheChavinSocietytoabout A.D.450whentheEarlyLimaortheMarangaSocietyappearedwiththebuildingofanumberofzigguratsonalarge hacienda.Marangaterritory,asrevealedbypotteryremains,stretchedfromtheChillontotheLurinvalleys.The peopleprobablyusedlateralcanalsforirrigation.Bythebeginningofthe20thcenturytherewerestillabout75of theirgreatpyramidalmounddwellingsinandaroundLimabuttheyaregonenow.InthelowerChillonValleythere aretheruinsofavastrectangularenclosure700feetlong,madeoftrapezoidalclayblocks,eachweighingseveral hundredpounds.Theyalsomadelong,high,straightwalls,mileslong,runningobliquelytotheriverbank.These peopleapparentlycamefrom"nowhere"anddisappearedagainafterafewcenturies. DuringthissameperiodtheTiahuanacoSocietyourishedinthehighAndes.Seemultiplepreviouscenturies. InthesouththeNazcasmayhavereachedtheirapexwiththeconstructionofthepuzzlinggiantgeometricshapes andoutlinesofanimalsandplants,madebyarrangingstonesinlinescoveringsome200squaremilesandactually identiableonlyfromtheair.Tonsofsmallstonesweresousedandstringswerestretchedfrompoststokeepthelines straight.CarbondatingofsomeofthepostremainsindicatesA.D.500.MariaReiche,whohasspentheradultlifein thesedesertdrawings,believesthattheyareformsofagiantcalendar.Anotherpossibilityisthattheywerepartofa fertilitycult. InColumbia,250milessouth-westofBogata,inadenseforesttherearemorethan300largestonestatues,some14 to21feettall,somewithteethlikecatsandsomewhichseemtobefeedingonthechildrentheyareholding.Carbon -14datingindicatesthattheseweremadebetweenthis5thandthe12thcenturies.Acertainafnityofthesestatues tothoseofEasterIslandgivessomefurthercredencetoThorHeyerdahl'stheoriesofSouthAmericanmigrationsinto thePacic.Ref.62[91],176[242] ForwardtoAmerica:A.D.501to600Section20.9 ChooseDifferentRegion 1.IntrotoEraSection19.1 2.AfricaSection19.2 3.CentralandNorthernAsiaSection19.5 4.EuropeSection19.4 5.TheFarEastSection19.7 6.TheIndianSubcontinentSection19.6 7.TheNearEastSection19.3 8.PacicSection19.8

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Chapter20 A.D.501to600 20.1A.D.501to600 1 20.1.1A.D.501TO600 BackwardtoA.D.401to500Section19.1 Ingeneralthiswasacenturyofcontinuedwars,jockeyingofthevarious"barbariantribesforpostsandattempted consolidationoftheirvariouspositions.Thechiefconsequencesofthemigrationsofthe3rdtothis6thcenturyhave beenlistedbyMcNeillRef.139[192]asfollows: 1.Thebarbariansassimilatedcivilizedstylesoflife 2.ThecivilizedcommunitiesofEurasiaexceptingChinawereimpelledtomodifytheirmilitary,politicaland socialsystemsbyintroducingfeatureswecallbytheterm"medieval".Theseincludedcataphractsheavily armoredcavalrysupportedbyvarioussubsidiesandthedevelopmentofapeculiarmilitaryclass,oftenmercenaries,whichsoonlessenedthecentralauthorityoverthose"knightsinarmor".TheByzantinescontrolledthis lesseffectivelythanthePersians 3.Theriseofreligiontoacentralplaceinpersonalandpublicaffairsgavearadicallynewcharactertothehigh culturaltraditionsofbothRomeandPersiaandaffectedChinesecivilizationinasimilar,althoughlessdrastic fashion 4.Thefactorswhichnallyresultedintheoverthrowofthenewbarbarianempiresarediscussedinaseparate sectionattheendofthischapter.LeprosyrstappearedatthistimeinEgypt,FranceandBritainalthoughitis probablethatmany,moreancientdisguringskindiseaseshadbeendescribedunderthisheading,inerrorRef. 140[190] 20.1.1.1THECHRISTIANCHURCH Inthiscenturytwogreatnames,oftencalledtheFathersoftheWesternChristianSociety,appeared.OnewasSt. Benedictwhoestablishedamonasteryin529whichwastoguidemostlatermonasteriesinthewest.Theother, livinginthelatterhalfofthecentury,wasPopeGregoryI 2 ,asuperstitious,credulousmanwithaterrifyingpiety whoneverthelessgavelawtomonasticismandspreadtheChristiangospelthroughEurope.Hedevelopedparish organization,arrangedorderlyfestivalsandprocessionsandstandardizedsacerdotalclothes.Ifoneconsidersthe European"DarkAges"tohaveexistedatthistime-aperiodwhenlearningandscienceandartandliteratureseemed tobeatastandstill-onemustcreditthemonasteriesasbeingagreatrepositoryforthestorageofsomeofthat previouslyhard-earnedknowledge.CassiodoruswasamonkcontemporarywithBenedictandGregorywhotriedto 1 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat. 2 Thisisthe"4thfatheroftheChurch"mentionedbyThomasRef.213[288]asmentionedonpage354 301

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302 CHAPTER20.A.D.501TO600 preserveeducationandsomescience.Hisinuenceinmakingmonasticismintoapowerfulinstrumentforrestoration ofsocialorderwasperhapsevengreaterthanthosecontemporaries.Ref.49[73],213[288] IntheearlydevelopmentofChristianityrationalmedicalpracticepracticallydisappearedastheoldJudaicconceptof diseaseasbeingequatedwithakindofsinwaspromoted.Thecorollarywasthattheonlypossiblecurewasthrough Grace,theunpredictableinterventionofGod.Thisinterpretationofcauseandcureofdiseasewasexpoundedindetail byPopeGregory.Ref.125[173] 20.1.1.2INTERNATIONALJEWRY FromthiscenturyontheJewsbecameparticularlyidentiedwithinternationalandregionaltrade.Thereasonsfor thisincludedthewidespreaddispersionofthesepeopleinbothIslamandChristianEurope,withgroupsolidarity, linguisticcommunicationandauniformcommerciallaw,basedontheTalmud.Ref.8[14] ForwardtoA.D.601to700Section21.1 ChooseDifferentRegion 1.AfricaSection20.2 2.AmericaSection20.9 3.CentralandNorthernAsiaSection20.5 4.EuropeSection20.4 5.TheFarEastSection20.7 6.TheIndianSubcontinentSection20.6 7.TheNearEastSection20.3 8.PacicSection20.8 20.2Africa:A.D.501to600 3 20.2.1AFRICA BacktoAfrica:A.D.401to500Section19.2 20.2.1.1NORTHEASTAFRICA TherewerethreeseparateChristiankingdomsintheregionofNubiainthemiddleNile.AtIbrimanoldtemple,which wasoriginallybuiltprobablyduringtheEthiopianDynastyofEgyptinthe7thcenturyB.C.andthenmodiedlater withtypicalMerioticgraftiandvotiveinscriptions,wasnowmadeintotheearliestofIbrimChristianchurches.A defensivewallaroundthechurchisnowpartiallycoveredbyLakeNasser.Ref.271[7] EarlyAbyssinianswereactivemilitarily,invadingtheYemenikingdomsontheArabianPeninsula.Inthemiddleof thecenturyAxumwasattheheightofitspowerwithasplendidcourtboastingroyalelephantsandgold.Thecapital cityfunneledmaterialsfrominnerAfricatoamaritimenetworkreachingasfarasSpainandevenChina.Axum coveredanareaof75hectaresandcontainedmanymultistorystonebuildingswith10,000to20,000inhabitantsanda fringeofsuburban,elitevillages.Ref.270[36]ButthedownfallofthiscountrystartedwhenthePersiansexpelled theAxumitesfromsouthArabiaasapartoftheByzantine-PersianWars.ThiswasfollowedbyraidsbypaganBela onthefarmlands,sothatgraduallythepeoplemoveddeeperintothehighlands,mergingwiththepaganandJudaized peoplethereandbecomingtheAbyssiniansproper,thenucleusoflaterEthiopia.Ref.82[121],83[123] Egyptcontinuedtodecay,politicallyandintellectually.Partofthiswaspromotedbythedeclineintheincensetrade whichhadpreviouslycomefromthesouth,inpartthroughEgypt.Thecountryremainednominallyunderthecontrol oftheByzantineEmpire. 3 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat.

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303 20.2.1.2NORTHCENTRALANDNORTHWESTAFRICA TheVandalkingdomofNorthAfricawasreconqueredfortheByzantineEmpirebyJustinian'sGeneralBelisariusin 533.OtherwiseNorthAfricaremainedmuchasinthelastcentury.Ref.8[14] 20.2.1.2.1SUBSAHARANAFRICA InthetropicalregionstheavailabilityofironafterA.D.500ledtothedevelopmentofkingdomswhosechiefweapons wereironspears.AfewNegroidBantu-speakerslteredintotheBushmanandHottentotdomainsinSouthAfrica. Ref.213[288],83[123] ForwardtoAfrica:A.D.601to700Section21.2 20.3TheNearEast:A.D.501to600 4 20.3.1THENEAREAST BacktoTheNearEast:A.D.401to500Section19.3 20.3.1.1ARABIAANDJORDAN By525JudaismhadgainedsuchafootholdintheHimyaritekingdominthesouththattherulersthemselvesbeganto persecutetheChristianpopulation.ThiswasthejusticationwhichtheAbyssiniansEthiopiansusedtoinvadesouth Arabiabetween525and530,conqueringtheHimyaritesandleavinganAbyssiniangovernor.Byabout570,however, thePersiansconqueredandcontrolledthewholeofArabia.Ref.82[121],222[296] 20.3.1.2MEDITERRANEANCOASTALAREASOFISRAELANDLEBANON,&IRAQANDSYRIA ThewesternportionofthislargeareacontinuedtoshareinthefateofByzantium.Christianvandalismagainstthe JewsandSamaritans 5 ,whichhadstartedintheprecedingcentury,nowincreasedwithdestructionofsynagoguesand temples.Anearthquakeof526didnothelpmatterswhenitkilled200,000to300,000peopleinAntioch.Ref.222 [296]TheJewsandSamaritansrevoltedin529andagainin560andnallywelcomedtheinvasionofthePersians astheyextendedtheirempireonceagainabout570.TheJewstookthisopportunitytodestroyafewchurchesand Christiansinrevenge.Ofcourse,theentireeasternportionofthisSyrianarea,thatis,mostofpresentdayIraq, belongedtothegreatPersianEmpirethroughoutthisperiod. 20.3.1.3IRAN:PERSIA KingKobad,previouslyexpelledbyhisownnobles,returnedtothethronein501andwagedtherstwarwith Byzantium.Buthispreviousfriends,theEphthalites,raidedfromthenortheastandhehadtosueforpeacewiththe ChristiansbeforehecouldnallyexpeltheAsianinvadersfromPersiainA.D.513.The2ndByzantine-PersianWar followedfrom524to531andattheendofthatconictKobad'sson,ChosroesIorKhosruorKhosrau,becamethe greatestofthePersiankings.Toinsurehisdynasty,likemanyanotherAsianmonarch,heexecutedallofhisbrothers andtheirmaleoffspringwithoneexceptionandincludedMazdakandallofhisfollowers.Itwashewhonally completelydefeatedtheEphthalitesincentralAsiain557. Pahlavi,theIndo-EuropeanlanguageofParthianPersia,wasstillinuseandZorastrianismwastheofcialreligion, withtheGodOrmuzdandthedevilAhriman.Chosroes'reignwastolerant,however,toNestorianandotherbrandsof ChristiansandtoJews.HeactuallyhelpedtheNestorianstoestablishalibrary.ThegreatPersianMedicalSchoolat GondishapuralsohadafamousmedicallibrarycontainingworksfromByzantiumandperhapssomeofHippocrates' 4 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat. 5 TheSamaritanswereremnantsofBabyloniansandSyrianswhoseancestorshadmigratedtoPalestinenearlyathousandyearsbefore.They werenotJewsbutusedthePentateuchastheirholybook,withoutacceptinganyotherpartoftheBible

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304 CHAPTER20.A.D.501TO600 workscamethroughheretotheArabicworld.Inthishey-dayofthePersianEmpire,theUniversityofJudi-i-Shapur becamethegreatestintellectualcenteroftheworld,withteachersandscholarsfromalloverEuropeandAsia.Roads andvillageswererebuiltandtherewasreformofthescalsystemandtaxationmethods.Manyirrigationsystems werecompletedandthefamousmetal-workersofAntioch,SyriawerebroughttoIran.Ref.15[26],8[14] AfterthePersianshaddriventotheMediterraneancoastandtakenalloftheArabianpeninsula,Byzantinealliedwith theTurksdriftingdownfromtheEurasianborder,-buttheystillcouldnotdefeatthePersians.Attheendofthe century,however,thePersianEmpirebecamedividedintofourgreatsatrapies:theeast,comprisedofKhosasanand Kerman;thewest,includingIraqandMesopotamia;thenorth,madeupofArmeniaandAzerbaijan;andthesouth, whichcontainedFarsandKhuziasan.Warscontinuedonallbordersuntiltheendofthecentury. 20.3.1.4ASIAMINOR 20.3.1.4.1TURKEY:BYZANTIUM ThezenithoftheByzantineEmpirewasreachedundertheEmperorJustinianwhowasborninSoa,possiblyofSlavic peasantparents.Heencouragedtheorientalconceptionofroyaltyasdivine,butlaboredtoreunitethewesternand easternChristianchurches.Hewasstronglyinuencedbyhiswife,Theodora,awomanalsoofhumbleorigins.The JustinianCodeofLawshaveremainedinhistoryaspartoftheCanonicalLawsoftheCatholicChurch.Constantinople remainedthegreatestmarketandshippingcenterintheworld,withcompanionharborsontheBlackSeaandadirect searouteestablishedthroughtheRedSeatoIndia.AlthoughthesecretofsilkwasjealouslyguardedintheFarEast,by variousmeansJustinianintroducedsilkworms,whitemulberries,themethodofunwindingcocoonsandtheweaving ofthethread,intoByzantiumsothathealsobecametheemperorofsilk.FromthisthewesternChristianempire earnedafortunewhichitguardedforcenturies.Ref.260[29] Onthereligiousfrontthechurchwasunrelenting,theJewish deuterosis wasoutlawedandtherewereexpulsions ofJewswithsomemassacresinAntiochin592andinJerusalemaftertheturnofthecentury.Justinian'sGeneral BelisariusreconqueredNorthAfricaandsouthernSpainfromtheVandalsandmostofItalyfromtheGoths,bringing theempiretoitsgreatestgeographicalextent.Ref.49[73]ManyoftheunitsoftheByzantinearmyofthis6th centurywereremnantsoftheHunscalled"Massagetae".Theywereintemperatedrinkersandoftendifculttocontrol, althoughercewarriors.Ref.127[176] Intheyears542and543agreatepidemic,oftencalledthe"PlagueofJustinian"hitAsiaMinor.Thiswasdenitely bubonicplague,penetratingfromanoriginalfocuseitherinnortheasternIndiaorcentralAfricaandspreadingaround theMediterraneanbyship.NecessarytothisspreadwastheappearanceoftheblackratfromitsnativeIndia,along withitseas.Procopiusreportedthat10,000peopledieddailyinConstantinopleatthepeakoftheepidemicandthe diseaseragedforfourmonths.Thepoliticaleffectwasgreatandtheimperialpowerwasweakened.Anotherepidemic in655andfaminein569,alongwithattacksbyBulgarsandAvarsfromtheBalkanarea,allcontributedtodissolution oftheempiresoonafterJustinian'sdeath.Ref.140[190],213[288] 20.3.1.4.2ARMENIA ArmeniawascaughtupinmostofthewarsbetweenByzantiumandPersia.Forthemostofthiseraitwassubservient toPersia,butlateinthecenturybothGeorgiaandArmeniawereagainpartitionedwithByzantiumgettingalarge partofthelatter.BecauseofByzantinehelptothePersianKingChosroesIIinaninternalght,thismonarch,once reestablishedonthePersianthrone,cededIberiaandnearlyallofArmeniatothe EasternRomanEmpireinA.D.591,thusallowingByzantinetroopsstationedtheretoreturntodefendtheBalkans againsttheAvars.Ref.49[73] ForwardtoTheNearEast:A.D.601to700Section21.3 ChooseDifferentRegion 1.IntrotoEraSection20.1

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305 2.AfricaSection20.2 3.AmericaSection20.9 4.CentralandNorthernAsiaSection20.5 5.EuropeSection20.4 6.TheFarEastSection20.7 7.TheIndianSubcontinentSection20.6 8.PacicSection20.8 20.4Europe:A.D.501to600 6 20.4.1EUROPE BacktoEurope:A.D.401to500Section19.4 AninterestingmapshowingtheextentandlocationofthevariousbarbarianmigrationsandtheirkingdomsaboutA.D. 526willbefoundonthenextpage. 20.4.1.1SOUTHERNEUROPE 20.4.1.1.1EASTERNMEDITERRANEANISLANDS All,includingMaltaremainedapartoftheByzantineEmpire. 20.4.1.1.2GREECE GreecewasanintegralpartofByzantium.TheEmperorJustinianclosedtheUniversityofAthensandsomeofthe professorsedtothemoreenlightenedPersiatocontinuetheirworkthere.Allpaganswereorderedtobecome Christians.AboutA.D.600SlavtribescrossedtheDanubeanddescendedintoGreece,drivenbyAvarsbehindthem andsoononlyafewsoutherncoastalcitiesremainedGreek,intheoldsense.Ref.8[14] NOTE:InsertMap32:TheBarbarian,MigrationsandKingdomsAD.526 20.4.1.1.3UPPERBALKANS Formostofthecentury,theOstrogothickingofItaly,Theodoric,alsoreignedovertheBalkanareaborderingthe AdriaticintheregionknownasDalmatia.Attheendofthecentury,however,theBulgars,Avarsandamixtureof southernandwesternSlavsenteredtheareaandremainedtobecometheCroats,SerbsandnallytheYugoslavians. TheAvarswereaMongolianpeopleofmixedTurkicbackgroundwhohadmovedfromTurkistanthroughsouthern Russia,enslavedmassesofSlavs,astheHunshadaheadofthemandmovedonintoEurope,ravagingtheBalkanson therouteandalmostwipingouttheLatinspeakingpeoples.ExceptforSalonica,Macedoniawaspermanentlysettled bySlavsinthiscentury.TheiroccupationofancientDaciacutthelandcontactbetweenRomeandConstantinople. TheBulgars,whomovedinfrombeyondtheDanube,controlledtheSlavsintheirareabutgraduallytookoverthe Slaviclanguageandculture.Ref.49[73],137[188],125[173] 20.4.1.1.4ITALY Attheendofthelastcentury,theByzantineEmperorZenohadcommissionedtheArianOstrogothKingTheodoric toconquerItalyandhehadpromptlydoneso.HethenreignedoversouthernItaly,Sicilyandaportionofthe southernBalkans,Dalmatia,whichwasnominallyundertheByzantineemperor.Inaddition,earlyinthecentury TheodoricdefeatedsomeoftheFranksandkepttheFrenchMediterraneanstripaswellaslaterincreasinghisholdings inProvence.Hewasarelativelyjustandprogressiverulerencouragingarevivaloflearningandliterature.Hisminister 6 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat.

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306 CHAPTER20.A.D.501TO600 ofstate,Cassiodorus,aRomanofGreeklineage,triedtoreconciletheGermanicandRomantypesofcultureand failing,hewithdrewtofoundamonastery.HecomposedahistoryoftheGoths,writteninLatin. Theoriginalhasbeenlost,butexcerptsbyJordanes,anotherGothicofcial,aretobefoundinhisGetica.Cassiodorus wasresponsibleforsavingsomebooksfromthegreatRomanlibraries,includingsomeworksofHippocratesand Galen,whichhestoredwithotherclassicmanuscriptsinhisultimatemonastery.Ref.49[73],15[26],137 [188],127[176] ThelongGothicwarsruinedItaly.Theproblemsincludedtheexistenceoftwodistinctraces-RomanandGothandtworeligions-CatholicandArian,tryingtolivesidebyside,eachpracticingitsownlawsandtraditions.The easternEmperorJustinian,throughhisGeneralBelisarius,retookSicilyin535andinvadedItalyproperin536but didnotcrushtheOstrogothsuntil563whentheGermanicLombards,perhapsoriginallyfromScandinaviaandnow drivenwestfromBohemiaandGermanybytheAvars,arrivedtoconquerthenorthernhalfoftheItalianpeninsula. TheseLombardswerethelastinvadersofItaly,andtheyruledtheirhalffortwocenturies.Anoutbreakofbubonic plaguehadweakenedthedefenseofItalyandsomesaythattheseGermanicpeoplecameintowhatwaspractically anemptycountry.ThisplagueragedinRomeinA.D.590andinthatsameyearaByzantinecounter-attackcutthe newLombardKingdomintotwoparts,acrossthewaistofItalybuttheLombardvitalitycontinuedinspiteofthis.In theareaattheheadoftheAdriaticSea,theVenetitribeandrefugeesfromotherregionsformedanislandempireof sea-farers.Ref.8[14],137[188] ThroughoutthepeninsulatheoldRomaninstitutionswereratherquicklyabandonedandamongthersttobedispensedwithwerethoseoflawandmedicine.Forsomereasonnotentirelyclear,non-clericalphysiciansjustceasedto exist.TheBenedictinemonksencouragedcareofthesickbutonlythroughprayercouldcurecome,soSt.Benedict forbadethestudyofmedicine.Ref.49[73],125[173] 20.4.1.2CENTRALEUROPE 20.4.1.2.1GERMANYANDAUSTRIA TheSlavicWendshadpushedintoGermanyasfarastheElbeRiver.WestoftheElbeandSaalriverswerethe survivingGermantribesinthefollowinglocations,eachretainingitsownidentity: aSaxonsinthenorthcentralregion. bEastFranksalongthelowerRhine. cThuringiansbetweentheSaxonsandFranks. dMarcomanniBavariansalongthemiddleDanube.TheyhadmigratedfromBohemiainthis6thcenturyintoan areaofcollapsingOstrogoths. eSueviSwabiansalongandbetweentheupperRhineandupperDanubeandalongthenorthernAlps. Ofthesetribes,theFrankswereculturallyofthegreatestsignicance.ReinhardtRef.177[243]saysthatthis culturestandsoutasthefountainheadandpatternofthefutureGermancivilization.Thereissomedisagreement concerningthelanguagechanges.WellsRef.229[307]writesthattheFrankswereakintotheAnglo-Saxonsin speakinga"lowGerman"whichlaterdevelopedintoDutchandFlemish,butReinhardtdoesnotagree,statingthat theFranks,AlemanniandBavariansfromA.D.500to800hadthehighGermansoundshift"p"to"pf"or"f";"t"to "ts","z"or"s";and"k"to"ch",whileAnglo-Saxon,Dutch,FlemishWalloonkepttheoriginallowornorthGerman sounds.ClovisruledtheFranksuntil511andmoreaboutthisdynastywillbefoundbelowunderFRANCE. ByA.D.560,Clovis'sonsandgrandsonshadextendedFrankishruletotakeoverdominanceofThuringia,Bavaria, RhaetiaandAlamanniainGermanyaswellastheBurgundiankingdominSwitzerlandandsouthernFrance.There waslittledisplacementofthenativepopuIations,however,andGermanandFrenchdevelopedasseparatelanguages

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307 whilethegovernmentremainedinthehandsofbishopsandcountsfromtheoldGallo-Romanaristocracy.Thereal power,however,remainedwiththeFrankisharmy. ThemigratingandraidingAvarsSeeHUNGARYandCENTRALANDNORTHERNASIA,thischaptercamein contactwiththeFranksontheElbein562atwhichtimetheAvarKhanatewasperhapsone-halfaslargeinnorth-south andeast-westdimensionsasthepreviousHunEmpire,butbyA.D.600theAvarsdomainwasalmostasgreatasthe Hunnishone,astheytookoverHungaryandmostofAustriafromtheGepidsandtheLombards.Bythistimethe MarcomannihadalsoreachedlowerAustria. Itisofsomeinterestthatfalconry,althoughknownfromthePersiancourtasfarbackas400B.C.,wasreallyperfected inEuropebytheVisigothsandFranksandbecameanimportantpartofthehuntingcultureaswellasanaristocratic pastime.Ref.122[170] 20.4.1.2.2HUNGARY HistorydoesrepeatitselfinHungary.JustastheHunshadpreviouslysetupheadquartersinHungarynowanewwar band,eeingfromupheavalsincentralAsiaandknownas"Avars",establishedthemselvesontheHungarianplain andlaunchedraidsfarandwide,pushingtheLombardsintoItaly,theSlavsintotheBalkansandallowingtheBulgars anothernomadtribetocomealongthelowerDanube.TheseAvars,whoraidedConstantinopleaswellaswestern Europefromthisbase,wereamixtureofMongolianJuanJuan,pushedwestbytheBlueTurks,andvariousnomad TurkishorHunnishtribeswhichtheyhadpickedupontheirjourneythroughnorthernIranandtheRussiansteppe. Ref.8[14] 20.4.1.2.3CZECHOSLOVAKIA AstheBavariansmovedwestoutofBohemia,theSlavsmovedinandthenalsospreadtoMoravia. 20.4.1.2.4SWITZERLAND ThislandwasstilloccupiedchieybyBurgundiansunderFrankishsuzertaintyandinthiscenturytheywerejoined bySuevi. 20.4.1.3WESTERNEUROPE 20.4.1.3.1SPAINANDPORTUGAL TheregionsofbothSpainandPortugalwereruledbyVisigothsbutunderRomansupervision.Throughtheinuence ofthechurch,whichusedLatininherrituals,theVisigoths,withinacenturyaftertheirSpanishconquest,forgot theirGermanicspeechandcorruptedtheLatinofthepeninsulaintoSpanish.Thiswasagraduallanguagechange andSpanish,asweknowitnow,didnotactuallymatureuntilthe19thcentury,atleastinwrittenform.Ref.168 [229]InthisSpanishsociety,greatgulfsremainedbetweenChristiansandJewsandbetweenrichandpoor.The earlyVisigothicaristocracywasincloseculturalcontactwithRomeandByzantiumandlivedlivesofafuenceand taste.Ref.180[246] EarlyinthecenturytheVisigothickingdomwasruledbyaboykingwhoactuallyleftthepowertotheOstrogothKing TheodoricofItaly.ThecombinedGothicpowerwasgreatandwassuchthattheVandalsevengaveupthewestern endofSicily.Ref.137[188]Anintra-Gothicwaroccurredin554,however,allowingEmperorJustinian'sGeneral BelisariustooccupysouthernSpain.Asiftomakeupforthis,theSuevikingdominGalaciawasabsorbedintothe Visigothickingdomin585.Ref.8[14]AseriesofEastRoman-Visigothicwarsfollowed. ForawhiletwolegalsystemsexistedinSpain,oneawrittenGermanlawandtheotherRomanlaw.Althoughmanyof theVisigothnobleswerepubliclyconvertedfromArianismtoRomanCatholicismin589,religiousdivisionpersisted andtheproblemwasaugmentedbytheprosecutionofJewsbyorderofEmperorHeraclius,earlyinthenextcentury.

