University Press of Florida
US History since 1877
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Title: US History since 1877
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Creator: Ross-Nazzal, James, Connexions, Rice University
Publication Date: 2008, 2008
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Subjects / Keywords: Civil Rights, Cold War, Gilded Age, Great Depression, Harlem Renaissance, Jazz Age, Progressive Era, The Great War, US History, Vietnam, Watergate, World War II, OGT+ isbn: 9781616100827
United States History
Social Studies / United States history
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Abstract: This is a textbook to be used for the second part of the US History survey course (US after 1877). Contents: 1) Progressive Era (Part I). 2) The Progressive Era (Part II). 3) The Great War (Part I). 4) Great War (Part II).
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Rights Management: Copyright © 2008 James Ross-Nazzal. This selection and arrangement of content is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution License: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/
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USHistorysince1877 By: JamesRoss-Nazzal

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USHistorysince1877 By: JamesRoss-Nazzal Online: < http://cnx.org/content/col10669/1.2/ > CONNEXIONS RiceUniversity,Houston,Texas

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2008JamesRoss-Nazzal ThisselectionandarrangementofcontentislicensedundertheCreativeCommonsAttributionLicense: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

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TableofContents 1ProgressiveEraPartI ..........................................................................1 2TheProgressiveEraPartII ..................................................................15 3TheGreatWarPartI .........................................................................25 4GreatWarPartII .............................................................................27 Index ................................................................................................39 Attributions .........................................................................................40

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iv

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Chapter1 ProgressiveEraPartI 1 DakotaTerritorywasboomingin1881whenJohnHenryandEmmaSmithDeVoemovedfromtheirhome inWashington,Illinois,inlargemeasureduetotheextensionoftherailroad.Therailroadbroughtsettlers, manyofwhomwereCivilWarveterans,widows,ororphans,totheregiontomaketheirfortunesingold, whileotherscameonthepromiseoffree,fertilelandincentralDakota.TheDeVoescamebecauseJohn Henryhadacceptedapositionwiththerailroad. TheyoungcouplesettledinthenewlyestablishedtownofHuron.Gamblingdensandsaloonsthrivedin thetown,andmenfrequentlydischargedtheirweaponsinthecitylimitsandengagedindrunkenscues. Womenledcomplaintsagainstmenwhohadseducedthemwithpromisesofmarriage,butthenafterillicit loveaairsrefusedtomarrythem.Housesofprostitutionopenlyoperatedonthemainthoroughfares,which werenothingbutwidedirtpathsdottedwithanimalwasteandhumanrefuse. GiventheirinterestinprohibitionaswellastheiraliationwiththeBaptists,tiesbetweentheDakota BaptistConventionandtheWoman'sChristianTemperanceUnionWCTUweresolid,andsooverthe nextfewyears,theDeVoesservedasChristiansoldiersworkingtocreateacitydedicatedtothesocial morestheysubscribedto:prohibitionandtheeliminationofgamblinghalls,saloons,andbrothelsintown. Troubledbythelackofmoralsintheirnewcommunity,EmmaandJohnHenryhelpedtoestablishmanyof Huron'svoluntarygroups,includingHuron'sliteraryassociation.VolunteerismwasalltherageoutWestin thedecadesfollowingtheCivilWar. LikemindedreformersjoinedtheorganizationsuchasEdwinG.Wheeler,theownerofadrugstoreand deaconoftheFirstBaptistChurch.TheyandotherHuronitesestablishedtheassociationforthepurposeof keepingyoungpeopleawayfromthehauntswhoseinuencedestroysmind,body,andsoul,inotherwords workingclassformsofleisurebars,billiardrooms,andgamblingdens.TheDakotaHuronite,whose editorssupportedprohibition,praisedtheorganizationsfortheireortssaying,Itwillatleastremovethe excuseofthosewhospendtheirtimeinplacesofillrepute,thatthereisnoplaceelsetogo. TheseGildedAgemoralreformeorts,althoughmorealignedinphilosophywithAmericanreform movementsoftheearlynineteenthcentury,openedthedoorandpavedthewayforEmmatobecome involvedwithother,broaderpoliticalcampaignsinDakotaTerritoryandeventuallyasamajororganizer fortheNationalAmericanWoman'sSurageAssociationandacentralgureinwesternstatespassing legislationthatallowedwomentherighttovote.ThestoryoftheDeVoesdemonstratesaturningpoint inU.ShistorywhenAmericans'focusonmoralreformtakesanewapproachandanewfocusthatwecall todayProgressivism. NotimeperiodinAmericanhistoryispossiblyasmisunderstood,convoluted,andnebulous,yetimportant toclearlyunderstandtobetterappreciatetheeconomic,political,andsociallibertiesofAmericansocietyin thelate-twentiethandearlytwenty-rstcenturies,astheProgressiveEra.Neitheranationalmovement,nor asingularideology,oracoherenttimeframe,theProgressiveErausuallyfallsundertheumbrellicGilded Ageatitsearliestrootsbytheriseofagrarianreformmeasuresinthe1870sand,atitsdemise,theendof 1 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat. 1

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2 CHAPTER1.PROGRESSIVEERAPARTI theWoodrowWilsonadministrationshortlyafterthewartomaketheworldsafefordemocracy.Yetthe Progressiveseedswillbloominthe1940sandagaininthe1960sunderthepresidenciesofFranklinDelano RooseveltandLyndonBainesJohnson. Aswithothermodernperiods,ages,ortimes,theProgressiveEratracesitsrootsbacktotherough andtumblealleysofthoroughfaresofBoston,Philadelphia,andNewYorkwhere,beforetheCivilWar, burgeoningAmericanfactoriesandever-increasingimmigrationcreatedanentrenchedworkingclassanda majorgangproblemespeciallyinNewYork.Inthersthalfofthenineteenthcentury,morally-charged, upperclasswomensilentlyprotestedinfrontofsaloonsorcreatedurbanpoliticalpartieswiththehopes ofcodifyingwhattheyconsideredanti-socialbehaviorsnotunliketheeortsoftheDeVoesinthe1880s. Theydemandedchangestopublicandprivatemoralitythattendedtosmackmoreofsocialcontroland lessofprogressiveassistancetothenewlyarrivedimmigrants.Nonetheless,whatmakestheProgressiveEra dierentfrompreviousperiodsofU.S.historywheremoralreformersdemandedchangestopublicbehavior, wastheinherentbeliefintheuseofevangelism,education,andnative-bornAmericanpolitical,economic, andsocialidealstobothidentifyproblemsaswellastodivinesolutions.Inaword,whileearlierreformers usedtherodofmoralitytocontrolbehavior,Progressivereformersusedacademiaandtheirbeliefinthe inherentsuperiorityofAmericanstrategiesasthefulcrumfromwhichallmeaningfulchangewillturn. ProgressivereformersalsotendedtoseetheUnitedStatesonanevolutionarypath.CharlesDarwin's ideasonbiologicalchangeovertimebegantobeappliedtosociety.KnownasSocialDarwinism,learned Americanstriedtogureoutwhysomepeoplefailedinlifewhileotherssucceeded.Whyweresomepoor whileothersrich?Whyweresomesicklywhileothershealthy?Whatcausedsin,vice,andmalfeasance?The answerwasevolution:somegroupsofpeopleweremoreevolvedthanothers.Thehigheststageofevolution onanationscalewastheUnitedStates:Americanreligiousideas,Americaneconomictheory,American politicaltheory,andAmericanculturewereallevolvedbeyondthoseofEuropean,African,Asian,andLatin Americanpolitics,cultures,religions,andsocieties. Inthelatenineteenthcentury,someAmericanswillconcludethatAmericanshadaspecial,God-given missiontospreadAmericansocial,political,economic,andreligiousideastothosewhowerenotasadvanced, eveninthefaceofphysicalhardship.ThisbecameknownastheWhiteMan'sBurden,fromapoemwritten byanEnglishproponentofthedutyofcivilizedpeoplestohelpthosewhoarelesscivilized. AnexampleofAmericandisplayinthisbeliefthatnationsevolvewasevidencedinamajorthemeofthe 1904World'sFairinSt.Louis:classication.WilliamMcGee,oneofthedirectorsofthefair,createdan exhibitthatwasaliteralwalkthroughnationalevolution.Beginningwiththemostuncivilizedsociety,as McGeedenedcivilization,andendingatthemostadvancedofsocietiesspoileralerttheU.S.,McGee strove"torepresenthumanprogressfromthedarkprimetothehighestenlightenment,fromsavageryto civicorganization,fromegoismtoaltruism. ThetourbeganwithawalkthroughtheIgorotVillage.TheIgorotswerescantlycladpeopleslivinginthe Philippineswhowereheadhuntersandatedogs.Fairdirectorssupplieddogstothepeople,althoughthere wererumorsthattheIgorotsnuckothefairgroundsandprocureddogsfromthenear-byneighborhoods. ThencameEuropeancivilizationbutthemosthighlyadvanced,evolved,andperfectedsocietywasthe UnitedStates,whichwasthelaststopoftheexhibit.Theexhibitalsoincludedafewfreshlypainted,steel battleshipsthatweremooredinanarticiallakecreatedspecicallytodemonstratethenewAmericannaval powerinitiallyproposedbyTeddyRooseveltwhenheworkedintheDepartmentoftheNavy.TheIgorot, AmericanIndians,Africans,andotherpeopleswerehiredtolive,work,andbeondisplaythroughoutthe fair'srun.Thisexhibitwasaphysicalexampleofthetruththatsocietiesevolvemaybenotprogressive asweusethewordtodaybutcertainlyprogressiveforthelate-nineteenthandearly-twentiethcentury Americans. WhatdiditmeantobeaProgressive? TheProgressivessharedsomecommontraits.First,theytendedtohaveEvangelicalbackgroundsor experiences.FollowingtheCivilWartheredevelopedaswellamongProtestantsthattheywerethetrue leadersofthiscountrypolitically,socially,andeconomicallyandthusonlytheycouldspeakinthebest interestsofthiscountry,astheyprofessedthosebestintereststobe.Thisidealedtoaction,specically youngmenandsometimeswomenbeingsentoutaroundthecountryandaroundtheworldtospread

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3 Americanideasonpolitics,society,andtheeconomythroughwhattheybelievedtobethedrivingforce behindthesuccessoftheUnitedStates,whichofcoursewasProtestantism.Unlikepre-CivilWarformsof evangelismthatfocusedontraditionalreligiouspreachingMark16:15Goyeintoallintotheworld,and preachthegospeltoeverycreature,ProgressiveEraevangelismincludedpolitical,social,andeconomic evangelism. ManyProgressivereformshadbackgroundsinreligiousevangelicalism.Today,manyAmericanreligious groupssendouttheirowntoprofesstheirparticularversionsofTruthwiththehopesofconvertingothers totheirbeliefsystem.Mormonsmightspendtwoyearsevangelizing,sotoodoJehovahWitnessesknock oftheirneighbors'doors.Someevangelizethroughthemedia,suchasRickWarrenandhiswildlypopular book ThePurposeDrivenLife. Possiblythisnation'smost-knownevangelicalpreacherisBillyGraham. Domesticandforeignmissionariespublishedmagazines,suchas TheHeathenWomen'sFriend; they establishedocesthroughouttheAmericanWest,Asia,theOttomanEmpire,andLatinAmerica.And, evenclaimedtheUnitedStatesonbehalfofGodsuchasWilliamBoothfounderoftheSalvationArmy whenintheearlyspringof1880BoothestablishedamissionaryoutpostinNewYorkwherehisfollowers beganpreachingtothehomelessofthelargestcityinthiscountry.EvangelineBooth,adaughterofthe founder,becameanAmericancitizenandledtheSalvationArmyintheUnitedStatesforthreedecades -1934.TheSalvationArmyhadthetwintenetsofreligioussalvationthroughJesusChristwitha combinationofMethodismandawhiofmillennialismandsocialsalvationinwhichthegrouptriedto ridtheworldofpoverty.ItisthesecondofthesegoalsthatthisEnglishorganizationwillaectAmerican Progressivereformersandideas,suchasJaneAddamsandtheSettlementHouseMovementseebelow. Interestinglyenough,theriseofevangelismparalleledthedramaticincreaseinthenumberofRoman Catholicsinthiscountry.Inthelastthreedecadesofthenineteenthcentury,RomanCatholicsdoubled innumberscausingmorethanmereconcernamongthenative-bornProtestants.Someofthisnation's mostpopularevangelicalsincludedDwightMoodywhopreachedanexceptionallypessimisticviewofhuman historyandWashingtonGladdenwho,outofstepwithmostAmericansinthelatenineteenthcentury,called forthefederalgovernmenttotakeanincreasinglyactiveroleinprotectingunionsandtheworkingclass. AsecondtraitcommonamongthosewhohoistedtheProgressivebannerwasagroundinginsocialsciences.BeforetheCivilWar,academicpursuitswereexceptionallylimitedinboththenumbersofAmericans whocouldaordtoattendcollegesaswellasthecurriculumoeredatthoseinstitutions.Manyuniversitiesoeredstudentswhattheyconsideredtobeawell-roundededucationgroundedintheclassicssuchas Latin,Ancienthistory,andRenaissanceart.AftertheCivilWar,moreuniversitiesbeganallowingwomen toattendandsotoodidtheircurriculachangetoincludeclassesinnewdisciplinessuchasanthropology, politicalscience,sociology,psychology.Theneedforpeoplewitheducationalbackgroundsinengineering becameevidentasthisnation'srailroadsystemspreadfurtherwestandconnectedmorecommunitiesthan everbefore.Asmorefamily-owned,mom-and-popshopsorgeneralstoresbecamegobbledupbynational corporationssuchastheNationalBiscuitCompanyNabisco,InternationalBusinessMachinesIBM,or StandardOil,industrialleaderssuchasJohnRockefeller,CorneliusVanderbilt,andAndrewCarnegieincreasinglydemandedemployeeswhohadeducationalbackgroundsinbusiness,asopposedtoMedievalart, forexample. Withthesheerlackofanythingresemblingabusinessprogram,Rockefellerusedhisownmoneytocreate aninstitutiontaskedwithtrainingbusinessleaders.Hisschool,theUniversityofChicago,alsocreateda new,advancedprogramforthestudyofbusinesscalledtheMastersinBusinessAdministration,orMBA. BeforetheCivilWar,theonlyschoolthatoereddegreesinengineeringwastheU.S.MilitaryAcademyat WestPoint. Theseneweldsofstudyhadonethingincommon:theyallexaminedhumanbehaviorsociologyor overcomingobstaclessuchasinengineering.Thestudyofhumanbehaviorusuallyfocusesonthenegative orabhorrentthusonceyoustudytherulestohowsocietiesareordered,youbegintoidentifyproblemsand thenyougettoapplyyourknowledgegainedinuniversitystudyonhowtosolvethoseproblems.Thespread ofbothengineeringschools,aswellasinstitutionsthatoeredprogramsinbusiness,resultedintheidea thattheworldoratleasttheUnitedStatescouldbecategorized,evaluated,assessed,andpropermeasures appliedtoxproblemsortosurmountobstacles.

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4 CHAPTER1.PROGRESSIVEERAPARTI Inotherwords,thedevelopmentofsocialsciencesandengineeringprogramsandtheirapplicationto societywasstrikinglysimilartotheEnlightenment,whichhittheBritishcoloniesinNorthAmericaduring thersthalfoftheeighteenthcenturyjustbeforetheAmericanWarforIndependence.Andnotunlikethe Enlightenmentthatproducedphysicalspacestoshowcasemodernideasandinventionssuchasuniversities, libraries,andevenfairs,Progressiveeraaccomplishmentstoowerecelebratedinpublicspaces. Colossal,year-longextravaganzastopublicizeanddrawattentiontoaccomplishments,shinelightonnew ideas,anddemonstrateAmericantechnologicaladvanceswasevidencedintheworldfairsthatwereiconic glimpsesofeverythingnew,bright,right,andwrongintheProgressiveera.AttheChicagofairin1893, whichdrewanestimatedcrowdofover27millionpeople,visitorsmarveledatthescienticandtechnological advancestoincludeamassivelightedtowersuppliedtothefairbyaedgingcompanycallingitselfGeneral ElectricGE. Visitorsexperiencedmanyproductsforthersttimethatwetakeforgrantedtodaysuchasmovies courtesyofThomasEdison,pancake-in-a-boxkittheretrohouse-slave-inspiredlookofAuntJemima, theautomaticdishwasherinventedbyJosephineCochrane,andtwoavorsofanewkindofcandyJuicy FruitandSpearmintcalledgumunveiledbyaChicagocandymaker,WilliamWrigley,Jr.Visitorsalso tastedforthersttimeshreddedwheatanddietsoda.Theyrodetherstferriswheelinventedbyafellow aptlynamedFerris.Theymarveledattheverticalleabusinessnecessity,andtheyconservedtheir caloriesbyridingonmoveablesidewalks,asopposedtohavingtousetheoldfashionedformoflocomotion walking.Americanprogresswasshowcasedindeed! Oncetheprinciplesofscienceandtechnologywereunderstood,thenthoseprinciplescouldbeapplied tosolvesociety'sproblems.InthecaseofGE,theproblemwashumanbeingstendedtohavediculties seeinginthedark,andcandle,oil,orgaslightswerenotterriblyecientnorovertlypowerful,hencethe developmentofelectriclightthanksinlargemeasuretotheworkofThomasEdison.Manyoftheinventions andproductsdemonstratedattheChicagofairsuggestedthattheAmericanpaceoflifewasspeedingupyou nolongerhadtimetomixour,salt,sugar,andbakingpowderhencetheinventionofAuntJemimaand thatAmericanpocketsweregettingdeeperbuyingstoreboughtfoodproductswerenotascosteective asmakingthefoodyourself. Nevertheless,althoughnewlymintedcollegegraduatescharacterizetheProgressiveera,acollegeeducationwassomethingthatmostAmericanscouldnotaordtopursueandwasnotnecessarytoobtain meaningfulwork.By1900,onlyabout4percentofAmericansoftraditionalcollegeageswereattending college.Thosewhocouldaordthecostandwereacceptedmostuniversitiesrefusedtomatriculatewomen tendedtoputtheircollegeeducationstoworkfortheircommunitiesthroughprogressivereformsuchasJane AddamsandothersocialProgressives. TheseProgressivesweretrue-bluebelieversintheAmericansociety,politics,religion,andespecially Americancapitalism.TheywerenotMarxists,Communists,oranarchists.Theywerepeoplewhohadan opportunitytogainformaleducationbeyondthescopeofwhatwouldpasstodayforahighschooleducation, andthateducationtendedtoemphasizenewintellectualelds.Thosenewintellectualeldstendedtofocus onsociety'sproblemsandhowtoxthoseproblems. Forexample,afterdecadesofdawntoduskworkonhisWisconsinfarm,HamlinGarlanddecidedthat collegewasthewaythroughwhichhewouldelevatehislife.Hebecameafamousnovelistusinghisown backgroundasthebasisforhispublications,thussheddinglightonthebackbreaking,hand-to-mouthlife styleofAmericanfarmers,whoThomasJeersoncalledGod'schosenpeople.Afree-bornblackwoman, LucieStantonDay,wantedtoenlightentheplightofherpeoplewhilealsoworkingtohelpthemgetothe farmssosheobtainedacollegedegreeandmovedtoMississippiwhereshespenttherestofherlifeteaching freedslaves.AyoungSiouxnamedOhiyesaearnedamedicaldegreefromBostonUniversity,changedhis nametoDr.CharlesEastman,andmarriedawhitereformernamedElaineGoodale.Thecouplemovedto PineRidgewheretheyworkedfortheSiouxandfoughtforIndianrights. WhattheseProgressiveshadincommonwasthebeliefintheelevatingpowerofeducationaswellastheir interesttogivebacktotheircommunities.MostoftheProgressiveerareformerswerenotasinvolvedwith educationastheseexamplesmightsuggest,nonethelesstheProgressiveEraischaracterizedasidentifying problems,usingcertaintoolstoaddressthoseproblems,andapplyingcorrectiveactionstoputanendto

