Scenic design of Chicago : A Musical Vaudeville

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Title:
Scenic design of Chicago : A Musical Vaudeville
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Project in lieu of thesis
Creator:
Eberhart, Jovon R.
Publisher:
College of Fine Arts, University of Florida
Place of Publication:
Gainesville, Fla.
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Abstract:
This document details the process of executing the scenic design for Chicago: A Musical Vaudeville by Fred Ebb and Bob Fosse, produced by the University of Florida School of Theatre and Dance. Under the direction of Professor Tony Mata, the production was performed in the Constans Theater of the Nadine McGuire Pavilion in Gainesville, Florida. Discussions of this project begin with the initial design meetings, starting in February 2011, and concluding with the production’s Kennedy Center American College Theater Festival adjudication on November 16th, 2011. Coverage of the design process begins with script analysis and research. Primary renderings and drafting, as well as the modifications developed in the realization process, are also described. Conclusions and reactions to the production are discussed.
General Note:
Theatre terminal project

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University of Florida Institutional Repository
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University of Florida
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AA00011370:00001


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1 SCENIC DESIGN OF CHICAGO: A MUSICAL VAUDEVILLE By JOVON R. EBERHART A PROJECT IN LIEU OF THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF M ASTER OF FINE ARTS UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2012

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2 2012 Jovon R. Eberhart

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3 To my parents and the faculty of Saint Ambrose University

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4 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I thank the many individuals who committed their time and talents to the realization of th is project.

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5 TABLE OF CONTENTS ACKNOWLEDGMENTS .................................................................................................. 4 page ABSTRACT ..................................................................................................................... 6 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION ...................................................................................................... 7 2 THE DESIGN PROCESS ....................................................................................... 10 Concept Development ............................................................................................ 10 Research ................................................................................................................ 11 Design Meeting Developments ............................................................................... 12 Drafting ................................................................................................................... 13 Renderings and Storyboards .................................................................................. 14 3 PRODUCTION ........................................................................................................ 15 Design Execution .................................................................................................... 15 Construction ............................................................................................................ 15 Scenic Painting and Set Dressing ........................................................................... 16 Tech Week .............................................................................................................. 17 4 CONCLUSIONS ..................................................................................................... 19 Adjudication ............................................................................................................ 19 Overall Conclusions ................................................................................................ 19 APPENDIX A VISUAL RESEARCH .............................................................................................. 21 B INITIAL RENDERINGS AND STORYBOARDS ...................................................... 35 C DRAFTING ............................................................................................................. 70 D PRODUCTION PHOTOS ........................................................................................ 82 LIST OF REFERENCES ............................................................................................. 104 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH .......................................................................................... 105

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6 Abstract of Project in Lieu of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Fine Arts SCENIC DESIGN OF CHICAGO: A MUSICAL VAUDEVILLE By Jovon R. May 2012 Chair: Mihai Ciupe Major: Theatre T his document detail s the process of executing the scenic design for Chicago: A Musical Vaudeville by Fred Ebb and Bob Fosse, produced by the University of Florida School of Theatre and Dance. Under the direction of Professor Tony Mata, the production was performed in the Constans Theater of the Nadi ne McGuire Pavilion in Gainesville, Florida. Discussions of this project begin with the initial design meetings, starting in February 2011, and concluding with the productions Kennedy Center American College Theater Festival adjudication on November 16th, 2011. Coverage of the design process begins with script analysis and research. Primary renderings and drafting, as well as the modifications developed in the realization process, are also described. Conclusions and reactions to the production are discussed.

