Ximenez-Fatio House - Research Objective (56 pages)

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Material Information

Title:
Ximenez-Fatio House - Research Objective (56 pages)
Series Title:
Herschel Shepard Project Files
Physical Description:
Unknown
Language:
English
Donor:
Shepard, Herschel ( donor )
Physical Location:
Folder: 7303 Ximenez-Fatio House

Subjects

Spatial Coverage:
North America -- United States of America -- Florida -- St. Johns -- St. Augustine

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
System ID:
AA00011621:00015

Full Text



XIMENEZ-FATIO HOUSE RESEARCHOBJECTIVE
ST. AUGUSTINE, FLORIDA



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SThe purpose of the following paint analysis was

; to determine the finishes (paint type and color)

Sfor all exterior and interior surfaces of the

Main house, west wing and free-standing kitchen

(Figs. 1-5), dating to the period when the

Ximenez-Fatio House underwent a major remodelling

S. which included the extension of the west to

-- its present form. According to the .,.....

investigations" conducted by Herschel E.

in 1973, these charges wer? .rently des.i

to convert ta s:.auture into a boarding housi

Mr. Shepha:-. ay.,ests that the,- .-delling occurred

S between 183~ -8. Include findings of the

paint research are recommen.... ,ns for restoration

S -' finishes.


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XIMENEZ-FATIO HOUSE- CONCLUSIONS
ST. AUGUSTINE, FLORIDA





Apparently every room of the Ximenez-Fatio House has extant

architectural fabric which dates to the 1830's remodelling.

The 1830's remodelling was considerable according to the

"architectural. investigations", with each room on the interior

and many surfaces on the exterior being altered in some way.

The first step in the paint analysis was to isolate those 1830's

elements. (It must be stressed that this was not easy based

on the general nature of the "architectural investigations".)

When the period fabric was determined the layers closest to

the substrate, whether wood or plaster, were considered the

layers to be matched for repainting. These layers were selected

! only if there was not apparent evidence of paint removal or

alteration to the 1830's feature. Upon isolating those elements

dating to the target restoration date, the remaining samples from

the rooms or exterior elevations were studied to arrive at a

correlation between them and the 1830's paint layers. The

primary purpose of this comparison was to determine whether there

was a polychromatic scheme or some other form of decorative

painting displayed during the period under study. As mentioned

previously, for this. reason numerous paint samples were taken

From each room and architectural feature.

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XIMENEZ-FATIO HOUSE CONCLUSIONS 2
ST. AUGUSTINE, FLORIDA





INTERIOR WOODWORK

On both interior and exterior surfaces of the Ximenez-Fatio House

the presence of off-white layers varying from cream to a light

ochre were found to date to the period under study. These layers

invariably reacted to sodium sulfide verifying the presence of

white lead as the prime pigment with linseed oil as the probable

medium. An interesting discovery was made in the analysis

regarding paint materials. In most cases the white lead layers

were followed consistently by an intense bright white layer

which did not react to the sodium sulfide test. Analysis under

a near ultraviolet light indicated that this layer was most

assuredly zinc oxide, flourescing a characteristic bright yellow

to green. Zinc white as a house paint was not patented in the

United States until 1850, which would likely place the date of

this layer somewhat later possibly after 1855 when the house

was purchased by Louisa Fatio.


The apparent zinc oxide layer was also found on samples which

date to an earlier period than the 1830's remodelling. The

zinc white therefore assisted in isolating layers dating to the

period under study in those samples. The architectural elements

which apparently predate the 1830's period consistently had grey

and light blue closest to the substrate. (The light blue

(Prussian?) was similar to that found in the exterior stair hall.)
K '"".

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XIMENEZ-FATIO HOUSE CONCLUSIONS 3
ST. AUGUSTINE, FLORIDA




Generally, similar, the paint layers which we feel date to the

remodelling, based on the architectural evidence provided us,

vary in number from sample to sample. These discrepancies can

be accountable to the factors outlined in the Introduction of

this report. A detailed description of the findings in each

room is included following the Recommendation Section.


Microscopic analysis of the white lead layers indicated a thin

coat over them. We tend to believe that these coats are not

graining, as they would appear thicker and more transparent, almost

glasslike. The thin layers found on the samples under study have an

almost "wash" appearance lending credance to the possibility of

oil coats. Often oil was rubbed on the surface of freshly painted

woodwork with rotten or pumice stone to simulate an enamel finish.

