University Press of Florida
Reading Music: Common Notation
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Title: Reading Music: Common Notation
Physical Description: Book
Language: en-US
Creator: Schmidt-Jones, Catherine, Connexions, Rice University
Publication Date: 2008, 2008
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: articulation, clef, dynamics, flats, key, key signature, music staff, natural notes, pitch, sharps, staff, tempo, time signature, ogt+ isbn: 9781616100667
Music, Music Education, Music Reading
Arts / Music
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Abstract: This course may be used to introduce or reinforce music-reading skills for someone just learning to play an instrument, or the individual lessons can be used to expand on basic music-reading knowledge or to look up any music-notation terms that are still unfamiliar. Contents: 1) Pitch. 2) Time. 3) Style.
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General Note: 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12
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General Note: Catherine Schmidt-Jones
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General Note: http://cnx.org/content/col10209/latest/
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Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: Copyright ©2008 Catherine Schmidt-Jones. This selection and arrangement of content is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution License: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/1.0
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ReadingMusic:CommonNotation By: CatherineSchmidt-Jones

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ReadingMusic:CommonNotation By: CatherineSchmidt-Jones Online: < http://cnx.org/content/col10209/1.9/ > CONNEXIONS RiceUniversity,Houston,Texas

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2008CatherineSchmidt-Jones ThisselectionandarrangementofcontentislicensedundertheCreativeCommonsAttributionLicense: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/1.0

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TableofContents 1Pitch 1.1 TheSta....................................................................................1 1.2 Clef.........................................................................................4 1.3 Pitch:Sharp,Flat,andNaturalNotes......................................................11 1.4 KeySignature..............................................................................14 1.5 EnharmonicSpelling.......................................................................17 Solutions........................................................................................24 2Time 2.1 Duration:NoteLengthsinWrittenMusic..................................................29 2.2 Duration:RestLength.....................................................................34 2.3 TimeSignature.............................................................................36 2.4 PickupNotesandMeasures................................................................41 2.5 Dots,Ties,andBorrowedDivisions.........................................................43 2.6 Tempo.....................................................................................47 2.7 RepeatsandOtherMusicalRoadMapSigns................................................50 Solutions........................................................................................55 3Style 3.1 DynamicsandAccentsinMusic............................................................57 3.2 Articulation................................................................................60 Solutions........................................................................................ ?? Index ................................................................................................65 Attributions .........................................................................................67

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iv

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Chapter1 Pitch 1.1TheSta 1 Peopleweretalkinglongbeforetheyinventedwriting.Peoplewerealsomakingmusiclongbeforeanyone wroteanymusicdown.Somemusiciansstillplay"byear"withoutwrittenmusic,andsomemusictraditions relymoreonimprovisationand/or"byear"learning.Butwrittenmusicisveryuseful,formanyofthesame reasonsthatwrittenwordsareuseful.Musiciseasiertostudyandshareifitiswrittendown.Western music 2 specializesinlong,complexpiecesforlargegroupsofmusicianssingingorplayingpartsexactlyas acomposerintended.Withoutwrittenmusic,thiswouldbetoodicult.Manydierenttypesofmusic notationhavebeeninvented,andsome,suchastablature 3 ,arestillinuse.Byfarthemostwidespreadway towritemusic,however,isona sta .Infact,thistypeofwrittenmusicissoubiquitousthatitiscalled commonnotation 1.1.1TheSta The sta plural staves iswrittenasvehorizontalparallellines.MostofthenotesSection2.1ofthe musicareplacedononeoftheselinesorinaspaceinbetweenlines.Extra ledgerlines maybeaddedto showanotethatistoohighortoolowtobeonthesta.Vertical barlines dividethestaintoshort sectionscalled measures or bars .A doublebarline ,eitherheavyorlight,isusedtomarktheendsof largersectionsofmusic,includingtheveryendofapiece,whichismarkedbyaheavydoublebar. 1 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat. 2 "WhatKindofMusicisThat?" 3 "ReadingGuitarTablature" 1

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2 CHAPTER1.PITCH TheSta Figure1.1: Thevehorizontallinesarethelinesofthesta.Inbetweenthelinesarethespaces.Ifa noteisaboveorbelowthesta,ledgerlinesareaddedtoshowhowfaraboveorbelow.Shortervertical linesarebarlines.Themostimportantsymbolsonthesta,theclefsymbol,keysignatureandtime signature,appearatthebeginningofthesta. Manydierentkindsofsymbolscanappearon,above,andbelowthesta.ThenotesSection2.1 andrestsSection2.2aretheactualwrittenmusic.Anotestandsforasound;areststandsforasilence. Othersymbolsonthesta,liketheclefSection1.2symbol,thekeysignatureSection1.4,andthetime signatureSection2.3,tellyouimportantinformationaboutthenotesandmeasures.Symbolsthatappear aboveandbelowthemusicmaytellyouhowfastitgoestempoSection2.6markings,howlouditshould bedynamicSection3.1markings,wheretogonextrepeatsSection2.7,forexampleandevengive directionsforhowtoperformparticularnotesaccentsp.59,forexample. OtherSymbolsontheSta Figure1.2: Thebarlinesdividethestaintoshortsectionscalledbarsormeasures.Thenotessounds andrestssilencesarethewrittenmusic.Manyothersymbolsmayappearon,above,orbelowthesta, givingdirectionsforhowtoplaythemusic. 1.1.2Groupsofstaves Stavesarereadfromlefttoright.Beginningatthetopofthepage,theyarereadonestaatatimeunless theyareconnected.Ifstavesshouldbeplayedatthesametimebythesamepersonorbydierentpeople, theywillbeconnectedatleastbyalongverticallineatthelefthandside.Theymayalsobeconnectedby theirbarlines.Stavesplayedbysimilarinstrumentsorvoices,orstavesthatshouldbeplayedbythesame

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3 personforexample,therighthandandlefthandofapianopartmaybegroupedtogetherbybracesor bracketsatthebeginningofeachline. GroupsofStaves a b Figure1.3: bWhenmanystavesaretobeplayedatthesametime,asinthisorchestralscore,the linesforsimilarinstruments-alltheviolins,forexample,orallthestrings-maybemarkedwithbraces orbrackets.

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4 CHAPTER1.PITCH 1.2Clef 4 1.2.1TrebleClefandBassClef TherstsymbolthatappearsatthebeginningofeverymusicstaSection1.1isa clefsymbol .Itisvery importantbecauseittellsyouwhichnoteSection2.1A,B,C,D,E,F,orGisfoundoneachlineor space.Forexample,a trebleclef symboltellsyouthatthesecondlinefromthebottomthelinethatthe symbolcurlsaroundis"G".Onanysta,thenotesarealwaysarrangedsothatthenextletterisalways onthenexthigherlineorspace.Thelastnoteletter,G,isalwaysfollowedbyanotherA. TrebleClef Figure1.4 A bassclef symboltellsyouthatthesecondlinefromthetoptheonebracketedbythesymbol'sdots isF.Thenotesarestillarrangedinascendingorder,buttheyareallindierentplacesthantheywerein trebleclef. BassClef Figure1.5 4 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat.

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5 1.2.2MemorizingtheNotesinBassandTrebleClef Oneoftherststepsinlearningtoreadmusicinaparticularclefismemorizingwherethenotesare.Many studentsprefertomemorizethenotesandspacesseparately.Herearesomeofthemostpopularmnemonics used. a b Figure1.6: Youcanuseawordorsillysentencetohelpyoumemorizewhichnotesbelongonthelines orspacesofaclef.Ifyoudon'tliketheseones,youcanmakeupyourown. 1.2.3MoveableClefs Mostmusicthesedaysiswrittenineitherbassclefortrebleclef,butsomemusiciswrittenina Cclef .The Cclefismoveable:whateverlineitcentersonisamiddleC 5 5 "OctavesandtheMajor-MinorTonalSystem"

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6 CHAPTER1.PITCH CClefs Figure1.7: AllofthenotesonthisstaaremiddleC. Thebassandtrebleclefswerealsooncemoveable,butitisnowveryraretoseethemanywherebutin theirstandardpositions.Ifyoudoseeatrebleorbassclefsymbolinanunusualplace,remember:treble clefisa Gclef ;itsspiralcurlsaroundaG.Bassclefisan Fclef ;itstwodotscenteraroundanF. MoveableGandFClefs Figure1.8: ItisrarethesedaystoseetheGandFclefsinthesenonstandardpositions. Muchmorecommonistheuseofatrebleclefthatismeanttobereadoneoctavebelowthewritten pitch.Sincemanypeopleareuncomfortablereadingbassclef,someonewritingmusicthatismeanttosound intheregionofthebassclefmaydecidetowriteitinthetrebleclefsothatitiseasytoread.Averysmall "8"atthebottomofthetrebleclefsymbolmeansthatthenotesshouldsoundoneoctavelowerthanthey arewritten.

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7 Figure1.9: Asmall"8"atthebottomofatrebleclefmeansthatthenotesshouldsoundoneoctave lowerthanwritten. 1.2.4Whyusedierentclefs? Musiciseasiertoreadandwriteifmostofthenotesfallonthestaandfewledgerlinesp.1havetobe used. Figure1.10: Thesescoresshowthesamenoteswrittenintrebleandinbassclef.Thestawithfewer ledgerlinesiseasiertoreadandwrite. TheGindicatedbythetrebleclefistheGabovemiddleC 6 ,whiletheFindicatedbythebassclefisthe FbelowmiddleC.CclefindicatesmiddleC.Sotrebleclefandbasscleftogethercovermanyofthenotes thatareintherange 7 ofhumanvoicesandofmostinstruments.Voicesandinstrumentswithhigherranges usuallylearntoreadtrebleclef,whilevoicesandinstrumentswithlowerrangesusuallylearntoreadbass clef.InstrumentswithrangesthatdonotfallcomfortablyintoeitherbassortrebleclefmayuseaCclefor maybetransposinginstruments 8 6 "OctavesandtheMajor-MinorTonalSystem" 7 "Range" 8 "TransposingInstruments"

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8 CHAPTER1.PITCH Figure1.11: MiddleCisabovethebassclefandbelowthetrebleclef;sotogetherthesetwoclefscover muchoftherangeofmostvoicesandinstruments. Exercise1.1 Solutiononp.24. WritethenameofeachnotebelowthenoteoneachstainFigure1.12. Figure1.12 Exercise1.2 Solutiononp.24. ChooseaclefinwhichyouneedtopracticerecognizingnotesaboveandbelowthestainFigure1.13.Writetheclefsignatthebeginningofthesta,andthenwritethecorrectnotenames beloweachnote.