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7 CHAPTER 1 I NTRODUCTION Sex and violence are action verbs. Both have the potential to intrigue or offend an audience. Chicago: A Musical Vaudeville is choreographer Bob Fosses unique take on a play by Maurine Watkins. Maurine Watkins play stemme d from her experiences as a reporter for the Chicago Tribune. Belva and Beulah, the real life killers who captivated the public, provided the sex and violence. Their tales of liquor, passion, and fashion fueled the murderesses brief careers as media sensat ions. To appreciate the nature of Chicago: A Musical Vaudeville, it is necessary to examine the real life inspiration. To become a media icon in the 1920s, even at the city level, someones story had to be big. The public was able to follow sensational st ories on a national level through masscirculation of magazines, the syndication of newspaper headlines, and the technologically advancing commercial radio sector. Lindbergh crossed the Atlantic, Floyd Collins was trapped in a cave, a man named John Scopes was teaching Darwin in a high school, then the Lindberghs baby was kidnapped stories of suspense, tragedy, and spectacle caught the publics attention. And in 1924, two sinful dames were the darlings of the Chicago press. Eighteen days before her appearance in the Criminal Courts Building, Beulah Annan was simply an assistant bookkeeper. But April 21st, 1924, had been declared Ladies Day by The Evening Post She and Belva Gaertner greeted their public in fashionable attire, and the spectators and rep orters spilled into the hall. (Perry 113114) Mrs. Gaertner had been in the headlines a bit longer. On March 12th, police had found the corpse of an automobile salesman in a car. The vehicle was Belvas, as was as pistol used in the shooting. But on April 3rd, Beulah arrived in the media limelight after

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8 she shot her lover, Harry Kalsted. Now the public eagerly awaited the trials of the two stylish women (Berardino 8889) The Chicago Tribune had assigned a young, female writer to report on the cases. Maurine Watkins was not native to the White City, but she understood what the public expected. Chicago, bless her heart, will swallow anything with enough gore and action. (Perry 80) Soon a Polish gunner named Wanda Stopa threatened Beulahs media coverage. The new story was scandalous, even by Chicagos standards. Conveniently, within days of her flickering spotlight, Beulah announced she was pregnant. (Perry 158) Thanks to the unexpected twist, Annan stayed on the front page of the papers. Further, Illinois law prohibited pregnant women from receiving the death penalty. (Berardino 89) But Beulahs acquittal wasnt the headlining story. That privilege belonged to Nathan Leopold and Richard Loeb, two graduate students attending the University of Chicago: All City Hunts Kidnappers. (Perry 198199) Within a year of the trials, Watkins left Chicago, enrolled in Yales Drama School workshop, and penned a play entitled A Brave Little Woman. Renamed Chicago, it premiered in 1926. A silent film was produced the follow ing year, and in 1942 a version called Roxie Hart, staring Ginger Rogers. But Maurine didnt enjoy the success of her work. In fact, she was ashamed of her creation. After becoming a bornagain Christian, Watkins said she was ashamed of turning the murderesses stories into a comedic play. (Lesy 196197) She began paying an annual fee to the American Play Company to prevent any revival of the work. (Kiernan) Watkins died in 1969, and the estate agreed to sell the plays rights to a

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9 choreographer named Bob F osse. The project was first publicized in 1972, but the musical took three years to open. (Lesy 78) Chicago: A Musical Vaudeville opened within two weeks of A Chorus Line, the runaway hit of 1975. The 1996 revival faired far better, as did the 2002 Oscar winning film. (Suskin 322) Before Chicago: A Musical Vaudeville was the inspiration for a hit film, it was a John Kander, Fred Ebb, and Bob Fosse collaboration. And prior to Fosses adaptation, Watkins play served as the inspiration for two film adaptati ons. The general theatre audience will not recognize the name Beulah Annan, but likely know her stage personification, Roxie Hart.

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10 CHAPTER 2 THE D ESIGN PROCESS Concept Development The concept for this production developed through a responsive process. T he design for Chicago could have ventured in many directions. My primary goal was to serve Director Tony Matas vision for this particular production of the musical while responding to the needs of the actors and fellow designers. Throughout the process id eas were researched, expanded, incorporated, and dropped completely. Prior to the formal design meetings, I began discussions with Professor Mata in early February. He was quick to recognize the challenges that would be facing the design team. Mata express ed a desire to connect with the collegeage audience, while recognizing many patrons would have expectations for the musical based on the Oscar winning film adaptation. He also expressed the need for an atmosphere with a sense of incarceration, yet an envi ronment that would support the need for large, open dance spaces. The design team first met in midFebr uary. Since the meeting was hel d prior to the announcement of the productions costume designer, and before the team had received copies of the script, t he discussions focused on broad, general ideas regarding the design concept. Based on previous discussions with Professor Mata, I had prepared by drawing visual inspiration from construction sites and Chicago buildings from the turn of the century. I had printed about four dozen black and white images, and spread them out over two tables in the design studio. I asked the design team to respond to the images.