The process of rubbing oil will be described in the Recommendations.


Once the layers were pinpointed throughout the house, and because

they appeared to be similar, although the chromochronology varied

somewhat between creams, off-whites and layers with a touch of

yellow ochre, it was necessary to bleach some selected samples.

Linseed oil, the most common vehicle of the 19th century, has a

tendency to yellow with time and darkness (even being covered

over by another paint layer), with dampness increasing the

tendency. It may be accelerated by certain pigments. This

change would necessarily affect the perceived color of the paint







XIMENEZ-FATIO HOUSE-
ST. AUGUSTINE, FLORIDA


CONCLUSIONS 4


layer; therefore, the selected samples were placed under near

ultraviolet light for specified periods of time. (See the

following pages for photographs of Sample No. 263, illustrating

the layers before and after the treatment with near ultraviolet

light.) Although the photographic process distorted the true

color somewhat, it is obvious that the bottom layers were

bleached to an almost white appearance. A problem arose in

color matching because the layers had somewhat of a grey cast

after bleaching. It is our conclusion that the greyness was a

result of impurities in the paint.


We conclude that the woodwork throughout the interior of the

Ximenez-Fatio House was painted cream (white lead), Munsell

5Y 8.5/2. The technique employed for applying the woodwork

finish included the application of oil by hand rubbing with

rotten or pumice stone to create a hard enamel finish.


INTERIOR WALLS

Interior plastered walls were difficult to sample as mentioned

in the Introduction to this report. Several samples were taken

from areas which appeared early. Two samples from Room No. 12

provided clues to the possible 1830's wall finishes. Since

they are the only wall samples removed which have a significant

number of paint layers present, our finish recommendations for

plastered walls are based on the analysis of these samples.


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XIMENEZ-FATIO HOUSE CONCLUSIONS 5
ST. AUGUSTINE, FLORIDA





The samples included No..208 from the wall south of Door 13A and

No. 209 from the wall north of Door 13A. Both samples contained

between seventeen and twenty layers of paint. In each were at

least seven layers of whitewash adjacent to the plaster substrate.

(See slides in Room No. 12 Section.) Applying diluted hydrochloric

acid to the samples indicated that the layers under study were

whitewash by the bubbling reaction. No wallpaper was found on any

samples taken throughout the main house or west wing. Samples No.

)208 and No. 209 indicated that wallpaper was most likely not

intended from the beginning because the walls contained a hard

white finish coat. Often when wallpaper was to be used on fresh

plaster, the brown coat of plaster was smoothed without applying

a skim coat. It was common to have white plaster as the wall

finish in the 18th and 19th centuries. When the plaster became

soiled the walls were whitewashed or calcimined, often the paint

'was tinted.


We conclude, based on the above described evidence, that the walls

were probably meant to have the fine smooth plaster surface exposed

and were painted with whitewash as the surfaces became dirty. A

recipe 'for a simulated whitewash is included in the Recommendations.

The samples removed from the Attic paneling and from the First Floor

Pantry closet both had whitewash as the earliest finish.






XIMENEZ-FATIO HOUSE CONCLUSIONS 6
ST. AUGUSTINE, FLORIDA




EXTERIOR MASONRY WALLS

No samples were taken from exterior wall surfaces because according

to the restoration project architect, the 1830's surfaces have been

covered or replaced. Furthermore, during the "architectural investi-

gations" conducted by the architect, earlier material had been

uncovered and the finish was consistently whitewash. Since there

is no evidence to the contrary, we recommend that the exterior

masonry walls be whitewashed a common treatment for an early

19th century house.


EXTERIOR TRIM

The exterior trim proved to be a puzzle especially concerning the

stair hall. The reasons for this confusion include the following:

1) the major replacement of deteriorated fabric
during the 1940 rehabilitation project;

2) the general nature of the "architectural
investigations";

3) the lack of sufficient paint sampling; and

4) discrepancies between samples.


The conclusions concerning exterior trim have been divided into

categories for ease of presentation and because the recommendations

vary for different architectural elements.


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XIMENEZ-FATIO HOUSE CONCLUSIONS 7
ST. AUGUSTINE, FLORIDA





Doors: Twenty-one samples Were removed from exterior doors and

door casings during the sampling. Analysis of these samples

indicated that the doors were painted with a white lead oil paint.

Only one door offered some confusion Door 11A. Apparently, the

door was painted cream during its earliest history, dating to the

1830's remodelling. However, the early cream sequence is followed

by a resinous substance and there is some evidence of a dark green.