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9 Figure1.13 Exercise1.3 Solutiononp.25. Figure1.14givesmoreexercisestohelpyoumemorizewhicheverclefyouarelearning.Youmay printtheseexercisesasaPDFworksheet 9 ifyoulike. 9 http://cnx.org/content/m10941/latest/ClefWorksheet.pdf

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10 CHAPTER1.PITCH Figure1.14

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11 1.3Pitch:Sharp,Flat,andNaturalNotes 10 The pitch ofanoteishowhighorlowitsounds.Pitchdependsonthefrequency 11 ofthefundamental 12 soundwaveofthenote.Thehigherthefrequencyofasoundwave,andtheshorteritswavelength 13 ,the higheritspitchsounds.Butmusiciansusuallydon'twanttotalkaboutwavelengthsandfrequencies.Instead, theyjustgivethedierentpitchesdierentletternames:A,B,C,D,E,F,andG.Thesesevenlettersname allthe natural notesonakeyboard,that'sallthewhitekeyswithinoneoctave.Whenyougettothe eighthnaturalnote,youstartthenextoctave 14 onanotherA. Figure1.15: Thenaturalnotesnamethewhitekeysonakeyboard. ButinWestern 15 musictherearetwelvenotesineachoctavethatareincommonuse.Howdoyouname theothervenotesonakeyboard,theblackkeys? 10 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat. 11 "AcousticsforMusicTheory":SectionWavelength,Frequency,andPitch 12 "HarmonicSeries" 13 "AcousticsforMusicTheory":SectionWavelength,Frequency,andPitch 14 "OctavesandtheMajor-MinorTonalSystem" 15 "WhatKindofMusicisThat?"

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12 CHAPTER1.PITCH Figure1.16: Sharp,at,andnaturalsignscanappeareitherinthekeysignatureSection1.4,orright infrontofthenotethattheychange. A sharpsign means"thenotethatisonehalfstep 16 higherthanthenaturalnote".A atsign means "thenotethatisonehalfsteplowerthanthenaturalnote".Someofthenaturalnotesareonlyonehalfstep apart,butmostofthemareawholestep 17 apart.Whentheyareawholestepapart,thenoteinbetween themcanonlybenamedusingaatorasharp. Figure1.17 Noticethat,usingatsandsharps,anypitchcanbegivenmorethanonenotename.Forexample,theG sharpandtheAatareplayedonthesamekeyonthekeyboard;theysoundthesame.Youcanalsoname 16 "HalfStepsandWholeSteps" 17 "HalfStepsandWholeSteps"

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13 andwritetheFnaturalas"Esharp";FnaturalisthenotethatisahalfstephigherthanEnatural,which isthedenitionofEsharp.Notesthathavedierentnamesbutsoundthesamearecalledenharmonic Section1.5notes. Figure1.18: GsharpandAatsoundthesame.EsharpandFnaturalsoundthesame. Sharpandatsignscanbeusedintwoways:theycanbepartofakeysignatureSection1.4,orthey canmarkaccidentals.Forexample,ifmostoftheC'sinapieceofmusicaregoingtobesharp,thenasharp signisputinthe"C"spaceatthebeginningofthestaSection1.1,inthekeysignature.Ifonlyafew oftheC'saregoingtobesharp,thenthoseC'saremarkedindividuallywithasharpsignrightinfrontof them.Pitchesthatarenotinthekeysignaturearecalled accidentals Figure1.19: WhenasharpsignappearsintheCspaceinthekeysignature,allC'saresharpunless markedasaccidentals. Anotecanalsobedoublesharpordoubleat.A doublesharp istwohalfstepsonewholestephigher thanthenaturalnote;a doubleat istwohalfstepsawholesteplower.Triple,quadruple,etc.sharps andatsarerare,butfollowthesamepattern:everysharporatraisesorlowersthepitchonemorehalf step.

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14 CHAPTER1.PITCH Usingdoubleortriplesharpsoratsmayseemtobemakingthingsmoredicultthantheyneedtobe. Whynotcallthenote"Anatural"insteadof"Gdoublesharp"?Theansweristhat,althoughAnatural andGdoublesharparethesamepitch,theydon'thavethesamefunctionwithinaparticularchordora particularkey.Formusicianswhounderstandsomemusictheoryandthatincludesmostperformers,not justcomposersandmusicteachers,callinganote"Gdoublesharp"givesimportantandusefulinformation abouthowthatnotefunctionsinthechord 18 andintheprogressionoftheharmony 19 Figure1.20: Doublesharpsraisethepitchbytwohalfstepsonewholestep.Doubleatslowerthe pitchbytwohalfstepsonewholestep. 1.4KeySignature 20 ThekeysignaturecomesrightaftertheclefSection1.2symbolonthestaSection1.1.Itmayhave eithersomesharpSection1.3symbolsonparticularlinesorspaces,orsomeatSection1.3symbols, againonparticularlinesorspaces.Iftherearenoatsorsharpslistedaftertheclefsymbol,thenthekey signatureis"allnotesarenatural". Incommonnotation,clefandkeysignaturearetheonlysymbolsthatnormallyappearoneverysta. Theyappearsooftenbecausetheyaresuchimportantsymbols;theytellyouwhatnoteisoneachlineand spaceofthesta.ThecleftellsyoutheletternameofthenoteA,B,C,etc.,andthekeytellsyouwhether thenoteissharp,atornatural. 18 "Harmony":Chords 19 "BeginningHarmonicAnalysis" 20 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat.

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15 Figure1.21 The keysignature isalistofallthesharpsandatsinthekey 21 thatthemusicisin. Whenasharp oratappearsonalineorspaceinthekeysignature,allthenotesonthatlineorspaceare sharporat,andallothernoteswiththesameletternamesinotheroctavesarealsosharp orat. Figure1.22: Thiskeysignaturehasaatonthe"B"line,soalloftheseB'sareat. Thesharpsoratsalwaysappearinthesameorderinallkeysignatures.Thisisthesameorderin whichtheyareaddedaskeysgetsharperoratter.Forexample,ifakeyGmajororEminorhasonly onesharp,itwillbeFsharp,soFsharpisalwaystherstsharplistedinasharpkeysignature.Thekeys thathavetwosharpsDmajorandBminorhaveFsharpandCsharp,soCsharpisalwaysthesecond sharpinakeysignature,andsoon. Theorderofsharpsis:Fsharp,Csharp,Gsharp,Dsharp, Asharp,Esharp,Bsharp.Theorderofatsisthereverseoftheorderofsharps:Bat,E at,Aat,Dat,Gat,Cat,Fat. SothekeyswithonlyoneatFmajorandDminorhavea Bat;thekeyswithtwoatsBatmajorandGminorhaveBatandEat;andsoon.Theorderof atsandsharps,liketheorderofthekeysthemselves,followsacircleoffths 22 21 "MajorKeysandScales" 22 "TheCircleofFifths"

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16 CHAPTER1.PITCH Figure1.23 Ifyoudonotknowthenameofthekeyofapieceofmusic,thekeysignaturecanhelpyoundout. Assumeforamomentthatyouareinamajorkey 23 .Ifthekeycontainssharps,thenameofthekeyisone halfstep 24 higherthanthelastsharpinthekeysignature.Ifthekeycontainsats,thenameofthekey signatureisthenameofthesecond-to-lastatinthekeysignature. Example1.1 Figure1.24demonstratesquickwaystonamethemajorkeysimplybylookingatthekey signature.Inatkeys,thesecond-to-lastatnamesthekey.Insharpkeys,thenotethatnames thekeyisonehalfstepabovethenalsharp. Figure1.24 TheonlymajorkeysthattheserulesdonotworkforareCmajornoatsorsharpsandFmajoroneat. 23 "MajorKeysandScales" 24 "HalfStepsandWholeSteps"

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17 Itiseasiestjusttomemorizethekeysignaturesforthesetwoverycommonkeys.Ifyouwantarulethat alsoworksforthekeyofFmajor,rememberthatthesecond-to-lastatisalwaysaperfectfourth 25 higher thanoraperfectfthlowerthanthenalat.Soyoucanalsosaythatthenameofthekeysignatureis aperfectfourthlowerthanthenameofthenalat. Figure1.25: ThekeyofCmajorhasnosharpsorats.Fmajorhasoneat. Ifthemusicisinaminorkey,itwillbeintherelativeminor 26 ofthemajorkeyforthatkeysignature. YoumaybeabletotelljustfromlisteningseeMajorKeysandScales 27 whetherthemusicisinamajor orminorkey.Ifnot,thebestclueistolookatthenalchord 28 .Thatchordandoftenthenalnoteofthe melody,alsowillusuallynamethekey. Exercise1.4 Solutiononp.26. WritethekeysignaturesaskedforinFigure1.26andnamethemajorkeysthattheyrepresent. Figure1.26 1.5EnharmonicSpelling 29 1.5.1EnharmonicNotes IncommonnotationSection1.1,anynotecanbesharp,at,ornaturalSection1.3.Asharpsymbol raisesthepitchSection1.3ofanaturalnotebyonehalfstep 30 ;aatsymbollowersitbyonehalfstep. 25 "Interval" 26 "MinorKeysandScales":SectionRelativeMinorandMajorKeys 27 "MajorKeysandScales" 28 "Harmony":Chords 29 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat. 30 "HalfStepsandWholeSteps"

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18 CHAPTER1.PITCH Figure1.27 Whydowebotherwiththesesymbols?Therearetwelvepitchesavailablewithinanyoctave 31 .Wecould giveeachofthosetwelvepitchesitsownnameA,B,C,D,E,F,G,H,I,J,K,andLanditsownlineor spaceonasta.Butthatwouldactuallybefairlyinecient,becausemostmusicisinaparticularkey 32 Andmusicthatisinamajor 33 orminor 34 keywilltendtouseonlysevenofthosetwelvenotes.Somusicis easiertoreadifithasonlylines,spaces,andnotesforthesevenpitchesitismostlygoingtouse,plusa waytowritetheoccasionalnotesthatarenotinthekey. Thisisbasicallywhatcommonnotationdoes.ThereareonlysevennotenamesA,B,C,D,E,F,G, andeachlineorspaceonastaSection1.1willcorrespondwithoneofthosenotenames.Togetalltwelve pitchesusingonlythesevennotenames,weallowanyofthesenotestobesharp,at,ornatural.Look Figure1.28atthenotesonakeyboard. Figure1.28: Sevenofthetwelvepossiblenotesineachoctave 35 are"natural"notes. Becausemostofthenaturalnotesaretwohalfstepsapart,thereareplentyofpitchesthatyoucanonly getbynamingthemwitheitheraatorasharponthekeyboard,the"blackkey"notes.Forexample, 31 "OctavesandtheMajor-MinorTonalSystem" 32 "MajorKeysandScales" 33 "MajorKeysandScales" 34 "MinorKeysandScales" 35 "OctavesandtheMajor-MinorTonalSystem"