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11 Initially I explored a concept rooted in Chicagos arc hitectural history of destruct ion and innovation. The skyscraper was developed in the citys rebuilding that followed the Great Chicago Fire. I noted Matas responses, and realized his production required conceptual development in another direction. This sinister group of Fosse dancers demanded the abi lity to quickly utilize resources furniture, props, or people and discard them promptly. Its a hungry ensemble. From their animalistic desires for sex and violence, I decided to shift my concept efforts. Construction is about progress. The Chicago sla ughterhouses were about carnal harvesting. I left the first design meeting with a clear direction for the productions scenic concept. Research Before the murderesses characters of Chicago were on a stage, they were real life criminals in the White City T herefore, my research was rooted in Maurine Watkins play, Fosses adaptation, and the rich history of the city of Chicago. Watkins initial adaptation provided first hand insights about the characters and their surroundings. For example, the Prologue opens with a description of Amo Harts bedroom. In eight paragraphs, Watkins detailed the room with vivid language. With such descriptions, Watkins gave the characters habitats a sense of personality. Other research materials also proved helpful. David Lowes books Chicago on Foot and Chicago Interiors provided a visual history. Books such as Erik Larsons The Devil in the White City and Upton Sinclairs The Jungle provided insightful depictions of turn of the century life in Chicago. Both feature vivid descri ptions on the Union Stockyards and slaughterhouses. The guided tours of the slaughterhouses intrigued me; a morbidly curious public tiptoeing on a tour, anxious to witness the spectacle but hesitant to walk in any blood puddles.

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12 Design Meeting Developments Between design meetings one and two I acquired a copy of the script. It was already clear that the set would need to foster smooth scenic transitions. Chicago moves at a relentless pace. A turntable would provide quick scenic transitions. Further, the bac kstage crew likely to have little experience would be able to set and strike complex furniture arrangements in a well lit backstage with ample time to work. The scenic design evolved rapidly during the four design meetings of the spring semester. The i nitial floorplan and renderings were presented at the second design meeting. Professor Mata enjoyed the general layout, but wanted to push the industrial yet dangerous atmosphere further. The original railings were a nod to Chicagos Edwardian architecture They were exchanged for horizontal, simple railings. Abstract prison bars were added downstage to the proscenium to mimic the scrim panels. A meeting was scheduled to storyboard the show with the director. Prior to th e storyboard meeting, dozens of blank floorplans were printed and labeled according to a scene/musical number. Some numbers, such as Mr. Cellophane, required multiple floorplans. Professor Mata and I discussed the action of each scene. We developed furniture plans, the turntables rotat ion schedule, and an elevator schedule. Also, the director expressed a desire for more staircases. We cleared the additional staircases with the technical director, already understanding the production would put heavy construction demands on the shop. The s cenic design evolved rapidly during the four design meetings of the spring semester. A white model was presented at design meeting three, and full color model at design meeting four. A rough set of storyboards was also presented at the final

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13 design meeting. The show was mapped in regard to the turn tables rotations. Major furniture elements and potential flying scenic elements were also included. During the design process, l ighting designer Mike McShane and I discussed the potential of embedding lighting fix tures within the set. After exploring a variety of options, we I created a prototype using LED light fixtures. Rivets constructed from fiberglass were backlit, mimicking the light created by small globe bulbs. W e worked together to create the draftings and project expense estimates. The collaboration process with costume designer Stacy Galloway focused on harmony between the production s set and costume color palettes. Also, it was important the gray prison uniform s stood out from the set s metallic hues. Using a f abric swatch for guidance, the paint elevations were developed to contrast the costume designer s selection. Also, the color choices for Roxie and Kitty s bed sets were based on discussions with Galloway The team communicated by email over the summer break, and began reconvening informally at the start of the fal l semester. Drafting The majority of the drafting was completed before the end of the spring semester. The drafting was formatted for 24 by 36 places. (Appendix C) Some elements, such as the turntable, were incredibly detailed. Other scenic projects, suc h as Roxie and Velmas finale sign, were vaguely drafted. This decision was intentional. Such elements would require collaboration with the lighting designer, and would be subject to extensive revisions. The furniture elements I planned to build, such as t he prison table, were drafted in AutoCAD and rendered using Google SketchUp. Importing multiple views of

