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The Basic Elements of Music

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Title:
The Basic Elements of Music
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Book
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en-US
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Schmidt-Jones, Catherine
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Connexions, Rice University
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Houston, TX
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music activities, counterpoint, harmony, melody, music, texture, timbre, Meter in Music, Rhythm, OGT+ isbn: 9781616100735 and 9781616101015
Music, Music Activities, Music Appreciation, Music Education, Music Theory
Arts / Music

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Abstract:
Explanations (suitable for any age) of the basic elements of music, with suggested activities for introducing the each concept to children at early elementary school level. The course may be used by instructors not trained in music; all necessary definitions and explanations are included. Contents: 1) Time Elements. 2) Pitch Elements. 3) Combining Time and Pitch.
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K, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12
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http://www.ogtp-cart.com/product.aspx?ISBN=9781616100735
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Adobe PDF
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Catherine Schmidt-Jones
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Textbook
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http://cnx.org/content/col10218/latest/
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http://florida.theorangegrove.org/og/file/65ef05ea-3a3f-15c2-f75b-57cab0d3c427/1/Music.pdf

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University Press of Florida
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University Press of Florida
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Copyright ©2008 Catherine Schmidt-Jones This selection and arrangement of content is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution License: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/1.0
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TheBasicElementsofMusic By: CatherineSchmidt-Jones

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TheBasicElementsofMusic By: CatherineSchmidt-Jones Online: < http://cnx.org/content/col10218/1.7/ > CONNEXIONS RiceUniversity,Houston,Texas

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2008CatherineSchmidt-Jones ThisselectionandarrangementofcontentislicensedundertheCreativeCommonsAttributionLicense: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/1.0

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TableofContents 1TimeElements 1.1 Rhythm.....................................................................................1 1.2 SimpleRhythmActivities...................................................................2 1.3 MeterinMusic..............................................................................5 1.4 MusicalMeterActivities.....................................................................7 1.5 Tempo.....................................................................................12 1.6 ATempoActivity..........................................................................15 1.7 DynamicsandAccentsinMusic............................................................16 1.8 AMusicalDynamicsActivity...............................................................19 1.9 AMusicalAccentActivity..................................................................21 Solutions........................................................................................25 2PitchElements 2.1 Timbre.....................................................................................27 2.2 Melody.....................................................................................32 2.3 Harmony...................................................................................52 Solutions........................................................................................ ?? 3CombiningTimeandPitch 3.1 TheTexturesofMusic......................................................................65 3.2 AMusicalTexturesActivity................................................................67 3.3 AnIntroductiontoCounterpoint...........................................................71 3.4 CounterpointActivities.....................................................................73 3.5 ForminMusic..............................................................................79 3.6 MusicFormActivities......................................................................83 Solutions........................................................................................87 Index ................................................................................................88 Attributions .........................................................................................91

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Chapter1 TimeElements 1.1Rhythm 1 Rhythm,melodySection2.2.1,harmonySection2.3.1,timbreSection2.1.1,andtextureSection3.1 aretheessentialaspectsofamusicalperformance.Theyareoftencalledthebasicelementsofmusic.The mainpurposeofmusictheoryistodescribevariouspiecesofmusicintermsoftheirsimilaritiesanddierences intheseelements,andmusicisusuallygroupedintogenresbasedonsimilaritiesinallormostelements.It's useful,therefore,tobefamiliarwiththetermscommonlyusedtodescribeeachelement.Becauseharmony isthemosthighlydevelopedaspectofWesternmusic 2 ,musictheorytendstofocusalmostexclusivelyon melodyandharmony.Musicdoesnothavetohaveharmony,however,andsomemusicdoesn'tevenhave melody.Soperhapstheotherthreeelementscanbeconsideredthemostbasiccomponentsofmusic. Musiccannothappenwithouttime.Theplacementofthesoundsintimeistherhythmofapieceof music.Becausemusicmustbeheardoveraperiodoftime,rhythmisoneofthemostbasicelementsof music.Insomepiecesofmusic,therhythmissimplya"placementintime"thatcannotbeassignedabeat 3 ormeterSection1.3,butmostrhythmtermsconcernmorefamiliartypesofmusicwithasteadybeat.See MeterSection1.3formoreonhowsuchmusicisorganized,andDuration 4 andTimeSignature 5 formore onhowtoreadandwriterhythms.SeeSimpleRhythmActivitiesSection1.2foreasywaystoencourage childrentoexplorerhythm. RhythmTerms Rhythm -Theterm"rhythm"hasmorethanonemeaning.Itcanmeanthebasic,repetitivepulseof themusic,orarhythmicpatternthatisrepeatedthroughoutthemusicasin"feeltherhythm".It canalsorefertothepatternintimeofasinglesmallgroupofnotesasin"playthisrhythmforme". Beat -Beatalsohasmorethanonemeaning,butalwaysreferstomusicwithasteadypulse.Itmay refertothepulseitselfasin"playthisnoteonbeattwoofthemeasure 6 ". Onthebeat or onthe downbeat refertothemomentwhenthepulseisstrongest. Othebeat isinbetweenpulses,and the upbeat isexactlyhalfwaybetweenpulses. Beat mayalsorefertoaspecicrepetitiverhythmic patternthatmaintainsthepulseasin"ithasaLatinbeat".Notethatonceastrongfeelingofhaving abeatisestablished,itisnotnecessaryforsomethingtohappenoneverybeat;abeatcanstillbe "felt"evenifitisnotspecicallyheard. Measureorbar -Beatsaregroupedintomeasuresorbars.Therstbeatisusuallythestrongest, andinmostmusic,mostofthebarshavethesamenumberofbeats.Thissetsupanunderlying 1 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat. 2 "WhatKindofMusicisThat?" 3 "TimeSignature":SectionBeatsandMeasures 4 "Duration:NoteLengthsinWrittenMusic" 5 "TimeSignature" 6 "TimeSignature":SectionBeatsandMeasures 1

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2 CHAPTER1.TIMEELEMENTS patterninthepulseofthemusic:forexample,strong-weak-strong-weak-strong-weak,orstrong-weakweak-strong-weak-weak.SeeMeterSection1.3. RhythmSection -Therhythmsectionofabandisthegroupofinstrumentsthatusuallyprovidethe backgroundrhythmandchords.Therhythmsectionalmostalwaysincludesapercussionistusually onadrumsetandabassplayerusuallyplayingapluckedstringbassofsomekind.Itmayalso includeapianoand/orotherkeyboardplayers,morepercussionists,andoneormoreguitarplayers orotherstrummedorpluckedstrings.Vocalists,windinstruments,andbowedstringsareusuallynot partoftherhythmsection. Syncopation -Syncopationoccurswhenastrongnotehappenseitheronaweakbeatorothebeat. SeeSyncopation 7 1.2SimpleRhythmActivities 8 Herearethreesimpleclassroomactivitiesthatpromoteaccuracyintwoareasrhythmsandkeepingtime thatarefundamentalforgoodmusicalperformance:RhythmImitationsSection1.2.1:Activity1:Rhythm Imitations,KaraokePercussionSection1.2.2:Activity2:KaraokePercussion,andNoKaraokePercussion Section1.2.3:Activity3:NoKaraokePercussion.Theactivitiescanalsobeusedtodevelopawarenessof theeectofpercussionandrhythmonmusicalstyles. GoalsandStandards GradeLevel -K-12adaptableforawiderangeofagesandmusicalexperience StudentPrerequisites -Anystudentwhocanclapalongwithasteadybeatisreadyforthese activities.Theactivitieswillstillhavevalueforolderstudentswithmoremusicalexperienceifthe rhythmsaresucientlycomplexand/oradiscussionofmusicalstylesisincluded. TeacherExpertise -Teachertraininginmusiceducationisnotnecessarytopresentthisactivity, buttheteachershouldbecapableofpresentingrhythmsaccuratelyandconsistently.SeeRhythm Section1.1andMeterSection1.3. MusicStandardsAddressed -NationalStandardsforMusicEducation 9 standard2performing oninstruments,aloneandwithothers,avariedrepertoireofmusic.IftheKaraokeactivitiesinclude adiscussionofpercussionbackgroundsasanelementofstyle,thisalsoaddressesmusicstandards6 listeningto,analyzing,anddescribingmusicand9understandingmusicinrelationtohistoryand culture.Ifthestudentsarereadingwrittenrhythms,standard5readingandnotatingmusicisalso addressed. Evaluation -Forassessment,decideonalevelofrhythmiccomplexitythatthestudentshouldbe abletoachieveinechoingrhythmsorinplayingaconsistent,independentpercussionpart,thenassess whetherthestudentissucceedingatthatlevel.Ifnot,theseactivitiesmayberepeatedthroughout theschoolyear,withgradualincreasesincomplexityasthestudentsgetmorepractice. Follow-up -Helpdevelopbasicrhythmicskillsinthestudentsbycontinuingtogivethem,throughout theschoolyear,simplerhythmpartstoaccompanymusictheyarelearning,andcontinuingtoask themtoechospecicrhythms,particularlyrhythmsthattheyarelearningtoreadorperform. 1.2.1Activity1:RhythmImitations Objectives TimeRequirements -Thisactivityworksbestasashort-15minuteclasswarm-updoneoften inpreparationforothermusicalactivitiessuchassinging,playinginstruments,ordoingtheactivities below. 7 "Syncopation" 8 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat. 9 http://menc.org/resources/view/national-standards-for-music-education

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3 Objectives -Thestudentwillperformspecicrhythmsaccurately,eitherwhilereadingthemor immediatelyafterhearingthem. MaterialsandPreparation Nopreparationisnecessaryifyouwantthestudentstocopyheardrhythms. Ifyouwantthestudentstoreadwrittenrhythms,writesomeshortrhythmicgures,beginningwith verysimplerhythmsandgraduallyaddingcomplexity,orndsomemusicwithrhythmsoftheappropriatecomplexity.Anysingle-linemusicwilldoforthis;studentsshouldbeencouragedtobecapable ofignoringthemelodicinformation,whenaskedtoconveyonlytherhythmicinformationintheline. Procedure Claporplayonarhythminstrumentanyshortrhythmor,forstudentslearningtoreadmusic,have thestudentreadawrittenrhythm. Haveastudentclaporplaythesamerhythmbacktoyou,atthesamespeed. Forstudentswhondthischallengingorifyouhavedicultydecidingwhetherornottheyechoed yourrhythmcorrectly,keeptherhythmsshortandsimple.Forstudentswhodowell,givethem longer,morechallengingrhythmstoecho. Variations 1.Maketherhythmacollectionofclaps,stomps,andothersounds.Keepitshortunlessthestudents arequitegoodatit.Havethestudentcopyitusingthecorrectsounds. 2.Maketherhythmacollectionofsoundsonanypercussioninstrumentsyouhaveavailable.See PercussionFastandCheap 10 forsuggestions. 3.Makethisagame,withstudentstakingturnsimitatingyourrhythmchangeitoften.Studentshave tositdowniftheymissarhythm,andthelaststudentstandingwins. 4.Letthestudentshavetheirturnmakingupshortrhythmsforeachothertoimitate. 5.Ifyoudon'thaveverymanystudents,youcanmakethisagameinwhicheachstudentgetsmoreand moredicultrhythmsuntiltheymissone.Keeptrackofhowmanyeachstudentgotcorrectbefore theymissed. 6.Ifyouwantthestudentstoechotherhythmsasagroupratherthanindividually,youwillprobably needto"counto"forthem.Count2or4beatsbeforeyoustartyourrhythm,andthengivethem exactlythesamecounttostarttheirs. 1.2.2Activity2:KaraokePercussion Objectives TimeRequirements -Allowoneapproximately45-minuteclassperiodifitwilltakethestudents sometimetolearntheirrhythms.Ifthestudentscanlearntherhythmsveryquickly,thisactivity canbedoneasa5-15-minutewarm-upbeforeothermusicactivities,orasanactivebreakbetween desk-worksessions. Objectives -Thestudentwillperformarhythmicostinatosuitabletothestudent'sageandmusical experienceasanaccompanimenttoarecording,keepinganaccuraterhythmandbeat. MaterialsandPreparation Bepreparedforanoisyactivity. 10 "PercussionFastandCheap"

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4 CHAPTER1.TIMEELEMENTS Havepercussioninstrumentsreadyfortheclasstouseorhavetheclassmaketheirowninstruments aheadoftime.SeePercussionFastandCheap 11 .Don'tforgetthepossibilitiesof"foundpercussion" pots,lids,spoons,pencils,books,etc.and"bodypercussion"claps,slaps,ngersnaps,stomps, etc.. Selectmusicthatyouwillbeaddingkaraokepercussionto.Cheerful,fast-tempomusicthatyour studentsenjoyisbest.Ifyouaregoingtoincludeadiscussionofpercussionasanelementofstyle, makesureyouincludemusicfromavarietyofstylesforexample,variouskindsofpop,rock,jazz,and worldmusic.HaveyourtapeorCDplayerready,andhavetapesreadyatthecorrectspotorknow CDtracknumbers. Unlessyouwillhavethestudentsinventtherhythmstobeplayed,youmaywanttodecideonthem aheadoftime.Userhythmsofappropriatecomplexity:forbeginners,thismaybesimplyplayingon thebeat,playingothebeatharder!,playingonlyonalternatebeatsoronlyontherstorlastbeat ofameasure;experiencedstudentswillwantsomethingmorecomplexandinteresting. Procedure Usuallyyouaddthevocalpartswhendoingkaraoke,butinthisactivity,theclassisgoingtoadd percussionparts.Forveryyoungchildren,thiswillprobablymeansimplyaddingnoise.Thatisne, althoughyoucanencouragethemtoaddthenoiseonthebeatoronlyduringcertainphrasesinthe music. Encourageolderstudentstoaddaparticularrepetitiverhythmtothemusic.Beginnersmayallneed tobeonthesamerhythm.Moremusicallyexperiencedstudentsmayeachbegivenadierentrhythm. Havethestudentslistentothesongrst.Havethemclapalong,sothattheyfeelthebasicbeatof themusic.Childrenwithsomemusicalexperiencemaybeabletoidentifyrhythmsthatarealready beingemphasizedinthemusic.Encourageolder,musicallyexperiencedstudentstocomeupwitha steady,patternedrhythmthattsthemusic.Forotherstudents,teachthemtherhythmsthatyou havedecidedon,bylettingthemplayeachrhythmwithyou. Asmuchaspossible,studentsshouldplaydierent,complementaryrhythms,insteadofallplaying thesamerhythm.Thisactivityismostfunforsmallgroups,witheachstudenthavingadierent instrumentandrhythmsothateverybodyiscontributingauniquesound.Breakalargerclassinto smallgroupsofstudentslearningoragreeingonandpracticingthesamerhythmonthesametype ofinstrument.Ifpossible,breaktheclassintosmallerperforminggroupswithonestudentfromeach rhythmgrouponcetherhythmsarelearned,andallowthegroupstoperformforeachother,giving eachstudentachancetoplaytheirrhythmindependently. Letthestudentsexperimentandsettleontheirrhythmswiththemusicplaying,thenhavea"performance"witheverybodydoingtheirchosenrhythms.Thisisevenmoreeectiveifstudentsenterone atatimeyoucanpointtoastudentwhenitisherturntoenterandthensteadilycontinuetheir chosenrhythmasmorestudentsenter. Studentswithsomemusicalsophisticationwillenjoythechallengeofaddingpercussionina"stylisticallyappropriate"way.Workwiththestudentstocomeupwith"percussiontracks"forseveralpieces inverydierentstyles.Discussdierencesinchoiceofinstrumentsandinrhythmsforthedierent styles. 1.2.3Activity3:NoKaraokePercussion TimeRequirements -Ifitwilltakesometimetoteachallthestudentstheirparts,allowone approximately45-minuteclassperiod.Ifthestudentswilllearnandperformtheirrhythmsquickly, usethisasa5-15-minuteclasswarm-upbeforeothermusicactivities,orasanactivebreakbetween desk-worksessions. Objectives -Thestudentwillperformarhythmicostinatothatcomplementsotherrhythmicostinatos beingperformedsimultaneously,keepingaccuraterhythmandasteadybeat. 11 "PercussionFastandCheap"

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5 Extension -Musicallyexperiencedstudentswhosucceedatthisactivitycanbeaskedtoprovideboth percussionandvocalpartsforasong,withnorecordedsupport.Youmaywanttoprovidepianoor otheraccompaniment.Havethestudentsdecideonavarietyofrhythmicostinatostoaccompanya songthattheyknowwell.Havethemsingandplaytherhythmpartsatthesametime. MaterialsandPreparation Ifyourstudentshaveastrongsenseofrhythm,theycandothisno-background-musicversionofthe activity. Provideeachstudentwithapercussioninstrument,orletthemdecideontheirown"found"or"body" percussion. Decidewhetheryouwillprovideandteachtherhythms,orletthestudentscomeupwiththeirown, orusethesamerhythmstheyhavebeenplayinginthepreviousactivity. Procedure Designateonestudentwithafairlyloudinstrumentasthebeatkeeper.Thisstudentestablishesthe beatandplayssteadilyonthebeatduringtheentiresession. Otherstudentsenteroneatatime,steadilyplayingtheirrhythms,toproduceacomplexrhythmic ostinato.Iftheydothiswell,theresultshouldsoundlikethebackgroundrhythmtracktoapop,rock, orLatintune. Onceallstudentshavebeenplayingforsometime,thebeatkeepercanendthesession.Or,formore ofachallenge,thebeatkeepercannameastudent,whomustthenplayadierentrhythm. Forstudentsreadyforachallenge,teachthem,oraskthemtocomeupwith,severalverydierent "percussiontracks"usingdierentinstrumentsanddierentrhythmsandmeters.Afterplayingeach ostinatoforsometime,askthestudentswhatstyleorgenreofmusicitmightbeusedfor.Canthey identifytheelementsinstruments?aparticularrhythm?meter?thatmoststronglysuggeststhat styleorgenre? 1.2.4OtherRhythmActivitiesAvailable YoucanndotheractivitiesthatexplorevariousaspectsofrhythminMusicConducting:ClassroomActivities 12 ,ATempoActivitySection1.6,MusicalMeterActivitiesSection1.4,TalkingDrums 13 ,andMessage Drums 14 .Formoreaboutreadingrhythms,seeDuration:NoteLength 15 ,Duration:RestLengths 16 and TimeSignature 17 1.3MeterinMusic 18 1.3.1WhatisMeter? The meter ofapieceofmusicisthearrangmentofitsrhythmsinarepetitivepatternofstrongandweak beats.Thisdoesnotnecessarilymeanthattherhythmsthemselvesarerepetitive,buttheydostrongly suggestarepeatedpatternofpulses.Itisonthesepulses,thebeat 19 ofthemusic,thatyoutapyourfoot, clapyourhands,dance,etc. 12 "MusicConducting:ClassroomActivities" 13 "TalkingDrums" 14 "MessageDrums" 15 "Duration:NoteLengthsinWrittenMusic" 16 "Duration:RestLength" 17 "TimeSignature" 18 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat. 19 "TimeSignature":SectionBeatsandMeasures

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6 CHAPTER1.TIMEELEMENTS Somemusicdoesnothaveameter.Ancientmusic,suchasGregorianchants;newmusic,suchassome experimentaltwentieth-centuryartmusic;andNon-Westernmusic,suchassomenativeAmericanute music,maynothaveastrong,repetitivepatternofbeats.Othertypesofmusic,suchastraditionalWestern Africandrumming,mayhaveverycomplexmetersthatcanbedicultforthebeginnertoidentify. ButmostWestern 20 musichassimple,repetitivepatternsofbeats.Thismakes meter averyuseful waytoorganizethemusic.Commonnotation 21 ,forexample,dividesthewrittenmusicintosmallgroupsof beatscalledmeasures,orbars 22 .Thelinesdividingeachmeasurefromthenexthelpthemusicianreading themusictokeeptrackoftherhythmsSection1.1.Apieceorsectionofthepieceisassignedatime signature 23 thattellstheperformerhowmanybeatstoexpectineachmeasure,andwhattypeofnote 24 shouldgetonebeat.Formoreonreadingtimesignatures,pleaseseeTimeSignature 25 Conducting 26 alsodependsonthemeterofthepiece;conductorsusedierentconductingpatternsfor thedierentmeters.Thesepatternsemphasizethedierencesbetweenthestrongerandweakerbeatsto helptheperformerskeeptrackofwheretheyareinthemusic. Buttheconductingpatternsdependonlyonthepatternofstrongandweakbeats.Inotherwords,they onlydependon"howmanybeatsthereareinameasure",not"whattypeofnotegetsabeat".Soeven thoughthetimesignatureisoftencalledthe"meter"ofapiece,onecantalkaboutmeterwithoutworrying aboutthetimesignatureorevenbeingabletoreadmusic.Teachers,notethatthismeansthatchildrencan beintroducedtotheconceptofmeterlongbeforetheyarereadingmusic.SeeMeterActivitiesSection1.4 forsomesuggestions. 1.3.2ClassifyingMeters Meterscanbeclassiedbycountingthenumberofbeatsfromonestrongbeattothenext.Forexample, ifthemeterofthemusicfeelslike"strong-weak-strong-weak",itisin duple meter."strong-weak-weakstrong-weak-weak"is triple meter,and"strong-weak-weak-weak"is quadruple .Mostpeopledon'tbother classifyingthemoreunusualmeters,suchasthosewithvebeatsinameasure. Meterscanalsobeclassiedaseithersimpleorcompound.Ina simple meter,eachbeatisbasically dividedintohalves.In compound meters,eachbeatisdividedintothirds. A borroweddivision occurswheneverthebasicmeterofapieceisinterruptedbysomebeatsthat soundliketheyare"borrowed"fromadierentmeter.Oneofthemostcommonexamplesofthisistheuse oftriplets 27 toaddsomecompoundmetertoapiecethatismostlyinasimplemeter.SeeDots,Ties,and BorrowedDivisions 28 toseewhatborroweddivisionslooklikeincommonnotation. 1.3.3RecognizingMeters Tolearntorecognizemeter,rememberthatinmostWestern 29 musicthebeatsandthesubdivisionsof beatsareallequalandeven.Soyouarebasicallylisteningforarunning,evenpulseunderlyingtherhythms ofthemusic.Forexample,ifitmakessensetocountalongwiththemusic"ONE-and-Two-and-ONE-andTwo-and"withallthesyllablesveryevenlyspacedthenyouprobablyhaveasimpleduplemeter.But ifit'smorecomfortabletocount"ONE-and-a-Two-and-a-ONE-and-a-Two-and-a",it'sprobablycompound duplemeter.Makesurenumbersalwayscomeonapulse,and"one"alwaysonthestrongestpulse. Thismaytakesomepracticeifyou'renotusedtoit,butitcanbeusefulpracticeforanyonewhois learningaboutmusic.Tohelpyougetstarted,thegurebelowsumsupthemost-usedmeters.Tohelpgive 20 "WhatKindofMusicisThat?" 21 "TheSta" 22 "TimeSignature":SectionBeatsandMeasures 23 "TimeSignature" 24 "Duration:NoteLengthsinWrittenMusic" 25 "TimeSignature" 26 "Conducting" 27 "Dots,Ties,andBorrowedDivisions" 28 "Dots,Ties,andBorrowedDivisions" 29 "WhatKindofMusicisThat?"

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7 youanideaofwhateachmetershouldfeellike,herearesomeanimationswithsoundofduplesimple 30 duplecompound 31 ,triplesimple 32 ,triplecompound 33 ,quadruplesimple 34 ,andquadruplecompound 35 meters.Youmayalsowanttolistentosomeexamplesofmusicthatisinsimpleduple 36 ,simpletriple 37 simplequadruple 38 ,compoundduple 39 ,andcompoundtriple 40 meters. Meters Figure1.1: Rememberthatmeterisnotthesameastimesignature;thetimesignaturesgivenhereare justexamples.Forexample,2/2and2/8arealsosimpleduplemeters. 1.4MusicalMeterActivities 41 1.4.1Introduction Childrendonothavetolearntoreadmusicinordertorecognizemeter.Infact,achildwhoisalready comfortablewiththeconceptandfeelofmetermayhavelesstroublelearningtoreadmusic,followa conductor 42 ,andunderstandwrittennotes 43 andtimesignatures 44 .Fordenitionsandotherinformation onmeter,pleaseseeMeterinMusicSection1.3.TheactivitiesbelowincludeListenforMeterSection1.4.2: ListenforMeter,SingwithMeterSection1.4.3:SingwithMeter,DancewithMeterSection1.4.4:Dance withMeter,andRecognizeMeterinTimeSignatureSection1.4.5:RecognizeMeterinTimeSignatures 30 http://cnx.org/content/m12405/latest/duplesimple.swf 31 http://cnx.org/content/m12405/latest/duplecompound.swf 32 http://cnx.org/content/m12405/latest/triplesimple.swf 33 http://cnx.org/content/m12405/latest/triplecompound.swf 34 http://cnx.org/content/m12405/latest/quadsimple.swf 35 http://cnx.org/content/m12405/latest/quadcompound.swf 36 http://cnx.org/content/m12405/latest/metdup.mp3 37 http://cnx.org/content/m12405/latest/mettrip.mp3 38 http://cnx.org/content/m12405/latest/metquad.mp3 39 http://cnx.org/content/m12405/latest/metcompdup.mp3 40 http://cnx.org/content/m12405/latest/metcomptrip.mp3 41 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat. 42 "Conducting" 43 "Duration:NoteLengthsinWrittenMusic" 44 "TimeSignature"

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8 CHAPTER1.TIMEELEMENTS GoalsandAssessment Goals -Thestudentwillrecognizespecicmetersinauralexamplesofmusic,andwilldemonstrate meteractivelybyappropriateclapping,vocalization,and/ormovement,orbyidentifyingalikelytime signature. MusicStandardsAddressed -NationalStandardsforMusicEducation 45 standard6listeningto, analyzing,anddescribingmusic,andforRecognizeMeterinTimeSignatureSection1.4.5:Recognize MeterinTimeSignaturesonly5readingandnotatingmusic. OtherSubjectsAddressed -TheactivityalsoaddressesNationalDanceStandards 46 standard1 identifyinganddemonstratingmovementelementsandskillsinperformingdance,2understanding thechoreographicprinciples,processes,andstructures 1.4.2ListenforMeter ObjectivesandAssessment GradeLevel -preKifdevelopmentallyready-12 StudentPrerequisites -Studentsshouldbeabletoaccuratelyidentifyandclapalongwiththebeat ofapieceofmusic. TeacherExpertise -Theteachershouldbefamiliarandcomfortablewiththetermsandconcepts regardingmeterSection1.3,andshouldbeabletoaccuratelyandeasilyidentifyheardmeter. TimeRequirements -Ifyouhavemanydierentmusicalexamples,andwillalsobeexploringsimple andcompoundmeters,thisactivitymaytakeoneapproximately45-minuteclassperiod.Itmayalso bedoneasashort-15-minutewarm-uptoothermusicactivitiesorasabreakfromdeskwork. Objectives -Givenanauralexampleofmusic,thestudentwillclaptothebeat,distinguishweak fromstrongbeats,andclaponlyonstrongbeats.Thestudentwillidentifythemeterofthemusicby determiningthenumberofweakbeatsforeverystrongbeat. Extensions -Advancedstudentsmaybeaskedtodistinguishheardbeatsubdivisionsbyvocalizing withthem,andtoidentifywhetherthemeterissimpleorcompound.Forstudentswhoarelearning toreadmusic,seeRecognizeMeterinTimeSignaturesSection1.4.5:RecognizeMeterinTime Signatures. Evaluation -Duringtheactivity,assesswhethereachstudentcandothefollowingindependently withoutwaitingtoimitatetheteacherorotherstudents,alongwithothers,indirectimitationof others,ornotatall:claponthebeat,claponlyonthestrongbeats,countthenumberofweakbeats foreachstrongbeat,vocalizewiththebeatsubdivisions,andnamethemeter.Ifstudentsarenotat thelevelyouwouldlike,repeattheactivityoccasionallythroughouttheyear. Follow-up -Helpcommittheselessonstolong-termmemory,bycontinuingthroughouttheyearto askstudentstoidentifythemeterofmusicthattheyarehearingorlearning. MaterialsandPreparation YouwillneedsometapesorCDsofsongsthestudentswillenjoy,withagoodmixofdierentmeters. Choosesongswithstrongbeatsandsimpletunes,songsinwhichthemeterisveryobvioustoyou. Youmaywanttochooseoneortwotrickyexamplestosavefortheendifthestudentsaredoingwell. Youwillneedanaudioplayertoplaythesongsfortheclass.Havethetapesreadytoplayatyour chosenselection,orknowtheCDtracknumbers. Procedure 1.First,explainduple,triple,andquadruplemetersseeMeterinMusicp.6. 45 http://menc.org/resources/view/national-standards-for-music-education 46 http://www.pecentral.org/lessonideas/dance/dancestandards.html

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9 2.Havethechildrenlistentoasong.Encouragethematrsttotaptheirtoesonallofthebeats.Then askthemtoclaponlyonthestrongbeatsand/ortocount1-2-1-2-,or1-2-3-1-2-3-or1-2-3-43.Askthemtodecideasagroup,basedontheirclappingorcounting,themeterofthesong.Don'tbe surprisediftheycan'tagreeonwhetherapieceisdupleorquadruple;thesearesometimeshardto distinguish.Infact,twotrainedmusiciansmaydisagreeastowhetherapiece"feels"asifitisin2or 4. 4.Iftheydowellwiththeabovestepsonseveralsongs,explainthedierencebetweensimpleand compoundmeters.SeeMeterinMusicp.6.Youmaywanttocopythegureinthatlessonasa visualaidforthem,orhavethemwatchand/orlistentotheanimations. 5.Youcanusethesamesongsthey'vealreadyheardortrynewones.Oncethey'vefoundthebeat,have themtrychantingalongwiththemusic"one-and-two-and-",or"one-and-a-two-and-a-"forduple meters.Ifthemusicisfast,and"one-and-a"istoodicult,youcanswitchtoeasy-to-saynonsense syllables,forexample"doodle"forsimpleand"doodle-uh"forcompound.Ifyouareusingaparticular musicmethod,usethesyllablesfavoredbythatmethod. 6.Cantheydecidewhichfallsmorenaturallywiththemusic?Isthemetersimpleorcompound?Do theyhearcluesinthemelodyorthepercussionorthebasslinethathelpthemdecide? 1.4.3SingwithMeter ObjectivesandAssessment GradeLevel -preKifdevelopmentallyready-12 StudentPrerequisites -Studentsshouldbeabletoaccuratelyidentifyandclapalongwiththebeat ofapieceofmusicwhiletheyaresingingit. TeacherExpertise -Theteachershouldbefamiliarandcomfortablewiththetermsandconcepts regardingmeterSection1.3,,shouldbeabletoaccuratelyandeasilyidentifymeter,andshouldbe comfortableleadingthesinging. TimeRequirements -Ifyouhaveplentyofsongs,andwillalsobeexploringsimpleandcompound meters,thisactivitymaytakeoneapproximately45-minuteclassperiod.Itmayalsobedoneasa short-15-minutewarm-uptoothermusicactivitiesorasabreakfromdeskwork,oryoumaydo bothListenforMeterSection1.4.2:ListenforMeterand"SingwithMeter"inoneclassperiod. Objectives -Whilesinging,thestudentwillclaptothebeat,distinguishweakfromstrongbeats,and claponlyonstrongbeats.Thestudentwillidentifythemeterofthemusicbydeterminingthenumber ofweakbeatsforeverystrongbeat. Extensions -Advancedstudentsmaybeaskedtodistinguishheardbeatsubdivisionsbyvocalizing withthem,andtoidentifywhetherthemeterissimpleorcompound.Forstudentswhoarelearning toreadmusic,seeRecognizeMeterinTimeSignaturesSection1.4.5:RecognizeMeterinTime Signatures. Evaluation -Duringtheactivity,assesswhethereachstudentcandothefollowingindependently withoutwaitingtoimitatetheteacherorotherstudents,alongwithothers,inimitationofothers,or notatall:whilesinging,claponthebeat,claponlyonthestrongbeats;whilelisteningtootherssing, countthenumberofweakbeatsforeachstrongbeat,vocalizewiththebeatsubdivisions,andname themeter.Ifstudentsarenotatthelevelyouwouldlike,repeattheactivityoccasionallythroughout theyear. Follow-up -Helpcommittheselessonstolong-termmemory,bycontinuingthroughouttheyearto askstudentstoidentifythemeterofmusicthattheyaresinging. MaterialsandPreparation Youwon'tneedanyaudioequipmentforthisone,butifyouplaypianoorguitar,youmaywantto choosesongsyoucanaccompany.