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5 thoseproblems. Thereweretwobasic,andsometimesopposing,viewsonhowProgressivereformshouldtakeplace: reformfromwithinorreformfromwithout.Intheformer,Progressivestendedtobelievethatproblems werelocal,andthussolutionsandactorsneededtobelocal.Thisgrassroots,volunteermentalitywas exceptionallywidespreadinwakeofmassivewestwardmigrationfollowingtheCivilWar.Anexampleof thistypeofProgressivereformwastheSettlementHousemovement,ledbyayoungcollegegraduate,Jane Addams.OtherProgressivereformersbelievedthatproblemscouldbebestidentiedwhenviewedfrom aboveandthussolutionstendedtobethoroughwhenappliedbythoseonhigh.AnexampleofthistopdownapproachwasPresidentTheodoreRoosevelt.Rooseveltdidnotnecessarilydisagreewiththeproblems thatfolkssuchasAddamsidentied;hejustbelievedthathe,aspresident,wasinthebestplaceandatthe righttimetoxthoseproblems.TherewerevarioustypesofProgressivereformtoincludereformingthe illsofsocietysuchastacklingissuesofpoverty,immorality,ordisease,addressinghumanfoiblessuchas alcoholism,gambling,ordrugaddiction,addressinginequalitiesinAmericanlifesuchaswomen'srightto voteorownproperty,andalteringAmericanforeignpolicywhichwasaddressedinthepreviouschapter. ThischapterexaminesdomesticProgressivereform. SOCIALPROGRESSIVES Women,moresothanmen,weretypicallytheleadersofsocialreformactivitiesduringtheProgressive Era.ManyAmericansconsideredwomentobeinherentlymoremoralthanmen.Alsowomenwereseen asthedomesticleadersoftheirhouseholds.Thus,womenwouldusetheirGod-givenmoralsuperiorityas wellastheirinherentabilitiesindomesticitytocleanup,reform,andxtheircities.Womenusedsuch domesticphraseologyasmunicipalhousekeepingtojustifytheirnewrolesinthepublicarena.Women simplyappliedtheirinherentabilitiesofcaringfortheirfamiliesagainstthebackdropofsinandcorruption incities. AgoodexampleofmunicipalhousekeepingwastheworkoftheNationalHousewivesAllianceNHA. TheNHAcalleduponAmericanstoboycottallmeatuntilthefederalgovernmentagreedtoinspectand certifythesafetyoftheAmericanmeatindustry.Eatnomeat.Buynomeat.Eatfreshvegetablesreadone bannerina1906NHAprotestinMaryland.Aswomenweretheonesineachhomethatmadeandserved delicious,nutritious,andsafefood,thenwomen'sinvolvementincleaninguptheunsanitaryconditionsof themeatpackingindustryevidencedbythe1906UptonSinclairnovelentitled TheJungle seemedtobe anaturalextensionoftheirwomanlyduties.Interestinglyenough,Sinclair'smessageinhisnovelwaslost onmostAmericanswhocameawayfromthebookbelievingthatgovernmentneededtocleanupthemeat industry.Instead,Sinclair'smainpointwastoshedlightontheplightofimmigrantlaborerswhowere frequentlyabused,takenadvantageof,andgenerallytreatedunequallyinthemeatpackingindustry. Overwhelmingly,themechanismthroughwhichwomensoughtreformwasfederal,state,andlocallegislation.Thus,onecharacteristicoftheProgressiveerawasachangeinAmericanidealsontherelationship betweenthegovernmentandthegoverned.GonewerethedaysoftheearlyGildedAgeinwhichthefederal governmentranroughshot,uncontested,overAmericansbysendingoutfederaltroopstoputanendto strikes,consistentlylookedtheotherwaywhencorporationsgobbledupcompetitionusuallythroughviolence,orallowedmedicinebasedonopiatestobeopenlydistributed.Inotherwords,theproblemsofthe GildedAge,intheeyesoftheseProgressivereformers,weretoounyieldingforanyonebutagovernmentto tackle. Anexampleofsuccessingettingthefederalgovernmenttotackletheseissuesbyregulatingtheindustries thathad,untiltheearlytwentiethcentury,beenself-regulatingwasthePureFoodandDrugAct.Initially passedtoassureAmericanconsumersabouttheingredientsadvertisedintheirfavoritemedicines,thisact ledAmericanconsumergroups,politicalactivists,andfederallegislatorstowidenthescopetoinclude outlawingingredientsandfoodhandlingpracticesthatthefederalgovernmentdeemedasunsafeforhuman consumption. Ofcoursethischangeintheideaoftheresponsibilitiesofthefederalgovernmentmightnothavehappened throughexternalpressuresalone.HarveyWiley,achemistintheBureauofAgriculture,publishedreportson adulteratedfoodandmedicine.Nonetheless,Wiley'sworkinsidetheadministrationofPresidentTheodore Rooseveltwasnotacteduponuntilwomen'sgroupsandpublicationssuchasthe LadiesHomeJournal and

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6 CHAPTER1.PROGRESSIVEERAPARTI Collier's pickedupthebatonofchangebyreportinghownarcoticsaretypicallyusedasthemainactive ingredientinso-callednaturalmedicinalproducts,suchasthewildlypopularLydiaPinkham'sVegetable Compound. Wileybelievedthatsomechemicalpreservativesweresafeandevennecessarytoensureahealthyfood supply.Thus,in1902heinitiatedanexperimentcalledtheHygienicTableinwhichyoungmalevolunteers wouldknowinglyeatsmallamountsofpreservativestoprovetheirsafety.DubbedthePoisonSquadby thepress,theseexperimentswentonforveyears.AsatrueProgressive,Wileybelievedthattheproducers ofchemicallyalteredfoodmustprovethesafetyoftheirproductsandthatallproductsmustbeclearly labeledsothatAmericanconsumerscouldmakefullyknowledgeablechoices.Wiley'sideaswouldeventually becomelawintheUnitedStates. Ultimately,oneofthechangestoAmericansocietythatresultedfromthepopularpress'sdisclosuresof unsafe,unsanitaryfoodhandlingpractices,thestrugglewithinandwithoutthefederalgovernmenttoget thePureFoodandDrugActpassed,andthepushtoenhancethescopeoftheactintheyearsleadingup toWorldWarIwasthatAmericansbegantoseethemselvesasactiveconsumers.PriortotheProgressive Era,manyAmericansupheldtheJeersoniantwintenetsofself-suciencyandpersonalresponsibility.You grewyourownfood,youmadeyourownclothesandwhatyoucouldnotgrowandwhatyoucouldnot make,yousimplydidwithout.Also,Americansviewedgovernmentactionasanegativething,whichmeant thatmanyAmericansopposedtheestablishmentofprofessional,publicpoliceforcesintheircities,asthose policeforceswereofcoursearmedrepresentativesofthegovernment.Therewasnofederalorstateagency toensurethesafetyofanythingAmericansconsumed,putontheirbodies,orusedineverydaylife.There werenotough,smartlawyerswaitingtosuethepantsofyouremployerwhenyoubecameinjuredonthe joborsuethedrugmanufacturerswhenyourchilddiedofconsumingmedicinelacedwithopiates.Ifyou succeededinlife,youhadyourselftothank.Ifyoufailedinlife,youhadyourselftoblame. However,theProgressiveEraforcedAmericanstobegintolookdierentlyattheirrelationshiptogovernment,aswellastheirexpectationsfromgovernment.AtstakewereAmericanidealsonliberty.Nolonger wasitapparentthatsuccessorfailurewasnecessarilyinyourownhandsorofyourownmaking.Theplaying eldwashorriblyaskew,andthusAmericans,morethaneverandinincreasinglylargernumbers,turnedto theirstateandfederalgovernmentsforassurancesthattheirfoodandmedicinesweresafe. Ofcourse,notallAmericanpoliticianssupportedthisnewroleforthefederalgovernment.SenatorAlbert BeveridgeR-IN,asupporteroftheU.S.warinthePhilippinesonthegroundsthattheUnitedStatesmust advanceallofAmerica'sblessingstothosepoor,tired,huddledmasses,fearedthatunlesswehelpedthem intheircounty,theywouldsimplycometotheUnitedStatesseekinghelp.HedeclaredthePureFoodand DrugActtobethemostpronouncedextensionoffederalpowerineverydirectioneverenacted. Successandfailurearerelativeterms.Nonetheless,onereasonwhymanyoftheProgressiveideasfailed toachievelastingresultswasbecauseofthesimplisticbeliefsheldbyProgressives.Forexample,ifwomen hadtherighttovotethenthey,asbeingmoremoralthanmen,wouldcleanuppolitics.And,ifthey gotridofalcoholthengambling,divorce,andothersocialproblemswouldnecessarilydisappear,asthe ProgressivesbelievedthatalcoholconsumptionwastherootcauseofsomanyproblemsinAmericansociety. Inotherwords,maybetheProgressivestendencyofembracingasingle-villaintheorywasoutofstepwith thecomplexitiesofhumanity. Temperance OneofthemosticonicProgressiveerareformswasthetemperancemovement.Likesomanyotherreforms basedonGildedAge/Victorianmorality,temperancerootshadbeenrmlyplantedintheWashington Societiesoftheearlynineteenthcentury.WhatmakestheseProgressivereformersdierentfromearlier progressivereformerswasthosewhosupportedabanonalcoholcreatedandmaintainedaneective,national organization.Temperanceismoderationinthethingsthataregoodandtotalabstinencefromthethings thatarefoul,iswhatFrancesWilliardbelieved. Created,inpart,byFrancisWillardin1874whohelditspresidencyfrom1879untilherprematuredeath in1898,theWomenChristian'sTemperanceUnionWCTUurgedstateandfederalpoliticianstobanthe saleofalcohol.LikemanyotherProgressivereformers,Willardwasaneducatedperson.Shewasapast presidentofNorthwesternFemaleCollege,lateracceptingacademicadministrativepositionsatNorthwestern

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7 University.Shealsoworkedforthe ChicagoDailyPost TheWCTUspurredthecreationoflikeorganizations,suchastheAnti-SaloonLeague,aswellasstrongheadedindividualssuchastheaxe-wieldingCarrieNation.ProtestantministersusedtheirpulpitsonSundays topreachtheevilsofalcohol.Theantebellumnovel, TenNightsinaBarroom ,byTimothyShayArthur becameanationalhitinthe1880s.Thebookexaminedhowalcoholaectedasmalltownfamilyaswell asthesmalltown.Nobigsurprisehere:drunkfamilymemberskilleachother,alittlegirlpleadswith herfathertostopdrinkingwhichheeventuallydoes,butonlyonhisdaughter'sdeathbed;shediesafter gettinghitintheheadbyathrownglasswhensheenteredthesaloontopleadwithherfathertocomehome andintheendthewholetownvotestoclosethesaloonandoutlawliquorforever!Thebook'spopularity ledtoasilentlmin1913,aremakein1922,andatalkiein1931.The1913versionwasproducedinpart bytheWCTUandwasanearlyexampleoftheeectsofthatnewmediumcalledmotionpictures. By1916,twenty-onestateshadgonedry.Threeyearslater,AmericansalteredtheU.S.Constitutionby addingtheEighteenthAmendment,whichprohibitedthemanufacture,sale,ortransportationofintoxicating liquorswithin,theimportationthereofinto,ortheexportationthereoffromtheUnitedStatesandallterritory subjecttothejurisdictionthereof.Thereweremajorproblemswiththeamendment,suchas:Whatdoes intoxicatingmean?Whatdoesliquormean?Whowillbeinchargeofenforcingthisamendment?And, whiletheWCTUfoughtfordecadestomakeitillegalforAmericanstoconsumealcohol,theEighteenth Amendmentdidnotmakeitillegaltodrinkonlytomakeit,sellit,ortransportit. ShortlyafterCongressadoptedtheEighteenthAmendment,theambiguityoftheamendmentbecame apparent.Thus,CongresspassedtheNationalProhibitionActpopularlyreferredtoastheVolsteadAct afteroneofitssupporters,AndrewVolstead.Thisactdenedalcohol,placedjurisdictionfortheenforcement oftheEighteenthAmendmentsquarelyontheshouldersofthefederalgovernmentandalthoughitwasstill notagainstthelawtoconsumealcohol,itwasillegaltopossessalcohol. TheghtoverprohibitionisamicrocosmofashiftinAmericanculture.Alcoholconsumptionhadbeen viewedasmorethanmerelysociallyunacceptablethroughoutthelatenineteenthcentury,regardlessofthe factthatforAmericans,alcoholwasthesafestbeverageunlikewaterormilk,noknowpathogenscanexist inalcohol.Native-bornAmericanssawalcoholhasamoralevilthatwasbecomingfurtherentrenchedin AmericanlifeasaresultoftheAmericanimmigrantcultureofthosenewimmigrantsCatholicsandJews fromeastern,southern,andcentralEurope.Likewise,alcoholwastherootofallevilpropellingAmerican familiesontheroadtonancialandmoralruin. TheEighteenthAmendmentandtheVolsteadActfailedtoendalcoholism,thebreakupoffamilies,and thedisintegrationofAmericansouls.WillRogerssummeditupnicelywhenhesaid,Whydon'ttheypass aconstitutionalamendmentprohibitinganybodyfromlearninganything?Ifitworksaswellasprohibition did,inveyearsAmericanswouldbethesmartestraceofpeopleonEarth. ProhibitionofalcoholisagoodexampleathowtheProgressiveswerenotalwaysprogressive:prohibition wasanoldideaandtheProgressiveswereunabletosurmisethepotentialeectoftheiractions:organized crimegures,bootleggers,andcorruptpoliticiansfoughteachotherforcontrolofliquordistribution.Unscrupulousamateurbrewersanddistillersaddedmethanol,ethanol,andotherchemicalsdesignedtoquicken thefermentationprocessaswellastoraisethealcohollevel.Ofcoursesuchchemicalsweretoxicandhad beenusedasanalternativefuelsourcessince1900.Prohibitionwroughtthesamepainandsueringthat theProgressivereformersweretryingtoremovebyprohibitingtheconsumptionofalcohol. LaborLegislation In1912,CongresscreatedtheU.S.CommissiononIndustrialRelationsCIRwithgrudginglyacceptance fromPresidentWilliamTaft.TaftwasunabletogettheDemocratic-controlledCongresstoallowhis appointments,thustherealworkoftheCIRdidnotbegininearnestuntiltheelectionofPresidentWoodrow Wilson,aDemocrat.Taskedwithenquiringintothegeneralconditionoflaborintheprincipalindustries oftheUnitedStates,includingagriculture,andespeciallyinthosewhicharecarriedonincorporateforms. ..intothegrowthofassociationsofemployersandofwageearnersandtheeectofsuchassociationsupon therelationsbetweenemployersandemployees,andchairedbyFrankWalsh,thecommitteeheldhearings forovervemonths.TheCIRconsistedofmembersfromlabor,agriculture,andindustry. Unabletospeakwithonevoice,thecommissionultimatelyissuedthreeseparatereports,reectingthe

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8 CHAPTER1.PROGRESSIVEERAPARTI threedivergentpositionsofthecommitteemembers.Nonetheless,thereportswerecertainlyneithershocking nordidtheyissueanythingneworunknowntoAmericanlabor.FordecadesAmericanworkerswereroutinely underpaid,nedforbreakingawideassortmentofrulessuchaslaughingwhileatwork,andshotbyprivate armies,statemilitias,orevenfederaltroopswhenworkerswentonstrike.Thesematterswerewellknown toAmericanworkersandwerereportedinthenumerouspapersthatresultedfromthecommission'swork. Itwouldhavetakenthetwinpunchofamassivedomesticeconomiccrisisparalleledbyanunprecedented internationalcrisistopushfederaldecision-makerstoprotectAmericanworkersagainstabusetheyhadbeen experiencingsincethecreationoftherstmillinthe1780s. IfanyonegroupbenetedfromtheProgressiveerareforms,itpossiblycouldhavebeenchildren.AmericansduringtheGildedAgelookeduponchildrenratherdierentlythanAmericansviewchildrentoday. ThroughoutmostofU.S.history,childrenweresimplyshort,young,adults.Childrenwereanintegralpart ofthehouseholdincomeregardlessifthefamilylivedonafarmorworkedinafactory.Infact,insome careereldschildrenweretypicallyhiredoveradults,suchasinmining,wheretheirsmaller,morenimble handswerebenecial.Childrenwerealsopaidlessthantheiradultcounterpartsandthusmanyfactories tendedtohirechildrenasawayofincreasingtheirprots. Weevenlookuponchildrendierentlytodayinregardstosex.Theageofconsentinmanystateswas 12,andsomeevenaslowas10,duringtheGildedAge.Havingconsensualsexwithatwelve-year-oldtoday isnotonlysociallyrepulsivebutcriminalaswell. Thus,notsurprisingly,somereformrevolvedaroundthehealthandwelfareofchildren.Womensuch asFlorenceKelleygraduatedfromCornellUniversityworkedwithstatelegislaturestoenactpoliciesthat wouldprohibitchildrenfromworkingindangeroussettings,suchasinmines.ShehelpedlaunchtheNational ConsumerLeagueanorganizationdedicatedtosociallyresponsibleconsumerismandalleviatingtheplight ofoverworkedandunderpaidfactoryworkers.Yet,herrstsuccesswasinregardstochildlaborinfactories. DueinparttoherworkwithAddamsaswellasherworkwiththefutureSupremeCourtjusticeLouis BrandeisinpersuadingtheSupremeCourttosupportlegislationcurbingthenumberofhourswomenwere allowedtoworkoutsideofthehome,Kelleyfoughttobothlegallydeneachildandthentoprohibit childrenfromworkingthesamehoursandunderthesameconditionsasadults.Towardstheendofthe nineteenthcentury,theIllinoisstatelegislaturepassedthenation'srstchildlaborlawprohibitingchildren denedasunder14fromworkinginfactories.Illinois'Progressivegovernor,JohnAltgeld,appointed Kelleyasthestate'srstfemalefactoryinspector,ensuringthatallstatelawswereindeedbeingappliedin Illinois'factories. Inthelegalsystem,childrenandadultstendedtobetreatedasequals.Children,uponbeingfound guiltyofcommittingcrimes,wouldbesentencedtoservetheirpenaltiesinthesameinstitutionsthathoused adultcriminals.Thuscamethejuvenilecourtsysteminwhichsocialworkers,lawyersandjudgeswouldbe trainedinandworkwithonlyjuveniles.Childrengottheirownjails.Thesereformsspreadfromthelocal, tothestate,andeventuallytothefederalgovernment. DuringthepresidencyofWoodrowWilson,theroleofthefederalgovernmentexpandedtoinclude protectingchildrenasevidencedbythecreationoftheChildren'sBureauin1912withintheDepartment ofLabor.ReportsfromtheChildren'sBureau,helpedpushthroughtheKeating-OwenActin1916.This actprohibitedtheinterstatecommerceofcommercialgoodsmadebychildren.Theactdenedachildasa personnoolderthanthirteen.TwoyearslatertheU.S.SupremeCourtstruckdownthisearlyattemptto deneandprotectchildrenthusendingeectivelegislationuntiltheadministrationofFranklinRoosevelt. SettlementHouseMovement SomuchoftheProgressiveErareformwasintimatelyconnectedtothemassivewavesofnewimmigrants andthusinonewaytheProgressiveEramaybeexaminedthroughthelensoffear:Native-bornAmericans fearedtheinuxofEuropeanimmigrantswhocametothiscountrywithoutanyhistoryofdemocratictradition,withoutanyhistoryofcapitalism,withreligiousaliationsthatcausedmanyAmericanstoquestion theloyaltyofthesenewimmigrants,andwithentrenchedideasoftheacceptanceofalcoholatatimewhen manyAmericansbegantosucceedinpassinglawsandchangingmindsregardingtheconsumptionofalcohol. Accordingtothecensusof1900,25percentofthepeoplelivingintheUnitedStateswereforeign-bornin theearlytwenty-rstcentury,thepercentageofforeign-borniscloserto5percent.Thus,youmightwonder