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14 furniture helped clarify the assembly process. Also, I was able to address potential building issues by developing detailed cut lists. Renderings and S toryboards Dozens of renderings were created for the stage manager, director, the design team, and choreographers. (Appendix D) The floorplan was imported into Google SketchUp. Then, a threedimensional layout was developed. A JPEG of this model was import ed into Photoshop. The first renderings with textures and characters were presented in April. In September, a complete packet of 30 storyboard renderings was made available. The storyboards aided the production team on mul tiple levels. The rehearsals had a clear sense of the stage layout for every sc ene, and furniture and turntable rotation schedule were developed in great detail

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15 CHAPTER 3 PRODUCTION Design Execution The designs construction process began a few weeks into the fall semester. With shows in both the Black Box and the Constans Theater, space for material storage and construction were limited. Prior to the closing of the department show, You Cant Take It With You, the shop focused on rivet fabrication. Hundreds were added to the set to create an in dustrial feeling. Also, the lumber was base coated. I began constructing small scenic elements, such as Roxies record player and Billys desk. After strike for the main stage show, I was able to tape out the floorplan. Multiple weekend work calls were nec essary to realize the design. Technical Director Zak Herring allowed me to play a large role the projects labor management. I was able to assign individuals to projects that utilized their talents; but also rotated people between repetitive tasks to help avoid boredom. Construction Though some scenic elements were constructed outside of the performance space, the majority of the platforms needed to be installed in place. First the platforms and decking supports were installed. Jack Graham, an engineering m ajor, designed the aluminum trusses that bore the weight of the orchestra section. Then the staircases, railings, and fire poles were installed. A section of platforms over the trap doors were dropped, and the turntable constructed. The stud walls of the t urntable were installed soon after. My primary challenge was balancing my time in the shop between the design install and requests for rehearsal furniture. As the choreographers developed complex

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16 dance numbers, I understood their need for appropriate furni ture, but wanted to focus my efforts on the sets construction. Master Carpenter Tony Berry primarily executed the shows metalworking demands. The sets staircases were a particularly taxing project. Consider the effort necessary: forty eight steps were c reated for the metal staircases. Each stair required four pieces of box steel and eight welds. Nearly four hundred welds were required for the steps fabrication. I was able to assist on the metalwork, as were some other students. But Mr. Berrys contribut ions to the set were substantial. Scenic Painting and Set Dressing My painting and set dressing decisions took into consideration the enormous scale of the design. Paint treatments needed to quickly cover large areas. Furniture elements and set dressings w ould need to move easily during rapid scenic transitions. After researching multiple metallic paint options I dis cussed the possibility of using a product from Martha Stewarts line with the production s Technical Director, Zak Herring In addition to being locally available, the paint would cost half as much as the better known theatrical brands. The majority of the set was painted with a wet blend of gun metal gray, black, and white. The floors paint treatment required three steps. First, the entire surface was painted with a fresh coat of black. Next, a layer of gunmetal gray was applied with drop rags. (A technique similar to rag rolling.) Finally, the floor was sealed with a polyurethanebased seal, with black tint added. The entire process was executed in less than six hours. Very few complex paint techniques were used. Much of the lumber was base coated prior to any construction. The pinstriped panels used in the musical number

