The relationship between organizational climate and job satisfaction as reported by community college executive secretar...

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The relationship between organizational climate and job satisfaction as reported by community college executive secretaries and/or associates to the president
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Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Florida, 2005.
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Includes bibliographical references.
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by Theodore Sofianos.
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Printout.
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Vita.

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THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ORGANIZATIONAL CLIMATE AND JOB
SATISFACTION AS REPORTED BY COMMUNITY COLLEGE EXECUTIVE
SECRETARIES AND/OR ASSOCIATES TO THE PRESIDENT















By

THEODORE J. SOFIANOS


A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDAIN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


2005














ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

To put pen to paper and deliver a sense of true veracity for those who believed

in me is in and of itself, a difficult task. My own introspective pangs of doubt were

rescued by those who knew better of my resolve. If only the man I knew for 29 years

could have been witness to this. Alex Korwek, my stepfather and friend (who

recently served on the Daytona Beach Community College Board of Trustees) is

surely beaming. He urged me toward this accomplishment. He, along with the

support of my mother, Judith Korwek, and father, Paul F. Sofianos, were the reasons

why there was no quitting-no rationale for resignation whatsoever. I owe an

enormous amount of gratitude for their patience and tolerance. Their trust and belief

in me provided continuous encouragement.

I thank my supervisory committee chair (Dr. David S. Honeyman) who

initially showed interest in my potential, and instilled in me the confidence to

complete the assignment. Naturally, his guidance was instrumental in assisting me

through this process. Additionally, for their time and sponsorship I thank Dr. David

Mulkey, Dr. Arthur Sandeen, and Dr. Dale Campbell. Without their periodic advice

and counsel, this would not have been possible. My mentors (Dr. Kent Sharples,

President of Daytona Beach Community College; and Dr. Alex Kajstura, Provost of

DBCC's West Campus) graciously extended their recommendations and time to

ensure my progress.








Lastly, I am indebted to those who started off as mentors and advisors,

counselors and confidants, and became lasting friends, who will always be in my

thoughts and prayers. I extend my deepest thanks for what they have done and given.














TABLE OF CONTENTS

Rage

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS............................................ ii

A B STRA CT ...................................................... vi

CHAPTERS

1 INTRODUCTION ............................................. 1

Statement of the Problem ........................................ 4
Purpose of the Study ........................................... 6
Definition of Terms .............................................. 7
Significance of the Study .......................................... 8
Sum m ary ...................................................... 9

2 REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE .................................. 11

Job Satisfaction ................................................. 12
Content/Motivational Theories ..................................... 16
Job Satisfaction Under Investigation ................................. 29
Organizational Climate ............................................ 33
Organizational Climate Theories .................................... 35
Organizational Climate Under Investigation ........................... 40
Organizational Climate and Job Satisfaction........................... 46
The Role of the Executive Secretary in the Community College ........... 47
Other Factors that May Affect Job Satisfaction and Organizational
C lim ate ..................................................... 50
Summary ...................................................... 53

3 DESIGN OF THE STUDY METHODOLOGY...................... 55

Procedure for Analysis ............................................ 63
Summary ...................................................... 67

4 PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA....................... 74

Survey Responses ................................................ 75








Profile for the Executive Secretaries to the Presidents of Community
Colleges ................................................... 76
Research Question 1 ............................................. 81
Research Question 2 ............................................. 83
Research Question 3 ............................................. 89
Summary of Perception of Organizational Climate and Satisfaction
with Organizational Factors.................................... 94
Research Question 4 ............................................. 96
Sum m ary ...................................................... 98

5 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS...................... 102

Conclusions ................................................... 103
Implications ................................................... 113
Recommendations for Further Research ............................. 115
Summary ...................................................... 117