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10 CHAPTER1.TIMEELEMENTS Again,choosesongswithavarietyofmeters.Somestudentswillndsingingandclappingatthe sametimetobemoreofachallenge;choosesimplesongsthatthechildrenalreadyknowhowtosing condently,withasteady,consistentbeatandstrongrhythm.Songsthattheyarealreadylearningin musicclassareanexcellentchoice. Procedure 1.Theprocedureissimilartothe"ListenforMeter"procedure.Thistime,thechildrenwilltaptheir toesandclapwhiletheyaresinging. 2.Whenlisteningforsimpleorcompoundmeter,letthestudentstaketurns;somewillsingwhileothers arecountingthebeatsanddivisionsofbeats.Ifthemelodyisverysimple,olderstudentswithmore musicalexperiencemaybeabletosing"one-and-two-and-etc.",tothetune,butrememberthatthe rhythmofthesongisnotthesameasthemeter,andthetwowillnotalwaysmatchup,evenina simplesong. SuggestedSimpleSongstoSing "YankeeDoodle"duplesimple "LondonBridge"duplesimple "Row,Row,RowYourBoat"duplecompound "ThreeBlindMice"duplecompound "DidYouEverSeeaLassie"triplesimple "HomeontheRange"triplesimple "Clementine"triple;somepeoplegivethisfolksongasimplemeterstraight-eighth-notefeel;others giveitaswing 47 ,compoundfeel "AmazingGrace"triple;again,somepeoplesing"straight"simplemeter;otherssing"swing"compoundmeter "FrereJaque"quadruplesimple "AmericatheBeautiful"quadruplesimple "I'veBeenWorkingontheRailroad"quadruple;simpleorcompound,dependingonhowyousingit 1.4.4DancewithMeter ObjectivesandAssessment GradeLevel -preKifdevelopmentallyready-12 StudentPrerequisites -Studentsshouldbeabletoaccuratelyidentifyandmovetothebeatof heardmusic. TeacherExpertise -Theteachershouldbefamiliarandcomfortablewiththetermsandconcepts regardingmeterSection1.3,shouldbeabletoaccuratelyandeasilyidentifyheardmeter,andshould becomfortableleadingthechoreographedmovementswiththebeat. TimeRequirements -Ifyouhaveplentyofmusic,thisactivitymaytakeoneapproximately45minuteclassperiod.Itmayalsobedoneasashort-15-minutewarm-uptoothermusicactivities orasabreakfromdeskwork,oryoumaydoitwithListenforMeterSection1.4.2:ListenforMeter orSingwithMeterSection1.4.3:SingwithMetertolloneclassperiod. Objectives -Thestudentwilllearnasimple,repetitivechoreographythatreectsthemeterofthe music,andperformitaccuratelyandonthebeat. Extensions -Advancedstudentsmaybeaskedtodesignasetofmovementsthatworkswellwiththe meter. Evaluation -Duringtheactivity,assesswhethereachstudentislearningthemovementscorrectly andmovingwiththebeatandmeter. 47 "Dots,Ties,andBorrowedDivisions"

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11 MaterialsandPreparation Doatleastoneoftheothermeteractivitiesabovebeforethisone,sothatthestudentsarefamiliar withtheconcept. FindmusicwithavarietyofsteadymetersandtemposSection1.5thatthestudentswillenjoy movingto. BringtapesorCDsofthemusicandanaudioplayertoclass.Havethetapesreadytoplayyour selections,orknowthetracknumbersforCDselections. Beforetheactivitybegins,youmaywanttoworkoutatleastonesamplechoreographyforeachmeter. Dependingonthestudents'abilities,thiscanbeassimpleasmarchingleft-right-left-righttoaduple meter,orsomethingmuchmoreinvolved.Reservingsteps,hops,turns,andotherweight-shifting movementsforstrongbeatsisbest.Makesureyoualwaysdothesamethingonthesamebeat:step forwardonone,backontwo,forexample.Kicks,footslidesandshues,areneforweakerbeats.Try usingclaps,ngersnaps,andotherthingsthatdon'tinvolveshiftingtheentirebody,forthe"and" and"and-a"upbeats. Procedure 1.Youmayhavethestudentsdecidethemeterofeachpieceseeactivitiesabove,orsimplytellthem. Thepointofthisactivityisto"actout"themeterphysically. 2.Teachthestudentsyourchoreography,pointingouthowittsthemeterofthemusic. 3.Letthem"dance"tothemusic. 4.TryadierentpiecewithadierentmeterortempoSection1.5anddierentchoreography. 5.Asthestudentsgettheidea,encouragethemtocomeupwithmotionstobeincorporatedintothe newchoreography.Youmayletthestudentsdesigntheentirechoreographythemselves,butmakesure thatit"ts"themeter. 1.4.5RecognizeMeterinTimeSignatures ObjectivesandAssessment GradeLevel -4-12 StudentPrerequisites -Studentsshouldbeabletoaccuratelyidentifymeterinheardmusic,and shouldunderstandtheconceptofwrittentimesignatures 48 incommonnotation 49 TeacherExpertise -Theteachermustbeknowledgeableaboutbasicaspectsofmusicreadingand performance. TimeRequirements -Ifyouhaveplentyofmusic,thisactivitymaytakeoneapproximately45minuteclassperiod.Itmayalsobedoneasashort-15-minutewarm-uptoothermusicactivities orasabreakfromdeskwork,oryoumaydoitwithListenforMeterSection1.4.2:ListenforMeter orSingwithMeterSection1.4.3:SingwithMetertolloneclassperiod. Objectives -Thestudentwillaccuratelyidentifythemeterofapieceofmusicpresentedaurally,and willwriteatimesignaturethatwouldbeappropriatefortheheardmeter. Extensions -Advancedstudentscanbegivendicultexamples:pieceswithunusualmetersuchas 5/4,complexorsubtlerhythms,mixedmeter,orborrowedmeters. Evaluation -Assessstudentlearningbygradingwrittenanswers.Fortestingpurposes,choosepieces withaclearandunchangingmeter,andplayorsingeachselectionforareasonablelengthoftime. Procedure 1.Identifyeachpiecebyname,orassigneachanumberorletter.Havethestudentswritedownthe name,number,orletterofeachpiece. 48 "TimeSignature" 49 "TheSta"

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12 CHAPTER1.TIMEELEMENTS 2.OncetheyhaveidentiedthemeterofapieceinListenforMeterSection1.4.2:ListenforMeteror SingwithMeterSection1.4.3:SingwithMeter,orthismayalsobepartofthewrittenassignment, askthemtowritedown,nexttoitsname,number,orletter,apossibletimesignatureforit.Note thattherewillbeseveralpossiblecorrectanswers,althoughsomemaybemorelikelythanothers.Can theyidentifymorethanonepossibletimesignatureforthesamemeter? 3.Foranaddedlevelofdiculty,identifyarhythminthepieceandaskthemtowritetherhythm correctlyinthetimesignaturetheyhavechosen. 4.Youmayalsowanttoask:doesthemelodyofeachpiecebeginon"one",oraretherepickupnotes 50 ? 1.5Tempo 51 The tempo ofapieceofmusicisitsspeed.Therearetwowaystospecifyatempo.Metronomemarkingsare absoluteandspecic.Othertempomarkingsareverbaldescriptionswhicharemorerelativeandsubjective. Bothtypesofmarkingsusuallyappearabovethesta,atthebeginningofthepiece,andthenatanyspot wherethetempochanges.Markingsthatasktheplayertodeviateslightlyfromthemaintempo,suchas ritardandoGradualTempoChanges,p.14mayappeareitheraboveorbelowthesta. 1.5.1MetronomeMarkings Metronomemarkingsaregiveninbeatsperminute.Theycanbeestimatedusingaclockwithasecond hand,buttheeasiestwaytondthemiswitha metronome ,whichisatoolthatcangiveabeat-per-minute tempoasaclickingsoundorapulseoflight.Figure1.2showssomeexamplesofmetronomemarkings. 50 "PickupNotesandMeasures" 51 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat.

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13 Figure1.2 Metronomesoftencomewithothertempoindicationswrittenonthem,butthisismisleading.For example,ametronomemayhave allegro markedat120beatsperminuteand andante markedat80beats perminute. Allegro shouldcertainlybequiteabitfasterthan andante ,butitmaynotbeexactly120beats perminute. 1.5.2TempoTerms Atempomarkingthatisawordorphrasegivesyouthecomposer'sideaof howfastthemusicshould feel .Howfastapieceofmusicfeelsdependsonseveraldierentthings,includingthetextureandcomplexity ofthemusic,howoftenthebeatgetsdividedintofasternotes,andhowfastthebeatsthemselvesarethe metronomemarking.Also,thesametempomarkingcanmeanquitedierentthingstodierentcomposers; ifametronomemarkingisnotavailable,theperformershoulduseaknowledgeofthemusic'sstyleandgenre, andmusicalcommonsense,todecideonthepropertempo.Whenpossible,listeningtoaprofessionalplay thepiececanhelpwithtempodecisions,butitisalsoreasonablefordierentperformerstopreferslightly dierenttemposforthesamepiece. Traditionally,tempoinstructionsaregiveninItalian. SomeCommonTempoMarkings Grave -veryslowandsolemnpronounced"GRAH-vay" Largo -slowandbroad"LAR-go" Larghetto -notquiteasslowaslargo"lar-GET-oh" Adagio -slow"uh-DAH-jee-oh" Lento -slow"LEN-toe" Andante -literally"walking",amediumslowtempo"on-DON-tay"

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14 CHAPTER1.TIMEELEMENTS Moderato -moderate,ormedium"MOD-er-AH-toe" Allegretto -Notasfastasallegro"AL-luh-GRET-oh" Allegro -fast"uh-LAY-grow" Vivo,orVivace -livelyandbrisk"VEE-voh" Presto -veryfast"PRESS-toe" Prestissimo -very,veryfast"press-TEE-see-moe" Theseterms,alongwithalittlemoreItalian,willhelpyoudeciphermosttempoinstructions. MoreusefulItalian unpoco -alittle"oonPOH-koe" molto -alot"MOLE-toe" piu -more"pew" meno -less"MAY-no" mosso -literally"moved";motionormovement"MOE-so" Exercise1.1 Solutiononp.25. ChecktoseehowcomfortableyouarewithItaliantempomarkingsbytranslatingthefollowing. 1.unpocoallegro 2.moltomenomosso 3.piuvivo 4.moltoadagio 5.pocopiumosso Ofcourse,tempoinstructionsdon'thavetobegiveninItalian.Muchfolk,popular,andmodernmusic, givesinstructionsinEnglishorinthecomposer'slanguage.Tempoindicationssuchas"Nottoofast","With energy","Calmly",or"Marchtempo"giveagoodideaofhowfastthemusicshouldfeel. 1.5.3GradualTempoChanges Ifthetempoofapieceofmusicsuddenlychangesintoacompletelydierenttempo,therewillbeanew tempogiven,usuallymarkedinthesamewaymetronometempo,Italianterm,etc.astheoriginaltempo. Gradualchangesinthebasictempoarealsocommoninmusic,though,andthesehavetheirownsetof terms.Thesetermsoftenappearbelowthesta,althoughwritingthemabovethestaisalsoallowed. ThesetermscanalsoappearwithmodiersMoreusefulItalian,p.14like molto or unpoco .Youmay noticethattherearequiteafewtermsforslowingdown.Again,theuseofthesetermswillvaryfromone composertothenext;unlessbeginningandendingtempomarkingsareincluded,theperformermustsimply usegoodmusicaljudgementtodecidehowmuchtoslowdowninaparticular ritardando or rallentando GradualTempoChanges accelerando -abbreviated accel. accelerating;gettingfaster ritardando -abbrev. rit. slowingdown ritenuto -abbrev. riten. slower rallentando -abbrev. rall. graduallyslower rubato -don'tbetoostrictwiththerhythm;whilekeepingthebasictempo,allowthemusictogently speedupandrelaxinwaysthatemphasizethephrasing pocoapoco -littlebylittle;gradually TempoI -"tempoone"or"tempoprimo"backtotheoriginaltempothisinstructionusually appearsabovethesta

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15 1.6ATempoActivity 52 Anintroductiontotheconceptoftempo,andlistsofterms,canbefoundinTempoSection1.5.To introducetheconceptandsomecommontempoindicationstoyoungerstudents,trythefollowingactivity. GoalsandStandards Goals -Thestudentwillbecomefamiliarwiththemostcommontempotermsandrespondappropriatelywhenaskedtoperformataspecictempoindication,ortonameatempoindicationfora performancejustgivenorheard. GradeLevel -Theactivityisdesignedforgrades3-8,butmaybeadaptedforolderoryounger studentsasappropriate. StudentPrerequisites -Whethersinging,singingwithgestures,dancing,orplayinginstruments, studentsshouldbeabletoperformthepiecesadequatelybeforedoingthisactivity.Choosepieces andperformancemodesthatarecomfortable,sothatthestudentscanconcentrateontempo. TeacherExpertise -Teacherexpertiseinmusicisnotnecessarytopresentthisactivity.Theteacher shouldbefamiliarandcomfortablewiththetermsandconceptsregardingtempoSection1.5,and shouldbecomfortableleadingtheperformanceatvarioustempos. TimeRequirements -Ifyouwishtospendanentireclassperiodontheactivity,makecertainyou haveenoughpiecesandtempos,andincludethediscussionofmetronomes.Ashortdemonstrationof temposwillonlytake15-20minutes,oryoucanusetheactivityasaveryshortjustonepiece,oneor twotempos,eachtime5-minutewarm-uptomusicclassoractivebreakfromdeskwork. MusicStandardsAddressed -NationalStandardsforMusicEducation 53 standards1singing, aloneandwithothers,avariedrepertoireofmusicor2performingoninstruments,aloneandwith others,avariedrepertoireofmusic,and6listeningto,analyzing,anddescribingmusic. OtherSubjectsAddressed -TheactivityalsoaddressesNationalDanceStandards 54 standard1 identifyinganddemonstratingmovementelementsandskillsinperformingdance. Objectives -Thestudentswilllearnthemeaningofthecommontempoindicationschosenbythe teacher.Asagroup,thestudentswillperformatleastonepiecesinging,singingwithgestures, dancing,orplayinginstrumentsatdierenttemposthatareappropriateforthetempomarkingsthey arelearning.Givenapieceandatempo,thestudentwillchooseanappropriatetempomarkingto describeit. Evaluation -Assessstudentsonabilitytomaintainasteadybeatatdierenttemposandonknowledge oftempoterms.Totestknowledgefollowingtheactivity,eitheraskindividualstudentstoindicate byclappingabeat,forexample,whatspeedtheywouldchoosegivenacertaintempomarking,or askthemtonameanappropriatetempowhiletheylistentoarecordedpieceofmusic. Follow-up -Helpcommitthislessontolong-termmemory,bycontinuingtoask,throughtherest oftheschoolyear,"whattempotermwouldyouusetodescribethesongwejustsang?"andsimilar questions. MaterialsandPreparation DecidewhichtempoindicationsseeTempoSection1.5youwouldlikethestudentstolearn. Chooseasimplesong,songwithgesturesanddancesteps,ordance,orapieceofinstrumentalmusic. Oryoumaywishtochoosemorethanone.Choosepiecesthestudentsalreadyknow,orteachthem theonesyouhavechosenbeforedoingthisactivity. Ifyouaregoingtodiscussmetronomemarkings,bringametronometoclass. Ifyouaregoingtotestthestudentsfollowingtheactivityusingrecordings,chooseavarietyofrecordings. Procedure 52 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat. 53 http://menc.org/resources/view/national-standards-for-music-education 54 http://www.pecentral.org/lessonideas/dance/dancestandards.html

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16 CHAPTER1.TIMEELEMENTS Writeyourchosentermsandtheirmeaningsontheboard,orgivethestudentsahandoutwiththe terms,andgooverthemwiththestudents. Havethemsing,play,ordancethechosenpiecesatdierenttempos allegro,largo,vivo ,etc.. Includevariationsinthetempo,suchas accelerando ifyoulike. Ifyouareusingmorethanonepieceforthisactivity,tryeachpieceatseveraldierenttempos.You maychoosea"tempomarking",orhavestudentstaketurnssuggestingthem.Havethestudents vote,orreachaconsensuson,anappropriateactualtempoforeachtempoindicationsuggestedwith directionfromyouasnecessary,andaftertryingseveral,havethemvoteonthebesttempomarking foreachpiece. Mostchildrenlovetoplaywithmetronomes.Ifthereisoneavailable,youmayalsowanttodiscuss metronomemarkings.Tryeachchosenpieceatseveraldierentmetronomemarkingssuggestedby thestudents,andthenaskthemtochooseametronomemarkingforeachpiece.Discusswhichtempo marking allegro,largo,vivo,andante ,etc.theywouldassignthatmetronomemarkingforthatpiece. Theymayalsoenjoytryingtoguessatwhichnumberthemetronomewasset. ActivityExtensionsforAdvancedStudents Havethestudentslearnavarietyofthelesscommontempoterms. Helpthemexplorewhatitmeansforapiecetofeelfastorslow.Findrecordingsoforhavethestudents performdierentpiecesthathavethesametempomarkingbutnoticeablydierentactualtempos. Useametronometodetermineactualtempos.Discussthepossiblereasonsforthedierences.Are theyculturalorhistorical?Aretheyaectedbythestyleorgenreofthemusic,therhythmsorthe numberofnotesperbeat? 1.7DynamicsandAccentsinMusic 55 1.7.1Dynamics Sounds,includingmusic,canbebarelyaudible,orloudenoughtohurtyourears,oranywhereinbetween. Whentheywanttotalkabouttheloudnessofasound,scientistsandengineerstalkaboutamplitude 56 Musicianstalkabout dynamics .Theamplitudeofasoundisaparticularnumber,usuallymeasuredin decibels,butdynamicsarerelative;anorchestraplaying fortissimo isgoingtobemuchlouderthanasingle violinplaying fortissimo .Theexactinterpretationofeachdynamicmarkinginapieceofmusicdependson: comparisonwithotherdynamicsinthatpiece thetypicaldynamicrangeforthatinstrumentorensemble theabilitiesoftheperformers thetraditionsofthemusicalgenrebeingperformed theacousticsoftheperformancespace Traditionally,dynamicmarkingsarebasedonItalianwords,althoughthereisnothingwrongwithsimply writingthingslike"quietly"or"louder"inthemusic. Forte meansloudand piano meanssoft.The instrumentcommonlycalledthe"piano"bytheway,wasoriginallycalleda"pianoforte"becauseitcould playdynamics,unlikeearlierpopularkeyboardinstrumentsliketheharpsichord. 55 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat. 56 "AcousticsforMusicTheory":SectionWaveAmplitudeandLoudness

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17 TypicalDynamicMarkings Figure1.3 Whenacomposerwritesa forte intoapart,followedbya piano ,theintentisforthemusictobequite loud,andthensuddenlyquitesoft.Ifthecomposerwantsthechangefromonedynamicleveltoanotherto begradual,dierentmarkingsareadded.A crescendo pronounced"cresh-EN-doe"means"graduallyget louder";a decrescendo or diminuendo means"graduallygetsofter".

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18 CHAPTER1.TIMEELEMENTS GradualDynamicMarkings Figure1.4: Herearethreedierentwaystowritethesamething:startsoftlypiano,graduallyget loudercrescendountilthemusicisloudforte,thengraduallygetsofterdecrescendoordiminuendo untilitissoftpianoagain. 1.7.2Accents Acomposermaywantaparticularnotetobelouderthanalltherest,ormaywanttheverybeginningofa notetobeloudest. Accents aremarkingsthatareusedtoindicatetheseespecially-strong-soundingnotes. ThereareafewdierenttypesofwrittenaccentsseeFigure1.5CommonAccents,but,likedynamics, theproperwaytoperformagivenaccentalsodependsontheinstrumentplayingit,aswellasthestyleand periodofthemusic.Someaccentsmayevenbeplayedbymakingthenotelongerorshorterthantheother notes,inadditionto,oreveninsteadofbeing,louder.Seearticulation 57 formoreaboutaccents. CommonAccents Figure1.5: Theexactperformanceofeachtypeofaccentdependsontheinstrumentandthestyleand periodofthemusic,butthe sforzando and fortepiano -typeaccentsareusuallylouderandlonger,and morelikelytobeusedinalongnotethatstartsloudlyandthensuddenlygetsmuchsofter. Caret -type accentsaremorelikelytobeusedtomarkshorternotesthatshouldbestrongerthanunmarkednotes. 57 "Articulation"

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19 1.8AMusicalDynamicsActivity 58 Practicingdynamicsonaparticularinstrumentrequirescontrolandtechnique,butsimplylearningabout dynamicsisaninvitationtomakenoise,sothisisafunconcepttointroducetoyoungchildren.Practicing dynamicsawayfromone'sinstrumentcanalsobeusefulforyoungplayerswhonditdiculttoremember toplaywithdynamicsandgoodtonequalitybecausetheyarestillmasteringrhythmsandngerings. GoalsandStandards GradeLevel -Intendedforgrades3-8;adaptableforyoungerorolderasappropriate. StudentPrerequisites -Studentsshouldbeabletosing,wellandcomfortably,thesongschosen. TeacherExpertise -Teacherexpertiseinmusicisnotnecessarytopresentthisactivity.Theteacher shouldbefamiliarwiththetermsandconceptsregardingdynamicsSection1.7andcomfortable leadingthesinging. TimeRequirements -Ifyouwanttogiveeveryoneachanceto"conduct",haveavarietyofseveral songsreadytosing,andplantouseanentireclassperiod.Otherwise,thediscussionandactivity canbedoneinabouttwentyminutes.Oncetheconceptsareintroduced,youmayuseitasashort -minutewarm-uptoothermusicactivitiesorbreakfromdeskwork. Goals -Thestudentwilllearnstandardtermsformusicaldynamics,exploreusingdynamics,and practicesingingmusicallyandwithcontrolatavarietyofdierentdynamiclevels. Objectives -Thestudentwilllearnthetermsusedtoindicatemusicaldynamicsandwillsingfamiliar songswithagroup,atavarietyofdynamiclevels,respondingrsttoverbalinstructionsfromthe teacherandthentohandsignalsfroma"conductor".Followingtheactivity,thestudentwillbeable todenecommondynamicstermsinsimpleEnglishe.g. forte is"loud"andrespondtoverbalor handsignalswithappropriatedynamics. MusicStandardsAddressed -NationalStandardsforMusicEducation 59 standards1singing, aloneandwithothers,avariedrepertoireofmusicand6listeningto,analyzing,anddescribing music. Evaluation -Assessstudentsonachievementofmanydierentdynamicswhilestillsingingwithgood tone,andonabilitytofollowconductor'sdynamicdirections.Followingtheactivity,youmaytestthe students,verballyoronpaper,onthemeaningofdynamicsterms. Follow-up -Throughouttherestoftheyear,continuetoaskforappropriatedynamics,usingthe correctterms,wheneverthestudentssingorplayaninstrument. Adaptations -Forstudentswhohavetroublesinging,youmayadaptthisactivitytohavethemrecite, speak,ormakenoiseonsimplepercussioninstruments 60 atdierentdynamiclevels. Extensions -Formoreadvancedmusicstudents,havethestudentsmemorizeashortpieceonan instrumentandpracticerespondingquicklytoinstructionsorsignalstoplayatdierentdynamic levels.Teachthestudentsnotationfordynamicsandaskthemtoplayorsing,individually,asimple piecewithnowrittendynamics,addingdynamicstomaketheperformancemoremusical,interesting anddramatic.Onthewrittenpart,havethemaddtheproperlynotateddynamicsthattheyare using. MaterialsandPreparation Chooseasongorsongsthatthestudentsalreadyknow,orteachthemonethatiseasyforthem.Any songwilldo,althoughonewithsomedramaticsthatsuggestdynamicsmaybemorefun.Choosea songthatisreasonablyshort,orelsedotheversesatdierentdynamiclevels. FamiliarizeyourselfwithanydynamicsSection1.7termsthatyouareplanningonintroducingto thestudents.YoumayusethisPDFle 61 asahandoutifyouwouldliketogivethestudentsacopy oftheterms.Ifyoucan'tgetthePDFle,youmayusethegurebelowFigure1.6. 58 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat. 59 http://menc.org/resources/view/national-standards-for-music-education 60 "PercussionFastandCheap" 61 http://cnx.org/content/m13463/latest/pf.pdf

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20 CHAPTER1.TIMEELEMENTS Procedure 1.Tellyourstudentsthatmusiccanbeloudorsoftorinbetween.Introduceanyofthetermsyouwish yourstudentstolearn,orsimplycontinuetotalkaboutloud,soft,andmedium. 2.Singthesongtogethersoftly mezzopiano .Singitagainorthenextverseevenmoresoftly piano Encouragethemtocontinuetoprojectvoicednotwhisperednoteswithclear,sustainedpitch 62 as theygetsofter.Repeatuntiltheyarepracticallywhispering;howmanydierentlevelsofsoftcanthey getwhilestillsoundinggood? 3.Repeatthepreviousstepwith mezzoforte,forte ,andsoon.Encouragethemtosingwithsustained, controllednotesastheygetlouder.Howmanydierentlevelsofloudnesscantheygetbeforetheyare simplyshouting? 4.Thenextstepwillneeda"conductor".Youcanconduct,butifthereistime,letthestudentstake turnsconducting.Chooseaconductoranddemonstratesometypicalconductingsignals:handheld higherwithpalmupmeanslouder,handheldlowerwithpalmhelddownmeanssofter,handmoving upordownmeansgraduallylouderorsofter. Theconductorinthisactivitydoesnothaveto conductthebeats! 5.Repeatthesongagain,orchooseadierentsongifyou'rebored.Thistime,havetheconductorvary thelevelofloudnessduringtheverse.Trysuddenlyloudandsuddenlysoftaswellasgraduallygetting louderandsofter.Foryoungerstudents,letthemhavefunwiththisandbesilly.Witholderstudents, askthemtoexperimentwithusingthedynamicstomakethesongprettierormoreexciting,dramatic, orinteresting. 62 "Pitch:Sharp,Flat,andNaturalNotes"

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21 Figure1.6 1.9AMusicalAccentActivity 63 SeeDynamicsandAccentsinMusicp.18forintroductoryinformationonmusicalaccents.Theproper methodforperforminganaccentvariesgreatlybetweendierenttypesofinstrumentsandstylesofmusic, andcanpresentquiteachallengefortheyounginstrumentalist.Bytemporarilyseparatingreadingfrom concernsonhowtoproperlyperformaccentsonaspecicinstrument,thisactivitysimpliesthetaskof readingandperforming"accents",allowinganintermediatesuccessthatcantranslateintocondencein performingaccentscorrectly. GoalsandEvaluation 63 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat.