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9 justhowmuchofthisreformwastrulyprogressivetohelptheseimmigrantsandhowmuchofthisreform wasaboutcontrollingthisever-increasinginuxoftired,poor,huddledmasses? OnereformthatwasclearlyconnectedtothenewimmigrantswastheSettlementHouseMovement.One ofthelatestandgreatestpathsofstudyaftertheCivilWarwasthatofSocialWork.AsmanyAmericans viewedwomenasnaturallymoremoralthanmen,asmanyAmericansbelievedthatwomen'sGod-givenroles revolvedaroundcare-giving,andbecausewomensuccessfullyenteredthepublicarenaintheyearsfollowing theCivilWarbyusingdomestichousekeepingphraseology,itisnotsurprisingthatmorewomenthenmen enteredtheeldofSocialwork.GraduatestudentsinsocialworkatSmithCollegelocatedinNorthampton, Massachusettsestablishedin1871identiedwhattheybelievedtobeaproblemintheirpartofthestate: homelessness.In1886studentsroundeduphomelesswomen,almostallofwhomwereforeign-born,and housedtheminpropertyboughtbythecollege.Theythenputtheirsocialworktrainingtothetest.This eldworkwassowildlypopularthatitspreadfromcollegecampustocollegecampusandshortlywasknown astheCollegeSettlementMovement. By1910,morethan400ofthesesettlementhomesexisted.Thelargestandpossiblythemostwellknown oftheseoperationswaslocatedonHullStreetinChicago.CreatedbyaProgressivereformerwhoworkedwith FlorenceKelleyandotherstoenactprotectivelegislationforchildren,JaneAddamsdevelopedhersimple ideaintoamassivestructurethatprovidedtraining,education,andcareeropportunitiesforhomeless,singlewomenandtheirchildren.KnownasHullHouse,AdamsprovidedfortheimmigranthomelessofChicagoto includedressinglikeanAmerican,cookinglikeanAmerican,andintroducingthemtoAmericanpasttimes suchastherelativelynewgameofbasketball.Thesewomen'schildrenalsoreceivedassistanceinanew kindofeducationalopportunitycalledakindergarten.Kindergarten,orinEnglishagardenofchildren, was,ironically,importedtotheU.S.byGermanimmigrants.PossiblyduetoAdamsconnectionswiththe WCTU,womenatHullHousewerealsoinstructedontheevilsofalcohol. Again,thelinebetweenassistanceandsocialcontrolwasneandthetypeofassistancethatpoor, immigrantwomenandtheirchildrenreceivedatHullHousecertainlysmackedofcontrol.HullHouse, ostensibly,helpedimmigrantsintheirtransitionfromforeignwaystoAmericanways.TheProgressive reformersintroducedthesepoor,tired,huddledmassestoAmericandemocracy,Americancapitalism,and ofcourseEnglish. INFLUENCINGCHANGEOR CONTROLLINGSOCIETY? Bytheearlytwentiethcentury,itseemedthatthesenewimmigrantswereheretostay.Besides,factory ownersseemedtoneedtheselaborersandthusaconstantowofimmigrantsmighthavebeenthelynchpin intransformingtheAmericafromanagricultural-basedeconomytoanindustrial-basedeconomyinthe decadesbetweenthefailureoftheCookbankingempireandtheGreatWar.Parallelingthelargestinux ofimmigrationwastheriseofanotherProgressiveEramovementknownasAmericanization.Although theworkofanti-immigrationgroupscontinuedthroughoutthetwentiethcenturysuchastheAmerican ProtectiveAssociation,whosemembersattemptedtopreventnon-Englishspeakingpeoplefromenteringthe UnitedStates,otherssoughttohelpimmigrantssucceed. BetterMovieMovement Manyoftheseimmigrantsenjoyedspendingwhatlittlefreetimeandextramoneytheymighthave accumulatedonthenewAmericanculturalphenomenonknownasthemovies.Therewerenoratingsystem, norules,regulations,orpoliciesthatHollywoodwasforcedtofollow.Instead,moviecompanieseventually developedandlooselyadheredtotheirownlistofdosanddon'tsbutnotuntilaftertheSupremeCourt ruling MutualFilmCorporationv.IndustrialCommissionofOhio declaredthatmotionpictureswere notcoveredbytheFirstAmendment,whichmeantthatcommunitiescouldanddidpasslawsprohibiting certainlmsfrombeingshownintheirtheaters.Noformalself-censorshipcodeswereinplaceuntil1930 andthentheProductionCode,asitwascalled,wasnotenforceduntil1934. Possiblybecausemovieswererelativelyinexpensive,manynative-bornworkingpoorandimmigrantswere attractedtotheaters.Inreactiontothelackofregulationcombinedwiththeparticularcrowdofpeopletobe foundinmovietheaters,Progressivereformswhoweretypicallymiddleandupperclassprofessionalstried tocompelstateandfederalgovernmentstodevelopandimposeanexternalratingssystemuponHollywood.

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10 CHAPTER1.PROGRESSIVEERAPARTI Thiswasoneareainwhichreformersfailed.Unabletorallygovernmentalsupport,Progressivegroups,such astheWCTU,simplymadeorproducedtheirownmovies. TenNightsinaBarroom TheTobaccoPlague and SafeguardingtheNation wereallpartoftheBetterMovieMovement.Theselmsattemptedto demonstratehowalcohol,smoking,andaweakmilitaryhadanadverseaectuponthisnation.Whatwere reallynothingmorethanlongpublicserviceannouncements,thesemovies,nonetheless,didnotsuccessfully makeachangetoAmericanculturalideas.Eveninthe1930smessagemoviespermeatedAmericanmovie theaters.FilmssuchasCocaineFiendsandReeferMadnessarecultclassicstodaybutwereseriousattempts byacoalitionofHollywoodandthefederalgovernmenttocurbAmerican'sinterestinopiatesandmarijuana. Medicine OneofthesuccessesoftheProgressiveerawastheprofessionalizationofthemedicaleld.Inthelate nineteenthcentury,Americanssuccessfullystoppedtheproliferationofpatentmedicines.Advertisedas allnatural,eective,andsaferemediesforwhateverailedyou,patentmedicineswereusuallyineective, dangerous,poisonous,oraddictivedrugsbasedonalcoholoropiatesandifyouconsumeenoughofeither, yourtroubles,albeittemporarily,justmightbeabated. Still,in1900allyoutrulyneededtobeamedicaldoctorwasasignstatingthedoctorisin.Andmany ofthesedoctorshadnomoremedicaltrainingthandidLucyinthefamousCharlesSchultzPeanutscartoons. WhiletherewereplentyofmedicalschoolssuchasthenewlybuiltJohnsHopkinsorthe250-year-oldYale, youdidnotneedamedicaldegree,oranydegree,toworkasamedicaldoctor. OnechangetoallofthisquackerywasthedevelopmentofantisepticsbyaBritishfellownamedLister.A resultofexternalpressurefromProgressivereformsandinternalpressurefromtrainedmedicalprofessionals, theAmericanMedicalAssociationAMAwasformedin1902asanationalorganization.TheAMAtraces itsoriginstothe1840sbutdoesnotbecomeaneective,nationalorganizationuntiltheProgressiveEra. InordertopracticemedicineintheUnitedStatesyounowhadtobelongtotheAMA.Inordertobelong totheAMAyouhadtohaveobtainedanundergraduatedegreefromanaccreditedinstitutionandthen successfullycompletedanapprovedmedicaldegree. In1906theAMAinvestigated160medicalschoolsandratedthemfortheiracademicrigor.Thereport waspublishedin1910andin1912theAMAbegantoundertakesomeofthereport'srecommendations. NotallAmericansbenetedfromthisprofessionalizationofthemedicalcorps.Asmostmedicalschools prohibitedwomenandAfricanAmericansfromattending,therewereveryfewwomenandAfricanAmerican doctorsafter1902.Inaddition,mostpoorandruralwomentendedtoseeuntrainedfemalemedicalpractitionerswhilemostblackpeoplesoughtmedicalassistancefromblackmedicalpractitioners.Becausethese uncertied,unqualied,anduntrainedwomenandblackdoctorswereprohibitedfrompracticingmedicine after1902,manypeopleintheUnitedStateslostaccesstoeventhemostmeagertypeofmedicalcareupon thecreationoftheAMA. CountryLifeMovement TheUnitedStatesslowlytransformeditselffromarural,agriculturalsocietytoanurban,industrial society.Accordingtothecensusof1900,forthersttimeinU.S.historythemajorityofAmericans consideredthemselvestobeurbandwellersratherthanruralinhabitants.Throughoutthistransformation, sotoodevelopedtheideathatanurbanlifestylewasmoreeconomicallyviablethanarurallifestyle.And bytheearlytwentiethcentury,someAmericansequatedruralAmericawithpovertyanddecayandurban Americawithwealthandprogress.Agoodexampleofthisurban-ruralsplitwasevidencedina1908 reportissuedbyoutgoingpresidentTheodoreRoosevelt.Aruralexistencelackedmodernnecessitiessuch aselectricity,factory-madefarmequipmentsuchasJohnDeere'slateststeelploworCyrusMcCormick's mechanicalreaper,andafullyequippedkitchen.Inregardstothelater,ChristineFredericktouredtherural SouthandWest,introducingAmericanwomentomodernconveniencessuchasdishwashersintroducedat the1893ChicagoFair,iceboxes,andnewstoves.FrederickwasnotsomuchofaProgressivereformerwho workedtobringruralwomenbettermanagementovertheirhouseholds,butratherFrederickworkedforthe bignationalcorporations,suchasSears,J.C.Penny,andMontgomeryWard.Shewasasalespersonrst andforemostbutwrappedhersalespitchesintheagofProgressivereform. Frederickdidintroducescienticmanagementtowomenalloverthiscountrybothpersonallyaswell asthroughthepagesofwomen'smagazinessuchas TheLadiesHomeJournal .In1912shewroteafour-part

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11 articleentitledTheNewHousekeeping:HowitHelpstheWomanWhoDoesHerOwnWork.Init,she oeredadviceonhowtosetupthewashboard,sink,andtabletotheiroptimalheightsforwomentomost eectivelycompletetheirwork.Scienticmanagementofthekitchenmeantnotonlyaplaceforeverything butalsothebestplaceforeverykitchengadget,tool,andutensil: Ayoungbriderecentlyshowedmehernewkitchen.Isn'titabeauty?sheexclaimed.Itcertainlyhad modernappliancesofeverykind,butherstovewasinarecessofthekitchenatoneendandherpantrywas twentyfeetawayattheoppositeend.Everytimeshewantedtouseafryingpanshehadtowalktwenty feettogetit,andafterusingitshehadtowalktwentyfeettoputitaway. Thisquestionofarrangementandtheplacingoftablesandtoolsmustbeconsiderediftheworkeristo obtainthehighesteciency. FrederickwasnoDearAbbyorJuliaChild.Rather,shefurtheredtheuseofmoderninventionsin theirmostmeaningfulmannerinordertohelpwomenembracetheirGod-givenroleasadomestic.Her promotionandadvertisingofAmericanconsumerculture,althoughseeminglynewintheearlytwentieth century,certainlyforeshadowedtheconsumercrazeofthepost-WorldWarIIgenerations. Prostitution Progressivereformersconnectedphysicalillnesswithsintopushtoendsuchdiseasesassyphilis.Syphilis wasarathercommondiseasebutbythelatenineteenthcentury,manyAmericanssawthespreadofthis sexuallytransmitteddiseaseasamoralityissue:tohavesyphilisindicatedamorallyweakperson.Intolerablewasacommonresponsetothewidespreadnatureofthisandsimilardiseases.Becausethisdisease spreadthroughsexualcontactunlikethepopularmisconceptionsthatsyphilisisspreadbyshakinghands, usingdirtytoiletseats,ordoorknobsmanyreformersbegantoattackwhattheybelievedtobetherootof thesyphilisepidemic:prostitutes. Withoutwonderinghowprostitutescontractedthediseaseinordertospreadittotheircustomers, Progressivereformerspushedlocalandstatepoliticianstocriminalizethesaleofsex.Interestingly,it becameillegalforwomentoworkasprostitutes,butitwasnotillegalformentoengageprostitutes' oerings,suggestingthatthemovementtostampoutsinanddiseasewasbasedontheideathatwomen originatedboththesinandthusthediseaseamodern-dayapplicationoftheEve-Applemyth. JaneAddamsdenouncedthecodicationofprostitution,believinginsteadthatgovernmentshouldexaminetherootcausesofprostitution.Womenonlybecomeprostitutes,Addamsargued,becauseallrespectable careeroptionsdidnotpayasmuchasprostitution.Itwasnotunusualforimmigrantwomenworkingina NewYorkCityfactorysixdaysaweektomakebetween$4and$20amonth.Ocialgovernmentreports placedtheaverageAmericanwoman'swageat$6.67perweek. Prostitutesmadeinafewminuteswhatitwouldtakeherfactory-colleagueweekstomake.Forexample, streetwalkersearnedbetween$1and$5dollarspertrick.Anearly-twentiethcenturyinvestigationauthored bythe61stCongress-1911entitledTheSummaryReportontheConditionofWomenandChildren WageEarnersintheUnitedStates,concludedthatprostituteswhoworkedinprivatehomesorbrothels typicallyearned$20adaywhiletheownersofthebrothelsaveraged$50,000ayear.Thus,ifwomencould securecareersthatpaidthemasmuchasprostitution,nowomanwouldeverelecttobecomeaprostitute, Addamstheorized.Tosuccessfullyendprostitution,Addamssuggestedthatworkingwomenbepaidthe equivalentoftheirprostitutecolleagues.Ifatelephoneoperatormadeasmuchasaprostitute,thenwomen wouldswellthetelephoneoperatorranks,thusendingprostitution,thusendingthespreadofsyphilis. Needlesstosay,therewasneverameaningfulattempttoelevatethepayofworkingwomentothelevel earnedbyprostitutes.Ultimately,prostitutionwasdrivenundergroundwherecriminalelementsincreasingly controlledthetrade. WomanSurage InthedecadesfollowingtheCivilWar,Americanwomensoughttwoparalleltracksintheirattemptto achievepoliticalequality.SomesoughttoamendtheConstitution,allowingallwomenacrossthecountryto engagetheirrighttovotethroughtheeortsoftheNationalWomen'sSurageAssociation.Othersbelieved thatchangestosocietymustcomefromwithinthebordersofstatesandworkedamongstatelegislatures topasslawsallowingwomentherighttovotewithintheirstateelections,suchastheAmericanWomen's SurageAssociation.Beforetheendofthenineteenthcentury,thesetwogroupscametogetherandformed

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12 CHAPTER1.PROGRESSIVEERAPARTI theNationalAmericanWomen'sSurageAssociationNASWA.Theyworkedtogetwomentherightto votesimultaneouslyatthestatelevelandatthenationallevel. OfalltheProgressiveerareforms,therewaspossiblynomoredicultghtthanforwomen'spolitical equality.WomenwereprohibitedfromowningpropertythroughtheCivilWar.Womenwere,insome localities,allowedtovoteinlocalboardofeducationelectionsduringtheGildedAge.Womenauthorsof thelatenineteenthcenturymirroredmanyoftheideasofequalityrstpennedbytheEnglishauthorMary WollstonecraftintheyearsfollowingtheAmericanWarforIndependence. AftertheCivilWar,thousandsofAmericanstouredtheworldandupontheirreturnhundredswrote travelbooks:linearnarrativesofwhattheysaw,usuallyinjectedAmerican-Christiansuperiorityandcalls forhelptoreformtheheathenallovertheworld,toincludeelevatingthestatusofwomen.Palestinewas aparticularlyimportantdestinationforAmericanwomentravelersinthenineteenthcentury.Thesewomen tendedtodemonstratetotheirreadersthesuperiorityofProtestantwomenbyspreadingrumorsabout Muslims.Some,suchasLuciaA.Palmer,believedthatMuslimswerenaturallybloodthirstycreatureswho literallykilledChristians,justforfun: TheMohammedanhatestheChristian,andwhenhewishestoamusehimself,hetakesaholidayandkills oafewhundredorafewthousandinBulgaria,Palestine,orArmenia,inwhichevercountryhechoosesto hunt.ThentheChristianworldraisesitshandsinhorror,andholdmeetings,anddispatchestotheTurkish governmentlongdemandsandcommands...andtheMoslemanswersbyslaughteringmoreChristians. TheirpublishedtravelwritingssuggestthatmanyoftheseaverageAmericanwomensupportedsurage asasocialequalizerforthepoor,tired,anddowntroddenwomenoftheIslamicMiddleEast.Forexample, whenanAmericantravelernamedKateKraftwasinEgypt,shecalledforaWoman'sRightsConvention becauseEgyptianwomen,unliketheirAmericancounterparts,weredoingnothingtosecuretheirrightto vote. Somewomenwrote,believingthatpublicationwasthemannerthroughwhichwomencouldaddtheir voicetothepublicdiscussionsonthemajorissuesoftheirtime.AnotherAmericantravelernamedMary Barney,forexample,believedthatwomenshouldwriteaboutpoliticsandgovernmentasawayofbecoming activeinapoliticalclimateinwhichwomenwerepreventedfrompartakinganyactiverolesbecausethey werenotallowedtovote.OneofthemostimportantauthorsduringtheProgressiveerawasCharlotte PerkinsGillman.Gillmanexaminedawideassortmentofgenderequalityissuesinherworks,suchas The YellowWallpaper TheCivilWar-erasurageleaderssuchasElizabethCadyStantonandSusanB.Anthonywerereplaced byyounger,slightlymoreaggressive,andalmostalwaysformallyeducatedwomensuchasCarrieChapman CattandReverendOlympiaBrownfromWisconsin.Yet,oneofthiscountry'smoreinuentialsurage supporterswastherelativelyunknownEmmaSmithDeVoe. DeVoetraveledtheWestfromIllinoistoWashingtongivingspeechesandentertainingthecrowdswith CivilWar-relatedsongs,suggestingthatpropernorthernersandRepublicanssupportwomen'srightto votewhilesouthernersandDemocratsdonot.Unliketheuninching,stark,dowdyperceptionthatmany AmericansheldofSusanB.Anthonywhoremainedunmarriedandwhodressedinablackdressandalways hadherhairpulledbackinaseverebun,DeVoewasdescribedaswomanlyforhowshedressedinthe modernstyle,howshekeptherhair,thefactthatshewasmarried,andthefactthatDeVoeseemedtonot preachtothecrowdsbutrathertourgethemtodotherightthingbysupportingwomen'srighttovote.She wasacentralreasonbehindthesuccessfulWashingtoncampaignof1912andtheeventualpassageofthe NineteenthAmendmentonAugust26,1920.UnlikemanyofherProgressivecolleagues,DeVoe'sdevotion towomen'spoliticalrightsdidnotendin1920.Rather,shewouldcontinueherworktohelpwomenmore ecientlywieldthevotebycreatingtheLeagueofWomenVoters. Environmentalism TheProgressiveeraispossiblymostassociatedwiththeideaoflaunchingthemodernAmericanconservationmovement.AmericanswalkedanelinebetweentheJeersonianidealoflivingasindependent yeomanfarmersandgainingthewealththatcamefromurbanlivingandindustrialization.Duringthe pre-CivilWarindustrialera,Americansworriedaboutmaintainingabalancebetweenpristinelandsofan agricultural-basedeconomyandtheinevitableecologicaldamageofanindustrial-basedeconomy.Thatwas