Since there are several layers of cream, it was most probably the

first finish, but during the period under study the door could

have been refinished with a different treatment. Additional

samples should be taken of this door to arrive at a more definitive

conclusion.


Windows: Approximately thirty-three samples were taken from

window sash and casings with two samples removed from shutters.

Window 3A "was probably installed in 1830-48, for it is identical

in size with the northern first floor windows of the west wing",

the "architectural investigations"' hypothesize. The paint sample

from this window, Sample No. 319, featured white lead oil paint

as the earliest finish. Cream layers with white lead as the prime

pigment were consistently found on windows which purportedly dated

to the 1830 remodelling. Window 13C and Window lS hypothesized to

be earlier both contained grey at their base.







XIMENEZ-FATIO HOUSE CONCLUSIONS 8
ST. AUGUSTINE, FLORIDA





The window samples removed from the dormers on the East and North

Elevations proved to be inconclusive. Obviously the dormers have

been considerably reworked, made apparent by the new wood; and in

some instances, the paint has abraded away due to weathering.


We conclude that the windows were painted white throughout the main

house and west wing, based on the sampling.



Floors: Several samples removed from thresholds to west wing

rooms and the stairs did not provide any clues to the possible

treatment of the floors. Most probably the floors were not

finished characteristic of many 18th and early 19th century

structures.



East Elevation Balcony: Sample No. 365 from a Balcony Post and

Sample No. 366 from the Balcony Ceiling date earlier than the

1940's rehabilitation work and could possibly date to the 1830's

remodelling, according to a comparative analysis of the chromo-

chronology of these samples with others that date to the target

restoration .date. Both samples featured cream as the earliest

finish. The samples removed from the floor and balcony rail

appear to date to the 1940's only having several layers -

first grey, then brown.



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XIMENEZ-FATIO HOUSE CONCLUSIONS 9
ST. AUGUSTINE, FLORIDA





Gallery: Like other areas on the exterior, the gallery was

difficult to sample because of the large areas of reworked and/

or replaced wood. Three samples were taken from gallery posts:

Sample No. 312, First Floor, Gallery Post at West Entrance Corner;

Sample No. 313, Second Floor, West Wing, Gallery Post; and Sample

No. 325, Second Floor, Gallery Post, Corner of Room No. 9. Sample

No. 312 seemed to date to the 1940's with grey as the base coat

and only several layers featured, while Samples No. 313 and No.

325 appeared earlier. Both samples contained the white lead paint

followed by the zinc white found consistently throughout the house

on 1830's fabric.


Based on the evidence discerned from the post samples, it is

suggested that the gallery posts and probably the rails and

balusters were painted white. Often one can determine whether

a surface was originally unfinished by the traces of weathering

in the substrate. The substrate of these samples did not appear

weathered. Further investigation of the gallery railing is

required.



Baseboard, West Wing: The baseboard was sampled in two areas of

the west wing on the second floor. Analysis of Samples No. 307

and No. 308, both containing only a few layers, did not prove very

enlightening regarding the 1830's finishes. Sample No. 308 did

feature a cream layer as its base coat.







XIMENEZ-FATIO HOUSE .CONCLUSIONS 10
ST. AUGUSTINE, FLORIDA





West Wall, West Wing: Samples No. 314 and No. 316 both contained

white as the earliest finish. The samples featured a sufficient

number of layers to date them to the 1830's. The zinc white

finish follows the white lead layers.



Ceiling, West Wing: The sample removed from the Second Floor

Ceiling at the intersection of the west wing and the main house

had whitewash as its finish. Possibly, if the floors were left

unfinished, originally, the ceilings may have been treated the

same.



Stair Hall: A comparative analysis of chromochronology between

samples taken from walls and architectural details in the stair

hall vary. Sample No. 297 from the First Floor Stair Hall Landing

features grey adjacent to the substrate followed by a cream, a

greenish layer, light blue then salmon, etc. The Stair Baluster

(Sample No. 303), Rail (Sample No. 304), and Newel Post (Sample

No. 305) are similar to Sample No. 297. Whereas, Sample No. 300

from the Post at the Corner of the Stairs, Second Floor Landing,

Sample No. 306, Stair Hall Ceiling and Sample No. 280 from the

Stairs, North Wall, Attic contain creams then whites following

the light blue the salmon is not present. The grey and blue

were interpreted to be pre-1830's because they were found on only







XIMENEZ-FATIO HOUSE CONCLUSIONS 11
ST. AUGUSTINE, FLORIDA







those interior architectural elements which are hypothesized to

be earlier than the 1830's remodelling. The problem arises in

the case of the stair rail and balusters and the first floor

landing wall. Were these areas painted blue or salmon during the

1830's? Could the blue be later than the 1830's and these areas

painted white? Based on the evidence currently available, a

conclusion can not be drawn. This area requires further systema-

tic investigation.