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22 CHAPTER1.TIMEELEMENTS Goals -Thegoaloftheactivityistointroducestudentstotheconceptofmusicalaccentsandtohelp beginninginstrumentalistspracticereadingandperformingaccents. Objectives -Thestudentwillreadnotatedrhythms-ofgraduallyincreasingcomplexity-thatinclude accentednotes,andperformthemaccuratelyasasimplepercussionpiece,eitherindividuallyorwith agroup. GradeLevel -Thisactivityisdesignedforstudentsingrades4-8,butmaybeusedbyyoungeror olderstudentswhoareattheappropriatelevelofmusicalawareness. StudentPrerequisites -Thestudentsshouldbeabletoaccuratelyandeasilyreadandperformthe rhythmsintheexercisesused. TeacherExpertise -Theteachershouldbeabletoreadmusicwellandmustbeabletoactasthe group"conductor"duringthisactivity. TimeRequirements -Unlessyouhavemanyrhythm/accentexamplesprepared,thisactivitytakes lessthantwentyminutes.Oncetheconceptsareintroduced,itcanalsobeusedasaveryshortless thanveminutewarm-uptoothermusicactivitiesorasaquickbreakfromdeskwork. MusicStandardsAddressed -NationalStandardsforMusicEducation 64 standard5readingand notatingmusic. Adaptations -Tointroducetheconceptofaccentstoveryyoungornon-readingstudents,simply alterthelessonplantohavethestudentsechoshort,simplerhythmswithaccentsthatareperformed forthem.This"listeningandperforming"activitymayalsobeincludedalongwiththeactivityas described. Extensions -Followingtheactivity,musicallyexperiencedstudentsmaybeaskedtowriteoutshort exercisessimilartotheonestheyhavealreadydone.Sharethembycopyingthemorhavingthe studentswritethemsothattheentireclasscanseethemonaboard,forexample.Lettheclass trythestudent-writtenexercises.Orletthemtradepaperswitheachotherandperformeachother's challengesassolos. Evaluation -Assessstudentsonabilitytoreadandperformrhythmsandaccentsaccuratelyand consistently,eitherwiththegrouporindividuallyina"test"performance.Ifstudentscanperformat thedesiredlevelofcomplexity,theyarereadytopracticeperformingaccentsinthepropermanner onrealinstruments.Iftheycannot,havethemcontinuetodothisactivityregularlyoveraperiodof weeksormonths,startingwitheasierrhythmsandgraduallyintroducingmorecomplexity,alternating withlessonsonplayingaccentscorrectly. MaterialsandPreparation 1.Prepareyourboardorahandoutbyreproducingtherhythmsandaccentsbelowand/ormakingup yourown,basedonyourstudents'ageandmusicaltraining.YoucancopythisPDFle 65 ,oruse thegurebelowFigure1.7:AccentActivitySuggestedRhythmstomakeahandout.Ifyouwantan activitythatwilllastlonger,makeupmorelinesatthecorrectdicultylevelforyourstudents. 2.LevelIisforstudentswhoareyoungerandhavelittleornomusicaltraining.LevelIIisforstudents whohavelearnedtoreadmusic.LevelIIIisevenmorechallenging. 3.Decidehowtherhythmswillbeperformed.Studentscanplayondrumsorotherpercussioninstruments,ifavailable,orplayonasinglepitch 66 onanyinstrument.Youmayalsousebodypercussionor othersimplepercussiontechniquesseePercussionFastandCheap 67 ;forexampleclappingonregular notesandstomping,slappingthighs,orjustclappinglouderonaccentednotes;orslappingthetable orathighwithonehandforregularnotesandbothhandsforaccentednotes. 4.Gatherormakeanyinstrumentsorequipmentthestudentswillneed. Procedure 64 http://menc.org/resources/view/national-standards-for-music-education 65 http://cnx.org/content/m13462/latest/accentactiv.pdf 66 "Pitch:Sharp,Flat,andNaturalNotes" 67 "PercussionFastandCheap"

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23 1.Explainthataccentednotesarelouderthanthenotesaroundthem.Showthemanaccentonthe boardorhandout.Noteswithanaccentmarkshouldbelouder.Explainhowyouwantregularand accentednotestobeperformedinthisactivity.Seenumber3of"Preparation". 2.Beforestartingeachrhythm,youmustestablishasteadybeat,inordertogeteveryonetostartat thesametimeandthesametempoSection1.5.Clapfourtimesbeforethestudentsbegin,orcount steadilyandcrisply,"One,two,three,go",oruseanymethodof"countingo"thatyourstudentsare alreadyaccustomedto. 3.Startwithaslowbeat.Doonerhythmatatime,alltogetherasagroup.Formoreofachallenge forolderstudents,speedupthetempo,oraskthemtoperformrhythmsalone,eitheraftertheyhave heardthem,orsight-reading.

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24 CHAPTER1.TIMEELEMENTS AccentActivitySuggestedRhythms Figure1.7

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25 SolutionstoExercisesinChapter1 SolutiontoExercise1.1p.14 1.alittlefast 2.muchlessmotion=muchslower 3.morelively=faster 4.veryslow 5.alittlemoremotion=alittlefaster

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26 CHAPTER1.TIMEELEMENTS

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Chapter2 PitchElements 2.1Timbre 2.1.1Timbre:TheColorofMusic 1 Oneofthebasicelementsofmusiciscalled color ,or timbre pronounced"TAM-ber".Timbredescribes alloftheaspectsofamusicalsoundthatdonothaveanythingtodowiththesound'spitch 2 ,loudness Section1.7,orlength 3 .Inotherwords,ifaute 4 playsanote,andthenanoboe 5 playsthesamenote, forthesamelengthoftime,atthesameloudness,youcanstilleasilydistinguishbetweenthetwosounds, becauseautesoundsdierentfromanoboe.Thisdierenceisinthetimbreofthesounds. Timbreiscausedbythefactthateachnotefromamusicalinstrumentisacomplexwavecontainingmore thanonefrequency.Forinstrumentsthatproducenoteswithaclearandspecicpitch 6 ,thefrequencies involvedarepartofaharmonicseries 7 .Forotherinstrumentssuchasdrums,thesoundwavemayhave anevengreatervarietyoffrequencies.Weheareachmixtureoffrequenciesnotasseparatesounds,butas thecolorofthesound.Smalldierencesinthebalanceofthefrequencies-howmanyyoucanhear,their relationshiptothefundamentalpitch,andhowloudtheyarecomparedtoeachother-createthemany dierentmusicalcolors. Theharmonicsatthebeginningofeachnote-the attack -areespeciallyimportantfortimbre,soitis actuallyeasiertoidentifyinstrumentsthatareplayingshortnoteswithstrongarticulations 8 thanitisto identifyinstrumentsplayinglong,smoothnotes. Thehumanearandbrainarecapableofhearingandappreciatingverysmallvariationsintimbre.A listenercanhearnotonlythedierencebetweenanoboeandaute,butalsothedierencebetweentwo dierentoboes.Thegeneralsoundthatonewouldexpectofatypeofinstrument-atrombone 9 forexample -isusuallycalledits timbre or color .Variationsintimbrebetweenspecicinstruments-twodierent trombones,forexample,ortwodierenttromboneplayers,orthesametromboneplayerusingdierenttypes ofsoundindierentpieces-maybecalleddierencesintimbreorcolor,ormaybecalleddierencesin tone orin tonequality .Tonequalitymayreferspecicallyto"quality",aswhenayoungtrombonist isencouragedtohavea"fuller"or"morefocussed"tonequality,oritcanreferneutrallytodierencesin sound,aswhenanorchestraltrombonistisaskedtoplaywitha"brassy"tonequalityinonepassageanda "mellow"tonequalityinanother. 1 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat. 2 "Pitch:Sharp,Flat,andNaturalNotes" 3 "Duration:NoteLengthsinWrittenMusic" 4 "Flutes" 5 "TheOboeanditsRelatives" 6 "Pitch:Sharp,Flat,andNaturalNotes" 7 "HarmonicSeriesI:TimbreandOctaves" 8 "Articulation" 9 "Trombones" 27

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28 CHAPTER2.PITCHELEMENTS Manywordsareusedtodescribetimbre.Somearesomewhatinterchangeable,andsomemayhave slightlydierentmeaningsfordierentmusicians,sonoattemptwillbemadetoprovidedenitions.Here areafewwordscommonlyusedtodescribeeithertimbreortonequality. Reedy Brassy Clear Focussedorunfocussed Breathypronounced"BRETH-ee" Rounded Piercing Strident Harsh Warm Mellow Resonant DarkorBright HeavyorLight Flat Havingmuch,little,ornovibratoacontrolledwaveringinthesound;ornarroworwide,orslowor fast,vibrato Formoreinformationonwhatcausestimbre,pleaseseeHarmonicSeriesI 10 ,StandingWavesandMusical Instruments 11 ,andStandingWavesandWindInstruments 12 .Foractivitiesthatintroducechildrentothe conceptoftimbre,pleaseseeTimbreActivitiesSection2.1.2 2.1.2TimbreActivities 13 Timbre ,oftencalledcolor,isoneofthebasicelementsofmusic.PleaseseeTimbre:TheColorofMusic Section2.1.1foranintroductiontothesubject.YouwillndheresuggestionsforaClassDiscussion andDemonstrationofColorSection2.1.2.1:ClassDiscussionandDemonstrationofColor,threesimple ColorActivitiesSection2.1.2.2:ColorActivities,suggestionsforAdaptingorExtendingtheActivities Section2.1.2.3:AdaptationsandExtensions,andOtherSuggestionsforExploringColorSection2.1.2.4: OtherSuggestionsforExploringColor. GoalsandStandards Goals -Thestudentwilllearntorecognizetimbreasabasicelementofmusic,developauralrecognition ofinstruments,andlearnappropriateterminologyfordiscussingandevaluatingthisaspectofmusical performances. GradeLevel -PreK-12. StudentPrerequisites -Nopriorstudentknowledgenecessary. TeacherExpertise -Teacherexpertiseinmusicisnotnecessarytopresentthisactivity.Theteacher shouldbefamiliarandcomfortablewiththetermsandconceptsregardingtimbre.SeeTimbre:The ColorofMusicSection2.1.1. MusicStandardsAddressed --NationalStandardsforMusicEducation 14 standards6listening to,analyzing,anddescribingmusic,and8understandingrelationshipsbetweenmusic,theotherarts, anddisciplinesoutsidethearts.Ifinstrumentsfromotherculturesareincludedintheexamples,or ifadiscussionoftheuseoftimbretohelpidentifytheeraorcultureofapieceofmusicisincluded, 10 "HarmonicSeriesI:TimbreandOctaves" 11 "StandingWavesandMusicalInstruments" 12 "StandingWavesandWindInstruments" 13 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat. 14 http://menc.org/resources/view/national-standards-for-music-education

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29 musicstandard9understandingmusicinrelationtohistoryandcultureisalsoaddressed.Ifstudents evaluatespecicmusicalperformancesusingreferencestotimbre,musicstandard7evaluatingmusic andmusicperformancesisalsoaddressed. OtherSubjectsAddressed -TheactivityalsoaddressesNationalStandardsforArtEducationin theVisualArts 15 standard6makingconnectionsbetweenvisualartsandotherdisciplines. Follow-up -Helpcommitthislessontolong-termmemory,bycontinuingtoask,throughtherestof theschoolyear,questionsabouttimbreandinstrumentrecognitioninanymusicalexamplespresented totheclass. 2.1.2.1ClassDiscussionandDemonstrationofColor ObjectivesandAssessment TimeRequirements -Excludingthepre-test,thisactivitycanbedoneinoneapproximately45minuteclassperiod;oryoumayspreadthelesson,includingpre-andpost-tests,intofourorve fteen-minuteincrementsoverthecourseofseveraldays. Objectives -Whenpresentedwitharecording,thestudentwilllearntorecognizeandnamethe instrumentsheard. Evaluation -Ifformalassessmentiswanted,haveapost-lessonauraltest.Presentthestudentswith recordingsorexcerptstheyhavenotyetheard,oftheinstrumentsyouhavebeenstudying.Forthetest, theinstrumenttobeidentiedshouldbeeitherextremelyprominent,ortheonlytypeofinstrument beingplayed.Eithernumbertheexcerptsasyouplaythemandhavethestudentswritedownthe instrumentheardforeachnumber,orcallonspecicstudentstonametheinstrumentaloud. MaterialsandPreparation Youwillneedanaudioplayerintheclassroom. Youmaywanttogivethestudentsapretesttodeterminewhatinstrumentsyouwillfocuson.Ifmost studentsareunabletorecognize,bysound,commonorchestralinstruments 16 ,youwillprobablywant tobeginwiththese,andperhapswithsomeinstrumentsthatwillbefamiliarfrompopularmusic. Ifyourclassisalreadygoodatrecognizingmorefamiliarinstruments,concentrateonintroducing somelesser-knownorchestralinstruments,orperhapssomewell-knownhistoricalorNon-Western 17 instruments. YouwillneedtapesorCDswith3-8examplesofdierentinstrumentsplayingeitheralone,orasavery prominentsolo,oringroupsoflikeinstrumentssomesuggestions:anunaccompaniedviolinor'cello sonata,orastringquartet;classicalorelectricguitar;banjo;piano;harpsichord;percussionensembleor drumsolo;bagpipes;brassquintet;trumpetoroboeconcerto;jazzsaxophonesolo;recorderensemble. Prepareatapewithshortexcerpts-2minutesofeachinstrument,orbeabletondyourchosen excerptsquicklyontheCDs.Unlessyouareverycondentofthestudents'abilitiestodistinguish dierentinstruments,trytopickverydierentsounds. Ifyoulike,prepareasimpleworksheettheycanusetomatcheachexcerptwiththenameand/or pictureoftheinstrument.Ifyourgroupissmall,abookwithpicturesofinstrumentsthattheycan pointtowillwork.Orwritethenamesoftheinstrumentsontheboard,showpicturesfromabook, ordiscusstheinstrumentsenoughthatthechildrenhaveagoodideawhattheinstrumentchoicesare. Haveotherexcerptsasdemonstrationsifyouthinkthatmightbeneeded. Procedure 15 http://cnx.org/content/m14259/latest/http://artsedge.kennedy-center.org/teach/standards.cfm 16 "OrchestralInstruments" 17 "WhatKindofMusicisThat?"

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30 CHAPTER2.PITCHELEMENTS 1.Beginwithaclassdiscussion.Askthestudentsiftheypreferblack-and-whiteorcolorpictures? Pictureswithjustonecolororwithmanycolors?Tellthemthatoneofthethingsthatmakesmusic moreinteresting,excitingandpleasantisalsosometimescalled"color".Explainthatthecolorofthe soundiswhatmakesoneinstrumentsounddierentfromanother.Youcanintroducetheword timbre pronounced"TAM-ber"toyourstudentsifyoulike,butmusiciansalsousetheword"color",soitis netosimplytalkaboutthe"color"ofthesound. 2.Handoutyourpreparedworksheet,showpicturesofinstruments,orwritedowntheirnamesonthe boardanddiscussthem. 3.Playtheexcerpts.Seeifthestudentscanidentifytheinstrumentsbylisteningtotheircolor. 4.Iftheycan't,identifytheinstrumentsforthem,thenletthemtryagainwithdierentexcerptsfrom thesamepieces,ordierentpiecesonthesameinstrumentorgroupofinstruments. 2.1.2.2ColorActivities ObjectivesandAssessment TimeRequirements -Excludingpresentations,allthreeactivitiescanbedoneinasingleapproximately45-minuteclassperiod;orspreadthemoutoverthecourseofseveraldays,bydoingthree separatesessionsof15-20minutes.Theextratimerequiredtopresentartworktotheteacherortothe classwilldependonthenumberofstudentsandtimeallowedforeachpresentation. Objectives -Thestudentwilllearntorecognizetimbrecolorasabasicelementofmusic,andwill learntheproperterminologyfordiscussingthiselement.Thestudentwillalsouseimaginationand creativitytondlinksbetweenmusicandthevisualarts. Evaluation -Assessstudentsontheirpresentations/explanationsoftheirartwork. MaterialsandPreparation Youwillneedanaudioplayerintheclassroom. YouwillneedCDsortapesofavarietyofinstrumentalmusic.Fortheseactivities,don'tforgetthe possibilityofmusicfromotherculturessuchasnativeAmericanute,SouthAmericanpanpipegroups, steeldrums,Indiansitar,etc.Theveryunfamiliarityofthesoundsmayencouragemorespeculation andcreativity. Eachstudentwillneeddrawingpaperanddrawingimplementscrayons,markers,coloredpencilsin avarietyofcolors. IfyouhavenotalreadypresentedtheclassdiscussionoftimbreSection2.1.2.1:ClassDiscussionand DemonstrationofColor,introducethetermtothestudentsbeforedoingtheseactivities. Activities 1.Havethestudentslistentoexcerptsofindividualinstruments.Askthemtoimaginethattheycan seethesounds;andaskthemwhatcoloreachsoundwouldbeiftheycouldseeit.Trytoencourage namingspecichues.Doesatrumpetsoundlikere-enginered,day-gloorange,lemonyellow?Is abassoonseagreenorlilac?Theseareexercisesfortheimagination.Therearenorightanswers; dierentsoundsaectpeopledierently,andallanswersshouldberespected. 2.Havethestudentslistentoexcerptsofinstrumentalmusic.Encouragethemtocomeupwithadjectives thatdescribethecoloroftheinstruments.Somewordsthatmusiciansoftenusetodescribecolor/timbre are:bright,dark,full,thin,warm,rich,reedy,rounded,edgy,breathypronouncedBRETH-ee, scratchy,heavy,light,transparent,andintense.Ifyourstudentshavetroublecomingupwithadjectives, suggestsomeofthese,butencouragethemtocomeupwiththeirown,too.Ifstudentsindependently comeupwithatimbrewordthatmusiciansoftenuse,pointthisoutandcongratulatethemondoing so;butpointoutthattheuseoftimbrewordsisfairlyinformal,andcomingupwiththeirownisne, too,particularlyiftheyaregooddescriptionsofthesound.

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31 3.Havethestudentslistentolongerexcerptsofinstrumentalmusic.Whilelistening,theyshouldmakea drawingofanythingthatthemusicmakesthemthinkof.Thedrawingcanbeabstract-circlesofyellow connectedbyredsquiggles-orrepresentational-agardeninthesun.Thestudentsshouldthengeta chancetopresenttheirpictureandexplainwhythemusicmadethemthinkofthosecolors,shapes,or objects.Encourageexplanationsthatlinkspeciccolors,shapesorobjectstospecictimbresinthe music. 2.1.2.3AdaptationsandExtensions Theclassdiscussionanddemonstrationmaybe adaptedforstudentswithvisualimpairment by substitutingthetouch,smell,ortastesensationsforcolor.Forexample,doesaspecictimbreremindthe studentofasmoothorroughsurface,ofasourorsweetavor,orofaoweryormuskyscent?Forstudents whocannotseecoloratall,youmayalsoincludeadiscussionofthesensationsthatthestudents"substitute" intheirimaginationswhentheyhearacolorword.Forexample,dotheyassociatetheword"red"witha particularsound,texture,oremotionalfeeling?Ifpossible,introducetheinstrumentsbytouchaswellas bysound. Challengestudentswhohavereachedahigherlevelofmusicalknowledgeanddiscernment tobeabletonamemanyinstruments"byear",includingrare,historical,ornon-Westerninstruments.Ask themtotrytoidentifyanaudiorecordingbyeraorculturebasedonthetimbresinstrumentsheard.Ask themtoevaluatespecicperformancesrecordings,ortheirownsingingorplaying,orthesingingorplaying oftheirclassmatesintermsoftimbre. Challengeolderorgiftedstudents tomakehigh-levelartworkthatreectsotheraspectsofthemusic forexample,emotionalcontent,historicalorculturalcontext,textureSection3.1,formSection3.5,as wellastimbre.Youmaywanttoprovidehigh-qualityartmaterialsforthis,andhavethestudentsprepare adisplayoftheartworkwithaparagraph,writtenbythestudent,explainingthemusicalinspirationfor specicaspectsoftheartwork. 2.1.2.4OtherSuggestionsforExploringColor Watch"Fantasia"or"Fantasia2000"together.Pointoutthatmanyaspectsofthemusicaectthe imagestheartistschose:melody,harmony,rhythm,loudness,tempohowfastthemusicisgoing. Timbrealsostronglyaectssomeofthechoices.Forexample,intheMickeyMouse/Sorcerer'sApprenticesequenceinbothmovies,thereedysoundofthewoodwindsisassociatedwiththeenchanted broomstick,whilethemoreliquidsoundofthestringsectionisassociatedwithwater,andthecrashing soundofcymbalsturnsintothunderandcrashingwaves.Whatotherexamplescanthestudentsspot ofaparticularsoundcolorbeingassociatedwithanimageorcharacter? Toacquaintthestudentswiththecolorsofspecicinstruments,takeeldtripstoconcertswherethe studentswillbeabletoseewhichinstrumentismakingwhichsounds.Forstudentsthatareoldenough ormusicallyexperiencedenoughtobegintolearnthecolorsofalloftheinstrumentsoftheorchestra, Britten's YoungPerson'sGuidetotheOrchestra isagreatplacetostart.Manyorchestraswillfeature thispieceata"youngperson'sconcert",andsomeoftheseconcertsincludean"instrumentpetting zoo",achanceforthestudentstogetupclosetotheinstruments.Foryoungerchildren,aperformance orrecordingof"PeterandtheWolf",whichfeaturesfewerinstruments,maybemoreappropriate. Olderstudentswhocanrecognizethetimbreofmostinstrumentsmayenjoyplaying"namethat instrument"withapieceofmusicthatfeaturesmanydierentinstrumentsinquicksuccession.Some goodchoicesforthisgameareCopland's Rodeo ,thebeginningofStravinsky's LeSacreduPrintemps "TheRiteofSpring",Beethoven's SymphonyNo.6 ,andHolst's ThePlanets .

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32 CHAPTER2.PITCHELEMENTS 2.2Melody 2.2.1Melody 18 2.2.1.1Introduction Melodyisoneofthemostbasicelementsofmusic.Anoteisasoundwithaparticularpitch 19 andduration 20 Stringaseriesofnotestogether,oneaftertheother,andyouhavea melody .Butthemelodyofapieceof musicisn'tjustanystringofnotes.It'sthenotesthatcatchyourearasyoulisten;thelinethatsoundsmost importantisthemelody.Therearesomecommontermsusedindiscussionsofmelodythatyoumayndit usefultoknow.Firstofall,the melodicline ofapieceofmusicisthestringofnotesthatmakeupthe melody.Extranotes,suchastrillsandslides,thatarenotpartofthemainmelodiclinebutareaddedto themelodyeitherbythecomposerortheperformertomakethemelodymorecomplexandinterestingare called ornaments or embellishments .Belowaresomemoreconceptsthatareassociatedwithmelody. 2.2.1.2TheShapeorContourofaMelody Amelodythatstaysonthesamepitch 21 getsboringprettyquickly.Asthemelodyprogresses,thepitches maygoupordownslowlyorquickly.Onecanpicturealinethatgoesupsteeplywhenthemelodysuddenly jumpstoamuchhighernote,orthatgoesdownslowlywhenthemelodygentlyfalls.Suchalinegivesthe contour or shape ofthemelodicline.Youcanoftengetagoodideaoftheshapeofthislinebylookingat themelodyasitiswrittenonthesta,butyoucanalsohearitasyoulistentothemusic. Figure2.1: Archshapesinwhichthemelodyrisesandthenfallsareeasytondinmanymelodies. Youcanalsodescribetheshapeofamelodyverbally.Forexample,youcanspeakofa"risingmelody" orofan"arch-shaped"phraseSection2.2.1.4:MelodicPhrases.PleaseseeTheShapeofaMelody Section2.2.3forchildren'sactivitiescoveringmelodiccontour. 2.2.1.3MelodicMotion Anothersetofusefultermsdescribehowquicklyamelodygoesupanddown.Amelodythatrisesandfalls slowly,withonlysmallpitchchangesbetweenonenoteandthenext,is conjunct .Onemayalsospeakof suchamelodyintermsof step-wise or scalar motion,sincemostoftheintervals 22 inthemelodyarehalf orwholesteps 23 orarepartofascale 24 Amelodythatrisesandfallsquickly,withlargeintervals 25 betweenonenoteandthenext,isa disjunct melody.Onemayalsospeakof"leaps"inthemelody.Manymelodiesareamixtureofconjunctanddisjunct motion. 18 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat. 19 "Pitch:Sharp,Flat,andNaturalNotes" 20 "Duration:NoteLengthsinWrittenMusic" 21 "Pitch:Sharp,Flat,andNaturalNotes" 22 "Interval" 23 "HalfStepsandWholeSteps" 24 "MajorKeysandScales" 25 "Interval"

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33 Figure2.2: Amelodymayshowconjuctmotion,withsmallchangesinpitchfromonenotetothe next,ordisjunctmotion,withlargeleaps.Manymelodiesareaninteresting,fairlybalancedmixtureof conjunctanddisjunctmotion. 2.2.1.4MelodicPhrases Melodiesareoftendescribedasbeingmadeupofphrases.Amusical phrase isactuallyalotlikea grammaticalphrase.Aphraseinasentenceforexample,"intothedeep,darkforest"or"underthatheavy book"isagroupofwordsthatmakesensetogetherandexpressadeniteidea,butthephraseisnota completesentencebyitself.Amelodicphraseisagroupofnotesthatmakesensetogetherandexpressa denitemelodic"idea",butittakesmorethanonephrasetomakeacompletemelody. Howdoyouspotaphraseinamelody?Justasyouoftenpausebetweenthedierentsectionsina sentenceforexample,whenyousay,"whereveryougo,thereyouare",themelodyusuallypausesslightly attheendofeachphrase.Invocalmusic,themusicalphrasestendtofollowthephrasesandsentencesof thetext.Forexample,listen 26 tothephrasesinthemelodyof"TheRiddleSong"andseehowtheylineup withthefoursentencesinthesong. 26 http://cnx.org/content/m11647/latest/phrases1.mid

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34 CHAPTER2.PITCHELEMENTS TheRiddleSong Figure2.3: Thismelodyhasfourphrases,oneforeachsentenceofthetext. Butevenwithouttext,thephrasesinamelodycanbeveryclear.Evenwithoutwords,thenotesare stillgroupedintomelodic"ideas".Listen 27 totherststrainofScottJoplin's 28 "TheEasyWinners"tosee ifyoucanhearfourphrasesinthemelody. Onewaythatacomposerkeepsapieceofmusicinterestingisbyvaryinghowstronglytheendofeach phrasesoundslike"theend".Usually,full-stopendscomeonlyattheendofthemainsectionsofthemusic. SeeformSection3.5andcadence 29 formoreonthis.Byvaryingaspectsofthemelody,therhythm Section1.1,andtheharmonySection2.3.1,thecomposergivestheendsoftheotherphrasesstrongeror weaker"ending"feelings.Often,phrasescomeindenitepairs,withtherstphrasefeelingveryunnished untilitiscompletedbythesecondphrase,asifthesecondphrasewereansweringaquestionaskedbythe rstphrase.Whenphrasescomeinpairslikethis,therstphraseiscalledthe antecedent phrase,andthe secondiscalledthe consequent phrase.Listentoantecedent 30 andconsequent 31 phrasesinthetune"Auld LangSyne". 27 http://cnx.org/content/m11647/latest/phrases2.MID 28 "ScottJoplin" 29 "CadenceinMusic" 30 http://cnx.org/content/m11647/latest/antecedent.MID 31 http://cnx.org/content/m11647/latest/consequent.MID

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35 AntecedentandConsequentPhrases Figure2.4: Therhythmofthersttwophrasesof"AuldLangSyne"isthesame,butboththemelody andtheharmonyleadtherstphrasetofeelunnisheduntilitisansweredbythesecondphrase.Note thatboththemelodyandharmonyofthesecondphraseendonthetonic 32 ,the"home"noteandchord ofthekey. Ofcourse,melodiesdon'talwaysdivideintoclear,separatedphrases.Oftenthephrasesinamelody willrunintoeachother,cuteachothershort,oroverlap.Thisisoneofthethingsthatkeepsamelody interesting. 2.2.1.5Motif AnothertermthatusuallyreferstoapieceofmelodyalthoughitcanalsorefertoarhythmSection1.1 orachordprogressionChords,p.53is"motif".A motif isashortmusicalidea-shorterthanaphrasethatoccursofteninapieceofmusic.Ashortmelodicideamayalsobecalleda motiv ,a motive ,a cell ,or a gure .Thesesmallpiecesofmelodywillappearagainandagaininapieceofmusic,sometimesexactly thesameandsometimeschanged.Whenamotifreturns,itcanbeslowerorfaster,orinadierentkey.It mayreturn"upsidedown"withthenotesgoingupinsteadofdown,forexample,orwiththepitchesor rhythmsaltered. Figure2.5: The"fatemotif" 33 fromtherstmovementofBeethoven'sSymphonyNo.5.Thisisa goodexampleofashortmelodicideaa cell motive ,or gure thatisusedinmanydierentways throughoutthemovement. 32 "MajorKeysandScales" 33 http://cnx.org/content/m11647/latest/motif1.mid

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36 CHAPTER2.PITCHELEMENTS Mostguresandmotifsareshorterthanphrases,butsomeofthe leitmotifs ofWagner'soperasarelong enoughtobeconsideredphrases.A leitmotif whetheritisaveryshortcelloralongphraseisassociated withaparticularcharacter,place,thing,orideaintheoperaandmaybeheardwheneverthatcharacteris onstageorthatideaisanimportantpartoftheplot.Aswithothermotifs,leitmotifsmaybechangedwhen theyreturn.Forexample,thesamemelodymaysoundquitedierentdependingonwhetherthecharacter isinlove,beingheroic,ordying. Figure2.6: AmelodicphrasebasedontheSiegfriedleitmotif 34 ,fromWagner'sopera TheValkyrie 2.2.1.6MelodiesinCounterpoint CounterpointSection3.3hasmorethanonemelodyatthesametime.Thistendstochangetherulesfor usinganddevelopingmelodies,sothetermsusedtotalkaboutcontrapuntalmelodiesaredierent,too.For example,themelodicideathatismostimportantinafugueSection3.3.2:SomeUsefulTermsiscalled its subject .Likeamotif,asubjecthasoftenchangedwhenitreappears,soundinghigherorlower,for example,orfasterorslower.Formoreonthesubjectpunintended,pleaseseeCounterpointSection3.3. 2.2.1.7Themes Alongersectionofmelodythatkeepsreappearinginthemusic-forexample,ina"themeandvariations" -isoftencalleda theme .Themesgenerallyareatleastonephraselongandoftenhaveseveralphrases. Manylongerworksofmusic,suchassymphonymovements,havemorethanonemelodictheme. 34 http://cnx.org/content/m11647/latest/motif2.mid

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37 ThemefromBeethoven'sSymphonyNo.9 Figure2.7: Thetune 35 ofthisthemewillbeveryfamiliartomostpeople,butyoumaywanttolisten totheentirelastmovementofthesymphonytohearthedierentwaysthatBeethovenusesthemelody againandagain. Themusicalscoresformoviesandtelevisioncanalsocontainmelodic themes ,whichcanbedeveloped astheymightbeinasymphonyormaybeusedverymuchlikeoperaticleitmotifsp.35.Forexample,in themusicJohnWilliamscomposedforthe StarWars movies,therearemelodicthemesthatareassociated withthemaincharacters.Thesethemesareoftencompletemelodieswithmanyphrases,butasinglephrase canbetakenfromthemelodyandusedasamotif.AsinglephraseofBenKenobi'sTheme 36 ,forexample, canremindyouofallthegoodthingshestandsfor,evenifheisnotonthemoviescreenatthetime. 2.2.1.8SuggestionsforPresentingtheseConceptstoChildren Melodyisaparticularlyeasyconcepttoconveytochildren,sinceattentiontoapieceofmusicisnaturally drawntothemelody.Ifyouwouldliketointroducesomeoftheseconceptsandtermstochildren,pleasesee AMelodyActivitySection2.2.2,TheShapeofaMelodySection2.2.3,MelodicPhrasesSection2.2.4, andThemeandMotifinMusicSection2.2.5. 2.2.2AMelodyActivity 37 GoalsandStandards GradeLevel -preK-5 StudentPrerequisites -none TeacherExpertise -Teacherexpertiseinmusicisnotnecessarytopresentthisactivity.Theteacher shouldbeabletosetanexamplebyhummingorsingingalongwiththeexamples. TimeRequirements -5-20minutes,dependingonthenumberofmusicalexamples.Youmaywantto dothisactivityasashort"listeningwarm-up"foramoreinvolvedmelodyactivity,suchasTheShape 35 http://cnx.org/content/m11647/latest/Bninth.mid 36 http://cnx.org/content/m11647/latest/motif3.mid 37 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat.