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17 Razzle Dazzle and the Seal of Chicago (used in the Courtroom scene) were the most time consuming projects. Some furnit ure elements, such as Billys desk, were wood grained with a wet blend. Roxies bedroom, Billys office, and Kittys bedroom required a great deal of set dressing. The needs of the changeover crew were considered early on. The fabric goods were rigged for fast changes. The three sections of curtains covering the back wall were equipped with metal snaps to aid fast placement. The skirts for both bed sheet sets were attached to the bedframe. Crew members simply tucked Roxies bed dress layer up for Kittys sc ene. Finally, all set dressing elements were well affixed to the furniture they rest ed upon. C rew members focused only on the furnitures spike marks on the floor. Tech Week This production had an usual tech week schedule. Due to the weekend Home coming festivities, it was necessary to begin cueto cue rehearsals the week prior. Though the majority of the scenic elements were in place, the set dressing and scrim panels had not been completed. The backstage crew was not called until the Sunday rehearsal. I assisted the deck manager with the necessary scenic changes on the turntable. These rehearsal s proved very beneficial; the paperwork for the scene change schedule was revised and fully prepared for the formal paper tech. With the exception of the sc rim panels and the elevator, all scenic elements were functioning for tech Sunday. They were finished in the following days. Set dressings and other final touches were completed for Thursday nights runthrough. The back stage crew execut ed the com plex sce nic transitions with impressive precision. At no point during tech week was a rehearsal held to address a changeover

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18 problem. The crew members had received special training on their first day of tech week. With spring loaded steps, a student operated elev ator, and dozens of pieces of furniture, a training session was essential. I was grateful for their dedication to the actors safety and commitment to the production.

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19 CHAPTER 4 CONCLUSIONS Adjudication The production received a Kennedy Center American C ollege Theatre Festival adjudication by P atricia Crotty after the November 16th performance Her feedback for the production was extremely positive. Crotty enjoyed the overall scenic concept. In general, her suggesti ons for improvement were minimal. Crotty expressed a desire for a fancier, grand piano. The worn, upright piano was chosen for space and aesthetic. Also, the upright mirrors used for Roxie appear rippled. An increase in the size and quantity used had required a change in materials. I was aware of the issue prior to the evaluation. The adjudication confirmed many of our feelings about the success of the production s design. Overall Conclusions While drafting the design for Chicago I began referring to the project as setzilla. It was a term of endearment, but also a recognition of the scale of the project. On paper, Chicagos set had twelve flights of stairs, as well as two fire poles, a functioning elevator, over fourteen hundred fiberglass rivets, two aerial performers, and twelve moving line sets during the performance. The prospect of drafting, let alone building the set was daunting. The projects success was possible only through the creation of a realizable design, maintaining a flexible vision, and the dedication of countless individuals Though the design was massive, a detailed analysis of the drafting reveals consistent, repetitive design choices. All staircases were designed to the same width, all rivets to the same size and diameter. Other designed elements, such as Kittys

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20 headboard, were modified when a suitable substitute was found in stock. Such decisions conserved time and budget both valuable assets. Training undergraduates to repeat a simple task, like casting rivets or cutting metal, help bring speed the build process. Even simple tasks required precise execution and the dedication of the entire shop. In particular, the staff, faculty, and graduate students within the shop contributed countless hours to the project. Without the engineering of Jackson Graham, the orchestras placement would not have been possible. My fellow graduate students dedicated many weekends to work calls, and undergraduate students also contributed time above and beyond their required shop hours .

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21 APPENDIX A VISUAL RESEARCH Figure A 1. Research, Crowd after fire as Chicago s South Side1 941 (Source: http://totallyfreeimages.com/420262/Crowd gatheredto see damagedoneby fire on the South Side of C Last accessed April 201 2 )

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22 Figure A 2 Research, S ubway R iveted Water Pipe, New York 1904 (Source: http://www.gutenberg.org/files/17569/17569h/17569h.htm Last accessed April 201 2 )

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23 Figure A 3 Research, S ubway C onstruction, New York 1904 (Source: http://www.gutenberg.org/files/17569/17569h/17569h.htm Last accessed April 201 2 )

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24 Figure A 3 H otel Belmont C onstruction, New York 1904 (Source: http://www.gutenberg.org/files/17569/17569h/17569h.htm Last accessed April 201 2 )