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308 CHAPTER20.A.D.501TO600 Architecturewaspoor,librariessmall,commonschoolsnon-existentbutahospitalundernon-clericaladministration wasestablishedforthersttimeatMeridainsouthwesternSpaininthiscentury.Ref.196[269],125[173] 20.4.1.3.2FRANCE&NETHERLANDSANDBELGIUM ThearmyoftheFrankKingClovisdefeatedtheVisigothsatVoluilleinA.D.507andthentheremainderofGaul fellquicklytotheFranksastheGothswithdrewtoSpain.ThisconquestofGaulbytheFrankishtribesmarksa milestoneofGermanandEuropeanhistoryandtranscendsinimportancetheothermigrations.Allothergroupswere soonabsorbednumericallyandculturallybythenativeRomanpopulations,buttheFranks,underClovis,asfounder oftheMerovingianDynasty,andhissonsestablishedamilitarykingdomwithstrongagriculturalunderpinningsand itpersisted,withacapitalatParis.Ref.222[296]WellsRef.229saysthatthoseFrankswhodidnotbecome LatinizedbecametheFlemishandDutchmenofSouthHollandbutthatNorthHollandisAnglo-Saxoninorigin. ThedevelopmentofvariousGermaniclanguagesfromtheoriginalFrankishtonguewasdiscussedunderGERMANY above. AlthoughClovisbecameanorthodoxNiceneChristian,muchoftheconversionofhispeoplewasaccomplishedby IrishandAnglo-Saxonmonks.HemadeGaulintoFrancebutafterhimthedynastydegenerated.Hissonsconquered theBurgundiansabout532buttheBurgundianstatestillremainedseparateunderMerovingianprincesthroughoutthe remainderofthecentury.ProvencewasacquiredfromtheweakenedOstrogothsin536.Frankchieftainsintermarried withremnantsoftheGallo-RomansenatorialclassandgeneratedthearistocracyofFrance.InspiteofChristian conversionseldomhasanupperclassshownsuchcontemptformoralityasthisone.Ref.229[307],49[73],8 [14],137[188] AsatMeridoinSpain,Lyonshadanon-clericalhospitalinthiscentury.Ref.125[173]HughThomasRef.213 [288]writesthatleprosyapparentlyarrivedinFranceandEnglandinthiscenturyandthatleperswereisolated, declaredlegallydeadandoftenexcludedfromthechurch. 20.4.1.3.3BRITISHISLES 20.4.1.3.3.1ENGLAND AftertheCelticvictoryofMountBadenwhichwasdescribedinthelastchapter,therewasaperiodofsecurityinsouthernEnglandforabouttwogenerationsbutthentheSaxonsbegantoadvanceagainsothatby577theconfrontation lineextendedtotheBristolChannel,BathandGloucester.By600onlyDevonandCornwallofsouthern EnglandwerenotSaxon.Thelaw,languageandeconomyoftheRomanprovincehaddisappeared.WhiletheSaxons werevalleyliversandfarmedandformedvillages,theremainingBritonswereinthehillsandhighlands.Thushill, woodandstreamnamesareoftenCelticinorigin,whilelowlandsandvillageshaveAnglo-Saxonnames.TheSaxon villageswereinopenareasandthehouseswerelittlemorethanwattleanddaubstructureswithasingleridgepole, sunkenoorandatotalspaceofabout10'by15'.Theyusedhorse-drawnploughs,milledwheat,barleyandoatsand grewcattle,sheep,goatsandpigs.Ref.29[50],43[64] ThetransplantedSaxonswereconvertedtoChristianityinthelastofthecenturychieythroughtheeffortsofthe FrankishQueenofKingEthelbertofKentandthepapalenvoy,St.Augustine,originallyfromNorthAfrica.North EnglandreceivedChristianityfromnorthIrelandviaSt.Columba,whosucceededPatrick. 20.4.1.3.3.2SCOTLAND BritonsandafewAnglesmigratedintoScotlandatthisperiodandshortlyafter525theIrishcolonizedwestern Scotland.Soontheword"Scot",originallyanalternativeto"Irish",becamereservedforthesenorthernsettlersonly. InScotland,proper,al-thoughthedesertedAntoninewallhadcrumbleditstillformedtheloosesouthernborder ofPictland.SouthofitthenorthBritonsofStrathclyde,relatedtotheWelsh,hadorganizedanaristocraticsociety withmanors,townsandfarms.TounderstandtheBritishIslesinthoseearlydaysonemustconsiderIreland,Scotland,

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309 WalesandcertainlynorthernEnglandasaninter-relatedgroupofcommunitiesanditisdifculttocompletelyseparate theirhistories.Ref.137[188],170[234] St.ColumbaSeeIRELANDbelowcarriedChristianityfromIrelandtoIonainwesternScotlandin543.Thisreligion wasseparatefromcontroloftheVaticanpopeandwasnotrelatedordescendeddirectlyfromLatinChristianityinEngland.ForfourcenturieslonawasthecenterofCelticChristianityandsomebeautifullydecoratedCelticmanuscripts survivefromthatera.Ref.33[55] 20.4.1.3.3.3IRELAND ColumCille,latertobecalledSt.Columba,wasborninDalRiataofthefamilyUlNeillandwhenforty-twoyears old,setoutasapilgrim,accompaniedbytwelvedisciples,towardthelandofthePicts.Helandedonthetinyisland oflona,theretoestablishhisowntypeofChristianmonastery.WhilestillmaintainingsometiestoIre-land,lona developedintoaspiritualcenterforallthetribesofcoastalScotland.TheIrishspiritshonewithitsstrongestlight atthattime,withcultureandknowledgeatahighpeak.Manylearnedmenfromthecontinent,eeingtheinvading barbarians,endedupontheshoresofIreland.Aboatloadof50scholarsarrivedatCorkin550,bringingwiththem theircraftsmenanditwasthesewandererswhosubsequentlytaughtthetechniqueandmadeprincelyornamentsas wellasweapons.ThenlearnedmenfromIrelandbecamemissionariesbacktoEngland,GermanyandGaul.Ref.91 [135],33[55] MonksfromtheIonamonasterysailedtotheOrkneys,Shetlands,theFaroesandIceland.Ref.33[55]Itiseven possiblethatSt.Brendan,thepatronsaintofCountyKerry,sailedtothecoastofNorthAmericainaleathercurragh withgoatskinsails,inthiscentury. ThereismuchofthisinIrishlegendandthe10thcenturybook,NavigationSanctiBrendani,ofunknownauthorship,as wellassomematerialevidenceacceptedbysomeestablishedscholarsincludingsuchthingsas10thcenturyVikings' accountsofpreviousIrishnavigators,possibleancientIrishDruidalphabetmarkingsonNewfoundlandrocksand"100 recognizableCelticrootsinwordswhichwereusedbypre-EuropeaninhabitantsofsomeoftheplaceswhereIrish monksaresupposedtohavelanded." 7 FellRef.86[129]concursinthis. In590ColumbatheYounger,alsowithtwelvecompanions,wentfromhishomeinLeinstertoFrancewherehe confoundedtheMerovingiankingandfoundedmonasticcommunitiesatLuxeilandFontaineandthenwentonto SwitzerlandandItaly.Athome,theIrishkingswerenallyconvertedtotheIrishversionofCatholicism,afterthe wholeofIrelandwasdevastatedbytheyellowplagueinthemiddleofthecentury.Ref.91[135] 20.4.1.3.3.4WALES FleeingbeforetheinvadingGermanictribes,thousandsofBritonswenttoWalesandmingledtherewiththeWelsh CeltsandIrishtoformtheCymripeopleandthecountrythenbecameknownasCymru.Thefamilyandclanwerethe basisofthesocialorder.Christianitycameinthis6thcenturythroughDewiDavid,whowascanonizedasthepatron SaintofWalesinA.D.1120.Ref.222[296]ThiswasalsotheeraoftheMabinogen-TalesoftheBardsofWales. 20.4.1.4SCANDINAVIA AboutA.D.600theGothsandtheSveaofSwedenunitedtoformthekingdomofSweden.Fromthattimeonthe Goths,asanentity,ceasedtoexistinthenorth,althoughastrongracialheritageisstillseenthroughoutSwedenand especiallyontheislandofGotland.ThiswasthetimeofthebeginningofScandinavianartwithanimalornamentsas thechieffeatureandwhichwastocontinueuntiltheVikingAge. TheDaneshadgoldandsilverandRomanmoney.Graduallyitbecamethecustomtoseekone'slivingonthesea.With apopulationsurplusandtheotherGermanictribesblockingmigrationsouthbyland,theysoughtpathsofexpansion ontheopensea,althoughthetrueVikingAgewasfarinthefuture.AdditionalNotesp.310 7 Quotationfrom"St.Brendan'sFantasticVoyage"byGeraldSchomp,Ref.126[175]

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310 CHAPTER20.A.D.501TO600 20.4.1.5EASTERNEUROPE 20.4.1.5.1BALTICAREA Thenorth-southexpansionofdisplacedeasternSlavsbetweenthisandthe8thcenturycuttheeasternBaltsofffrom theirwesterncore,andinthewesttheBaltswereconfrontedbyGermanicexpansion.JustsouthoftheGulfofFinland, someoftheeasternSlavstooktotheforests,wedgingbetweentheFinnsandtheEstonians.Ref.61[90]Most ofPolandwasoccupiedbyvariousSlavictribeswhohadnotbeendisturbedbytheGoths,AlansorAvarsandtheir villageswerenotfortieduntilneartheendofthecenturywhentheybegantoquarrelwitheachother.Ref.244 [177] 20.4.1.5.2RUSSIA AstheGermanictribesmovedwest,theSlavscameoutofthePripetmarshes,forested,swampyregionabout38,000 squaremilesinareaextendingalongthePripetRiver,whichisabranchoftheDnieper.Ref.8[14]Earlyinthe centuryonthenorthshoreoftheBlackSeatherewereKutrigurorUtigurHuns,alongwithasmallpocketofGoths stillontheCrimea.IntheCaucasustherewereAlansandnorthofthemonthenorthshoreoftheCaspianwerethe SabirianHunsandeastoftheAralSeaweretheEphthalites. In559theAvars,defeatedbytheTurksineasternAsia,movedtotheRussiansteppewhereJustinianpaidthemto controltheresidentHunsandSlavswhohadbeenraidingtheeastRomanBalkanareas.TheseAvars,soonruling fromtheVolgatothelowerDanube,turnednorthandwestuntilin562theycameincontactwiththeFranksonthe Elbe,establishinganextensiveAvarKhanate.Ref.136[187],137[188]TheWesternTurks,comingbehindthe Avarsin576,tookpartoftheCaucasusjustwestoftheCaspianandthereknownastheKhazar,althoughAlansstill controlledmostofthewesternpartofthisregionbetweentheBlackandCaspianseas.NorthoftheKhazarandthe nowseparateWesternTurkishKhanatewereprincipallyFinnishpeople,sparselysettled,whiletheSlavswerestill fartherwestanddominatedbytheAvars. TheBlackBulgars,originallyamixtureofHuns,UgriansandTurks,livedatthistimeinthevalleysoftheDonand Volgarivers.Inthis6thandthe7thcenturiestherewere12majorSlavonictribesinRussia,includingthePolinians livingonthemiddleDneipnerintheKievregion.Theylivedincommunities,heldslaves,andwerefamilyorientedin atypeofdemocraticsocietybasedtosomeextentoncommunalownershipofproperty.Manygroupsweregoverned by"elders"ratherthanbychieftains.TheymayhavetradedsomewithByzantium,butthechiefeconomydepended onagricultureofthecutandburnprinciple. NOTE :TheSveartribestradedsapphirecoloredskinsthroughvariousintermediatetribestoRome.Thereis somesuggestion,though,thatthiswasatimeofcrisis,possiblyinvolvingclimatedeterioration,soilexhaustion,deciencydiseaseincattle,violentinvasions,internalconictsandpossiblyplague.TheSwedishcity ofHelg o ,however,apparentlywasnotaffectedbythedeclineseenelsewhere..Frisiansettlementsalongthe mainlandcoastwerekeycentersforcontactoftheScandinavianswithwesternEurope.Ref.301[258] ForwardtoEurope:A.D.601to700Section21.4 20.5CentralandNorthernAsia:A.D.501to600 8 20.5.1CENTRALANDNORTHERNASIA BacktoCentralandNorthernAsia:A.D.401to500Section19.5 IneasternAsiathesuccessorsoftheHsiung-nuweretheKokTuruk,alsocalledtheBlueorCelestialTurksandthese werethepeoplewhoby550weredrivingtheJuan-JuanoutofMongolia.SeealsoCHINA,thischapter.Their 8 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat.

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311 successorsinMongoliaweretheTurks,proper,calledT'u-Chu ehbytheChinese.ThisTurkishEmpirewasan exceptionalonewhichcouldbearonwesternChinaandtheEurope-NearEastareasallatthesametime.Itnow advancedrapidlyandcrushedtheEphthalitesin553,allowingthePersianstoagainoccupythelandssouthofthe Oxus.TheamalgamatedremnantsoftheJuan-JuanandtheEphthaliteswereknownintheWestastheAvars.Previous tothisthelatterofthetwopeopleshadlivedinBactriaandhadcontinuouslyraidedPersia.InthiscenturytheAvars hadalreadyreachedtheBalkansandHungary.Someplaceinthismassofmigrating,nomadicpeoplesthestirrupwas developedandthismadeitpossibleforhorsementoridefastandmeetashock,aswithalance,andstillsurvive.Ref. 8[14],101[146],137[188],213[288] ForwardtoCentralandNorthernAsia:A.D.601to700Section21.5 20.6TheIndianSubcontinent:A.D.501to600 9 20.6.1THEINDIANSUBCONTINENT ChaoscontinuedfromtheEphthaliteinvasionsthroughoutthefailingGuptaEmpireinthenorth.Theinvaderswere nallydefeatedbyaHinduconfederationin528buttheyhadprofoundlyaffectedthecastesystemanddisruptedthe heirarchyofrulingfamilies.SomeEphthalitesstayedinIndiaasadistinctgroup.Inspiteofthewarfare,greatscientic progresswasmadeinthisnorthernIndiaarea,withadvancesinchemistrysuchascalcination,distillation,sublimation, productionoflightwithoutheat,themixingofanestheticandsoporicpowdersandtheformationofmetallicsalts, compoundsandalloys.Brahmagupta,theastronomer,livedneartheendofthecenturyandsystematizedrulesof arithmetic,algebraandastronomyanddevelopedanintegralsolutionofanindeterminateequation.Ref.38[59], 46[76] ThethirdbranchofBuddhism,Tantric,appearedintheHimalayanlands,interlacingMahayanaBuddhismwithold TantriccultsofIndiathatinvokeddeitiesbymagicandrituals.Therewasalargearrayofdivinitiesbothmaleand female,alongwithdemons.Ref.114[162] TheDeccanwasnotuniedagainuntilabout550,underthewesternCalukyaDynasty.SouthernIndiaremained essentiallyDravidian,butlittleisknownofitsdetailedhistoryandnothingofitsartuntiltheendofthiscenturywhen thePallavasruledfromnorthofMadrastothesacredriver,Kaseri,andhadsculpturesandcavetemples.Stillfarther southwerethePandyasandCeras.Ref.19[32] InCeylon,theoriginalVeddaswereconqueredbySinhaleseinvadersfromnorthernIndiaandtheVeddassurvive todayonlyasasmallgroupintheremoteinterior.Ref.175[241]Continueonpage445 20.7TheFarEast:A.D.501to600 10 20.7.1THEFAREAST BacktoTheFarEast:A.D.401to500Section19.7 20.7.1.1CHINAANDMANCHURIANorthernandSouthernDynastiesto581,thenSui TheT'o-paTurksofManchuriagavewayearlyinthecenturytoanewnomadicempireoftheJuan-Juantribes,a mixtureofproto-Turkandproto-Mongolelements.Overthrownin551theymigratedwestwardtobecometheAvars ofEuropeanhistory.ThepowerfulKoreanstateofKoguryocontrolledapartofManchuriainthisperiod. ThenorthernpartofChinacontinuedtobedominatedmostofthetimebynomadicbordertribes.Amongthesewas theWesternWeiDynastywhichinthemiddleofthiscenturyadoptedanoldMongoltribalinstitutioninthatevery 9 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat. 10 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat.

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312 CHAPTER20.A.D.501TO600 familythathadmorethantwosonshadtosendoneforpermanentserviceinoneofthe100garrisonsinthestate. Themilitiamenwereexemptfromtaxesandotherlaborleviesandthissystem,called"fu-ping",wasintendedto separateeliteghtingmenfromthefarmingpopulation.Insomeformitpersistedthroughseveralcenturies.There wereothernomadintrusionsandcivilconicts,buttheinvadersalwaysadoptedChinesecustomsandcultureandthe Chineseupperclass,particularlyinnorthwestChinacollaboratedandintermarriedwiththeTurksandHsien-peiwith aresultingSino-nomadaristocracy,manypeoplespeakingbothChineseandTurkish.Itwasfromthismixturethat cametherulinghouseoftheSui,whotookcontrolin581andnallyuniedallofChinaunderaChinese,YangChien, whohadpreviouslybeenaministerofthenorthernChoucourt.Ref.101[146],8[14] ThiswasthegreatageofMahayanaBuddhistsculptureinChina,asthistypeofthereligionhadsweptintothecountry fromIndiaandourishedthereasitlostgroundinitshomeland.AtthistimeChinabuiltsuspensionbridgesheldup bychains,aprocedurenotusedintheWestforsome1,200years.Therebuildingofoldcanalslinkingthecapital, Ch'ang-an,withtheYellowRiverin584contributedtostabilityandworkwasstartedonwhatwesternerscallthe GrandCanal,linkingtheYellowandYangsterivers.AllthiswasdoneunderWen-ti-604aSuiemperorwho wasaneffectiveadministratorandskilledpropagandist.Ref.215[290],101[146] 20.7.1.2JAPAN UpuntilaboutthistimetheJapaneseislandsformedpartofalargeculture,nomadicinorigin,whichincluded Manchuria,easternSiberiaandKorea.WementionedinthelastchapterthatBuddhismhadcrossedoverfromChina toJapanviaPaekche,KoreaanditmaderapidconquestwiththehelpofEmperorSenka.Ref.222[296]UnfortunatelytheKoreanmissionariesalsobroughtalethaldisease,perhapssmall-pox,andepidemicsfollowedinJapan abouteachthirtyyearsthroughouttheremainderofthecentury,althoughsomemedicalhelpcamefromChina.Both thereligiousneedsofthepeopleandthepoliticalneedsofthestategaveBuddhismfertileground.Thiswasnotthe agnostic,pessimisticandpuritanphilosophyofBuddha,himself,buttheMahayanavarietyofgentlegods,cheerful ceremoniesandpersonalimmortality.Itofferedthepeoplethatunityoffeelingandbeliefwhichservesasasourceof socialorder.Withitalsocameneandusefulartssuchaspainting,sculpture,architecture,music,bronzeworks,textilemakingandmedicalarts.ThewrittenChineselanguagecontinuedtobemodiedintoacomplexsystembyadding phoneticelementstotheideographs,forwritingtheJapaneselanguage.TheperiodofHaniwasculpturesofhuman gures,generallycoil-builtcylindersofunglazed,iron-bearingclay,redtoawarmbuffcolor,hasrepresentation todayintheRockefellercollection.Ref.46[76],186[254] In587EmperorBidatsustemperorembracedBuddhismonhisdeathbedbuttheclanofcourtarmorers,the Mononobe,wouldhavenoneofthisandtheyrebelledandburnedBuddhisttemplesfarandwide.ButtheKyushu ladies'factionatthecourtexterminatedthisclan,bringingtopowerthesonofaMononobemother,PrinceShotoku Taishi,whoagreedtoaChinesetypeofprogramforstrengtheningthenation.PrinceShotokuwasachildprodigywho hadmasteredtheChinesesystemofwritingbytheageofseven.Weshallhearmuchmoreofhiminthenextcentury. Ref.12[21],222[296] 20.7.1.3KOREA Inthenorth,KoguryocontinuedasapowerfulstatewithsometerritoryalsoinManchuria.Inthesouth,Sillanally adoptedBuddhismandthenbegantomakerapidprogressincivilizationandingeographicexpansionattheexpense oftheadjacentJapanesecolony.By554SillawonanoutletontheEastChinaSeaincentralKorea,givinghereasy seacommunicationswithChina.ChinesemedicinespreadtoKoreaatthistime.Ref.119[166],125[173] AdditionalNotesp.313 20.7.1.4SOUTHEASTASIA Dvaravati,ThatonandPeguwereMonkingdomsappearingatthistimeinwhatisnowsouthernBurma.Theyspread Buddhismthatultimatelybecamethefaithofmostofthepeninsula.AroundA.D.550theFunanKingdomwas overthrownbytheKambujas,amountainpeoplefromChenlaLaos,afteroodshadravagedtheMekongValley.

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313 TheirkingwasalsoofthesameroyallineastheFunanaKhmerandthesepeoplewerecloselytiedtotheHindu traditionanddeities.Ref.176[242] NOTE :ItwastheSorabolpeopleofsoutheastKoreawhoformedSillaandPakHyokkose,supposedlyof miraculousbirth,wastherstking.Ref.305[103] ForwardtoTheFarEast:A.D.601to700Section21.7 ChooseDifferentRegion 1.IntrotoEraSection20.1 2.AfricaSection20.2 3.AmericaSection20.9 4.CentralandNorthernAsiaSection20.5 5.EuropeSection20.4 6.TheIndianSubcontinentSection20.6 7.TheNearEastSection20.3 8.PacicSection20.8 20.8ThePacic:A.D.501to600 11 20.8.1THEPACIFIC BacktoThePacic:A.D.401to500Section19.8 Onceagainthereaderisreferredtopreviousmodules,particularlythe1stand4thcenturiesoftheChristianEra.Itis assumedthatintherstChristianmillenniumtherewasagradualincreaseinthePolynesiantribesandacontinued islandtoislandmigrationviadoublecanoes,sothatthemoresouthernislandsoftheMarquesas,Samoa,Tahiti,etc., werereachedbyHawaiiantravelerssometimeinthisperiod.ThelargecanoesarestillusedbyIndians,Aleutsand othersalongtheCanadiancoastalwaters,althoughcurrentlytheymayaddasmanyasthreemastsandsailstoa thirty-vefootkayak.Ref.56[81] ForwardtoThePacic:A.D.601to700Section21.8 ChooseDifferentRegion 1.IntrotoEraSection20.1 2.AfricaSection20.2 3.AmericaSection20.9 4.CentralandNorthernAsiaSection20.5 5.EuropeSection20.4 6.TheFarEastSection20.7 7.TheIndianSubcontinentSection20.6 8.TheNearEastSection20.3 20.9America:A.D.501to600 12 20.9.1AMERICA 20.9.1.1NORTHAMERICA BacktoAmerica:A.D.401to500Section19.9 11 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat. 12 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat.