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38 CHAPTER2.PITCHELEMENTS ofaMelodySection2.2.3,MelodicPhrasesSection2.2.4,ThemeandMotifinMusicSection2.2.5, orAMusicalTexturesActivitySection3.2. Goals -Givenanauralexampleofmusic,thestudentwillidentifythemelody. Objectives -Givenareasonablycomplexrecordingorliveperformanceofapieceofmusic,thestudent willidentifythemelodicline.Thestudentwillsingorhumthemelodyalongwiththerecordingor performance,and,aftersucientrepetitions,humorsingitwithouttheaccompaniment. MusicStandardsAddressed -NationalStandardsforMusicEducation 38 standards6listeningto, analyzing,anddescribingmusic,and1singing,aloneandwithothers,avariedrepertoireofmusic.If musicalexamplesfromotherculturesandtimeperiodsareused,thisactivitycanalsoaddressstandard 9understandingmusicinrelationtohistoryandculture. Evaluation -Evaluatestudentsondiscussionparticipation,aswellasaccuracyinidentifyingand singingmelodies.Thisisaverybasicmusicalskill.Ifstudentsarehavingtroublewithit,repeat thisactivityperiodicallyuntiltheycandoit,beforemovingontomorecomplexmelodyorharmony activities.However,studentscandorhythmactivitiesbeforemasteringthisskill. Adaptations -It'snormalforveryyoungchildrentohavetroublesingingpitchestheyhear;thisis alearnedskill.Itcanbeencouragedbyturning"canyousingthisnote?"intofun,age-appropriate games.Oncethechildcanaccuratelyreproducepitchesinagivenrange,searchformelodieswithin thatrange.Forstudentswhohavetroublehearingwhichlineisthemelody,beginbyhavingthemsing alongwithunaccompaniedmelodiesormelodieswithjustrhythmicaccompaniment.Addharmony partslatertoletthemhearhowthemelodyinteractswiththeotherparts. Extensions -Challengemusicallyadvanced,gifted,orolderstudentsbypresentingthemwithmusic fromanothertimeperiodorculture,orwithcomplexinstrumentalmusic.Oryoumayaskthemto ndapartthatisNOTthemelodyandsingalongwiththat. MaterialsandPreparation Youcanplaytheexamplesyourself,orhaveaperformerplaythemfortheclass,orplayrecordings. Choosethemusicandthepresentationmethod.Chooseseveralpiecesfromdierentmusicaltraditions, orwithavarietyofstylesandmelodies.Anymusicwithaclear,singablemelodythatwouldappeal tochildrenisgood.Forveryyoungchildrenorchildrenwithlittlemusicalexperience,youmaywant tosticktomusicthatisalreadyfamiliar.Forolderormoremusicallyexperiencedchildren,consider classicalinstrumentalorNon-Western 39 musicaswellasfolk,pop,andchildren'ssongs. Bereadytoplaythepieces,orhaveyourtapeorCDplayerready,andhavethetapesreadyatthe rightspotorknowtheCDtracknumbers. Procedure 1.Askthestudentsiftheyknowwhatamelodyis.Theymayknowbutbeunabletogiveyouadenition. Askthemtohumorsinganexampleofamelody.Iftheydonotknowwhatamelodyis,explainthat itisamusicallineagroupofnotesthatcomesoneaftertheotherthatnormallygetsmostofyour attentionwhenyouhearapieceofmusic,andthatmostpeople,whenaskedtosingorhumapieceof music,willgiveyouthemelody. 2.Startingwithaneasymelody,askthestudentstolistenwhileyouplayashortsectionofyourchosen music. 3.Playthesamesectionasecondtime,thistimeaskingthestudentstohumorsingalongwiththe melody. 4.Askthestudentsifanyofthemcansingorhumthemelodytoyouwithoutthemusicplayingalong. Iftheyareshy,havethemdoitalltogetherand/orwithyou.Iftheydon'tknowityet,havethem listentoitagain. 38 http://menc.org/resources/view/national-standards-for-music-education 39 "WhatKindofMusicisThat?"

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39 5.Youcanbegintointroducesomeothermusicalconceptsbyaskingthemquestionsaboutthemelody. Isithighorlow?Isthehighestnotealothigherthanthelowestnoteorjustalittlehigherthanthe lowestnoteinotherwords,doesithavealargeorsmallrange 40 ?Doesthemelodyjumpquickly fromhightolow disjunctmotion ,ordoesitmovetonotesthatarenotverymuchhigherorlower conjunctmotion ?Arethenoteslongandconnectedtoeachother legato orshortwithspace betweenthem staccato .Evenyounglistenersmaybeabletoanswersomeofthesequestions,which willencouragethemtolistentothemelodyinananalyticalway.Encouragethemtomimicthestyle ofthemusicalperformanceaswellastheactualnotes. 6.Forolderstudents,orstudentswhoarelisteningtoinstrumentalexamples,askthemwhichpartsof themusicarenotmelody.Whatinstrumentsareplayingthenon-melodypartsofthemusic?What instrumentisplayingthemelody?Cantheyhumanyofthenon-melodyparts,orclaptherhythmsof anon-melodypart?Thiswillbemoredicultthanidentifyingthemelody. 7.Repeattheactivitywithexamplesthatgraduallybecomemorechallenging. 8.StudentsforwhomthisiseasyarereadytotryidentifyingTheShapeofaMelodySection2.2.3 ndingMelodicPhrasesSection2.2.4orThemeandMotifinMusicSection2.2.5,oridentifying MusicalTexturesSection3.2. 2.2.3TheShapeofaMelody 41 Melodyisoneofthebasicelementsofmusic,andoneoftheeasiesttohearandunderstand.Melodiescan soar,swoop,plunge,orhoparound,andthisactivityencouragesevenveryyounglistenerstolistencarefully toamelodytohearwhatit'sdoing. GoalsandAssessment Goals -Thestudentwilllearntorecognizebasicinformationaboutamelodypresentedaurally,and discussitusingproperterminology. Objectives -Thestudentwillmakevisualrepresentationsofthelinesofheardmelodies.Thestudent willexplainverballyhisownorothers'visualrepresentationsofmelodicline. GradeLevel -preK-12adaptable StudentPrerequisites -Youngstudentsshouldbeabletodistinguishthemelodywhenlisteningto music.Olderandmoremusicallyexperiencedstudentswillbenetmostiftheappropriatetermsare introducedand/orsomeoftheactivityextensionsareincluded. TeacherExpertise -Teacherexpertiseinmusicisnotnecessarytopresentthisactivity.Theteacher shouldbefamiliarandcomfortablewiththetermsandconceptsregardingmelodySection2.2.1. TimeRequirements -Oneapproximately45-minuteclassperiodforthebasicactivity.Onemore classperiodforeachoftheextensions. MusicStandardsAddressed -Nationalmusicstandard 42 6listeningto,analyzing,anddescribing musicisdirectlyaddressed.Youmayalsoaddressstandard9understandingmusicinrelationto historyandculturebyincludingmusicfromavarietyofculturesorhistoricalperiodsisused,and exploringthecharacteristicsoftypicalmelodiesfromotherculturesorhistoricalperiods.Ifyouare includingadiscussionoflineinthevisualartsorEnglishlanguagearts,seeExtensionsExtensions andCross-DisciplineActivities,p.42,standard8isalsoaddressed. OtherSubjectsAddressed SeeExtensionsExtensionsandCross-DisciplineActivities,p.42for suggestionsinEnglishlanguagearts,dance,andvisualarts. Evaluation Assessstudentsonaccurate,usefulportrayalofmelodicconceptsvisually,asdrawnlines, andonabilitytousethecorrecttermsindescribingheardmelodiesorlookingatvisualrenderings ofthem.Ifyouwish,testthestudentsbygivingthemshortexamplesfrommusictheyhavenotyet heard,andaskthemtodescribeitusingthecorrectterms. 40 "Range" 41 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat. 42 http://menc.org/resources/view/national-standards-for-music-education

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40 CHAPTER2.PITCHELEMENTS Follow-up -Helpthislessongetintolong-termmemoriesbycontinuingtoaskthestudents,throughout therestoftheyear,todescribethemelodiesthattheyarehearing,singing,orperforming,usingthe correctterms. MaterialsandPreparation SeeMelodySection2.2.1foranintroductiontothetermsthatyoumayintroducetoyourstudentswiththisactivity.Withveryyoungormusicallyinexperiencedstudents,youmaywanttoonly discussthecontourorshapeofthemelody.Witholderstudents,youmayalsowanttointroduce anddiscusstermssuchasconjunctanddisjunctmotionSection2.2.1.3:MelodicMotion,melodic phraseSection2.2.1.4:MelodicPhrases,antecedentandconsequentphrasesp.34,motivesor cellsSection2.2.1.5:Motif,and/orcounterpointSection3.3particularlyintermsofthecontourindependenceoftruecounterpointlines.Alloftheseconceptscanberenderedasdrawnlines. YouwillneedsomeCDsortapesofmusicwithclear,obviousmelodies,andsomethingtoplaythemon. Eithervocalorinstrumentalmusicisne.Aselectionoftwoorthreepiecesthathaveverydierent typesofmelodyforexample,onewithlong,soaringmelodies,onewithshort,clearlydenedphrases, andonebasedonveryshortmotifswillgetthebestreactionfromyourstudents.Fairlyshortexcerpts areprobablyallyouwillneed. Eachstudentwillneedpapertodrawonanddrawingimplements.Ifyouwouldlikethestudentsto alsobefreetoexpresstheirinterpretationofthecolorSection2.1.1ofthemelodies,havethemuse crayonsormarkers. Youwillalsoneedtobeabletodrawonaboardorpieceofpaper,fordemonstrationpurposes. Haveyourtapesreadyatthecorrectspotforthemelodiesyouhavechosen,orknowthetracknumbers oftheCDs. Forolderstudentswhoarelearningtoreadmusic,youmaywanttoprovideacopyofthewritten melodyforatleastoneofyourexamples. Forolderstudentswhoarealsostudyingthemusicofotherculturesortimeperiods,includemusical examplesfromthetimeperiodsorculturesbeingstudied. Ifyouaregoingtoincludeadiscussionoflineinthevisualarts,havesomeexamplesreadytoshow anddiscuss.Youmayuseworkdonebythestudentsinartclass,originalworksbylocalartists, orreproductionsoffamousartwork.Avarietyofstyles,periods,andmedia,willbemosthelpful, particularlyifthediscussionwillincludestylisticdierencesintheuseoflineinthevisualarts. Ifyouareincludingadanceactivity,youwillneedanopenspacefordancing.Youmayusethemusic thathasbeendiscussedand"drawn",ornewmusic. Ifyouaregoingtodrawparallelswiththelanguagearts,havesomepoetryorothersuitableselections readyfordiscussion. Procedure 1.Askyourstudentstodemonstratehighnotesandlownotesforyou.Thenaskforavolunteertosing afewwordsofasongoryousingashortphraseforthem.Asktheclasswhetherthenotesinthe examplejustsungaregettinghigherorlower.Explainthatwhenthenotesofamelodyaregetting higher,wesaythatthemelodyisgoingup.Drawalineforthem,fromlefttoright,thatgetshigher asitmovestotheright.Drawanotherlineforthemthatslopesdownasitgoesfromlefttoright,for amelodythatisgoingdown.Yourlinecanbestraight,butcurvedlinesoftenworkbettertoconnect contourstogetherasthemelodychanges. 2.Havethestudentslistentoamelodywithoutdrawing.Askthemiftheycanhearthemelodygoing upordown.Youmaywanttoaskthemto"draw"animaginarylineintheairastheyarelistening. Isitgoingupordownquicklyasteepline?Doesitgoupandthendownandthenupagainmaybe anarchwithanextracurveupattheend?Doesitseemtostopandstartagain,ordoesitseemto beallconnectedtogether?Listentotheanswerstheygiveyou,anddemonstrateforthemhowyou woulddrawthatanswer.

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41 3.Nowaskthemtodrawthe"shape"or"contour"ofsomemelodiesforyou.Letthemuseafreshpiece ofpaperforeachnewpieceofmusic. 4.Theinterpretationsmaylookverydierentfromonestudenttothenext.Whendrawingconclusions attheendofthesession,trytoemphasizethedierencesbetweenthecontoursfordierentmelodies ratherthandierencesfromonestudenttothenext.Havethestudentsdescribethedierentmelodies toyouortotheclassusingtheirdrawingsasvisualaids.Orallowotherstudentstopickoutwhichof astudent'sworksrepresentwhichmelody?Askthemhowtheycantell. 5.Ifyouhaveprovidedawrittenexampleforstudentswhocanreadmusic,handoutthewrittenmusic afterthestudentshavealreadylistenedtothemusicanddrawnitscontour.Havethemdrawa contourshapeoverthewrittennotes.Encouragethemtodrawalinethatissmoothnotaconnectthe-dotswiththenotesbutstillfollowsthegeneralriseandfallofthenotes.Thenhavethestudents comparetheirfreehandcontourshapeswiththeonesthatfollowthewrittenmusic.Cantheyndthe similarities?Iftherearebigdierences,cantheyexplainthem? 6.Ifyouareincludingmusicalexamplesfromothertimeperiodsorcultures,discusstheconclusionsthe studentswoulddrawfromtheseexamplesaboutwhattypesofmelodiesaretypicalofeachstyleof music. TheRiddleSong Figure2.8: Hereisanexampleofasimplemelody.Listen 43 tothefourphrasesof"TheRiddleSong". 43 http://cnx.org/content/m11832/latest/phrases1.mid

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42 CHAPTER2.PITCHELEMENTS MelodicShapeExample Figure2.9: HereisonepossibleinterpretationofthecontoursofthefourphrasesofTheRiddleSong. Youcanextendthisactivity,oruseittodrawparallelsbetweenmusicandotherdisciplines. ExtensionsandCross-DisciplineActivities VisualArts -Discussthesimilaritiesintheuseoflineandcontourinmusicandinthevisualarts. Showthestudentssomeexamplesfromthevisualarts.Discusstheuseoflineandcontourineach oftheexamples.Dotheyriseandfall?Aretheystraightorcurved?Shortandchoppy,orlongand owing?Isthereanythinginanyoftheartworksthatactsasamotif?Doanyofthemhavesimilarities totheanyofthe"musicalphrasepictures"thestudentshaveproduced?Mightanysimilaritiesshow culturalorhistoricalpreferencesthatarereectedinbothmusicandthevisualarts?Thisaddresses NationalStandardsforArtEducationintheVisualArts 44 standards2usingknowledgeofstructures andfunctionsand6makingconnectionsbetweenvisualartsandotherdisciplines. Languagearts -Discusssimilaritiesanddierencesintheuseofphrasingandlineinthelanguage artsandinmusic.Thisisparticularlyeasytodowithpoetry.Readyourselectionsaloud,have studentsreadthemaloud,orhavestudentsmemorizeanddeliverthem"withfeeling".Whatarethe eectsofthemeter,lengthoflines,repetitionofvowelorconsonantsounds,oremotionalemphasis, onthe"sound"or"feel"ofthepoetry?Studentswhoarelisteningcouldalsotry"drawing"theheard phrasesjustastheydidwiththemusic.Encouragethemtodrawrising-and-fallingphrasesthat followtheintensityorpitchofthespeechpatterns.ThisactivityaddressesNationalStandardsfor theEnglishLanguageArts 45 standard3Studentsapplyawiderangeofstrategiestocomprehend, interpret,evaluate,andappreciatetexts. Dance -encouragethestudentstoimproviseorchoreographadancethatincorporatesgestures,movements,shapes,andpathsthatreectthemusicalphrases.Discussthepossibilitiesasaclassrst,asking forsuggestionsfromthestudents.Ifthestudentshavetroublewiththis,startthemoutwithafew suggestions:forexample,choppymotionsforchoppymelodies,highshapesforhighsounds,repeated gesturesreectingmusicalmotifs,etc.Oncethestudentshavearepertoireofpossibilities,provide musicandallowthemtoimproviseorchoreographadance.AddressesNationalDanceStandards 46 standards1identifyinganddemonstratingmovementelementsandskillsinperformingdanceand2 understandingthechoreographicprinciples,processes,andstructures. 2.2.4MelodicPhrases 47 Herearelessonplansfortwolisteningactivities,PhrasesinSongsSection2.2.4.1:PhrasesinSongsand PhrasesinInstrumentalMusicSection2.2.4.2:PhrasesinInstrumentalMusic,andoneanalysis/discussion activity,ParallelsbetweenLanguageandMusicalPhrasingSection2.2.4.3:ParallelsBetweenLanguageand MusicalPhrasing,withsomeSuggestedMusicSection2.2.4.4:SuggestedMusicfortheactivities. GoalsandStandards 44 http://cnx.org/content/m11832/latest/http://artsedge.kennedy-center.org/teach/standards.cfm 45 http://cnx.org/content/m11832/latest/http://www.ncte.org/about/over/standards/110846.htm 46 http://www.pecentral.org/lessonideas/dance/dancestandards.html 47 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat.

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43 GradeLevel -3-12 StudentPrerequisites -Thestudentshouldbeabletosingasongwithothers,andshouldbefamiliar withthelanguage-artsdenitionsofsentence,phrase,andclause. TeacherExpertise -Theteachershouldbefamiliarandcomfortablewiththetermsandconcepts regardingmelodicphrasesSection2.2.1.4:MelodicPhrases,andshouldbeabletoeasilyidentify musicalphrases. Goals -ThestudentwilllearntoidentifymelodicphrasesSection2.2.1.4:MelodicPhrasesinvocal andinstrumentalmusic. MusicStandardsAddressed -Awarenessofmusicalphraseshelpsthestudentsingandplaywith appropriatephrasing,NationalStandardsforMusicEducation 48 standards1and2,andencourages theuseofappropriateterminologyindiscussingmusicstandard6. OtherSubjectsAddressed -TheParallelsbetweenLanguageandMusicalPhrasingSection2.2.4.3: ParallelsBetweenLanguageandMusicalPhrasingdiscussionencouragesunderstandingoftherelationshipbetweenlanguageartsandmusicNationalStandardsforArtsEducationmusicstandard8. ItalsoaddressesseveraloftheNationalStandardsfortheEnglishLanguageArts 49 ,includingreading literaturefrommanygenresstandard2,drawingonunderstandingoftextualfeaturestoappreciate textsstandard3,andapplyingknowledgeoflanguagestructuretodiscusstextsstandard6. Follow-up -Helpcommittheselessonstolong-termmemory,bycontinuingtodiscussphrasingwhen youintroducenewpiecesforthestudentstosingorplay. 2.2.4.1PhrasesinSongs ObjectivesandAssessment TimeRequirements -Withplentyofexamples,thisactivitycantakeoneapproximately45-minute classperiod.Orusefewerexamples,andcombinethisactivitywiththenextoneinthesameclass period. Objectives -Thestudentwilllistentoexamplesofvocalmusicandidentifythephrasesinthemusic. Evaluation -Assessstudentsontheirabilitytoaccuratelyidentifyphrasesina"test"situation.Allow thestudentstolistentoashortmusicalexcerptthattheclasshasnotyetdiscussed.Thenplaythe excerptagain,callingonspecicstudentstoindicatebywordorgesturewhentheyheartheendof aphrase,oraskingstudentstocountthenumberofphrasesintheexampleandwritedowntheir answers,ortowritedownthelastwordofeachphrase.Forthetest,usemusicinwhichthephrasingis veryclear,andnotambiguousatall,orallowforsomereasonabledisagreementifstudentscansupport theirconclusions. MaterialsandPreparation YouwillneedanaudiotapeorCDplayer.Alternativelyyoucanhavethestudentssupplythemusic bysingingsongstogetherthattheyallknoworthattheyhavebeenlearninginclass.Simplesongs like"TheABCSong","HappyBirthdaytoYou",or"TheItsyBitsySpider"workjustneforthis activity.Youcanplanondoingboth,ifyoulike. Gathersomerecordingsofsongsthatyourstudentswillndappealing,ordecidewhatsongsyouwill havethestudentssingtogether.Folkmusic,churchhymns,andtraditionalchildren'ssongsallusually havewell-separated,easy-to-spotphrases.SomepopularmusicandClassicalmusicalsoworkswell, butsomehasmoredrawn-out,complex,ormotiveSection2.2.1.5:Motif-basedmelodiesthatare diculttoseparateintomelodicphrases. Forolderstudents,ifyouwouldalsoliketointroducetheconceptsofantecedentandconsequentp. 34phrases,makecertainthatsomeofyourchoicesofmusichaveclearantecedent/consequent-style phrasing. 48 http://menc.org/resources/view/national-standards-for-music-education 49 http://cnx.org/content/m11879/latest/http://www.ncte.org/about/over/standards/110846.htm

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44 CHAPTER2.PITCHELEMENTS Havetapesreadytoplayattherightspot,orknowtheCDtracknumbersthatyouwillbeusing.Or, ifitwouldbehelpful,havecopiesofthewordstothesongsthestudentswillsing. Procedure 1.Remindyourstudentsthatlanguagecanbebrokendownintoseparatewords,phrases,sentences,and paragraphs.Remindthemofwhattheyhavelearnedabouttheseconceptsinlanguagearts.Tell themthatmusicislikealanguage:peoplecomposemusictosaysomethingtootherpeopleormake themfeelacertainway.Inthelanguageofmusic,notesarelikethelettersofanalphabet,andtheyare groupedtogetherintomusicalideasthatmakesensetoourears,justlikelettersaregroupedtogether intowords,phrases,andsentences.Ifyoulike,youmayexplainherethatveryshortmusical"words" thatappearofteninapieceofmusiccanbecalledmotivesSection2.2.1.5:Motif, motifs ,or cells whichevertermyouprefer.Groupsofwordsthatformawholeideathatmakessensemaybeasimple, completesentence,ormaybeamajorclauseorphraseinamorecomplexsentence;groupsofnotes thatmakeawholemusicalideathatmakessensearecalledphrases.Justasyoupauseattheperiod attheendofthesentenceoratthecommaattheendofalongphraseorclause,amelodyalso oftenpausesslightlywhenitcomestotheendofaphrase.Thephrasesofthemusicarealsogrouped togetherintomorecompleteideasparticularlyantecedentandconsequentp.34phrases,whichmay seemliketwoclausesinalongsentence,orlikeaquestionandanswer,and/orintolongersections aversecanbeasection,forexamplethatarelikeparagraphsorevenchapters.SeeForminMusic Section3.5ifyouwouldlikeyourclassalsotostudythelargerdivisionsthatarepresentinmusic. Tellthemthatinsongs,musicalphrasesoftenbutnotalwayslineupwiththesentencesorphrases inthetext.SharethetwoexamplesinMelodyFigure2.3:TheRiddleSongifyoulike. 2.Havethestudentssingorlistentoasong.Youonlyneedtostudytherstverseandrefrain:even thoughthetextchanges,themusicalphraseswillbethesameforeachverse. 3.Playorsingthesongagain,askingthestudentsthistimetoidentifytherst,second,third,etc. phrases,perhapsbysingingthemseparately,raisingtheirhandswiththecorrectnumberofngersat thestartofaphrase,orjustsaying"two"atthebeginningofthesecondphrase.Youmayhaveto singorplaythesongseveraltimestogivethemachancetodecide. 4.Thisshouldbeagroupactivity,withreasonabledisagreementsallowed.Unlessthephrasesareextremelyclear,somepeoplewillhearshortersectionsofthemelodyasbeingdistinctphrases,while otherswillnaturallygrouptheshortersectionsintolongerphrases. 5.Somequestionstoencouragefurtherexploration:Arethephrasesaboutthesamelengththesame numberofbeats,oraresomemuchlongerorshorter?Isamelodicphraseeverrepeatedexactly? Repeatedwithsomechanges?Dosomephrasesfeelmorenalthanothers,asiftheyhaveastronger ending?Wherearethestrongerendingslocated,andisthereapatterntothem?Dosomefeellike theyareaquestionwaitingforthenextphrasetoanswerthem? 2.2.4.2PhrasesinInstrumentalMusic ObjectivesandAssessment TimeRequirements -CombinedwithPhrasesinSongsSection2.2.4.1:PhrasesinSongs,one approximately45-minuteclassperiod. Objectives -Thestudentwilllistentoexamplesofinstrumentalmusicandidentifythephrasesin themusic. Evaluation -Assessstudentsontheirabilitytoaccuratelyidentifyphrasesina"test"situation.Allow thestudentstolistentoashortmusicalexcerptthattheclasshasnotyetdiscussed.Thenplaythe excerptagain,callingonspecicstudentstoindicatebywordorgesturewhentheyheartheendof aphrase,oraskingstudentstocountthenumberofphrasesintheexampleandwritedowntheir answers.Forthetest,usemusicinwhichthephrasingisveryclear,andnotambiguousatall,orallow forsomereasonabledisagreementifstudentscansupporttheirconclusions.

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45 MaterialsandPreparation Ifyourstudentsdo"PhrasesinSongs"successfully,letthemtrythisactivity. YouwillneedatapeorCDplayerandsomerecordings. Trytochooseinstrumentalmusicthatalsohassingablemelodieswithclear,separatedphrases.Bach andotherBaroquecomposersareusuallynotagoodchoice,norismostmodernclassicalmusicor musicbasedonshortermotifs,ormusicthatistoocomplex. Procedure 1.Theprocedureisessentiallythesameasforthepreviousactivity.Letthestudentshumphrasesto youiftheycan,orsimplysignalwhentheyhearanewone. 2.2.4.3ParallelsBetweenLanguageandMusicalPhrasing ObjectivesandAssessment TimeRequirements -oneapproximately45-minuteclassperiod. Objectives -Thestudentwillstudythetextofasong,identifyinggrammaticalsentences,phrases andclauses.Thestudentwilllistentothesong,identifyingmusicalphrases.Thestudentwillcompare grammaticalandmusicalphrasing,anddrawappropriateconclusions. Evaluation -Analyzeonetexttogether,asaclass.Thenhavethestudentsdoasecondanalysis individually,asaworksheettobecompletedduringtheclassperiodandturnedin. MaterialsandPreparation Todothisactivity,studentsmustalreadybecomfortableidentifyingmusicalphrases,andalsoidentifyingsentences,phrases,andclausesintexts. Chooseasongortwotoanalyzeforgrammaticalandmusicalphrasing.Artsongs,madrigals,songs frommusicals,andsomerap,pop,androcklyricsareallgoodsourcesforthis,aswellasfolksongs, hymns,andchildren'ssongs. Obtaincopiesofthesongtextsforthestudentstolookat.Youmaymakehandouts,forstudentsto completeasaworksheet,orlookataprojectedcopyofthetexttogetheranddiscussasaclass. Procedure 1.Beginbyanalyzingthetextsasthestudentshavebeendoinginlanguagearts.Thismayinclude identifyingcompletesentences,phrases,dependentandindependentclauses,etc.Ifappropriate,you mayalsowanttostudythesonglyricsaspoetrytexts,identifyingmetaphors,etc. 2.Havethestudentsmarksentences,clauses,etc.,ontheirhandoutsinwhateverwayisstandardintheir languageartsclass,orcallonstudentstoidentifythemaloud,whileyoumarktheprojectedcopyof thetext. 3.Havethestudentslistentothesongseveraltimes.Askthemtomarkthemusicalphrasesinadierent wayorinadierentcolorthanthegrammaticalphrasesortosignalwhereyoushouldmarkonthe projectedsheet.Playthesongasmanytimesasnecessarytoallowthestudentstodecidewherethe musicalphrasesend. 4.Havethestudentscomparethegrammaticalandmusicalphrasingasmarked.Dotheylineupcompletely?Ifthereareanyplaceswheretheydon'tlineup,whatseemstobethereasonforthedisconnect? Isitrelatedtotheemotionalcontentofthesong?Tocertainaspectsofthemusicorthetext?Does themusicalphrasingemphasizeanyaspectofthetextmetaphors,questions,arrangementofclauses intosentences,etc.?