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13 theparadoxofindustry.AsAlexanderDeTocquevillewrote,fromthelthysewer,puregoldows. DuringtheCivilWar,PresidentAbrahamLincolnrecognizedYosemiteValleyasapublicparkinthe 1864YosemiteAct,creatingthefederalprecedentfortheinevitablecreationofanationalparksystem.After theCivilWarsomepeopletriedtobringexamplesoftheJeersonianidealtotheHamiltonianrealityof urbanlife,suchasFrederickLawOlmstead,whocreatedagreenspaceinthemiddleofNewYorkCity.He calledthisspaceCentralPark,andhelpedtolaunchanationalmovementtobuildparksinurbancenters. Thefederalgovernmentpickedupthebatonin1872bycreatingtherstnationalpark:Yellowstone.By 1890nationalparksreachedthewestcoastwiththeestablishmentofYosemiteNationalPark,whichis knownasoneofthisnation'srstwildernessparksinpartduetoits1200squaremilesofrugged,pristine terrain.TheForestReserveslawof1891proscribedthepresidentwiththepowertowithdrawandreserve publiclandswhollyorinpartcoveredbytimberorundergrowthinordertobeusedforthegoodofall Americans. TheseactsofCongressdidnotdenotetheauthoritytaskedwithadministeringthereservedlandsand thusin1897CongresspassedtheForestManagementActprovidingtheDepartmentoftheInteriorwiththe authoritytoregulatetheuseofreservedlands.TheBureauofReclamationwascreatedin1902todealwith therealityofwaterissueswestoftheMississippi,inwhichthewatertableswereconsiderablylowerthan eastoftheMississippiRiver.Thefederalgovernmentmanagedirrigationandotherprojectsdesignedtobest helpAmericanssuccessfullysettletheWest.Oncetheirrigationprojectswerecompletedthenthefederal governmentwouldonceagainopenthelandsforsettlementundertheprovisionsofthe1863HomesteadAct. In1903thefederalgovernmentcreatedtherstnationalwildliferefuge,locatedinFlorida,tohelppreserve andprotectindigenousspecies.TwoyearslaterCongresscreatedtheU.S.ForestServiceoriginallyunder theDepartmentoftheInteriorandtaskedthatorganizationtomanagethelandsplacedunderreserveby theaptlynamedReservelawof1891.Laterthefederalgovernmentwilladoptthephrasenationalforests inplaceofnationalreserves.Finally,CongresscreatedtheNationalParkServicein1916,taskedwiththe managementofallnationalparkssuchasMountRainierinWashington,establishedin1899,battleelds suchasBearPawBattleeldnearChinook,Montana,andmonumentssuchastheAlibatesFlintQuarries inTexas. ConservationmovementandHech-Hechy -1910. Oneofthelesser-knowneventsduringtheProgressiveerawasknownastheConservationmovement. Initsinfancy,andcertainlyviewedwithmoreprogressivetwenty-rstcenturyeyes,theconservation movementofthelate-nineteenthandearly-twentiethcenturiesmightappeartobebackward.Probablythe twomostimportantnamesattachedtothisreformwerePresidentTheodoreRooseveltandhisSecretaryof theInterior,GiordPinchot. PinchotbeganhisfederalcareerastheheadoftheDivisionofForestrywithintheDepartmentofAgriculturein1898.Roosevelt,beingquiteconcernedaboutconservationandtheWest,appointedPinchotto investigatereportsofthefederalgovernmentleasingfederallandstoranchers.In1904,Pinchot'sinuence intheRooseveltadministrationresultedinPinchotwrestlingcontrolofthenationalforestsawayfromthe DepartmentoftheInterior.AfewyearslaterPinchot'sattempttogaincontrolofallnationalparks,monuments,forests,andbattleeldsfailed,andinthebacklashanew,permanentoversightoftheNationalParks ServicewascreatedundertheauspicesoftheDepartmentoftheInterior. TheRoosevelt-Pinchotteam'smostprolicbattlewasoverthedammingandthepotentialconsequences ofastripoflandinCaliforniaknownasHetchHetchy.Followingthe1906earthquake,thecityofSan FranciscosoughttodampartofYosemiteinordertocreateaman-madelaketobeusedasafreshwater supply.RooseveltandPinchotfavoredtheproject,whilepeoplesuchasJohnMuirwhocreatedtheSierra Clubin1892opposeddestroyingwhatheequatedasanaturalcathedralortemple.Interestinglyenough, bothPinchotandRooseveltwerefriendswithMuirearlierintheircareers.Thefederalgovernmentwonand anactofCongressauthorizedtheconstructionofadamthatpartiallyoodedtheYosemiteValley. ThecreationofYosemiteNationalParkandtheoodingofthevalleydidnothappenwithoutitscritics,to includetheuntoldnumbersofAmericansandIndianswhoreliedongame,water,andtimberfromYosemite fortheirsurvival.Manyofthosepeoplerefusedtoadheretoarticiallinesdrawninmapsandthusthey

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14 CHAPTER1.PROGRESSIVEERAPARTI continuedtohuntgameonthepark,felltreesonthepark,andseektheirfreshwatersourcesfromwithin thepark.TheUSmilitarywasinitiallytaskedwiththepark'ssecuritybutby1916thefederalgovernment createdtheNationalParkServicetomanageallaspectsofthesenationalresources,toincludekeepingpeople fromhuntingortakingotherresourcesfromwithintheboundariesofthepark. EndofPartI

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Chapter2 TheProgressiveEraPartII 1 THEPROGRESSIVEPRESIDENTSAND POLITICALPROGRESSIVISM Overwhelmingly,Progressivesheldanevangelicalzealandmanyhadbackgroundsinevangelicalmovementsintheirbeliefsthatnotonlyweretheyabletoidentifyproblemsbutthattheyhadthetoolsnecessary toxthoseproblems.Progressives,however,dieredonwhomwouldleadthereform:reformfrombelow volunteerorcommunity-ledorreformfromabovegovernment-led.Notsurprisingly,someAmerican presidentsbelievedthatproblemswerebestidentiedandthencorrectedbythemselves.Traditionally,the ProgressiveeraAmericanpresidentswereTheodoreRoosevelt,hishandpickedsuccessorWilliamHoward Taft,andWoodrowWilson. TEDDYROOSEVELT: TheFirstProgressivePresident TheRooseveltfamilywasoneoftheoldestandwealthiestfamiliesintheUnitedStates.Beingableto tracehisancestryinthiscountrybacktothe Mayower ,RooseveltbelongedtoanelitegroupofAmerican families.HisaristocraticbackgroundpropelledhimthroughHarvard.AfterabriefcareerintheNewYork legislaturehebecamethesecondinchargeoftheDepartmentoftheNavyin1897. Rooseveltwasabold,brash,andattimeslarger-than-lifegurewholivedwhathecalledthemanly lifedailyexercise,engaginginsports,andbeingactiveontheworld'sstage.Notwithoutreservation,the RepublicanleadershipoeredthevicepresidencytoRooseveltin1898,followinghisbriefyetwildlyadvertised stintinaprivatemilitaryunitduringtheSpanish-AmericanWar.LeonCzolgoszelevatedRoosevelttothe presidencywhen,in1901,heassassinatedPresidentWilliamMcKinley. Roosevelt'sprogressiveideashadtheirgenesiswhileservingthepeopleofNewYork.Rooseveltbelieved thathe,aspresident,wasbestsuitedtobothidentifyandthenapplycorrectivemeasures.Thushewas notafanofthenewjournalistswhoresearched,wrote,andpublishedexposesagainstabusesinAmerican industriessuchasoil,alcohol,anddairy.Oneofthesemuckrakers,asRooseveltcalledthosewhodugin thedirtofbusinesspractices,wasawomannamedIdaTarbell.Tarbellworkedforwhatwasarguablythe mostwellknowninvestigativemagazineofitstime McClure's .Themagazinepublishedarticlesexposing problemsinthedairyindustrythousandsofinfantsandelderlypeoplediedeachyearofcontaminated milk,butTarbell'sworkonStandardOilsetthebarforinvestigativereporting.Tarbelldiscoveredthatthe Rockefellerfamily'srisetothetophadlesstodowithaPuritanworkethicandmoretodowithcorruption, bullying,andoutrightmonopolizingtheindustry.Tarbell'sworkledthefederalgovernment'sdismantling ofStandardOilandwinningthenicknametrustbusterforRoosevelt. Rooseveltdidnotbelievethatallmonopolieswereinherentlybad.Rather,andinstepwithmanyU.S. decision-makersandfederaljudges,ifmonopoliesproducedagoodproductatafairprice,Rooseveltetal tendedtoleavethemalone.WhatRooseveltdidbelieveinwastheinherentpowerofthefederalgovernment toeventheplayingeld,thushesupportedfederallawsthatregulatedbusiness,suchastheHepburnBill. 1 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat. 15

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16 CHAPTER2.THEPROGRESSIVEERAPARTII Rooseveltalsobelievedinthepowerofthepresidentoratleastthepowerofhimselfaspresidentto becomepersonallyinvolvedinregulatingindustryandhedidsointhe1902Anthracitecoalstrikeandthe NorthernSecuritiesinvestigationtwoyearslater. WILLIAMHOWARDTAFT: DollarDiplomacy TaftwasRoosevelt'shandpickedsuccessortoleadtheRepublicanPartyaswellasthenation.As apresident,TaftdidnotasmuchascontinueRoosevelt'spoliciesinregardstotheeconomy,business regulation,andforeignpolicythanhedevelopedwhatwasseenatthattimeaspossiblysomethingnew. TaftsupportedtheideathatAmericanpolitical,social,religious,andeconomicstrategieswouldbemost eectivelyspreadthroughouttheworldbyAmericanbusinessesasthetipofhisspear. UnderthepresidencyofTaft,theU.S.beganloaninglargesumsofmoneytoLatinAmericancountries, suchasNicaragua,inordertogreasethewheels,sotospeak,forAmericancompaniestocontrollocal production,suchastheinfamousAmericanagriculturecompanyUnitedFruit.TodayTaftwouldtin, philosophically,withDonaldRumsfeld,PaulBremer,DickChaneyandothersknownasNeo-Consinthe earlytwenty-rstcentury.Onthedomesticsideofhispresidency,Taftwasinvolvedwithissuespertaining toalcohol,laborandbusinessregulation,conservation,raceandimmigration. Taftneverociallyidentiedhispositiononthegovernment'sroleregardingtheregulationofthealcohol industry,howeveraspresidentTaftdidvetoacongressionalmeasurethatprohibitedinterstatecommerce ofalcoholintostatesthathadprohibitedtheconsumptionofalcoholwithintheirborders,suchasGeorgia, Alabama,Oklahoma,Mississippi,NorthCarolina,TennesseeandKansas.KnownastheWebbAct,Congress overrodeTaft'sveto.ItisdiculttosaywithanycertaintyifTaft'svetosupportedtheideathatthefederal governmentshouldnotbeinvolvedinmattersofthestatesorifhebelievedthatthefederalgovernment shouldnotbeinvolvedinregulatingtheliquorindustry. Roosevelt'spersonalmediationoftheAnthracitecoalstrikewouldnotberepeatedduringTaft'sadministration.Rather,Taftallowedcourtstodecideissuespertainingtolaboryethetendedtousethepower oftheexecutivebranchtoenforcetheShermanAct.Ironically,thisnation'sTrustBusterwasTaft,who ledmoresuitsagainstAmericanmonopoliesthanhispredecessor,whowasgiventhatnicknameasaresult ofhisadministration'sghttobreakupStandardOil.StandardOilwastoRooseveltasU.S.Steelwasto Taft.Taft'sattemptstobreakupU.S.SteelacorporationestablishedwhenAndrewCarnegiesoldnearly allofhisU.S.holdingstomensuchasCharlesSchwab,JohnDavidRockefeller,andJ.P.Morganwereas successfulasthebreakupofStandardOil.WhileTaftwonafewlegalbattles,Schwab,Rockefeller,and Morgancontinuedtoenjoynearlyuncheckedpower,authorityandwealthasTaft'sone-termadministration cametoaclosein1912. Taft'shistoryintheProgressiveconservationmovementisevenlesseectivethanhisdealingswith labororbigbusiness.ThepresidentredTeddyRoosevelt'sright-handmanintheconservationmovement, GiordPinchot,ultimatelycostingtheRepublicansneededvotesamongenvironmentalandconservativemindedwesternvoters.However,Tafttendedtoholdtruetothenotionthatthefederalgovernment'srolesin regulatingtheenvironmentmustbeseverelylimited,insteadwantingstatestotaketheleadinconservation. Taft,adheringtoahands-opolicyestablishedbytheRutherfordB.Haysin1877andpossiblydue tohisbeliefintheinherentpowerofstategovernments,typicallyrefusedtogetinvolvedinracialmatters suchassegregationorlynchings.Althoughjustbeforeleavingocein1913,Taftvetoedaresolutionthat wouldhaveallowedthefederalgovernmenttoprohibitentrancetotheU.S.foranyimmigrantwhofailed todemonstrateabasicliteracyinEnglish.Taft'srecordonprogressivedomesticaairsisscant,atbest, inpartduetohisunpopularityathome.Typically,whenAmericanpresidentsareincapableofforwarding meaningfuldomesticagendas,theytendtobecomemoreinvolvedinforeignventures,wherepresidentswield morepowerandareoutsideofthedirectcontrolofthelegislativebranchofthegovernment. WOODROWWILSON: TheCrusaderPresident TheProgressiveerapresidentmostcloselyassociatedwithestablishingtherelationshipbetweenthe federalgovernmentandtheeconomyaswellascreatingthenowwidespreadAmericanbeliefinthenecessity ofthefederalgovernmenttocontroltheU.S.economywasWoodrowWilson.

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17 TheShermanAnti-TrustAct,asdemonstratedintheTaft'sadministration'sinabilitytoeectively regulatemonopolies,wasnarrowlyappliedbythecourttotheextentthatonlymonopoliesthatwereillegally establishedcouldbeconfrontedbythefederalgovernment.Toclosethisloophole,Congresspassedand WilsonsignedintolawtheClaytonAct.Wilson,whencampaigningin1912,promisedAmericansthatas presidenthewouldmoreaggressivelythanhispredecessorsattackallconstraintoftradeinordertocreate anopenmarket.In1917Wilsoncalledforthecreationofaninternationaleconomicsystemunconstrained byeventaris.TheClaytonActfellshortofWilson'selection-yearpromises.Insteadofforgingastronger weapon,theClaytonActmerelyenactedmoreharshpenaltiesforcorporationsthatwerefoundguiltyof breakingtheShermanAct. Wilsonwassuccessful,however,ingettinglegislationpassedthatwouldassistAmericanworkers.In 1914,andbytheProgressiveWisconsinRepublicanFightingBobLaFollette,theLaFollette-PetersAct limitedwomengarmentworkersinWashingtonD.C.toworkingeighthoursperday.In1915LaFollette's Seaman'sActtriedtohelpAmericansailorsbyrestrictingtheirworkinghoursandenhancingtheirworking conditions.TheAdamsonActprohibitedAmericanrailworkersfromworkingmorethaneighthoursper day.Therstmeasurewasadoptedinordertoprotectthetraditionally-viewedjobofwomenascaregivers andhomemakers,whiletheothertwoactswerepassedforsafetyreasons.Wilsonsupportedtheadoptionof thesemeasures. Wilsonalsosupportedtheexpansionofthescopeanddepthofthefederalgovernmentinveryparticular instances,suchaswhenhesignedintolawtheFederalReserveActof1913.ThepieceofProgressive legislation,authoredbyRepresentativeCarterGlassD-VAandSenatorRobertOwenD-OK,provided fortheestablishmentofFederalreservebanks,tofurnishanelasticcurrency,toaordmeansofrediscounting commercialpaper,toestablishamoreeectivesupervisionofbankingintheUnitedStates,andforother purposes.Interestinglyenough,Wilsondidnotsupportthelegislationontheideathatasingular,federallyregulatedcurrencywouldhelpconsumers,butrathertheadoptionoftheactwouldbenetbusiness.Unlike popularmyth,theFederalReservewasnotunderthecompletecontrolofthefederalgovernmentbutrather consistedofacoalitionoffederalandprivatebanks.PrivatebanksthatjoinedtheFederalReservesystem weregrantedcertainperks,suchasaccesstolow-interestloans.TheActdidhaveitscritics,suchas RepresentativeR-MNCharlesA.Lindbergh,Sr.whocalledtheFederalReservethemostgigantictrust onearth...[and]...theworstlegislativecrimeoftheages."Lindberghwillbebetterknownforbeing thefatheroftherstpersontocrosstheAtlanticbyairplane:CharlesA.Lindbergh,Jr.,whowasalsoa supporterofNaziGermanyduringthe1940s. Finally,WilsonoversawthepassageoffouramendmentstotheU.S.Constitutionduringhistwoterms. TheSixteenthAmendmentauthorizedthefederalgovernmenttoadoptandcollectanationalincometax. TheSeventeenthAmendmentprovidedforthedirectandpopularelectionofU.S.Senators.TheEighteenth Amendment,akaProhibition,madeitillegaltodojustaboutanythingwithalcohol,excepttoconsumeit. And,theNineteenthAmendmentalloweduniversalsurage. THEDISINHERITED: PROGRESSIVISM'SLIMITS ProgressivereformerscertainlywereunabletoeectpositivechangeforallAmericansandinallaspects oflife,liberty,andhappiness.TherewerethreegroupsofAmericanswhotypicallydidnotrealizechangeor werenotthefocusofProgressivereformers:Blacks,Indians,andWomen. AfricanAmericans Reconstructionresultedinnewrights,liberties,andopportunitiesfortheblackpeoplethroughoutthe UnitedStates.TheThirteenthAmendmentendedslavery,theFourteenthAmendmentprovidedforequal treatmentofallcitizens,andtheFifteenthAmendmentprovidedforuniversalmalesurage.However,those rightsexistedonpaperbutnotinpractice.Mostofthecivilrightsgroupsandlegislationofthe1870swas disbanded,declaredunconstitutional,orseverelylimitedininterpretation,suchasthe1875CivilRights ActsinwhichtheSupremeCourtdeclaredthatfederallawsregardingequaltreatmentappliedtostates, thusitwasnotillegalorunconstitutionalforindividualstodiscriminate,suchastheKuKluxKlan. SegregationwascodiedinthedecadesfollowingtheCivilWar.AcrosstheSouthBlackCodescreated twosocio-legalsystems:oneforwhitepeopleandoneforblackpeople.Blacksweretypicallyprohibitedfrom

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18 CHAPTER2.THEPROGRESSIVEERAPARTII livingwithincitylimits,thustheywereforcedtoliveoutsidethewhitepopulations.Blacksandwhiteswere prohibitedfromworkingtogether,fromtravelingtogether,orfromtakingadvantageofthesameeducational opportunities. Blackmenweredisenfranchisedthroughtheuseofpolltaxesorliteracytests.Ifyoucouldnotpay thetaxorcouldnotpasstheliteracyexamination,thenyouwereprohibitedfromvoting.Overwhelmingly, blackswerethetargetsofthesenewlaws. TheSupremeCourtdeclaredtheconstitutionalityofmanysouthernlawsthatcreatedseparateliving areas,workareas,andeducationalopportunitiesforwhiteandblackcitizens.Plessyv.Ferguson,in1896, establishedtheseparatebutequalclauseoftheU.S.ConstitutionwhentheSupremeCourtsidedwith thestateofLouisiana,whichhadlawsprohibitingblacksandwhitesfromtravelingonthesametrains. AsJusticeHenryBrownwrote,Theobjectofthe[FourteenthA]mendmentwasundoubtedlytoenforce theabsoluteequalityofthetworacesbeforethelaw,butinthenatureofthingsitcouldnothavebeen intendedtoabolishdistinctionsbaseduponcolor,ortoenforcesocial,asdistinguishedfrompoliticalequality, oracomminglingofthetworacesupontermsunsatisfactorytoeither.Inotherwords,stateswerenot discriminatingifstatesprovidedforseparatefacilitiesinregardstonon-politicalmattersbasedonracial ideasbecauseoftheSupremeCourt'suseofthetermequal.ForAmericanstoday,equalmeansthesame. FortheSupremeCourtinthelatenineteenthcentury,equalmeantsimilarbutnotthesame.Forexample, todayyourprofessorsareprohibitedfrommandatingexamsbasedonraceorgenderallfemalestudents willtakeoneexamwhileallmalestudentstakeanotherexam,yetforProgressiveeraAmericansyouwere beingtreatedequallyaslongasbothgroupswereallowedaccesstoeducationalopportunities. ProgressivepresidentstendedtoignoretheplightofAfricanAmericansaswellastheircallsforequality. RooseveltdidinviteBookerT.WashingtontoaWhiteHousedinner.AMemphisnewspapercalledRoosevelt'sdecisiontoeatwithablackmanadamnableoutrage.Roosevelt,likehisprogressivepresidential colleagues,tendedtoemphasizehisconnectionstotheSouth,evengoingsofarastosendowerstothe widowoftheConfederategeneralStonewallJackson.WilsonwasfromtheSouthborninVirginia.As president,WilsonhostedaWhiteHousescreeningofthelm BirthofaNation ,whichwasbasedonthenovel TheKlansmen,inwhichtheKlanwasshowntobeheroestotheSouthandprotectorsofsouthernwomen's puritywhilealsoportrayingblacksasalcohol-fueled,sex-crazed,peopleunwilling,unable,anduninterested inworkingforaliving. AnotherreasonwhyProgressivereformsfailedtoreachmostAfricanAmericanswasthepopularly-held notionofWhiteMan'sBurden.RudyardKipling,aBritishsubjectwhowasbornandworkedinimperial India,wroteoftenacknowledgingthetrialsandtribulationsoftheBritishimperialsystem,however,his poemwhilealsoextollingthenecessityofBritain'sempirebecauseofthegoodbeingperformedaroundthe worldinbringingwesternpolitical,social,economic,andveryimportantly,religiousideastotheheathens oftheworld.Hepennedthis1899poem,entitled"WhiteMan'sBurden"inpart,togivesupporttothe AmericaneortsinthePhilippines,asiftopoeticallyassureAmericansthattheircausewasjustandnoble: TakeuptheWhiteMan'sburden Sendforththebestyebreed Gobindyoursonstoexile Toserveyourcaptives'need; Towaitinheavyharness, Onutteredfolkandwild Yournew-caught,sullenpeoples, Half-devilandhalf-child. Overwhelmingly,ProgressivereformersdidnotlookuponAfricanAmericansasneedingtutelage,rather theylookedupontheneedofbringingAmericanpolitical,social,economic,andreligiousideastothelessfortunatearoundtheworld,suchasinthePhilippines.SenatorAlbertBeveridgeR-Indarticulatedthe necessityoftheUnitedStatesbeingactiveinhelpingtocivilizethePhilippinepeoplearguingthatunless theU.S.helpedthemtodevelopwesternideasandpracticesoverthere,thosepeoplemightmigratetothe UnitedStates.BeveridgealsobelievedinthespecialmissionoftheUnitedStates,evidencebyhis1898 speechentitledMarchoftheFlagwhenheasked,Therefore,inthiscampaign,thequestionislargerthan