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314 CHAPTER20.A.D.501TO600 20.9.1.1.1CANADAANDTHEFARNORTH Seepreviouschaptersand9thcenturyC.E.Section23.9,aswellasEurope:A.D.501to600Section20.4.1.3.3.3: IRELAND. 20.9.1.1.2THEUNITEDSTATES TheMississippianCultureofMoundBuilders,whichnowreplacedthedecayingHopewellCulture,oweredalong theMississippiRiverandotherriversystemsofthesouth. Archaeologistsdonotagreeaboutitsorigin.SomeattributeittothemigrationofideasfromMexicoorCentral AmericaanditistruethatsomeofthesophisticatedartdoesresembleMiddleAmerican.Butevenmoreoftheart seemstohavehadrootsinAdenaorHopewellandcurrentthinkingtreatstheMississippianasanindigenousculture, anoutgrowthoftheHopewellblendedwithlatearrivingMexicanelements.Thecharacteristicfeatureoftheculture isthepyramidalmoundservingasafoundationforatempleorachief'shouse.Somecenterswereverysmallbut othersweregigantic,asCahokiaatEastSt.Louis,Illinois,wherethereweremorethan85moundsandavillagearea thatextendedforsixmilesalongtheOhioRiver.Oneofthelargestofthemoundswasabout100feethighandits basecovered16acres.Theimmensityofthelaborinvolved,withouttheuseofwheelsorbeastsofburden,isalmost unbelievable.Theentireenterprisemayhavetakenseveralhundredsofyears.TheMississippianpopulationwasdense inthatatleast383villagesborderedtheMississippiRiverintheshortdistanceofabout700milesbetweenpointsof entranceoftheOhioandRedriversrespectivelyandtherewerethousandsofothervillagesupanddowntheother partsoftheriversystem.Ref.64[94] IfwearetobelieveProfessorFellRef.66[97]Libyanscienceandmathematicscontinuedtoourishinthe southwest.TheHohokamcontinuedtheircolonizingmigrations,beginningtheircolonialperiodsometimeafter550, spreadingartifactsovermostofArizonaandtakingwiththemtheircustoms,includingthesacredball-game.Farther northeasttheAnasaziorPuebloBuilders,continuedadvancementwithbetterpotterydesignsandincreasedtrade, importingabaloneshellsandturquoise.Ref.269[193]Fromasourcestillunknowntheyobtainedthebowand arrowandtheydevelopedthehaftedax.Agricultureincreasedwiththecultivationofbettercorn,squashandbeans, whichaddedproteintotheirdiet.Theirpopulationthensoaredandtheirsettlementsspreadsothattheyevenhadpit housesinthecliffsoftheGrandCanyon.Ref.277[37] 20.9.1.2MEXICO,CENTRALAMERICA,ANDTHECARIBBEAN TeotihuacnintheValleyofMexicowasattheheightofitspowerandwaslargerthanimperialRome,someestimating thepopulationat125,000withanareaof20squarekilometers.Ref.8[14]Itwasareligiousandculturalcapital andamajoreconomicandpoliticalcenterforMiddleAmerica.Itspowerextendedwidelywithinterminglingof tribesandcultures,sothattherewasastrongMexicanpresenceevenatKaminaljuyunowGuatemalaCity.Eventhe lowlandMayaregion,asatTikal,hadTeotihuacanartistictraditions,althoughTikalwasonlyone-fthaslargeasthe Mexicancity. TheMayahadanumberoflanguages,allcloselyrelatedbutnotmutuallyintelligible.Thereweretwoprincipal divisions-thelowlandsgroups,includingYucatec,CholandChorti-andthehighlandsGuatemalanwhichincluded MamandQuiche.TheeducatedMayawereprofoundlyintellectualandwehavenotedtheirmathematicsto100 A.D.Section15.9.1.1.3:MEXICO,CENTRALAMERICAANDTHECARIBBEANandastronomyA.D.301to 400p.281previously.AgreatrenaissanceofMayanCulturenowtookplaceinthecitiesofYucatan,gradually supplantingtheimportanceofPeten,inthesouth.Ref.177[243],146[199],215[290],163[222]According totraditions,picturewritingsandMexicanmanuscriptswrittenaftertheconquest,theToltecs 13 werebanishedfrom theirnativecountrynorthwestofMexicoin596andproceededsouthward.Ref.205[276] 13 ThissuggeststheprobabilityofmorecontinuityandinterrelationshipsamongtheoriginalMexicanpopulationsthanoftenstated.Modern historiesdonotmentiontheToltecsasaseparatepeopleuntilaboutthe9thcentury.

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315 ThiscenturymarksthebeginningofPeriodVofCostaRicanprehistory,witheachofthreearchaeologicalzones developingindependently.InGuanacaste-NicoyatherewasthebeginningofthefamousNicoyapolychromepottery traditionwhichresembledMayaceramicsoftheLateClassicperiodofHondurasandElSalvador.Theprogressin Panamaseemedtocomemoreorlesstoahaltandthiscountryneverdevelopedanytrulystate-centeredsocietiesas seenfarthernorthinCentralAmerica.Ref.266[67] 20.9.1.3SOUTHAMERICA 20.9.1.3.1NORTHERNANDWESTERNSOUTHAMERICA AlongvariouspartsoftheMagdalenaRiverValleyinColombiaandparticularlynearSanAgustinareenormous pilesofdebris,someofwhichhavebeenexcavatedrevealingsculpturedmonolithsandthewholeindicatingagreat ceremonialcentersomethinglikeaMayacomplex.Radio-carbondatingsindicateactivityinthis6thcenturywith continuationforanother1,000years.SinceithassomesimilaritiestoboththeOlmecsandtoEasterIslandthequestion arisesastowhetherthisastonishingstatuarywaslocalinoriginorfrommigratingpeoplefromCentralAmericaor evenfromPolynesia.JusteastofPopayanontheeasternhot-landpartofAndeanColumbiaisaninterior,isolated valleycalled"Tierradentro"wherethereareinterestingmonumentsperhapsdatingtothissameera,althoughitmay beasecondarysocietyhavingexistedathousandyearslater.Accuratedatinghasnotbeenaccomplished.Tombsthere havelongagobeenlooted,probablyofgoldandjewels,butthreedimensionalstatuesreminiscentofEasterIslandand representinganthropomorphicgodsarecomparabletothoseofSanAgustin.Ref.62[91] Peruconsistedofaboutnineseparateregions,eachwithitsownlocalartstyleinthiscentury.TheMoche,ortheir descendants,andtheNascaweresupremebutotherstatesofsomeconsequencewereCajamarca,Recuary,Lima, Huarpa,Waru,TiahuanacoandAtacameno,allofwhichusedgold,silverandcopperfortoolsaswellasjewelry.In Ecuador,beginningaboutA.D.500,therewerepeopleoftheMilagroCulture,notedforelaborateworkingoldand forarticialmoundsforburialplacesandhomesites.Someofthelatterseemtobeassociatedwithridgesystemsand otherswithrectangularearth-works,probablymadetofarmlandssubjecttoseasonalooding.Thisculturemayhave beenanoff-shootoftheMocheofPeru,describedinpreviouschapters.Similarfarmingridgescovermanythousands ofacresinBoliviaandColombiaandarepresentnearLakeTiticaca,althoughthedatingofthesehasnotbeendone. Ref.9[15],62[91] 20.9.1.3.2EASTERNSOUTHAMERICA TherewerefarmingtribesintheAmazonrainforest,cultivatingmanioc.FarthersouththeTuni-Guaraniatribeshad migratedfromtheAmazonbasinintotheBrazilianforestandsavannah.InwhatinnowArgentina,therewasthe AguadaCultureaboutA.D.600,characterizedbyblackandyellowpotterywithfelinemotives.Ref.8[14],45 [66] ForwardtoAmerica:A.D.601to700Section21.9 ChooseDifferentRegion 1.IntrotoEraSection20.1 2.AfricaSection20.2 3.CentralandNorthernAsiaSection20.5 4.EuropeSection20.4 5.TheFarEastSection20.7 6.TheIndianSubcontinentSection20.6 7.TheNearEastSection20.3 8.PacicSection20.8

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316 CHAPTER20.A.D.501TO600

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Chapter21 A.D.601to700 21.1A.D.601to700 1 21.1.1A.D.601TO700 BackwardtoA.D.501to600Section20.1 Thechieffeaturescharacterizingthiscenturyarethepersistenceofthe"DarkAges"inEurope,theamazingeruption oftheArabarmiesandtheMoslemreligionoutofthedesertofArabiaandtheearlydominanceofTurkishpeoplein CentralAsia,withmarkedeffectseveninChina. 21.1.1.1THECHRISTIANCHURCH Wehavepreviouslymentionedthatinthese"DarkAges"educationsurvivedonlyasaluxuryoftheclergy.TheRomanChurchitselfcouldgivelittleornodirectionatthistimebecauseofchaosinItalyandtheloweringofByzantine prestige.TheEmperorHeracliusattemptedtoregainSyriaandArmeniafromPersiabyconciliatingtheirmonophysitismbyproducingacompromisecalled"monotheletism"whichsuggestedthattheunionofGodandmanin Christ,althoughnotsubmergingtheidentityofeither,wassufcientlycompletetomanifestitselfoutwardlyinone divine-humanenergy.ThisproposalonlyirritatedtherestoftheempireandwhentheArabsoverrantheregionitwas abandoned.Asalastblow,IslamappearedontheworldsceneinthiscenturytofurthermenacetheChristianChurch. Ref.137[188] 21.1.1.2THEISLAMICCHURCH MostofthepresentdaytaboosoftheIslamicreligionwerepresentatitsinception.TheKoranprohibitionsinclude: 1.Pork,asanimpurity-chieyacarry-overfromnomadlife.Onecannotdrivepigsongreatmigrations 2.Animalblood-apollutionlegacyfromOldTestamentJudaism 3.Wine,consideredanabomination.Itissaidthatsomeoftheprophet'searlylevieshadbeenfoundtoodrunkto ghtRef.211[284] Asiswellknown,theoriginalstoriesfromtheKoranaremuchliketheOldTestament,withthesameearlycharacters, includingAbrahamandhistribe.BothJudaismandIslamcamefromthesamesourcesinthedesert.Islamwas essentiallyamilitaryempireinthebeginningandonlybecameacultureafteritabsorbedameasureofPersianthought. Ref.213[288] 1 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat. 317

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318 CHAPTER21.A.D.601TO700 21.1.1.3INTERNATIONALJEWRY Inthisandthenextfewcenturies,Jewsbecamemoreandmoreisolatedasacommercialsect.Especiallyinnorthern Europetheywereexcludedfromowninglandandthefeudalsystemresultedintheconstantthreatofconscation ofpropertyandevenexpulsionfromthecountry.ExpulsionstartedinSpainjustafterthebeginningofthecentury withanedictfromEmperorHeraclius.TheCarolingiansinAustrasia,France,however,gavethemspecialcharters, protectionandcommercialprivileges.Ref.8[14]IntheirnativeLevant,manyJewsconvertedtoIslamandactually contributedmuchtothenalMoslemconcepts.Ref.213[288] ForwardtoA.D.701to800Section22.1 ChooseDifferentRegion 1.AfricaSection21.2 2.AmericaSection21.9 3.CentralandNorthernAsiaSection21.5 4.EuropeSection21.4 5.TheFarEastSection21.7 6.TheIndianSubcontinentSection21.6 7.TheNearEastSection21.3 8.PacicSection21.8 21.2Africa:A.D.601to700 2 21.2.1AFRICA BacktoAfrica:A.D.501to600Section20.2 21.2.1.1NORTHEASTAFRICA TheEthopianuplandsoilshadbeenlargelydestroyed,exposingunderlyingrocks.Inthemiddleofthecentury, threatenedbyMuslimneighbors,AxumlostitsRedSeaportsandhaditsgoldsupplycutoffsoitsChristiansretreated tothehighlands,wheretheyremainedinisolationuntilthe15thcentury.Abandonedbuildingsdeterioratedand contributedtothesoildestruction.Landabandonmentcanbeasdestructiveasover-useandtherecanbelittledoubt thatallthisexacerbatedAxumiteeconomicdecline.Ref.270[36] TothewestinNubia,CopticChristiansthrived.AfteranEgyptianattackin651-652relationsbetweenChristianNubia andMoslemEgyptwereformalizedbytreatywhichincludedanagreementthatNubianswouldreturnallrunaway slavestoEgypt.AcathedralwasbuiltaboutA.D.700inQasrIbrimandtherewereplanstomakethisapilgrimage center.NubiahereafterremainedChristianforabout700years.Justnorthofthepresent-dayAswanDam,thesurvival ofpaganismintothis7thcenturyontheislandofPhilaehadbeenanotablescandalstimulatingByzantinemissions intothearea.Ref.271[7] EgyptfelltothePersianstemporarilyin616butfellagaintotheArabslaterinthecentury,withAlexandriaconqueredbythelatterin660.TheMonophysiteChristiansofEgyptactuallyhelpedtheMoslemsoverthrowtheexisting administration.Aftertheconquest,AmrruledfortheArabsanddidsowell.Ref.206[83],137[188] 21.2.1.2NORTHCENTRALANDNORTHWESTAFRICA InthelastthirdofthecenturytheraidingMoslemseasilytookTripolitaniabutontheiroriginaldrivewestwardthey wererepulsedfromTunisiabyRomanEmpiretroops.Subsequently,however,conversionoftheindigenousBerbers 3 2 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat. 3 "Berber"isanArabwordmeaning"barbarian"

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319 toIslamin696gaveIslamanewpushandtheByzantineforcesinTunisiawerethenoverrunandCarthagewas destroyedagain.SoonMoroccoalsofelltotheIslamiconslaught.Shortlythereaftertraderoutesforslaves,ivoryand goldopenedupbetweenMorocco-AlgeriaandthewesternSudan.TheMurabitsalsoAlmoravidsofMoroccoturned south,shatteringtheNegroEmpireofGhana. TheBerberswereofanentirelydifferentracefromtheArabs,havingroundishheadscontrastingwiththeArabs'long heads.EvenwhensomewereinitiallyconvertedtoIslam,allowingtheMoslemadvance,mostoftheBerbersretreated tothenakedmountainsdividingTunisia'scoastalplainsfromthedesert.Evenso,theMuslimsmadeagreaterimpact onthesepeoplethanRomeorChristianityhadpreviouslydone.Ref.137[188],175[241],58[86],83[123], 222[296] 21.2.1.3SUBSAHARANAFRICA From500to1,200ancientGhana,inwhatisnowMali,monopolizedthegoldtradefromwestAfricatoEurope.Itsat atthesouthernendofthetrans-Saharancaravanroutesandthusactedasthehub.KumbiSalehwasacityof15,000 people.TheexcavatedruinsoftheancientcityofJenne-Jenohadaformidablethreemeter-widewallsurrounding itwhichwasconstructedsometimebetween400and800.Delicatelyconstructedgoldjewelryhasbeenfoundunder thiscitywall,indicatingthatthiswasatradecenteroveralongperiodoftime.Thenearestgoldmineswere800 kilometerssouthofthisdevelopingcity.Ref.268[189]TheMosleminvasionofGhanafromthenorthcaused somedisruptioninadministrationcertainly,butdidnotdestroythefundamentalcultureorthedevelopingcities. InthefarsoutheastofAfricatheLeopard'sKopjepeople,aBantu-speakinggroup,wereincontrolofGreatZimbabwe fromaboutA.D.600to850.Ref.45[66]ElsewherethegreatbulkofAfricaremainedasinpreviouscenturies. ForwardtoAfrica:A.D.701to800Section22.2 21.3TheNearEast:A.D.601to700 4 21.3.1THENEAREASTANAMAZINGCONQUESTOFTHENEAREASTBYISLAMICARABS BacktoTheNearEast:A.D.501to600Section20.3 ItwasinthiscenturythatthepeopleofKurdistanwereconvertedtotheSunnivarietyofIslam.TheKurdsareapeople closelyrelatedethnicallytothePersians,whohavetriedthroughtheagestokeepthemselvesintactassheep-raising andrugweavingnomads,withoutrespecttopoliticalboundaries.Kurdistanembracesthepresentdayareasofeast TURKEY,SovietArmenia,northeastIraqandnorthwestIran.Ref.38[59] 21.3.1.1ARABIAANDJORDAN MuhammadorMohammedwasborninthesouthofArabiaofpoorparentageearlyinthecentury.Hemarried wealthandsoonbegantoteachanewreligion,takingasbasicbeliefsthemonotheismoftheJews.HeacceptedJesus asaprophetandformulatedanewcreedofbehaviorforhisfellowArabs.Hehadthevisionarypowerofaseer,the astutenessofamasterpoliticianandapoet'smasteryoflanguage.Ref.83[123]BythetimeofhisdeathinA.D. 636hisfollowershadalreadybecomealmostfanaticalintheirzealtospreadthenewfaithandtheirarmiespouredout oftheArabianPeninsulatosellthereligionbyforceofarms.TheArabs'militarysuccessapproachedthemiraculous astheysubduedthegreatestkingdomswithsmallarmiesmadeupofmountedmenonthefamedArabianhorses.Ref. 122[170] 4 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat.

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320 CHAPTER21.A.D.601TO700 21.3.1.1.1MEDITERRANEANCOASTALAREASOFISRAELANDLEBANON&IRAQANDSYRIA Theearlypartofthecenturywasaperiodofsomegeneraldecayinthisentirearea,withPersiaandByzantiummore orlesssplittingcontrol.AtthedeathofEmperor MauriceofByzantiumatthehandsofhisownsoldiers,ChosroesIIofPersiawentonaconqueringspree,taking RomanMesopotamiain607-615,thenArmeniaandsomeofAnatoliaitself.Butthepestilenceswhichhadvisitedthe RomansandPersiansalikefrom542onmayexplainingreatpartthelittleresistancetheirforcesofferedtheMoslem eruptionin634.BythetimeoftheArabconquestSyria,ingeneral,wasanimpoverishedandstrickenland.Damascus, aswellasJerusalem,hadnotrecoveredfromtheeffectsofthepreviouslongandterriblesieges.Palmyrastoodempty. InMesopotamiathereissomeevidencethatmanyirrigationcanalshadbeenabandoned,probablyfromalackoflabor supplyduetotheplague,beforetheMoslemshadevenarrivedanditisdoubtfuliftheArabsactuallydestroyedmuch. Ref.137[188],140[190] TherstincursionofArabsintoIraqoccurredinA.D.633withforcesunderKhalidibn-al-Walid,althoughthemain advancewasalittletothewestintoSyria.TheydefeatedtheByzantinesinalastbattleatYarmukin636andJerusalem capitulatedin638.ThechiefadministratorofIraqandthecoastalregionfrom644to656wasOthmanalsoUthman oftheOmayyadalsoUmayyadfamily.Usinghisnepotismasanexcuse,troopsfromIraqandEgyptassassinated OthmaninMedinain656andhewassucceededbyAli,theprophet'scousinandson-in-law.Mo'awiya,anOmayyad governorofSyria,disputedthissuccession,proclaimedhimselfcaliph 5 inJerusalemin660andwentontoestablish acapitalatDamascusin661,initiatingtheOmayyadCaliphate.DescendantsofAlicontinuedintermittentwarfare withthecombatantseventuallyendingupasthenorthernOmayyadArabsagainstthesouthern.Thelatterwere chieytheShi'ites 6 andbytheendofthecenturythesepartisansweremoreorlessincontrolofArabia,Persia andMesopotamia.Inaddition,theoldlineofdemarcationbetweenRomanSyriaandPersianIraqorMesopotamia survivedthisMoslemconquest.Astrongsenseofdifferencebetweenthepopulationsatlargeinthesetwoprovinces, fosteredbythedifferencesintheirrespectiveadministrationseasilycoalescedwithlongstandingrivalriesinthetwo Arabgarrisons.Manycivilwarsresulted.Ref.2[3],119[166] AstheArabarmiesoverranMesopotamiaandIran,sizablegroupsofJewswereprettywellleftaloneasprotected minorities.AllaspectsoftheircivilandreligiouslifewereadministeredbyJewishofcialsinaccordancewiththe BabylonianTalmud.AtthistimeHindunumeralswereinuseinSyriaandlaterthesebecameknownas"Arabic numerals".Ref.49[73] 21.3.1.1.2IRAN:PERSIA AsthecenturybeganChosroesIIruledthePersianswithavarice,suspicionandcrueltyandaruinoustaxationto supporthisownsplendidliving.HisarmiesfoughttheirwaytotheBosporusandtoEgyptandcamewithinsightof Constantinoplebutsome10yearslaterEmperorHonorius,inalliancewiththeKhazarsjusteastoftheCaspian,struck back,attackingthePersianhomeland-624.ThePersiansretaliatedbyattackingConstantinopleonceagainwith Avarhelpin626buttheeastRomannavykeptthetwolandforcesapartandtheattackwasafailure.ChosroesIIwas thenmurderedbyhisnoblesandhisson,KavadhII,madethenalpeace,surrenderingEgypt,Palestine,Syria,Asia MinorandwesternMesopotamiabacktotheByzantineEmpire.ThenpestilencebrokeoutinPersiaandthousands died,includingtheking.Therefollowedaghtforthethroneandinthisatmosphereofdiseaseandgeneralmoral decayanddeclinecametheArabarmiesofIslamabout636andPersiaquicklybecamepartoftheMoslemrealm.The decisiveactionwiththeArabsoccurredatAlQadisiya,Iraq,whenthePersianarmywasliterallysmashed,allowing Arabcaptureofthecapital,CtesiphonverynearSeluciainMesopotamia,inA.D.635,thusopeningtheroadtothe mainIranianplateau.Afterthetake-overafewPersiannoblesmaintainedtheirindependenceinthemountainsof TabaristanatthesouthendoftheCaspian.Ref.8[14],137[188] 5 AcaliphisthereligiousandcivilleaderofaMoslemstateandtheregionhecontrolsisacaliphate.IncontrastanemirmaybejustanArab chieftainorafavoreddescendantofMohammed 6 TheShi'itesorShiahrepresentoneofthetwogreatdivisionsoftheMoslemfaith.TheybelievethatonlythedescendantsofAliareeligible tobecaliphs