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46 CHAPTER2.PITCHELEMENTS 5.Ifyouaregoingtoaskthestudentstoanalyzeasecondsongindividually,leaveplentyoftimeforthis, evenifitmeansnotnishingtheanalysisofyourexample.Doenoughoftherstexample,asagroup, togivethemaclearideaoftheprocedure.Thengivethem20to30minutesdependingonthelength ofthesongtodotheiranalysisofthesecondexample,usingthesamemarkingstyle,andanswering anyquestionsyouwantincluded.Playthesecondsongseveraltimeswhiletheyareanalyzingand writingaboutit. 2.2.4.4SuggestedMusic Musicthathasclearphrasesisverycommon,butthereissomemusicinwhichphrasesareharderto identify.Ingeneral,steerclearofBaroquecounterpointBach,forexample,modernClassicalmusic,the morecomplexstylesofjazz,andlateRomanticcomposerssuchasMahlerandWagner.Folksongs,pop musicsincludingrockandcountry,children'ssongs,hymns,marches,dances,ragtime,operaarias,and symphonicmusicthathasaclearmelodyareallgoodplacestolook.Incaseyou'restillnotsurewhereto start,herearesomesuggestionsthatshouldbeeasytond. Someeasy-to-ndInstrumentalMusicwithClearPhrases ScottJoplin's"TheEntertainer",orotherragtimetunes TheLargomovementofDvorak's SymphonyNo.9 The"MarchoftheToreadors"fromBizet's Carmen The"WaltzoftheFlowers","ChocolateSpanishDance","TeaChineseDance",or"TrepakRussianDance"fromTchaikovsky's TheNutcracker Almostanypopularmarch Mostdixielandorswing-erajazztunes VocalMusicwithClearPhrases Thisissoeasytondthereisnopointinmylistingparticularpiecesforyoutolookfor.Mostfolk andpopularvocalmusichasclear,separate,easy-to-hearphrases,asdomostsongsfrommusicals. 2.2.5ThemeandMotifinMusic 50 Therearelessonplanshereforfouractivitiesthatpromoteauralrecognitionof,andunderstandingofthe usesof,themesandmotifsinmusic.MotifsSection2.2.5.1:MotifsandMelodicThemesandMovies Section2.2.5.2:MelodicThemesandMoviesareappropriateforstudentsofanyagewhocanaccurately recognizebyearaspecic,shortmelody.Studentswhoarenotquitereadyfortheseactivitiesmaybenet fromAMelodyActivitySection2.2.2andTheShapeofaMelodySection2.2.3.OperaMotifsSection2.2.5.3:OperaMotifswillworkbestwitholder,moremusicallyexperiencedstudentswhohavealonger attentionspanforseriousmusic.ComposingandImprovisingUsingMotifsSection2.2.5.4:Composingand ImprovisingusingMotifsisappropriateforstudentswhoarecapableofplayinganinstrumentandwriting commonnotationfairlyaccurately. GoalsandStandards Goals -Thestudentwilllearntorecognizewhenarepeatedmotifisbeingusedinapieceofmusic presentedaurally,andwillbecomefamiliarwithsomeofthespecicusesofmusicalmotifs. MusicStandardsAddressed -Theseactivitiesencouragetheuseofappropriateterminologyin analyzinganddescribingmusicNationalStandardsforMusicEducation 51 ,musicstandard6.If musicfromavarietyofculturesorhistoricalperiodsisused,andthediscussionincludesanexploration oftheuseofmotifsinthemusicofdierentculturesorhistoricalperiods,musicstandard9isalso addressed.Thestudentsmayalsobegivenachancetocomposemusicstandard4orimprovisemusic standard3usingmotifs. 50 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat. 51 http://menc.org/resources/view/national-standards-for-music-education

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47 OtherSubjectsAddressed -TheMelodicThemesandMoviesSection2.2.5.2:MelodicThemes andMoviesandOperaMotifsSection2.2.5.3:OperaMotifsactivitiescaneasilybeadaptedtoalso address EnglishLanguageArts ora foreignlanguage iftheoperaissunginanotherlanguage, byincludingdiscussionoflanguageuse,plot,character,andtheinteractionoftheseelementswiththe music,andbyincludingformalessays. Follow-up -Helpthislessongetintolong-termmemoriesbycontinuingtoaskthestudents,throughout therestoftheyear,toidentifymotifsinmusictheyarehearingorlearning. 2.2.5.1Motifs ObjectivesandAssessment GradeLevel -K-12adaptbyusingage-and-experience-appropriatemusicalexamples StudentPrerequisites -Studentsmustbecapableofrememberingandaurallyrecognizingaspecic melody,evenwhensomeaspectsofithavechanged. TeacherExpertise -Teachertraininginmusicisnotnecessarytopresentthisactivity.Theteacher shouldbefamiliarandcomfortablewiththetermsandconceptsregardingmotifSection2.2.1.5: Motif,andshouldbeabletohearandpointoutthemotifsinthemusicpresented. TimeRequirements -Foroneapproximately45-minuteclassperiod,havereadyabout20minutes ofmusicalexamples. Objectives -Thestudentwillrecognizewhenandhowamotifisused,whenpresentedwithanaural example. Evaluation -Assessstudentlearningbyevaluatingclassparticipation. MaterialsandPreparation YouwillneedanaudiotapeorCDplayerandarecordingofapieceofmusicthatisstronglybasedon ashort,easily-heardmotif.Somesuggestionsfollow,oryoucanuseyourownfavorites. Ifyouhavetheclasstime,youmaywanttodotworecordings,startingwithapiecewithmoreobvious motifsandendingwithapieceinwhichtheuseofmotifsisalittlemoresubtle.Oriftheclassneeds persuadingthatclassicalmusicisapproachable,youmaywanttostartwithanon-classicalpieceand moveontoaclassicalpiece. DenitionsandexplanationsoftheconceptstobepresentedinthisactivitycanbefoundatMelody Section2.2.1.5:Motif. SomeEasy-to-ndMusicBasedonMotives TherstmovementofBeethoven'sSymphonyNo.5hasthemostfamousmotiveinWesternclassical 52 music. In"TheRideoftheValkyrie",fromWagner'sopera DieWalkuere TheValkyrie ,therearetwo closely-relatedmotivestolistenfor;themelodyisbuiltonone,andtheaccompanimentisbuiltonthe other.MostofWagner'soperamusicisbasedonmotifs,buttherecanbesomanydierentmotifs beingusedinonesectionofthemusicthattheycanbediculttospotunlessyouarefamiliarwith theopera.Ifyoucan'tnd"TheRideoftheValkyrie",trylisteningtotheovertureto TheFlying Dutchman DieFliegendeHollander AllofthemovementsofHolst's ThePlanets arehighlymotivic,buteachmovementdevelopsseveral dierentmotives,andsomeareeasiertospotthanothers.Therhythmicmotivein"Mars"isbyfar themostobvious,butthefour-notemotivethatopens"Uranus"isalsoveryeasytohear.Ifyouuse thispiece,youmaywantthefurtherchallengeofseeinghowmanydierentmotivesyoucanhearina movement,aswellashoweachofthemchange.Arethemelodiclinesbasedonmotives? 52 "WhatKindofMusicisThat?"

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48 CHAPTER2.PITCHELEMENTS Theve-note"alienmessage"motifinJohnWilliams'scorefor"CloseEncountersoftheThirdKind" mayalreadybefamiliartosomestudents.Manyothermovieandtelevisionscoresalsoincludeshort motifsseebelowSection2.2.5.2:MelodicThemesandMovies. Notallmotivicmusicisclassicalinstyle;fromearlyragtimetuneslikeJoplin's"MapleLeafRag", throughbigbandtuneslike"StringofPearls"and"IntheMood",tothecooljazzofMilesDavis' KindofBlue ,tothelatestimprovisedsolo,jazzisfullofmotifs. Listenforthetwo-note"lookdown"motivefromtheworksongatthebeginningof LesMiserables toreturnthroughoutthemusical.Thereareothermotivesinthismusical,too,andinmanyother musicals PhantomoftheOpera ,forexample. Manyotherclassicalworksarealsofullofmotivicdevelopment,particularlyworkswritteninthelate nineteenthorearlytwentiethcentury.Trylisteningtoboththe"WaltzoftheSnowakes"and"Coee ArabianDance"fromTchaikovsky's TheNutcracker ,ortoStrauss'tonepoems"TillEulenspiegels LustigeStreiche",forexampleortotheorchestralworksofStravinskyforexample,therstmovement ofthe"SymphonyinEFlat"orDvorakforexample,therstandsecondmovementsofhis"Symphony No.9:FromtheNewWorld".Ifapiecehasmanymotifs,youmaynotbeabletokeeptrackofallof themuntilyouhaveheardthepieceseveraltimesandaremorefamiliarwithit.Startbypickingout onemotifthatyoucanhearandlisteningforit,orbysimplycountingmotifs. Procedure Introducetheconceptofmotifstoyourstudents. Playashortexcerptwithplentyofexamplesofthemotiffromyourrecording.Askthestudentsto humorsing"dadadaDAH"thebasicmotifforyou.Askthemiftheyheardanyvariationsonthe motifperhapsslowerorfaster,withachangeintherhythmorinthepitches,orwithanextranote ortwo,ormaybeplayed"upsidedown"withthemelodygoingupinsteadofdown. Playashortexcerptforthestudentsagainthesameone,oradierentexcerptfromthesamepiece. Cantheysingordescribeanyofthevariationsofthebasicmotifthattheyhear?Cantheyraisehands whentheyhearavariation? Playtheentirerecordingoralongsectionaskingthestudentstoraisetheirhandseachtimethey hearthemotif,ortotrytocounthowmanytimestheyhearitoravariation.Wasonlytheonemotif usedthroughoutthepiece,ordidtheyhearanyothermotifsbeingused?Ifthestudentscanidentify morethanonemotif,dividetheclassintogroups,oneforeachmotif,andhaveeachgroupraisetheir handswhentheyheartheirparticularmotif. Ifyoulike,youcanaskthestudentsiftheyeverhearanythinglikeamotifinthemusicthatthey usuallylistento.Cantheysingorhumthemotifsforyou,andtellyouwhatstyleofmusictheyare foundinandhowtheyareused?Ifyoulike,letthembringexamplesfortheclasstolistento.If necessary,checkthemforsuitabilitybeforeplayingthemfortheclass. 2.2.5.2MelodicThemesandMovies ObjectivesandAssessment GradeLevel -K-12 StudentPrerequisites -Studentsmustbeabletoaurallyrecognizespecicmelodiesinspiteof minoralterationsorchangesintextureSection3.1ortimbreSection2.1.1. TeacherExpertise -Teacherexpertiseinmusicisnotnecessarytopresentthisactivity.Theteacher shouldbefamiliarandcomfortablewiththetermsandconceptsregardingmotifSection2.2.1.5: Motif. TimeRequirements -Ifyouareveryorganizedandalsoonlyshowshortexcerpts,thisactivitycan bedoneinoneapproximately45-minuteclassperiod.Youwillnditeasiertopresenttheentire discussion,withplentyoftimeforwatching/listeningandessayassignmentina2-hourtimeframe ortwoseparateclassperiods.

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49 Objectives -Thestudentwillpracticeactivelylisteningforandrecognizingspecicmotifsinafamiliar musicalsetting. Evaluation -Gradestudentsonactiveparticipationinthediscussions,andonessaysifassigned. MaterialsandPreparation SeeMelodySection2.2.1.6:MelodiesinCounterpointforadiscussionofthetermsandconceptsthat youmaywanttopresenttothestudentsduringthisactivity. LocateavideotapeorDVDofamoviethatisappropriateforyourstudentswiththematicmusic. "StarWarsEpisodeIV:ANewHope"isoneofthebestexamplesaround,butothermoviescores byJohnWilliamsthe"IndianaJones"movies,forexamplealsotendtobeverythematic,andso domanyotheradventure,fantasy,andsciencectionlms.Seriousdramasandcomediesareless likelytousemusicinthisway.Foryoungerchildren,oneofthesectionsof"Fantasia"or"Fantasia 2000"maybeused,althoughthisisnotideal,sincethepictureshavebeenmadetotthemusicand nottheotherwayaround.Animatedmusicalsthatreusemelodicthemesfromsomeofthesongsas backgroundmusicduringdramaticmomentscanalsowork.It'sagoodideatochooseamoviethat manyofyourstudentsarealreadyfamiliarwith;itcanbediculttobeconsciouslyawareofthemusic ifyouareveryengrossedinthestory. Ifyouareonlygoingtoplaypartofthemovie,decideaheadoftimewhichpart.Lookforspotswith lotsofcharacters,lotsofaction,andplentyofbackgroundmusic.Inthiscase,bereadytostartthe movieatyourchosenspot. Youwillneedtheappropriateequipmentforpresentingthemovieinclass. Procedure 1.Ifyouhavenotalreadybeendiscussingmelody,motifs,andmelodicthemesinclass,beginbyreviewing someofthesetermsforthem.UsethediscussioninMelodySection2.2.1.5:Motififyouwish.If youaretryingtoencourageanappreciationofclassicalmusic,orifyourclassispreparingtoattend anopera,pointoutthatusing"motifs"ordierent"theme"musicforheroes,villains,rings,swords, love,orbattles,wasanoldtraditioninoperalongbeforeitwasborrowedbymoviesandtelevision. 2.Nowdiscussthemovie.Howmanyofthestudentshaveseenit?Whoarethemaincharacters? Arethere"goodguys"and"badguys"?What'sthemainpointoftheplot;i.e.whatarethemain characterstryingtodo?Arethereobjectsorideasthataresoimportantthattheymightgettheir ownmusicaltheme? 3.Oncetheyhaverefreshedtheirmemoriesaboutthemovie,playsomeofthemusicforthemwithouta pictureandpreferablywithoutdialogue.Themaintitlemusicorendtitlemusicisoftenagoodplace tohearthedierentthemes.OryoucancovertheTVscreenorturnitawayfromthestudentsand letthemlistentothesectionofthemoviethatyouareabouttoshow. 4.Astheylisten,askthemiftheyrecognizeanyofthemelodicthemesasbelongingtocertaincharacters. Isacertainmelody"goodguymusic"or"badguymusic"?Istherearomanticthemeoraheroic ordangertheme?Ifthey'renotcertainofspecicassociations,cantheytelljustfromlisteningto itwhetherit'sfor"goodguys"or"badguys","love"or"battle"?Whatarethemusicaldierence betweenthedierenttypesofthemes?Theycanusesimpledescriptivesforthis,butencouragethem touseanyofthecorrectterminologytheydoknowforvariousaspectsofmelodySection2.2.1, harmonySection2.3.1,textureSection3.1,timbreSection2.1.1,andrhythmSection1.1.Ifit wouldbehelpful,remindthemofthetermstheyknowbydisplayingthemwhereallthestudentscan seeandrefertothem. 5.Remindthemtotrytobeawareofthemusicwhiletheyarewatchingthemovie.Askthemtonotice howmanydierentthemestheycanhearandhowoftentheyappearandwhoorwhattheybelong with.Doyouonlyhearthemwhenacharacterisonthescreen,ordoyousometimeshearthemasa warningthatsomethingisabouttohappenoreventhatsomeoneisthinkingaboutsomething? 6.Showthemovieorpartofit.Whenthemusicisparticularlyprominentduringthemovie,pointout themelodyandaskwhoorwhattheythinkthatthemerepresents.Isitthesameasalwaysorhasit

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50 CHAPTER2.PITCHELEMENTS changed,perhapstosoundsadder,orsillier,ormoreexciting.Ifitchanges,whatishappeninginthe storytomakethemusicchange?Ifthestudentsaretooengrossedinthestory,playonesectionofit repeatedly,togivethemmoreofachancetoviewitanalytically. 7.Afterthemovie,repeatthediscussioninsteps3and4,toseeifthestudentscannowidentifymoreof thethemes. 8.Olderstudentsmaybeaskedtowriteashortessayeithersummarizingtheclassdiscussion,orwriting ananalysisoftheuseofaparticularmotifinthemoviewhoorwhatitsignies,howandwhenit isheard,howitchanges,etc..Ifyouwanteachstudenttowriteanindividualanalysis,explainthe assignmentandmakesurethestudentscanrecognizethemotifstheyarelisteningfor,thenallowthem totakenotesastheywatchthemovieorsectionofthemovieanaltime.Witholderstudents,this canalsobecomeatake-homeindividualorgroupassignment,withthestudentswatchingadierent moviethantheonediscussedinclass.Ifyouareconcernedabouttheirchoiceofsubject,havethem pickamoviefromasuggestedlist. 2.2.5.3OperaMotifs ObjectivesandAssessment GradeLevel -8-12oryoungerwithage-appropriateoperaandadequatepreparation StudentPrerequisites -Studentsshouldbecapableofrememberingandaurallyrecognizingspecicmelodies,regardlessofsmallalterationsinmelodySection2.2.1,rhythmSection1.1,texture Section3.1,ortimbreSection2.1.1.Thisactivitywillworkbestwithstudentswhohaveamature attentionspanandsomefamiliaritywithclassicalmusic 53 TeacherExpertise -Theteachershouldbefamiliarandcomfortablewiththetermsandconcepts regardingmotifSection2.2.1.5:Motif,andshouldbefamiliarwiththeoperatobepresented,but traininginmusiceducationisnotnecessary. TimeRequirements -Allowatleast30minuteseachforpre-performanceandpost-performance discussions.Performancetimewilldependonspecicoperaandvenue. Objectives -Thestudentwillpracticeactivelylisteningforandrecognizingspecicmotifsinopera music,andwillunderstandthemusicalanddramaticusesofoperamotifs. Evaluation -Gradestudentsonactiveparticipationintheclassdiscussion,andonessaysifassigned. MaterialsandPreparation YoumaywanttopreparetheclassforthisactivitybydoingtheMotifand/orMelodicThemesand MoviesSection2.2.5.1:Motifsactivitiesrst.Alectureonthetermsandconceptsregardingmotif Section2.2.1.5:Motifistheminimumnecessaryclasspreparationforthisactivity. Arrangefortheclasstoseealiveoperaperformanceperformedlocally,ortowatchinclassataped operaperformance.Whetherliveortaped,subtitlesareimportantiftheperformanceisinaforeign language. SeeMelodySection2.2.1.5:Motifforadiscussionoftheconceptsandtermsthatyoumaywantto introducetothestudentsbeforeseeingtheopera. Ifthisisaproductionbyalocalcompany,theeasiestwaytodothismaybetocontacttheopera companyandaskiftheyhaveanyonewhodoesoriswillingtodooutreachoreducationprograms. Askforapresentationtoyourclassthatincludestwothings:anintroductiontotheplotandthe characters,andanintroductiontosomeofthemelodiesthatthestudentscanlistenfor,thatare associatedwithcertaincharacters,things,ideas,orevents,especiallyifthosemelodiescanbeheard inmanyplacesthroughouttheopera. Iftheoperacompanycannotsendsomeone,youmaystillbeabletondalocalmusicianormusic teacherorcollegestudent!whocanmakethispresentationtoyourclass.Ifnot,youmaybeable 53 "WhatKindofMusicisThat?"

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51 tomakeityourselfusingprogramnotesfromarecordingoftheopera.Atextonoperasuchas The DenitiveKobbe'sOperaBook canalsobehelpfulinthisregard,particularlyifyouplaypianoand canplaythethemesandmotifsinitforyourclass. Procedure Introducethestudentstosomeofthemotifsormusicalthemesoftheopera,beforetheyattendthe performance.Recognizingthemotifsandknowingwhattheyrepresentcanmaketheperformance muchmoreinvolving. Theprocedureforfamiliarizingthestudentswiththemotifswilldependontheresourcesyouhave found.Trytoensurethatthestudentsrecognizeatleastthemainmotifs,whenevertheyhearthem, andknowwhateachrepresents,beforetheyattendtheperformance.Tellthemwhatthediscussion pointswillbeaftertheperformance. Attendtheperformance,orwatchtherecording. Followtheperformancewithashortdiscussion.Whichmotifsdidthestudentsnoticethemost?When didtheyhearthem?Whowasonstage;whowassinging;whatwashappeningintheplot?What wastheconnectionwiththecharacterorplot? Youmayalsofollowthediscussionwithanassignmenttowriteanessayabouttheperformance.Besides adiscussionoftheuseofmotifs,subjectsfortheessaycouldincludeasynopsisand/oranalysisofthe plot,adiscussionofthecharactersorofthemusicalstyle,oraresearchpaperonthecomposerorthe timeperiod. 2.2.5.4ComposingandImprovisingusingMotifs ObjectivesandAssessment GradeLevel -6-12 StudentPrerequisites -Studentsmusthavehavesomeexperienceplayinginstruments,andmust beabletowritecommonnotation 54 fairlyaccurately. TeacherExpertise -Theteachershouldbetrainedinbasicperformance,composition,and/orimprovisationtechniques. TimeRequirements -Dependingonthecircumstances,youmaymakethisanindividualhomework assignment,andthenhavethestudentsplaytheircompositionsforeachotherduringclasstime;or,this canbeanin-classgroupactivity.Amountoftimenecessarydependsonstudentfacilityincomposition andimprovisation,andonnumberofstudentorgroupperformances. Objectives -Thestudentwillcompose,manipulateandusemotifsincompositionan/orimprovisation. Evaluation -Forassessment,lookatmelodicandrhythmicqualityofmotif,abilitytomanipulatethe motifinmorethanoneway,andsuccessfuluseofthemotifinthecompositionorimprovisation. MaterialsandPreparation Everystudentwillneedaccesstoamusicalinstrumentthattheycanplaycomfortably.Or,ifthisis agroupproject,oneinstrumentandplayerpergroupissucient.Iftheentireclassiscomposingasa group,theteachermaybetheplayer.Blankstapaperandpencilswitheraserswillalsobeneeded. Ifthisisanin-classactivity,eachgroupwillneedanindividualspaceortime,sotheycanheartheir ownideasbeingplayed.Ifthisisnotpossible,dotheactivityasafull-classgroup,withstudentstaking turnsorcooperatinginhummingorsingingideastobeplayedandwrittendownbyothers. Ifthereisnotsucient"quietspace"intheclassroom,andthestudentshaveaccesstoinstrumentsat homeoroutsideofclasstime,makethisanindividualhomeworkassignment. Procedure 54 "TheSta"

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52 CHAPTER2.PITCHELEMENTS Eachstudentorgroupwillrstwriteashortmelodicmotif. Eachstudentorgroupshouldthenexperimentwiththemotif,ndingseveraldierentexpressionsof itinadierentkey 55 ,forexample,orusingdierentintervals 56 orrhythmsSection1.1,orplaying themotif"backwards"or"upside-down"thatarepleasantandstillrecognizableasthatmotif. Eachstudentorgroupwillcomposeashortinstrumentalpiece,usingatleastthreeofthedierent expressionsofthemotiftomakeamelodythatisuniedbutinteresting.Theymayuseeachvariation ofthemotifasmanytimesastheywant. Ifthestudentsarelearninghowtoimprovise,theymayalsobegivenanopportunitytoimproviseusing motifs.Unlessthestudentsarealreadycondentimprovisers,theywillstillbenetfromtheexercise ofwritingoutandpracticingamotifanditspossiblevariationsbeforebeingaskedtoimproviseusing thatmotifanditsvariations.Ifthestudentsarelearningtoimproviseoverchanges,havethem identifywhichvariationsofthemotifmightworkwithparticularchordsbeforetheytrytoimprovise. Iftheyarebeginningimprovisers,askthemtoimprovisetheirmotif-basedmelodywithoutaharmonic background,orgivethemthechangesandallowthemtocomposeandmemorizeatleastonemotifbasedmelodythatworkswiththechangesbeforetryingtoimprovisewiththesamemotifoverthe changes. 2.3Harmony 2.3.1Harmony 57 Whenyouhavemorethanonepitch 58 soundingatthesametimeinmusic,theresultis harmony .Harmony isoneofthebasicelementsofmusic,butitisnotasbasicassomeotherelements,suchasrhythmSection1.1 andmelodySection2.2.1.Youcanhavemusicthatisjustrhythms,withnopitchesatall.Youcanalso havemusicthatisjustasinglemelody,orjustamelodywithrhythmaccompanimentAccompaniment,p. 54. Butassoonasthereismorethanonepitchsoundingatatime,youhaveharmony.Evenifnobodyis actuallyplayingchordsChords,p.53,orevenifthenotesarepartofindependentcontrapuntalSection3.3 lines,youcanheartherelationshipofanynotesthathappenatthesametime,anditisthisrelationship thatmakestheharmony. note: Harmonydoesnothavetobeparticularly"harmonious";itmaybequitedissonant 59 ,in fact.Forthepurposeofdenitions,theimportantfactisthenotessoundingatthesametime. HarmonyisthemostemphasizedandmosthighlydevelopedelementinWesternmusic 60 ,andcanbe thesubjectofanentirecourseonmusictheory.ManyoftheconceptsunderlyingWesternharmonyare explainedingreaterdetailelsewhereseeTriads 61 andBeginningHarmonicAnalysis 62 ,forexample,but herearesomebasictermsandshortdenitionsthatyoumayndusefulindiscussionsofharmony: HarmonyTextures impliedharmony -AmelodyallbyitselfMonophonySection3.1.2:TermsthatDescribeTexture canhaveanimpliedharmony,evenifnoothernotesaresoundingatthesametime.Inotherwords, themelodycanbeconstructedsothatitstronglysuggestsaharmonythatcouldaccompanyit.For example,whenyousingamelodybyitself,youmaybeableto"hear"inyourmindthechordsthat 55 "MajorKeysandScales" 56 "Interval" 57 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat. 58 "Pitch:Sharp,Flat,andNaturalNotes" 59 "ConsonanceandDissonance" 60 "WhatKindofMusicisThat?" 61 "Triads" 62 "BeginningHarmonicAnalysis"

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53 usuallygowithit.ABachunaccompaniedcellosuitealsohasstronglyimpliedharmonies;ifsomeone reallywantedtoplayanaccompanimentAccompaniment,p.54,theappropriatechordsChords,p. 53couldbefoundprettyeasily.Butsomemelodiesdon'timplyanyharmony;theyarenotmeant tobeplayedwithharmony,anddon'tneedittobelegitimatemusic.Goodexamplesofthisinclude plainchant,somemodernartmusic,andsomeNon-Western 63 music,forexample,NativeAmerican utemusic. drones -Thesimplestwaytoaddharmonytoamelodyistoplayitwithdrones.Adroneisanote thatchangesrarelyornotatall.Dronescanbemosteasilyfoundinbagpipesmusic,IndianClassical 64 musicandothermusicsthatuseinstrumentsthattraditionallyplaydronenotes.SeeHarmonywith DronesSection2.3.2. parallelharmony -Parallelharmonyoccurswhendierentlinesinthemusicgoupordowntogether usuallyfollowingthemelody.SeeParallelHarmoniesSection2.3.4forexamples. homophony -HomophonyisatextureSection3.1ofmusicinwhichthereisonelinethatisobviously themelody.TherestofthenotesareharmonyandaccompanimentAccompaniment,p.54.See HomophonicSection3.1.2.2:Homophonic. polyphony or counterpoint -Bothofthesetermsrefertoatextureofmusicinwhichthereismore thanoneindependentmelodiclineatthesametime,andtheyareallfairlyequalinimportance.See PolyphonicSection3.1.2.3:PolyphonicandCounterpointSection3.3. Chords chords -InWestern 65 music,mostharmonyisbasedonchords. Chords aregroupsofnotesbuilton major 66 orminor 67 triads 68 .Intraditionaltriadicharmony,therearealwaysatleastthreenotesina chordtherecanbemorethanthree,butsomeofthenotesmaybeleftoutandonly"implied"bythe harmony.Thenotesofthechordmaybeplayedatthesametime blockchords ,ormaybeplayed separatelywithsomeoverlap,ormaybeplayedseparatelybutinaquickenoughsuccessionthatthey willbe"heard"asachordorunderstoodtoimplyachord arpeggiatedchords or arpeggios chordprogression -Aseriesofchordsplayedoneafteranotherisachordprogression.Musiciansmay describeaspecicchordprogressionforexample,"twomeasuresofGmajor,thenahalfmeasureofA minorandahalfmeasureofDseventh",orjust"G,Aminor,Dseventh"orspeakmoregenerallyof classesofchordprogressionsforexamplea"blueschordprogression".PleaseseeBeginningHarmonic Analysis 69 formoreinformation. HarmonicAnalysis harmonicrhythm -Theharmonicrhythmofapiecereferstohowoftenthechordschange.Musicin whichthechordschangerarelyhasaslowharmonicrhythm;musicinwhichthechordschangeoften hasafastharmonicrhythm.Harmonicrhythmcanbecompletelyseparatefromotherrhythmsand tempos.Forexample,asectionofmusicwithmanyshort,quicknotesbutonlyonechordhasfast rhythmsbutaslowharmonicrhythm. cadence -Acadenceisapointwherethemusicfeelsasifithascometoatemporaryorpermanent stoppingpoint.InmostWestern 70 music,cadenceistiedverystronglytotheharmony.Forexample, mostlistenerswillfeelthatthestrongest,mostsatisfyingendingtoapieceofmusicinvolvesadominant chord 71 followedbyatonicchord 72 .Infact,asongthatdoesnotendonthetonicchordwillsound 63 "WhatKindofMusicisThat?" 64 "ListeningtoIndianClassicalMusic" 65 "WhatKindofMusicisThat?" 66 "MajorKeysandScales" 67 "MinorKeysandScales" 68 "Triads" 69 "BeginningHarmonicAnalysis" 70 "WhatKindofMusicisThat?" 71 "BeginningHarmonicAnalysis":SectionNamingChordsWithinaKey 72 "BeginningHarmonicAnalysis":SectionNamingChordsWithinaKey

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54 CHAPTER2.PITCHELEMENTS quiteunsettledandevenunnishedtomostlisteners.SeeCadence 73 diatonic -Diatonic 74 harmonystaysinaparticularmajor 75 orminor 76 key. chromatic -Chromatic 77 harmonyincludesmanynotesandchordsthatarenotinthekeyandso containsmanyaccidentals 78 dissonance -Adissonanceisanote,chord,orinterval 79 thatdoesnottintothetriadic 80 harmoniesthatwehavelearnedtoexpectfrommusic.Adissonancemaysoundsurprising,jarring,even unpleasant. Accompaniment accompaniment -Allthepartsofthemusicthatarenotmelodyarepartoftheaccompaniment. Thisincludesrhythmicparts,harmonies,thebassline,andchords. melodicline -ThisisjustanothertermforthestringofnotesthatmakeupthemelodySection2.2.1. bassline -Thebasslineisthestringofnotesthatarethelowestnotesbeingsungorplayed.Because ofbasiclawsofphysics,thebasslinesetsuptheharmonics 81 thatalltheotherparts-includingthe melody-musttinto.Thismakesitaveryimportantlinebothfortuning 82 andfortheharmony.The basslinealsooftenoutlinesthechordprogressionChords,p.53,anditisoftenthemostnoticeable lineoftheaccompaniment. innerparts or innervoices -Accompanimentpartsthatllinthemusicinbetweenthemelody whichisoftenthehighestpartandthebassline. descant -Themelodyisnotalwaysthehighestlineinthemusic.Attentionisnaturallydrawntohigh notes,soapartthatishigherthanthemelodyissometimesgivenaspecialnamesuchas"descant". Thistermisanoldonegoingallthewaybacktowhenharmoniesrstbegantobeaddedtomedieval chant.SeeCounterpointp.72formoreaboutdescants. SuggestionsforactivitiesthatintroduceyoungstudentstoharmonymaybefoundinHarmonywithDrones Section2.3.2,SimpleChordalHarmonySection2.3.3,ParallelHarmoniesSection2.3.4,andIndependentHarmoniesSection2.3.5. 2.3.2HarmonywithDrones 83 MaterialsandPreparation Ifyoucan,ndarecordingofmusicthatusesdronesandaCDortapeplayertoplayitforthe class.BagpipemusicorclassicalmusicfromIndiawillprobablybetheeasiesttond,butsome moreuncommoninstrumentsfromvariousmusictraditions,liketheAppalachiandulcimernotthe hammereddulcimermayalsohavedrones. Decideonasongtoteachyourstudentsthathasadronepartinthevoiceoroninstruments.Use "Sarasponda"ifyoulike. Ifitwouldbehelpful,havecopiesofthesongforthestudents. Bereadytoteachthestudentsthemelodyandthedroneparts.HereisthemelodytoSarasponda with 84 andwithout 85 thedronepart. 73 "CadenceinMusic" 74 "WhatKindofMusicisThat?" 75 "MajorKeysandScales" 76 "MinorKeysandScales" 77 "WhatKindofMusicisThat?" 78 "Pitch:Sharp,Flat,andNaturalNotes" 79 "Interval" 80 "Triads" 81 "HarmonicSeriesI:TimbreandOctaves" 82 "TuningSystems" 83 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat. 84 http://cnx.org/content/m11844/latest/saraspondaw.mid 85 http://cnx.org/content/m11844/latest/saraspondawo.mid

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55 Ifthedroneisonaninstrument,haveinstrumentsforatleastseveralstudentstoplay. Sarasponda Figure2.10

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56 CHAPTER2.PITCHELEMENTS Procedure 1.Explaintoyourstudentsthata drone isthesimplestkindofharmony.Themelodyisplayedalong withoneortwonotesthatneverorveryrarelychange. 2.Playyourexamplerecordingforthem.Cantheyidentifythedronenotesbyhummingorsingingthem alongwiththeinstruments? 3.Handoutthecopiesofthesongyouaregoingtoteachthem.Teachthemallthemelody,goingover itasmanytimesasnecessaryuntiltheyarecondent. 4.Nowteachthemthedronepartandletasmallpartoftheclasssingorplaythedronepartwhilethe restsingthemelodyagain.Letthemalltakeaturnwiththedrone. 2.3.3SimpleChordalHarmony 86 2.3.3.1Introduction OnesimplewaytoprovideharmonyforamelodyistoaddchordsChords,p.53.Thenotesofeachchord maybeplayedallatonce blockchords ,ortheymaybeplayedoneatatime broken or arpeggiated chords.Forexample,apersonplayingaguitarcanstrumthechordthiswouldbea"block"chordoruse apickingstyletoplay"broken"chords.Aslongastheaccompanimentisjustchords,andnotadierent melody,itstillbelongsinthiscategoryofsimplechordalaccompaniment.Anotherverycommonwaytoplay simplechordalaccompanimentsistoalternateplayingthebassnoteofthechordandtherestofthechord. Thisisthe"oom-pah-oom-pah"bass-chord-bass-chordor"oom-pah-pah-oom-pah-pah"bass-chord-chordbass-chord-chordthatyouoftenhearpianosorbandsplaying. Thiskindofharmonyisunusualinclassicalmusicandalsoinprofessionallyproducedpopularmusics, butitisverycommoninWestern 87 musicwhereverpeoplearemakingmusicfortheirownenjoyment:folk musics,sing-alongs,informaldances,children'smusic,somestylesofsacredmusic,andamateursplaying popmusicforfun.OneofthefeaturesofWesternmusic,infact,isinstrumentsthateasilyplaythiskindof accompaniment.Themanykeyboardinstruments,guitar,banjo,lute,accordions,anddulcimersaresome ofthemorecommon,butthereareplentyofuncommonones,too.Canyouoryourstudentsnameany? 2.3.3.2Activities MaterialsandPreparation Findanaudioplayerandsomerecordingsofmusicthatismelodywithonlychordalaccompaniment. Youwillndsomesuggestionattheendofthelesson. Havethetapesreadytoplayattherightspot,orknowCDtracknumbers. Chooseasongfortheclasstosingwithchordalaccompaniment.Youorsomeonecanaccompany themwithsimpleorarpeggiatedchordsonkeyboardorguitar,oryoucanteachthemtosingthe chords.Iftheyaregoingtosingtheaccompaniment,chooseasongwithfewchordchanges,unless youandtheyareuptoachallenge.Ifyouarelookingforachallenge,theymightenjoylearning"The LionSleepsTonight";the"wi-mo-wep"partisjustrhythmicalchords.Ifyouwanttotrysomething prettysimple,youmayuse"She'llBeComin'RoundtheMountain".Youcanplayorhavesomeone elseplaythechordsonaninstrument,oryoucanhavesomeofthestudentssingthechordswith "oohs". Ifyourstudentswouldndituseful,haveplentyofcopiesforthemofthesongyouhavechosen. Ifsomeoneisgoingtoplayanaccompaniment,youwillneedyouraccompanistandinstrument.Ifthe studentsaregoingtosingthesongyouhavechosen,youmayneedapitchpipeorkeyboardtogive themtheirbeginningnotes. 86 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat. 87 "WhatKindofMusicisThat?"