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19 apartyquestion.ItisanAmericanquestion.Itisaworldquestion.ShalltheAmericanpeoplecontinue theirmarchtowardthecommercialsupremacyoftheworld?Shallfreeinstitutionsbroadentheirblessed reignasthechildrenoflibertywaxinstrength,untiltheempireofourprinciplesisestablishedoverthe heartsofallmankind? DuringtheProgressiveEra,Americandecision-makers'attentionswerecertainlynotfocusedonthe plightofminorities.Onesadrealityofthefederalgovernmentturningtheirbackstowardsthenewly-freed citizensin1877waslynching.TheepisodesoflynchingsthroughouttheSouthincreasedachdecade.Inthe wakeoftheGreatWar,blacksbegantobelynchedinincreasingnumbersintheNorthandintheWest. Thosewhoparticipatedinthesemurderstypicallyheldnofearofarrestorincarcerationasmanyofthe perpetratorshadtheirphotographtakennexttothedeadblackpeople.Thesephotoswerethensoldas souvenirsthroughouttheUnitedStates. Lynchingswereextrajudicialpunishmentandthuswere,bydenition,murder.However,almostnoone wasarrestedforthesemurders.Localandstateocialsturnedblindeyes,andattimeswereevencomplicit inthelynchings.Thus,Americanreformers,suchasIdaB.Wells,soughthelpfromthefederalgovernment. Afterthedeathofthreeclosefriendsbythehandsofawhitemob,andafternosupportfromthelocal police,Wellswrote:ThecityofMemphishasdemonstratedthatneithercharacternorstandingavailsthe Negroifhedarestoprotecthimselfagainstthewhitemanorbecomehisrival.Thereisnothingwecan doaboutthelynchingnow,asweareout-numberedandwithoutarms.Thewhitemobcouldhelpitselfto ammunitionwithoutpay,buttheorderisrigidlyenforcedagainstthesellingofgunstoNegroes.Thereis thereforeonlyonethinglefttodo;saveourmoneyandleaveatownwhichwillneitherprotectourlivesand property,norgiveusafairtrialinthecourts,buttakesusoutandmurdersusincoldbloodwhenaccused bywhitepersons. Wellstried,unsuccessfully,togettheU.S.Congresstomakelynchingafederalcrime.Shedidsucceed, however,inhelpingblackwomenbyfoundingtheNationalAssociationofColoredWomenaswellashelping allblackpeoplethroughthecreationoftheNationalAssociationfortheAdvancementofColoredPeople NAACP.Sheworkedtirelesslyforawiderangeofreformmovementsincludingwomansurage.Nonetheless,sheismostknownforherworkregardinglynching,publishingmanyworkstoincludean1895book entitled TheRedRecord .FollowingWorldWarIIPresidentHarryS.Trumansupportedlegislationtomake lynchingafederalcrime.Hetoowasunsuccessful.Interestinglyenough,whilemostProgressivereform bypassedAfricanAmericans,therealityofmarginalizedblackmalevotersmighthavebeenonereasonwhy somanyblackwomensuchasIdaB.WellsbecameactiveinsomanyProgressiveEramovements. NativeAmericans ThroughoutReconstruction,U.S.policytowardsNativeAmericanstypicallyresultedintheirmarginalization.Believinginhisinvincibility,GeneralGeorgeArmstrongCusterledthe7thCavalrytotheirultimate demiseintheearlysummerof1876inanareaoftheDakotaTerritoryknownasGreasyGrassbytheLakota Sioux.TheBattleofLittleBighorn,asAmericansreferredtotherstsuccessfulplainsIndiansassaulton U.S.forcessincetheBlackhawkWarsoftheearlynineteenthcentury,launchedthecareerofRuthCusteras aprofessionalwidowandrefocusedAmericanmighttoremovetheIndianthreatfromtheWestespecially inareaswereAmericansdiscoveredhugequantitiesofgold,suchasintheBlackHillsregionoftheDakota Territory.AmericanpursuitofthevariousSiouxIndiansendedinDecember1890whenseveralhundred womenandchildrenweregunneddownbyelementsofthenew7thCavalryCuster'soldunitusingcannons andthenewGatlinggun,whichredhundredsofroundsperminute.Forceduponthereservation,theU.S .governmentconcludedtheIndianWars,whichbeganduringtheearlycolonialperiod. YetthereservationsystemseemedtoruncountertoAmericanideasonlife,liberty,andpropertyownershipsincetheIndianswereprohibitedfromprivateownershiponthereservationsandofcoursetheHomestead ActdidnotapplytoIndians.SenatorDawesintroducedanewwayoforganizingthereservations alongtheideasofAmericanlife,liberty,andpropertyrights. TheDawes-SeveraltyActcutthereservationsintohomesteads.Indianswereallowedtoprivatelyown theirownhomesteads,providedthattheydidnotengageinanyIndianactivities.Infact,Indianswere allowedtobecomeAmericancitizens,providedthattheyadoptedthehabitsofcivilizedlife.Tohelpthe IndiansadoptsaidcivilizedlifeandtoevolveintoproperAmericans,Indianschoolsbeganalloverthe

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20 CHAPTER2.THEPROGRESSIVEERAPARTII countrywiththenancialsupportoftheU.S.governmentandunderthecontrol,typically,ofChristian missionaryorganizations.Oneofthemostwell-knownoftheseschoolswaslocatedinPennsylvania,the CarlisleSchool,establishedbyanArmyocernamedRichardPrattwhospentsomeofhisearlymilitary careerattemptingtoeducateIndianprisoners.TheCarlisleschoolcameintoexistencebecausePrattwas unsuccessfulinplacinganyofhisreleasedstudentsintotraditionaluniversities.Notunlikeblacksorwomen, mostAmericanuniversitiesrefusedtoacceptIndiansasstudents. RegardlessifitwasattheCarlisleschooloranyoneoftheover150similarschoolsthroughoutthe UnitedStatesby1900,Indianchildrenwereremovedfromtheirtribal-familialsurroundingsandtakento theseschoolswheretheywouldbedressedlikeAmericans,havetheirhaircutlikeAmericans,andbetaught likeAmericanswiththehopethatupongraduationthesefolkswhoresembledIndiansbutacted,spoke,and thoughtlikeAmericanswouldreturntotheirtribal-familiallandsandleadthecontinuedAmericanization oftheirpeople.SomeCarlislegraduateswentontoprospersuchasaSiouxnamedOhiyesawhoeventually earnedadegreeinmedicinefromtheCatholic-runBostonUniversity,completedhistransformationby adoptinganewname:CharlesEastmanandmarryingawhitewomanandthetwospenttheirlivesworking tohelpalleviatetheplightofIndiansthroughouttheUnitedStates.AnotherCarlislegraduate,Reginald Oshkosh,usedthetoolshedevelopedtosuccessfullyhelphispeopletheMenomoneetribeinWisconsin preventthestateandfederalgovernmentsfromillegallyseizingtriballands. Again,wasthismoreabouthelpingthesepeopleormoreaboutcontrollingthesepeople?Overall, ProgressivereformerstendedtomostignoretheplightandfateofNativeAmericans.In1924,Indians wererecognizedascitizensandgrantedallrightsandprivilegesofcitizenshipthreeyearsafterwomenwere grantedtherighttovote.Mostremainonancestrallandstoday. Women OnemightbesurprisedtoseetheinclusionofwomenasamarginalizedgroupakintoIndiansandAfrican Americans.Ononehand,womenduringtheProgressiveErasuccessfullygainedrightsthatputthemonan equalpoliticalplayingeldwithmenandwomencertainlywereexceptionallyactiveinleadingmanyofthe Progressivereformmovements,especiallyinregardstosocialprograms.Nonetheless,notunliketheGilded Age,ifyouscratchedthegoldensurfaceofwomen'saccomplishments,youwouldseethedrossofhowthe ProgressiveEraaectedwomen. Oneofthelargestreformmovementstotargetwomenfocusedonthehome.TraditionalVictorianhomes weretoolarge,nebulous,andineectivelydesigned.Tohelpwomen,somereformers,suchasMarionTalbot, calledforfamiliestoleavetheirfamily-unfriendlyhomesandmoveintoapartmentsthatwouldbeeasierfor womentocleanandmanage.Cooking,cleaning,andchild-rearingwerenolongertaskstobeperformed withoutthoughtorpreparation.Instead,housewivescouldbenetfromamorescienticapproachtotheir God-givenduties.Inresponsetothescienticmanagementmovementhomeeconomicscourseswereoered incollegessothatmiddle-classwomencouldlearnhowtoproperlymanageallfacetsoftheirfuturehusbands' homes.Andwhileyoumightconcludethatwomen'sparticipationincollegewasnecessarilybenecial,in thiscasethesecollegeclassesweredesignedandoeredtofurtherentrenchsexualdivisionoflabor.Women wereinchargeofgoverningtheirhomes,andmenwereinchargeofgoverningtheworld. Still,somereformersbelievedthatwomen'snaturaljobsinmanagingthehouseholdwouldnecessarily preparethemforresponsibilitiesinpubliclife,asarguedbyEllenRichards,ahomeeconomicsprofessorat theMassachusettsInstituteofTechnology.Richardswasanexception,howeverbecauseaftermarryinga colleagueatMIT,shedidnotresignherpost.TherealityformostAmericanwomenwasthatmarriage signaledtheendoftheirprofessionallifeandthebeginningoftheirlifeasahousewifeandmother. Ofcoursewomenparticipatedinthehouseholdincomebyworkingoutsideofthehome.Factorywork wasrelativelyeasytosecure,butthehourswerelong,thehealthandsafetyoftheemployeesweretypically notconcernsoftheiremployers,andthepaywaslow.Nevertheless,womenespeciallyimmigrantseasily foundjobsintextilefactories.Inanerathatlackedanysortofmeaningfulfederal,state,orlocalregulation oroversightofindustries,workerswereoccasionallyinjuredandevenkilled.Possiblynobetterexampleof suchwastherethatengulfedtheTriangleShirtwaistCompanyin1911. LocatedinNewYorkCity,theTriangleShirtwaistCompanyemployedwomen,men,andchildren.To ensurethattheworkersdidnotleavetheirshiftsprematurely,duckoutforunocialbreaks,orotherwise

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21 engageinactivitiesthatsloweddownproduction,theownerofthefactorynailedthewindowsshut.The doorswerelockedandmanyentrancewayswereblockedbyasteelsecuritygate.Unabletosafelyescape whenarebrokeoutamongthethreeoorsofaten-storybuilding,manyworkersbrokewindowsopened andtookaleapoffaith-onlytomeettheircertaindemiseuponslammingintothesidewalksbelow.Not unlikethosewhojumpedfromtheTwinTowersninetyyearslater,theNewYorkerswereshockedasperson afterpersonjumpedtotheirdeaths.AccordingtoaNewYorkTimeseyewitness,"onepoorlittlecreature jumped.Therewasaplateglassprotectionoverpartofthesidewalk,butshecrasjedthroughit,wrecking itandbreakingherbodyntoathousandpiece." Approximately146peopleperished-somefromjumpingtotheirdeath,othersfrombeingburnedalive, whileothersdiedfromsmokeinhalation.OneresultofthereanddeathswasthecreationoftheNew YorkStateFactoryCommission.Taskedwithregulatingthehealthandsafetyissuesoffactoryworkers, theCommissionwaschairedbyRobertWagner,co-chairedbyAlSmith,andFrancesPerkinswasthechief Investigator.WagnerandSmithwillplayveryimportantrolesregardinglaborduringthepresidencyof FranklinDelanoRooseveltthelaterwillbecometherstfemaleCabinetmember. Finally,therewastheservantgirlproblem.YoungwomenandoverwhelmingimmigrantstookdomestichousekeepingjobsforwealthyfamiliesthroughouttheU.S.Theseworkersweretypicallytherstones upandthelastonestobedintheirhouseholds.Theyworkedatleastsixdaysaweekandweretypically givenpartofSundaysotoattendchurch.Theycleanedthehomes,cookedthefamilies'food,andwatched overthechildren.Theydidthelaundryandtheshoppingandservedthefamilyandguests.Upper-class familieswhotypicallyhiredthesewomentendednottoembracethenotionthatthereexistedanyproblem withtheseyounggirlsworking16hoursaday,sixdaysaweek.Regardlessofthephysical,verbalandsexual abusethattheseservantgirlsroutinelyexperienced,middle-classreformerswereunabletoeectanyrelevant changepartlyduetothefactthattheseservantgirlsworkedinprivatehomesandusuallyoutofthepublic eye.Forsome,theservantgirlproblemwasmorecomicalthanserious.In1905asilentlmentitled"The ServantGirlProblemdemonstratedhowabumblingservantgirlcausedhavocinanAmericanhousehold. OneyearlatertheBostoniansocialreformerEdwardFileneownerofFilene'sdepartmentstorespublished anarticlein AnnalsoftheAmericanAcademyofPoliticalandSocialScience ,arguingthatservantgirls' workingconditionswerenotasbadaswomenworkinginfactoriesorevendepartmentstores.Fileneargued thatworkingconditionsworsenedinconjunctionwithjobsthatlackedskills.Thus,asworkinginfactories tooktheleastamountofskill,workingconditionsforwomenwereworseinfactories.Youhadtobeskillful, alaChristineFrederick,toworkasaservantgirlsotheplightofservantgirlswouldbepassedoverby Progressivereformers. EmmaSmithDeVoe,anexampleofaProgressiveerareformerandinthemoldofherfellowreformers, didnotquitwhenwomenweregrantedtherighttovoteinhernewhomestateofWashingtonin1910. DeVoebelievedthatwomenstilllackedpoliticalrights,andin1911shehelpedcreatetheNationalCouncil ofWomenVoters,theforerunnerfortoday'sLeagueofWomenVoters.Risingtothepositionofpresident, DeVoeworkedtirelesslyfortheadoptionofwomen'ssurageandwaspresentwhenWashingtonvotedin supportoftheNineteenthAmendmentonMarch23,1920.DeVoediedin1927attheageof79.Announcing herdeath,aSeattle-areanewspapercalledDeVoeaMotherofWomanSurage. CONCLUSION TheProgressiveEracanbeseenastheculminationofdecadesupondecadesofattemptstochange,alter, orotherwiseaddressproblemsinAmericansociety.TheseedsofeveryProgressiveErareformmovement wereplantedbetweentheRevolutionandtheCivilWarfromracialandgenderequalitytomoralreform. SomefewviewthesereformsasattemptstoimproveorbetterAmericansociety.OthersviewProgressive reformsassocialcontrolofthemassiveimmigrates.Whatseparateshelpandcontrol?Abetterquestion mightbewhydidtheProgressiveerahappenwhenitdid?First,ProgressiveErareformersmoderately attackedmuchofthesuccessandexcessoftheGildedAge.TheVanderbilts,Hills,andCarnegiesleftawake ofsocio-economicdisruptionthatAmericanfarmersattempted,butinitiallyfailed,toaddress.Thus,some peoplemightlookattheProgressiveEraasacompletionofmanyoftheideasofthePopulists. Second,thereaderneedstoconsidertheJeersonianidealofindependent,ruralfarmersversusthe Hamiltonianideaonfactoryworkingurbanites.AstheU.S.economyshiftedfromanagriculture-basedto

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22 CHAPTER2.THEPROGRESSIVEERAPARTII anindustrial-basedeconomy,massivechangeseectedthiscountry.Manyofthosechanges,suchasovercrowding,healthandsafetyissues,andsocialservicesinherenttocitylifehadnotbeenaddressed.Americans alsoneededtochangetheirideasontheroleofgovernment.Typically,Americanshadviewedgovernment astheantithesistotheirliberties,however,anindustrial-basedeconomydemandedmoregovernmentinterventionandthusAmericanshadtowrestlewiththeresultsofindustrialism. Finally,U.S.presidentssupportedmoderatechange.TeddyRooseveltbelievedthereweredierences betweengoodandbadmonopolies,andthusonenewroleofthefederalgovernmentwastoprotectAmericanconsumersfromthosebadmonopolies.WilsonsawthenecessityofchangetotheAmericannancial institutionsasanecessityofsuccessfulindustrialization. TheroleofimmigrationcannotbeoverestimatedintheProgressiveEra.EversinceHaymarket,Americansconnectedlaborunionswithanarchismandsocialism.Socialists,whowereoverwhelminglyconnected tocentralEuropeanimmigrantsparticularlyGermanswereagrowingandimportantbodyofvotersinthe U.S.duringtherstfewdecadesofthetwentiethcentury.Native-bornAmericansmighthaveviewedtheir callsforchangetobemoreextremethanthoseideasthatAmericansfarmershadpromotedintheyears immediatelyfollowingtheCivilWar.IdeasofAmericanProgressivereformers,whohadatendencyofbeing Protestant,andwhobelievedintheinherentvalueofAmericandemocracyandAmericancapitalism,seemed muchmoremoderatethantheideasofGermanSocialists.ThoseMuckrakersmightbepublishingexplosive essaysonStandardOilortheAmericanmeatanddairyindustries,butatleasttheywerenotlobbingactual bombs,unlikeanarchistsduringtheWorldWarIera. ThebestquestionmightbewhenandwhydidtheProgressiveEraend?TheNewDealcaneasily beexaminedasacontinuationoftheProgressiveEraandtheGreatSocietylegislationoftheJohnson administrationacontinuationofthepresidenciesofRooseveltandTruman.Inotherwords,theProgressive batonwaspickedupbyfuturepresidents.Progressivereformevenblossomedduringthepresidencyof RichardNixonthecreationoftheDepartmentofEnergytodealwiththeoilembargoandthecreationof theEnvironmentalProtectionAgency,aswellasNixon'ssupportfortheCleanAirBillandtheCleanWater Bill.Althoughexamplesofprogressivesocial,economic,political,andreligiousachievementswillcertainly beevidentthroughoutthetwentiethcentury,thebeginningoftheendoftheProgressiveEra,aswedene it,beginsinthenextchapter. Chronology 1889JaneAddamsfoundsHullHouseinChicago 1901U.S.SteelCorporationfoundedrstbilliondollarcorporation. JacobRiis,HowtheOtherHalfLives 1894HenryDemarestLloyd,WealthAgainstCommonwealth;TammanyHall overthrown 1896WabashvsIllinoisU.S.SupremeCourt outlawedstateregulationofinterstatecommerce 1898Spanish-AmericanWar 1899ThorsteinVeblen,TheTheoryoftheLeisureClass 1900InternationalLadiesGarmentWorkersUnionILGWUfounded;Carrie ChapmanCattbecomespresidentofNationalAmericanWomanSurageMovement 1901McKinleyassassinated;TheodoreRooseveltbecomespresident;ColonialwarfoughtinPhilippines 1902Rooseveltmediatescoalstrike;Rooseveltordersattorney generaltobringsuittodissolveNorthernSecurities;JaneAddams, DemocracyandSocialEthics 1903MariaVanVorst,TheWomanWhoToils W.E.B.DuBois,SoulsofBlackFolks RevolutionorganizedinPanama 1.Rooseveltelectedpresident;NorthernSecuritiesCaseresolved;Lincoln Steens,TheShameoftheCities;IdaTarbell,HistorytheStandardOilCompany;JohnMoody,TheTruth AboutTrusts;

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23 RooseveltCorollarytotheMonroeDoctrine 1905InternationalWorkersoftheWorldIWWorganized;Pinchot headoftheU.S.ForestService;RooseveltmediatesRussoJapaneseWarsettlement;AtRoosevelt'surgingSanFranciscodesegregatesschools 1906DavidGrahamPhillips,TheTreasonoftheSenate;HepburnActtoregulate railroads;UptonSinclair,TheJungle;PureFoodandDrugAct;MeatInspection Act;RooseveltwinsNobelPeacePrize 1908WilliamHowardTaftelectedpresident 1909NationalAssociationfortheAdvancementofColoredPeopleNAACPfounded; Ballingercontroversy 1910Pushforwomansurageincreaseswithseveralnewstatesgrantingwomentherighttovote;MannElkinsActempowered;InterstateCommerceCommission 1911TriangleShirtwaistCompanyre;StandardOildissolved 1912Threewayelection-GOPTaft,ProgressivesT.Roosevelt,andDemocratsWilson.Wilson elected;U.S.troopsinMexico 1913PujoCommittee;FederalReserveAct; SixteenthAmendmentincometax SeventeenthAmendmentdirectelectionofsenators;30,000marchinNew Yorkforwoman'ssurage 1914ClaytonAnti-trustAct;CompletionofPanamaCanal;FederalTradeCommission Act 1915CongressionalUnionfoundedtopushforwomansurage 1916FederalFarmLoanAct;Wilsonre-elected; MargaretHigginsSangeropensbirthcontrolclinic 1918JeanetteRankinintroducedsurageamendmentthatpassedtheHouse 1919EighteenthAmendmentprohibition 1920NineteenthAmendmentwoman'ssurage SUGGESTEDREADINGS JohnMiltonCooperJr.,TheWarriorandthePriest:WoodrowWilsonandTheodore RobertMorseCrunden,MinistersofReform;TheProgressives'Achievementin AmericanCivilization,1889-1920. DavidB.Danbom,TheWorldofHope:ProgressivesandtheStruggleforanEthical PublicLife.. NoraleeFrankelandNancyF.Dye,eds.Gender,Class,RaceandReforminthe ProgressiveEra. ElizabethFrostandKathrynCullen-DuPont,Women'sSurageinAmerica,An EyewitnessReport. RichardHofstadter,TheAgeofReform:FromByrantoF.D.R.. HaroldHowland,TheodoreRoosevelt. WilliamO'Neill,TheProgressiveYears:AmericaComesofAge. JohnLugtonSaord,PragmatismandtheProgressiveMovementintheUnitedStates: TheOriginsoftheNewSocialSciences. DorothySchneiderandCarlJ.Schneider,AmericanWomenintheProgressiveEra, 1900-1920. MildredI.Thompson,IdaB.Wells-Barnett:AnExploratoryStudyofanAmerican BlackWoman,1893-1930. IdaB.Wells-Barnett,OnLynching:SouthernHorrors,ARedRecordMobRuleinNew Orleans. MarjorieSpruillWheelered.,OneWoman,OneVote:RediscoveringtheWoman SurageMovement.