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321 TheArabsdidnotforcetheirconqueredsubjectstoembraceIslambutdidrequirethemtoaccepttheKoranasdivine teachingandobligedthemtolearnArabic,thusbuildinganempireunitedbyacommontongue.Ref.137[188], 222[296]TherewereprobablymanyfactorsintheeasyfallofthegreatPersianEmpiretothesurgingArabarmies. Inadditiontothefactorslistedintheparagraphabove,itshouldberealizedthatbothByzantiumand SassanianPersiahadexhaustedthemselvesbattlingeachotherformanyyears.Buttherewasalsoaneconomiccause ofdeclineastheuseoftheSilkRoutetoChinadiminished.TheByzantineshadsmuggledsilkcocoonsfromChina andcouldnowsupplythemselveswithsilkandtheeconomysufferedallalongtheoldroute. ByzantiumhadbecometheoriginalheirofclassicalGreekmedicinebutduringthepersecutionsofanumberoflearned hereticstheyedtoPersia,where,atJundishapur,theymetSyrian,PersianandHinduscholarsandworkingtogether, theytranslatedmanyimportantworksintoSyriac,thenewlanguageoflearningintheNearEast.WhenPersiafell totheArabs,manyworksofmedicinewerethentranslatedfromSyriacintoArabic,includinglargeworksofGalen. Ref.211[284] 21.3.1.1.3ASIAMINOR 21.3.1.1.3.1TURKEY AfterEmperorJustinian'sdeathatthecloseoftheprecedingcenturytheeasternRomanEmpirecollapsedwith nothingleftexceptafewAsiaticports,somefragmentsofItaly,AfricaandGreece.Thecapitalitselfwasbesiegedby thePersiansunderChosroesII,helpedinthenorthbyanarmyofAvars.InA.D.602the"Roman"armyghtingthe Avarsrevolted,returnedtoConstantinopleandmurderedEmperorMaurice,whiletheAvarsdevastatedtheBalkans. Thecross-bowreachedByzantiumfromcentralAsiaataboutthistime,perhapsborrowedfromtheAvars.Ref.137 [188],213[288] ThewholeoftheAsiaMinorpeninsulahadbeenploughedandfurrowedbyPersianarmiesandthegreatcitieshad beenplunderedandsacked,buttheByzantinesstillhadanunbeatennavyandafter10years,Heraclius,thenew emperor,builtanewarmy,sailedacrosstheBlackSea,marchedacrossArmeniaandattackedanddefeatedPersia fromtherearA.D.624.Thevictorywasahollowone,however,astheArabssoonadvancedintothisterritorywith Khalidibnal-WaliddefeatingaByzantinearmyatthebattleoftheYarmuk.TheByzantinefrontierswerebackedinto Turkey,proper,againandafter673theMoslemsevenblockedConstantinoplebothbylandandsea,allowingitto beattackedeveryyearforthenextve.Onlythestrengthofthecity'swallsandtheappearanceof"Greekre",an explosiveofunknowncomposition,savedtheempire. Althoughwehaveusedtheterms"Byzantine"and"Byzantium"freelyinthelastfewchapters,actuallyitwasnotuntil thesecondhalfofthiscenturythatearlierhistoriansappliedthesenamesinreferencetotheeasternRomanEmpire. "Byzantion"wastheoldGreeknameforConstantinople,andasthelanguageofthiseasternempirebecamechiey Greek,theterm"Byzantium"cameintouse.Ref.137[188] 21.3.1.1.3.2ARMENIA ThroughoutmostofthiscenturyArmeniawasinthemiddleofathree-corneredwarinvolvingArabs,Khazarsand Byzantines,buttheymanagedtoremainvirtuallysovereignandzealouslyChristian.Ref.137[188]Afterrst beingoverrunbytheeasternRomanarmyonitswaytoPersia,latertheArabsinvaded.Intherstseveraldecades thehigherclasseshadgreatprosperityincidenttotheexportationofmanufacturedgoodsandrawminingproducts. Itwasalsoaperiodofintellectualactivitywithphilosophical,mathematical,astronomicalandcartographicstudies. Ananias,ofShirak,wasagreatscientist.ManyArmeniansservedasmercenariesforByzantium,particularlyafterthe ArabsappearedonthesceneandbylatecenturythemainstaysofthatarmywereArmenian.Ref.222[296] ForwardtoTheNearEast:A.D.701to800Section22.3 ChooseDifferentRegion 1.IntrotoEraSection21.1

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322 CHAPTER21.A.D.601TO700 2.AfricaSection21.2 3.AmericaSection21.9 4.CentralandNorthernAsiaSection21.5 5.EuropeSection21.4 6.TheFarEastSection21.7 7.TheIndianSubcontinentSection21.6 8.PacicSection21.8 21.4Europe:A.D.601to700 7 21.4.1EUROPE BacktoEurope:A.D.501to600Section20.4 SlaverycontinuedinEuropethroughoutthese"DarkAges"despitetheChristianChurch,butinthiscentury,when ArabsgainedcontroloftheMediterranean,itwasdifcultforEuropeanstogetslavesfromtheLevant.Mostwere thenobtainedfromtheSlavicregions.Ref.213[288] 21.4.1.1SOUTHERNEUROPE 21.4.1.1.1EASTERNMEDITERRANEANISLANDS ThecenturybeganwiththeseislandsallapartoftheByzantineEmpirebutonebyonetheArabsbegantotakethem overinthelatterdecades.Cyprus,withitscoppermines,felltotheMoslemsin648andRhodesin654.Ref.222 [296] 21.4.1.1.2GREECE GreecewasnowheavilyinltratedwithSlavicpeoplesandalthoughnominallyundertheeasternRomanEmpire,only someofthecoastalcitiesweretrulyByzantine. 21.4.1.1.3UPPERBALKANS TheBulgars,whoseoriginalKaganatewasinthemiddleVolgafarnorthoftheCaspianSea,hadmigratedinthe previouscenturytotheDanuberegion.Thisgroup,includingonebranchoftheUtigurs,hadfoundedaBulgarian kingdominancientMoesia,enslavingtheSlavsalreadytherebuttheyadoptedtheSlavs'languageandcustomsand intimeintermarriedwiththem.TheybegantotakeovermoreandmoreBalkanterritoryfromByzantiumby679and wererecognizedasaseparatecountryin681whentheirrstking,Isperikh,wascrownedatthecapital,Pliska.These weretheso-called"White"or"WesternBulgars",originallyrelatedtotheHuns.Ref.180[246],8[14] Fartherwest,theSrbiSerbssettledinpartoftheoldPannoniaandChrobatiCroatssettledinIllyricum,forming eventuallythecountryofSerbia.By650theSlavs n constitutedthemajorityofthepeopleintheBalkans.Avar horsemen,operatingoutofHungary,spreadhavocintermittentlythroughtheareaandrepeatedlyappearedunderthe wallsofConstantinople. 21.4.1.1.4ITALY TheLombardsregainedcontrolofthenorthernplainofItaly,wheretheByzantineshaddrivenawedge,betweenA.D. 601and605,establishingaprogressivestateunderDukeAgilulf,whowasactuallyaThuringian.TheLombards maintainedintermittentrelation-shipswithRomeandeventuallybecameCatholics.Venicecontinuedasanindependentrealm,allegedlyhavingbeenbuiltupfromshingvillagessettledbyfugitivesfromtheHuns,onsome60marshy 7 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat.

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323 islands.Ref.222[296]RomecontinuedasapartoftheByzantineChristianEmpirealthoughitwasnolongerits chiefcity.TheremainderofItalywasapatchworkofindependentcitiesorduchies,suchastheDuchyofSpoletoand theDuchyofBenevento.Ref.137[188] 21.4.1.2CENTRALEUROPE 21.4.1.2.1GERMANY TheGermanicandSlavicpeopleshadlittlediseaseandnosuperimposedimperialmacroparasitism 8 suchasthe Mediterraneanurbanpopulationsimposedonthepeasantriesthere,andsotheyhadtremendouspopulationgrowths, withtheSlavscolonizingtheBalkanpeninsula,aswehavenotedabove,andtheGermanictribesswarmingtothe RhineandnallyfarbeyondtoBritain.Ref.140[190] EveninthepreviouscenturytheFrankishkingsofGermanyhadtorewardtheirfollowersandthechurchbygranting awaytheirownlandandrevenues.Bythemiddleofthis7thcenturytwofamilieshademergedastheprincipalagents ofthekingsforthesetransactions.OneofthesewasfromAustrasia,thetraditionaleasternFrankishland,andthe otherwasfromNeustria,thenewlandsnorthoftheLoire.By687Pepin,ofHeerstalnearAachenoftheAustrasian family,hadwonout,thereafterdominatingtheFrankishkingdoms.Ref.8[14]Atthattimeseveralbasicor stemduchiesbecameprominent,includingBavarianamedfromtheBaiuoarilbranchoftheMarcomanni,Swabia borderingSwitzerland,Thuringia,Saxony,FranconiaandFrisia. BytheendofthecenturynortheasternGermanyhadquadrupleditspopulationoverthatofRomantimes,chieydue tothemoreabundantfoodsupplyavailablewiththeuseofthe"moldboard"plow,introducedbytheSlavs.Thisplow requiredeightoxentopullitbutitallowedthree-eldrotationofcropsandallowednotonlytheproductionofmore, butalsobetterfood,containingmoreaminoacidsandprotein,thusgivingthepeoplemoreenergyandgreaterstamina. Ref.211[284]SeealsoFRANCE,thischapter 21.4.1.2.2AUSTRIA TheareanowknownasAustriawaspartlycontrolledbytheGermanduchiesandpartlybytheraidingAvars. 21.4.1.2.3HUNGARY ThiswasthehomelandoftheAvarswhoraidedinalldirectionsfromthisbase.Pleaseseethissectionintheprevious chapter. 21.4.1.2.4CZECHOSLOVAKIA MoraviansgainedindependencebyholdingofftheAvarsandthentheywereabletostoptheFrankswhotriedtocome infromthewest.AfterthedeathoftheirKingSamo,however,thisrstattemptataSlavicstateincentralEurope collapsed.SamomayactuallyhavebeenaFrankbuthehadmanagedtounitetheCzechsandsomeoftheWends.The peopleofBohemiaalsorepudiatedAvarsuzertaintyandafterthattheAvarpowerdeclinedrapidly.Ref.136[187] 21.4.1.2.5SWITZERLAND ThiswassimplypartoftheFrankishkingdoms. 21.4.1.3WESTERNEUROPE 21.4.1.3.1SPAINANDPORTUGAL BetweenA.D.612and621,Sisebut,awelleducatedVisigothmonarch,reconqueredmostofthepeninsulafrom theRomansandhissuccessor,Swintilla,completedthejob.Evenso,theVisigothsbecame"Romanized"bylegal 8 McNeill'sterminology

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324 CHAPTER21.A.D.601TO700 unicationthroughthe Liberjudiciorum ofReccesivinthafter649andthewarrioraristocracyoftheGothswasunited withtheplutocratic-bureaucraticaristocracyoftheRomanworld.Thecommonpeopleraisedsheep.Ref.211 [284]AlthoughtheVisigothshadnotusedslavesinanysignicantdegreepreviously,theytookovertheRoman customwithavengeanceandintheCodeofKingErwig-687therewere21provisionsgivingseverepenalties forharboringfugitiveslaves.Ref.249[98] 21.4.1.3.2FRANCE&NETHERLANDSANDBELGIUMSeealsoGERMANY AtthebeginningofthecenturytherewereactuallythreeseparateFrankkingdoms:aAustrasiawithacapitalatMetz, lyingtotheeast,actuallyinGermanyandhavingchieyTeutonicblood 9 ;NeustriawithacapitalasSoissonsand Gallo-Romanblood;andcBurgundy.ThelatterwasunitedwithAustrasiabyKingClotaire11in613,leavingonly two.PartlybecauseoftheFrankishcustomofrulersdividingtheirkingdomsamongallsons,theMerovingiandynasty crumbledwithaseriesofveryweakrulersandtheministers,ormajordomos,begantobetheactualadministration headsofthegovernment.Thusin639Pepin,asmayorofAustrasia,startedthereorganizationoftheFrankishstate.He andhisimmediatedescendantsgavemuchoftheoldnobles'westernlandtotheirownfollowersfromtheRhineland, sothat,ineffect,FrancewassubjectedtoanewGermanicinvasion.AdditionalNotesp.326 21.4.1.3.3BRITISHISLES 21.4.1.3.3.1ENGLAND Intheearlycentury,theBritonsofStrathclyde,WalesandCornwallwereallseparatedbytheAnglo-Saxonkingdoms. Ref.136[187]ThiswasaperiodofadjustmentundertheAnglesandtheSaxons,thelatterbeingthemostcruelof theGermanictribes. TheyhadprobablyincorporatedtheJutesandAnglesbeforethegeneralexodusfromSchleswig-Holstein.TheCeltic Britonscontinuedresistanceontheperiphery. In655theNorthumbriansregainedleadershipoverMercia,whichhadbeenthechiefpowerfrom642on,andthen theNorthumbriansreducedtheBritonsthenallwerecalled"Welsh"inStrathclydetobondageaswellasthePicts andScots.Thebondwasshortlivedthoughasthelatterquicklybrokelooseandby679Northumbriawasagain subservienttoMercia.Ref.137[188]AugustinebecametherstArchbishopofCanterburyinA.D.601andhis earlyachievementsweregreat.Afterthenoveltyofthenewreligionhadwornoff,however,manyEnglishleaders returnedtotheiroldwayssothatby616eventhechurchinKentwasindangerofextinction.Ref.43[64] PapalChristianityspreadintonorthEnglandthroughtheincreasingpowerofEdwin,KingofEastAnglia.In664, afteraconferenceofEnglishpapalandBritonCelticbishopsattheSynodofWhitby,mostoftheislandbecame RomanizedChristianbutIrelandremainedaloof.TwoconferencesoftheRomanSt.AugustineandhisSaxonconvert Christianswiththebishopsofthe"FarWesternChristianity"ofIreland,failed,andthetwocampsremainedenemies. AfterthatSynodasevereepidemicoccurred,thenatureofwhichisunknown.Ref.140[190]Bederecordedfour epidemicpestilencesinEnglandwithinthe20yearsfrom664to683. Ofincidentalinterestisthefactthattherewasnowheel-turnedpotteryAnglo-SaxoninEnglandbeforeA.D.675. Ref.18[31] 21.4.1.3.3.2SCOTLAND TheScots,originallyfromIreland,aswehavepreviouslynoted,pushedtheirwayuptheGreatGlenandapproached IvernessbeforetheywerenallydefeatedbythePicts.InthesouththeAngleswerepushingnorthfromEnglandwith bothcavalryandinfantrybutthePicts,underBridei,weretemporarilyunitedandabletodrivethembackinthebattle ofNechtansmerein685.Ref.170[234],222[296] 9 ThisterminologyisToynbee's.Ref.220[294]

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325 21.4.1.3.3.3IRELAND AtthistimetheIrishweremateriallyandpoliticallymorebackwardthantheEnglishbutinaspecialculturalway theywerethemostadvancedofallpeoplesnorthofthePyreneesandtheAlps.BothGallicandBritishscholarscame toIrelandtoescapetheGermanicinvasions.IrelandwasneverinvadedbythesetribesandwasneverRomanized. ItsChristianitywasaseparatebrandwhichwasmentionedaboveasthe FarWesternChristianity andwhich maintainedanindependentexistenceanddevelopmentformanyhundredsofyears,reachingitsapogeeinthe6thand 7thcenturies. AsinEnglandtheyellowplaguehitIrelandin664.AlthoughwementionedIrishexplorationoftheFaroeIslandsin apreviouschapter,someauthoritiesbelievethattheydidnotdiscovertheseislandsuntilabout690. 21.4.1.3.3.4WALES ThisremainedasawesternCelticfringe. 21.4.1.4SCANDINAVIA AdditionalNotesp.326 21.4.1.4.1NORWAY AnexcavationatKvalksund,Norway,showsthatbyaboutA.D.600sizablesailingshipswerebeingbuilt.These wereshallow-draftvesselswithplankeddecksbutnokeels.Thus,newmobilityonthesea,coincidingwithincreased hungerathome,ledtotheVikingraidssometwocenturieslater.Ref.160[219] 21.4.1.4.2SWEDEN ThiswasanageofgoldcalledtheVendelPeriod,inSweden.TheSwedeswerebeginningtopushnorthandwestto thenorthwestcoastofNorway. 21.4.1.4.3DENMARK TheDanessea-faringwassteadilyincreasingandtheywerealreadyoccasionallyraidingthecoastsofFrance. 21.4.1.4.4FINLAND ThiscountrywasverysparselyoccupiedbyLappswhoseearlyhistoryremainssomethingofamystery.Speakinga Finno-Ugrictongue,traditionallyithasbeenconsideredthattheyoriginatedincentralAsiabutrecentgeneticstudies indicatethattheyaretruenativeEuropeans. 21.4.1.5EASTERNEUROPE 21.4.1.5.1BALTICAREA ThomasRef.213[288]saysthattheonecontributionmadebySlavstohumanimprovementwasthere-introduction oftheheavyplow,whichwasavariationofoneusedinnorthernItalyinthe1stcenturyC.E.Ithadaknife-likeiron bladeinfrontwhichslashedverticallyintotheground,aplowsharewhichcuthorizontallythroughthegroundanda mold-boardwhichturnedthesoilovertooneside.WehaveremarkedearlierthattheGermanputthistoverygood useinthiscentury.CloselyrelatedtotheSlavsweretheLithuanians,whotogetherwiththeLettsandtheancient Prussians,formedtheBalticbranchoftheIndo-Europeanfamily.TheylivedbetweenthepresentdayMemeland Estonia. PolandhadSlavicpeopledividedintomanytribeswithnounicationororganizationatthisperiod.

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326 CHAPTER21.A.D.601TO700 21.4.1.5.2RUSSIA PartoffareasternRussiawascontrolledbythegreatTurkishConfederacywhichsimultaneouslydominatedallof centralAsiaupuntil630.TheKhazarKhanateinsouthernRussiaexpandedrapidly,defeatingtheirCaucasianneighbors,theAlansandtheBulgarsanditwassomeofthelatterwhoedtotheDanubenexttotheremainingAvars. SomewenttotheVolgawheretheyremainedunderKhazarsuzertainty.By650theKhazarKhanateextendedfrom theDniepertotheCaspianSea,withaverymoderncity,Itil,ascapitalonthenorthshoreoftheCaspian.Northward theyextendedalmosttotheheadwatersoftheVolga.TheirrulersacceptedtheJewishreligion,apparentlytoassert theirindependencefrombothMoslemsandChristians. JustnorthoftheBlackSea,theUtigurandKutrigurHunscoalescedandtookanewname-GreatBulgaria.Ref.136 [187]ElsewhereinwesternRussiatheSlavslivedmoreorlessfreelyandindependently.Intheveryfarnorththere werestillthescatteredFinnsand/orLapps.Ref.137[188]AdditionalNotesp.326 NOTE :Dorestad,IyinginaforkbetweentwobranchesoftheRhine,withgoodaccessbywateralsoto Meuse,wasestablishedbyFranksasatradecenterforcontactwithFrisians,ScandinaviaandEngland. Ref.301[258] NOTE :TheelaboratesailingshipscommonontheBalticbythe11thcenturymaywellhavebeenusedas earlyasthis7thcentury.TheshapeandconstructioncamefromalongBaltictradition,butthemastand sailsweretakenfromwesternEurope.Ref.301[258] NOTE :TheRussianarctichadattractedtradeprobablyeveninthisearlycentury.TheKamaRivervalley wasrichwithasettledpopulation,largegraveyardsandhillforts.SassanianandByzantinesilverhasbeen foundthere,apparentlyincidenttotrade.FromKama,thearcticvalleyofthePechorawasexploited.The Khazarscontrolledthesouthernpartofthattraderouteandgatheredtributefromalargeareanorthofthe BlackandCaspianseas.Allofthistradewasinterruptedinthemiddleofthecenturybytheexpansionof IslamanditsattempttoconquertheKhazars.Asaresult,ByzantineandSassaniancoinsdisappearedfrom theCaucasusby700.Ref.301[258] ForwardtoEurope:A.D.701to800Section22.4 21.5CentralandNorthernAsia:A.D.601to700 10 21.5.1CENTRALANDNORTHERNASIA BacktoCentralandNorthernAsia:A.D.501to600Section20.5 TheGreatTurkishConfederationcontrolledmostofcentralAsiaandparticularlyTurkistan,atthebeginningofthe century.ChinesediplomacystartedtobreakupthisTurkishcontrolby630andthentheChinesemilitaryreconquered theTarimBasinin648andWestTurkistanin656atthepeakoftheirexpansionintoCentralAsia.Thebreak-upof theTurkishConfederationthusallowedtheMoslemstotaketheOxusregionjustafterthemiddleofthecenturywith verylittleresistance. TheChineseoftheT'angDynastyweresupportedbytheTurkicspeakingUigursalsoUighurs,whowerecalled "Yee-che"bytheChinese.ActuallytheTurksofMongoliahadmadetheChineseT'angruler,T'ai-tsung,theirGrand Khanin630'NeartheoasisofDunhuang,justwestoftheGreatWallofChinaandnowapartofChina,andnortheast oftheTarimBasin,liethecavesoftheThousandBuddhas,constructedchieyduringtheT'angDynastyA.D.618906.InsubsequentcenturiespilgrimsfromallovercentralAsiatraveledtovisitthislabyrinthofsculpturesand frescoespaintedbyBuddhistmonks. 10 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat.

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327 Ref.8[14],101[146],73[112] TibetwasuniedearlyinthecenturywhenrivalefdomsbegantobeconsolidatedbyKingSontsanGanboor Ganbu,whoincidentallymarriedtwoforeignqueens,onefromtheT'angDynastyofChinaandoneaprincessof Nepal.AnembassywassenttoChinain641.AlthoughtheTibetansbecameBuddhists,theymaintainedawar ethosandcontinuedatintervalstoghttheChineseoveraperiodoftwocenturies.Xenophobicpoliciesprohibiting foreigners,alongwiththeworld'shighestandmostdifcultterrain,wasthensufcienttokeepTibetisolatedfrom therestoftheworldforhundredsofyears.TheTibetansremainedindependentinessenceuntilthe20thcentury, eventhoughtheChinesehavelongclaimedsovereigntyevenbacktothis7thcentury.Tibetansretainedaseparate language,culture,borders,moneyandreligion.TheholiestshrinestillstandinginthecenterofLhasaistheJokhang, builtaroundA.D.650andservingastheBuddhist"Mecca"totheTibetanfaithful.Ref.272[292],228[304],182 [250] ForwardtoCentralandNorthernAsia:A.D.701to800Section22.5 21.6TheIndianSubcontinent:A.D.601to700 11 21.6.1THEINDIANSUBCONTINENT Harsha-VardhanaalsoSriHarsha,ascionoftheGuptaline,recapturedanduniednorthernIndiain606and,ruling fromKanauj,gavepeaceandsecuritytotheareafor42years.ArtsandlettersourishedandtheBuddhistreligion hadarevival.Athisdeath,however,chaosagainensuedandIndiahadher"DarkAges"forthenext1,000years.By themiddleofthecenturyaChinese"tourist"reportedthattherewere70kingdomsinthecountry.Thetwoprincipal dynastiesinwesternIndiaweretheMaitrakas,whocreatedaBuddhistscholasticcenter,andtheGurjara,ahordeof centralAsiatics,whohadsettledinthecentralRajputana. TheDeccan,ontheplateauinsouthernIndia,remainedindependentundertheCalukyasDynasty.Ref.19[32] Underoneoftheirmorefamouskings,Pulakeshin,thiscountrycontrolledandcommandedrespectfromagooddeal ofterritory,includingcentralIndia.ItwasthetimeofthefamousfrescoesofAjanta.AttheverysoutherntipofIndia thePandyasDynastyhadacapitalatMaduraiandthePallavasatKanchipuram.Thelattercontrolledtherichcoastal areaontheeast,whilesimilarlandonthewestcoastwascontrolledbytheCherasintheregionnowcalledKerala. Hinduismdevelopedtwosects-VaishnavismworshipofVishnuandShaivismworshipofShiva.Astheseincreased inpopularityBuddhismandJanismshrankinimportance.Thespeechofordinarypeopledivergedmoreandmore fromtheSanskritoftheintellectualandthepopulationofabout100,000,000remainedquiteconstant.Continueon page467 21.7TheFarEast:A.D.601to700 12 21.7.1THEFAREAST BacktoTheFarEast:A.D.501to600Section20.7 21.7.1.1CHINAANDMANCHURIASuito618,thenT'angDynasty TheSuiDynastyconsolidatedChinainpartthroughstatepatronageofastyleofBuddhismwhichwasacceptableby bothnorthandsouthandbyconstructionofacanalsystemlinkingtheYangztewiththeYellowRiverinthePeking region.Theydidnotdowellinforeignaffairs,however,astheyhadlosttheTarimBasin,ManchuriaandKoreaand severalearlywarstoreclaimtheselandshadfailed.SomehistorianshaveevenconsideredtherstSuiemperorofthis century,Yang-ti,acompletemadmanwhohadsupposedlypoisonedhisfathertogetthethrone.Ref.101[146] 11 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat. 12 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat.