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19 thenoteinbetweenDnaturalandEnaturalcanbenamedeitherDsharporEat.Thesetwonameslook verydierentonthesta,buttheyaregoingtosoundexactlythesame,sinceyouplaybothofthemby pressingthesameblackkeyonthepiano. Figure1.29: DsharpandEatlookverydierentwhenwrittenincommonnotation,buttheysound exactlythesamewhenplayedonapiano. Thisisanexampleof enharmonicspelling .Twonotesare enharmonic iftheysoundthesameona pianobutarenamedandwrittendierently. Exercise1.5 Solutiononp.27. NametheotherenharmonicnotesthatarelistedabovetheblackkeysonthekeyboardinFigure1.28.Writethemonatrebleclefsta.Ifyouneedstapaper,youcanprintoutthisPDF le 36 Butthesearenottheonlypossibleenharmonicnotes.Anynotecanbeatorsharp,soyoucanhave,for example,anEsharp.LookingatthekeyboardFigure1.28andrememberingthatthedenitionofsharpis "onehalfstephigherthannatural",youcanseethatanEsharpmustsoundthesameasanFnatural.Why wouldyouchoosetocallthenoteEsharpinsteadofFnatural?Eventhoughtheysoundthesame,Esharp andFnatural,astheyareactuallyusedinmusic,aredierentnotes.Theymay,insomecircumstances, alsosounddierent;seebelowSection1.5.4:EnharmonicSpellingsandEqualTemperament.Notonly willtheylookdierentwhenwrittenonasta,buttheywillhavedierentfunctionswithinakeyand dierentrelationshipswiththeothernotesofapieceofmusic.Soacomposermayverywellprefertowrite anEsharp,becausethatmakesthenote'splaceintheharmoniesofapiecemorecleartotheperformer. PleaseseeTriads 37 ,BeyondTriads 38 ,andHarmonicAnalysis 39 formoreonhowindividualnotestinto chordsandharmonicprogressions. Infact,thisneedtomakeeachnote'splaceintheharmonyveryclearissoimportantthatdouble sharpsanddoubleatshavebeeninventedtohelpdoit.Adoublesharpistwohalfstepsonewholestep 40 higherthanthenaturalnote.Adoubleatistwohalfstepslowerthanthenaturalnote.Doublesharpsand atsarefairlyrare,andtripleandquadrupleatsevenrarer,butallareallowed. 36 http://cnx.org/content/m11641/latest/stapaper1.pdf 37 "Triads" 38 "BeyondTriads:NamingOtherChords" 39 "BeginningHarmonicAnalysis" 40 "HalfStepsandWholeSteps"

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20 CHAPTER1.PITCH Figure1.30 Exercise1.6 Solutiononp.27. Giveatleastoneenharmonicspellingforthefollowingnotes.Trytogivemorethanone.Look atthekeyboardFigure1.28againifyouneedto. 1.Enatural 2.Bnatural 3.Cnatural 4.Gnatural 5.Anatural 1.5.2EnharmonicKeysandScales Keysandscalescanalsobeenharmonic.Majorkeys,forexample,alwaysfollowthesamepatternofhalf stepsandwholesteps.SeeMajorKeysandScales 41 .Minorkeysalsoallfollowthesamepattern,dierent fromthemajorscalepattern;seeMinorKeys 42 .SowhetheryoustartamajorscaleonanEat,orstart itonaDsharp,youwillbefollowingthesamepattern,playingthesamepianokeysasyougoupthescale. Butthenotesofthetwoscaleswillhavedierentnames,thescaleswilllookverydierentwhenwritten, andmusiciansmaythinkofthemasbeingdierent.Forexample,mostinstrumentalistswouldnditeasier toplayinEatthaninDsharp.Insomecases,anEatmajorscalemayevensoundslightlydierent fromaDsharpmajorscale.SeebelowSection1.5.4:EnharmonicSpellingsandEqualTemperament. 41 "MajorKeysandScales" 42 "MinorKeysandScales"

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21 Figure1.31: TheEatmajorandDsharpmajorscalessoundthesameonthepiano,althoughthey lookverydierent.Ifthissurprisesyou,lookagainatthepianokeyboardFigure1.28andndthe notesthatyouwouldplayforeachscale. Sincethescalesarethesame,DsharpmajorandEatmajorarealso enharmonickeys .Again,their keysignatureswilllookverydierent,butmusicinDsharpwillnotbeanyhigherorlowerthanmusicin Eat. EnharmonicKeys Figure1.32: ThekeysignaturesforEatandDsharplookverydierent,butwouldsoundthesame onakeyboard. Exercise1.7 Solutiononp.27. GiveanenharmonicnameandkeysignatureforthekeysgiveninFigure1.33.Ifyouarenot well-versedinkeysignaturesSection1.4yet,picktheeasiestenharmonicspellingforthekey name,andtheeasiestenharmonicspellingforeverynoteinthekeysignature.Writingoutthe scalesmayhelp,too. Figure1.33

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22 CHAPTER1.PITCH 1.5.3EnharmonicIntervalsandChords Figure1.34 Chords 43 andintervals 44 alsocanhaveenharmonicspellings.Again,itisimportanttonameachordor intervalasithasbeenspelled,inordertounderstandhowittsintotherestofthemusic.ACsharp majorchordmeanssomethingdierentinthekeyofDthanaDatmajorchorddoes.Andanintervalofa diminishedfourthmeanssomethingdierentthananintervalofamajorthird,eventhoughtheywouldbe playedusingthesamekeysonapiano.Forpracticenamingintervals,seeInterval 45 .Forpracticenaming chords,seeNamingTriads 46 andBeyondTriads 47 .Foranintroductiontohowchordsfunctioninaharmony, seeBeginningHarmonicAnalysis 48 43 "Harmony":Chords 44 "Interval" 45 "Interval" 46 "NamingTriads" 47 "BeyondTriads:NamingOtherChords" 48 "BeginningHarmonicAnalysis"

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23 Figure1.35 1.5.4EnharmonicSpellingsandEqualTemperament Alloftheabovediscussionassumesthatallnotesaretunedinequaltemperament 49 .Equaltemperamenthas becomethe"ocial"tuningsystemforWesternmusic 50 .Itiseasytouseinpianosandotherinstruments thatarediculttoretuneorgan,harp,andxylophone,tonamejustafew,preciselybecauseenharmonic notessoundexactlythesame.Butvoicesandinstrumentsthatcanne-tunequicklyforexampleviolins, clarinets,andtrombonesoftenmoveawayfromequaltemperament.Theysometimesdrift,consciouslyor unconsciously,towardsjustintonation 51 ,whichismorecloselybasedontheharmonicseries 52 .Whenthis happens,enharmonicallyspellednotes,scales,intervals,andchords,maynotonlybetheoreticallydierent. Theymayalsoactuallybeslightlydierentpitches.Thedierencesbetween,say,aDsharpandanEat, whenthishappens,areverysmall,butmaybelargeenoughtobenoticeable.ManyNon-westernmusic traditions 53 alsodonotuseequaltemperament. Sharpsandatsusedtonotatemusicinthese traditionsshouldnotbeassumedtomeanachangeinpitchequaltoanequal-temperament half-step .Fordenitionsanddiscussionsofequaltemperament,justintonation,andothertuningsystems, pleaseseeTuningSystems 54 49 "TuningSystems":SectionEqualTemperament 50 "WhatKindofMusicisThat?" 51 "TuningSystems" 52 "HarmonicSeriesI:TimbreandOctaves" 53 "WhatKindofMusicisThat?" 54 "TuningSystems"

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24 CHAPTER1.PITCH SolutionstoExercisesinChapter1 SolutiontoExercise1.1p.8 Figure1.36 SolutiontoExercise1.2p.8 Figure1.37showstheanswersfortrebleandbassclef.Ifyouhavedoneanotherclef,haveyourteacher checkyouranswers. Figure1.37

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25 SolutiontoExercise1.3p.9 Figure1.38showstheanswersfortrebleclef,andFigure1.39theanswersforbassclef.Ifyouareworking inamoreunusualclef,haveyourteachercheckyouranswers. Figure1.38

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26 CHAPTER1.PITCH Figure1.39 SolutiontoExercise1.4p.17

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27 Figure1.40 SolutiontoExercise1.5p.19 CsharpandDat FsharpandGat GsharpandAat AsharpandBat Figure1.41 SolutiontoExercise1.6p.20 1.Fat;Ddoublesharp 2.Cat;Adoublesharp 3.Bsharp;Ddoubleat 4.Fdoublesharp;Adoubleat 5.Gdoublesharp;Bdoubleat SolutiontoExercise1.7p.21 Figure1.42

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28 CHAPTER1.PITCH

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Chapter2 Time 2.1Duration:NoteLengthsinWrittenMusic 1 2.1.1TheShapeofaNote Instandardnotation,asinglemusicalsoundiswrittenasa note .Thetwomostimportantthingsawritten pieceofmusicneedstotellyouaboutanoteareitspitch-howhighorlowitis-andits duration -how longitlasts. TondoutthepitchSection1.3ofawrittennote,youlookattheclefSection1.2andthekey signatureSection1.4,thenseewhatlineorspacethenoteison.Thehigheranotesitsonthesta Section1.1,thehigheritsounds.Tondoutthedurationofthewrittennote,youlookatthetempo Section2.6andthetimesignatureSection2.3andthenseewhatthenotelookslike. ThePartsofaNote Figure2.1: Allofthepartsofawrittennoteaecthowlongitlasts. Thepitchofthenotedependsonlyonwhatlineorspacethe head ofthenoteison.Pleaseseepitch Section1.3,clefSection1.2andkeysignatureSection1.4formoreinformation.Ifthenotedoesnot haveaheadseeFigure2.2NotesWithoutHeads,thatmeansthatitdoesnothaveonedenitepitch. 1 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat. 29

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30 CHAPTER2.TIME NotesWithoutHeads Figure2.2: Ifanotedoesnothavehead,itdoesnothaveonedenitepitch.Suchanotemaybea pitchlesssound,likeadrumbeatorahandclap,oritmaybeanentirechordratherthanasinglenote. Theheadofthenotemaybelledinblack,ornot.Thenotemayalsohaveornotastem,oneor moreags,beamsconnectingittoothernotes,oroneormoredotsfollowingtheheadofthenote.Allof thesethingsaecthowmuchtimethenoteisgiveninthemusic. note: Adotthatissomeplaceotherthannexttotheheadofthenote doesnotaectthe rhythm .OtherdotsarearticulationSection3.2marks.Theymayaecttheactuallengthofthe notetheamountoftimeitsounds,butdonotaecttheamountoftimeitmustbegiven.The extratimewhenthenotecouldbesounding,butisn't,becomesanunwrittenrestSection2.2. Ifthisisconfusing,pleaseseetheexplanationinarticulationSection3.2. 2.1.2TheLengthofaNote MostCommonNoteLengths Figure2.3 Thesimplest-lookingnote,withnostemsorags,isa wholenote .Allothernotelengthsaredenedby howlongtheylastcomparedtoawholenote.Anotethatlastshalfaslongasawholenoteisa halfnote Anotethatlastsaquarteraslongasawholenoteisa quarternote .Thepatterncontinueswith eighth notes sixteenthnotes thirty-secondnotes sixty-fourthnotes ,andsoon,eachtypeofnotebeing halfthelengthoftheprevioustype.Therearenosuchthingasthirdnotes,sixthnotes,tenthnotes,etc.; seeDots,Ties,andBorrowedDivisionsSection2.5tondouthownotesofunusuallengthsarewritten.