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57 aShe'llbeComin'RoundtheMountain b Figure2.11: Ifyouneedtohearanyoftheparts,herearethemelodyalone 88 ,thehighwhoos 89 themiddlewhoos 90 ,thelowwhoos 91 ,allthewhoostogether 92 ,andallthewhooswiththemelody 93 Allpartsstartonthesamenote,sothatyoudonotneedapitchpipeormusicalinstrumenttogiveall thepartstheirbeginningnotes.TheydonotnecessarilyevenhavetostartonaD;juststartthemall outonthesamereasonablylownote.aThestudentscanbeaccompaniedbyapiano,guitar,banjo, accordion,autoharp,ordulcimer,playingthechordsinredinwhatevermannersuitstheinstrument andplayer.Oryoumayhavesomestudentssingthemelody,whilesomesingthechords.Ifeach"woo" chordbeginswithaslightdip,theeectwillbealittlelikeatrainwhistle. Procedure 1.Explainthatoneoftheeasiestwaystoaddharmonytoamelodyistosimplyplayorsingthechords alongwithit. 2.Playyourchosenrecordedexamplesfortheclass.Explainthatthenotesofthechordsmaybeplayed oneatatime;aslongastheaccompanimentisjustbrokenupchordsandnotanothermelody,itis stilljustasimplechordalharmony. 3.Ifyouhavethem,handoutcopiesofthesongtheyaregoingtolearn. 4.Teachtheentireclassthemelody. 5.Ifyouareorhaveanaccompanist,havethemsingthemelodyagain,rstwiththeaccompanistplaying blockchords,thenagainwithasimplechord-basedaccompaniment. 88 http://cnx.org/content/m11875/latest/cominroundmel.mid 89 http://cnx.org/content/m11875/latest/cominround1.MID 90 http://cnx.org/content/m11875/latest/cominround2.MID 91 http://cnx.org/content/m11875/latest/cominround3.MID 92 http://cnx.org/content/m11875/latest/cominroundchord.MID 93 http://cnx.org/content/m11875/latest/cominroundall.MID

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58 CHAPTER2.PITCHELEMENTS 6.Iftheyaregoingtosingtheaccompaniment,assigneachstudentapartlow,middle,orhighnoteof thechord,andteachthemthepart.Oncetheycansingjustthechordstogether,leavehalfofthem onthechordsandlettheotherhalfsingthemelody.Thenleteveryoneswitchparts. 2.3.3.3ListeningSuggestions Asmentionedabove,mostprofessionallyproducedrecordings,whetherpopular,jazz,orclassical,feature morecomplexaccompaniments.HerearesomeplacestolookforthissimplemusicaltextureSection3.1. Twoclassicalworksthatdofeaturethistextureare"TheMarchoftheToreadors"fromBizet's Carmen andthefamiliar"graduationmarch"tunefromElgar's PompandCircumstance#1 .Ifyoudolook uparecordingoftheElgarpiece,itisnotthebeginningofthepiecethatyouwanttolistento;the familiartunecomeslateron. Considerarrangingforaliveperformanceforyourclass.Askanyonewhoplaysguitarorpiano competentlyforademonstrationofsimplechordalaccompaniments.Theymaybewillingtoprovide themelodyalso,ontheirinstrumentorvocally,ortheymaybeabletoprovideasoloistormayask theclasstohelpbysingingthemelody. Recordingsthataremeantforchildren,themany"WeeSing"tapes,forexample,oftenfeaturesimple chordalaccompaniments. ManyfolkartistsandbluesartistswhoperformsoloJoanBaezorOdetta,forexamplehavemade recordingsinthisstyle. SomesolopianomusicChopin'sPreludeNo.4inEminororNocturneNo.2inEat,forexample andsoloclassicalguitarthe"Granada"movementofAlbeniz' SuiteEspanola ,forexample. Someclassicragtime,likeJoplin's"MapleLeafRag"featureasimple"oom-pah"acompaniment. 2.3.4ParallelHarmonies 94 Parallelharmonyisharmonythatgenerallyfollowsthemelody,goingupwhenthemelodygoesupand downwhenthemelodygoesdown.Becauseparallelharmoniesarenotindependentofthemelody,they donotfollowtherulesofwell-writtencounterpointSection3.3andaregenerallynotconsideredtobeas interestingasindependentharmonypartsSection2.3.5.However,parallelharmoniesareeasiertoplay formanyinstrumentskeyboardinstruments,guitar,dobroguitar,violin,andcello,tonamejustafew. Parallelharmoniesarealsoveryeasyforeventhe"untrainedear"tograsp,andareverycommoninpopular andfolkmusics.InWesternclassical 95 music,theyaremostcommoninImpressionistmusicandinsome typesofmedievalchant. MaterialsandPreparation Youwillneedsomerecordingswitheasy-to-hearparallelharmoniesandatapeorCDplayertoplay themon. Haveyourchosentapesreadytoplayatthecorrectspot,orknowtheCDtracknumbers. Chooseasongwithaparallelharmonyforthemtolearn.SomeChristmassongs,suchas"Awayina Manger"and"SilentNight",havewell-knownparallelharmonies,asdomanypopularandfolktunes. LookforharmonypartsthatseemtofollowcloselythecontourSection2.2.1.2:TheShapeorContour ofaMelodyofthemelody.Ifyouwouldlike,youcanuse"America,theBeautiful",below. Ifitwouldhelpyourstudents,havecopiesofthewords,orthewordsandmusic,ofyourchosensong availableforthem. Youcanplanforthestudentstosingthesongwithoutaccompaniment,oraccompanythemyourself, orarrangeforanaccompanist. 94 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat. 95 "WhatKindofMusicisThat?"

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59 ListeningSuggestions:There'splentyofparallelharmonytobeheardin: someragtimetunes,suchasScottJoplin's"TheEntertainer". manypopular"Country"musicsongsandmodernHawaiianpoptunes,especiallyinthevocalsand inthedobroguitarparts,andinsomefolkstyleslistentothegroupLadysmithBlackMambazo,for example. manypiecesforsoloviolin,suchasBrahms'Hungariandanceslisten,forexample,totheslowsections of"HungarianDanceNo.4inBm". thesaxesandbrassinsomeBigBandjazztunessuchas"StringofPearls"and"IntheMood". hereandthereinsymphonicmusic;forexamplelistentotheutesinthe"DanceoftheMirlitons"in Tchaikovsky's TheNutcracker ,orinthe"GypsySong"fromBizet's Carmen Procedure 1.Explaintoyourstudentsthatonekindofharmonythatyoucanaddtomusiciscalled parallel harmony .ThisismorecomplexandinterestingthandronesSection2.3.2butlesscomplexand interestingthanindependentharmonySection2.3.5. 2.Iftheyhavecoveredtheterm parallel inmath,remindthemofthis.Iftheyhavenot,tellthemthat inmath,parallellinesarelinesthataregoinginexactlythesamedirection,sothattheyseemtofollow eachotherandyetnevermeetorcrosseachother.Thetwolongsidesofarulerareagoodexample. 3.Explainthatinmusic,parallelharmoniesareharmonylinesthatgointhesamedirectionasthemelody. Whenthemelodygoesup,sodoestheharmony.Whenthemelodygoesdown,sodoestheharmony. Buttherulesformusicalparallelsaren'tasstrictastherulesformathematicalparallels.Parallel harmoniesdon'thavetoalwaysmoveinthesamedirectionasthemelodybyexactlythesameamount. Infact,becausetheyneedtotinwiththechordsandalsoprovidesomeinterest,parallelharmonies areusuallynotexactlyparallelallthetime.Theycanevenmeetorcrossthemelodysometimes. 4.Playyourchosenrecordings,pointingouttheplaceswhereparallelharmoniesaremosteasilyheard. 5.Ifyouhavecopiesofthesongforthestudents,handthemout. 6.Dependingonyourclasslogistics,youmayteachallthestudentsboththemelodyandtheharmony, oryoumaydividetheclassupandteacheachgrouponlyonepart.Itmaytakeseveralsessionsfor bothgroupstobeabletosingtheirpartswithenoughcondence.Itoftenworksbesttohavemore studentsonthemelody,butsomeofthestrongersingersontheharmony.

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60 CHAPTER2.PITCHELEMENTS America,theBeautiful Figure2.12: Ifyouneedto,youcanlistentothemelody 96 ,harmony 97 ,andbothtogether 98 2.3.5IndependentHarmonies 99 2.3.5.1Introduction AharmonyisindependentofthemelodySection2.2.1ifitisoftendoingsomethingdierentfromthe melody.Evenifitisnotindependentenoughtobecounterpoint,suchharmonyaddsmoredepthand interesttothemusicthandronesSection2.3.2,parallelharmoniesSection2.3.4,orsimplechordal accompanimentsSection2.3.3.Sothistypeofharmonyisextremelypopularforhymnsandotherchoral arrangements,anditisalsoverycommonininstrumentalmusicandininstrumentalaccompaniments. Whatmakesaharmonyoraccompanimentpartindependent? Ifitoftenhasdierentrhythmsthanthemelody,itisindependent. 96 http://cnx.org/content/m11878/latest/americamel.mid 97 http://cnx.org/content/m11878/latest/americaharm.mid 98 http://cnx.org/content/m11878/latest/americaboth.mid 99 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat.

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61 Evenifithasthesamerhythmsasthemelody,itisindependentifitisoftenmovinginadierent directionfromthemelody;forexample,theharmonypartisgoingdownwhenthemelodyisgoingup. Ifaharmonyistrulyindependent,thenevenwhenitismovinginthesamedirectionasthemelody,it isusuallymovingbyadierentinterval 100 .Forexample,ifthemelodyisgoingupbyperfectfourth 101 itmightgoupbyasinglehalfstep 102 IndependentharmoniesarenotquitecounterpointSection3.3.Inordertobeconsideredtruecounterpoint orpolyphonySection3.1.2.3:Polyphonic,thedierentpartsmustbenotonlyindependent,theymust alsosoundlikeequallyimportantmelodies.Istherealwaysaveryclearlinebetweenindependentharmony andcounterpoint?No!Rememberthatalloftherulesanddenitionsinmusictheory"counterpoint", "harmony","minorkeys"wereallmadeuptodescribewhatgoodcomposerswerealreadydoing;theydo notdenewhatacomposerisallowedtodo.Ifthecomposer-orperformer-likes,anindependentline caneasilydriftbackandforthbetweenbeingabackground,harmonypart,andbeingsoimportantthatit becomesacountermelodySection3.3.2:SomeUsefulTerms. Butinmuchclassicalandpopularmusic,thereisonelinethatisclearlythemelody.Theharmonies oraccompanimentpartsareallclearly"background",buttheystillfollowmostoftheimportantrulesof counterpoint. Themostimportantruleofcounterpointisthattwolinesshouldnotmovein parallel. Inotherwords,whenthemelodygoesdownonestep,theharmonyshoulddosomethingother thangoingdownonestep;itcangodownbyadierentinterval 103 ,orstaythesame,butitisbestifitgoes up.Whenthemelodygoesupaperfectfourth,theharmonyshoulddoanythingotherthangoupaperfect fourth.Independentharmoniesalsofollowthisrule. FormuchhomophonicmusicSection3.1.2.2:Homophonic,followingthisbasicruleaboutcontrasting intervals 104 isenough.Inparticular,thereisagreatdealofchoralmusicmosttraditionalWestern 105 hymns, forexampleinwhichallthepartshavedierentintervalsbutusethesamerhythms,sothateverybodyis singingthesamewordatthesametime.Thistypeoftextureissometimescalled homorhythmic Otherharmonyoraccompanimentpartsareevenmoreindependent,andhaveadierentrhythmfrom themelodyalso.Goodexamplesofthisarethebasslineinmostpopsongsortheinstrumentalparts accompanyinganoperaaria.Inthesetypesofmusic,aswellasinmuchjazzandsymphonicmusic,thereis onelinethatisclearlythemelody,buttheotherpartsaren'tsimplyfollowingalongwiththemelody.They are"doingtheirownthing". 2.3.5.2Activities MaterialsandPreparation YouwillneedanaudiotapeorCDplayer. Choosesomemusicwithindependentharmoniesforyourstudentstolistento.Therearesome suggestionsbelowSuggestedListeningList,p.63.Ifyouhavetheclasstimeforit,andyouhave notalreadycoveredmonodySection3.1.2:TermsthatDescribeTexture,dronesSection2.3.2, chordalharmoniesSection2.3.3,andparallelharmoniesSection2.3.4,youmaywanttoinclude someexamplesoftheseforcontrast.Suggestedrecordingsfortheseothertexturescanbefoundin thoselessons. Chooseasongwithindependentharmoniesforthemtolearn.Sincethisisfairlychallenging,keep itsimpleunlessyouhaveolder,musicallytrainedstudents.Ifyourstudentsareuptothechallenge, thistypeofharmonyisnotdiculttond;mostSATBchoralarrangementsfeatureindependent harmonies.Ifyouwouldlikeaverysimpleexampleforyoungormusicallyinexperiencedstudents,or ifyouarenotexperiencedenoughtotacklefull-edgedharmonies,youmayuse"Trainisa-Comin'", 100 "Interval" 101 "Interval":SectionPerfectIntervals 102 "HalfStepsandWholeSteps" 103 "Interval" 104 "Interval" 105 "WhatKindofMusicisThat?"

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62 CHAPTER2.PITCHELEMENTS below.Inthisversion,muchofthesongisinunison,withsimplebutindependentharmoniesinonly afewplacesinthemusic.Ifyouneedto,listentothemelody 106 ,higherharmony 107 ,andlower harmony 108 ,andallthepartstogether 109 Ifyouwouldlike,arrangeforanaccompanist.Anaccompanistisnotnecessaryforthisstyleofsinging notevenforasimplepiecelike"Trainisa-Comin'",butitmaymakethingsmucheasierormore comfortableforthesingers. Haveenoughcopiesofthewordsandmusicforthestudents. Trainisa-Comin' Figure2.13: Thenotesinblackarethemelody.Rednotesareanextensivehighharmony;givethis toafewstudentswhoarereadyforachallenge.Bluenotesareaverysmalllowharmonypart,which canbeignoredifyoulike;ifyouhaveafewmorestudentswhocansingafewnotesthatarenotinthe melody,givethisparttothem.Everyoneshouldsingthemelodywhenevertheydonothaveaharmony part. 106 http://cnx.org/content/m11874/latest/traincominmel.mid 107 http://cnx.org/content/m11874/latest/traincominhigh.mid 108 http://cnx.org/content/m11874/latest/traincominlow.mid 109 http://cnx.org/content/m11874/latest/traincominall.mid

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63 Procedure 1.Usingtheintroductionabovep.60asaguide,talkwiththeclassaboutindependentharmonies. Introduceanydenitionsyouwantthemtolearn,andcontrastthismusicaltexturewithanyother texturesyouhavestudiedorwillstudy,includingmonodySection3.1.2:TermsthatDescribeTexture,dronesSection2.3.2,parallelharmoniesSection2.3.4,chordalharmoniesSection2.3.3,and counterpointSection3.3. 2.Playsomeofyourexamplesofmusicwithindependentharmoniesoraccompaniment.Askthestudents tohumalongwiththemelodythersttime.Playtheexampleagain.Cantheyhumalongwiththe basslineoranotherharmonyoraccompanimentpartthesecondtime?Howdierentaretheparts? 3.Ifyouhavethem,playsomeofyourexamplesofmonody,drones,parallelharmony,chordalaccompaniment,andcounterpoint,forcontrast.Ifyouhavealsostudiedtheseothertextures,identifythemas theyarelisteningtothem. 4.Ifyouhaveenoughexamples,playsomemore,askingthestudentstoidentifythepieceswithindependentharmonies.Cantheyidentifytheothertexturesaswell? 5.Dividethestudentsintohigherandlowervoicesandassignappropriatepartsforthesongtheywill sing. 6.Teacheachgroupitspartthismaybedoneoverthecourseofseveralsessionsandhavethempractice italonebeforeattemptingtocombinethegroups. Thesuggestionsforrecordingstolookforareprettyvaguebecausethereissomuchmusicinthiscategory. Itisveryeasytond,soyoushouldnotspendalotoftimelookingforspecicrecordings.Justmakesure thereisoneclearandobviousmelodyinyourselections,butthattheaccompanimenttoitisinteresting andindependentofthemelody.Thechoralselectionswillbemorelikelytobehomorhythmicp.61,so thatthewordscanbeeasilyunderstood,whereasinstrumentalaccompanimentswilltendtobeevenmore independent. SuggestedListeningList AlmostanychorusfromaGilbertandSullivanopera. Recordingsofchoirssingingtraditionalnineteenth-centuryhymns. Ifyouhavetroublehearinghymnharmonies,trylisteningtothechoralesofBach's ChristmasOratorio WeinachtsOratorium .Thechoralesarenotcontrapuntal-themelodyisclearlyinthesopranopart, andthedierentpartssingthesamewordsatthesametime-butitisunusuallyeasytohearthat thepartsareinfactquitedierentfromeachother. Popmusicwithasolosinger,astrongbassline,andinterestinginstrumentalaccompaniment. Mostoperaariasandmanyoperachoruses. ThisisalsooneofthemostcommontexturesSection3.1inorchestralmusic,particularlyinclassicaleraandRomantic-erasymphoniesMozart,Haydn,Beethoven,Schubert,etc.Butbeawarethatin symphonicmusic,texturecanchangeoftenandquickly.

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Chapter3 CombiningTimeandPitch 3.1TheTexturesofMusic 1 3.1.1Introduction Textureisoneofthebasicelementsofmusic.Whenyoudescribethe texture ofapieceofmusic,youare describinghowmuchisgoingoninthemusicatanygivenmoment.Forexample,thetextureofthemusic mightbethickorthin,oritmayhavemanyorfewlayers.Itmightbemadeupofrhythmonly,orofa melodylinewithchordalaccompaniment,ormanyinterweavingmelodies.Belowyouwillndsomeofthe formaltermsmusiciansusetodescribetexture.Suggestionsforactivitiestointroducetheconceptoftexture toyoungstudentscanbefoundinMusicalTexturesActivitiesSection3.2. 3.1.2TermsthatDescribeTexture Therearemanyinformaltermsthatcandescribethetextureofapieceofmusicthick,thin,bass-heavy, rhythmicallycomplex,andsoon,buttheformaltermsthatareusedtodescribetexturealldescribethe relationshipsofmelodiesSection2.2.1andharmoniesSection2.3.1.Herearedenitionsandexamplesof thefourmaintypesoftexture.Forspecicpiecesofmusicthataregoodexamplesofeachtypeoftexture, pleaseseebelowSection3.1.3:SuggestedListening. 3.1.2.1Monophonic Monophonic musichasonlyonemelodicSection2.2.1line,withnoharmonySection2.3.1orcounterpointSection3.3.TheremayberhythmicSection1.1accompaniment,butonlyonelinethathasspecic pitches 2 .Monophonicmusiccanalsobecalled monophony .Itissometimescalled monody ,althoughthe term"monody"canalsorefertoaparticulartypeofsolosongwithinstrumentalaccompanimentthatwas verypopularinthe1600's. ExamplesofMonophony Onepersonwhistlingatune Asinglebuglesounding"Taps" Agroupofpeopleallsingingasongtogether,withoutharmoniesorinstruments Afeanddrumcorp,withallthefesplayingthesamemelody 1 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat. 2 "Pitch:Sharp,Flat,andNaturalNotes" 65

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66 CHAPTER3.COMBININGTIMEANDPITCH 3.1.2.2Homophonic Homophonic musiccanalsobecalled homophony .Moreinformally,peoplewhoaredescribinghomophonicmusicmaymentionchordsChords,p.53,accompanimentAccompaniment,p.54,harmonyor harmoniesSection2.3.1.HomophonyhasoneclearlymelodicSection2.2.1line;it'sthelinethatnaturallydrawsyourattention.Allotherpartsprovideaccompanimentorllinthechords.Inmostwell-written homophony,thepartsthatarenotmelodymaystillhavealotofmelodicinterest.Theymayfollowmany oftherulesofwell-writtencounterpointSection3.3,andtheycansoundquitedierentfromthemelody andbeinterestingtolistentobythemselves.Butwhentheyaresungorplayedwiththemelody,itisclear thattheyarenotindependentmelodicparts,eitherbecausetheyhavethesamerhythmasthemelodyi.e. arenotindependentorbecausetheirmainpurposeistollinthechordsorharmonyi.e.theyarenot reallymelodies. ExamplesofHomophony Choralmusicinwhichthepartshavemostlythesamerhythmsatthesametimeishomophonic.Most traditionalProtestanthymnsandmost"barbershopquartet"musicisinthiscategory. Asingeraccompaniedbyaguitarpickingorstrummingchords. Asmalljazzcombowithabass,apiano,andadrumsetprovidingthe"rhythm"backgroundfora trumpetimprovisingasolo. Asinglebagpipesoraccordionplayerplayingamelodywithdronesorchords. 3.1.2.3Polyphonic Polyphonic musiccanalsobecalled polyphony counterpoint ,or contrapuntal music.Ifmorethanone independentmelodySection2.2.1isoccurringatthesametime,themusicispolyphonic.Seecounterpoint Section3.3. ExamplesofPolyphony Rounds,canons,andfuguesSection3.3.2:SomeUsefulTermsareallpolyphonic.Evenifthere isonlyonemelody,ifdierentpeoplearesingingorplayingitatdierenttimes,thepartssound independent. MuchBaroquemusiciscontrapuntal,particularlytheworksofJ.S.Bach. Mostmusicforlargeinstrumentalgroupssuchasbandsororchestrasiscontrapuntalatleastsomeof thetime. Musicthatismostlyhomophoniccanbecometemporarilypolyphonicifanindependentcountermelody isadded.Thinkofafavoritepoporgospeltunethat,neartheend,hasthesoloist"adlibbing"while theback-upsingersrepeattherefrain. 3.1.2.4Heterophonic A heterophonic textureisrareinWestern 3 music.In heterophony ,thereisonlyonemelody,butdierent variationsofitarebeingsungorplayedatthesametime. HeterophonycanbeheardintheBluegrass,"mountainmusic",Cajun,andZydecotraditions.Listen forthetunetobeplayedbytwoinstrumentssayddleandbanjoatthesametime,witheachadding theembellishments,ornamentsSection2.2.1,andourishesthatarecharacteristicoftheinstrument. SomeMiddleEastern,SouthAsian,centralEurasian,andNativeAmericanmusictraditionsinclude heterophony.Listenfortraditionalmusicmostmodern-composedmusic,evenfromthesecultures, haslittleornoheterophonyinwhichsingersand/orinstrumentalistsperformthesamemelodyatthe sametime,butgiveitdierentembellishmentsorornaments. 3 "WhatKindofMusicisThat?"

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67 3.1.3SuggestedListening Monophony Hereisanexcerpt 4 fromJamesRomig's 5 Sonnet2,playedbyJohnMcMurtery. ABachunaccompaniedcellosuite Gregorianchant Longsectionsof"ThePeoplethatWalkedinDarkness"ariainHandel's"Messiah"aremonophonic theinstrumentsareplayingthesamelineasthevoice.ApparentlyHandelassociatesmonophony with"walkingindarkness"! Homophony AclassicScottJoplinragsuchas"MapleLeafRag"or"TheEntertainer" The"graduationmarch"sectionofEdwardElgar's"PompandCircumstanceNo.1" The"MarchoftheToreadors"fromBizet's Carmen No.1"Granada"ofAlbeniz'SuiteEspanolaforguitar Thelatesthittunebyamajorpopsolovocalist Theopeningsectionofthe"Overture"OfHandel's"Messiah"Thesecondsectionoftheovertureis polyphonic Polyphony Pachelbel'sCanon Anythingtitled"fugue"or"invention" Thenal"Amen"chorusofHandel's"Messiah" ThetriostrainofSousa's"StarsandStripesForever",withthefamouspiccolocountermelody The"OneDayMore"chorusfromthemusical"LesMiserables" TherstmovementofHolst's1stSuiteforMilitaryBand Heterophony Thereissomeheterophonywithsomeinstrumentsplayingmoreornamentsthanothersin"Donulmez Aksamin"andin"UrfaliyimEzelden"ontheTurkishMusic 6 page. Theperformanceof"LonesomeValley"bytheFaireldFouronthe"OBrother,WhereArtThou" soundtrackisquiteheterophonic.Old-stylebluesowesmoretoAfricanthantoWesterntraditions. 3.2AMusicalTexturesActivity 7 Foranexplanationofmusicaltextureterms,pleaseseeTheTexturesofMusicSection3.1.Belowarea classroomactivitythatwillfamiliarizeyourstudentswithanyofthetexturetermsyouwantthemtoknow, andalistofsuggestedmusicalexamplesSection3.2.1:SuggestedMusicofeachtexture. GoalsandAssessment Goals -Thestudentwilllearntorecognizedierentmusicaltextureswhenpresentedaurally,andto useappropriateterminologyindiscussingtextureinmusic. GradeLevel -K-12 StudentPrerequisites -none 4 http://cnx.org/content/m11645/latest/sonnet2exc.mp3 5 http://www.jamesromig.com 6 http://www.focusmm.com/turkey/tr_musmn.htm 7 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat.