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328 CHAPTER21.A.D.601TO700 CivilwarsoondevelopedandvictoriouswasthefamilyofLi,whoestablishedtheT'angDynasty.InA.D.610we ndtheearliestdescriptionofbubonicplague,whichsoonbecamecommoninCantononthesea.Perhapsthisplague wasafactorinthedemiseoftheSuiDynasty.Ref.8[14],211[284] ForashortwhilethewarlikeTurkishnomadsofthesteppesbecamealliesofthenewT'angDynastyandtheChinese evenadoptedTurkishfashions,developedTurkishChinesedictionariesandworeTurkishclothes.TheT'ang,likethe Suibeforethem,camefromamixedTurkish-Mongolian-Chinesearistocracy.Theirsecondruler,T'aiTsungAD. 627-650wasoneofthegreatestofChineseemperors.Allthearistocratsofthisperiodwereofthemixedbloodand characteristicallyhard-drinking,hard-riding,ghtingmenwhohuntedwithfalconsandwhosewomenplayedpolo. Wehavenotedthatintheprecedingcenturiesworkhadbeenstartedintheclearinganddrainingoftheluxuriant junglesoftheYangtzeValleysothatbythebeginningofthiscenturythisvalleynotonlysupportedalargepopulation butwascapableofproducinglargesurplusesoffood.TowidenthecanalbetweentheYangtzeandHuanyHoValley, about5,500,000workers,includingallcommonersbetween15and50yearsofageinsomeareas,wereconcentrated underthecontrolofsome50,000police.Theywereforcedlaborersbutnotslaves,inthetruesense.Asaresultof allthistheT'angshadadoublebase,theYellowandtheYangtzerivers,andby611theGrandCanaljoiningthetwo hadbeencompletedsothatshipmentsoflargequantitiesofriceandothergoodswaspossiblefromthesouthtothe northerncapitals.Theimperialbureaucracymanagedthecollection,transportanddistributionofsuchgoods,while theGreatWallinthenorthwasre-constructedfordefense.Thesefactorsofabiologicalmix,athrivingeconomy andthespiritualstimulationofBuddhism,withageniusruler,startedChinaonitsgreatestage.T'aiTsung,after reunifyingmuchofChinabywar,returnedtohiscapital,Ch'ang-an,andgavehimselftothewaysofpeace,spreading thephilosophyofConfucius,revisingpenallawsandbeautifyingthecity.Hewelcomedallreligionsandexempted alltemplesfromtaxation.Afterhisdeath,oneofhisharemwomen,Wu,pulledoutofanunnerybyT'aiTsung's oldestson,Lao-tsung,poisonedherwaytopower,madeherselfempressandproclaimedtheChouDynasty.Actually asubsidiaryoftheT'angthisdynastyusheredinanothercreativeage,withtheprotsofexportedrice,wheat,silkand spicesspentforunparalleledluxury.Furs,preciousjewels,statues,paintings,poemsandmoneywereeverywherein abundance.Ref.211[284],101[146],213[288],139[192] The fu-ping systemofmilitaryconscription,startedbytheWeiDynastyseepage423,evolvedtotheT'angsystem ofelite,careersoldierswhoalsoperformedagriculturalworktosupportthemselves,asfaraspossible.TheT'anghad morethan600garrisonsclusteredprimarilyaroundCh'ang-an.Theirstatuarypunishmentscameundervecategories: deathbystrangulationorbisection;exilefromhomeupto1,000Englishmiles;hardlaborforupto3years;beating withheavybamboorodsupto100blows.Commutationtoneswasoftenpossibleforpeopleofwealth.Ref.125 [173],101[146] Intheperiodoftheirforeignexcursionsinthe660sChinesearmiesintervenedinIndiaandCentralAsia,re-occupying theTarimBasin,DzungariaandAfghanistanandtheybrieysatupprotectoratesinTukharistan,Sogdiana,Ferghana andeveneasternPersia.YunnancameunderChinesesuzertaintyattheendofthecenturyandaportionofManchuria, previouslyunderKoreancontrol,wasreturnedtoChinaasEmpressWuintervenedinaKoreancivilwar.Afterthree centuriesofimportancetheuseofthearmored,greatPersianhorsesincavalryunitscametoanendinChina.Ifa cross-bowmancouldknockevenaheavilyarmoredmanoffhishorse,itmadenosensetohavetheseexpensiveunits. Ref.101[146],279[191] SunSzu-miaowrotea30volumesummaryofmedicalknowledgegaineduptothattimeandthenheadedacommittee whichproduceda50volumetreatiseonpathology.Itwasinthiscenturythatexaminationswererstrequiredto qualifyasaphysician,aprocessthatprecededtherstlicensingprogramintheWestbysome4centuries.Itwasabout thistimethatwomenofproperfamilystartedtobindtheirfeeti.e.themothersboundtheinfants'feetproducinga severelydeformed,cavusfoot.Thisgreatlyrestrictedtheiractivitiesandallowedtheirlegsandmonstoaccumulate muchfat,thussupposedlymakingthemveryattractivesexuallytotheChinesemen.Thecustomwascontinuedfora thousandyears.

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329 21.7.1.2JAPAN Asthecenturyopened,thechildprodigy,PrinceShotokuTaishi,hadformedgroupsofscholarswhowrotetherst histories,geographies,grammarsandlegalcodesofJapanandwhodrewuporderlyplansforacensus,landsurveys, equitableconscriptionandtaxation.HealsoworkedoutacompromisebetweenBuddhismandShintoismthatcould betolerated.Athisdeathin621,theShintoprincesandtheBuddhistprincesoftheimperialfamilyactuallycameto asmallwar,withtheNakatomifamilyeventuallywinningpowertoputCrownPrinceTenjionthethrone.Hecarried outShotoku'sideaswhichwereknownasthegreat"TaikaReforms".Ref.12[21] Despitethesecivilizingfactors,withinagenerationofPrinceTaishi'sdeathaviolentcrisisappearedwhichincluded aterriblefaminewiththousandsdying.Alongwiththisdevelopedastrangenewreligioncalled"Tokoyonomushi" inwhichdevoteesworshipedalargeworm,dranksakeanddancedinthestreets,givingawaymoney.Ref.222 [296]Apalacerevolutionproducedsuchamarkedchangethatnativehistoriansrefertoitasthe"GreatReform"of 645.TheJapanesegovernmentwasreconstructedintoanautocratic,imperialpower.Thesovereignwaselevatedfrom theleadershipoftheprincipalclantoparamountauthorityovereveryofcialinJapan,thuscreatingaclosely-knit monarchicalstate.Theemperorswereallowedasmanywivesorconsortsasdesiredandtheheirtothethronewas pickedfromanyofhisoff-spring.TheearlyemperorsweredevoutBuddhistsbutShintoismwasnevercompletely abandoned.JapanthenhadanembassyinChinaandChinesecivilizationcontinuedtobeimportedviaJapanese students,monksandphysiciansstudyinginChina.Ref.125[173] In670whentheoldNakatomireformerwhohadputTenjionthethronewasdying,theemperorsentapregnant concubineofhistocomforttheoldman.WhentheboychildwasborntheemperorgavehimthenameFujiwara,and itwasthisboy'sdescendants,theFujiwaraclan,whichtooktheplaceoftheNakotomisastheemperor'smostintimate counselorsforthenext1,275years. 21.7.1.3KOREA ChinatriedtoconquerKoreaagainin612andfailedbutdidessentiallyaccomplishthisin668astheChouEmpress WuintervenedinaKoreancivilwarandhelpedSillatoforgeaunitedKoreawhileholdingafewareasunderChinese suzertainty.AsKoguryowasdestroyedChinaalsoregainedsomeManchurianterritoryformerlydominatedbythese Koreans.WithintwoyearsSillahadpushedtheChineseoutofPaekcheandstartedtheperiodwhichwastheacmeof Sillapowerandculture.Buddhismanditsartourished,particularlyatthecapitalnearthemodernKyongju.Skilled metalworkwasoneofthespecialaccomplishments.AdditionalNotesp.329 21.7.1.4SOUTHEASTASIA ItisasdifculttorecordandexplainthehistoryofsoutheastAsiaasitistheBalkanpeninsulaofEurope,inthatinboth thenamesandbordersofmanysmallcountrieshavechangedalmostasrapidlyastheyears.Inthis7thcenturythere wasaCambodiawheresmallHindutempleswerebeingbuiltatAngkorBorei.ASanskritinscriptioninCambodiaof A.D.604showsadecimalposition,suggestinganadvancedknowledgeofmathematics.TheFunanEmpirecontinued undercontrolofChenlaandinPyunowBurmaaBuddhistcapitalofSrikshetranowHinawzawasfoundedsome 200milesnorthofpresentRangoon,in638.InThailandtheearliestkingdomwasofaMonpeoplefromlowerBurma, whosettledinthevalleyofRiverMenanandestablishedacapitalatDvaravati,fromwhichcomesthenameoftheir kingdomandtheirart.UnderIsaravarman-635theKhmersextendedwestwardanddevelopedgreatartisticand hydraulicengineeringprojects.Ref.8[14],175[241],19[32],45[66] IntheIndonesianarchipelago,theEmpireofSrivijaya,basedinSumatra,dominatedthestraitsofSundaandMalacca andtaxedthecommerceinthosewatersforthenextsixcenturies.Palembang,insoutheastSumatra,besidesbeingthe capitalofthatmaritimeempire,wasacenterofSanskritCulture.Ref.8[14] NOTE :ItwasinA.D.688thatSillaabsorbedPaekcheandKoguryo.Theircapitalcityhad178,936householdswith1,000,000peopleandwasoneoftheworld'sgreatestcitiesofthetime.Buildingswereroofed withtileandheatedbycharcoal.Theburialburrowsofthatperiodaregreatarcheologytreasures.Ref.305 [103]

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330 CHAPTER21.A.D.601TO700 ForwardtoTheFarEast:A.D.701to800Section22.7 ChooseDifferentRegion 1.IntrotoEraSection21.1 2.AfricaSection21.2 3.AmericaSection21.9 4.CentralandNorthernAsiaSection21.5 5.EuropeSection21.4 6.TheIndianSubcontinentSection21.6 7.TheNearEastSection21.3 8.PacicSection21.8 21.8ThePacic:A.D.601to700 13 21.8.1THEPACIFIC BacktoThePacic:A.D.501to600Section20.8 EasterIslandcraftsmenbeganbuildingaltarswellbefore690andthereissomeevidencethatprototypic,naturalistic statuesmayhavebeenplacedonthematthattime.AlthoughtruePolynesiansmaywellhavebeeninHawaiiand possiblytheMarquesasinthiscentury,theyhadnotyetmigratedasfarsouthasEasterIslandandNewZealand.Ref. 176[242] ForwardtoThePacic:A.D.701to800Section22.8 ChooseDifferentRegion 1.IntrotoEraSection21.1 2.AfricaSection21.2 3.AmericaSection21.9 4.CentralandNorthernAsiaSection21.5 5.EuropeSection21.4 6.TheFarEastSection21.7 7.TheIndianSubcontinentSection21.6 8.TheNearEastSection21.3 21.9America:A.D.601to700 14 21.9.1AMERICA BacktoAmerica:A.D.501to600Section20.9 21.9.1.1NORTHAMERICA 21.9.1.1.1THEFARNORTHANDCANADA SeepreviousSection20.9and9thcenturiesSection23.9 13 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat. 14 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat.

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331 21.9.1.1.2THEUNITEDSTATES By600A.D.theculturalprimacyinNorthAmericahadpassedfromtheHopewellareatothelowerMississippivalley, particularlyinthefertileoodplainbetweenSt.LouisandNewOrleans,thelandoftheMoundBuilders.Ref.215 [290]. InthesouthwesttheAnasaziIndianscontinuedtomultiply,withBasket-makersitesextendingfromtheregionof presentdayLakeMeadinNevada,throughsouthernUtahintothesouthwestcornerofColoradoandthendownto northwesternNewMexicoandnortheasternArizona.Bybotharcheomagnetismdatingofcharredwoodbeamsof burnedpit-houseceilingsandtree-ringdating,theirsocietycanbefollowedinthislargeareaquiteexactly.Ref.277 [37]TheHohokamColonialPeriodandtheMogollonCulturescontinuedsouthoftheAnasazi. AboutA.D.600adistinctivegroupofIndiansappearednearthelowerendoftheColoradoRiversouthwestern ArizonaandanextremeeasternsliceofCalifornia.ThesewerecalledthePatayanalsoHakatayaandwereYumanspeakingpeoplewhousedtheoodplainsoftheColoradodeltaforfarming,hadauniquepaddleandanvilpottery decoratedwithredpaintandgroundtheircornonatrough-shapedmetate.Livinginthisareafor900years,they becamethenthemodernYumas,Cocopah,Maricopa,Havasupai,MojaveandWalapai.Ref.45[66],210[283] Consistentwithhisotherclaims,FellRef.66[97]purportstoreadIslamicinscriptionsoncertainNevadarocks andfeelsthatArabicLibyansmadetheseshortlyafterA.D.650whenIslamcameintoNorthAfrica. 21.9.1.2MEXICO,CENTRALAMERICA,ANDTHECARIBBEAN ByA.D.600TeotihuacninMexicohadapopulationofperhaps150,000to200,000andcoveredabout8square miles.Thecitywaslaidoutinaprecisegridpatternwithlargecitybuildingsandapartmentsforfamilies,offering amaximumofprivacyinacrowdedcity.Therestillisconsiderableconfusionastothepeoplewholivedinthis community. Asmentionedinapreviouschapter,oldIndianlegendcalledthesepeople"Toltecs"andthismaybeaccurate,even thoughcurrentusagereservesthistermforthelaterrejuvenatedcivilizationcenteredatTulainthe9thand10th centuries.Byatleast650,Teotihuacnwasbeginningtoshowsignsofimpendingcollapseandthereasonforthisis anotherthingthathasnotbeenclaried.Ref.45[66],215[290],176[242] ThelowlandMayamadeastrongcomebackinthiscentury,withseveralcentersourishing.Atleast45,000people livedatoraroundTikalanditssprawlingpyramids,templesandhousemoundscoveredsome38squaremilesinthe denserainforestofnorthernPeten. Themostelaboratestructurewastheso-callednorthernAcropolis,whichcovered2112acreswith100buildingsand atonetime16temples.AtthesametimetheYucatanMayaswerealsoactive.Ref.45[66],215[290]ThePeriod VCulturecontinuedinCostaRica,asnotedinthelastchapter. 21.9.1.3SOUTHAMERICA InPeruthebalanceofpowerafterA.D.600shiftedfromthecoasttothehighlandswherethecityofTiahuanacoand theHuarimilitarymachinedominatedthecentralAndesbycarvingoutempiresthatincludednotonlyallofPeruand Bolivia,butalsopartofnorthernChile.TherewerestillcoastalpeopleoftheNazcaCulture,however,andastudyof theskeletonofan8yearoldboyfromaroundA.D.700inthisareashowedclassicalPott'sdiseasetuberculosisofthe spinewithapsoasabscess,renaldisease,pericarditisandterminalmiliarytuberculosisofhislungs.Inthenorththere wasstillMocheinuence,perhapsmanifestedatthattimeintheChimuSociety,althoughdatinghasbeendifcult. Ref.8[14],3[4] ForwardtoAmerica:A.D.701to800Section22.9 ChooseDifferentRegion 1.IntrotoEraSection21.1

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332 CHAPTER21.A.D.601TO700 2.AfricaSection21.2 3.CentralandNorthernAsiaSection21.5 4.EuropeSection21.4 5.TheFarEastSection21.7 6.TheIndianSubcontinentSection21.6 7.TheNearEastSection21.3 8.PacicSection21.8

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Chapter22 A.D.701to800 22.1A.D.701to800 1 22.1.1A.D.701TO800 BackwardtoA.D.601to700Section21.1 ThiswasacenturyofcontinuedArabMoslemexpansionfromsouthernSpainacrossnorthAfricathroughtheentire MiddleEastandintoCentralAsiaandIndia.NosignicantchallengeappearedfromChristianEuropewhichwas onlybeginningtobeorganizedintorecognizablestatesandwhichwashavinginternalreligiousproblemsofitsown. 22.1.1.1THECHRISTIANCHURCH After338easternbishopsagreedthatallvisiblesymbolsofChristwereblasphemous,EmperorLeoIIILeothe SyrianlaiddowntheIconoclasticpolicyinA.D.754ofnoimageryorstatuaryinthechurch,indirectoppositionto theItalian,RomanChurch'sconcepts.TheresultingcontroversyinvolvedtheentireCatholicworldandstartedthe schismbetweentheeasternandwesternchurcheswhichthenbecametheOrthodoxandtheRomanCatholicchurch, respectively.ToynbeeRef.220[294]believesthatthisisthebirthoftwonewsocieties,originatingasoff-springof theoldHellenicSociety.MeanwhilethepapacyinRometieditsambitionstothenewrealmofCharlemagne,whowas creatingaghostoftheoldRomanEmpireandinA.D.800PopeLeoIII 2 crownedCharlemagneastheHolyRoman Emperor.BeforethistheinvasionoftheLombardsintoItalyandtheinterferenceofPepininItalianaffairsmarkedthe rststepsinlimitingthepoliticalpowerofthepapacy.Ref.184[252]After750Christendomenjoyedarespite fromforeignattackandinvasion. 22.1.1.2THEISLAMICCHURCH TheMoslemboundaries,extendingfromSpaintoIndiawerefartherthantheyeverwouldbeagain.Thesplitting ofvariousfactions,whichhadbeguneveninthelastcentury,continuedinthisone.Therewasreligiousdissension againsttheOmayyadsandinA.D.744adisputedsuccessiontothethronestartedadecadeofrevolutionandcivil strife.ByA.D.750HarunalRashidemergedasCaliphofanewAbbasidDynasty.Ref.8[14] 22.1.1.3INTERNATIONALJEWRY YehudaiGaonoutlawedanydeviationfromBabylonianreligioususageandraisedtheBabylonianTalmudtoquasiscripturalstatus,leavingpermanenteffectsonallJewishculture. 1 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat. 2 NottobeconfusedwithEmperorLeoIIIwhowasinElyzantium 333

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334 CHAPTER22.A.D.701TO800 ForwardtoA.D.801to900Section23.1 ChooseDifferentRegion 1.AfricaSection22.2 2.AmericaSection22.9 3.CentralandNorthernAsiaSection22.5 4.EuropeSection22.4 5.TheFarEastSection22.7 6.TheIndianSubcontinentSection22.6 7.TheNearEastSection22.3 8.PacicSection22.8 22.2Africa:A.D.701to800 3 22.2.1AFRICA BacktoAfrica:A.D.601to700Section21.2 22.2.1.1NORTHEASTAFRICA InthelastchapterwetoldofthecollapseofAxum.Apparentlyasalastgasp.theAxumitesmadeanunsuccessful attackonMeccainA.D.702whichwasfollowedbyArabretaliationandButzerRef.270[36]saysthatitwas atthattimethattheportofAduliswasdestroyedandmanyRedSeaislandsseized.AtthesametimetheChristian monarchyhadtowithstandravagingattacksbypaganBeja.Ref.83[123]After765Axumwasalmostcompletely abandoned. ThehornofAfricawasnotaffectedbytheBedouinArabs,butthepeopletherestillretainedclosetieswithArabia. OfthethreekingdomsofthemiddleNilewhichhadoriginatedinthe6thcentury,thetwonorthernonesnowmerged toformtheKingdomofNubia,withacapitalatDongola,exertingitsinuencefromthe1sttothe4thcataractofthe NileandwesttoDarfur.ThecountrywasChristian,prosperousandusedahighlydecorativepotteryanddevelopeda lucrativeslavetradetoEgypt.TherewasagradualpeacefulinltrationofMoslemArabsintothearea.Farthersouth attheconuenceoftheNilewastheKingdomofAlwa,withitscapitalatSoba.ItresistedtheMoslemfaithalittle longer.Ref.83[123],271[7] EgyptwasentirelyunderMoslemArabcontrolwithsupervisiondirectfromthecaliphinDamascusandlaterBaghdad. 22.2.1.2NORTHCENTRALANDNORTHWESTAFRICA ThisentireregionwasnowunderMoslemcontrol,subjecttothecaliphintheMiddleEast.Asmentionedinthelast chapter,theBerbersofTunisiaandMoroccoadoptedIslamastheyhadpreviouslyadoptedChristianity:withneither wasitatotalembracementandthey,inaddition,clungalsotooldertribalbeliefs.Althoughcalled"Berbers"bythe Arabstheycalledthemselves"Imazighen","MenoftheLand",andtheirtongue,totallyunliketheofcialArabic,was Tamazight,stillspokentoday.Ref.104ThegreatRomanportsallovertheMediterraneanwereallowedtodecline. AlthoughtheycouldsailtheIndianOcean,theArabsignoredMediterraneanshippingroutesandwentoverlandwith ofcentralTunisia,wastheadministrativecenterfortheArabEmpireintheMaghrib.Ref.83[123] AlthoughtheOmayyadDynastycontrolledtheentireMoslemworldinthersthalfofthecentury,aswasintimated above,theAbbasidstookoverinA.D.750withCaliphHarunalRashidestablishingacapitalatBaghdad.ByA.D. 788MoroccohaddeclareditsindependencefromBaghdadandTunisiafollowedjustaftertheturnofthenewcentury. ThenewMorocconEmpirewastolastoveramillennium.Ref.8[14],222[296] 3 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat.

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335 22.2.1.3SUBSAHARANAFRICA AboutA.D.700peoplefromtheupperNilemovedintoChad,justeastofNigeria,andestablishedastringofcities. AtaboutthesametimetraderswerebecomingevermoredaringincrossingtheSaharatoobtaingoldandslaves.The increasinguseofcamelsgreatlyfacilitatedthistrafcandthetrafc,inturn,seemedtomonopolizethesupplyofgold andslavesandthusdevelopedmoresystematicandlargeroperations.Ghanaseemstohavecomeunderthecontrolof anewdynastyinthiscenturyandthismayhavebeenthetransferofauthorityfromBerbertoNegrorulers. MerchantsofsouthArabia,thePersianGulfandnorthwesternIndiahadlongtradedalongtheeastAfricancoastfor palmoil,ivory,tortoiseshell,rhinoceroshornandslaves.FinallysomeoftheAsianssettledineastAfricaandthey weresoonjoinedbyreligiousrefugeesfromOmanandShiraxonthePersianGulf.TheseAsianswereresponsible forthebeginningofachainofindependentsettlementsallalongthecoast.Theybecamecity-statesandbecauseArab shippingsoonsupplantedearliertrafc,allsoonbecameMoslem.ExcavationsontheshoreofLakeKisaleinnorthern KatangabetweenAngolaandtheGreatLakesindicatethatinthis8thcenturytherewasadensepopulationusing nepotteryandelaboratecopperjewelry.ThismaybetheoriginalhomeoftheLubapeopleRef.83[123] ThepopulationonMadagascarnowincludedIndonesians,ArabsandNegroes,thelaterprobablyoriginallyslavesor concubines.TheNegroesmultipliedmorerapidly,probablybecauseofgreaterresistancetomalaria,buttherewas muchintermarriageandsoonaunique"Malagasy"peopleemerged.Ref.83[123] ThecentralrainforestofAfricaandthesemi-aridsouthremaineduntouchedbycivilizedmen,althoughtheBantuspeakingtribesmencontinuedtospreadtheirsettlementsthroughtheforestoftheCongobasinandstillfarthersouth. TheLeopard'sKopjepeoplewerestillincontrolofZimbabwe.Ref.139[192],176[242] ForwardtoAfrica:A.D.801to900Section23.2 22.3TheNearEast:A.D.701to800 4 22.3.1THENEAREAST BacktoTheNearEast:A.D.601to700Section21.3 DuringtheirthreecenturiesofcontroltheArabsspreadcitrusfruitsandalmondsacrosstheMediterranean,evento Spain,andriceandsugarcanecuttingsfromPersiaandsaffrontothewest.Ref.211[284]Inadditiontheyhad masteredtechniquesofspinningandweavingsilkandtheytransmittedseri-culturetothewestviaSicilyandSpain. Europe,however,wasslowtoacceptsilk.Ref.122[170]AboutA.D.750theArabsbroughtthedecimalsystem fromIndia,butitwasnotusedinEuropeforanother500years.Ref.21[34] ThisentireNEAREAST,includingourfourdesignatedterritoriesofARABIAANDJORDAN,MEDITERRANEAN COASTAREAS,IRAQANDSYRIAandIRAN,werenowalljoinedasthecentralareaofthegiantArabianMoslem Empire.AsaresultofmilitarymaneuversthefarmlandsofPalestinewerelaidwaste,nottobeentirelyreclaimed for12centuries.Ref.222[296]AstheMoslemarmieswentthroughSpainandintoFrancetobestoppednally atToursin732,somedissensionappearedathomeandbyA.D.749therewasopenrebellionandamassacreofthe Omayyadfamilyattheircapital,Damascus. TheOmayyadcaliphshadforgottentheirdesertoriginsandhaddegenerated.CaliphalWalidII,whodelightedin swimminganddrinkinginapoolofwine,waskilledinaYemeniterevoltin744.ThelastoftheOmayyadswas MarwanII,defeatedandkilledintheBattleoftheZab,associatedwiththegeneralmassacreofthefamily.The caliphatethenbecamehereditaryintheAbbasidfamily,beginningwithHarunalRashid,whochangedthecapital fromDamascustothenewlybuiltcityofBaghdadin763.TheAbbasidsstayedorthodoxSunni,inspiteofsupport theyhadhadfromShi'iteswhilecomingintopower.Baghdadwasacircularcity1.5milesindiameter,ringedby threelinesofwallsanditsconstructioninvolved100,000laborers.Ref.118[95],137[188],222[296] 4 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat.