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31 Figure2.4: Notelengthsworkjustlikefractionsinarithmetic:twohalfnotesorfourquarternotes lastthesameamountoftimeasonewholenote.Flagsareoftenreplacedbybeamsthatconnectthe notesintoeasy-to-readgroups. YoumayhavenoticedthatsomeoftheeighthnotesinFigure2.4don'thaveags;insteadtheyhave a beam connectingthemtoanothereighthnote.Ifaggednotesarenexttoeachother,theiragscan bereplacedbybeamsthatconnectthenotesintoeasy-to-readgroups.Thebeamsmayconnectnotesthat areallinthesamebeat,or,insomevocalmusic,theymayconnectnotesthataresungonthesametext syllable.Eachnotewillhavethesamenumberofbeamsasitwouldhaveags. NoteswithBeams Figure2.5: Thenotesconnectedwithbeamsareeasiertoreadquicklythantheaggednotes.Notice thateachnotehasthesamenumberofbeamsasitwouldhaveags,evenifitisconnectedtoadierent typeofnote.Thenotesareoftenbutnotalwaysconnectedsothateachbeamedgroupgetsonebeat. Thismakesthenoteseasiertoreadquickly. Youmayhavealsonoticedthatthenotelengthssoundlikefractionsinarithmetic.Infacttheywork verymuchlikefractions:twohalfnoteswillbeequaltolastaslongasonewholenote;foureighthnotes willbethesamelengthasonehalfnote;andsoon.Forclassroomactivitiesrelatingmusictofractions,see Fractions,Multiples,Beats,andMeasures 2 Example2.1 2 "Fractions,Multiples,Beats,andMeasures"

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32 CHAPTER2.TIME Figure2.6 Exercise2.1 Solutiononp.55. Drawthemissingnotesandllintheblankstomakeeachsidethesamedurationlengthoftime. Figure2.7 Sohowlongdoeseachofthesenotesactuallylast?Thatdependsonacoupleofthings.Awrittennotelasts foracertainamountoftimemeasuredinbeatsSection2.3.1:BeatsandMeasures.Tondoutexactly howmanybeatsittakes,youmustknowthetimesignatureSection2.3.Andtondouthowlongabeat is,youneedtoknowthetempoSection2.6. Example2.2

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33 Figure2.8: Inanyparticularsectionofapieceofmusic,ahalfnoteisalwaystwiceaslongasaquarter note.Buthowlongeachnoteactuallylastsdependsonthetimesignatureandthetempo. 2.1.3MoreaboutStems Whetherastempointsupordowndoesnotaectthenotelengthatall.Therearetwobasicideasthatlead totherulesforstemdirection.Oneisthatthemusicshouldbeaseasyaspossibletoreadandunderstand. Theotheristhatthenotesshouldtendtobe"inthesta"asmuchasreasonablypossible. BasicStemDirectionRules 1. SingleNotes -Notesbelowthemiddlelineofthestashouldbestemup.Notesonorabovethe middlelineshouldbestemdown. 2. Notessharingastemblockchords -Generally,thestemdirectionwillbethedirectionforthe notethatisfurthestawayfromthemiddlelineofthesta 3. Notessharingabeam -Again,generallyyouwillwanttousethestemdirectionofthenotefarthest fromthecenterofthesta,tokeepthebeamnearthesta. 4. Dierentrhythmsbeingplayedatthesametimebythesameplayer -Clarityrequiresthat youwriteonerhythmwithstemsupandtheotherstemsdown. 5. Twopartsfordierentperformerswrittenonthesamesta -Ifthepartshavethesame rhythm,theymaybewrittenasblockchords.Iftheydonot,thestemsforonepartthe"high"part or"rst"partwillpointupandthestemsfortheotherpartwillpointdown.Thisruleisespecially importantwhenthetwopartscross;otherwisethereisnowayfortheperformerstoknowthatthe "low"partshouldbereadingthehighnoteatthatspot.

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34 CHAPTER2.TIME StemDirection Figure2.9: Keepstemsandbeamsinornearthesta,butalsousestemdirectiontoclarifyrhythms andpartswhennecessary. 2.2Duration:RestLength 3 A rest standsforasilenceinmusic.ForeachkindofnoteSection2.1,thereisawrittenrestofthesame length. TheMostCommonRests Figure2.10 Exercise2.2 Solutiononp.55. Foreachnoteontherstline,writearestofthesamelengthonthesecondline.Therstmeasure Section2.3.1:BeatsandMeasuresisdoneforyou. 3 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat.

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35 Figure2.11 Restsdon'tnecessarilymeanthatthereissilenceinthemusicatthatpoint;onlythatthatpartissilent. Often,onastaSection1.1withmultipleparts,arestmustbeusedasaplaceholderforoneoftheparts, evenifasinglepersonisplayingbothparts.Whentherhythmsarecomplex,thisisnecessarytomakethe rhythmineachpartclear. Figure2.12: Whenmultiplesimultaneousrhythmsarewrittenonthesamesta,restsmaybeusedto clarifyindividualrhythms,evenifanotherrhythmcontainsnotesatthatpoint. Thenormalruleincommonnotationisthat,foranylineofmusic,thenotesandrestsineachmeasure must"addup"toexactlytheamountinthetimesignatureSection2.3,nomoreandnoless.Forexample, in3/4time,ameasurecanhaveanycombinationofnotesandreststhatisthesamelengthasthreequarter notes.Thereisonlyonecommonexceptiontothisrule.Asasimplifyingshorthand,acompletelysilent measurecansimplyhaveawholerest.Inthiscase,"wholerest"doesnotnecessarilymean"restforthe samelengthoftimeasawholenote";itmeans"restfortheentiremeasure".

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36 CHAPTER2.TIME Figure2.13: Awholerestmaybeusedtoindicateacompletelysilentmeasure,nomatterwhatthe actuallengthofthemeasurewillbe. 2.3TimeSignature 4 The timesignature appearsatthebeginningofapieceofmusic,rightafterthekeysignatureSection1.4. Unlikethekeysignature,whichisoneverystaSection1.1,thetimesignaturewillnotappearagainin themusicunlessthemeterchanges.Themeter 5 ofapieceofmusicisitsbasicrhythm;thetimesignatureis thesymbolthattellsyouthemeterofthepieceandhowwithwhattypeofnoteSection2.1itiswritten. Figure2.14: Thetimesignatureappearsatthebeginningofthepieceofmusic,rightaftertheclef symbolandkeysignature. 2.3.1BeatsandMeasures Becausemusicisheardoveraperiodoftime,oneofthemainwaysmusicisorganizedisbydividingthat timeupintoshortperiodscalled beats .Inmostmusic,thingstendtohappenrightatthebeginningof eachbeat.Thismakesthebeateasytohearandfeel.Whenyouclapyourhands,tapyourtoes,ordance, youare"movingtothebeat".Yourclapsaresoundingatthebeginningofthebeat,too.Thisisalsocalled being"onthedownbeat",becauseitisthetimewhentheconductor'sbaton 6 hitsthebottomofitspath andstartsmovingupagain. 4 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat. 5 "MeterinMusic" 6 "Conducting"

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37 Example2.3 ListentoexcerptsA,B,CandD.Canyouclapyourhands,tapyourfeet,orotherwisemove"to thebeat"?Canyoufeelthe1-2-1-2or1-2-3-1-2-3ofthemeter?Isthereapieceinwhichitiseasier orhardertofeelthebeat? A 7 B 8 C 9 D 10 Thedownbeatisthestrongestpartofthebeat,butsomedownbeatsarestrongerthanothers.Usually apatterncanbeheardinthebeats:strong-weak-weak-strong-weak-weak,orstrong-weak-strong-weak.So beatsareorganizedevenfurtherbygroupingtheminto bars ,or measures .Thetwowordsmeanthesame thing.Forexample,formusicwithabeatpatternofstrong-weak-weak-strong-weak-weak,or1-2-3-1-2-3,a measurewouldhavethreebeatsinit.The timesignature tellsyoutwothings:howmanybeatsthereare ineachmeasure,andwhattypeofnoteSection2.1getsabeat. ReadingtheTimeSignature Figure2.15: Thistimesignaturemeansthattherearethreequarternotesoranycombinationofnotes thatequalsthreequarternotesineverymeasure.Apiecewiththistimesignaturewouldbe"inthree fourtime"orjust"inthreefour". Exercise2.3 Solutiononp.55. ListenagaintothemusicinExample2.3.Insteadofclapping,counteachbeat.Decidewhether themusichas2,3,or4beatspermeasure.Inotherwords,doesitfeelmorenaturaltocount 1-2-1-2,1-2-3-1-2-3,or1-2-3-4-1-2-3-4? 2.3.2Meter:ReadingTimeSignatures Mosttimesignaturescontaintwonumbers.Thetopnumbertellsyouhowmanybeatsthereareinameasure. Thebottomnumbertellsyouwhatkindofnotegetsabeat. 7 http://cnx.org/content/m10956/latest/Tanz.mp3 8 http://cnx.org/content/m10956/latest/EasyWinners.MID 9 http://cnx.org/content/m10956/latest/Jetztkommt.MID 10 http://cnx.org/content/m10956/latest/Greensleeves.mp3