KITCHEN

Our analysis of the kitchen, based on the samples removed in

July, is. inconclusive. The kitchen interior and exterior sur-

faces require additional research to arrive at the 1830's

finishes.















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XIMENEZ-FATIO HOUSE
ST. AUGUSTINE, FLORIDA


RECOMMENDATIONS


THE RECOMMENDATIONS OUTLINED BELOW FOR RESTORATION FINISHES ARE BASED ON THE
PAINT ANALYSIS DESCRIBED IN THIS REPORT.




INTERIOR WOODWORK


Paint Type:





Paint Color
Notation:


Long oil alkyd or linseed oil based.
Suggested product Alkyd Sani-Flat as manufactured
by Benjamin Moore & Co. (see Item 1 oil paint product
literature).


Munsell 5Y 8.5/2


A ,


Moor-O-Matic


(see Item 2)


Application:


See recommendations for enamelling and polishing, Item 3.
Additional, modern, instructions will follow this report
after consultation with a National Park Service painter
who has employed this technique.


INTERIOR WALLS


S Paint Type:




Paint Color:

Application:


Simulated whitewash. APT recipe because whitewash made
in the traditional manner is not durable (see Item 1 -
whitewash recipe).

White.

Whitewash brush.


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XIMENEZ-FATIO HOUSE
ST. AUGUSTINE, FLORIDA


RECOMMENDATIONS 2


EXTERIOR MASONRY WALLS


Paint Type:







Paint Color:

Application:


Simulated whitewash. Two alternatives are presented -
a) APT formula specified above for interior work
(see Item 1 whitewash recipe); or
b) Oil alkyd paint, Old Virgina White, as manufactured
by the Cabot Paint Company (see Item 1 oil paint
product literature).

White.

Whitewash brush or roller followed by whitewash brush
to provide the ropy texture characteristic of this
finish type.


EXTERIOR WOODWORK


1. Windows, Doors, Balcony and Gallery Posts, West Wall of West Wing.
(Although. no samples were taken from the eaves, it is suggested
that the recommendations below be followed.)


Paint Type:




Paint Color
.Notation:


Long oil alkyd or linseed oil based.
Suggested product Moore's House and Trim Paint as
manufactured by Benjamin Moore & Co. (see Item 1 -
oil paint product literature).


Munsell -5Y 9/1
Munsell ,.5Y 9/1


Moor-O-Matic 14-6


(see Item 2)


Application: Brush.


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RECOMMENDATIONS 3


XIMENEZ-FATIO HOUSE
ST. AUGUSTINE, FLORIDA


2. Floors.


Paint Type:.

Paint Color:

Application:


3. Ceilings.


Paint Type:



Paint Color:

Application:


Water repellant coating such as Hydrozo.

Transparent.

Remove existing paint, apply with brush.


Whitewash, however this recommendation is based on
only t4o samples. Use same whitewash selected for
exterior masonry surfaces.

White.

Follow recommendations for exterior masonry surfaces.


4. Stair Hall.


Paint Type:


Paint Color
Notation:


0


Oil based product such as that suggested above for
windows, doors, etc.

Attic Stair Hall Walls and Stair Post. Same as for
windows, doors, etc.

Stair Rail, Balusters, Newel Post and First Floor
Stair Landing Wall. Same as for windows, doors, etc.

or


Munsell 5YR 7/4
Moo-O-atc 1-4


Moor-O-Matic 18-46 F


or


Munsell 2.5B 6/4


I------


Moor-O-Matic there was not a close match available
in our color books. Often Benjamin Moore paint repre-
sentatives will try to match to Munsell.directly.


Application:


F------ ------ -------


Brush.


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XIMENEZ-FATIO HOUSE RECOMMENDATIONS 4
ST. AUGUSTINE, FLORIDA






KITCHEN


Follow recommendations for the exterior and interior of the main

house and west wing. Possibly the trim of the kitchen's interior

.was a dark finish, but at this time we do not have any evidence.