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336 CHAPTER22.A.D.701TO800 HarunalRashidwasagreatgeneral,administratorandjudge,whoinitiatedmanychangesincludingtheabolition ofalldistinctionsbetweenArabandnon-ArabMoslems.Hisadministrationsupportedanyactivitythatwouldbind minoritygroupstightertothecentralauthority.ThemainmilitarysupportcamefromPersianconvertsofeasternIran andtheyout-foughttheArabgarrisonsofIraqandSyria.TheAbbasidscompletedtheprocessofPersianizingthe institutionofthecaliphate.Persianswhoservedunderthecaliphincreasinglylledthehighofcesofstateandthe entireadministrationwasreorganizedonPersianlines,withanefcientscalsystem,agoodpostalservicefromone endoftheempiretotheotherandtheestablishmentoftraderoutestoIndia,China,CeylonandtheMediterranean. TheIslamicworldwasunitedbyasinglereligion,singlelanguageandanearlyunitaryculture.Theadministration, cultureandgeographicallimitsintheNearEastwereaboutthesameastheoldAchaemenidEmpireofthe6thcentury B.C.PapermillswereoperatinginBaghdadandtheharem-eunuchsystemwasdevelopedalongwith purdah veiled women.ItshouldbenotedthatlargenumbersofeastAfricanNegroslaveswerepurchasedforagriculturalworkand theywereharshlytreated.Ref.49[73],220[294],213[288] Arabic,theyoungestSemitictongue,hadinthoseearlytimesahighlydevelopedoral,butvirtuallynowrittentradition. TherewasmuchpoetrydepictingthelifeoftheproudBedouin.InthenewIslamicEmpire,Arabicbecamethechief instrumentofeverydayspeechaswellasofculture,replacingAramaic,Coptic,GreekandLatin.Arabicalsohad enormousinuencesonotherMuslimlanguages,suchasPersianandTurkish.Ref.68[106] 22.3.1.1ASIAMINOR AsiaMinoristheoneportionofourchosenNEAREASTclassicationthatwasnotincludedintheparagraphsabove, astheChristianByzantineskeptatenuousholdonapartofthisregion,necessitatingaseparateconsideration. 22.3.1.1.1TURKEY TheEmperorLeoIIIwhoannouncedtheIconoclasticpolicy,wasanIsaurian,therstorientalonthethrone. HecarvedoutabriefghostoftheoldByzantineEmpire,likeCharlemagne'sEmpireintheWest,turningtheEastern Churchintoasortofdepartmentofstate.ButthisByzantiumwasapeculiarpost-humousexistenceoftheantique civilizationanditwasalmostsealedofffromwesternEurope,partlybytheGreek456language,partlybyareligious differencebutchieybecauseitdidn'twanttogetinvolvedinthebloodyfeudsofthewesternbarbarians.Ithad itsowneasternbarbarianstodealwith.InConstantinopleandothercitiesaseriesofplaguesandearthquakeshad drasticallyreducedthepopulations.Bubonicplaguekilled200,000between732and736andthenafteraterrible earthquakein740therewerenotenoughlocalpeoplelefttorepairthedamage.IntermittentwarfarewiththeArabs addedtothedrainofmanpower.ThesecondgreatsiegeofConstantinoplebytheArabsoccurredin717-718with attacksbybothlandandsea.ThedefensesheldandConstantineVactuallytooktheoffensive,carryingthewarinto Syriain745anddestroyingagreatArabarmadaandreconqueringCyprusin746. AnothercampaignfollowedinArmeniaandtherewereninesuccessivecampaignsagainsttheBulgars,withultimate victory.Ref.222[296],119[166] Still,by771theByzantineEmpirehadshrunkdowntoprimarilythewestern2/3oftheAnatolianpeninsula,along withGreece,Sicily,afewislandsandanarrowcoastlinealongDalmatia.Intermittentbattlesalongwithpay-offsto theArabscontinuedthroughoutthecenturyandattheendtherewasmuchfamilystressintheemperor'shouse,with Irene,motherofConstantineVI,eventuallyhavinghersonkilledsothatshecouldreign,herself,asEmpress. 22.3.1.1.2ARMENIA TheByzantium-Moslemwarsandthecruelrepressionswhichfollowedeachconquestorrevolthadruinedanddecimatedthiscountry.UndertheAbbasidrulefromBaghdadthesituationbecameevenworseandthepopulationof Armeniawasreducedtopoverty. ForwardtoTheNearEast:A.D.801to900Section23.3 ChooseDifferentRegion

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337 1.IntrotoEraSection22.1 2.AfricaSection22.2 3.AmericaSection22.9 4.CentralandNorthernAsiaSection22.5 5.EuropeSection22.4 6.TheFarEastSection22.7 7.TheIndianSubcontinentSection22.6 8.PacicSection22.8 22.4Europe:A.D.701to800 5 22.4.1EUROPE BacktoEurope:A.D.601to700Section21.4 22.4.1.1SOUTHERNEUROPE IntheseearlyMiddleAges,thedeadlyblackstemrustbegantoravagethewheatelds,producingfamineinvarious areasofsouthernEurope.Thediseasehadbeenbroughtin,unknowingly,withthebarberrybushbytheArabs.The barberrywasvaluedforthecurativepotionthestemandthebrilliantberries,edibleinapreserve.Ref.211[284] 22.4.1.1.1EASTERNMEDITERRANEANISLANDS InthiscenturyCrete,previouslyunderByzantiumcontrol,alongwithmostoftheseislands,hadsomebasesestablished bythesea-goingVenetians.CypruswastakenbytheArabsandthenreconqueredbyByzantium.Ref.222[296] 22.4.1.1.2GREECE ForsomecenturiesnowthegreatclassicalandearlyChristiancentersofthelowerBalkans,-Athens,Corinth,Thebes, Salonicaandothers,hadlostallcontactwiththeworldofwhichtheyhadbeenanintegralpart.In726Greeksrevolted againsttheByzantineLeoIII,sendingaGreekeettowardConstantinoplebuttheyweredefeatedbytheimperial navyusinganincendiarymixturecalled"Greekre".Ref.222[296]AsthecenturyendedtheSlavswereonce againbeatingdownonthebordersofthiscountry. 22.4.1.1.3UPPERBALKANS AsinthelastcenturytheBalkanswerelledwithSlavicpeoples,mixedhereandtherewithBulgarsandAvars.In thenewkingdomofSerbiatheSerbsacceptedtheGreekOrthodoxformofChristianitywhiletheCroatsadoptedthe Romanform.StressinevitablyfollowedsothatbytheendofthecenturytheCroatshadformedtheirownindependentkingdom.Ref.8[14]TheDanubeBulgarshadcontinuedtomovewestintotheBalkans,takinglandfrom Byzantium.Tervel,kingoftheBulgars,actuallyexactedtributefromEmperorJustinianII.HewasfollowedbyKing Sevar,thelastoftheDuloDynasty.Ref.206[83]PeriodsofwarandpeacebetweentheBulgarsandByzantium alternatedthroughoutthecentury. 22.4.1.1.4ITALY TheLombards,whonowllednorthernItaly,foughtbybowandarrowfromhorsebackandwereessentiallyawarrior people.Asapapalstateemergedwhereapopethoughnotanemperorstilllived,itwasthreatenedbytheLombards andthepopenallyrequestedtheFrankKingCharlemagnetoinvadethearea.AttheendofthecenturyCharlemagne compliedandLombardybecameaprovinceoftheFranks.InanattempttoregainprestigetomatchthatofByzantine, 5 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat.

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338 CHAPTER22.A.D.701TO800 PopeLeoIlleventuallyteamedupwiththeFrankkingtoextendtheChurch'sdomain,withtheresultthatthepope becamethespiritualrulerandCharlemagnethetemporalemperoroftheHolyRomanEmpire.Bythistime,Rome haddroppedinpopulationfromabout1,000,000inA.D.400tounder100,000,principallybecauseoffamineafterthe cessationofthegivingoffreebread.GraduallyacoalescenceoftheLombardsandtheRomanpeopledevelopedwith theresultthattherewasasubstantialLombardiccontributiontotheItalianlanguageandtotheartisticandliterary elds.TheLatinlanguagecontinuedtobeLatin,butfurtherandfurtherremovedfromtheclassicalstandards.Cases hadallbutdisappearedbythistimeandthelanguagehasbeencalledProto-Romance.Ref.137[188],213[288] NOTE:Map34:LombardKingdomBeforeItsConquestbyCharlemagnein774and Map35:ExpansionofthePapalStates756-817 MapstakenfromReference97 Naples,AmalandVenicecontinuedasindependentstateswithVeniceactuallyhelpingtheMoorsenslavesome Europeans.Ref.222[296]TherstEuropeanmedicalschoolwasfoundedinthiscenturyatSalerno,insouthern Italy.SardiniawasinvadedbyMoslemforcesin720andinthisandthenextcenturySicilywasexposedtosudden, devastatingraidsbyMoslemfree-booters.Ref.137[188],83[123] 22.4.1.2CENTRALEUROPE Theuseoftheheavyplowseepages439and443innorthernEuropeaccountedforanincreaseoffoodanda consequentincreaseinpopulation.AlthoughtherecontinuedtobeMerovingiankingsintheFrankishkingdomsof AustrasiaandNeustriaupuntil7529throughoutthiscenturytherealadministrationofwesternGermany,aswellas ofFrance,wasundercontroloftheHouseofPepin,latercalledtheCarolingianDynasty,alldescendedfromPepin ofLandenandArnulf,theBishopofMetz.AmongthesedescendantswasCharlesMartel,MayorofAustrasiaand Neustriafrom714to741SeeFRANCE,below,andPepinIII,theShort,MayorofNeustriaandkingoftheFranks from747to768.ItwasthisPepinwhorstrespondedtothepope'spleasforhelpagainsttheLombardsanddid managetoforcethemoutofPentapolisandRavenna.ThereaftertheCarolingiansmaintainedaprotectorateoverthe papacyinItaly.Ref.180[246],119[166] In768PepinIII'sson,CharlestheGreatInFrance-"Charlemagne"andinGermanymorecorrectly"Karlthe Great",becamekingofAustrasia,NeustriaandnorthernAquitaine,whilehisbrother,Carloman,ruledoversouthern Aquitaine,BurgundyandSeptimania.CharlesorKarlwasatypicalGerman,sixfeetinheight,asuperbswimmer andathlete.HemarriedaLombardiprincessbutsoonrepudiatedherandconqueredallofLombardItalyaswell asVenetia,Istria,DalmatiaandCorsica.TheBavarianduchyhadbegunaneastwardexpansionthatdroveawedge betweenthesouthernSlavsandthemainmassofSlavicpeopletothenorthby758,thusisolatingtheBalkangroups. KarlincorporatedBavariaintohiskingdomin778andinthenextyeartookCarinthiasouthernAustriaandVienna becameaCarolingian-Frankishborderfortress.SaxonyfelltoKarlin785andsoallGermany,Austria,Bohemiaand evenaportionofHungarycametobeapartofhisdomain.AsaresultthemorenorthernSlavswerepushedbackeast oftheElbeRiver,creating"NewGermany",adistinctionthathaspersistedinsomedegreetothisday.TheElbenow roughlycorrespondstotheborderbetweenpresentEastandWestGermany.ThehistoryoftheregionofBrandenburg laterPrussiabeginswhenKarltheGreatestablishedfortsalongtheElbetokeepouttheSlavs.Ref.180[246], 137[188] InHungaryKarl'stroopsreducedtheAvarstoamereremnant,astheywerecrushedbetweenthisFrankisharmy andaBulgarattackfromtheeastin796.SwitzerlandwasapartoftheoriginalpossessionoftheFrankishEmpire, includedintheregionsknownasBurgundyandAlamanniaanditwasadministeredprimarilyunderNeustria.Ref. 137[188] Charlemagne'sEmpirewasRomanChristianandGermanic,allinone.Economicallyandsociallyitneverattained tothatcohesionandunitythatcharacterizesathoroughlycivilizedstate.Beerhadbeenmadeanddrunkinlarge quantitiesintheGermanareasforseveralcenturiesanditwasconsumedthroughoutKarl'sterritoryandevenmade

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339 bymasterbrewersinhispalaces.Nohopswereused.ChristianizationofnorthernGermanywascompletedpartly bymissionariesandpartlybyforcedconversionbyFrankishoverlordsAfterCharlmagnewascrownedemperorby thepopeonChristmas,A.D.800,hisItalianaffairsoccupiedhimsocompletelythathelostcontrolofGermanyand theSlavsagainenteredfromtheeastinthenextcentury.TheWeserRiverrepresentedthefarthestlimitsoftheSlav expansionwestward.Ref.177[243],181[247]AdditionalNotesp.341 22.4.1.3WESTERNEUROPE 22.4.1.3.1SPAINANDPORTUGAL InA.D.709and710MoslemMoorsattackedtheSpanishcoastbutdidn'tland.AtaboutthesametimetheVisigoth nobleswerequarrelingoverthesuccessiontothedeadKingWittiza,nallyelectingayoungerson,Rodrigo.SupportersoftheeldestsonedtoMoroccotogetaid.Asaresult,amixedforceofArabsandBerbers,ledbythe BerberTariqfromMauretania,invadedSpainin711,quicklytakingthesouthernpart,helpedbothbyJewsandthe Visigothsupportersoftheeldestsonclaimanttothethrone.AnotherMoslemgeneral,Muza,landedatAlgecirasin 712,quicklytookSevilleandMeridoandthenheadednorth.ThesurgingMoslemswentontocrossthePyrenees andsweptintoFrancetobestoppednallyatTours,byCharlesMartel,in732.FallingbackintoSpain,theMoslems brokeuptheovergrownestatesoftheVisigothicnoblesanddevelopedanewsociety.TherulingAbbasidCaliphate wasneveracceptedinSpainandtheSpanishMoorsdeclaredindependencefromBaghdadin756,revivingabranchof theoldOmayyadfamilytoformtheOmayyadDynastyofCordobawhichlasteduntil1031.Nowesterncityequaled CordobainsizeorcultureandnogovernmentinthewestwasbetterthanthatofMoslemSpain.Ref.2[3],137 [188],8[14],196[269] TheunconqueredGoths,Suevi,ChristianizedBerbersofapreviousmigration,andtheIberianCeltswentintonorthwesternSpainandPortugal,wheretheGoth,Pelayo,becamekingofAsturiasandfoundedwhatwastobecomethe Spanishmonarchy.AfterPelayocameAlfonsoIandIIandduringthisperiodtheVisigothSpanishCatholicsnow broughtforthSpain'smostbrilliantandcharacteristiccreation,Mozarabicart,foundnowinliturgyremnantsonlyin ToledoandSalamancachapels.TheseCatholics,allowedtoworshipastheypleased,althoughmoreorlessconned toghettoswithintheMoslemstateandseparatedfromthemainEuropeantradition,developedboththeirownindividualbrandofCatholicismandart.Thelatterwasavividcombinationofremoteclassicism,Islamicminiaturesand theprimitiveidiomsofVisigothicfolk-art.ItisofinterestthatthisMuslimconquestofSpainalsoculminatedina GoldenAge"ofSpanishJewry'Ref.180[246],8[14] HishaI,emirfrom788to796,reversedthedoctrineoftoleranceandattackedtheChristians,althoughhepromoteda religiousandintellectualaristocracy.Thislattergroupwassuppressedwithcruelty;however,asHakamItookcontrol in796.Ref.196[269] 22.4.1.3.2FRANCE&NETHERLANDSANDBELGIUM ItisagainrecommendedthatthesectionsonGERMANYandFRANCEbestudiedtogetherinthisandadjacentcenturiessincebothwereadministeredmoreorlesstogetherundertheFranks.In732CharlesMartel,sonofadministrator PepinII,extendedhisfather'sconscationstoincludeallincomefromchurchlandsunderFrankishcontrolinorderto supportasubstantialforceofcataphractsarmoredknightswhichgavehimmilitarysupremacyintheentirearea.It washewhostoppedtheMoslemsatPoiters,nearToursin732,usingcavalryequippedwithstirrupssothattheycould ramhomelancesandusemacesandswordswhileremainingmounted.Withoutthisbattle,westerncivilizationmight neverhaveexisted.FollowingthatvictoryEuropehadtoincreaseitsnumbersofhorsesandhorsementocontinueto protectitselfand"feudalism"wastheresult.Ref.260[29],279[191] TheMerovingianDynastycametoaningloriousendandtheCarolingeanDynastybeganwithMartel'sson,Pepin ,whobegantodominateagreaterareaandpavedthewayforhisson,CharlesCharlemagne,thegreatestofthe medievalEuropeankings.Heallowedthepopetocrownhim"EmperoroftheRomans"in800A.D.Noeastern emperorhadvisitedRomeforsome300years.Ref.49[73],213[288]

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340 CHAPTER22.A.D.701TO800 InthefarnorthintheBelgium-Netherlandsarea,theFrisianswereontopcommercially,tradinginwine,salt,oil, glass,textilesandmetalwork.InthefarsouthofFranceafewByzantinegoodsdriftedinandinreturntheWestsent slaves,ironandtimbertotheEast.Ref.137[188],213[288]Continueonpages488and490AdditionalNotes p.342 22.4.1.3.3BRITISHISLES 22.4.1.3.3.1ENGLAND&WALES ThescholarBedestatesthatvelanguageswerespokeninEnglandatthistime-English,Celtic,Irish,Pictand Latin.TheearlyEnglishwasthelanguageoftheAnglesanddifferedlittlefromSaxonandwasintelligibletothe Franks,NorwegiansandDanes,allofthesebeingvarietiesofbasicGerman.TheBeowulf,afamousAnglo-Saxon poem,appearedinEnglandinthiscentury.GraduallytheSaxonsdevelopedkings,asgloriedgenerals,whoprotected themselvesbygivinglandstobaronsandinthiswayalandaristocracysoondeveloped.Inthelasthalfofthecentury therewereceaselesswarsbetweensomesevenkingdoms,allnownominallyChristian.ButBede,writingtothe BishopofYork,Egbert,inA.D.734complainedthatsomebishopsweredrunkenrevelersandBonifacewroteinmuch thesameveintotheArchbishopofCanterbury,complainingofdrunkennessofbishopsandlooselivingofnuns.So Christianitywasnothavinganeasytime.Ref.43[64] Allofthis8thcenturyactivitywasfollowedinA.D.793bytherstgreatVikingsackingofthemonasticcenterat Lindisfarne,probablybyNorwegians.Anothergroup,probablyalsoNorwegian,hadcomedowntheEnglishchannel in789,landingatPortlandontheDorsetcoast.DanesfromJutlandalsostartedtheirraids.Thereisnodoubtthatall oftheseraiders,-Angles,JutesandthelaterDanesandNormansaswellastheNorth-menwhowentdownthrough Russia,andthestillearlierGoths,wereallwavesofoneandthesametypeofGermanicpeople.Ref.229[307] ButtoreturntoEngland,inspiteofalltheturmoil,therewassomeinternationaltradeandvisitationsinthiscentury. TherewereevenChineseinKingOffalI'sMerciacourtattheendofthecentury.Mercia,alongwithNorthumbria andWessex,werethelargestoftheEnglishkingdoms.Ref.8[14] Continueonpages490and492AdditionalNotesp.342 22.4.1.3.3.2SCOTLAND ThroughoutthelastcenturythePictshadfoughtagainsteachother,butafteralastintramuralbattlein729,Oengus becamekingofallPicts.HepromptlymadepeacewiththeAnglesandthenturnedtobattletheScots,capturing DunaddandDunolly,drowningoneDalriadickingandforcingotherstotaketothesea.Butwhenhewheeledsouth againagainstStrathclyde,hisarmywasannihilated,perhapsthroughsometreachery.Ref.170[234]Iona,the Scottishreligiousshrineisland,wasinvadedbytheNorsein794andwasburnedjustaftertheturnofthenextcentury. Ref.119[166] 22.4.1.3.3.3IRELAND TheChristianworldofPatrick'sIrelandwasshatteredbyVikingsin795andraidedbythemforthenext200years.As aresultofthis,therearecurrentlygeneticsimilaritiesofpopulationsofScandinavia,ScotlandandNorthernIreland, eventhoughgeographicallyseparated.IrishmonkslandedinIcelandabout759,inhide-coveredcurraghs.Ref.143 [196],260[29] 22.4.1.4SCANDINAVIA 22.4.1.4.1NORWAY|SWEDEN|DENMARK OftheterritoryoftheGermanicpeoples,onlyScandinaviakeptoutofCharlemagne'sEmpire.InSweden,thetownof BirkabegantodominatetheareaofLakeMalar.Itwasaneconomicunitofconsiderableimportance.Evenabronze Buddhahasbeenfoundthere.JustwestofpresentdayStockholm,theislandofHelgowasthecenterofindustry, includingtheproductionofcheapjewelry,iron-working,etc.

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341 TherstDano-NorwegianraidtostrikerealterrorinEuropewastheattackonLindisfarne,Englandin789,wherea famousconventandseatoflearningwasattackedandtheinmateskilledortakenoffasslaves.Manyoftheraidsof theFrisianandEnglishcoastsoriginatedinthevigorouskingdomofJutelandinDenmark."Viking"probablymeans "menfromtheords",because"vik"means"alittleord"inbothDanishandNorwegian.Inadditiontoseatravel,the Scandinavianstravelledgreatdistancesbyland,asfromUppland,SwedentoTrondelag,Norway,byhorses,sledges andcarts.Therewasanox-roadfromnorthJutelandintoGermany.Inwintermenusedskatesandskiesandputspikes onhorses'hooves.Ref.117[164]AdditionalNotesp.342 22.4.1.4.2FINLAND InthiscenturytheFinns,comingfromthesouthandsouthwest,tookpresentdayFinlandatleastKareliafromthe Lapps,whorecedednorthward.AsnotedpreviouslytheFinnsspokeaFinno-Ugriclanguage,relatedtoLappand Livonian.Theirlanguage,althoughnottheirbloodtypes,suggestdistantrelationtotheHunsandtheMagyarswho camefromtheupperVolgaandOkarivers.Therewerethreebasictribes:theTavastians,whosettledinwestern Finland;theKarelians;andthetrueFinnswhohadoriginallysettledonthesouthshoreoftheGulfofFinland.They clearedtheforestanddrainedthemarshes,butthethreetribeswagedwaroneachother.Ref.61[90] 22.4.1.5EASTERNEUROPE 22.4.1.5.1SOUTHERNBALTICAREA RelatedtotheFinnsweretheBorussiansOldPrussians,EsthsEstonians,LivsLivonians,LitvaLithuaniansand LatvianswhosettledtheBalticareassouthoftheGulfofFinland.Allofthesepeopleremainedpaganforseveral centuries. ThroughoutthisandthenextcenturytheGoplaniandLendiziSlavictribescompetedforcontrolofthecentralareaof Poland,withtheGoplaniinitiallythemoresuccessful.RecentexcavationsatMietlicashowsunkenhouses,chieyof oneroom,rathertypicalofearlySlavicabodes.Fewhouseshadidentiablehearths,buttherewerehearthsandpits inthecentralareaofthetown,suggestingapracticeofcommunalcooking.Ref.244[177] 22.4.1.5.2RUSSIA Theword"Rus"mayhavederivedfromtheFinnish Ruotsi ,oldNorse rodr ,ormayberelatedtoRolageninUppland, Sweden.ThereweretwomajortraderoutesoftheVikingScandinaviansdownthroughRussia.Therstwentfrom theBalticdirectlyintoLakeNevoLadogthendowntheRiverVolkhovtothegreatLakeIlmen,toLovatandportage totheDnieper.Alongthisroute,greattownsofKiev,Smolensk,NovgorodandStarajawerefounded.Thesecondwas amoreeasterlyroute,alongtheVolgawheretherewerealreadytownsestablishedforthefurtradeandcontrolledby BulgarsandKhazarswhochargedatollontraders.FromthegreatbendoftheVolgatraderscouldstrikeoutacross thedeserttoreachtheSilkRoutesomewhereneartheAralSea.Ref.237[316] Itil,onthemouthoftheVolgaandcapitaloftheKhazars,becameoneofthegreatcommercialcitiesoftheworld.The ArabsraidedtheKhazarhomelandandputanendtothegreatnessofthisKhanate,astheVolgaBulgarstookadvantage toasserttheirindependenceinthenorthoftheareaandthesamewasprobablytrueoftheMagyars,aFinnishtribe thathadmigratedtothesteppenorthoftheBlackSeaandhadupuntilthenbeenunderKhazardomination.Their languagewasbasicallyFinnishwithaTurkishelementadded.Thesethreeorientalpowers-Khazars,Bulgarsand Magyars-remainedfriendly,withtheKhazarsstillsomewhatseniorintherelationships.Reducedinsize,theKhazar KhanatepersisteduntilaboutA.D.1,000anditspeopledidhelptore-routethelandtraderoutetotheFarEastnorth oftheCaspianasJustinianhadwantedtodo.Ref.137[188]ElsewhereinRussiabytheendofthecenturythere wasaSlavicSea,withSlavicpeoplesspillingoverintocentralEuropeandtheBalkans.AdditionalNotesp.342 NOTE :AsafewoftheveryearlyVikingraidsstartedtoseekvictimsoutsidetheBaltic,in800Charlemagne ordereddefensesconstructedonthenorthcoastofFrankia,asprotectionagainstpiratesintheGallicSea. Ref.301[258]