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38 CHAPTER2.TIME Figure2.16: In"fourfour"time,therearefourbeatsinameasureandaquarternotegetsabeat.Any combinationofnotesthatequalsfourquarterscanbeusedtollupameasure. Youmayhavenoticedthatthetimesignaturelooksalittlelikeafractioninarithmetic.Fillingup measuresfeelsalittlelikendingequivalentfractions 11 ,too.In"fourfourtime",forexample,therearefour beatsinameasureandaquarternotegetsonebeat.Sofourquarternoteswouldlluponemeasure.But sowouldanyothercombinationofnotesthatequalsfourquarters:onewhole,twohalves,onehalfplustwo quarters,andsoon. Example2.4 Ifthetimesignatureisthreeeight,anycombinationofnotesthataddsuptothreeeighthswillll ameasure.RememberthatadotSection2.5isworthanextrahalfofthenoteitfollows.Listen 12 totherhythmsinFigure2.17. Figure2.17: Ifthetimesignatureisthreeeight,ameasuremaybelledwithanycombinationofnotes andreststhataddsuptothreeeight. Exercise2.4 Solutiononp.55. Writeeachofthetimesignaturesbelowwithaclefsymbolatthebeginningofasta.Writeat leastfourmeasuresofmusicineachtimesignature.Filleachmeasurewithadierentcombination ofnotelengths.Useatleastonedottednoteoneachsta.Ifyouneedsomestapaper,youcan downloadthisPDFle 13 1.Twofourtime 2.Threeeighttime 3.Sixfourtime 11 "Fractions,Multiples,Beats,andMeasures" 12 http://cnx.org/content/m10956/latest/timesig1.MID 13 http://cnx.org/content/m10956/latest/stapaper1.pdf

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39 Afewtimesignaturesdon'thavetobewrittenasnumbers.Fourfourtimeisusedsomuchthatitisoften called commontime ,writtenasabold"C".Whenbothfoursare"cut"inhalftotwos,youhave cut time ,writtenasa"C"cutbyaverticalslash. Figure2.18 2.3.3CountingandConducting Youmayhavealreadynoticedthatameasureinfourfourtimelooksthesameasameasureintwotwo. Afterall,inarithmetic,fourquartersaddsuptothesamethingastwohalves.Forthatmatter,whynot callthetimesignature"oneone"or"eighteight"?

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40 CHAPTER2.TIME Figure2.19: Measuresinallofthesemeterslookthesame,butfeeldierent.Thedierenceishow manydownbeatsthereareinameasure. Orwhynotwritetwotwoastwofour,givingquarternotesthebeatinsteadofhalfnotes?Themusic wouldlookverydierent,butitwouldsoundthesame,aslongasyoumadethebeatsthesamespeed.The musicineachofthestavesinFigure2.20wouldsoundlikethis 14 Figure2.20: Themusicineachofthesestavesshouldsoundexactlyalike. Sowhyisonetimesignaturechosenratherthananother?Thecomposerwillnormallychooseatime signaturethatmakesthemusiceasytoreadandalsoeasytocountandconduct.Doesthemusicfeellikeit 14 http://cnx.org/content/m10956/latest/14k.mid

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41 hasfourbeatsineverymeasure,ordoesitgobysoquicklythatyouonlyhavetimetotapyourfoottwice inameasure? Acommonexceptiontothisissixeighttime,andtheothertimesignaturesforexamplenineeightand twelveeightcommonlyusedtowritecompoundmeters 15 .Apieceinsixeightmighthavesixbeatsinevery measure,withaneighthnotegettingabeat.Butitismorelikelythattheconductorwillgiveonlytwo beatspermeasure,withadottedquarterorthreeeighthnotesgettingonebeat.Sincebeatsnormally getdividedintohalvesandquarters,thisistheeasiestwayforcomposerstowritebeatsthataredivided intothirds.Inthesameway,threeeightmayonlyhaveonebeatpermeasure;nineeight,threebeatsper measure;andtwelveeight,fourbeatspermeasure. Figure2.21: Insixeighttime,adottedquarterusuallygetsonebeat.Thisistheeasiestwaytowrite beatsthatareevenlydividedintothreeratherthantwo. 2.4PickupNotesandMeasures 16 2.4.1PickupMeasures Normally,allthemeasuresSection1.1.1:TheStaofapieceofmusicmusthaveexactlythenumberof beatsSection2.3.1:BeatsandMeasuresindicatedinthetimesignatureSection2.3.Thebeatsmaybe lledwithanycombinationofnotesorrestswithdurationSection2.1valuesalsodictatedbythetime signature,buttheymustcombinetomakeexactlytherightnumberofbeats.Ifameasureorgroupof measureshasmoreorfewerbeats,thetimesignaturemustchange. Figure2.22: Normally,acomposerwhowantstoputmoreorfewerbeatsinameasuremustchange thetimesignature,asinthisexamplefromMussorgsky's BorisGodunov 15 "MeterinMusic" 16 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat.

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42 CHAPTER2.TIME Thereisonecommonexceptiontothisrule.Therearealsosomelesscommonexceptionsnotdiscussed here.Often,apieceofmusicdoesnotbeginonthestrongestdownbeatp.37.Instead,thestrongbeat thatpeopleliketocountas"one"thebeginningofameasure,happensonthesecondorthirdnote,or evenlater.Inthiscase,therstmeasuremaybeafullmeasurethatbeginswithsomerests.Butoftenthe rstmeasureissimplynotafullmeasure.Thisshortenedrstmeasureiscalleda pickupmeasure Ifthereisapickupmeasure,thenalmeasureofthepieceshouldbeshortenedbythelengthofthe pickupmeasurealthoughthisruleissometimesignoredinlessformalwrittenmusic.Forexample,ifthe meter 17 ofthepiecehasfourbeats,andthepickupmeasurehasonebeat,thenthenalmeasureshould haveonlythreebeats.Ofcourse,anycombinationofnotesandrestscanbeused,aslongasthetotalin therstandnalmeasuresequalsonefullmeasure. Figure2.23: Ifapiecebeginswithapickupmeasure,thenalmeasureofthepieceisshortenedbythe lengthofthepickupmeasure. 2.4.2PickupNotes Anyphrase 18 ofmusicnotjusttherstonemaybeginsomeplaceotherthanonastrongdownbeat.All thenotesbeforetherststrongdownbeatofanyphrasearethe pickupnotes tothatphrase. 17 "MeterinMusic" 18 "Melody":SectionMelodicPhrases

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43 Figure2.24: Anyphrasemaybeginwithpickupnotes.Eachofthesefourphrasesbeginswithoneor twopickupnotes.Youmaylistentothetunehere 19 ;canyouhearthatthepickupnotesleadtothe strongerdownbeat? Apiecethatisusingpickupmeasuresorpickupnotesmayalsosometimesplaceadoublebarp.1 withorwithoutrepeatsignsinsideameasure,inordertomakeitclearwhichphraseandwhichsection ofthemusicthepickupnotesbelongto.Ifthishappenswhichisabitrare,becauseitcanbeconfusingto read,thereisstillasinglebarlinewhereitshouldbe,attheendofthemeasure. Figure2.25: Attheendsofsectionsofthemusic,ameasuremaybeinterruptedbyadoublebarthat placesthepickupnotesinthecorrectsectionandassuresthatrepeatshavethecorrectnumberofbeats. Whenthishappens,thebarlinewillstillappearattheendofthecompletedmeasure.Thisnotation canbeconfusing,though,andinsomemusicthepickupsandrepeatsarewritteninawaythatavoids thesebroken-upmeasures. 2.5Dots,Ties,andBorrowedDivisions 20 Ahalfnoteishalfthelengthofawholenote;aquarternoteishalfthelengthofahalfnote;aneighthnote ishalfthelengthofaquarternote,andsoon.SeeDuration:NoteLengthSection2.1.Thesamegoes forrests.SeeDuration:RestLengthSection2.2.Butwhatifyouwantanoteorrestlengththatisn't halfofanothernoteorrestlength? 2.5.1DottedNotes Onewaytogetadierentlengthisbydottingthenoteorrest.A dottednote isone-and-a-halftimesthe lengthofthesamenotewithoutthedot.Inotherwords,thenotekeepsitsoriginallengthandaddsanother 19 http://cnx.org/content/m12717/latest/GirlILeftBehind.MID 20 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat.

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44 CHAPTER2.TIME halfofthatoriginallengthbecauseofthedot.Soadottedhalfnote,forexample,wouldlastaslongasa halfnoteplusaquarternote,orthreequartersofawholenote. Figure2.26: Thedotactsasifitisaddinganothernotehalfthelengthoftheoriginalnote.Adotted quarternote,forexample,wouldbethelengthofaquarterplusaneighth,becauseaneighthnoteishalf thelengthofaquarternote. Exercise2.5 Solutiononp.56. Makegroupsofequallengthoneachside,byputtingadottednoteorrestinthebox. Figure2.27 Anotemayhavemorethanonedot.Eachdotaddshalfthelengththatthedotbeforeitadded.For example,therstdotafterahalfnoteaddsaquarternotelength;theseconddotwouldaddaneighthnote length.

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45 Figure2.28: Whenanotehasmorethanonedot,eachdotisworthhalfofthedotbeforeit. 2.5.2TiedNotes Adottedhalflastsaslongasahalfnoteplusaquarternote.Thesamelengthmaybewrittenasahalfnote andaquarternotetiedtogether. Tiednotes arewrittenwithacurvedlineconnectingtwonotesthatare onthesamelineorthesamespaceinthesta.Notesofanylengthmaybetiedtogether,andmorethan twonotesmaybetiedtogether. Thesoundtheystandforwillbeasinglenotethatisthelength ofallthetiednotesaddedtogether. Thisisanotherwaytomakeagreatvarietyofnotelengths.Tied notesarealsotheonlywaytowriteasoundthatstartsinonemeasureSection2.3.1:BeatsandMeasures andendsinadierentmeasure. note: Tiesmaylooklikeslursp.62,buttheyarenotthesame;aslurconnectstonoteswith dierentpitchesSection1.3andisatypeofarticulationSection3.2. Figure2.29: Whentheseeightnotesareplayedaswritten,onlyvedistinctnotesareheard:onenote thelengthoftwowholenotes;thenadottedhalfnote;thenanothernotethesamelengthasthedotted halfnote;thenaquarternote;thenanotethesamelengthasawholenoteplusaquarternote. 2.5.3BorrowedDivisions Dotsandtiesgiveyoumuchfreedomtowritenotesofvaryinglengths,butsofaryoumustbuildyournotes fromhalvesofothernotes.Ifyouwanttodivideanotelengthintoanythingotherthanhalvesorhalvesof halves-ifyouwanttodivideabeatintothirdsorfths,forexample-youmustwritethenumberofthe divisionoverthenotes.Theseunusualsubdivisionsarecalled borroweddivisions becausetheysoundas iftheyhavebeenborrowedfromacompletelydierentmeter 21 .Theycanbediculttoperformcorrectly andareavoidedinmusicforbeginners.Theonlyonethatiscommonlyusedis triplets ,whichdivideanote lengthintoequalthirds. 21 "MeterinMusic"