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25 Figure A 4 Research, Frank Leslies illustrated newspaper 1887 (Source: http://www.chicagohistory.org/hadc/visuals/67V0240.htm Last accessed April 201 2 )

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26 Figure A 5 Research, Frank Leslies illustrated newspaper. 1887 (Source: http://www.chicagohistory.org/hadc/visuals/73V031B .htm Last accessed A pril 2012)

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27 Figure A 6 Research, N orwegian Exhibit Columbian Exposition. 1 893 (Source: http://www.gutenberg.org/files/22847/22847h/22847h.htm Last accessed A pril 201 2 )

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28 Figure A 7 Research, C onstruction, Columbian Exposition. 1 89 2 (Source: http://totallyfreeimages.com/365436/TransportationBldg. %5Bbeing built%5D, Worlds Columbian Exposi Last acces sed A pril 201 2 )

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29 Figure A 8 Research, M ines & Mining Building Columbian Exposition. 1893 (Source: http://totallyfreeimages.com/368422/Cranefor placing exhibits, Mines andMining Building Last acces sed A pril 2012 )

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30 Figure A 9 Research, Armour Meat Plant. S craping Rail Chicago, 1909. (Source: http://totallyfreeimages.com/382660/Hog scraping rail, Armours Packing Plant, Chicago, U.S.A Last accessed April 201 2 )

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31 Figure A 10. Research, Armour Meat Plant. B eeve Dressing Chicago, 1 8 9 2 (Source: http://totallyfreeimages.com/384722/Dressing the beeves, Armours great packing house, Chicago, Last acces sed April 201 2 )

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32 Figure A 11. Research, Armour Meat Plant. Sausage Department Chicago, 18 9 3 (Source: http://totallyfreeimages.com/382688/Thesausagedepartment, Armours great packing house, Chicag Last accessed April 2012)

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33 Figure A 12. U nion Stockyards, Chicago. 1905 (Source: http://totallyfreeimages.com/370958/A busy morning in the Great Union Stockyards, Chicago. Last accessed April 2012 )

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34 Figure A 1 3 Research, Circus The Circus Procession 1888 (Source: http://www.gutenberg.org/files/10749/10749h/10749h. htm Last accessed April 201 2 )

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35 APPENDIX B INITIAL RENDERINGS A ND S TORYBOARDS F igure B 1 R endering P resented at D esign M eeting T wo

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36 Figure B 2 : R endering P resented at D esign M eeting T hree

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37 Figure B 3. Rendering I.1 Overture

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38 F igure B 4 R endering I.2 All That Jazz

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39 F igure B 5 R endering I.3 Funny Honey

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40 F igure B 6 R endering I.4 T he Cell Block Tango

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41 F igure B 7 R endering I.5 W hen Youre Good to M omma

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42 F igure B 8 R endering I.6 A ll T hat J azz R eprise

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43 F igure B 9 R endering I.7 T he Jail

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44 F igure B 10. R endering I.8 T h e V isitors A rea

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45 F igure B 11. R endering I.9 A ll I C are A bout

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46 F igure B 12. R endering I.9A All I Care About P layoff

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47 F igure B 13. R endering I.10 A L ittle B it of G ood

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48 F igure B 14. R endering I.11 T ransition to Jail

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49 F igure 15. Rendering I.12 Both R eached For the Gun

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50 F igure B 16. R endering I.13 R oxie

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51 F igure B 17. Rendering I.14 Roxie Limbo

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52 F igure B 18. R endering I.15 In The Jail

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53 F igure B 19. R endering I.16 I C ant Do It Alone

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54 F igure A 20. R end ering I.17 I C ant Do It Alone Tag

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55 FIGURE 21. R endering I.18 A fter M idnight

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56 FIGURE B 22. R endering I.19 My Own Best Friend

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57 F igure B 23. R endering I.20 I Know A Girl

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58 Figure B 24. R endering I.21 M e and My Baby

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59 F igure B 25. R endering I.22A S tart and End of Mr. Cellophane

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60 F igure B 26. R endering I.22B M id Song Mr. Cellophane

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61 Figure B 27. R endering I.23 T he Poker Game

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62 F igure B 2 8 R endering I.24 W hen V elma T akes T he S tand