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342 CHAPTER22.A.D.701TO800 NOTE :DorestadtnowbecamethelargestandmostactivetradingcenterinnorthwestEurope,withtrade chieyinthehandsofFrisians.Ref.301[258] NOTE :Acharterof729showsthatKingOffawasorganizingdefensesagainstpaganseamenearlyinthe century.TheLindisfarneattackiswelldocumentedbyletters,butthatwasnottherstplacetoberaidedin westernEurope,justoneofthemoreextensiveandnoteworthy.Ref.301[258] NOTE :InadditiontotheprevioustradeitemsfromScandinaviatherewasnowaddedwalrusivoryfrom northernNorway.Thereweresignicantincreasesinimportsofglassbowls,beakers,pottery,mill-stones andsilvercoinsfromwesternEuropethroughFrisiatoDenmarkandHelgoinLakeMalareninSweden. Boat-gravesinthelattercountrycontainsuchglassandcoins.InDenmarktherewasbuilttheDanevirke, acomplexforticationoftimbersacrossthebaseofthepeninsula,perhapsbecauseofCharlesMartel's campaignagainsttheSaxonsin738.TheLimfjordwasopenatbothendsandthatwasthenormalroute fromtheNorthSeatotheBaltic.ThetraderoutefromDorestadtuptoLimfjordwaswellshelteredby islandsandfromtheeasternendoftheLimfjordthecoursewentdownthrougheithertheGreatorLittle Belt,wheretheexitwascommandedbytheislandofSamso.Thiswasbisectedbyacanal,eithertofacilitate tributeorprotection.Intheeast,CourlandwassubjecttotheSwedesandStarajaLadogawasestablishedin thelasthalfofthecenturyontherouteleadingtotherichfurareasofnorthRussia.TheDanesandSwedes foughteachotheralmostcontinuously.KingAnoundusofSweden,exiledinDenmark,got21shipsfrom theDanestoaddto11ofhisownandreturnedtoattackBirka.Insomewaythiswasdiverted,however,and heattackedtheSlavsinstead.Ref.301[258] NOTE :AboutA.D.770,aftertheUmayyadswereoverthrownbytheAbbasids,Persiancoinswereonce againincirculationthroughoutRussia.TheKhazarswereagainthechiefintermediaries.Ref.301[258] ForwardtoEurope:A.D.801to900Section23.4 22.5CentralandNorthernAsia:A.D.701to800 6 22.5.1CENTRALANDNORTHERNASIA BacktoCentralandNorthernAsia:A.D.601to700Section21.5 InthenorthernportionsofCentralAsia,fromtheAralSeaandtheSyrDaryaValleyeasttoManchuria,therulers weretheBlueorCelestialTurksSeepage421.TheyappeartohavedrivenotherTurkishtribeswestward,including theOgurandalsotheirformerrulers,theJuan-JuanofMongolia.InthemostnortheasternpartofMongoliathe Uigursseizedcontrolin744,establishingacapitalontheOrkhonRivernearthesiteoflaterKarakorum.Themost farungeastwardgroupofIndo-EuropeanEuropoidtribeswerethosewhoreachedChineseTurkistanandwere calledTocharians.Theirlanguagewaswrittendowninthiscentury.ThewesternregionofCentralAsia,Kashgar, wasovertakenbytheadvanceofIslamandduetotheenergyofthelocalemirgovernor,considerableadvancewas madeagainsttheTurks.TheArabscontrolledallofwesternTurkistanandAfghanistanandtheMoslemreligionhas persistedthereuntilthisday. TheArabswerehelpedindrivingtheChineseoutofwestTurkistanbytheKarlukTurks,whoattackedtheChinese fromtherear.ThisChinesearmywasnallycompletelydefeatedattheTalasRiverjustsouthandwestofLake BalkhashinA.D.751inoneofthosedecisivebattlesofhistory.ChinawasnottobeinuentialinCentralAsiaforsix centuriesandBuddhismgavewaytoIslam.Ofsomeimportance,too,isthefactthatsomeofthecapturedChinese soldiersbroughttheartofmakingpaperwiththemtotheWest.Ref.8[14],38[59],19[32],101[146] 6 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat.

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343 PadmaSambhava,anIndianguru,broughtBuddhismtoTibet,heretoforerifewithspirits,demigodsanddemons. CalledtothecountrybyKingTrisongDetsan,thegurubroughtwritingtothecountryandblendednativebeliefswith theHinduandBuddhistcultsofTantrism,sothatTibetwasunderIndianinuenceafterA.D.750.Ref.157[213] ForwardtoCentralandNorthernAsia:A.D.801to900Section23.5 22.6TheIndianSubcontinent:A.D.701to800 7 22.6.1THEINDIANSUBCONTINENT TheMoslemsbecameestablishedintheIndusValley,takingSindinA.D.711,andtheyalsotookoverthecentral AsianoasesnorthoftheHinduKush,whileMoslemshippingtookovercontroloftheIndianOcean,thusalmost isolatingHinduIndia.TheHimalayanborderlandsremainedbeyondMoslemreach.KashmirandBengalhadbecome powerfulstatessoonafterthe6thcenturyandcontinuedthroughouttheperiodunderreview.MagnicentBuddhist templeswereconstructedinKashmiratthistime.Ref.275[99]TherewerenopowersinthenorthofIndiaequalto thoseinthesouthbutbytheendofthiscenturytwonewdynasties,thePalasofBengalandthePratiharasofRajasthan beganastruggleforthecontrolofnorthernIndia.TheformerwereBuddhistswithstrongtiestoTibetandkepttheold religionaliveatatimewhenitwasdisappearingelsewhereinIndia.ItwasfromthisgroupthatTibetgottheirTantric formofBuddhisminthiscentury.TheGuijarasofwesternIndiaunitedwithPratiharaandtogethertheysucceededin keepingouttheMoslemsforanothertwocenturies. IntheDeccan,theRashtrakutasoverthrewtheChalukyasin753andbegana200yearrule.Theybuiltthegreatest oftheIndianrock-cuttemples.ThewarriorkingsofthePallavacontinuedtoruleapartoftheDeccan,however, astheyhadforalmost500yearsandintheirempireassembliesofvillageleaders,guildsandprofessionalgroups wereheldannually,makingauniqueformofdemocracy.Atthelastofthecentury,intheeast,theeasternChalukya DynastybegantoexertsomecontrolasaBuddhistclanwithuniqueBuddhistbronzes.Kalingawasruledbythe easternGangas.InsouthernIndia,there-wasconictbetweenJainsandtheadherentsofShivaismwhichsometimes ledtomassacres.Ref.137[188],8[14],68[106],213[288],19[32] ScienticactivitycontinuedinIndia,withadvancementparticularlyinmathematics-includingrulesforndingpermutationsandcombinations,thesquarerootoftwoandthesolvingofindeterminateequationsofseconddegree-all featuresunknowninEuropeuntilthetimeofEuler,1,000yearslater.Thestaplecropswerewheat,riceandsome millet.Exportswerecottontextilesandspices,whilethemostsoughtafterimportwasthehorse.Continueonpage 497 22.7TheFarEast:A.D.701to800 8 22.7.1THEFAREAST BacktoTheFarEast:A.D.601to700Section21.7 22.7.1.1CHINAANDMANCHURIAContinuedT'angDynasty AfterthedeathofEmpressWuthetrueT'angDynastyresumedcontrol.OfparticularnoteisMingHuangorHsuan Tsung-756,the"BrilliantEmperor"underwhomChinastoodintheveryforefrontofcivilization,themost powerful,enlightened,progressiveandbest-governedempireonearth.Bythemiddleofthis8thcenturytheimperial ofcersbeganexchangingexcessgrainforvariousluxurygoodsandtheeffectwastoexpandamarketforhighly skilledartisanwaressuchasnesilks,porcelains,lacquerworks,etc.Asubstantialenlargementofmerchantand artisanclassesensued,withanincreaseinurbangrowth.Sugarcane,nativetoBengal,wasimportedinChinaand 7 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat. 8 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat.

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344 CHAPTER22.A.D.701TO800 adapteditselfreadilyintheneighborhoodofCantonwhereawoodedhinterlandsuppliedthegreatamountoffuel necessaryforitsprocessing.Tea,knowninSzechwanforcenturies,nowspreadthroughoutthecountry.Ref.260 [29]FromtheHantotheT'angdynastiesChina'spopulationhadvariedgreatlybuthadnowbuiltbackuptoabout 50millionpeople,keptfrombeingstilllarger,atleastinpart,byinfanticide.Ref.46[76],101[146] Thearmywasprofessionalandlargelyrecruitedfromandcommandedby"barbarians".Inghtingwiththeexpanding ArabsinwestTurkistan,theArabswerehelpedbytheKarlukTurks,whoattackedtheChinesefromtherear.Inthe steppe,theUigurandGirghizTurkswerenowincontrolandthelastoftheTurkicpeoplestoresideinMongolia. InChina,proper,in754,75%ofthetotalpopulationlivednorthoftheYangtzeRiver.ThecityofCh'ang-anhad 2,000,000inhabitantswithhalfofthoselivingwithinthewalledinnercityof30squaremiles.Atotalof26citieshad registeredpopulationsofover500,000.Theoldestdatableprintedmaterialswereproducedin770when1,000,000 copiesofaBuddhistcharmwererunoffbycommissionfromaJapaneseempress.Ref.101[146],213[288] IthasbeensaidthatEmperorHsuan-tsunglivedtoolong,becausein745atage60hefellinlovewithoneofhissons' concubines,LadyYangYangKuei-fei,andsoonherfamilymonopolizedthemostpowerfulministerialposts.One ofthese,AnLu-Shan,anaudaciousTurk,hadtherunofthepalaceasLadyYang'sadoptedson.Soonthereafterwhen the"barbarians"ofAsiaagainboredownontheChineseborders,AnLu-Shan,thenageneral,roseinrebellionagainst theT'angforcesandtheyhadtoberecalledfromthefrontierstodefendtheemperor.Therebellionwascheckedin 763,buttheT'angDynastyhadbeenerodedandChinesepowerdidnotreturntocentralAsiaforsixcenturies.See alsoprevioussection,thischapter.Thistypeofrevoltbyaborder"guard"wasalwaysathreattotheChinesecentral authorityandexplains,inpart,theircontinualeffortstokeepthemilitaryundertightcontrol.Thesameparanoia determinedtheirpolicyofbreakingupundueconcentrationsofwealth.Noone-militarycommanderorrichtrader wasevertobeinapositiontochallengetheauthorityofthepoliticalruler.Ref.279[191]IntheAnLu-Shan revoltsome3,500,000losttheirlivesandthiswasfollowedin762byaplagueinShantungprovincewithmorethan one-halfofthepeopledying.Thediseaseriskinthesouthwasgreaterthantheriskofdeathonthenomadfrontier. Ref.101[146],140[190]InterventionoftheUighurTurksfromMongoliahelpedtosavetheT'angDynasty afterthetragedies,butthereaftertheT'angcourtwasessentiallyavassaloftheUighurkhan.Inthisperiodoftragedy fromrevoltanddisease,Chinesepoetsreachedgreatheights,withLiPobecomingthe"Keats"ofChina. InManchuria,theproto-Mongolianpeople,theKhitan,hadbeguntoraidtheChineseborderasearlyas695andthey continuedthroughoutthis8thcentury.AlittletotheireastweretheP'o-Hai,apowerfulkingdomsetontheChinese modelbutestablishedbytheremnantsoftheKoreanKoguryonobles.Theyremainedindependentfrom710onfor sometwocenturies.Ref.8[14] 22.7.1.2JAPAN WehavepreviouslyindicatedthatforcenturiesithadbeenthecustomfortheJapaneseroyalfamilytochangeits capitaleachtimearulingemperordied.Theso-calledNaraperiodstartedwiththecapitalatthatcityin710,butthis metropoliswastoolargetobetorndownandmovedeachgenerationandthatpracticewasstopped,atleastuntilthe nalmovetoKyotoinA.D.794.BothNaraandKyotohadbeenconstructedusingBaghdadasamodel.Ref.8[14] AfterEmperorKammutransferredhiscapitaltoKyoto,Japaneseart,previouslyunderChineseinuences,developed itsownmaturestyleandtaste.Ref.19[32]AfterKammu'sdeaththeemperor'sroledeterioratedsomewhat. Throughoutthisperiod,underFujiwaraministers,courtlifehadbecomeagreatpageantofceremoniesandcostumes, andgraduallytheemperor'sperson,itself,becamesotabooandawe-inspiring,asarougedandgildeddoll,thathe begantobeveiledfromtheworldandtheFujiwarastookallresponsibilityfordecisions,goodorbad,shieldingthe throne.graduallycametobelieveinanemperorwhowasatthesametime"amortalgod,azeroinnity,animpotent omnipotence" 9 .NewcivilandpenalcodesandtheYoroLaws,whichwererevisionsoftheTaihoReforms,cameinto effectabout757andgraduallybecamemoreeffective. In752theGreatBuddhaatNara,a53footbronzegure,wasdedicatedasthecherishedprojectoftheShomas.Atthe endofthecentury,in790,Japanhadasustainedepidemicwithwomenunder30yearsandmalesofallagesaficted. 9 ThequotationisfromBergamini,Ref.12[21]

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345 Ref.140[190] 22.7.1.3KOREA MostofKoreawasnowunitedundertheSillaDynasty.Buddhismandartourished,particularlyatthecapitalonthe siteofmodernKyongju. 22.7.1.4SOUTHEASTASIA TheT'ai,orShan,peopleshadbeeninltratingdownintothesoutheastAsianpeninsulaforseveralcenturiesandnow theyformedakingdominYunnanprovinceofChina. TheDvaravatikingdomofKhmerpeoplewasBuddhist,ratherthanBrahmaninreligion,andinthiscenturymigrants weresenttotheupperMenamValleywheretheyestablishedtheindependentKingdomofHaripunjaya,withacapital nearthepresentChiengmai.AllofthisoccurredinwhatisnowThailand.BurmawasunderIndianinuenceandhad HinducommercialsettlementsontheTenasserimcoastandattheprincipalrivermouths.InCambodiathewar-like courseoftheChenlaswasbroughttoanendwhenakingfromJavaenteredandbeheadedtheChenlaruler.Although theJavanesesoonwithdrew,thatkingdomdeclined.OntheAtlanticcoastwasChampa,understrongIndianinuence. Ref.119[166],37[58],8[14] ThroughouttherstmillenniumafterChrist,butparticularlyfromthe7thtothe16thcentury,Indiancultureand religiousinuencespreadthroughoutIndonesiaandinparticularitcreatedadistinctivecivilizationinJava.This society,controlledbytheBuddhistkingoftheSailendraDynasty,wassecondonlytotheKhmersinsoutheastAsia. Ref.18[31],19[32]Inthisandthenextcentury,ArabtradersbroughttheMoslemreligiontothePhilippines andthen,inturn,cametheIndians.Ref.153[210] ForwardtoTheFarEast:A.D.801to900Section23.7 ChooseDifferentRegion 1.IntrotoEraSection22.1 2.AfricaSection22.2 3.AmericaSection22.9 4.CentralandNorthernAsiaSection22.5 5.EuropeSection22.4 6.TheIndianSubcontinentSection22.6 7.TheNearEastSection22.3 8.PacicSection22.8 22.8ThePacic:A.D.701to800 10 22.8.1THEPACIFIC BacktoThePacic:A.D.601to700Section21.8 Atthistimeandinadjacentcenturies,thePacicOceanwitnessedoneofthemostremarkablehumandispersalsofall history.Remotecoralatollsandisolatedvolcaniccones,oftenseparatedbyhundredofmilesofopensea,becamesites ofhumanhabitation.ThisoccurredbyvirtueofthePolynesianseavoyagesoverlongdistanceswiththeirefcient outriggercanoes.MostofthemigrationsappeartohavetakenplacebetweenA.D.600and1,000.Wehavepreviously notedthatthespreadnowappearstohavetakenplacefromHawaiisouthward,ratherthanthereverse.EvenMcNeill Ref.139[192]notesthatoccasionalaccidentalcontactwiththeAmericasandtheAsianmainlandoccurred.The erraticandcomplexdistributionofcultivatedplantsanddomesticanimalsamongthePacicIslandsindicatesthe 10 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat.

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346 CHAPTER22.A.D.701TO800 rangeandvarietyofcontactslongbeforetheEuropeansarrivedinthearea.LegendhasitthatexploringPolynesians evenreachedtheAntarcticicepackinA.D.750.Evenso,throughoutallthisperiod,therewaslittleornochangein Australia,withtheaboriginalpeopleexistingapparentlywithoutsignicantchange,centuryaftercentury.Ref.139 [192],76[116] ForwardtoThePacic:A.D.801to900Section23.8 ChooseDifferentRegion 1.IntrotoEraSection22.1 2.AfricaSection22.2 3.AmericaSection22.9 4.CentralandNorthernAsiaSection22.5 5.EuropeSection22.4 6.TheFarEastSection22.7 7.TheIndianSubcontinentSection22.6 8.TheNearEastSection22.3 22.9America:A.D.701to800 11 22.9.1AMERICA BacktoAmerica:A.D.601to700Section21.9 22.9.1.1NORTHAMERICA 22.9.1.1.1THEFARNORTHANDCANADA TheDorsetArcticCulturecontinueditsmanycenturiesofexistenceinthefarnorth.Additionaldetailswillbegiven inthenextchapter.WehavelittledenitiveinformationabouttheCanadianIndiantribesatthisparticularlyperiod, butcertainlythefarwesterngroupscontinuedaspreviouslyandmaywellhavebeenthesending-offpointforthe PolynesianmigrationsintothePacic. 22.9.1.1.2THEUNITEDSTATES "ThescaleandamboyanceofMississipiansocialdwarfedanythingknownbeforeinNorthAmerica." 12 Therewere enormousceremonialcenters,withtruncatedpyramidsandhugeplazasasatCohokia,MississipiresemblingMexicancenters,withbrilliantartistryandanewreligioussymbolism,reectingafascinationwithhumansacrice,sun andre.Thepeoplehadcornelds,pottery,obsidianknives,warehouses,administrativebuildings,copper,shell, stoneandwoodobjects.Coppersheetswereembossedwithhumanportraits.Therewasapparentlyanobilitywho livedinspecialhomesarrangedaboutthetemples.Thissocietyourishedforatleast8centuriesRef.215[290]. ThecentralandlowerMississippicultureswerecenteredbetweenSt.LouisandMemphisbutspreadtoWisconsin, Oklahoma,andAlabamaandwasstillinexistencewhentheSpanishcamewiththewhiteman'sdiseases. The EncyclopediaofArcheology Ref.45[66]saysthatthenewtraitsofthisculturewere: 1.Rectangular,attoppedmoundsusedfortemplebases 2.Newpottery-usingpulverizedshellfortemperwithnewshapesanddecorations 3.Maize,asthechiefcrop 11 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat. 12 Quotationfrom"WhoweretheMoundBuilders?",byBrianFagan,in MysteriesofthePast ,Ref.215[290],page131.

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347 Someofthetruncatedplatformtemplemoundswereupto100feettall,withstructuresforreligiousand/orpolitical purposesontop.Frequentlytherewereseveralinclusters,spreadoverseveralacres.Thetemplesareaandresidences weresurroundedbymaizeeldswiththeCornMothergoddessplayingavitalroleinthelivesoftheMississippian people.Beans,peas,squashandsunowersroundedouttheircrops.Ref.267[321]. ThehistoricIndiantribesoftheplainssuchasthePawnee,Osage,andArikara,forexample,perpetuatedthemixed horticulturalandbisonhuntingeconomyoftheprevious800to1,000years.Someoftheirancestors'largevillages havebeenexcavatedalongtheMissourianditstributaries.Ref.88[131] TheColonialPeriodoftheHohokamcontinuedinthesouthwest.Theirballcourtsvariedgreatlyinsizefrom20 meterstoover100metersinlength.SomebelievetheywereusedforthereligiousMeso-Americanstyleballgames butothersbelievetheywerestagesforadance.Ref.269[193]Accordingtotheremainingavailablearrowheads, itwassometimebetween700and900thatthebowandarrowbegantobeused,ratherthanthespear,bytheMogollon tribes.Thesepeople,rsttousepotteryinthesouthwest,developedincreasingskillinthisendeavor,astheymadeitby coilingandscraping,notwithapotterywheel.InnorthernArizonaandNewMexicotheAnasaziCulturenowshifted fromtheBasket-makerintothePuebloPeriod,withvesub-divisionsextendinguptomoderntimes.ThePueblo IperiodlastedtwocenturiesfromA.D.700to900,withtheirpotteryshowingsomestrangenewshapes,including somemadetolooklikebirds.Ref.66[97],210[283],88[131]MasonryrubbleintheChacoCanyonsuggests agradualshifttoground-levelconstructionofmulti-roomedhouseswhichweretherstpueblos.Itwasatthistime thattheAnasazimothersstartedstrappingtheirbabiestohard,woodencradleboardsproducingatteningoftheback oftheirheads.Kivasbecamefocalpointsofcommunityandreligiouspractices.Ref.252[101]. 13 22.9.1.2MEXICOANDCENTRALAMERICA LegendsaysthattheToltecsbuilttheircapitalatTulainA.D.720.About750muchofcentralTeotihucuanwaslooted andburned.Perhapsdevelopingdroughtandaridconditions,aswellasmilitarypressurefromthenorth,contributed tothedownfallofthiscivilization,whichthenshrunktoaseriesofvillagesoveranareaofonesquarekilometer.Its fallhadrepercussionsthroughoutmiddleAmerica.Ref.215[290],176[242] AlthoughitisdifculttokeepFell'sRef.66[97]chronologysortedout,heseemstoimplythatitwasinthis centurythatAmericansfromthesouthwest,perhapswithLibyaninuence,exploredthePacicandmappedHawaii. ThelowlandMayaCulturecontinuedstrongandtheNationalGeographicSocietyRef.155[214]datesextensive MayanprojectsinTikal,Guatemala,tothiscentury.Theseincludedasummittemple212feethigh.Attheheightof itspowerTikalhad40,000inhabitantsanditsnuclearareaalonehadmorethan3,000separatestructuresandsome200 stonemonuments,nottomentionreservoirs,acentralacropolisandasquarecontainingamarketarea,sweatbathand aball-gamecourt.AgreatMayaceremonialcenterwasatPalenque,Mexico,andoneofthemostbeautifulcitysites oftheClassicPeriodwasatCopan,Honduras.Ref.88[131]Somebuildings,asatUxmal,Mexico,hadcement andrubblecoresfacedwithaveneerofthin,nelycarvedlimestoneslabsandelaboratelydecoratedmoldings.Three roomsofpaintednarrativescenesofMayalifewerecompletedatBonampak,neartheQuatemalanborder.Henri StierlinRef.176[242]writesthattheMayanYucatancivilizationwasinfullbloominthiscenturyandonthrough the10th,creatingnewstylesofarchitecture.AmongtheMaya,medicinewascarriedonbytwoseparategroups: Hemenes,priestsorganizedintoamedicalsociety;andthelesser,non-priestlyhechiceros,whotookcareoftreating wounds,openingabscesses,reducingfractures,controllingbleeding,etc.Ref.125[173] InCostaRicatheNicoyapolychromepotterytraditionexpandedanddiversied,producingtherstwhite-slipped vesselswithbrilliantred,orangeandblackpainting.Theseappeartohavebeenmadealmostexclusivelyinthe northernpartofGreaterNicoya,whilebufftoorange-slippedceramicsweremadeincentersofGuanacaste.Ref.265 [270] 13 AlthoughitisdifculttokeepFell'sRef.66[97]chronologysortedout,heseemstoimplythatitwasinthiscenturythatAmericansfrom thesouthwest,perhapswithLibyaninuence,exploredthePacicandmappedHawaii.