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46 CHAPTER2.TIME SomeBorrowedDivisions Figure2.30: Anycommonnotelengthcanbedividedintoanunusualnumberofequal-lengthnotes andrests,forexamplebydividingawholenoteintothreeinsteadoftwo"half"notes.Thenotesare labeledwiththeappropriatenumber.Iftheremightbeanyquestionastowhichnotesareinvolvedin theborroweddivision,abracketisplacedabovethem.Tripletsarebyfarthemostcommonborrowed division. BorrowedDuplets Figure2.31: Inacompoundmeter 22 ,whichnormallydividesabeatintothree,theborroweddivision maydividethebeatintotwo,asinasimplemeter.Youmayalsoseedupletsinswingmusic. Notesinjazzy-soundingmusicthathasa"swing"beatareoftenassumedtobetripletrhythms,evenwhen theylooklikeregulardivisions;forexample,twowritteneighthnotesoradottedquarter-sixteenthmight soundlikeatripletquarter-eighthrhythm.Injazzandotherpopularmusicstyles,atempoSection2.6 notationthatsays swing usuallymeansthatallrhythmsshouldbeplayedastriplets. Straight meansto playtherhythmsaswritten. note: Somejazzmusiciansprefertothinkofaswingrhythmasmoreofaheavyaccentonthe secondeighth,ratherthanasatripletrhythm,particularlywhenthetempoSection2.6isfast. Thisdistinctionisnotimportantforstudentsofmusictheory,butjazzstudentswillwanttowork hardonusingbothrhythm 23 andarticulationSection3.2toproduceaconvincing"swing". 22 "MeterinMusic" 23 "Rhythm"

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47 SwingRhythms Figure2.32: Jazzorblueswitha "swing"rhythm oftenassumesthatalldivisionsaretriplets.The swungtripletsmaybewrittenastriplets,ortheymaysimplybewrittenas"straight"eighthnotesor dottedeighth-sixteenths.Ifrhythmsarenotwrittenastriplets,thetempomarkingusuallyincludesan indicationto"swing",oritmaysimplybeimpliedbythestyleandgenreofthemusic. 2.6Tempo 24 The tempo ofapieceofmusicisitsspeed.Therearetwowaystospecifyatempo.Metronomemarkingsare absoluteandspecic.Othertempomarkingsareverbaldescriptionswhicharemorerelativeandsubjective. Bothtypesofmarkingsusuallyappearabovethesta,atthebeginningofthepiece,andthenatanyspot wherethetempochanges.Markingsthatasktheplayertodeviateslightlyfromthemaintempo,suchas ritardandoGradualTempoChanges,p.49mayappeareitheraboveorbelowthesta. 2.6.1MetronomeMarkings Metronomemarkingsaregiveninbeatsperminute.Theycanbeestimatedusingaclockwithasecond hand,buttheeasiestwaytondthemiswitha metronome ,whichisatoolthatcangiveabeat-per-minute tempoasaclickingsoundorapulseoflight.Figure2.33showssomeexamplesofmetronomemarkings. 24 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat.

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48 CHAPTER2.TIME Figure2.33 Metronomesoftencomewithothertempoindicationswrittenonthem,butthisismisleading.For example,ametronomemayhave allegro markedat120beatsperminuteand andante markedat80beats perminute. Allegro shouldcertainlybequiteabitfasterthan andante ,butitmaynotbeexactly120beats perminute. 2.6.2TempoTerms Atempomarkingthatisawordorphrasegivesyouthecomposer'sideaof howfastthemusicshould feel .Howfastapieceofmusicfeelsdependsonseveraldierentthings,includingthetextureandcomplexity ofthemusic,howoftenthebeatgetsdividedintofasternotes,andhowfastthebeatsthemselvesarethe metronomemarking.Also,thesametempomarkingcanmeanquitedierentthingstodierentcomposers; ifametronomemarkingisnotavailable,theperformershoulduseaknowledgeofthemusic'sstyleandgenre, andmusicalcommonsense,todecideonthepropertempo.Whenpossible,listeningtoaprofessionalplay thepiececanhelpwithtempodecisions,butitisalsoreasonablefordierentperformerstopreferslightly dierenttemposforthesamepiece. Traditionally,tempoinstructionsaregiveninItalian. SomeCommonTempoMarkings Grave -veryslowandsolemnpronounced"GRAH-vay" Largo -slowandbroad"LAR-go" Larghetto -notquiteasslowaslargo"lar-GET-oh" Adagio -slow"uh-DAH-jee-oh" Lento -slow"LEN-toe" Andante -literally"walking",amediumslowtempo"on-DON-tay"

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49 Moderato -moderate,ormedium"MOD-er-AH-toe" Allegretto -Notasfastasallegro"AL-luh-GRET-oh" Allegro -fast"uh-LAY-grow" Vivo,orVivace -livelyandbrisk"VEE-voh" Presto -veryfast"PRESS-toe" Prestissimo -very,veryfast"press-TEE-see-moe" Theseterms,alongwithalittlemoreItalian,willhelpyoudeciphermosttempoinstructions. MoreusefulItalian unpoco -alittle"oonPOH-koe" molto -alot"MOLE-toe" piu -more"pew" meno -less"MAY-no" mosso -literally"moved";motionormovement"MOE-so" Exercise2.6 Solutiononp.56. ChecktoseehowcomfortableyouarewithItaliantempomarkingsbytranslatingthefollowing. 1.unpocoallegro 2.moltomenomosso 3.piuvivo 4.moltoadagio 5.pocopiumosso Ofcourse,tempoinstructionsdon'thavetobegiveninItalian.Muchfolk,popular,andmodernmusic, givesinstructionsinEnglishorinthecomposer'slanguage.Tempoindicationssuchas"Nottoofast","With energy","Calmly",or"Marchtempo"giveagoodideaofhowfastthemusicshouldfeel. 2.6.3GradualTempoChanges Ifthetempoofapieceofmusicsuddenlychangesintoacompletelydierenttempo,therewillbeanew tempogiven,usuallymarkedinthesamewaymetronometempo,Italianterm,etc.astheoriginaltempo. Gradualchangesinthebasictempoarealsocommoninmusic,though,andthesehavetheirownsetof terms.Thesetermsoftenappearbelowthesta,althoughwritingthemabovethestaisalsoallowed. ThesetermscanalsoappearwithmodiersMoreusefulItalian,p.49like molto or unpoco .Youmay noticethattherearequiteafewtermsforslowingdown.Again,theuseofthesetermswillvaryfromone composertothenext;unlessbeginningandendingtempomarkingsareincluded,theperformermustsimply usegoodmusicaljudgementtodecidehowmuchtoslowdowninaparticular ritardando or rallentando GradualTempoChanges accelerando -abbreviated accel. accelerating;gettingfaster ritardando -abbrev. rit. slowingdown ritenuto -abbrev. riten. slower rallentando -abbrev. rall. graduallyslower rubato -don'tbetoostrictwiththerhythm;whilekeepingthebasictempo,allowthemusictogently speedupandrelaxinwaysthatemphasizethephrasing pocoapoco -littlebylittle;gradually TempoI -"tempoone"or"tempoprimo"backtotheoriginaltempothisinstructionusually appearsabovethesta

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50 CHAPTER2.TIME 2.7RepeatsandOtherMusicalRoadMapSigns 25 Repetition,eitherexactorwithsmallorlargevariations,isoneofthebasicorganizingprinciplesofmusic. RepeatednotesSection2.1,motifs 26 ,phrases 27 ,melodies 28 ,rhythms 29 ,chordprogressions 30 ,andeven entirerepeatedsectionsintheoverallform 31 ,areallverycrucialinhelpingthelistenermakesenseofthe music.Sogoodmusicissurprisinglyrepetitive! So,inordertosavetime,ink,andpageturns,commonnotationhasmanywaystoshowthatapartof themusicshouldberepeatedexactly. Iftherepeatedpartisverysmall-onlyoneortwomeasures,forexample-therepeatsignwillprobably looksomethinglikethoseinFigure2.34RepeatedMeasures.Ifyouhaveverymanysuchrepeatedmeasures inarow,youmaywanttonumbertheminpenciltohelpyoukeeptrackofwhereyouareinthemusic. RepeatedMeasures Figure2.34 Forrepeatedsectionsofmediumlength-usuallyfourtothirty-twomeasuresrepeatdots withor withoutendingsarethemostcommonmarkings.DotstotherightofadoublebarlineSection1.1.1:The Stabegintherepeatedsection;dotstotheleftofadoublebarlineendit.Iftherearenobeginningrepeat dots,youshouldgoallthewaybacktothebeginningofthemusicandrepeatfromthere. 25 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat. 26 "Melody":SectionMotif 27 "Melody":SectionMelodicPhrases 28 "Melody" 29 "Rhythm" 30 "Harmony":Chords 31 "ForminMusic"

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51 RepeatDots Figure2.35: Iftherearenoextrainstructions,arepeatedsectionshouldbeplayedtwice.Occasionally youwillseeextrainstructionsovertherepeatdots,forexampletoplaythesection"3x"threetimes. Itisverycommonforlongerrepeatedsectionsofmusictoberepeatedexactlyuntilthelastfewmeasures. Whenthishappens,therepeatdotswillbeputinan ending .Thebracketoverthemusicshowsyouwhich measurestoplayeachtimeyouarriveatthatpointinthemusic.Forexample,thesecondtimeyoureach asetofendings,youwill skipthemusicinalltheotherendings;playonlythemeasuresinthe secondending,andthendowhateverthesecondendingdirectsyoutodo repeat,goon,skipto somewhereelse,etc..

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52 CHAPTER2.TIME RepeatEndings Figure2.36: Some"endings"ofasectionofmusicmayincludearepeat,whileothersdonot.Playonly oneendingeachtimeskippingoverother,previouslyplayedendingswhennecessary,andthenfollow the"instructions"attheendoftheendingtorepeat,goon,gosomeplaceelse,etc.. Whenyouarerepeatinglargesectionsinmoreinformallywrittenmusic,youmaysimplyndinstructions inthemusicsuchas"torefrain","tobridge","toverses",etc.Oryoumayndextrainstructionstoplay certainparts"onlyontherepeat".Usuallytheseinstructionsarereasonablyclear,althoughyoumayneed tostudythemusicforaminutetogetthe"roadmap"clearinyourmind.Pencilled-inmarkingscanbea bighelpifit'sdiculttospottheplaceyouneedtoskipto.Inordertohelpclarifythings,repeatdotsand otherrepeatinstructionsarealmostalwaysmarkedbyadoublebarlineSection1.1.1:TheSta. InWesternclassicalmusic 32 ,themostcommoninstructionsforrepeatinglargesectionsaretraditionally writtenorabbreviatedinItalian.ThemostcommoninstructionsfromthattraditionareinFigure2.37 OtherCommon"RoadMap"Signs. 32 "WhatKindofMusicisThat?"