You might want to maintain the black trim until further clues to

the 1830's finishes are uncovered.



'AREAS REQUIRING ADDITIONAL RESEARCH


Door 3B; Doors 4B; Door 11A; Mantel in Room No. 2; floors, gallery

railing; stair hall, including plank walls, stair rail, balusters

and newel posts; walls on both exterior and interior surfaces of

the main house and west wing; and the kitchen, both interior and

exterior surfaces.



ADDITIONAL COMMENTS


If paint is removed from any architectural element such as doors

or windows, it is suggested that an area be left with the entire

paint sequence intact. This would provide future researchers with

clues to the past finishes.


This report was bound in a loose leaf binder to allow information

to be added, such as data on future paintings, including materials

and colors used. This report can serve as the basis for a file

on wall treatments for the Ximenez-Fatio House.



















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XIMENEZ-FATIO HOUSE ROOM NO. 1
ST. AUGUSTINE, FLORIDA FIRST FLOOR











Six paint samples were taken from the woodwork in this room.

Sample No. 1 from the East Wall, Door 1B and Sample No. 5 from

the West Wall, Window 1, sill, apparently date to the same period,

possibly the 1940's. The "architectural investigations" state

that Window 1 could have possibly been installed or reworked

during later remodelling (1830's). Sample No. 6, West Wall

Window, muntins, was also removed from Window 1; however, it has

more layers appearing to predate the sill sample. Additional

paint samples should be taken and a closer stylistic analysis

of the window to make a determination as to date. The samples

with the most number of layers were found on Door 1A and its'

casing. These included Samples No. 2, No. 3, and No. 4. Sample

No. 3 had the greatest number of layers. The earliest paint

layers on this sample compare with layers found on other samples

removed from architectural fabric throughout the building which

is hypothesized to be earlier than the period under study. The

casing of Door 1A can be assumed to be earlier than the 1830's

remodelling and may be "original" based on the paint chromochron-

ology.





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XIMENEZ-FATIO HOUSE ROOM NO. 2
ST. AUGUSTINE, FLORIDA FIRST FLOOR










Of the thirteen paint samples removed from architectural elements

in Room No. 2, two samples definitely contain pre-1830's layers with

two additional samples possibly falling into this category. Samples

No. 15 and No. 16 from the West Wall, Door 1B, panel molding and

casing, respectively, contain the early paint layers. Layers five

through seven on both samples resemble in type and color the paint

found on woodwork which is hypothesized to date to the 1830's

remodelling. The paint sequence on Sample No. 11 from the Mantel

panel molding and Sample No. 12 from the Mantel fireplace surround

possibly date to an earlier period than the restoration time span.

Layers six through eight resemble layers five through seven on

Samples No. 15 and No. 16. Further stylistic analysis of the Mantel

could possibly verify whether it is pre-1830. If it dates to the

period of study, the client would then have a choice to paint it

black or cream. Several elements apparently date to the extension

of the west wing; such as Sample No. 8, East Wall, Window 2, casing.-

Samples No. 17 and No. 19 from the casing around Door 2, North-Wall

possibly date to the 1830's or shortly thereafter.






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XIMENEZ-FATIO HOUSE ROOM NO. 3
ST. AUGUSTINE, FLORIDA FIRST FLOOR










-According to the paint chronology of the twenty-four samples

removed from Room No. 3, we may conclude that the woodwork

of the sampled areas does not predate the 1830's remodelling.

Approximately ten of the samples apparently date to the re-

modelling with the others being later. As stated in the

"architectural investigations", Door 3B is.located in a

masonry opening which is not original or which has been

considerably rebuilt over the years. Sample No. 22 from the

earlier casing of Door 3B appears to date to the 1830's. The

"architectural investigations" further mention that Window 3A

is probably of 1830 vintage. In which case, the paint layers

nearest the wood base should date to that period. By comparing

the paint layers to known elements which date to the period

under concern, it seems that the Mantel dates to the extension

of the west wing. The creams followed by the zinc white layers

are in presence adjacent to the wood substrate. A sample was

removed from the plaster wall and as suspected did not provide

Sany insights to the wall finish history.