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24 CHAPTER2.THEPROGRESSIVEERAPARTII RobertH.Wiebe,BusinessmenandReform.

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Chapter3 TheGreatWarPartI 1 1 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat. 25

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26 CHAPTER3.THEGREATWARPARTI

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Chapter4 GreatWarPartII 1 CurbingDissentatHome TheSpiritof'76 wasenvisionedasanotherpatrioticmovie.SetduringtheAmericanRevolution,the ideabehindthemoviewasthatthecolonistswereunpreparedtobattleletalonewininawaragainstthe largest,bestmilitaryintheworld.Intheend,Americanswerevictoriousandthusthemessageofthemovie wasthatwewereunpreparedbeforeyetwedidwhatwasnecessarytowinandweareunpreparednowyet wewillagaindowhatisnecessarytobeatdowntheproud.Thedirectorofthemovie,RobertGoldstein aJewishAmericanofGermandescentportrayedtheBritishasnotonlytheenemywhichtheywerebut unfortunatelyforhimalsodecidedtoportrayBritishactsofbrutalitywhichthereweremany.Itwasan ill-fateddecisionforGoldsteinbecausewhenthemoviecameouttheBritishwereouralliesandthus portrayingouralliesinunfavorablelightbroughtnotonlyridiculeuponGoldstein,butalsohisarrestand imprisonment.Hewasarrestedforandfoundguiltofbreakingthe1918SeditionActbyshowingthetwo war-timealliesGreatBritainandtheUSghtingagainstoneanother.Wilsonwillcutshorthisten-year sentencewithapresidentialpardonafterserving18monthsinprison. OneoftherstvictimsofnearlyeveryUSwaristheFirstAmendment.Luckily,itisaresilientpiece ofworkandthuswillbounceback.TheAlienActandtheSeditionActtemporarilytrumped American'srightstoreligiousfreedom,speakfreely,publishfreely,ortofreelypetitionthegovernment.The EspionageActmadeitacrimetopassinformationwiththeintentofharmingthesuccessofAmericanarmed forces.EugeneDebslaborleader,Socialist,perennialpresidentialcandidatewasarrestedformakingan anti-Americanspeech.HewastriedandfoundguiltyundertheEspionageAct,eventhoughttheActdid notspecicallyprohibitspeakingagainstthegovernment.Thus,toshoreuptheEspionageAct,Congress passedtheSeditionActwhichexpresslyprohibitedspeaking,writing,publishingorallowingtospeak,write orpublishanythingagainstthefederalgovernment,theUSwareort,oritsalliesorinciteinsubordination, disloyalty,mutiny,orrefusalofduty,inthemilitaryornavalforcesoftheUnitedStatestoincludeinterfering withrecruitmentoperations. TheAttorneyGeneral,ThomasGregory,instructedthePostmasterGeneral,AlbertBurleson,tocensure andifnecessarydiscontinuedeliveringanyanti-Americanorpro-Germanmailletters,magazines,and newspapers.GregorysupportedtheworkoftheAmericanProtectiveLeague'sAPL.TheAPLcurbed dissentathomebycompellingGerman-Americanstosignapledgeofallegiance.TheAPLalsoconducted extra-governmentalsurveillanceonpro-Germanactivitiesandorganizationssuchasunions. GregoryandBurlesontargetedthousandsofsuspectedenemiesofthestatetoincludesuchprominent SocialistsasEugeneDebs,MaryHarrisJonesakaMotherJones,EmmaGoldsteinandMaxEastman becauseoftheiruseoftheUSmailtodistributewhatGregoryandBurlesonconsideredtobeun-American literature.BesidesSocialistnewspaperssuchas TheCall ,Burlesonprohibitedthedeliveryofwhathe consideredtobeanti-Britishpublicationssuchas TheIrishWorld and TheGaelicAmerican Anti-GermanfervorduringtheGreatWarresultedintherenamingofGermanorGerman-sounding 1 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat. 27

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28 CHAPTER4.GREATWARPARTII food.Sauerkrautbecamelibertycabbage.Frankfurtersbecamehotdogs,andSalisburySteakturnedinto meatloaf.TheAmericanDefenseSocietyanorganizationestablishedtoprotecttheUSinthewakeof the Lusitania sinking,withPresidentTeddyRooseveltasitshonorarypresident,petitionedCongressto prohibitthestudyofGermaninallpublicschools.Theyalsocalledforcompulsorymilitarytrainingforall menbetween18and21,andforgreateractivityintheinternmentofenemyaliensandsympathizers. Extralegalorganizations,suchastheWisconsinLoyaltyLeaguesoughttocontroltheirrelativelylarge Germanpopulationaswellastheirownelectedocialswhoquestionedthewar.Forexample,Wisconsin SenatorBobLaFollette,aProgressiveDemocrat,decriedAmericanentryintothewaronthebasisthat theUShadindeedbeenbreakinginternationallawbyshippingexplosivesoncivilianshipssuchasthe Lusitania andthusgoingtowartoprotectneutralrightswasabsurd.Ex-presidentTeddyRooseveltcalled LaFolletteashadowHunandthemostsinisterenemyofdemocracyintheUnitedStates. WisconsinvotersfromtheindustrialsoutheastpartofthestateseemedtosidewithLaFollettebecause thevotersofMilwaukee,thestate'slargestcity,electedastringofSocialistmayorstoincludeEmilSeidel -1916andthelongestsittingSocialistpoliticianonUShistory,DanielHoan-1940.Theyalso sentthisnation'srstSocialistcongressmantotheUSHouseofRepresentatives:VictorBerger-1912, 1918-1920,1922-1928.WisconsinvotersseemedtobeoutofstepwiththemajorityofAmericanleadersuch asGregory.MayGodhavemercyon[dissenters],saidtheUSAttorneyGeneral,fortheyneedexpect nonefromanoutragedpeopleandanavenginggovernment. InearlySeptember,CongresspassedabillthatrequiredallGerman-languagenewspaperspublishedin theUnitedStatestoprintanEnglishtranslationofanycommentrespectingtheGovernmentoftheUnited States,orofanynationwithwhichGermanyisatwar,itspolicies,internationalrelations,thestateor conductofthewar,oranymatterrelatingthereto,accordingtoSenatorWilliamKingD-Utahinhis attempttoridthiscountryofnewspapersthatspread,ashecalledit,theblackesttreason. In1919,theUSSupremeCourtupheldtheconstitutionalityoftheEspionageandSeditionActs.Charles SchenckwasoneoftheleadersoftheSocialistPartyofAmericaandassuchoversawthedistributionof pamphlets,toincludetensofthousandssenttomenofdraftage,urgingthemtonotserveifdraftedarguing thatthedraftviolatedtheThirteenthAmendment.Inaunanimousdecision,thethrice-woundedCivilWar veteranChiefJusticeOliverWendellHolmes,Jr,stated[w]henanationisatwarmanythingsthatmight besaidintimeofpeacearesuchahindrancetoitseortthattheirutterancewillnotbeenduredsolongas menght,andthatnoCourtcouldregardthemasprotectedbyanyconstitutionalright.Inotherwords, theneedsofthestatesupersedetheneedsoftheindividualandthusdissentwascodied. Armisticedidnotendanti-Germanhysteria.WhilemostAmericanswerecelebratingtheendofthewar, 38dangerousenemyalienswereroundedupinNewYorkandweresenttoFortOglethorpe,Georgiafor undeterminedlengthsoftime,toincludethreeocersoftheBayerCompanyaGermanpharmaceutical rmknownforitsaspirinthatopenedabranchoceintheUnitedStatesintheearlytwentiethcentury. TheHomeFront In1914,CongresspassedtheSmith-LeverAct,whichcreatedtheCooperativeExtensionServicein ordertodevelopmoreeectiveagriculturalandanimalhusbandryclasses,programs,anduseinandofland grantinstitutionssuchasWashingtonStateUniversity,TexasAgriculture&Mining,andtheUniversityof Wisconsin.YettheActalsomandatedlandgrantuniversitiestosharetheirknowledgewithnon-students hencetheExtensionpartofthetitle. OncetheUSopenlyjoinedthewar,CongressworkedtoensurethatAmericansathomeandabroad hadsucientresourcesandthusCongressadoptedtheFuelandFoodControlActin1917.TheFuel Administrationcontrolledtheproduction,distribution,andpriceoffuelsoil,gas,andcoal,forexample andwasledbyDr.HarryA.GareldsonofandwitnesstotheassassinationofPresidentJamesB.Gareld in1881.LikemanyofthemenwhomWilsonsurroundedhimself,Gareldwasanacademicservingasa professoratPrincetonwhenWilsonpresidedasthecollege'spresidentandasthepresidentofWilliams CollegeinMassachusetts. AlthoughGareldwasaRepublican,WilsonandGareldwereconnectedasacademicsaswellasProgressivethinkerswhobelievedinthetransformativenatureofthehumanspirit.AccordingtoGareld,academia wastheplacewerecultivatedmen,earnestandseekingbyallwaystoadvancethecauseofcivilization.

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29 Andthus,asWilson'sSecretaryofWarNewtonBakersaid,ThePresidenthadunlimitedcondencein Gareld.UnlikeGareld'scolleaguesonWilson'sCabinetandheadingvariouswartimeorganizations, GarelddidnotseekabsolutepowerwithintheorganizationhelednorthroughoutAmericansociety. AtameetingoftheAcademyofPoliticalScience,GareldoeredajusticationfortheFuelAdministration'sexistenceaswellasassurancesthatunderhiswatchtheFuelAdministrationwillnotnationalize thefuelindustry.InhisspeechentitledTaskoftheFuelAdministration,thegapbetweenthefuelneeds ofacountryatwarcomparedtotheneedsoftheUSin1916wouldbelargelymetthroughconservation, heargued.Inanexampleofthegovernment-academiccooperationthatwillbeacharacteristicofAmerican societyeversinceWorldWarII,Gareldturnedtoscientistsandmathematiciansinacademiatoresolve someoftheissuespertainingtofuelconservation. Usingtheauthorityofthe1917Act,PresidentWilsonissuedExecutiveOrder2679A,creatingtheUS FoodAdministration.HeadedbyfuturepresidentHerbertHoover,theFoodAdministrationwastaskedwith assuringthesupply,distribution,andconservationoffoodduringthewar,facilitatingtransportationoffood, preventingmonopoliesandhoarding,andmaintaininggovernmentalpoweroverfoodsbyusingvoluntary agreementsandalicensingsystem.IntryingtogetAmericanstoconservewhattheyhaveandtouseless ofwhatcanbegrownormade,HooverpromotedMeatlessMondaysandWheatlessWednesdays. TheFoodAdministrationaskedAmericanstogrowtheirownvegetablescalledVictoryGardensand topledgetofollowthecalltopreserve,consumeless,andgrowmoreinordertoensurethatsucient meat,wheat,fats,andsugarsmakeittotheUStroopsandAmericanallies.The MilwaukeeJournal ,the largestdailyinWisconsin,proclaimedthat100%oftheircitizenstookthepledgetoeatlessandpreserve more.WisconsinhadmoreGermanimmigrantsthananyotherstate.WisconsinalsohadanactiveSocialist movementandthusitwaspsychologicallyimportantfortheownersofthatnewspapertoadvertiseaclaim thatwasmorethanmerelyimprobable.Thepublishersof GoodHousekeeping urgeditsreaderstosupport thegovernmenteortsbelievingthat: itslargecircleofearnest,patrioticwomenreaderswillrespondgladlytoacalltoserviceathome.It isatremendoustaskthisoneofconservationandeliminationofwaste.Everywomanisurgedtodoher part.Itcanbestbedonethroughclosecooperationwiththegovernment.Enlistnowandpledgeyourselfto doyourshare. Finally,theWarIndustriesBoardWIB,createdinthemid-summerof1917,wasanotherfederalagency taskedwithensuringthatAmericansathomeandabroadhadaccesstoacceptablypricedmerchandiseand equipment.TheWIBwasledbyBernardBaruch,afriendofWilson'sinacademiaandbusiness.Agraduate ofCityCollegeofNewYork,BaruchmadehisrstmillionbyhisthirtiethbirthdayasaWallStreet traderandnancier.BaruchwasamajornancialdonoraswellasunpaidadvisertotheDemocraticParty formostofhisadultlife.AspartofWilson'sWarCabinet,BaruchworkedcloselywithHoover.While Hoover'semphasiswasonagriculture,BaruchfocusedonAmericanindustry.TheWIBwasorderedinto aseriesofdivisionsthatoversawallaspectsofwarneedsfromdistributionofrawresourcestocontrolof pricesonthenishedgoodstoincludechemical,steel,textile,rubber,andleathergoods. SecretaryofLabor,WilliamB.Wilson,createdtheNationalWarLaborBoardNWLBin1918.While theWIBconsistedofmilitarypersonnelandpublicservants,theNWLBwascomposedofcivilians,mainly fromlaborunions,industrialmanagement,andthegeneralpublic.Thisgroupwastaskedwithsettlinglabor issues,disputes,andotherissuesthatotherwisemightnegativelyaectthiscountry'swartimeproduction. WartimeDiplomacy WoodrowWilsonenvisionedaquickwar.AcombinationofcoordinationamongtheUSanditsalliesin foodproduction,equipmentneeds,andcommunicationswasfacilitatedbythevariousgovernmentprograms andagenciesthatfellundertherubricofWilson'sWarCabinetsuchastheWarIndustriesBoard,theFuel Administration,andtheFoodAdministration.InternationalcooperationamongtheAllieswasevident throughthecreationoftheSupremeWarCouncil.TheUSrepresentativetothisgroupwasWilson'sArmy ChiefofSta,TaskerH.Bliss.Initially,theCouncilwastaskedwithcoordinatingalliedmilitaryaction. Ultimately,theCouncilwillprovetobemoreeectiveasaspacewherethealliesdiscusseddiplomatic endeavorstoincludehowtobringanendtothewar,andwhatshouldbeincludedinthepeacetreaty. Wilson'soutlinedhisgoalsforhowthewarwillendaswellasforhowEuropeandtheworldwillberebuilt

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30 CHAPTER4.GREATWARPARTII inaspeechhegaveonJanuary8 th ,1918. Thoseideascamefromtheworkofacademics:agroupofmenthatWilsoncalledTheInquiry.Meeting insecretattheocesoftheAmericanGeographicSocietyinNewYorkCity,thesescholarsresearchedand discussedvariouspost-waroptionsforEurope.TheInquiryisverymuchtheforerunnertotoday'sThink TankssuchastheHeritageFoundationandthePewResearchCenter.Weareskimmingthecreamofthe youngerandmoreimaginativescholars,declaredWalterLippmann,the28-year-oldHarvardgraduatewho recruitedthescholarsandmanagedtheInquiryinitsformativephase.Whatweareonthelookoutforis geniussheer,startlinggenius,andnothingelsewilldo. Thesuggestions,ideas,andconclusionsoftheInquiryculminatedinfourteenparticularideasthatWilson publiclyunveiledinearlyJanuaryof1918inwhatiscalledtheFourteenPointsAddress.Remindingthe jointsessionofCongressthattheUSgotinvolvedinthewarnotonlytoprotectAmericanlibertiesathome butalsotospreadAmericanlibertiesthroughouttheworld,Wilsonenvisionedaworldmadetandsafe tolivein;andparticularlythatitbemadesafeforeverypeace-lovingnationwhich,likeourown,wishesto liveitsownlife,determineitsowninstitutions,beassuredofjusticeandfairdealingbyotherpeoplesofthe worldasagainstforceandselshaggression. Wilsoncalledforinternationaltradeunrestrictedbylawortaris,anendtosecrettreatiesandmilitary alliances,andanendtocolonialism.Theworldwouldbemadesafethroughvigilantinternationalcooperation.Ashedescribeditinthenalofhisfourteenpoints,Ageneralassociationofnationsmustbe formedunderspeciccovenantsforthepurposeofaordingmutualguaranteesofpoliticalindependence andterritorialintegritytogreatandsmallstatesalike. EnglandandFrancethetwoallieswhofoughtthelongestandsacricedmoreinbothmaterialand humanlivesdidnotgreatWilson'sideasforanewworldorderwithopenarms.Forexample,Arthur Balfour,theBritishForeignSecretaryandone-timePrimeMinister,seemedtobeuninterestedinanysort ofnegotiatedsettlement,insteadcallingforGermanytoprovideEnglandandFrancewithunconditional restorationandreparationofalltaken,plundered,anddestroyedlands.NeitherdidtheBelgianPrime MinisteracceptWilson'sextensiveplan.BaronCharlesdeBroquevillemerelydemandedreparationfor damagesandguaranteesagainstrepetitionoftheaggression.Earlier,Wilsonhadcalledforpeacewithout victorywhichmeantthattheAlliesdidnotneedtocrushGermany.TheInquiryandWilsonmighthave underestimatedtheAllies'desiretopunishGermanyandsoWilsonwasoutofstepwithhisEuropean counterpartsregardingdiplomaticgoals. ThePeacetoEndAllPeace RussiahadquitthewarprematurelyandhadthussigneditsownpeacetreatywithGermany.Knownas Brest-Litovsk,RussiaessentiallycededlandssuchastheUkraine,theBalticstates,Finland,theCaucasus MountainsandPolandtoGermanyinexchangefortheremovalofGermantroopsfromRussiansoil. However,sixdaysbeforetheArmistice,GermanocialsrepudiatedtheMarch3 rd ,1918treaty. WithcommunistsinchargeofRussia,onlyEngland,France,Italy,andtheUSmettodecidethefateof theCentralPowers.EventhoughtheColdWarwouldnotbeginfordecades,theseedsofthattwentiethcenturyconictwereplantedatVersailles.AlthoughthewesternpowerswishedtocrushGermany,they couldnotleaveGermanyinsuchastateastoallowtheRussianRevolutiontospreadwest.Forexample, GermanywasforcedtogivebacksomeofRussia'slossesasaresultofBrest-LitovskandtheLeagueof NationsinturncreatedtheBalticstatesofLatvia,Lithuania,andEstoniaimportantspeedbumpsinthe mindofSovietleaderstoslowdownthenextGermaninvasionhoweverAmerican,British,andotherAllies kepttroopsinGermanythroughthemid1920sthusensuringthattheCommunistarmyanditsagentswould notbeabletomoveintothebeaten,battered,andconsiderablysmallerGermany. VersailleswillalsoacknowledgetheGermanrepudiationofBrest-Litovsk,butalsodoesnothingtodirectly helpRussiaadjudicate,mediate,orguaranteeanyeconomicreimbursementfromGermany,excepttostate that[t]heAlliedandAssociatedPowersformallyreservetherightsofRussiatoobtainfromGermany restitutionandreparationbasedontheprinciplesofthepresentTreatyPartIII,SectionXIV,Article 116.Inotherwords,RussiaisonitsowntonegotiatewithGermany. WilsontooknearlyallofthemembersoftheInquiry,plushisclosestfriendandunocialadviser,Col. EdmundHousetoFrance.WilsonalsoignoredleadingDemocraticandRepublicsenatorsandthusnoone