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53 OtherCommon"RoadMap"Signs Figure2.37 Again,instructionscaneasilygetquitecomplicated,andtheselarge-sectionmarkingsmayrequireyou tostudyyourpartforaminutetoseehowitislaidout,andeventomarkinpencilcirclesandarrowsthat helpyoundthewayquicklywhileyouareplaying.Figure2.38containsafewverysimplisticexamplesof howthese"roadmapsigns"willwork.

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54 CHAPTER2.TIME Figure2.38: Herearesomeshortenedexamplesofhowthesetypesofrepeatinstructionsmaybe arranged.Thesetypesofsignsusuallymarklongerrepeatedsections.Inmanystylesofmusic,ashort repeatedsectionusuallymarkedwithrepeatdotsisoften not repeatedaftera dacapo or dalsegno

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55 SolutionstoExercisesinChapter2 SolutiontoExercise2.1p.32 Figure2.39 SolutiontoExercise2.2p.34 Figure2.40 SolutiontoExercise2.3p.37 Ahasaverystrong,quick1-2-3beat. Bisinasloweasy2.Youmayfeelitinafast4. Cisinastately4. Disin3,butthebeatmaybehardertofeelthaninAbecausetherhythmsaremorecomplexand theperformeristakingsomelibertieswiththetempoSection2.6. SolutiontoExercise2.4p.38 Thereareanenormousnumberofpossiblenotecombinationsforanytimesignature.That'soneofthe thingsthatmakesmusicinteresting.Herearesomepossibilities.Ifyouarenotsurethatyoursarecorrect, checkwithyourmusicinstructor.

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56 CHAPTER2.TIME Figure2.41: Theseareonlyafewofthemany,manypossiblenotecombinationsthatcouldbeusedin thesetimesignatures. SolutiontoExercise2.5p.44 Figure2.42 SolutiontoExercise2.6p.49 1.alittlefast 2.muchlessmotion=muchslower 3.morelively=faster 4.veryslow 5.alittlemoremotion=alittlefaster

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Chapter3 Style 3.1DynamicsandAccentsinMusic 1 3.1.1Dynamics Sounds,includingmusic,canbebarelyaudible,orloudenoughtohurtyourears,oranywhereinbetween. Whentheywanttotalkabouttheloudnessofasound,scientistsandengineerstalkaboutamplitude 2 Musicianstalkabout dynamics .Theamplitudeofasoundisaparticularnumber,usuallymeasuredin decibels,butdynamicsarerelative;anorchestraplaying fortissimo isgoingtobemuchlouderthanasingle violinplaying fortissimo .Theexactinterpretationofeachdynamicmarkinginapieceofmusicdependson: comparisonwithotherdynamicsinthatpiece thetypicaldynamicrangeforthatinstrumentorensemble theabilitiesoftheperformers thetraditionsofthemusicalgenrebeingperformed theacousticsoftheperformancespace Traditionally,dynamicmarkingsarebasedonItalianwords,althoughthereisnothingwrongwithsimply writingthingslike"quietly"or"louder"inthemusic. Forte meansloudand piano meanssoft.The instrumentcommonlycalledthe"piano"bytheway,wasoriginallycalleda"pianoforte"becauseitcould playdynamics,unlikeearlierpopularkeyboardinstrumentsliketheharpsichord. 1 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat. 2 "AcousticsforMusicTheory":SectionWaveAmplitudeandLoudness 57

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58 CHAPTER3.STYLE TypicalDynamicMarkings Figure3.1 Whenacomposerwritesa forte intoapart,followedbya piano ,theintentisforthemusictobequite loud,andthensuddenlyquitesoft.Ifthecomposerwantsthechangefromonedynamicleveltoanotherto begradual,dierentmarkingsareadded.A crescendo pronounced"cresh-EN-doe"means"graduallyget louder";a decrescendo or diminuendo means"graduallygetsofter".

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59 GradualDynamicMarkings Figure3.2: Herearethreedierentwaystowritethesamething:startsoftlypiano,graduallyget loudercrescendountilthemusicisloudforte,thengraduallygetsofterdecrescendoordiminuendo untilitissoftpianoagain. 3.1.2Accents Acomposermaywantaparticularnotetobelouderthanalltherest,ormaywanttheverybeginningofa notetobeloudest. Accents aremarkingsthatareusedtoindicatetheseespecially-strong-soundingnotes. ThereareafewdierenttypesofwrittenaccentsseeFigure3.3CommonAccents,but,likedynamics, theproperwaytoperformagivenaccentalsodependsontheinstrumentplayingit,aswellasthestyle andperiodofthemusic.Someaccentsmayevenbeplayedbymakingthenotelongerorshorterthanthe othernotes,inadditionto,oreveninsteadofbeing,louder.SeearticulationSection3.2formoreabout accents. CommonAccents Figure3.3: Theexactperformanceofeachtypeofaccentdependsontheinstrumentandthestyleand periodofthemusic,butthe sforzando and fortepiano -typeaccentsareusuallylouderandlonger,and morelikelytobeusedinalongnotethatstartsloudlyandthensuddenlygetsmuchsofter. Caret -type accentsaremorelikelytobeusedtomarkshorternotesthatshouldbestrongerthanunmarkednotes.

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60 CHAPTER3.STYLE 3.2Articulation 3 3.2.1WhatisArticulation? Theword articulation generallyreferstohowthepiecesofsomethingarejoinedtogether;forexample,how bonesareconnectedtomakeaskeletonorsyllablesareconnectedtomakeaword.Articulationdependson whatishappeningatthebeginningandendofeachsegment,aswellasinbetweenthesegments. Inmusic,thesegmentsaretheindividualnotesofa line inthemusic.Thiscouldbethemelodic 4 line,the bass 5 line,orapartoftheharmony 6 .Thelinemightbeperformedbyanymusicianorgroupofmusicians: asinger,forexample,orabassoonist,aviolinsection,oratrumpetandsaxophonetogether.Inanycase,it isastringofnotesthatfollowoneaftertheotherandthatbelongtogetherinthemusic.The articulation iswhathappensinbetweenthenotes.The attack -thebeginningofanote-andtheamountof space in betweenthenotesareparticularlyimportant. 3.2.2PerformingArticulations Descriptionsofhoweacharticulationisdonecannotbegivenhere,becausetheydependtoomuchonthe particularinstrumentthatismakingthemusic.Inotherwords,thetechniquethataviolin 7 playeruses toslurnoteswillbecompletelydierentfromthetechniqueusedbyatrumpet 8 player,andapianistand avocalistwilldodierentthingstomakeamelodysoundlegato.Infact,theviolinistwillhavesome articulationsavailablesuchas pizzicato ,or"plucked"thatatrumpetplayerwillneversee. Soifyouarewonderinghowtoplayslursonyourguitarorstaccatoonyourclarinet,askyourmusic teacherordirector.Whatyouwillndhereisashortlistofthemostcommonarticulations:theirnames, whattheylooklikewhennotated,andavaguedescriptionofhowtheysound.Thedescriptionshavetobe vague,becausearticulation,besidesdependingontheinstrument,alsodependsonthestyleofthemusic. Exactlyhowmuchspacethereshouldbebetweenstaccatoeighthnotes,forexample,dependsontempo Section2.6aswellasonwhetheryou'replayingRossiniorSousa.Togiveyousomeideaofthedierence thatarticulationmakes,though,hereareaudioexamplesofaviolinplayingalegato 9 andastaccato 10 passage.Formoreaudioexamplesofviolinarticulations,pleaseseeCommonViolinTerminology 11 3.2.3CommonArticulations Staccato notesareshort,withplentyofspacebetweenthem.Pleasenotethatthisdoesn'tmeanthatthe tempoSection2.6orrhythm 12 goesanyfaster.Thetempoandrhythmarenotaectedbyarticulations; thestaccatonotessoundshorterthanwrittenonlybecauseoftheextraspacebetweenthem. 3 Thiscontentisavailableonlineat. 4 "Melody" 5 "Harmony":Accompaniment 6 "Harmony" 7 "IntroductiontotheViolinandFAQ" 8 "TrumpetsandCornets" 9 http://cnx.org/content/m11884/latest/artleg.mp3 10 http://cnx.org/content/m11884/latest/artstacc.mp3 11 "CommonViolinTerminology" 12 "Rhythm"

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61 Staccato Figure3.4 Legato istheoppositeofstaccato.Thenotesareveryconnected;thereisnospacebetweenthenotes atall.Thereis,however,stillsomesortofarticulationthatcausesaslightbutdenitebreakbetweenthe notesforexample,theviolinplayer'sbowchangesdirection,theguitarplayerplucksthestringagain,or thewindplayerusesthetonguetointerruptthestreamofair. Legato Figure3.5 Accents -Anaccentp.59requiresthatanotestandoutmorethantheunaccentednotesaroundit. Accentsareusuallyperformedbymakingtheaccentednote,orthebeginningoftheaccentednote,louder thantherestofthemusic.AlthoughthisismostlyaquickchangeindynamicsSection3.1,itusually aectsthearticulationofthenote,too.Theextraloudnessofthenoteoftenrequiresastronger,more deniteattackatthebeginningoftheaccentednote,anditisemphasizedbyputtingsomespacebeforeand aftertheaccentednotes.Theeectofalotofaccentednotesinarowmaysoundmarcatop.64.

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62 CHAPTER3.STYLE Accents Figure3.6: Theperformanceofanaccentdependsonthestyleofmusic,butingeneral,sforzandoand fortepianoaccentsinvolvealoudbeginningtoalongernote.Theyareusuallyheavierandlongerthan caret-typeaccents,whichoftenrelymoreonapowerfulattackp.60tomakeashortnotelouderthan thenotesaroundit. A slur ismarkedbyacurvedlinejoininganynumberofnotes.Whennotesareslurred,onlytherstnote undereachslurmarkinghasadenitearticulationatthebeginning.Therestofthenotesaresoseamlessly connectedthatthereisnobreakbetweenthenotes.Agoodexampleofslurringoccurswhenavocalistsings morethanonenoteonthesamesyllableoftext. Slurs Figure3.7 AtieSection2.5.3:BorrowedDivisionslookslikeaslur,butitisbetweentwonotesthatarethesame pitch. Atieisnotreallyanarticulationmarking. Itisincludedherebecauseitlookslikeone,which cancauseconfusionforbeginners.Whennotesaretiedtogether,theyareplayedasiftheyareonesingle notethatisthelengthofallthenotesthataretiedtogether.PleaseseeDots,Ties,andBorrowedDivisions Section2.5.