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XIMENEZ-FATIO HOUSE ROOM NO. 4
ST. AUGUSTINE, FLORIDA FIRST FLOOR








Although Room No. 4 is located in the oldest section of the Ximenez-

Fatio House, none of the paint samples taken from the woodwork or

walls appear to date to the main house's original construction. A

substantial number of the paint samples removed from architectural

elements in Room No. 4 date to the 1830's remodelling. Assuming

that paint has not been removed from the paint chronology, the layers

closest to the substrate can be considered as 1830's applied on those

elements specified in the "architectural investigations" as dating to

the target restoration date. There is some inconsistency in paint

layer sequence between those samples dating to that time; although,

the earliest layers on each is consistently cream (white lead) and

these layers are generally followed by the suspected zinc white layer.

The samples which can be concluded to date to the restoration period

include the following: Sample No. 45 Window 4A, sill; Sample No. 46 -

Window 4B, sill; Sample No. 49 Mantel panel; Sample No. 54 Window

casing; Sample No. 60 Door 5A, casing; and Samples 67-69 and 71-73

from Doors 4B.











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XIMENEZ-FATIO HOUSE ROOM NO. 5
ST. AUGUSTINE, FLORIDA FIRST FLOOR












The paint strata on the twenty-nine samples removed from
Room No. 5 date to the 1830's remodelling or later. The
paint sequence tends to be relatively consistent throughout
the room. The samples which were removed from woodwork
purportedly dating to the extension of the west wing all
have as their base coats cream (white lead). These layers
are followed by a zinc white in most cases. Samples No. 74,
No. 93, No. 96 and No. 102 are illustrated'.











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XIMENEZ-FATIO HOUSE ROOM NO. 6
ST. AUGUSTINE, FLORIDA FIRST FLOOR
















In theory all the paint samples taken from the woodwork in

Room No. 6 should have layers dating to the target restoration

date or later, that is unless an older piece of woodwork from

another location in the house was reused in this room. Of the

nineteen samples analyzed, approximately sixteen samples have

stratigraphy possibly dating to the 1830's. The Cupboard,

Sample No. 109, is an excellent clue to the boarding house .

paint history as represented in this room since it was most

assuredly added during the major remodelling designed to

make each wing room into separate living quarters complete

with fireplace, cupboard and private entrance, as suggested

in the "architectural investigations".










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XIMENEZ-FATIO HOUSE ROOM NO. 7
ST. AUGUSTINE, FLORIDA FIRST FLOOR

















Several of the eighteen paint samples from Room No. 7 were

confusing to analyze because paint removal was attempted

at one time or the early layers had a very heavy dirt

build-up causing the layers to erode away. Because of the

large quantity of samples taken, these conditions did

not prevent a determination of the probable 1830's colors

and type of paint. Door 7A and Window 7B both contained

the cream (white lead) layers followed by the zinc white

layers. This.can be seen in the.illustrations of Samples

No. 137 and No. 138 which follow.




















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XIMENEZ-FATIO HOUSE
ST. AUGUSTINE, FLORIDA
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ROOM NO. 8
FIRST FLOOR


Analysis of the fourteen samples taken from woodwork in Room
No. 8 indicates that the room was painted cream (white lead)
in the 1830's like the other rooms in the Ximenez-Fatio House.
Several of the samples were difficult to study because the
earliest layers either had a substantial dirt build-up
deteriorating the paint or paint removal was attempted.
Nevertheless, the samples from 1830's fabric did have cream
as the earliest layer. Whether these areas were grained or
oil covered is difficult to say because of the paint
deterioration.


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SECOND FL OOR


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XIMENEZ-FATIO HOUSE
ST. AUGUSTINE, FLORIDA


ROOM NO. 9
SECOND FLOOR


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The paint samples removed from Room No. 9, like Room No. 1 below
it on the First Floor, offer some clues to the earliest paint
finishes found on the Ximenez-Fatio House. Of the nine samples
taken from Room No. 9, five appear to date earlier than the
1830's and possibly include the "original" finishes. Those samples
include the East Wall, Chair Rail (Sample No. 155) and Door 9B,
casing (Sample No. 156); the South Wall, Door 9A (Sample No. 159),
Chair Rail (Sample No. 160) and Baseboard (Sample No. 161).
Window 9, West Wall, (Samples No. 162 and No. 163) appears to
have the 1830's color as the earliest layers adjacent to the wood
substrate. Window 9 probably dates to the 1830's remodelling.
The Baseboard sequence varies somewhat from that found on other
early details including the Chair Rail and Doors. The Baseboard,
Appears to have been originally black and later a dark red.