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31 shouldbeshockedtondoutthattheUSSenatewillneverpassthetreatyWilsonhelpedcreateinVersailles. TheRepublicanscontrolledtheSenate,yetWilsonrefusedtoconsideraddingtheSenate'sForeignRelations Committeechairman,HenryCabotLodge,totheAmericangroupthatwenttoFrance. Wilson'ssecondprobleminVersailleswastheAllies.FranceandEnglandhadnointerestindiscussing, analyzingornegotiatinganything:theysoughttocarveupGermanyanditscolonieslikeagroupofhunters carvingupabearafterasuccessfulhunt.WiththemassivedestructiontopropertyandlivesinEngland andFrance,theallieswerenotwillingtoembraceWilson'speacewithoutvictoryphilosophy.TheAllies blamedGermanyforstartingthewarandforalldamageanddeathsduringthewar.PartsofGermany willbecarvedawayandgiventoFrance,suchasthecoal-richeasternpartsofGermanytheSaarValley. GermanywilllosealloftheircoloniesandGermanyitselforwhat'sleftofGermanywillbeanoccupied nationuntil1926theyearthatGermanyisallowedmembershipintotheLeagueofNations. Wilson'snalprobleminVersailleswashishealth.Hehadbecomephysicallyexhaustedinlargemeasure becausehedecidedtoleadtheUSdelegation.SomespeculatethatWilsonevensuereduptothreestrokes beforehewaselectedpresidentin1912.Nonetheless,Wilsonwasdeterminedtoseehisvisionforaworld safefordemocracycometrueandthusWilsontoldareporterwhoinquiredintothepresident'shealth, Idonotwanttodoanythingfoolhardy,buttheLeagueofNationsisnowinitscrisis,andifitfails,I hatetothinkwhatwillhappentotheworld...Icannotputmypersonalsafety,myhealth,inthebalance againstmydutyImustgo.Wilsonembarkedonacross-countryspeakingtourasheattemptedtowhip upsupportfortheTreatyingeneralandtheLeagueofNationsinparticular.Wilsonsueredamassive strokeintheearlyfallof1919.Hewouldnotbeseeninpublicforsixmonths. TheTreatyofVersailleswasadisasterandsetthestageforWorldWarII.Somehistorianslookatthe 1920snotasaperiodbetweenworldwarsbutratherasalullinonegreatwarthatbeganinAugustof1914 withaseriesofwardeclarationsandendedinAugustof1945withthedroppingofFatManandLittleBoy onJapan. TreatyFightatHome PresidentWilson'sdecisiontopersonallyleadtheUSdelegationtoVersailleswhilealsorefusingtoeven keepsenatorialleadersofhisownpartyawareofthenegotiationsresultedinacontestbackathomeregarding foreignpolicy.WhileaghtbetweentheExecutiveandLegislativebranchesofthefederalgovernment regardingforeignpolicywasnotnew,suchaghtwasalsoveryrare.Nonetheless,eversincetheSpanishAmericanWar,culminatingwiththepassageoftheWarPowersActof1973,USpresidentsandsenators havebeenarguingoverwhichbranchofthefederalgovernmentultimatelycontrolsUSforeignpolicy. Thetreatytoendthewarandtobringtoaconclusionalloftheissuesandproblemsasthevictorsof thewarsawthoseissuesandproblemswassignedbyallpartiesonJune28 th ,1919.KnownastheTreatyof Versailles,thetreatyisdividedintosixteensections,containingatotalof440articles.Francegainedcontrol ofsomeofGermany'smoreproductivecoalelds,EnglandseizedGermancoloniesinAfricaandinAsia; FranceandEnglandclaimedthefrontieroftheOttomanEmpireintheMiddleEasttoincludePalestine andSyria,andGermanywasforcedtodisarm.TheTreatyalsodemandedGermanytopayforallcostsof thewar,andapproximatelytwothousandGermanpoliticiansandmilitaryocerswillbetriedonavariety ofcrimes,mainlyduetosubmarinewarfareastheAlliesviewedthataslessmilitaryandmorecriminalin nature. TheUSSenatehadadiculttimegettingpasttherstsectionoftheTreaty,entitledTheCovenant oftheLeagueofNations.ThetentharticleofthissectiondescribesthecollectivenatureoftheLeaguein somuchthatanattackagainstanyonememberwillbeconsideredanattackagainstallmembersandthus [t]heMembersoftheLeagueundertaketorespectandpreserveasagainstexternalaggressiontheterritorial integrityandexistingpoliticalindependenceofallMembersoftheLeague.Thecommonunderstandingof thisclausewasthatifanymembernationisattackedfromaforeignpower,thenallmembernationswill mobilizetheirarmedforcestoaidinthedefenseoftheattackedmemberstate.Ofcoursetheunderlying beliefisthatnocountrywoulddareattackanymemberoftheLeaguebecausesuchanattackwouldresult inthefullforceofallmemberarmedforcesagainsttheaggressor. TheSenatefoundArticle10oftheCovenantoftheLeagueofNationstobeexceptionallytroubling becauseastheyunderstoodit,theUSasamemberoftheLeaguewouldbeobligatedtoenterintoevery

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32 CHAPTER4.GREATWARPARTII warthatinvolvesaforeignattackagainstanymembernation.Inotherwords,theUSSenate'sauthority underArticleI,SectionVIIIoftheUSConstitutiontodeclarewarwouldbetrumpedbyanytyrant,king, ormadmanwhoinvadedamemberstate.Furthermore,inaccordancewithArticle16,ifanymemberof theLeagueattackedanyothermember,thenallmemberswererequiredtoimmediatelyendalltradeand nancialrelations.TheUSwenttowar,inpart,overtheideaofneutralrightshoweveriftheUSjoinedthe League,thetradepolicyoftheUScouldbedeterminednotbytheleadersofthiscountry,butbythetreaty requirementsoftheLeagueofNations. Thirty-nineSenatorsopenlyrejectedthisattackontheirConstitutionalauthorityinalettertoincludethe SenatorfromMassachusetts,aleadingRepublicanpolitician,andchairmanoftheSenateForeignRelations Committee,HenryCabotLodge.Lodgedidnotrejectthewholetreaty,hejustheldreservationsonArticle 10andthusLodgewasknownasaReservationist.DemocratssuchasWilliamJenningsBryansupported thisposition. TheRepublicanWilliamBorahservedthepeopleofIdahointheUSSenatefrom1907untilhisdeath in1940.KnownastheIrreconcilablessenatorssuchasBorahrejectedtheLeague,inanyform,because oftheoldWashingtonian-Jeersonianconcernoverentanglingalliances.Borahspokefortwohoursagainst theTreatyofVersaillesinwhatonecolleaguecalledoneoftheSenate'soratoricalmasterpieces.Hebegan hisattacksagainstsupportingcolonialismbyremindingtheaudienceofPresident-electAbrahamLincoln's advicetoafriendofhisinWashington,DCregardingdiscussionswithConfederatesontheissuesofwar: Entertainnocompromise;havenoneofit. BeforetheAlliescompletedtheirworkinVersailles,theUShadentereditssecondyearofghtingin Russia.Russiaprematurelyquitthealliedcauseinlargemeasurebecausetheczarlostcontrolofhiscountry asaresultofarevolution.By1918itwasclearthatcommunistshadtakencontrolofRussiaandthusin 1918,theUnitedStatesalongwithGreatBritainandotherwesternnationsinvadedRussia.ByLabor Day,1918,AmericantroopstookcontroloftheRussianporttownVladivostok.Underthecommandof GeneralWilliamGraves,nearly8,000AmericantroopsprotectedthelocalrailroadandsupportedCzech troopsalsoghtingagainsttheRussiancommunists.About4,000UStroopsfoughtunderBritishcommand directlyagainstcommunistforcesinwhatwasknownasthePolarBearExpedition.TheUnitedStates activelyparticipatedintheRussiancivilwaruntil1920. OneyearandoneweekaftertheGunsofAugustfellsilent,theUSSenatevotedtorejecttheTreaty ofVersailles,UStroopsoccupiedandfoughtinvariouspartsofRussia,PresidentWilsonwasrecovering fromhislateststroke,Americansweredyingfromanewillnessseebelow,andelementsoftheUSArmy werestationedthroughoutthecountry,suchasonstreetcornersinOmaha,Nebraska.TheTreatyghtjust mighthavebeentheleastimportantthingonthemindsofAmericans. WartimeAmendments TheGreatWarwillindeedplayaroleintheadoptionoftwochangestotheUSConstitution.Although bothchangeshadbeenloomingonthecultural-politicalhorizonsincelongbeforetheCivilWar,people andeventsduringtheGreatWarwillpropelthisnation'sleaderstotrytwokindsofchanges.Onewillbe temporaryandtheotherwillbepermanent. ThepushtoendtheavailabilityofalcoholintheUnitedStatespickedupsteamintheyearsleading uptotheUSentryintoWorldWarI.Asmoreandmorestatestriedtocodifythemaking,selling,and consumptionofalcohol,somewonderedifstateshadthepowertodosoandthusin1913Congresspassed theWebb-KenyonActtohelpstatesenforcetheirprohibitionlawsinlightofaSupremeCourtdecisionthat struckdowndrystates'attemptstoprohibittheimportationofalcohol.In1917,theSupremeCourtruled thatnoonehadarighttoalcohol,thusaligningtheJudicialBranchwiththeLegislativeBranch. ByNewYearsDay,1916,eighteenstateshadgonedry.Leadingtheanti-prohibitionchargewasAugust Busch,presidentofAnheuser-BuschBrewingAssociation.Buschwantedtomakeitacrimetodrinktoexcess, andpledgedtoworkaggressivelywiththefederalandstategovernmentstoaddresstheissuesoftheday. Heevenannouncedthathiscompanywasdevelopinganearlyalcoholfreebeerlessthanone-quarterofone percentofalcoholandwasspending$3,00,000tobuildanewplantinSt.Louisspecicallytomakeand distributethisnewproduct. ShortlyaftertheUSociallyenteredthewarbutsevenmonthsbeforeCongresspassedtheEighteenth

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33 Amendment,Dr.IrvingFischerprofessorofPublicEconomyatYaleandadvisertoWoodrowWilson calledforeithertheimmediateendofthewarortheimmediateacceptanceofprohibition.Theworldneeded bread,thememberoftheCouncilofNationalDefensereported.HesaidtheUSwasonthevergeofafood crisisandtakingintoconsiderationallofthefoodstus,energy,andmanpowerusedtomakealcohol,theUS couldinsteadproduce11,000,000one-poundloavesofbreaddaily.Weshallbewisetoadopt[Prohibition] beforewehavefoodriotsonourhandsandhecurbedhisargumentwithpatriotism:Thenationdemands that[anti-prohibitionists]putloveofcountryaboveloveofwhisky. OnemonthbeforeCongressadoptedtheEighteenthAmendmentandsentitotothestatesforratication,theAnti-SaloonLeaguereportedthatmaking,selling,andconsumingalcoholonlyaidedtheGerman wareortandquestionedtheloyaltyofAmericansofGermandescent.AccordingtoWayneWheeler,counsel fortheLeague,trackinginalcoholwashowanti-AmericangroupsnancetheirpromotionofGermanidealsandGermanKultur.Wecannotservetwomasters,hesaid.Americamustcomerstifweareloyal. Thus,alcoholbecomesasymbolofyourallegianceduringthewar.Onehundredandforty-fouryearsearlier, Englandslappedataxonteaandthusteabecameasymbolofyourallegiance.Thosewhoconsumedthe taxedgoodsupportedEngland,whilethosewhoswitchedtocoeeanuntaxedbeveragewereconsidered loyaltothecauseoftheAmericancolonists. OnceCongresspassedtheEighteenthAmendmentandsentitotothestatesforratication,the AmericanMedicalAssociationannouncedtheirsupportofProhibition,likeningalcoholtoslaveryandarguing thatthefuturefortheUSifitcontinuestodrinkcanbeseeninGermanyandlikensthatcountrytoa mansueringfromthenalstagesof`ahorribledisease,leadingtoinsanity,withdelusionsofgrandeurand magnicence.Medical,social,andreligiousgroupslinedupinsupportoftheEighteenthAmendment. InearlyJanuaryof1919,NebraskaratiedtheEighteenthAmendmentmakingitpartoftheConstitution. Asmallnewsiteminthe NewYorkTimes notedthepassingofthisnation'soldestbrewery,establishedin 1844.ThePabstBrewingCompany...passedoutofexistencetoday.Nearbeer,ornearlyalcohol-free beer,wasproducedanddistributedinanearlyattempttokeepthebreweryindustryaoat.Thereport concluded,Milwaukeedoesnottakekindlytonearbeer.Neitherdidtherestofthiscountry. Warsandnationalemergenciestendtochangethiscountrysometimesforthebetterandsometimesnot. TheadoptionofProhibitionisagoodexampleoftheformer,whilethepassageofuniversalsurageisagood exampleoftheformer.IfallyouknewaboutthepassageoftheNineteenthAmendmentwasfromwatching the1976ABCSchoolhouseRockepisodeentitledSuerin'TillSurage,youwouldthinkthatabunchof happy,upbeat,womensportingredbell-bottomjeans,whiteboots,andbluet-shirtswithalonewhitestar notetheobviousagthemeprancedintoelectionboothssimplybysinging:Ohweweresuerin',Until surage,Notawomanherecouldvote,Nomatterwhatage.Thenthe19thAmendmentstruckdownthat restrictiverule. Americanwomenandsomemenhadbeentryingto,andovertimeachievedvaryingdegreesofvoting rightsforwomen.Generallyspeaking,womengainedtherighttovoteinschoolboardelectionsrst,then municipalelections,andsometimeseveninstateorterritory-widecampaigns.Ofcourse,sometimesthe SupremeCourtremovedwomen'srighttovote,suchasin1887whentheCourtstruckdownan1883vote intheterritoryofWashingtonthatgrantedfullsuragetowomen.BytheGreatWar,womeninUtah, Colorado,Washington,California,Alaska,Oregon,Arizona,Kansas,Nevada,andMontanahavethesame politicalrightsasmenwhilewomeninIllinoisareallowedtovoteonlyinpresidentialelectionsandwhite womencouldvoteinprimaryelectionsinArkansas.FiveMidwesternstatesgrantfullsuragetowomenin 1917whileRhodeIslandendorsedpartialvotingrights.NewYorkbecamethersteasternstatetoprovide itsfemalecitizenswiththesameelectoralrightsastheirmalecitizens.Yet,PresidentWilsonwasunableor unwillingtoridethewaveofwomansuragenotthesingular,monolithicuseofthenounastheycalledit. CountertothepopularbeliefthatAmericansuragesuragistscalledotheirsurageworkinorderto fullysupportthewareortsnotunliketheirBritishcounterparts,theNationalAmericanWomanSurage AssociationNAWSAarmedtheirmissionin1917.CarrieChapmanCattcalledameetingoftheExecutive CouncildaysafterSecretaryofStateRobertLansingannouncedthatUSwasbreakingdiplomaticrelations withGermany.ThereasonforthemeetingwastodecideistheNAWSAwouldfollowinthefootstepsof BritishsuragettesorifAmericansuragesupporterswillcontinuetoworkinsupportofuniversalsurage.

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34 CHAPTER4.GREATWARPARTII Theseventy-sixmembersinattendancevotesoverwhelminglyto13tocontinuetoworkforuniversal suragewhilealsosupportingthefederalgovernmentifindeedtheUSwenttowaragainstGermany. ManywomendidnotsupportCatt'stwingoals,suchaspacistswhobelievedthatCattwassellingout thepeacefulmessageinherenttowomeninordertofurtherthegoalsoftheNAWSA.Othersbelievedthat CattandtheNAWSAhadnotgonefarenough,suchasAlicePaul. AlicePaul'sideasonhowtoachievetherighttovotedivergedfromnationalleadersoftheNAWSA suchasCattandDr.AnnaHowardShaworregionalleaderssuchasEmmaSmithDevoe.Catt,Shaw, DeVoe,andothersaskedfortherighttovote.Theywerenon-partisan.Theyusedwomanlytacticssuch asdeferring,beingdemure,anddressinginthelatestfashions.ThewomanlytacticsservedDeVoewellwhen shesuccessfullyfacilitatedfullsurageforwomenofWashington.Paul,ontheotherhand,demandedthe righttovote,blamedthoseinpowertheDemocratsduringthewarforpreventingwomentorealizethe righttovote,andembracedwhatwereconsideredmilitanttactics.Paul'smilitancyincludedloudprotests, interruptingspeechesofpoliticians,unfurlingbannersquestioningpoliticalleaders'judgments,chainingher tofences,allowinghertobearrested,andgoingonahungerstrike. Paulevencreatedandco-ledwithLucyBurnsherownsurageorganizationcalledtheNational Woman'sPartyNWP.HertargetwasWilsonandtoalesserextentCatt.WewanttoconvictWilsonof evadingus,PaulwrotetoBurnsandPaulquestionedCatt'snonpartisanship.Paulalsolaidtheblameofa lackofequalpoliticalrightsatthefeetoftheDemocratsingeneralandthusagainstWilsoninparticular. Paul'srstattempttowintherighttovotewasunderthebanneroftheCongressionalUnionCU.The CUbelievedthebestwaytoobtaintherighttovotewasthroughaConstitutionalAmendment.Threeyears later,CattannouncedherWinningStrategywhichincludedsupportofaConstitutionalamendment. ThesuragebillwasnotmovingthroughtheLegislativeBranchasquicklyasPaulhadwishedandthus tobringattentiontothisfactsheledasmallmarch/protestofafewdozenmembersoftheNWP.Theevent tookplaceatLafayetteSquare,directlyacrossfromtheWhiteHouseonAugust13,1918.Thiswasnotthe rsttimethattheNWPmarchedinfrontoftheWhiteHousenorwasitthersttimethatthewomenwere attackedbypolice.Earlier,plainclothespolicemenreportedlymembersoftheSecretServicebrokeupa NWPdemonstrationinfrontoftheRussianembassyandtoreuptheirbannersandposters,someofwhich calledintoquestionWilson'ssupportfordemocracybyreferringtohimasKaiserWilson.Paulandmany otherswillbearrested. PaulandotherNWPmemberswillberepeatedlyarrestedasthewarwagedon,andattheAugust 1918protest,policeweresoviolentthattheybrokengersandwristsonsomeofthewomen.Thirty-eight werearrested.Theywerebookedandreleased,thentheywentbacktoLafayetteSquareandresumedtheir protest,thustheywerearrestedagain.Wewillcontinuetoprotestaslongasourdisenfranchisementexists, proclaimedPaul.Oppressionandabuseatthehandsofthelawmerelyemphasizedthegreatneedofwomen forpoliticalpower.Refusingtoeat,forcedtosleeponconcreteoors,urinateanddefecateincommunal pots,housedalongsideblackwomen,andjailedalongsideprostitutescarryingsyphilis,manyofthesemiddle classwhitereformerswereshocked,astooastheAmericanpublicwhowereservedstoryafterstoryinNew YorkandWashingtonareanewspapers. PaulwouldbearrestedinOctoberandsentencedtosevenmonthsinjail.Shewouldevenbesenttoa psychiatrichospitaltodetermineifheractionsweretheresultofsomementalororganicdisorder.Although shewouldbefoundsane,inNovemberanothergroupofNWPprotestorsjoinedPaulinprison.Thesadistic superintendent,AlexanderWhitaker,hadthewomenthrowndownstairs,threatenedwithsexualabuse, andhadthewomenmovedfromcelltocellbybeingdraggedbytheirhair.DorothyDaywasbeatenbya groupofguards.AliceConsu,whosueredaconcussionbythehandsoftheguards,spentherrstnight inprisonvomiting.ThenextPaul etal beganahungerstrike.Thesuperintendentrespondedbyhaving thewomentieddownandforcedfedbyinsertingtubesdowntheirthroats.Paulreferredtothesetacticsas administrativeterrorism.LettersandtelegramspouredintotheocesofCongressmen,Senators,andof coursetheOvalOce.NewspaperscarrieddailystoriesandAlicePaul'ssister,Helen,freelygaveinterviews inwhichshequestionsWilson'spatriotismandhumanity.Afterweeksofconstantpressure,Wilsonpardoned allthewomenandorderedtheirimmediaterelease.Wilsonwasstillunpreparedtosupportsuragehowever. HisDecembermessagetoCongressomittedanyreferencetotheissue,laterclaimingthathismessagesto