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63 Slursvs.Ties Figure3.8: Aslurmarkingindicatesnoarticulation-nobreakinthesound-betweennotesofdierent pitches.Atieisusedbetweentwonotesofthesamepitch.Sincethereisnoarticulationbetweenthem, theysoundlikeasinglenote.Thetiedquartersherewouldsoundexactlylikeahalfnotecrossingthe barline.Likeanotethatcrossesbarlines,thetwo-and-a-half-beat"note"inthefourthbarwouldbe diculttowritewithoutusingatie. A portamento isasmoothglidebetweenthetwonotes,includingallthepitchesSection1.3inbetween. Forsomeinstruments,likeviolin 13 andtrombone 14 ,thisincludeseventhepitchesinbetweenthewritten notes.Forotherinstruments,suchasguitar 15 ,itmeansslidingthroughallofthepossiblenotesbetween thetwowrittenpitches. Portamento Figure3.9 AlthoughunusualintraditionalcommonnotationSection1.1,atypeofportamentothatincludesonly onewrittenpitchcanbefoundinsomestylesofmusic,notablyjazz,blues,androck.Asthenotation Figure3.10:ScoopsandFall-ossuggests,theproperperformanceof scoops and fall-os requiresthat theportamentobeginsinscoopsorendsinfall-oswiththeslideitself,ratherthanwithaspecicnote. 13 "IntroductiontotheViolinandFAQ" 14 "Trombones" 15 "Guitars"

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64 CHAPTER3.STYLE ScoopsandFall-os Figure3.10: Thenotationforscoopsandfall-oshasnotbeenstandardized,buteitheronewilllook somethinglikeaportamentoorslurwithanoteononeendonly. Somearticulationsmaybesomecombinationofstaccato,legato,andaccent. Marcato ,forexample means"marked"inthesenseof"stressed"or"noticeable".Notesmarked marcato haveenoughofanaccent and/orenoughspacebetweenthemtomakeeachnoteseemstressedorsetapart.Theyareusuallylonger thanstaccatobutshorterthanlegato.Othernotesmaybemarkedwithacombinationofarticulation symbols,forexamplelegatowithaccents.Asalways,thebestwaytoperformsuchnotesdependsonthe instrumentandthestyleofthemusic. SomePossibleCombinationMarkings Figure3.11 Plentyofmusichasnoarticulationmarksatall,ormarksononlyafewnotes.Often,suchmusiccallsfor notesthatarealittlemoreseparateordenedthanlegato,butstillnowhereasshortasstaccato.Mostly, though,itisuptotheperformertoknowwhatisconsideredproperforaparticularpiece.Forexample,most balladsaresunglegato,andmostmarchesareplayedfairlystaccatoormarcato,whethertheyaremarked thatwayornot.Furthermore,singingorplayingaphrase 16 withmusicianshipoftenrequiresknowingwhich notesofthephraseshouldbelegato,whichshouldbemoreseparate,wheretoaddalittle portamento ,and soon.Thisdoesnotmeanthebestplayersconsciouslydecidehowtoplayeachnote.Goodarticulation comesnaturallytothemusicianwhohasmasteredtheinstrumentandthestyleofthemusic. 16 "Melody":SectionMelodicPhrases

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INDEX 65 IndexofKeywordsandTerms Keywords arelistedbythesectionwiththatkeywordpagenumbersareinparentheses.Keywords donotnecessarilyappearinthetextofthepage.Theyaremerelyassociatedwiththatsection. Ex. apples,1.1 Terms arereferencedbythepagetheyappearon. Ex. apples,1 "swing"rhythm,47 A accents,3.1,59,3.2,61 accidentals,13 alcoda,2.7 alne,2.7 allegro,2.6 andante,2.647 articulation,3.2,60,60 attack,60 B barlines,1 bars,1,37 bassclef,1.2,4 beam,31 beats,36 borroweddivisions,45 C Cclef,1.2,5 clef,1.2 clefsymbol,4 coda,2.7 commonnotation,1 commontime,39 cuttime,39 D dacapo,2.7 dalsegno,2.7 dottednote,43 dottednotes,2.5 doublebarline,1 doubleat,13 doublesharp,13 duration,2.1,29,2.2 dynamics,3.1,57 E eighthnotes,2.1,30 eighthrest,2.2 ending,51 enharmonic,1.3,1.5,19 enharmonickeys,21 enharmonicspelling,19 F Fclef,6 fall-os,63 ne,2.7 rstending,2.7 at,1.3,1.4 atsign,12 ats,1.5 forte,3.1 G Gclef,6 grave,2.6 H halfnote,30 halfnotes,2.1 halfrest,2.2 head,29 K key,1.4,1.5 keysignature,1.4,15,1.5 L larghetto,2.6 largo,2.6 ledgerlines,1 legato,3.2,61 lento,2.6 line,60 M major,1.4 marcato,3.2,64 measure,2.4 measures,1,37 meter,2.1,2.3 metronome,2.6,47 minor,1.4 music,1.1,1.2,1.3,1.4, 2.1,2.2,2.3,2.4, 2.6,3.1 musicnotation,2.2 N natural,1.3,11 notation,1.1,1.2,1.3, 1.4,2.1,2.3 note,29

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66 INDEX notes,2.1 P piano,3.1 pickupmeasure,42 pickupmeasures,2.4 pickupnotes,2.4,42 pitch,1.3,11 pizzicato,60 portamento,3.2,63 presto,2.6 Q quarternote,30 quarternotes,2.1 quarterrest,2.2 R repeatdots,2.7,50 repeatsigns,2.7 rest,34 rests,2.2 rhythm,2.1,2.3,2.4, 2.6 S scoops,63 secondending,2.7 sharp,1.3,1.4 sharpsign,12 sharps,1.5 sixteenthnotes,30 sixty-fourthnotes,30 slur,62 slurrednotes,3.2 space,60 staccato,3.2,60 sta,1,1,1.2,1.3,1.4, 2.1,2.3 staves,1 Straight,46 swing,46 T tempo,2.6,47 thirty-secondnotes,30 tiednotes,2.543,45,3.2 timesignature,36,37,2.4,2.6 treble,1.2 trebleclef,1.2,4 triplets,2.5,45 V vivace,2.6 W wholenote,30 wholenotes,2.1 wholerest,2.234

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ATTRIBUTIONS 67 Attributions Collection: ReadingMusic:CommonNotation Editedby:CatherineSchmidt-Jones URL:http://cnx.org/content/col10209/1.9/ License:http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/1.0 Module:"TheSta" By:CatherineSchmidt-Jones URL:http://cnx.org/content/m10880/2.9/ Pages:1-3 Copyright:CatherineSchmidt-Jones License:http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/1.0 Module:"Clef" By:CatherineSchmidt-Jones URL:http://cnx.org/content/m10941/2.15/ Pages:4-10 Copyright:CatherineSchmidt-Jones License:http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/1.0 Module:"Pitch:Sharp,Flat,andNaturalNotes" By:CatherineSchmidt-Jones URL:http://cnx.org/content/m10943/2.9/ Pages:11-14 Copyright:CatherineSchmidt-Jones License:http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/1.0 Module:"KeySignature" By:CatherineSchmidt-Jones URL:http://cnx.org/content/m10881/2.11/ Pages:14-17 Copyright:CatherineSchmidt-Jones License:http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/1.0 Module:"EnharmonicSpelling" By:CatherineSchmidt-Jones URL:http://cnx.org/content/m11641/1.9/ Pages:17-23 Copyright:CatherineSchmidt-Jones License:http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/1.0 Module:"Duration:NoteLengthsinWrittenMusic" By:CatherineSchmidt-Jones URL:http://cnx.org/content/m10945/2.9/ Pages:29-34 Copyright:CatherineSchmidt-Jones License:http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/1.0

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68 ATTRIBUTIONS Module:"Duration:RestLength" By:CatherineSchmidt-Jones URL:http://cnx.org/content/m11887/1.5/ Pages:34-36 Copyright:CatherineSchmidt-Jones License:http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/1.0 Module:"TimeSignature" By:CatherineSchmidt-Jones URL:http://cnx.org/content/m10956/2.9/ Pages:36-41 Copyright:CatherineSchmidt-Jones License:http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/1.0 Module:"PickupNotesandMeasures" By:CatherineSchmidt-Jones URL:http://cnx.org/content/m12717/1.4/ Pages:41-43 Copyright:CatherineSchmidt-Jones License:http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/ Module:"Dots,Ties,andBorrowedDivisions" By:CatherineSchmidt-Jones URL:http://cnx.org/content/m11888/1.6/ Pages:43-47 Copyright:CatherineSchmidt-Jones License:http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/1.0 Module:"Tempo" By:CatherineSchmidt-Jones URL:http://cnx.org/content/m11648/1.6/ Pages:47-49 Copyright:CatherineSchmidt-Jones License:http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/1.0 Module:"RepeatsandOtherMusicalRoadMapSigns" By:CatherineSchmidt-Jones URL:http://cnx.org/content/m12805/1.4/ Pages:50-54 Copyright:CatherineSchmidt-Jones License:http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/ Module:"DynamicsandAccentsinMusic" By:CatherineSchmidt-Jones URL:http://cnx.org/content/m11649/1.7/ Pages:57-60 Copyright:CatherineSchmidt-Jones License:http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/1.0 Module:"Articulation" By:CatherineSchmidt-Jones URL:http://cnx.org/content/m11884/1.5/ Pages:60-64 Copyright:CatherineSchmidt-Jones License:http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/1.0

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ReadingMusic:CommonNotation Thiscoursemaybeusedtointroduceorreinforcemusic-readingskillsforsomeonejustlearningtoplayan instrument,ortheindividuallessonscanbeusedtoexpandonbasicmusic-readingknowledgeortolookup anymusic-notationtermsthatarestillunfamiliar. AboutConnexions Since1999,Connexionshasbeenpioneeringaglobalsystemwhereanyonecancreatecoursematerialsand makethemfullyaccessibleandeasilyreusablefreeofcharge.WeareaWeb-basedauthoring,teachingand learningenvironmentopentoanyoneinterestedineducation,includingstudents,teachers,professorsand lifelonglearners.Weconnectideasandfacilitateeducationalcommunities. Connexions'smodular,interactivecoursesareinuseworldwidebyuniversities,communitycolleges,K-12 schools,distancelearners,andlifelonglearners.Connexionsmaterialsareinmanylanguages,including English,Spanish,Chinese,Japanese,Italian,Vietnamese,French,Portuguese,andThai.Connexionsispart ofanexcitingnewinformationdistributionsystemthatallowsfor PrintonDemandBooks .Connexions haspartneredwithinnovativeon-demandpublisherQOOPtoacceleratethedeliveryofprintedcourse materialsandtextbooksintoclassroomsworldwideatlowerpricesthantraditionalacademicpublishers.