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XIMENEZ-FATIO HOUSE
ST. AUGUSTINE, FLORIDA


ROOM NO. 10
SECOND FLOOR


Room No. 10, constructed as part of the "original" Ximenez-Fatio
House, still maintains several architectural elements which pre-
date the 1830's. Seventeen samples were removed from woodwork.
Microscopic analysis of these samples indicated that the East
Wall Baseboard, South Wall Door 10, and West Wall Door 9B are
earlier than the remodelling and extension of the west wing to
its present form. Cream (white lead) layers were found nearest
the substrate on those samples taken from 1830's features including
the Windows and the Mantel. The same cream was found approximately
five or six layers beyond the substrate of the samples which contain
earlier layers than the target restoration date. The paint samples
with pre-1830's layers include Samples No. 167, No. 174(?), No. 175,
No. 176, and No. 177.


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XIMENEZ-FATIO HOUSE
ST. AUGUSTINE, FLORIDA


ROOM NO. 11
SECOND FLOOR


Nineteen samples from Room No. 11 were taken from woodwork.
Three samples indicated layers earlier than the 1830's period.
These samples included Door 10 (Sample.No. 194), the Baseboard
(Sample No. 198), and the Chair Rail (Sample No. 199). Most
of the remaining samples appeared to have layers dating to the
1830's remodelling. Consistently, the earliest layers on the
1830's samples were creams with white lead as the prime pigment.


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XIMENEZ-FATIO HOUSE
ST. AUGUSTINE, FLORIDA


ROOM NO. 12
SECOND FLOOR


Room No. 12 has one architectural element which appears to date

earlier than the 1830's remodelling as indicated by its' paint

strata. This element is the Baseboard, Sample No. 210 (see

illustration following). The Chair Rails sampled throughout

the other Second Floor rooms in the oldest section of the

Ximenez-Fatio House apparently date to an earlier period than

the remodelling, most probably "original". Whereas the paint

sample taken from the Chair Rail in Room No. 12 is later. It

would be interesting to compare profiles between the earlier

and later (?) Chair Rails. As typically found throughout the

house, the woodwork in Room No. 12 appears to have been painted

cream (white lead) during the 1830's period. Room No. 13 paint

samples offered some clues, which could not be obtained from

samples taken from other locations in the house, regarding the

1830's wall finish. Two samples were removed from plastered wall

surfaces which appeared old, Samples No. 208 and No. 209. These

samples had numerous layers of whitewash. Also, apparent was the

finish coat of plaster indicating that the walls were most likely

intended to be whitewashed or left unfinished, without wallpaper

or paint, until dirty, in which case the whitewash was applied.

If verification can be given that these samples are 1830's

vintage, then the wall treatment can be assumed to have been

whitewash..


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XIMENEZ-FATIO HOUSE
ST. AUGUSTINE, FLORIDA


ROOM NO. 13
SECOND FLOOR


Analysis of seventeen paint samples from Room No. 13, Second
Floor, enabled us to hypothesize that the woodwork was painted
cream during the 1830's period.


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XIMENEZ-FATIO HOUSE ROOM NO. 14
ST. AUGUSTINE, FLORIDA SECOND FLOOR


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The "architectural investigations" specify that Room No. 14 was

part of the west wing addition dating to the early nineteenth

century. Room No. 14 paint samples were removed from seventeen

different locations. It does not appear that earlier paint was

removed by chemical or other methods; therefore, if all elements

from which the samples were taken date to the construction of the (

room than the bottom layers, closest to the wood substrate, would

be the original paint layers. Cream with white lead as the prime

pigment was found next to the substrate in each case. Seven

illustrations from this room have been included for further

discussion.
























SECOND PL OOR


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XIMENEZ-FATIO HOUSE ROOM NO. 15
ST. AUGUSTINE, FLORIDA SECOND FLOOR
















Fifteen samples from woodwork in Room No. 15 were removed for

analysis. Room No. 15 was built as part of the major remodelling

as described in the "architectural investigations". Assuming that

all of the architectural elements from which samples were taken

date to the original construction of this room, the paint layers

closest to the wood base would represent the earliest finish.

The Mantel in this room is identical, stylistically, to the Mantels

in Room No. 14, No. 16, and No. 13 (although the Mantel shelf is

somewhat different in Room No. 13). The casing profiles for the

following Doors are also identical: Doors 13A, 13B, 13C, 14A, 14B,

15, 16A, and 16B. White.lead paint was found on all of these

elements as the first layers. Three photographs are included

to substantiate the above statement.