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63 F igure B 29. R endering I.25 H ungarian R ope T rick

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64 Figure B 30. R endering I.26 O utside The C ourtroom

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65 F igure B 31. R endering I.27 RAZZLE DAZZLE

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66 F igure B 32. R endering I.28 T he C ourtroom

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67 F igure B 33. R endering I.29 C lass

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68 F igure B 34. R endering I.30 T he V erdict

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69 F igure B 35. R endering I.31 H ot H oney R ag

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70 APPEN DIX C DRAFTING F igure C 1 D rafting Plate A1

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71 F igure C 2. D rafting Plate A2

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7 2 F igure C 3 D rafting Plate A3

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73 F igure C 4 D rafting Plate B1

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74 F igure C 5 D rafting Plate B2

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75 F igure C 6 D rafting Plate C1

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76 F igure C 7 D ra fting Plate C2

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77 F igure C 8 D rafting Plate C3

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78 F igure C 9 D rafting Plate C4

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79 F igure C 10. D rafting Plate C5

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80 F igure C 11. D rafting Plate C6

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81 F igure C 12. D rafting Plate C7

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82 APPENDIX D PRODUCTION PHOTOS F igure D 1 V elmas Entrance All That Jazz

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83 F igure D 2. Roxie s Bedroom. N obody walks out on me.

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84 F igure D 3 Funny Honey

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85 F igure D 4 The Cell Block Tango

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86 F igure D 5 W hen Youre Good To Momma

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87 F igure D 6 A ll I Care About

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88 F igure D 7 Billys Office. Things would have turned out differently.

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89 F igure D 8 Press Conference at the Jail. We Both Reached For the Gun

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90 F igure D 9 R oxie

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91 F igure D 10. I C ant Do It Alone

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92 F igure D 11. Kitty s Bedroom. C hicago After Midnight

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93 F igure D 12. Kitty At the Jail. G o to hell all of you!

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94 F igure D 13. Reporters at the prison. A baby ?!

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95 F igure D 14. I Know a Girl

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96 F igure D 15. M e and My Baby

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97 F igure D 16. M r. Cellophane

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98 F igure D 17. Jail. T he P oker Game

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99 F igure D 18. When V elma Takes The Stand

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100 F igure D 19. The Hungarian Rope Trick

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101 F igure D 20. R azzle D azzle

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102 F igure D 21. Courtroom. I mean to kill you!

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103 F igure D 22: H ot Honey R ag

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104 LIST OF REFERENCES Berardino, Paul. Renee: How a Small Town Texan Became a Hollywood M egastar. Bloomington: AuthorHouse, 2010. Print Lesy, Michael. Murder City: The Bloody History of Chicago in the T wenties. New York:W.W. Norton & Company, Inc., 2007. Print Kiernan, L. The story behind Chicago is a real doozy: Maurine Watkins based her play on murder trials she sensationalized as a reporter. Orlando Sentinel. 13 June 1999. 10 March 2011. < http://articles.orlandosentinel.com/199906 13/entertainment/9906110677_1_maurinewatkins watkins left city editor > Perry, D. The Girls of Murder City: Fame, Lust, and the Beautiful K illers Who I nspired Chicago. New York: Viking, 2010. Print Suskin, Steven. Show Tunes, the Songs, Shows, and Careers of Broadways M ajor C omposers. 4th. New York: Oxford University Press, 2010. Print

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105 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Jovon holds bachelor of art degrees in both Theatre and Marketing from Saint Ambrose University. While studying in the Quad Cities, she interned with Circa 21 Dinner Playhouse, designed for The Green Room Theatre, Junior Theatre, and Ambroses Studio Theater, and was awarded the Rick Koehler Out standing Senior Award. During her time at the University of Florida she designed both scenery and props for department productions, Florida Players shows, and assisted the School of Music with multiple opera productions. Jovon interned at the Asolo Repert ory Theatre, assisting scenic designer Tobin Ost on Bonnie & Clyde. She graduated in May 2012 Summa Cum Laude, and was recognized as the departments Outstanding Graduate Student.