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68 CHAPTER3.COMBININGTIMEANDPITCH TeacherExpertise -Teacherexpertiseinmusiceducationisnotnecessarytopresentthisactivity. Theteachershouldbefamiliarandcomfortablewiththetermsandconceptsregardingmusicaltexture Section3.1,and,whenlisteningtomusic,shouldbeabletoidentifythetexture. TimeRequirements -Allfourtexturesmaybepresentedinoneapproximately45-minuteclass period.Youmayprefertobreaktheactivityupandpresentitinseveral10-15-minutesessions,with eachsessionreviewingpreviously-learnedtexturesandintroducingonenewtexture.Thenalsession canthenbeashortreminder-reviewandlisteningtest. MusicStandardsAddressed -NationalStandardsforMusicEducation 8 standard6listeningto, analyzing,anddescribingmusic.Ifseveralofyourmusicalexamplesarefromotherculturesortime periods,thisactivityalsoaddressesstandard9understandingmusicinrelationtohistoryandculture. Objectives -Foreachmusicaltexturestudied,thestudentwilllistentoseveralclearexamplesofthe textureandlearntheappropriatetermstodescribeit.Listeningtoseveralnew"mystery"excerpts, thestudentwilldeterminewhetheritisorisnotanexampleofthetexturebeingstudied.Finally,the studentwilllistentoseveralmore"mystery"excerptsandcorrectlynamethetextureheard. Evaluation -Assessstudentlearningbygradingthecompletedworksheetornotingaccuracyofverbal answers. Follow-up -Tohelptheseconceptsenterlong-termmemory,continuetotalkaboutthe"texture"of musicalpiecesthroughouttherestoftheyear.Askstudentstoidentifythetextureofanewpiecethey arelearningtosingorplay,ordiscussthetendencyofmusicfromparticularculturesortimeperiods tobeonetextureoranother. MaterialsandPreparation YouwillneedaCDortapeplayer. Gathermusicrecordingsthatillustrateeachtextureyouwouldliketocover.Usethesuggestionlist belowSection3.2.1:SuggestedMusic,ormakeyourownchoicesbasedonyourmusiclibraryand students'preferences. Knowthetracknumberforeachofyourexamples,orhavethetapereadytoplayattherightspot. Ifyouwish,makecopiesofthishand-outforyourstudents.ThehandoutisavailableasaPDFle 9 Itisalsoincludedhereasagure,butthePDFlewillmakeanicer-lookinghandout.Youcancover uporblackoutanytermsyouwillnotbecovering.Or,insteadofusingthehandout,writetheterms ontheboardforthem. 8 http://menc.org/resources/view/national-standards-for-music-education 9 http://cnx.org/content/m14260/latest/texturehandout.pdf

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69 Figure3.1 Procedure

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70 CHAPTER3.COMBININGTIMEANDPITCH 1.Giveoutthehandoutsorwritethetermsontheboard. 2.Givethestudentsthedenitionofoneofthetermsandthenplaytwoorthreeexamplesofit.Youmay wanttointroducethetermsinthefollowingorder:monophony,homophony,polyphony,heterophony. SinceitissomewhatunusualinWesternmusic 10 ,youmaywanttoleaveoutheterophony. 3.Pointouttheimportanttexturefeaturesasyouarelisteningtothemusic. 4.Next,playaminuteorsoofseveralmorerecordings,somethatarethesametextureasyourexamples andandsomethatarenot.Askyourstudentstoidentifywhicharethecorrecttexture.Theycan answerwhencalledon,votewithraisedhands,orwritetheiranswersdown. 5.Oncetheyhaveonetexturedown,youcanintroduceanewone.Followsteps2and3forthenew texture,butwhenyougettostepfour,seeiftheycanidentifywhichpiecesarethersttexturestudied andwhicharethesecond.Youcanrepeatthisstepforallfourtextures,untiltheycanaccurately identifyanytexturetheyhear. 6.Ifmanyofyourexamplesand"mystery"selectionsarefromotherculturesortimeperiods,youmay wanttodiscussthiswhenyouintroduceyourexamples.Thenyoumayalsoaskthestudentstomake aguessastothecultureortimeperiodofyour"mystery"selections,andaskthemwhatelementsincludingtexture-helpthemdecide. 7.Ifyouareusingtheworksheetasahandout,youmayalsouseitasanaltexturetest.Playafew moreselectionsforthem.Foreachselection,tellthemthenameoftheselectionbeforeandafteryou playit,andletthemwritedownthenameinthecorrectcategoryontheworksheet. 3.2.1SuggestedMusic Thereare,ofcourse,manyrecordingsthatareexcellentexamplesofhomophonyorofpolyphony,butmany greatworkschangetextureoften,inordertobemoreinteresting.Monophonyisalittlehardertond,and heterophonyevenmoredicult.Belowarejustafeweasy-to-ndsuggestionsineachcategory. Monophony Hereisanexcerpt 11 fromJamesRomig's 12 Sonnet2,playedbyJohnMcMurtery.Recordingsof unaccompaniedute,particularlybyAsianorNativeAmericanartists,arealsorelativelyeasytond. AsuiteforunaccompaniedcelloorsonataforunaccompaniedviolinbyJ.S.Bach. Gregorianchant Singsomethingforthemwithoutaccompaniment,orhavethemsingtogetherthemelodyofasong theyallknow. Longsectionsof"ThePeoplethatWalkedinDarkness"ariainHandel's"Messiah"aremonophonic theinstrumentsareplayingthesamelineasthevoice.ApparentlyHandelassociatesmonophony with"walkingindarkness"! Homophony AclassicScottJoplinragsuchas"PeacherineRag"or"TheEasyWinners" The"graduationmarch"sectionofEdwardElgar's"PompandCircumstanceNo.1" The"MarchoftheToreadors"fromBizet's Carmen No.1"Granada"ofAlbeniz'SuiteEspanolaforguitar,andmanyotherworksforsoloclassicalguitar Ifthestudentshavebeenlearningavocalpiecewithmelodyandharmony,havethemsingitwithboth parts Thelatesthittunebyamajorpopsolovocalist Awell-knownchoirsingingahymnorChristmastune Theopeningsectionofthe"Overture"OfHandel's"Messiah"Thesecondsectionoftheovertureis polyphonic 10 "WhatKindofMusicisThat?" 11 http://cnx.org/content/m14260/latest/sonnet2exc.mp3 12 http://www.jamesromig.com

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71 MostIndianClassicalmusicishomophonic. Polyphony Pachelbel'sCanon Anythingtitled"fugue","invention","round",or"canon" Havethestudentssingaroundtheyknow,inatleasttwoparts Thenal"Amen"chorusofHandel's"Messiah";manyofthechorusesofthemessiahmovebackand forthbetweenhomophonyandpolyphony. ThetriostrainofSousa's"StarsandStripesForever",withthefamouspiccolocountermelody The"OneDayMore"chorusfromthemusical"LesMiserables" TherstmovementofHolst's1stSuiteforMilitaryBand Heterophony Thereissomeheterophonywithsomeinstrumentsplayingmoreornamentsthanothersin"Donulmez Aksamin"andin"UrfaliyimEzelden"ontheTurkishMusic 13 page. Theperformanceof"LonesomeValley"bytheFaireldFouronthe"OBrother,WhereArtThou" soundtrackisquiteheterophonic.Old-stylebluesowesmoretoAfricanthantoWesterntraditions. ThistextureisalsocommonintheBluegrass,"mountainmusic",Cajun,andZydecotraditions.Look fortunesinwhichthemelodyisbeingplayedbymorethanoneinstrumentsayddleandbanjoat thesametime,witheachaddingitsownornamentsandourishes Ifthestudentsallknowapoptunebuthavenotbeenrehearsingittogether,askthemtosingit together.Theresultisverylikelytobeagoodexampleofheterophony. Indonesian gamelan musicisoftenheterophonic,withdierentkindsofinstrumentsplayingdierent versionsofthesamemelodyatthesametime,butitcanbedicultforsomeoneunaccustomedtothis styleofmusictohearthatthatiswhatishappening.Ifyouusesome gamelan examples,makesure theheterophonyisclearlyaudible. Ifanyoneknowsofanyothergoodlinksoreasy-to-ndrecordingsofheterophony,orcansharean audioleofagoodexample,pleasecontactme. 3.3AnIntroductiontoCounterpoint 14 3.3.1Introduction Counterpointisanimportantelementofmusic,butitisnotoneofthebasicelements.Manypiecesof musichaverhythmSection1.1,melodySection2.2.1,harmonySection2.3.1,colorSection2.1.1,and textureSection3.1,butnorealcounterpoint.Infact,whendescribingthetextureofapieceofmusic,two ofthemostimportantquestionsthatneedtobeaddressedare:istherecounterpoint,andhowimportantis it? Whenthereis morethanoneindependentmelodiclinehappeningatthesametime inapiece ofmusic,wesaythatthemusicis contrapuntal .Theindependentmelodiclinesarecalled counterpoint Themusicthatismadeupofcounterpointcanalsobecalled polyphony ,oronecansaythatthemusicis polyphonic orspeakofthe polyphonictexture ofthemusic.Traditionally,vocalmusicismorelikelyto bedescribedas polyphony andinstrumentalmusicismorelikelytobedescribedas counterpoint .Butall ofthesetermsrefertotwoormoreindependent,simultaneousmelodies."Simultaneous"meansthemelodies arehappeningatthesametime."Independent"meansthatatanygivenmomentwhatishappeninginone melodybothintherhythmsSection1.1andinthepitches 15 isprobablynotthesamethingthatis happeningintheothermelody. 13 http://www.focusmm.com/turkey/tr_musmn.htm 14 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat. 15 "Pitch:Sharp,Flat,andNaturalNotes"

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72 CHAPTER3.COMBININGTIMEANDPITCH First,someexamplesofmusicthatis not counterpoint.Obviously,thereisnocounterpointifthereis nomelodyatall.Ifthereisonemelodiclineaccompaniedonlybyrhythm,ordrones,oronlybychords, thereisnocounterpoint. Evenifdierentpeoplearesingingorplayingdierentparts,itisnotnecessarilyconsideredcounterpoint ifthepartsarenotindependentenough,orifoneofthepartsisveryclearlyadominatingmelody.Many traditionalchoralpiecesareagoodexampleofthis.Therearefourverydierentsingingpartssoprano,alto, tenor,andbass,andeachpart,sungalone,canseemlikeitsownmelody,amelodythatdoesnotsoundat alllikethemelodyofthepiece.Butthepartshavebasicallythesamerhythms,sothattheeect,whensung together,isofchordsbeingsung."Barbershop"-stylemusicisanothergoodexampleofthishomophonic Section3.1.2.2:Homophonic,orchordal,kindoftexture,whichisnotconsideredcounterpoint. Nowforsomefamiliarexamplesofcounterpoint.Oneofthesimplestandmostfamiliartypesofcounterpointistheround.Ina round ,everyonesingsthesamemelody,buttheystartsingingitatdierent times.Althougheveryoneissingingexactlythesametune,atanyparticulartimedierentpeoplewillbe singingdierentpartsofit,sothenaleectisofindependentparts.YoumayalsohaveheardsomeBach fuguesorinventions;therearenobetterexamplesofcounterpointthanthese.Anotherexamplethatmay befamiliaristhesoloistinapoporgospelsongwho,aftertherefrainhasbeenrepeatedafewtimes,takes oonacountermelodyordescantp.72partwhileeveryoneelsecontinuestosingtherefrain.Themelody instrumentsinadixielandbandarealsogenerallyplayingindependentparts,givingthisgenreits"busy" sound.Infact,whenmusicsoundsvery"busy"or"complex"orwhenthereissomuchgoingonthatit getsdiculttodecidewherethemelodyisorwhatparttosingalongwith,itislikelythatyouarehearing counterpoint. Althoughthereisplentyofmusicthathasnocounterpoint,independentpartsareoneofthemostbasic waystomakemusicsoundrichandinteresting.Evenifapieceofmusiccannotreallybecalled"counterpoint" or"polyphony",becauseitclearlyhasonemelody,theaccompanimentAccompaniment,p.54linesmay stillbequitecontrapuntal.EvenmusicthatmostpeoplewoulddescribeashomophonicSection3.1.2.2: HomophonicorchordalChords,p.53,becauseallthelineshaveexactlythesamerhythm,isoftenwritten followingthevoice-leadingrulesofcounterpoint.Thisgivesthemusicamuchricher,moreinterestingtexture Section3.1.Nexttimeyouarelisteningtoyourfavoritesongoryourfavoritepieceofmusic,don'thum alongwiththemelody.Instead,listentothebassline.ListentotheharmoniesSection2.3.1,theinner voicesAccompaniment,p.54andtheinstrumentalaccompanimentparts.Chancesarethatyouwillhear someinterestinglines,evenlittlepiecesofmelody,thatarecompletelydierentfromthepartyounormally hear. 3.3.2SomeUsefulTerms Canon -Inacanon,dierentvoicesorinstrumentssingorplaythesamemelody,withnochanges, butatdierenttimes.Themelodyisusuallysungatthesamepitchoranoctave 16 higherorlower, buttherearealsocanonsinwhichthesecondpartsingsorplaysthemelodyaperfectfourthorfth 17 higherorlowerthantherstpart. Round -Inacanon,obviouslyeverysectionofthecanonmust"t"withthesectionthatcomesafter it.Inotherwords,theymustsoundgoodwhensungorplayedatthesametime.Aroundisaspecial typeofcanoninwhichthelastsectionalsotswiththerstsection,sothatthecanoncanberepeated overandoverwithoutstopping.Roundsareusuallyprettyshortandalwaysstartatthesamenote, ortheoctave. Fugue -Afugueusuallyhasatleastthreeindependentparts,or voices .Thedierentvoicesenterat dierenttimesonthesamemelodicthemecalledthe subject ,sothatthebeginningmaysoundlikea canon.Butthenthedierentvoicesdevelopthethemeindierentdirections.Asecondmelodictheme calledthe countersubject isusuallyintroduced,andthemiddleofthefuguegetsquiteintricate, withthesubjectandcountersubjectpoppinginandoutofvariousvoices,sometimesinsurprisingways 16 "OctavesandtheMajor-MinorTonalSystem" 17 "Interval"

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73 upside-down,forexample. Countermelodyordescant -Sometimesapieceofmusicthatisbasicallymelody-withaccompanimenthomophonicwillincludeasinglepartthatistrulyindependentofthemelody.For example,achoralpiecemightbechordalforafewversesandthen,tokeepthemusicinterestingand fresh,addanindependentpartforauteorforthehighestsopranosonthethirdverse.Thisisa countermelody,sometimescalledadescantpart.Gospelandpopsingersoftenaddcountermelodies, sometimesimrovised,andclassicalmusicalsocontainsmany,manyexamplesofcountermelodies. 3.4CounterpointActivities 18 3.4.1Introduction Herearelessonplansforalistening/discussionactivity,ListeningForCounterpointSection3.4.2:ListeningforCounterpointandtwosingingactivitiesRoundsSection3.4.3:RoundsandCountermelodies Section3.4.4:Countermelodiesdesignedtointroducechildrentothemusicalelementcalledcounterpoint Section3.3.Theactivitiesmaybeusedtogetherorseparately. GoalsandRequirements Goals -ThestudentwillunderstandtheappropriatemusicaltermsandconceptsregardingcounterpointSection3.3,beabletoidentifythemwhenheardinmusic,andparticipateinsingingthat containscounterpoint. GradeLevel -preK-12adaptable TeacherExpertise -Teachertraininginmusiceducationisnotnecessarytopresenttheseactivities. Theteachershouldbefamiliarandcomfortablewiththetermsandconceptsregardingcounterpoint Section3.3.Toleadthesingingactivities,theteachershouldbeabletosingeachpartindependently andwithcondence. Follow-up -Continuethroughouttherestoftheschoolyeartointroducemusicwithcounterpointfor thestudentstolistentoandperform. 3.4.2ListeningforCounterpoint ObjectivesandAssessment Objectives -Whilelisteningtorecordingsofavarietyofmusic,thestudentwillaccuratelyassess whethereachexampleiscontrapuntalornot. MusicStandardsAddressed -NationalStandardsforMusicEducation 19 standard6listeningto, analyzing,anddescribingmusic. StudentPrerequisites -Whenlisteningtomusic,thestudentsshouldbeabletorecognizethe melody. TimeRequirements -20-40minutes,dependingonthenumberoftermsintroducedandthenumber andlengthofexamples. Extensions -ForyoungerstudentsorstudentsunfamiliarwithClassicalmusic,chooseshort,simple,andveryclearexamples.olderormoremusicallyadvancedstudents,youmaychooselongerand morecomplexexamples.Formoreofachallenge,youmayalsotointroducetheconceptsofrounds Section3.3.2:SomeUsefulTerms,canonsSection3.3.2:SomeUsefulTerms,and/orfuguesSection3.3.2:SomeUsefulTerms,andaskthestudentstodecidewhichofthecounterpointexamples fallintothesecategories. 18 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat. 19 http://menc.org/resources/view/national-standards-for-music-education

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74 CHAPTER3.COMBININGTIMEANDPITCH Evaluation -Assessstudentsonactiveparticipationinthediscussionandonaccurateuseoftheterms andcorrectidenticationofexamples. MaterialsandPreparation YouwillneedaCDortapeplayer Gatherthemusicalexamplestoplay.Knowthetracknumbersorhavethetapesreadytoplayatthe rightspot. Suggestions:ContrapuntalMusic Pachelbel'sCanon Anypieceofmusictitled"Fugue","Invention","Canon",or"Round" Muchbutnotall!ofJ.S.Bach'smusic. Handel's"Messiah"hasmanyexamplesbothofmusicthatiscontrapuntalandmusicthatisnot contrapuntal. Dixielandjazz ManyofJ.PSousa'smarcheshaveveryaudiblecounterpoint,inthelowbrassforexample,orinthe piccolopartof"starsandStripesForever". Suggestions:MusicthatisnotContrapuntal Mosthymnsandcarols Mostbarbershopmusic MostclassicragtimeScottJoplin'srags,forexample,andmostswing-erajazz Mostmusicforanunaccompaniedclassicalguitar,foroneunaccompaniedbagpipesoraccordion,for anunaccompaniedsingerorstring,woodwind,orbrassplayer plainchantGregorianchant,forexample Mostpopularmusicandfolkmusic MostoftheclassicalmusicofIndia Procedure 1.Playacoupleofyourchosennon-counterpointexamples.Pointoutthatthereisonlyonemelody.See iftheycansingalongwithit. 2.Introducethetermsthatyouwishthestudentstolearn;thesetermsmayinclude counterpoint contrapuntal polyphony polyphonic round canon fugue or countermelody .SeeIntroduction toCounterpointSection3.3. 3.Playacoupleofyourchosenconterpointexamples.Askthemiftheycanhearmorethanonemelody atthesametime.Pointoutthedierentvoicesasbestyoucan;iftheyareenteringoneatatime, asinPachelbel'sCanon,pointouttheentrances.Ifthepartsaresingable,canyouortheysing alongwiththemelodiesofthedierentparts?Ifyouareintroducingtheseterms,pointoutwhichof yourexamplesarerounds/canonscompletelyimitative,fuguespartlyimitative,ornon-imitative counterpoint. 4.Nowplaytherestofyourexamplesandaskthemtoidentifywhethereachiscontrapuntalornot.If theclasshasdiscussedrounds,canons,fugues,andcountermelodies,cantheyidentifyanyofthesein theexamples? 3.4.3Rounds ObjectivesandAssessment Objectives -Thestudentswilllearnthemelodyofaroundandsingit,rstalltogetherasasingle group,andthenbrokenintosmallergroups,witheachgroupsingingonepartoftheround. MusicStandardsAddressed -NationalStandardsforMusicEducation 20 standard1singing,alone 20 http://menc.org/resources/view/national-standards-for-music-education

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75 andwithothers,avariedrepertoireofmusic. StudentPrerequisites -Thestudentshouldbeabletosingatune,aspartofagroup,withaccurate pitchandrhythm. TimeRequirements -Ifthestudentsarelearninganewtune,thiswillworkbestifspreadoverseveral short-15-minutesessionsovertheperiodofaweekortwo.Earlysessionsshouldconcentrateon learningthetuneandsingingitwithcondence.Introduceandpracticetheroundaspectonlyafter thestudentsknowthesongwell.Thenumberofsessionswilldependonthestudents'abilityand experience,andthelengthanddicultyofthemusic. Evaluation -Assessstudentsonactiveparticipationinthesingingandabilitytoremainontheirpart whenotherpartsareintroduced. MaterialsandPreparation Choosetheroundstobetaught.Forveryyoungstudents,it'shardtobeattheoldstand-by'slike "Row,Row,RowyourBoat","ThreeBlindMice",and"FrereJaque".Forolderstudents,therewill besomeroundstochoosefrominalmostanychildren'ssing-alongbookforexample,thosepublished byyourchurchorscoutingorganization,orthe"SingAlong"bookinthe"WeeSing"series.Oryou mayusetheroundsbelow."HeyHo"iseasyenoughforevenyoungchildren;"DonaNobisPacem"is challengingenoughtobeinterestingtoolderstudents. Havecopiesforthestudentsofthewordsonly,orofthewordsandmusic,ifyouthinktheyareneeded. Ifyouwillbeuncomfortablesingingorplayingthemelodybyyourself,haveatapeandplayerfor thestudentstolistentoandsingalongwith.Ifatallpossible,ndaversionthatincludesthemelody inunisoneveryonesingingalltogetherwithouttheround.YoucanlistentothemelodyofHeyHo 21 orDonaNobisPacem 22 here. 21 http://cnx.org/content/m14261/latest/HeyHo.mid 22 http://cnx.org/content/m14261/latest/DonaNobis.mid

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76 CHAPTER3.COMBININGTIMEANDPITCH aHeyHo bDonaNobisPacem Figure3.2 Procedure 1.Askthestudentsiftheyknowwhataroundis.Letthemexplainhowaroundworksiftheycan;if not,youexplain.SeeCounterpointforEveryoneSection3.3.2:SomeUsefulTerms. 2.Ifappropriate,introducetheterm counterpoint and/or canon .Explainthatincounterpoint,there ismorethanonemelodyhappeningatthesametime.Tellyourstudentsthataroundorcanonisa specialtypeofcounterpoint:allthemelodiesareactuallythesame,butsincetheystartatdierent times,atanyparticulartimetheysounddierent. 3.Singorplayyourchosenroundforthestudents. 4.Singorplaytheroundrepeatedly,askingthestudentstojoininwithyouassoonastheycan.Sing italltogetherasmanytimesasnecessaryuntileveryonecansingthemelodycondently.Forvery youngstudents,thismaytakemorethanonesession. 5.Onceeveryoneisverycomfortablewiththemelody,trybreakingintotwogroupsandsingingthesong asaround.Group2startssingingatthebeginningwhenGroup1reachesthe"2"markedinthemusic. Ifthatgoeswell,youcantrybreakingintomoregroups.Group3startssingingatthebeginningwhen Group1reachesthe"3"markedinthemusic. 3.4.4Countermelodies ObjectivesandAssessment Objectives -Asagroup,thestudentswilllearnthemelodyorcountermelodyofasong,andwillsing theirpartwhileanothergroupsingstheotherpart.

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77 MusicStandardsAddressed -NationalStandardsforMusicEducation 23 standard1singing,alone andwithothers,avariedrepertoireofmusic. StudentPrerequisites -Thestudentshouldbeabletosingatune,aspartofagroup,withaccurate pitchandrhythm. TimeRequirements -Ifthestudentsarelearninganewtune,thiswillworkbestifspreadoverseveral short-15-minutesessionsovertheperiodofaweekortwo.Earlysessionsshouldconcentrateon learningthepartsandsingingthemwithcondence.Tryputtingthemtogetheronlyafterthestudents knowbothpartswell.Thenumberofsessionswilldependonthestudents'abilityandexperience,and thelengthanddicultyofthemusic. Evaluation -Assessstudentsonactiveparticipationinthesingingandabilitytoremainontheirpart whenotherpartsareintroduced. AdaptationsandExtensions -Askyounger,musicallyinexperiencedstudentstolearnverysimple, repetitive,countermelodies.Askadvancedorgiftedstudentstolearnandbeabletodoeitherpartas required. MaterialsandPreparation Choosethesongtobetaught.Songswithcountermelodiescanbealittlehardertondthanrounds. Youarebasicallylookingforasongthathastwo independent partsnotjustaharmonytobesung atthesametime.Theymayhavethesamewords,butoftendonot.Ifyoucannotndasongwitha countermelody,youcanusetheIsraelifolksongincludedhere. Ifappropriate,havecopiesofthewordsorofthewordsandmusic,forthestudents. Bepreparedtosingorplayboththemelodyandthecountermelody.Ifyouareuncomfortablewith this,perhapsyoucanndorhavesomeonemakeatapetouseinstead.Thestudentswillneedto heareachpartseparately.Herearethechantmelody 24 ,theversemelody 25 ,andbothtogether 26 for "ZumGaliGali". 23 http://menc.org/resources/view/national-standards-for-music-education 24 http://cnx.org/content/m14261/latest/zggchant.mid 25 http://cnx.org/content/m14261/latest/zggverse.mid 26 http://cnx.org/content/m14261/latest/zggboth.mid

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78 CHAPTER3.COMBININGTIMEANDPITCH ZumGaliGali Figure3.3: Youmaywishtostartthechantbeforetheverses,havesomemeasuresofchantbetween theverses,andendwithjustchant;butofcoursethe countermelody happenswhenyousingthechant atthesametimeastheverse. Procedure 1.Ifyouareteachingtermstoyourstudents,explainthatcountermelodiesarealsocounterpoint.But theyaredierentfromroundsbecausethecountermelodyisnotthesameasthemelody.Itisa completelydierenttunesungatthesametime. 2.Chooseagroupofstudentstolearnthemelodyandagrouptolearnthecountermelody.Thisoften worksbestifthestudentssingingthecountermelodyarefewerinnumberbutarethemorecondent singers. 3.Leteachgroupheartheirpartseparately,andletthempracticeseparately,also.Ifeveryoneispresent fortheentirerehearsal,youcanencouragethemtolearneachother'spartssotheydon'tgetbored. 4.Whenbothgroupsarecondentwiththeirparts,havethemsingtogether.

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79 3.5ForminMusic 27 3.5.1FormistheBasicStructure Everypieceofmusichasanoverallplanorstructure,the"bigpicture",sotospeak.Thisiscalledthe form ofthemusic. Itiseasytorecognizeandgrasptheformofsomethings,becausetheyaresmallandsimple,likeagrain ofsalt,orrepetitive,likeawallmadeofbricksofthesamesize.Otherformsareeasytounderstandbecause theyaresofamiliar;ifyouseedogsmoreoftenthanyoudoseacucumbers,itshouldbeeasierforyouto recognizetheformofanunfamiliardogthanofanunfamiliarseacucumber.Otherthings,likeaforest ecosystem,orthestructureofagovernment,aresocomplexthattheyhavetobeexploredorstudiedbefore theirstructurecanbeunderstood. Musicalformsoeragreatrangeofcomplexity.Mostlistenerswillquicklygrasptheformofashort andsimplepiece,orofonebuiltfrommanyshortrepetitions.Itisalsoeasiertorecognizefamiliarmusical forms.TheaverageAmerican,forexample,candistinguisheasilybetweentheversesandrefrainofanypop song,butwillhavetroublerecognizingwhatisgoingoninapieceofmusicforBalinesegamelan.Classical musictraditionsaroundtheworldtendtoencouragelonger,morecomplexformswhichmaybedicultto recognizewithoutthefamiliaritythatcomesfromstudyorrepeatedhearings. Youcanenjoymusicwithoutrecognizingitsform,ofcourse.Butunderstandingtheformofapiecehelps amusicianputtogetheramorecredibleperformanceofit.Anyoneinterestedinmusictheoryorhistory,or inarrangingorcomposingmusic,musthavearmunderstandingofform.Andbeingableto"seethebig picture"doeshelpthelistenerenjoythemusicevenmore. 3.5.2DescribingForm Musicianstraditionallyhavetwowaystodescribetheformofapieceofmusic.Onewayinvolveslabelling eachlargesectionwithaletter.Theotherwayistosimplygiveanametoaformthatisverycommon. 3.5.2.1LabellingFormWithLetters Letterscanbeusedtolabeltheformofanypieceofmusic,fromthesimplesttothemostcomplex.Each majorsectionofthemusicislabelledwithaletter;forexample,therstsectionistheAsection.Ifthe secondsectionorthirdorfourthisexactlythesameastherst,itisalsolabelledA.Ifitisverymuchlike theAsection,butwithsomeimportantdierences,itcanbelabelledA'pronounced"Aprime".TheA' sectioncanalsoshowuplaterinthepiece,oryetanothervariationofA,Apronounced"Adoubleprime" canshowup,andsoon. TherstmajorsectionofthepiecethatisverydierentfromAislabelledB,andothersectionsthat arelikeitcanbelabelledB,B',B,andsoon.SectionsthatarenotlikeAorBarelabelledC,andsoon. Howdoyourecognizethesections?Withfamiliarkindsofmusic,thisisprettyeasy.SeeFigure3.4Some FamiliarFormsforsomeexamplesofformsthatwillbefamiliartomostlisteners.Withunfamiliartypesof music,itcanbemoreofachallenge.Whetherthemusicisclassical,modern,jazz,orpop,listenforrepeated sectionsofmusic.Also,listenforbigchanges,intherhythmSection1.1,melodySection2.2.1,harmony Section2.3.1,textureSection3.1,andtimbreSection2.1.1.Anewsectionthatisnotarepetitionwill usuallyhavenoticeabledierencesinmorethanoneoftheseareas.Foranexcellentdiscussionofform,with plentyofchancestopracticehearingthebeginningsofnewsections,pleaseseeProfessorBrandt'sSound Reasoning 28 course.Inparticular,MusicalForm 29 dealswithrecognizingwhensomethingnewisbeing introducedA/BinsteadofAonly,andTime'sEectontheMaterial 30 dealswithrecognizingwhena sectionreappearschangedA',B',orA. 27 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat. 28 SoundReasoning 29 "MusicalForm" 30 "Time'sEectontheMaterial"

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80 CHAPTER3.COMBININGTIMEANDPITCH SomeFamiliarForms Figure3.4: Mostfolkandpopularmusicfeaturessimpleformsthatencourageparticipation. Exercise3.1 Solutiononp.87. Practiceidentifyingsomeeasymusicalforms.Picksomefavoritesongsandlistentoeachrepeatedly untilyouaresatisedthatyouhaveidentieditsfullformusinglettersandprimes.Comparethe formsofthetunestospotsimilaritiesanddierences. Listenfor:

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81 Verses havethesamemelodybutdierentwords. Refrains havethesamemelodyandthesamewords. BridgeSections arenewmaterialthatappearslateinthesong,usuallyappearingonlyonce ortwice,ofteninplaceofaverseandusuallyleadingintotherefrain.Youmaywanttonote thedierences-andthesimilarity-intheuseoftheterm bridge bypopularmusiciansand jazzmusicians;seebelowSomeCommonForms,p.82. Instrumentals areimportantsectionsthathavenovocals.Theycancomeatthebeginning orend,orinbetweenothersections.Istheremorethanone?Dotheyhavethesamemelody asaverseorrefrain?Aretheysimilartoeachother? Whilediscussingapieceofmusicindetail,musiciansmayalsouseletterstolabelsmallerpartsofthe piecewithinlargersections,evendowntolabellingindividualphrasesSection2.2.1.4:MelodicPhrases. Forexample,thesong"TheGirlILeftBehind"hasmanyverseswithnorefrain,anAA'A-typeform. However,alookFigure3.5:PhraseStructurein"TheGirlILeftBehind"atthetuneofoneverseshows thatwithinthatoverallformisanAA'BAphrasestructure. PhraseStructurein"TheGirlILeftBehind" Figure3.5: Indetaileddiscussionsofapieceofmusic,smallersections,andevenindividualphrases, mayalsobelabelledwithletters,inordertodiscussthepieceingreaterdetail.TheAABAformof thisverseisverycommon,foundinversesofeverythingfromfolktojazztopopmusic.Versesofblues songsaremorelikelytohaveanAA'Bform. Exercise3.2 Solutiononp.87. Nowtrylabelingthephrasesofaverseorarefrainofsomeofthesongsyoulistenedtoin Exercise3.1.Listenforphrasesthatusesimilarmelodies.Sometimes,butnotalways,theyeven usethesamewords.HowmanyofyourrefrainsandverseswerebasicallyAABA?Whatwere theothers?