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348 CHAPTER22.A.D.701TO800 22.9.1.3SOUTHAMERICA 22.9.1.3.1NORTHERNANDWESTERNSOUTHAMERICA Huari,capitalofapoliticalstatewhichembracedmostofPeru,wasoverthrownandabandonedaboutA.D.800and PeruwasnotuniedagainuntiltheIncaconquestofthe15thcentury.Ref.8[14]Thearcheologyofthisentire periodofA.D.600to1,000iscalledtheMiddleHorizonanditincludestheemergenceofthecharacteristicstyleof Tiahuanaco,nearLakeTiticaca.Therewascontroloffoodresourcesandpopulationmovementsoverawideareabut particularlynearTiahuanacowherethealtitudeisover12,000feet.ThisMiddleHorizonCultureshowedpolychrome potterybeakerswithhuman,animalandotherdesigns.Therewasanurbanareaofperhapsonesquaremilewithan estimatedpopulationofbetween5,000and20,000.Ref.88[131] Tiahuanacohadabird-mancultasthelaterChimuandalsoEasterIslandandthelaterIncatraditionsmaintained thatthelegendarygod-menwhobuiltTiahuanacoextendedtheirearlobesandcalledthemselves"BigEars"justas theoriginalEasterIslandinhabitants.LaterSpanishexplorers,particularlyPizarro'scompanion,JuandeBetanzos, whomarriedanIncawoman,recordedthelegendthatthewhiteandbeardedTiahuanacoleader,Ticci,stoppedover inCuzcoonthewayfromLakeTiticacatoappointalocalsuccessorandleaveordersaboutproducingthelargeears, beforehewentdowntotheocean,nevertobeseenagain.ThisTicci,wholeftthePeruviancoast,isundoubtedly thesameTiki-with-large-ears,ofMarquesanmyth,wholedhumanitytoPolynesiabutitisonlyonEasterIslandthat earextensionassumedsocialimportanceequaltothatofPeru.WhatisdenitelyknownisthatTiahuanacoidobjects madeintheupperAndesbegantoappearinthelower,centralAndesaboutA.D.750.Whetherthismerelyrepresents theraidingofwarpartiestothelowerlandsoractualdominationofthelowervalleysbytheTiahuanacoidchiefdoms isnotknown.Ref.95[140],62[91] TheremnantsoftheMochekingdomcontinuedtodeclineasthesouthernstatesdominatedthearea.Onthecoastof Surinam,inwhatlaterbecameDutchGuiana,aboutA.D.700theseaencroachedonthelandsothatthepeoplewere obligedtobuildamoundasavillagesiteandpresumablytomakeridgesfortheircrops.Thismoundedareawas occupiedcontinuouslyuntilatleastA.D.900.Ref.167[226] 22.9.1.3.2EASTERNSOUTHAMERICA Ontheeasternpartofthecontinentthereweretwosettledareas-theAmazonasandOrinocoBasin-andthesouthern plains.ThechiefsettlementinthelatterwastheParanabasinwherearcheologistshavefoundsitesdatingbackto thehighHoloceneperiod.Butinthis8thcenturygreatnumbersofTupisandGuaraniscamefromBraziltosettlein thisregion.Theylivedinfortiedvillages,eatingcorn,squashandsh.EveninBrazil,ethnologistshaveobserved culturaltraitsthataretypicalofthelaterAfricanizedEcuadoriancoast.Therearemanyitemsthatspeakforcontinent tocontinentmigration.Thepracticeofcircumcision,forone,maylinkeasternSouthAmericawithAfrica,notjust SouthAsia.Ref.62[91] ForwardtoAmerica:A.D.801to900Section23.9 ChooseDifferentRegion 1.IntrotoEraSection22.1 2.AfricaSection22.2 3.CentralandNorthernAsiaSection22.5 4.EuropeSection22.4 5.TheFarEastSection22.7 6.TheIndianSubcontinentSection22.6 7.TheNearEastSection22.3 8.PacicSection22.8

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Chapter23 A.D.801to900 23.1A.D.801to900 1 23.1.1A.D.801TO900 BackwardtoA.D.701to800Section22.1 ThemostmemorablefeatureofthiscenturyisthegreatVikinginvasions,buttheconcurrentdevelopmentsofthe empiresofCharlemagneandtheMoslemArabsareequallyimportanttotheEurasianworld.TheFarEastcontinued tohave"barbarian"troubles,butinmiddleAmericaitwastheclimaxoftheClassicalPeriod. 23.1.1.1THECHRISTIANCHURCH ThepapacyatRomesanktooneofitslowestebbswithaseriesofincompetent,immoralandirresponsiblepopes.In theeasternchurch,iconoclasm,whichhadproducedalargecropofmartyrsandexileswhileitlasted,wasofcially bannedinA.D.843.Ref.8[14] 23.1.1.2THEISLAMICCHURCH Similarly,theheadquartersoftheIslamicChurchinBaghdadhadaperiodofliquor,lechery,luxuryandslothwhich corruptedthecaliphate.InthiseraIslamtoleratedChristiansandtherewere11,000Christianchurchesinvariousparts oftheIslamicrealm.ThetwomainsourcesofIslamicknowledgeweretheKoranandtheTradition,acollectionof reportsoftheactsandsayingsoftheProphetandhiscompanions.UltimatelysixstandardcompilationsofTradition wereproducedinthiscentury.UndertheAbbasids,thedirectdescendentsofAliwereallowedspecialprivilegeas religiousleaders,knownas ulema andthiscompromisebetweenpoliticalandreligiousleadershipwasknownasthe "AbbasidCompromise"andthoseacceptingthisbecameknownasSunnites.Ref.68[106]Attheendofthe century,however,agroupofthefollowersofAli,called"Carmathians"developedthehereticalShi'itesect,whichwas togrowintoapowerfulforceinthefutureofthereligion. InlimitedrespectsthisandthenextcenturywereactuallytheGoldenAgeofIslam,particularlyinSpain,wheremany featuresweredifferentthanintherestoftheMoslemworld.Musicwasprized,intellectualactivitywasgreatand tolerancewascomplete,withmanymarriagesbetweenChristiansandMuslims.TheChristianKingAlfonsoIIIeven senthisson,thefutureOrdonoII,tobeeducatedattheMuslimcourtofZaragoza.Ref.213[288] 23.1.1.3INTERNATIONALJEWRY GroupsofJewssettlinginGermanydevelopedYiddishasauniquelanguage,combiningGerman,Hebrewandother sources.Ref.222[296]AdditionalNotesp.349 1 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat. 349

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350 CHAPTER23.A.D.801TO900 NOTE :NetworksofJewishmerchantsstretchedoveralltheworldfromEgyptandEthiopiatoIndiaand ChinaviatheRedSea,PersianGulfandtheIndianOcean.Ref.260[29],292[28] ForwardtoA.D.901to1000Section24.1 ChooseDifferentRegion 1.AfricaSection23.2 2.AmericaSection23.9 3.CentralandNorthernAsiaSection23.5 4.EuropeSection23.4 5.TheFarEastSection23.7 6.TheIndianSubcontinentSection23.6 7.TheNearEastSection23.3 8.PacicSection23.8 23.2Africa:A.D.801to900 2 23.2.1AFRICA BacktoAfrica:A.D.701to800Section22.2 23.2.1.1NORTHEASTAFRICA TheoldAxummonarchyestablishedanewresidencedeepintheinteriorofEthiopiaaroundLakeHayqsometime beforeA.D.870.ThiswasactuallyaChristianmonasterywithsome300clerics.TheoldAxumiteareawasgivenup entirelytoinvadingsheepherders.Ref.270[36]Nubiaremainedessentiallyasinthelastcentury. EgyptwasaMoslemstatebutindependentlyruledbytheTulunidDynasty.ThesemenwereTurkishinorigin,having beenbroughtintoIslamasprofessionalsoldiers.Oneofthem,AhmadibnTulun-884conqueredSyriatoadd tohisrealm.Egypt,astheancientgranaryforsouthernEurope,nolongrobbedofitsproductsbyforeignmasters, entereduponaminorrenaissance,withnewlearningandart,palaces,publicbaths,ahospitalandagreatmosque honoringTulun. 23.2.1.2NORTHCENTRALANDNORTHWESTAFRICA AlloftheoriginalMoslemprovincesinnorthAfricawerenowmoreorlessindependentwithseparaterulers.After 800TunisiawasruledbytheAghlabidDynastyuntiltheendofthecenturywhentheywereoverthrownbytheKotama, aBerbertribefromKabylia.Morocco,undertheIdrisids,hadfoundedaShi'itecaliphatein789whichhadcarried onintothiscentury.Stillfartherwest,justontheMediterraneansideoftheStraitsofGibralter,weretheRostemids. Ref.137[188],8[14]PleaseseemapinconnectionwithCENTRALEUROPE,thischapter. TherewerethreemajortraderoutesacrosstheSaharaatthistime.OnewentfromFezzantoKanem,runningnorth ofLakeChad;asecondwentfromGao,ontheNigerbend,tocentralMaghrib;andthethirdranfromthewestern MaghribtoGhana.Ref.83[123] 23.2.1.3SUBSAHARANAFRICA CommerceacrosstheSaharabroughtgoldandslavestotheMediterraneanandstimulatedtheearlyNegrostatesofthe sub-Saharanregions.Ghanahadfewnaturalresourcesofitsownanditswealthwasderivedfromleviesimposedon thistradeacrossthedesert.WehaveseeninpreviouschaptershowJenne-jenodevelopedasatradecenterontheNiger. 2 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat.

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351 By800ithadperhaps10,000peopleandanextensiveriverinetradewiththeTimbukturegion.Ref.268[189]To theArabs,therulerofGhanawasreputedtobetherichestandmostpowerfulmonarchinalltheBiladas-SudanLand ofBlacks.Around LakeChadtheempireofKanem-Bornudevelopedaboutthebeginningofthis9thcenturyandsurvivedforamillenium. Thiskingdom,foundedbyZaghawanomads,wasoriginallyonlyoneofthesevenHausacity-states,eachprotected bystrongcitywallsandexcellingasmanufacturersandlongdistancemerchants.Ref.68[106],175[241] OntheeastcoastofAfricaagreatwaveoftradingactivitysweptthecountriesborderingtheIndianOcean,resulting inastringofcity-statesalongthatcoast,mostofthemfoundedbyMuslimsfromthePersianGulfandsomefrom southernArabia.Bantu-speakingNegroessoonjoinedthemtoproduceadistinctcultureandlanguageSwahili. FarthersouthinZimbabwe,theShonaandparticularlytheKarangassub-group,continuedinthiscenturytodevelop agriculture,stockraising,goldandcoppertradingandthebuildingoflargestoneedices.Theyprobablyoriginally camefromiron-richKatangaandhadanadvancedknowledgeofironminingandmetallurgy.Theysoonbecamethe overlordsoftheindigenousGokomereandLeopard'sKopjepeopleastheRhodesianplateaubecameabeehiveof gold,copperandironproduction.TheproductswenttotheArabmerchantsonthecoast.TheShonacivilizationlasted untilA.D.1500.Ref.175[241],176[242],45[66] ForwardtoAfrica:A.D.901to1000Section24.2 23.3TheNearEast:A.D.801to900 3 23.3.1THENEAREAST BacktoTheNearEast:A.D.701to800Section22.3 23.3.1.1ARABIAANDJORDAN TheoriginalhomeoftheMoslemswasnolongerthecenteroftheiractivity,butMuhammed'shomeareaatMecca remainedtheirreligiousfocalpoint.AttheendofthiscenturythiscitywascontrolledbythehereticalShi'itesect. MoslemstateswhichremainedseparatefromtheAbbasidCaliphateweresetupineasternArabiaandYemen.Ref. 8[14]AdditionalNotesp.352 23.3.1.2MEDITERRANEANCOASTALAREAS&IRAQANDSYRIA Earlyinthecentury,withtheAbbasidMoslemadministrationatBaghdad,therewasremarkablegrowthofthatcity. By814itcoveredapproximately10by9kilometers,theequivalentofmodern-dayPariswithintheouterboulevards. Ref.8[14]ThecaliphinBaghdadwasthemostpowerfulmanonearthandtheArabdhowsrodetheIndian Oceanfromendtoend.Ref.2[3]ThereignofMamuntheGreat-833wasprobablythemostgloriousof all.DamascusandBaghdadeachhadobservatoriesandaHouseofKnowledge,witharichlibraryinthelattercity. Ref.119[166]Later,evenastheadministrationbeganadeclinetherewasstillconsiderableprogressinthearea inscience,literature,astronomyandmedicine.TranslationscontinuedtobemadefromSyriac,Greek,Pahlaviand SanskrittoArabic.Johannituswasoneofthegreattranslatorsofmedicinejustafter800.TheHellenisticheritagewas appropriatedwithsomeaddedoriginalMoslemcontributions.Themathematician,Al-Kharizmi,forexample,became thersttouseIndianourArabicnumeralstodevelopnewformsofcalculation. Inthewestofthisregion,Syriaplayeditsusualroleasaborderstatebetweentworivalempires,thistimetheeastern AbbasidsofBaghdadandtheTurkishcontrolledEgypt.Earlyinthecenturytheformerdominatedbutabout870 SyriawasconqueredforEgyptbyAhmadibnTulun,oneoftheTurkishmercenariesoriginallyhiredbythecaliphs forpersonalbodyguardsandarmies. 3 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat.

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352 CHAPTER23.A.D.801TO900 23.3.1.3IRAN:PERSIA AstheAbbasidCaliphateeventuallybecamecorruptandweakened,itgavewayinthelastofthecenturyinPersia tothenativeSaffaridDynasty,whichalsoruledpartofCentralAsia.OnespotjustsouthoftheCaspianremained separateastheShi'iteEmir-ateofAlidDescendantofAli.Ref.137[188]ThePersianlanguagewasrevived. WindmillswithverticalsailsttedtowheelsturninghorizontallywereoperatinginPersiabythiscenturyandpossibly muchearlier.ThesemillsmayhavespreadfromIrantoChinaaswellastotheMediterranean.Ref.260[29] AdditionalNotesp.352 23.3.1.4ASIAMINOR:ANATOLIA 23.3.1.4.1TURKEYBYZANTIUM AlthoughtheEmperorNicephorusmadepeacewithCharlemagnein803sothattheeasternempirecouldretaincontrol ofsouthernItaly,VeniceandDalmatia,hecouldnotpacifytheArabswhoresumedraidsin804through806.Asa resulttheByzantineslostcontroloftheseasandAfricanMoslemstookCreteandinvadedSicily.TheRustook overtheBlackSeaandby860attackedConstantinopleitself.After867Byzantinefortunesimproved,however,as acapablegeneral,BasilI,foundedtheMacedonianDynasty.AlthoughborninMacedonia,Basilwasactuallyof Armeniandescent.Inthemeantime,inspiteofthemoreorlessconstantandlosingwarfare,asissooftenthecase, theGreekByzantineEmpireatthesametimeenjoyedabriefrenaissanceastheUniversityofConstantinoplewas restoredandanAlexandrianAgeofscholarshipdeveloped.Schoolsoflawandmedicine,aswellasphilosophyand mathematics,werepromoted.Auniqueandformidablereligiousartaccompaniedtheintellectualactivity,particularly aftertheCouncilofSophiahadallowedthereturnoficonoclasmandinstitutedanewperiodofpersecutionofcertain monks. 23.3.1.4.2ARMENIA TheChristiankingdomofArmenia,whichnowincludedtheoldGeorgiankingdomofIberia,keptindependentof theArabsbypayingtribute.TheBagratunifamilyestablishedadynastyunderthetitleof"PrinceofPrinces",builta capitalatAniandgavethecountryseveralgenerationsofprogressandrelativepeace.AshotIwastherstindependent sovereign,usheringinArmenia's"GoldenAge".Ref.137[188] ForwardtoTheNearEast:A.D.901to1000Section24.3 ChooseDifferentRegion 1.IntrotoEraSection23.1 2.AfricaSection23.2 3.AmericaSection23.9 4.CentralandNorthernAsiaSection23.5 5.EuropeSection23.4 6.TheFarEastSection23.7 7.TheIndianSubcontinentSection23.6 8.PacicSection23.8 NOTE :ThemostimportantearlyIslamicarchaeologicalcomplexinArabia,outsideMeccaandMedina,is themorethan600mile-longDarbZaubaida,orpilgrimroad.Actuallyitextendedevenfather,toBaghdad, inMesopotamia.Itwaslavishlyequippedwithwells,catchbasins,reststopsandhostelriesforpilgrimsto Mecca.Thename"Zubaida"wasthatofthewifeofCaliphHarunalRashid.Ref.315[125] NOTE :SlavesfromRussiawereatapremiuminPersiainthiscenturyandsoldforasmuchas600,000 dirhams.Ref.301[258]

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353 23.4Europe:A.D.801to900 4 23.4.1EUROPE BacktoEurope:A.D.701to800Section22.4 Asthiscenturyopened,andparticularlyinA.D.814,theyearofthedeathofCharlemagne,EuropeandAsiawere recoveringfromthepreviouswavesofbarbarianinvasionsandaseriesofpowerfulempiresextendedinunbroken sequencefromtheAtlantictothePacic.ThenorthernonesofEurope,however,-FrankishandBulgarian-were reallyconquestsofwarbandsandhadverylittlestability.Ref.8[14] 23.4.1.1SOUTHERNEUROPE 23.4.1.1.1EASTERNMEDITERRANEANISLANDS ThecopperminesofCypruscontinuedtobeexploited.Overaperiodofsome3,000yearsabout200,000tonsofthat metalhasbeenproducedonCyprus.Thesmeltingrequirescharcoalintheamountthatwouldbetheequivalentof 150,000squarekilometers,000squaremilesofforest.SinceallCyprustotalsonly9,300squarekilometers,the forestsoftheislandmusthavebeendestroyedatleast16times.Ref.281[113]TheTurkstookCretefromthe ByzantinecontrolledVenetiansandin825builtabasewithasurroundingmoat,whereMoslempiratesdominated untilthemiddleofthenextcentury.MaltawastakenbytheMoslemsin869.Ref.38[59],222[296] 23.4.1.1.2GREECE ThegreaterpartofGreecewasapartofByzantiumand,assuch,sharedinitstemporaryrenaissance.Bulgariatook overpartofnorthernGreeceasapartoftheirexpansionearlyinthecentury.Demonstratingthegeologicalinstability oftheregion,anearthquakeof856killed45,000Corinthians.Ref.222[296] 23.4.1.1.3UPPERBALKANS TheAvarswereconqueredbyCharlemagnein805andastheremnantswerepushedoutofHungaryintotheupper Balkans,theywereabsorbedbytheBulgarsandSlavs.In811thestillpaganBulgars,underPrinceDrum,defeated anddestroyedtheByzantinearmiesofEmperorNicephorusandthentheytookoveralargepartofthepeninsula,even includingsomeofGreece.TheirterritorythenstretchedfromtheDanubetotheTheissandfromtheCarpathiansto theDniester.OriginallyaTurkishpeople,theBulgarsbecame,byrepeatedadmixture,almostentirelySlavonicinrace andlanguage.TheBulgarKhanate,underCzarsMalamirandBoris,continuedtoexpandrapidlyandtheirempire evenincludedagreatpartofHungaryuntilabout893,whentheMagyarsovercamethelightholdoftheBulgariansin thatregion.Ref.137[188],8[14] BulgariaandSerbiawerewonfortheeasternChristianChurchin870and879,respectively,throughtheeffortsof CyrilandMethodius,MacedonianBrothers,whohelpedKhanBoristoevolveaSlavonicorCyrillicalphabet,thus allowingthedevelopmentofanationalwrittenlanguageandculture.FacedwithSlavonicsoundswhichdidnotexist inGreek,theystretchedtheGreekalphabetasfarasitwouldgo,thendraftedoneortwoHebrewcharactersand inventedothers.TheEasternChurchRussian,Ukrainian,SerbianandBulgarianstillusesthisCyrillicalphabet. Ref.168[229],222[296]FartherforWesternChristianityin879,aftertheyhadmadethemselvesindependent oftheGermanEmpirein869.Ref.137[188] 23.4.1.1.4ITALY WenotedinthelastchapterthatCharlemagnehadseizedtheLombardKingdomin774andthisremainedunderhis controluntilhisdeathin814.Italy,asawholewasunderdividedrule.BytheTreatyofVerdunof843,theFrankish heir,Lothar,gotalongcentralstripofEuropealongwithnorthernItalyanddowntothefrontieroftheDuchyof 4 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat.

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354 CHAPTER23.A.D.801TO900 BeneventoinsouthernItalyandheretainedthetitleofemperor.Aweakpapacy,leaguedwithFrance,ruledacentral area;theVenetianshadtheirownkingdom;andvariousdukesruledscatteredprovinces.PartofSicilywasconquered bytheAghlabidsfromTunisiain827andby840theyheldmostofthatislandandtheheelofItaly.Theywerenally expelledbytheByzantinesattheendofthecentury.DuringtheperiodoftheMoslemraids,evenRomehadbeen attacked.Ref.8[14],137[188] WhileeasternandsouthernItaly,inspiteoftheMoslemraids,remainedforthemostpartByzantineinculture,therest ofthepeninsuladevelopedanewcivilization,anewlanguage,religionandartfromitsRomanheritage.TheItalian languagebecamethemostmelodiousoftongues;ItalianChristianitywasaromanticandcolorfulpaganism,-afrank mythologyoflegendandmiracle.Romeitselfdeclinedandsciencesuccumbedtosuperstitionandonlymedicinekept itsheadupthroughthemonasteries.LatinChristendomadoptedtheIraniantypeofheavyarmoredcavalryandwith thisbegantostemthebarbariantideandpavethewayforcounter-expansioninthenexttwocenturies.Abrightspot onthepeninsulawasSalerno,whereauniversitywithamedicalschoolwasfounded,whichsoonbecamefamous throughoutEurope.Ref.49[73],125[173] CENTRALEUROPE 23.4.1.1.5GERMANY TheempireofKarltheGreatCharlemagnewasatheocraticchurch-statewithhisfunctioningasapriest-kingandas anemperor.IncludedinhisreligiousmissionshadbeentheconquestandconversionoftheSaxons.Heregardedthe popeassimplyhischaplain.Ref.181[247]Atthesametime,hisempirewasactuallyanarticialconstruction anddidnotsurvivehim.Nevertheless,inasense,hesavedcivilizationbecausethroughhimtheAtlanticworldreestablishedcontactwiththeancient,Mediterraneanculture.Hedidthisbyarrangingforthecollectingandcopyingof books.Withtheexceptionof3or4survivingoriginalantiquemanuscripts,ourwholeknowledgeofancientliterature hascomeonlythroughthecopyingthatbeganunderCharlemagne.ThesecopyistsalsodevelopedtheCarolingian scriptwhichhassurviveduntiltoday.Theirbookswereworksofartandoverallsplendidmasterpieces.Ref.33 [55]Theemperordiedin814,veyearsaftertherealmhadbeensweptbyfamine.Ref.213[288]The CarolingianDynastyimmediatelydeclinedastheempirewasdividedbyhisonesurvivingsonamongthreegrandsons -Pepin,LouisandKarl,allofwhomdiedwithin8years.Theirsuccessorswereweakleadersandmanylocalwars brokeoutbetweenrulers,noblesandchurchwithresultingrecurrentpartitionsoftheempire.FinallybytheTreatyof Verduntheoriginalempirewasofciallydividedintothreeparts,withLothairkeepingthetitleofemperorand acentralarea,extendingfromtheNetherlandsalmosttoNaples.CharlestheBaldgotthewesternareaandLudwig theeasternareaandinthiswayFranceandGermanybecamedissociated.Ref.57[82]Itwasnotoriginallya differenceofraceortemperamentbutadifferenceoflanguageandtradition.Thewesternbranchwasassimilatedby thecountry-sideLatin,whichbecameFrench,whiletheGermanicgrouphadretainedtheiroriginalGermanictongue. TheFranksinnorthGermanyevendifferedalsofromtheSwabiansandsouthGermans.Ludwigactuallywastherst kingofGermany,butthearticialdivisionsoftheempirewerestillpoorlyarrangedbecausetheypaidnoheedto thesegrowingregionaldifferences.ThemonstrousterritoryofLotharingiaFrench-"Lorraine"wastobedisputed betweenFranceandGermanywellupintothe20thcentury.TheItalianpartwasalsoacontinuedproblemarea,with subsequentGermanemperorshavingtoattempttoreconquertheregionatfrequentintervalsforcenturies.Additional Notesp.360 NOTE:AddMap36:DivisionofCharlegmagne'sEmpireatVerdunin843 MaptakenfromReference97. AstheoldFrankishkingdomdisintegratedintheearlycentury,theseparateduchiespreviouslypresentreappearedas independentpoliticalunits.Thesewerethestem 5 duchiesofFrisiaLowlands,Saxony,FranconiaalongtheMaine, Swabia,ThuringiabetweentheWeserandElbeandBavaria.Thesewerebasedoriginallyo