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35 Congresswerefocusedonwarmatters,notsocialmatters.YetshortlyafterthestateofNewYorkvoted insupportofsurage,WilsonbeganpressuringmembersofCongresstovoteinsupportofthefederal amendment.Thevotecouldnothavebeenanycloser:274to136,theprecisenumberofvotesrequired tocontinuetheprocess.Wilson,meanwhile,refusedtopubliclysupportthepassageoftheNineteenth Amendmentuntilthefallof1918whenheconnectedsurageathomewithhisdesiretomaketheworldsafe fordemocracyasevidencedinhisFourteenPointsAddressofJanuary1918.Ifwerejectmeasureslikethis, Wilsonsaidofwomansurage,theworldwillnolongerbelieveinthecivilizingmissionoftheUnitedStates. However,Wilsonultimatelycouchedhissupportforgrantingwomenequalpoliticalstatusasarewardfor theirwarwork. WrathofGodBlackScare,RedScare,Inuenza WiththeghtinginEuropeandovertheLeagueofNationsbehindthem,Americanswentbacktoold fashionghting:againstotherracesandagainstforeignideas.AstheAfrican-Americanswhoservedthis nationduringtheGreatWarreturnedhome,somebelievedthattheywouldbetreatedasequalmembers ofAmericansocietynowthattheynallyprovedtheirworthonthebattleeld.Othersreturnedhomeand demandedthattheUStreatthemasequalcitizensafterexperiencingnoracismfromtheirFrenchhosts. Simultaneously,whitetroopsreturninghomenoticedtheincreaseinblacksamongwhatwerepredominately whitenortherncitiessuchasNewYork,Detroit,Cleveland,andChicago.Theunemploymentraterose,many blackfactoryworkersdidnotwanttogiveuptheirnewjobsandmanywhitemilitaryveteransdemanded thatblacksberedinordertogivethewhitestheirjobsback. Armedblackandwhitemenattackedeachother.Throughoutthecountrymassiveraceriotsexplodedin thesummerof1919.InChicagowhitegangsattackedblackneighborhoods.TheNationalGuardeventually endedtheattacksandcounterattacksthatresultedinthedeathofatleast38people,nearly500wounded, andthedestructionofhundredsofhomesandbusinesses.Asimilarevenunfoldedinthenation'scapital, resultinginnearly200casualties. WhatmadetheriotsinWashington,DCparticularlydisturbingwasthatmanywhiteUSmilitarypersonal,freshlybackfromdefendingthelibertyofEnglandandFrance,turnedagainsttheirowncountrymen, women,andchildren.Afewyearslater,whitesinTulsaattemptedtoremoveallblacksfromtheirtown. TheNAACPinvestigatedtheincidentandreportedthattheprimereasonwhywhitesattackedblackswas becauseofthefearofradicalismamongblackresidents.Whenquestionedclosely,theNAACPdiscovered thatbyradicalwhitecitizensofTulsameantthatblackcitizenswererefusingtofollowtheJimCrowera codicationofracismandwereaskingthattheFederalconstitutionalguarantiesof`life,liberty,andthe pursuitofhappiness'begivenregardlessofcolor. Althoughraceriotswilldeclineasthe1920srambleon,lynchingswillincreasetoincludelynchingsof blacksinnortherntownssuchinDuluth,Minnesotawhenthreeblackmenwillbelynchedonsuspicionof rape:EliasClayton,ElmerJackson,andIsaacMcGhie.RayStannardBaker,areporter,author,biographer ofWilsonaswellasWilson'spresssecretaryattheVersaillespeaceconferenceandoncesaidthatEvery argumentonlynchingintheSouthgetsbacksoonerorlatertothequestionofrape.Evenoutsideofthe South,whitesjustiedrapeonthesuspectedgroundsthatthelynchedpersonhadrapedortriedtorape andthatthevictimwasawhitewoman. WalterWhite,awriterandtheExecutiveSecretaryoftheNAACPpublishedanarticlein TheCrisis in whichheoutlinedthereasonsfortheseraceriots,toincludetheattitudesofAfrican-Americanveterans: Thesemen,withtheirnewoutlookonlife,injectedthesamespiritofindependenceintotheircompanions, athingthatistrueofmanyothersectionsofAmerica.Oneofthegreatestsurprisestomanyofthosewho camedowntocleanouttheniggersisthatthesesameniggersfoughtback.Coloredmensawtheirown kindbeingkilled,heardofmanymoreandbelievedthattheirlivesandlibertywereatstake.Insuchaspirit mostoftheghtingwasdone. Racialtension,violence,anddeathduringtheBlackScareofthe1920sarebutprecursorstotheracial tension,violence,anddeaththatwillcharacterizethecivilrightsmovementfollowingWorldWarIIand culminatingwithforcedbussingofthe1970s. Simultaneously,AmericansattackedrealandimaginedSocialists,Communists,andthosewhosympathizedwithSocialistsorCommunists.Sometimesthoseattackedfoughtback.Unions,unionactivists,and

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36 CHAPTER4.GREATWARPARTII easternEuropeansingeneralespeciallyPolesandGermanshadbeenintimatelylinkedwithSocialismand CommunismeversincetheHaymarketSquareincidentin1886.Unionshadtypicallybeenviewedinthis countryasun-Americanbecauseofthecollectivenatureofunionismseemedtocountertheindividualistic natureoftheUnitedStates. InFebruaryof1919,laborleadersthroughoutSeattleworkedtogethertoholdacity-widestrike.This generalstrike,astheycalledit,wasinprotesttoalackofraises.PartoftheWIB'sroleduringthewarwas toworkwithlabororganizationstokeepthesalarieslowinorderforbusinessestomakemorewar-related stu.Workersweretoldtheywerebeingpatrioticbyparticipatinginthesewartimewagecontrols.Many workersbelieved,andsomewereevenledtobelieve,thatoncethewarwasoverthenwageswouldnaturally rise. Shipyardworkerswererefusedapayraisein1919andthustheMetalTradesCouncilunionalliance declaredastrikeandclosedtheyards.Mostofthecity'sunionsvotedtostrikeinsupportoftheshipyard workers.Seattleshutdownasmoreandmorebusinesseswereunabletooperateaporttownreliesheavily ontheuseofitsports.ByFebruary11 th ,thestrikehadendedasaresultofpressurelaborleadersfelt fromthestationingofthousandsoffederaltroops,statepolice,andarmedvolunteersthroughoutthecity. Mostworkershadreturnedtotheirjobsexpectthosefromtheshipyardswhooriginatedthestrikeyet localpolicedecidedtousethegeneralstrikeasajusticationforattackingapro-communistunion,the InternationalWorkersoftheWorldaswellastheheadquartersoftheSocialistPartyinSeattle.Thestrike wasafailurefortheunionsbecauseneitherpublicopinion,norlocalmedia,politicians,eventheleadersof theUniversityofWashingtonsupportedtheirtacticsoftryingtoshutdownthecity.Althoughthegeneral strikeinSeattleendedwithoutalmostnoviolence,aRedScaresweptacrosstheUnitedStates. Strikeshappenedinnearlyeverymajorcityandlocalpoliticiansreactedwiththeuseofviolence.The AmericanLegion,anorganizationfoundedbymilitaryveteransin1919,reportedthatithadevidencethat communistsweretoleadarevolutionfollowingMayDayparadestherstofMaywasaEuropeandayof celebratingworkersalthoughintheUSanarchists,socialists,andcommunistsusedMayDaytoremember theHaymarketSquareincident. RedsPlanningtoOverthrowU.S.onMayDayAmericannewspaperswarnedinAprilon1919.Package bombsaddressedtoprominentAmericanswerediscoveredinvariousUSpostocesandBostonnewspapers informedthepublicofaBolshevikplottooverthrowthiscountryunderthebannerheadlineREDSPLAN MAYDAYMURDERS. Thefederalgovernmentrespondedtothisrealorimaginedfearofacommunisttakeoverbyexpelling suspectedalienradicalssuchasAlexanderBerkman,EmmaGoldman,andmorethan500others.Many states,suchasCalifornia,adoptedloyaltyoathsinwhichyouhadtopledgetoprotectthestateandthe federalgovernmentifyouwishedtosecurecertainstatejobs.Manyofthosearrestedweredeniedbail, deniedtrialbyjury,andinsomecasestherewasnoevidenceagainstthemexceptthewordofthearresting authority.InreactiontothisattackonAmericans'civilrightsespeciallytheFirst,Fifth,andFourteenth amendments,progressivereformerssuchasHelenGurleyFlynnhelpedcreatetheAmericanCivilLiberties Union. InJuneof1919,severalbombswentonearlyatthesametimethroughouttheNortheastandin Washington,DC.OneinparticularwassetoinacarriageparkedoutsidethehomeoftheUSAttorney General,A.MitchellPalmer.AtthistimePresidentWilsonwasstillrecoveringfromhislateststrokeand thusPalmer,workingonhisown,createdanewnationalintelligenceunitcalledtheGeneralIntelligence DivisionGIDandhiredayoungattorneynamedHerbertHoovertoleadtheGID.Duringthesummer andfallof1919,andusingthebroadpowersoftheAlienandEspionageActs,Palmerorderedaseriesof attacksagainstsuspectedinternalenemies.KnownasthePalmerRaids,thousandsofsuspectedradicals werearrestedandheldwithoutbail. OnepossiblereactiontotheseraidswasamassivebombingofWallStreet.OnSeptember16 th ,1920, ahorse-drawncarriageparkedneartheentranceoftheJ.P.Morganbank.Nearlyfortypeoplewerekilled and400wereinjured."Thehorribleslaughterandmaimingofmenandwomen,"wrotethe NewYorkCall wasacalamitythatalmoststillsthebeatingoftheheartofthepeople.Therewasnoobjectiveexcept generalterrorism,wrotethe St.LouisPost-Dispatch .Thebombwasnotdirectedagainstanyparticular

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37 personorproperty.Itwasdirectedagainstapublic,anyonewhohappenedtobenearoranypropertyin theneighborhood.The WashingtonPost labeleditanactofwar.This1920attackwillbetheworstact ofterrorismwitnessedinNewYorkforanother81years. EvenelectedocialswerenotsafeduringthisRedScare.SamDeWittwaselectedtotheNewYork stateassemblywasexpelledbecausehewasaSocialist.ThevotersofWisconsinelectedVictorBergerto representtheminWashington,DContheSocialistticket.BergerwasrefusedadmittanceintoCongressand hewasexpelledfromthenationalcapital.The WashingtonPost applaudedtheSenate'sdecisioncallingit animpressivedemonstrationofAmericanism.Bergerwillbere-electedbutwillstillbebarredfromtaking hisseatWashington,DC. ThepoliticalfearoftheRedScarefollowingWorldWarIIisbutasmallexampleofthealigningof thepoliticaluniversefollowingWorldWarIIwhenthebipolarworldoftheColdWarwillbethedriving characteristicofthesecondhalfofthetwentiethcentury. SoldiersreturningfromwesternEuropewillbringbackstories,medals,souvenirs,andinuenza,which AmericanswillcalltheSpanishFluinlargemeasurebecauseSpainwillbetheplacewheremostAmericans soldierswerekeptbeforeretuningtotheUS.Thediseaseinectedapproximately28%oftheUSpopulation. Worldwidedeathsaveraged30millionpeople,or,tentimesasmanypeoplediedfromthe1918inuenza pandemicwhichprobablywasborninthetrenchesandincubatedintheovercrowdedporttownsofSpain whiletroopswaitedforshipstotakethembackhomethanfromghtinginthetrenchesduringtheGreat War.1918sawtheendoftheGreatWarandbeforetherstanniversaryoftheArmistice,675,000Americans willdiefrominuenza. Conclusion TheWartoEndallWar,theWartoMaketheWorldSafeforDemocracy,theGreatWar,and eventuallyWorldWarIwereallphrasesusedtodescribethehostilitiesthateruptedthroughoutEurope andtheMiddleEastbetween1914and1918.Whenthewarcametoanendmillionsofpeopleweredead, Germanywasanoccupiednation,AmericantroopswerestillghtinginRussiaandNationalGuardsmen hadbeendeployedaroundthiscountryinwakeoftheracialandpoliticalviolence.Americansrejectedbeing aplayerontheinternationalstage,inuenzaravagedtheworld,andAmericanliteratureandartseemedto reectthiseraofdeathandmisery. TheVersaillesmeetingamongAmerican,Italian,French,andBritishleaderscertainlydidnotsettleany ofthebigquestionsthatWilsonposedinhisJanuary1918address.Mostofthecolonialholdingsofthe OttomanEmpire,Austria,andGermanywereredistributedamongGreatBritain,France,andItaly.One groupofpeopleknownastheKurdsdesperatelyclungtoWilson'sideaonselfdetermination.Theytried tocarveacountryforthemselvesoutoftheremnantsoftheOttomanEmpireandthePersianEmpire.They calledtheircountryKurdistanandtheLeagueofNationsturnedtotheUnitedStatestotutorthecountry's political,economic,andsocialleaders.TheUSrefusedandKurdistanwasconsumedamongTurkey,Iran, Iraq,andSyria,notunlikehowtheworldwasconsumedbytheu.SincetheGreatWar,theKurdshave beenbutthefuzzy,yellowtennisballbeingsmackedaroundinagameingeo-politicalmixeddoublesamong thegovernmentsofTurkey,Iran,Iraq,andSyria.WearestilldealingwiththeKurdishquestiontoday. PalestinewasabackwaterprovinceoftheOttomanEmpireyetPalestinianssoughtindependenceand theywerenotwillingtochangeonemasterIstanbulforanotherEngland.AyoungArabmilitaryleader namedFaisaltraveledtoVersaillesinthehopesofbeingabletoconvincetheAlliestoallowPalestineto becomeanindependentcountry.Thealliesrefused,PalestinewastakenbyEngland.Wearestilldealing withthequestionofPalestinetodaybothintermsofbillionsofUSdollarseachyear,thecostoftheIsraeli occupation,andinthelossoflives. AyoungVietnamnationalistleadernamedHoChiMinhtraveledtoVersaillesinthehopesofmeeting withPresidentWilson.MinhwantedthehelpoftheUStotransformhiscountryfromacolonialholding ofFranceintoanindependentnationbasedonthepoliticalandeconomicexampleoftheUnitedStates. WilsonrefusedtohelpandultimatelyoveronemillionAmericantroopswillbesenttoghtagainstHoChi Minh'sforcesresultingintheover60,000Americandeathsandnearly400,000woundedAmericans. RightaroundthecorneristheRoaring`20s.Justhowcansuchadepressedanddejectednation seeminglybouncebackintoadecadeofdancing,music,andnever-endingcelebration?Theydon't.Justlike

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38 CHAPTER4.GREATWARPARTII theWartoEndallWarfailedinitstitularobjective,theRoaring20swerecertainlynotroaringforthose inthecenterofthedecade-longsocial,political,andeconomichurricaneasyouwillsee.

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INDEX 39 IndexofKeywordsandTerms Keywords arelistedbythesectionwiththatkeywordpagenumbersareinparentheses.Keywords donotnecessarilyappearinthetextofthepage.Theyaremerelyassociatedwiththatsection. Ex. apples,1.1 Terms arereferencedbythepagetheyappearon. Ex. apples,1 1 1914-1918,3,4 A AlbertBeveridge,1,2 B BessWallaceTruman,3,4 BookerT.Washington,325,4 C CarrieChapmanCatt,1,2 ClaudeKitchin,3,4 Conservationmovement,1,2 E EighteenAmendment,1,2 EqualRightsAmendment,1,2 EugeneBullard,3,4 F FlorenceKelley,1,2 FrankWoodruBuckles,3,427 G GeorgeCreel,3,4 GeorgeM.Cohan,3,4 GreatWar,3,4 H HarryTruman,3,4 HelloGirls,3,4 I IdaB.Wells,1,2 InternationalLadiesGarmentWorkersUnion, 1,2 InternationalWorkersoftheWorld,1, 2 J JacobRiis,1,2 JamesReeseEurope,3,4 JaneAddams,1,2 JeanetteRankin,1,2,3, 4 L Lusitania,3,4 N NationalAmericanWoman'sSurage Association,3,4 Neutrality,3,4 NineteenthAmendment,1,2 P ProgressiveEra,1,2 S SeventeenthAmendment,1,2 SixteenthAmendment,1,2 Surage,1,2 SussexPledge,3,4 T TeddyRoosevelt,1,2 Temperance,1,2 U U-boats,3,4 UptonSinclair,1,2 W W.E.B.DuBois,1,2,3, 4 WilliamHowardTaft,1,2 WoodrowWilson,1,2,3, 4 WorldWarI,3,4

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40 ATTRIBUTIONS Attributions Collection: USHistorysince1877 Editedby:JamesRoss-Nazzal URL:http://cnx.org/content/col10669/1.2/ License:http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/ Module:"ProgressiveEraPartI" By:JamesRoss-Nazzal URL:http://cnx.org/content/m19717/1.1/ Pages:1-14 Copyright:JamesRoss-Nazzal License:http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/ Module:"TheProgressiveEraPartII" By:JamesRoss-Nazzal URL:http://cnx.org/content/m19715/1.1/ Pages:15-24 Copyright:JamesRoss-Nazzal License:http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/ Module:"TheGreatWarPartI" By:JamesRoss-Nazzal URL:http://cnx.org/content/m19718/1.1/ Page:25 Copyright:JamesRoss-Nazzal License:http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/ Module:"GreatWarPartII" By:JamesRoss-Nazzal URL:http://cnx.org/content/m19719/1.1/ Pages:27-38 Copyright:JamesRoss-Nazzal License:http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

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USHistorysince1877 ThisisatextbooktobeusedforthesecondpartoftheUShistorysurveycourseUSafter1877. AboutConnexions Since1999,Connexionshasbeenpioneeringaglobalsystemwhereanyonecancreatecoursematerialsand makethemfullyaccessibleandeasilyreusablefreeofcharge.WeareaWeb-basedauthoring,teachingand learningenvironmentopentoanyoneinterestedineducation,includingstudents,teachers,professorsand lifelonglearners.Weconnectideasandfacilitateeducationalcommunities. Connexions'smodular,interactivecoursesareinuseworldwidebyuniversities,communitycolleges,K-12 schools,distancelearners,andlifelonglearners.Connexionsmaterialsareinmanylanguages,including English,Spanish,Chinese,Japanese,Italian,Vietnamese,French,Portuguese,andThai.Connexionsispart ofanexcitingnewinformationdistributionsystemthatallowsfor PrintonDemandBooks .Connexions haspartneredwithinnovativeon-demandpublisherQOOPtoacceleratethedeliveryofprintedcourse materialsandtextbooksintoclassroomsworldwideatlowerpricesthantraditionalacademicpublishers.