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XIMENEZ-FATIO HOUSE
ST. AUGUSTINE, FLORIDA


ROOM NO. 1(
SECOND FLO(


According to the "architectural investigations", Room No. 16

was added during the major remodelling of the second quarter of

the nineteenth century. Fifteen samples removed from the wood

trim, window sash and doors of Room No. 16 indicate that the

first paint color appearing on the samples is consistently cream.

There is not any evidence of paint removal; therefore, the layers

closest to the substrate, i.e. the above mentioned cream layers,

can be considered as representing the original paint color.

Apparently the wood surfaces were painted from the beginning

because there does not appear to be any dirt build-up on the

wood or a varnish coat.


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XIMENEZ-FATIO HOUSE INTERIOR: PANTRY & ATTIC
ST. AUGUSTINE, FLORIDA EXTERIOR ELEVATIONS FROM ATTIC








Pantry: One sample, Sample No. 278, was removed from the Stairs

Closet on the First Floor, also referred to as the Pantry. The

sample featured approximately ten layers of whitewash.


Attic: From the Attic four samples were taken from the Interior

Panelling and one sample from the North Chimney. The samples

included No. 287, No. 289, No. 290, No. 292 and No. 294. The

analysis indicated whitewash as the paint samples reacted to

hydrochloric acid. The layers of whitewash generally had a

heavy dirt build-up indicative of long periods without painting

or air pollution caused by the heating systems.


Attic Stair'Hall: Discussed in the following section on the

Exterior Stair Hall.


Exterior Elevations from Attic: The seven samples which were

taken from the exterior dormers on the North and East Elevations

were not particularly helpful in determining the 1830's finishes.

Two samples had numerous layers, however, whether the layers date

to the 1830's period is questionable. Sample No. 285, East Ele-

vation, Center'Dormer, Window sill and casing, and Sample No. 288,

East Elevation, North Dormer, Window casing, both featured white

as the earliest finish.


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XIMENEZ-FATIO HOUSE EXTERIOR STAIR HALL
ST. AUGUSTINE, FLORIDA Q




Analysis of the stair hall including walls, balusters and windows

proved to be puzzling. A sample taken from the East and South Wall

of the Attic Stairs seemed to date to the 1830's remodelling. Sample

No. 279 featured layers of white lead paint as- the earliest finishes

(the wood substrate was dark with a film covering it). Sample No. 280

from the North Wall appeared to have earlier layers than the target

restoration date. Although not specifying which walls, the "archi-

tectural investigations" note that "the ceiling and side walls (does

this include the north wall?) of the attic stairs plus a few planks

forming the bench located above the intermediate landing of the stairs...

it seems probable that they were installed as part of the revision to

the stairs leading to the attic accomplished in 1830-48." Based on

the chromochronology of layers found on the samples, the east and south

walls do not have paint layers which predate the 1830's. The windows

all contained the cream (white lead) layers followed by zinc white.

The samples removed from the Balusters, Newel Post and First Floor

Stair Landing Wall seemed perplexing. The creams continually found

on all samples dating to the 1830's or earlier, could not be discerned

in these samples with any assurance. These areas may have been painted

a different color in which case we do not have a sufficient sampling

to say with confidence. The Post at the Corner of the Stairs on the

Second Landing, Sample No. 300, featured the cream layers to further

contribute to the confusion regarding the 1830's period finishes

for the stair hall.

























































































































XIMENEZ* FATIO uOUSE







XIMENEZ-FATIO HOUSE EXTERIOR ELEVATIONS
ST. AUGUSTINE, FLORIDA














Although much of the exterior fabric has been repaired or

replaced, a-sufficient sampling was taken to enable us to

arrive at colors and paint types for most trim surfaces.

(The masonry surfaces were not sampled.) Analysis of trim

samples, including doors and windows, indicated that in

most instances they were painted cream (white lead) in the

early nineteenth century. Further study of the east

elevation doors is required.




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XIMENEZ-FATIO HOUSE
ST. AUGUSTINE, FLORIDA


KITCHEN
INTERIOR/EXTERIOR

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Ten samples were removed from interior surfaces of the

kitchen and nine from the exterior. The samples

chromochronology did not provide any insight into the

possible 1830's finishes. Most samples only had four

or five layers and a consistency of sequence could not

be correlated between samples. Additional research

is required of the kitchen.






















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