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82 CHAPTER3.COMBININGTIMEANDPITCH 3.5.2.2NamingForms Oftenamusicalformbecomessopopularwithcomposersthatitisgivenaname.Forexample,ifapieceof musiciscalleda"themeandvariations",itisexpectedtohaveanoverallplanquitedierentfromapiece calleda"rondo".Specically,thethemeandvariationswouldfollowanAA'AA'...plan,witheach sectionbeinganewvariationonthethemeintherstsection.ArondofollowsanABACA...plan,with afamiliarsectionreturninginbetweensectionsofnewmusic. Also,manygenresofmusictendtofollowapresetform,likethe"typicalpopsongform"inFigure3.4 SomeFamiliarForms.A symphony ,forexample,isusuallyapieceofmusicwrittenforafairlylarge numberofinstruments.Itisalsoassociatedwithaparticularform,soknowingthatapieceofmusicis calledasymphonyshouldleadyoutoexpectcertainthingsaboutit.Forexample,listenersfamiliarwiththe symphonicformexpectapiececalledasymphonytohavethreeorfourdependingonwhenitwaswritten mainsections,called movements .Theyexpectamomentofsilenceinbetweenmovements,andalsoexpect themovementstosoundverydierentfromeachother;forexampleiftherstmovementisfastandloud, theymightexpectthatthesecondmovementwouldbeslowandquiet.Iftheyhaveheardmanysymphonies, theyalsowouldnotbeatallsurprisediftherstmovementisinsonataformandthethirdmovementis basedonadance. note: Althoughalargegroupofpeoplewhoplayclassicalmusictogetherisoftencalledasymphony,themoreaccuratetermforthegroupis orchestra .Theconfusionoccursbecausemany orchestrascallthemselves"symphonyorchestras"becausetheyspendsomuchtimeplayingsymphoniesasopposedto,forexample,an"operaorchestra"ora"popsorchestra". Otherkindsofmusicarealsosolikelytofollowaparticularoverallplanthattheyhavebecomeassociated withaparticularform.Youcanhearmusicianstalkaboutsomethingbeingconcertoformorsonataform, forexampleevenifthepieceisnottechnicallyaconcertoorsonata.Particulardancesaminuet,for example,besideshavingasettempoSection1.5andtimesignature 31 ,willsometimeshaveasetform thatsuitsthedancesteps.Andmanymarchesaresimilarenoughinformthattherearenamesforthe expectedsectionsrststrain,secondstrain,trio,breakstrain. Butitisimportanttorememberthatformsarenotsetsofrulesthatcomposersarerequiredtofollow. Somesymphoniesdon'thavesilencebetweenmovements,andsomedon'tusethesonataforminanyoftheir movements.Plentyofmarcheshavebeenwrittenthatdon'thaveatriosection,andthedevelopmentsection ofasonatamovementcantakeunexpectedturns.Andhybridforms,likethesonatarondo,canbecome popularwithsomecomposers.Afterall,inarchitecture,"house"formsuggeststomostAmericansafront andbackdoor,adiningroomothekitchen,andbedroomswithclosets,butanarchitectisfreetoleaveout thediningroom,andputthemaindooratthesideofthehouseandtheclosetsinthebathrooms.Whether apieceofmusicisamarch,asonata,orathemeandvariations,thecomposerisalwaysfreetoexperiment withtheoverallarchitectureofthepiece. Beingabletospotthatoverallarchitectureaswelisten-knowing,sotospeak,whichroomwearein rightnow-givesusimportantcluesthathelpusunderstandandappreciatethemusic. SomeCommonForms Through-composed -Onesectionusuallynotverylongthatdoesnotcontainanylargerepetitions. Ifashortpieceincludesrepeatedphrases,itmaybeclassiedbythestructureofitsphrases. Strophic -Composedofverses.Themusicisrepeatedsectionswithfairlysmallchanges.Mayormay notincludearefrainp.80. Variations -Onesectionrepeatedmanytimes.Mostcommonly,themelodyremainsrecognizablein eachsection,andtheunderlyingharmonicstructure 32 remainsbasicallythesame,butbigchangesin rhythmSection1.1,tempoSection1.5,textureSection3.1,ortimbreSection2.1.1keepeach sectionsoundingfreshandinteresting.Writingasetofvariationsisconsideredanexcellentexercise forstudentsinterestedincomposing,arranging,andorchestration. 31 "TimeSignature" 32 "BeginningHarmonicAnalysis"

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83 Jazzstandardsongform -Jazzutilizesmanydierentforms,butoneverycommonformisclosely relatedtothestrophicandvariationforms.AchordprogressionChords,p.53inAABAform withtheBsectioncalledthebridgep.80isrepeatedmanytimes.Ontherstandlastrepetition, themelodyisplayedorsung,andsoloistsimproviseduringtheotherrepetitions.Theoverallformof verse-likerepetition,withthemelodyplayedonlytherstandnaltimes,andimprovisationsonthe otherrepetitions,isverycommoninjazzevenwhentheAABAsongformisnotbeingused. Rondo -Onesectionreturnsrepeatedly,withasectionofnewmusicbeforeeachreturn.ABACA ;sometimesABACABA Danceforms -Danceformsusuallyconsistofrepeatedsectionssothereisplentyofmusictodance to,witheachsectioncontainingasetnumberofmeasures 33 oftenfour,eight,sixteen,orthirty-two thattsthedancesteps.SomeverystructureddanceformsMinuet,forexampleareassociated evenwithparticularphraseSection2.2.1.4:MelodicPhrasesstructuresandharmonicprogressions 34 withineachsection. BinaryForm -TwodierentmainsectionsAB.CommonlyinWestern 35 classicalmusic,theA sectionwillmoveawayfromthetonic 36 ,withastrongcadence 37 inanotherkey,andtheBsectionwill movebackandendstronglyinthetonic. TernaryForm -Threemainsections,usuallyABAorABA'. CyclicForm -Therearetwoverydierentusesofthisterm.Onereferstolongmultimovementworks a"songcycle",forexamplethathaveanoverarchingthemeandstructurebindingthemtogether.It mayalsorefertoasinglemovementorpieceofmusicwithaformbasedontheconstantrepetitionofa singleshortsection.Thismaybeanexactrepetition ostinato inonepartofthemusicforexample, thebassline,ortherhythmsection,whiledevelopment,variation,ornewmelodiesoccurinother parts.Oritmaybearepetitionthatgraduallychangesandevolves.Thisintense-repetitiontypeof cyclicformisverycommoninfolkmusicsaroundtheworldandoftenndsitswayintoclassicaland popularmusics,too. Sonataform -mayalsobecalledsonata-allegroorrst-movementform.Itisinfactoftenfound intherstmovementofasonata,butithasbeenanextremelypopularformwithmanywell-known composers,andsocanbefoundanywherefromtherstmovementofaquartettothenalmovementof asymphony.Inthisrelativelycomplexformtoocomplextooutlinehere,repetitionanddevelopment ofmelodicthemeswithinaframeworkofexpectedkeychangesallowthecomposertocreatealong movementthatisuniedenoughthatitmakessensetothelistener,butvariedenoughthatitdoes notgetboring. 3.6MusicFormActivities 38 3.6.1Introduction Theoverallstructureofapieceofmusicisoneofitsmostbasicandmostrevealingaspects.Musicmajors attheuniversitylevelstudytheformofimportantworksingreatdepthanddetail.Yetevenyoungchildren withlittlemusicalexperiencecanbegintograspthebasicprinciplesofforminmusic.Thiscanbepartof amusicclass,butitcanalsoberelatedtoidentifyingforminotherareassuchasmath,literature,andthe visualarts. DescribedbelowaresomeactivitiesintroducingtheconceptsofVersesSection3.6.2:Activity1:Verses, RefrainsSection3.6.3:Activity2:Refrains,ABFormsSection3.6.4:FurtherPracticeWithForm,and FormintheArts.YoucanndthebasicconceptsnecessaryatForminMusicSection3.5.Thecourse 33 "TimeSignature":SectionBeatsandMeasures 34 "BeginningHarmonicAnalysis" 35 "WhatKindofMusicisThat?" 36 "MajorKeysandScales" 37 "CadenceinMusic" 38 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat.

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84 CHAPTER3.COMBININGTIMEANDPITCH SoundReasoning 39 isagoodintroductiontomusicalform,andyoumayalsowanttoadaptsomeofthe exercisesinthatcourseforyourstudents. GoalsandAssessment Goals -Thestudentwilllearntoidentifysimplemusicformspresentedaurally. GradeLevel -K-12adaptable StudentPrerequisites -Studentsshouldbeabletorecognizeandrememberrepetitionsandlarge changesinbasicelementstextureSection3.1,timbreSection2.1.1,rhythmSection1.1,ormelody Section2.2.1,forexampleastheylistentomusic.Ifnecessary,simplypracticerecognizingrepeated andnewmaterial,beforedoingtheseexercises.ThecourseSoundReasoning 40 isrecommendedfor this. TeacherExpertise -Theteachershouldbefamiliarandcomfortablewiththetermsandconcepts regardingmusicalformSection3.5,andcondentandaccurateinrecognizingtheformspresented. MusicStandardsAddressed -NationalStandardsforMusicEducation 41 musicstandard6listening to,analyzing,anddescribingmusic.IfFormintheArtsisincluded,musicstandard8understanding relationshipsbetweenmusic,theotherarts,anddisciplinesoutsidetheartsisalsoaddressed. OtherSubjectsAddressed -YoumayusethesuggestionsinFormintheArtstodesignacrossdisciplinarylessonthatalsoaddresses visualarts languagearts ,or mathematics Evaluation -Forformalassessment,testthestudentsfollowingtheseactivitiesbyplayingmusicthat youhavenotyetanalyzedasaclass,andhavethestudentsidentifyonpaper:whethereachselection includesversesand/orrefrains,repeatedsectionsorthemewithvariations,and/orlargeABsections, andhowmanyofeach.Fortestingpurposes,keepselectionsshortandsimilarinformtotheselections analyzedinclass,andplayeachselectionatleasttwice. 3.6.2Activity1:Verses ObjectivesandExtensions TimeRequirements -Oneapproximately45-minuteclassperiod Objectives -Thestudentwilllistentoorperformseveralexamplesofvocalmusicconsistingofeither asinglemainsectionormultipleverses.Thestudentwillidentifytheformofthemusicandthe beginningofeachverse. Extensions -Forolderoradvancedstudents,includeexamplesfrominstrumentalmusicthatarealso simpleAormultiple-Aform.Thestudentwilllistentoexamplesofinstrumentalmusic,recognizing whethertheformisasinglesectionorexactorchangedmultiplerepeatsofasection,andwillidentify theformofthemusicusingthestandardA/Bmethod. MaterialsandPreparation Decidewhetheryouwilluserecordingsforthisactivityorhavethestudentssingsongstheyknow.A mixtureofbothwillbeveryeective.Choosesomesongsthathaveonlyonesectionone"verse", sotospeak;manynurseryrhymeshaveonlyonesection,asdoes"HappyBirthdaytoYou"..Also choosesomethathavemorethanoneverse,butdon'tincludeanysongswithrefrainsorchorusesin thisactivity.Ifyouwanttostretchthechildren'slisteningskills,includesomerecordingsofmusicthat isunfamiliar,butagainplayonlysongswithasinglesection,orversesonly,orinstrumentalmusicthat isonlyonesectionorasectionwithitsrepeat,sothatitsoundsliketwoverses.Marchesanddances areagoodsourceofmusicwithrepeatedsections.Ifyouthinkyourstudentswillbeabletohearthe "theme"initsnewdisguiseineachvariation,a"themeandvariations"isalsoaverygoodexampleof amultiple-A-sectionform. 39 SoundReasoning 40 41 http://menc.org/resources/view/national-standards-for-music-education

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85 Ifyouareusingrecordings,youwillneedatapeorCDplayer,andsomerecordingsofage-appropriate songs.Usesomesongsthatarefamiliartothemandsomethataren't.Havethetapesreadyatthe appropriatespot,orknowthetracknumbersontheCD. Procedure Tellyourstudentsthatthe form ofapieceofmusicisjustadescriptionorlistofthemainsections ofthemusic.Ifyourstudentsareoldenoughandexperiencedenough,youmayusethediscussion inForminMusicSection3.5.2.1:LabellingFormWithLetterstointroducetheideaoflabelling sectionswithletters. Askthestudentsiftheyknowwhataverseisinmusic.Theymayknowbuthavetroubleexplaining. Askiftheycansingmorethanoneverseofasong.Howaretheversesdierent?Usuallythewordsare dierent.Howaretheythesame?Usuallythemusicisthesame.Iftheycan'tansweranyquestions evenwithsomeprompting,explainthateachverseofasonghasthesamemelodybutdierentwords. Playarecordedsongwithmorethanoneverse,orhavethestudentssingasongtheyknow.Pointout tothemwheneachnewversestarts. Playmorerecordings,orsingtogethersomemoresongs,lettingthestudentspointoutwheneachnew versestartstheycanraisetheirhands,orclapatthebeginningofeachverse,forexample.Askthem tocounttheversesofeachsong,andtoidentifywhichsongshaveonlyoneverse. Ifyouincludeinstrumentalselections,askthestudentstoidentifysimilaritiesanddierencesbetween theinstrumentalandvocalmusic.Havethestudentsidentifythebeginningofsectionrepeats,or beginningsofnewvariations. IfyouareincludingadiscussionofA/Bforms,writetheformsofthesongsontheboardasyousing orlistentothem.VerseformswillmostlylooksomethinglikeAorAAAorAA'A;youcanlet yourstudentsdecidewhichversesaredierentenoughtogiveprimesp.79. 3.6.3Activity2:Refrains ObjectivesandExtensions TimeRequirements -Oneapproximately45-minuteclassperiod Objectives -Thestudentwilllistentoorperformseveralexamplesofvocalmusicconsistingofverses withacontrastingrefrain.Thestudentwillidentifytheformofthemusicandidentifyeachverseand refrain. Extensions -Forolderoradvancedstudents,includeexamplesfrominstrumentalmusicthatare alsosimpleA/BorrepeatedA/Bform.Thestudentwilllistentoexamplesofinstrumentalmusic, recognizingwhethertheformisasinglesectionA,twocontrastingsectionsABorexactorchanged multiplerepeatsofasingleideaAA'...,ormultiplerepeatsoftwocontrastingideasABA'B...,and willidentifytheformofthemusicusingthestandardA/Bmethod. MaterialsandPreparation Thepreparationforthisactivityisaboutthesameasforthepreviousactivity,butthistimechoose songsthathaverefrains.It'sbesttouserefrainsthataremusicallyverydierentfromtheverses dierentmelodySection2.2.1,chordprogressionChords,p.53,textureSection3.1,etc..It ismorediculttodrawparallelsbetweenversesandrefrainsandinstrumentalmusic,butyoumight playforyourstudentssomeinstrumentalmusicthathasasectionthatkeepsreturning,inbetween sectionsthataredierentfromeachother, rondo form,forexample,discussingthesimilaritiesand dierencesbetweenthisandvocal-musicrefrains. Procedure

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86 CHAPTER3.COMBININGTIMEANDPITCH Ifisisappropriate,usingthediscussioninForminMusicSection3.5.2.1:LabellingFormWith Lettersasanoutline,discusstheprocessoflabellingsectionsofmusic. Askthestudentsiftheyknowthedierencebetweenaverseandarefrainorchorusinmusic.Even iftheydoknow,theymayhavetroubleexplaining.Askiftheycangiveanexampleorsingtherefrain orchorusofasong.Iftheyhavenoidea,evenwithprompting,tellyourstudentsthatthewordsare thesameeachtimeyousinga refrain or chorus ,butthewordstoeachverseareusuallydierent. Singtogetherorplayarecordedsongforthem.Letthempointoutorpointoutforthemifnecessary wheneachverseandeachrefrainstarts. Continuetosingtogetherorplaymoresongs,lettingthemidentifytheversesandrefrains,untilthey candothiswithcondence.Youmayhavetoplayunfamiliarsongsforthemmorethanonce.They canraiseonehandduringaverseandtheotherduringarefrain,orclapatthebeginningofaverse andstompatthebeginningofarefrain,orsitforversesandstandupforrefrains. Askyourstudentswhytheythinksomesongshaverefrains?Everyonecanlearntherefrainandjoin inonit.Whydotheyhaveverses?Asongwithonlyrefrainswouldgetprettyboring. Ifthestudentscandotheaboveeasily,youcanincludeamoreformalstudyofmusicalform.Picka coupleofthesongsandputtheirformontheboardwithA'sandB's.Letthestudentsdecidewhether theversesandrefrainsaredierentenoughtogetdierentlettersinsomesongs,therefrainhasthe samemusicastheverses,andwhetherandwhenprimesneedtobeused.Doanyofthesongshavea bridgep.80,oraversethat'sdierentenoughthataCshouldbeused? 3.6.4FurtherPracticeWithForm Ifyourstudentsareoldenoughandexperiencedenoughwithmusic,trystretchingtheirabilitytoidentify formbygivingthemsomeunfamiliarmusicthatisnotinverseformorverse/refrainformsomeclassical musicforexample,ormusicfromanotherculture,andseeiftheycanidentifyA,B,andmaybeCsections. Youmaywishtoprepareashortlectureand/orhandoutsonthesubjectusingtheinformationinthecourse SoundReasoning 42 ,orinForminMusicSection3.5,oratleastremindthemthattheyarelisteningforbig changesinthemusictoidentifythebeginningofeachmainsection.YoucanusetheexamplesinMusical Form 43 orTime'sEectontheMaterial 44 ,orndyourownexamples. 3.6.5GeneralDiscussionofFormintheArts Ifyourstudentsarealsostudyingforminsomeothersubject-art,poetry,orstories,forexample,oreven geometry-includeadiscussionofhowformisthesameanddierentineachsubject.Dothepoetryforms theyarestudyinghaveanythingthatcomparabletotheversesorrefrainsofasong?Doesapaintingor storyeverhaveanythingthatactslikearefrainorarepeatedsection?Ifasongorotherpieceofmusictells astory,howdoesthataectitsform?Doesanythingaboutthesemusicalformsresemblegeometricforms inthewaythata"round"islikeacircle,forexample? 42 SoundReasoning 43 "MusicalForm" 44 "Time'sEectontheMaterial"

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87 SolutionstoExercisesinChapter3 SolutiontoExercise3.1p.80 Youranswerswilldependonthesongsyouchoose.Checkthemwithateacherifyoucan.Bringthemusic sotheteachercanlistentoitwhilecheckingyouranswers. SolutiontoExercise3.2p.81 Ifoneisavailable,haveamusicteachercheckyouranswers.

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88 INDEX IndexofKeywordsandTerms Keywords arelistedbythesectionwiththatkeywordpagenumbersareinparentheses.Keywords donotnecessarilyappearinthetextofthepage.Theyaremerelyassociatedwiththatsection. Ex. apples,1.1 Terms arereferencedbythepagetheyappearon. Ex. apples,1 A accents,1.7,18,1.9 accompaniment,54,2.3.3,2.3.5 activities,3.4 activity,1.2,1.819,2.2.2, 2.2.3,3.2 allegro,1.5 andante,1.5 antecedent,34 arpeggiated,56 arpeggiatedchords,53 arpeggios,53 attack,27 B bar,1.1 bassline,54 beat,1.1,1,1 blockchords,53,56 borroweddivision,6 bridge,81 broken,56 C cadence,2.3.1,53 canon,3.3,3.4,74,76 cell,2.2.1,35,35 cells,44 chordprogression,2.3.1,53 chordal,2.3.3 chords,2.3.1,53,53,2.3.3 chorus,3.5,3.6,86 chromatic,54 clause,2.2.4 color,2.1.1,27,27,2.1.2 compose,2.2.5 composition,2.2.5 compound,6 conjunct,32 conjunctmotion,39 consequent,34 contour,32 contrapuntal,3.1,66,3.3,71,74 countermelody,3.4,74,78 counterpoint,53,3.1,66,3.3,71, 71,3.4,74,76 countersubject,72 D descant,54 diatonic,54 disjunct,32 disjunctmotion,39 dissonance,54 drone,2.3.2,56 drones,2.3.1,53 duple,6 dynamics,1.7,16,1.8,1.9 E embellishments,32 English,2.2.4 F gure,2.2.1,35,35 form,3.5,79,3.6,85 forte,1.7 fugue,3.3,3.4,74 G grammar,2.2.4 grave,1.5 H harmonicrhythm,53 harmonics,2.1.2 harmony,2.3.1,52,2.3.2, 2.3.3,2.3.4,2.3.5 heterophonic,3.1,66 heterophony,3.1,66,3.2 homophonic,2.3.1,2.3.3, 2.3.4,2.3.5,3.1,66 homophony,2.3.1,53,2.3.3, 2.3.4,2.3.5,3.1,66,3.2 homorhythmic,2.3.5,61 I impliedharmony,2.3.1,52 improvisation,2.2.5 improvise,2.2.5 innerparts,54 innervoices,54 instruments,2.1.2

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INDEX 89 L language,2.2.5 languagearts,2.2.4 larghetto,1.5 largo,1.5 legato,39 leitmotif,36 lento,1.5 lessonplan,1.2,2.2.2,2.2.3, 3.2,3.4 M measure,1.1 Measureorbar,1 melodic,2.2.1 melodiccontour,2.2.3 melodicline,32,54 melodicphrase,2.2.4 melodicshape,2.2.3 melody,2.2.1,32,2.2.2, 2.2.3,2.2.4 meter,1.3,5,6,1.4 metronome,1.5,12,1.6 monody,3.1,65 monophonic,3.1,65 monophony,3.1,65,3.2 motif,2.2.1,35,2.2.5 motiv,2.2.1,35,2.2.5 motive,2.2.1,35,35,2.2.5 movements,82 moviemusic,2.2.5 moviescore,2.2.5 music,1.1,1.2,1.3,1.4, 1.5,1.6,1.7,1.8, 1.9,2.1.1,2.1.2,2.2.1, 2.2.2,2.2.3,2.3.1,2.3.4, 3.1,3.2,3.3,3.4, 3.5,3.6 musicalinstruments,2.1.1 N nationalartstandard2,2.2.3 nationalartstandard6,2.1.2,2.2.3 nationaldancestandard1,1.4,1.6, 2.2.3 nationaldancestandard2,1.4,2.2.3 nationalEnglishstandard2,2.2.4 nationalEnglishstandard3,2.2.3, 2.2.4 nationalEnglishstandard6,2.2.4 nationalmusicstandard1,1.6,1.8, 2.2.2,2.2.4,3.4 nationalmusicstandard2,1.2,1.615, 2.2.4 nationalmusicstandard3,2.2.5 nationalmusicstandard4,2.2.5 nationalmusicstandard5,1.2,1.4, 1.9 nationalmusicstandard6,1.2,1.4, 1.8,2.1.2,2.2.2,2.2.3, 2.2.4,2.2.5,3.2,3.4, 3.6 nationalmusicstandard7,2.1.2 nationalmusicstandard8,2.1.2, 2.2.3,2.2.4,3.6 nationalmusicstandard9,1.2, 2.1.2,2.2.3,2.2.5,3.2 O Othebeat,1 Onthebeat,1 onthedownbeat,1 opera,2.2.5 orchestra,82 ornaments,32 ostinato,83 P parallel,2.3.4,59 parallelharmony,53,59 percussion,1.2 phrase,2.2.1,33,2.2.4 piano,1.7 polyphonic,3.1,66,3.3,71,74 polyphonictexture,71 polyphony,53,3.1,66,3.2, 3.3,71,71,74 presto,1.5 Q quadruple,6 R refrain,3.5,3.6,86 rhythm,1.1,1,1.2,1.35,1.4, 1.5,1.9 rhythmsection,1.1,2 rondo,85 round,72,3.4,74 rounds,3.3 S scalar,32 sentence,2.2.4 shape,32 simple,6 staccato,39 step-wise,32 strophe,3.6 subject,2.2.1,36,72 symphony,3.5,82 Syncopation,2

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90 INDEX T tempo,1.5,12,1.6 texture,3.1,65,3.2 theme,2.2.1,36,2.2.546 themes,37 timbre,2.1.1,27,27,2.1.2,28,30 timesignature,1.3,1.4,1.5 tone,27 tonequality,27 triple,6 U upbeat,1 V verse,3.5,3.6 vivace,1.5 voices,72

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ATTRIBUTIONS 91 Attributions Collection: TheBasicElementsofMusic Editedby:CatherineSchmidt-Jones URL:http://cnx.org/content/col10218/1.7/ License:http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/1.0 Module:"Rhythm" By:CatherineSchmidt-Jones URL:http://cnx.org/content/m11646/1.4/ Pages:1-2 Copyright:CatherineSchmidt-Jones License:http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/1.0 Module:"SimpleRhythmActivities" By:CatherineSchmidt-Jones URL:http://cnx.org/content/m14258/1.6/ Pages:2-5 Copyright:CatherineSchmidt-Jones License:http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/ Module:"MeterinMusic" By:CatherineSchmidt-Jones URL:http://cnx.org/content/m12405/1.7/ Pages:5-7 Copyright:CatherineSchmidt-Jones License:http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/1.0 Module:"MusicalMeterActivities" By:CatherineSchmidt-Jones URL:http://cnx.org/content/m13616/1.5/ Pages:7-12 Copyright:CatherineSchmidt-Jones License:http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/ Module:"Tempo" By:CatherineSchmidt-Jones URL:http://cnx.org/content/m11648/1.6/ Pages:12-14 Copyright:CatherineSchmidt-Jones License:http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/1.0 Module:"ATempoActivity" By:CatherineSchmidt-Jones URL:http://cnx.org/content/m14180/1.5/ Pages:15-16 Copyright:CatherineSchmidt-Jones License:http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/

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92 ATTRIBUTIONS Module:"DynamicsandAccentsinMusic" By:CatherineSchmidt-Jones URL:http://cnx.org/content/m11649/1.7/ Pages:16-19 Copyright:CatherineSchmidt-Jones License:http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/1.0 Module:"AMusicalDynamicsActivity" By:CatherineSchmidt-Jones URL:http://cnx.org/content/m13463/1.5/ Pages:19-21 Copyright:CatherineSchmidt-Jones License:http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/ Module:"AMusicalAccentActivity" By:CatherineSchmidt-Jones URL:http://cnx.org/content/m13462/1.6/ Pages:21-24 Copyright:CatherineSchmidt-Jones License:http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/ Module:"Timbre:TheColorofMusic" By:CatherineSchmidt-Jones URL:http://cnx.org/content/m11059/2.8/ Pages:27-28 Copyright:CatherineSchmidt-Jones License:http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/1.0 Module:"TimbreActivities" By:CatherineSchmidt-Jones URL:http://cnx.org/content/m14259/1.3/ Pages:28-31 Copyright:CatherineSchmidt-Jones License:http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/ Module:"Melody" By:CatherineSchmidt-Jones URL:http://cnx.org/content/m11647/1.7/ Pages:32-37 Copyright:CatherineSchmidt-Jones License:http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/1.0 Module:"AMelodyActivity" By:CatherineSchmidt-Jones URL:http://cnx.org/content/m11833/1.7/ Pages:37-39 Copyright:CatherineSchmidt-Jones License:http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/1.0 Module:"TheShapeofaMelody" By:CatherineSchmidt-Jones URL:http://cnx.org/content/m11832/1.4/ Pages:39-42 Copyright:CatherineSchmidt-Jones License:http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/1.0

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ATTRIBUTIONS 93 Module:"MelodicPhrases" By:CatherineSchmidt-Jones URL:http://cnx.org/content/m11879/1.4/ Pages:42-46 Copyright:CatherineSchmidt-Jones License:http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/1.0 Module:"ThemeandMotifinMusic" By:CatherineSchmidt-Jones URL:http://cnx.org/content/m11880/1.4/ Pages:46-52 Copyright:CatherineSchmidt-Jones License:http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/1.0 Module:"Harmony" By:CatherineSchmidt-Jones URL:http://cnx.org/content/m11654/1.7/ Pages:52-54 Copyright:CatherineSchmidt-Jones License:http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/1.0 Module:"HarmonywithDrones" By:CatherineSchmidt-Jones URL:http://cnx.org/content/m11844/1.1/ Pages:54-56 Copyright:CatherineSchmidt-Jones License:http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/1.0 Module:"SimpleChordalHarmony" By:CatherineSchmidt-Jones URL:http://cnx.org/content/m11875/1.2/ Pages:56-58 Copyright:CatherineSchmidt-Jones License:http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/1.0 Module:"ParallelHarmonies" By:CatherineSchmidt-Jones URL:http://cnx.org/content/m11878/1.1/ Pages:58-60 Copyright:CatherineSchmidt-Jones License:http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/1.0 Module:"IndependentHarmonies" By:CatherineSchmidt-Jones URL:http://cnx.org/content/m11874/1.2/ Pages:60-63 Copyright:CatherineSchmidt-Jones License:http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/1.0 Module:"TheTexturesofMusic" By:CatherineSchmidt-Jones URL:http://cnx.org/content/m11645/1.7/ Pages:65-67 Copyright:CatherineSchmidt-Jones License:http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/1.0

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94 ATTRIBUTIONS Module:"AMusicalTexturesActivity" By:CatherineSchmidt-Jones URL:http://cnx.org/content/m14260/1.4/ Pages:67-71 Copyright:CatherineSchmidt-Jones License:http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/ Module:"AnIntroductiontoCounterpoint" By:CatherineSchmidt-Jones URL:http://cnx.org/content/m11634/1.5/ Pages:71-73 Copyright:CatherineSchmidt-Jones License:http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/1.0 Module:"CounterpointActivities" By:CatherineSchmidt-Jones URL:http://cnx.org/content/m14261/1.4/ Pages:73-78 Copyright:CatherineSchmidt-Jones License:http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/ Module:"ForminMusic" By:CatherineSchmidt-Jones URL:http://cnx.org/content/m10842/2.11/ Pages:79-83 Copyright:CatherineSchmidt-Jones License:http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/1.0 Module:"MusicFormActivities" By:CatherineSchmidt-Jones URL:http://cnx.org/content/m13617/1.4/ Pages:83-86 Copyright:CatherineSchmidt-Jones License:http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/

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TheBasicElementsofMusic Explanationssuitableforanyageofthebasicelementsofmusic,withsuggestedactivitiesforintroducing theeachconcepttochildrenatearlyelementaryschoollevel.Thecoursemaybeusedbyinstructorsnot trainedinmusic;allnecessarydenitionsandexplanationsareincluded. AboutConnexions Since1999,Connexionshasbeenpioneeringaglobalsystemwhereanyonecancreatecoursematerialsand makethemfullyaccessibleandeasilyreusablefreeofcharge.WeareaWeb-basedauthoring,teachingand learningenvironmentopentoanyoneinterestedineducation,includingstudents,teachers,professorsand lifelonglearners.Weconnectideasandfacilitateeducationalcommunities. Connexions'smodular,interactivecoursesareinuseworldwidebyuniversities,communitycolleges,K-12 schools,distancelearners,andlifelonglearners.Connexionsmaterialsareinmanylanguages,including English,Spanish,Chinese,Japanese,Italian,Vietnamese,French,Portuguese,andThai.Connexionsispart ofanexcitingnewinformationdistributionsystemthatallowsfor PrintonDemandBooks .Connexions haspartneredwithinnovativeon-demandpublisherQOOPtoacceleratethedeliveryofprintedcourse materialsandtextbooksintoclassroomsworldwideatlowerpricesthantraditionalacademicpublishers.