APPENDICES

A LETTER OF INVITATION ................................... 122

B INFORMED CONSENT ....................................... 124

C ORGANIZATIONAL QUESTIONNAIRE ......................... 126

D TABLE OF CORRELATION COEFFICIENTS FOR FIELD TEST ....... 132

REFEREN CES .................................................... 133

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ....................................... 148














Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School of the
University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the
Degree of Doctor of Philosophy

THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ORGANIZATIONAL CLIMATE AND JOB
SATISFACTION AS REPORTED BY COMMUNITY COLLEGE EXECUTIVE
SECRETARIES AND/OR ASSOCIATES TO THE PRESIDENT

By

Theodore J. Sofianos

May 2005

Chairman: David S. Honeyman
Major Department: Educational Leadership

The first purpose of this study was to investigate the nature of the relationship

between measures of job satisfaction and organizational climate as applied to

community college executive secretaries to the president. The second purpose was to

determine the community college secretaries' perceptions of organizational climate

using a set of seven identified factors for climate; to study the extent to which they

were satisfied within the context of organizational climate; to examine the

determinants of job satisfaction; and to evaluate specific socio-demographic variables

such as ethnicity, years served as a community college executive secretary, the full-

time enrollment (FTE) element related to the size of their institution, and

classification regarding region.

A survey was distributed to 342 executive secretaries of community college

presidents who were part of the Southern Association of Community Colleges and








Schools (SACS). A total of 137 surveys were used rendering a 40.1% response rate.

The average respondent was a white/Caucasian female. All ethnic backgrounds were

represented as indicated by the survey responses. Over two-thirds of the secretaries

had more than 6 years of experience as an executive secretary, and almost half of

them worked in a rural setting.

The organizational climate factors used were internal communication,

organizational structure, political climate, professional development opportunities,

evaluation, promotion, and regard for personal concern. Analysis of the relationship

between measures of job satisfaction and organizational climate showed strong

associations among the components of the two constructs. These two constructs had

overlapping and independent dynamics when considering job satisfaction and

organizational climate. Respondents' satisfaction with organizational climate

received above-average mean scores for all factors of organizational climate. The

mean distributions accounted for three of the higher satisfaction ratings (evaluation,

regard for personal concerns, and organizational structure). These corresponded with

the ratings for perceptions of organizational climate variables. Of the socio-

demographic variables used, no significant statistical relationships were found to

affect assessments of satisfaction with organizational climate or perceptions of

organizational climate.














CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION

Job satisfaction is, and will continue to be, a deliberated research topic for

many apparent reasons. Primarily because of industrialization, we have taken

antiquated job-performance tasks and extrapolated them from what was once a

customary, European-Mercantile, cottage-industry setting; thus, its metamorphosis

and evolution to a more productive underlying principle: a mechanized world bearing

a surfeit of urban metropolises swarming with a cornucopia of businesses and

organizations. Probably, nobody realized the ramifications of assembly-line

methodology, and the workers' toil it would create (Todd & Curti, 1986). Little

research is available concerning the earlier part of the industrial era. Thus, no

significant inquiries have addressed the many accounts of worker burnout due to the

mindless redundancy of their piecemeal activities. With respect to employee

contentment and fulfillment, job satisfaction and organizational climate were obvious

characteristics/constructs that needed thoughtful deliberation (Drewry & O'Connor,

1987).

Job satisfaction, in essence, is simply how people feel about their jobs, their

workplace, and their work environment. It can also be categorized as a universal

feeling about one's job as related to a multiplicity of attitudes about the various

components that make up what is performed and accomplished (Spector, 1997).

Bullock (1952) broadens Spector's insights by stating, ". job satisfaction is








considered to be an attitude, which results from a balancing and summation of many

specific likes and dislikes experienced in connection with the job. This attitude

manifests itself in evaluation of the job and of the employing organization; thus,

contributing suitably to the attainment of one's personal objectives" (p. 7).

Roethlisberger and Dickson (1939) summarized research on the Hawthorne

plant in a book called Management and the Worker; one of the first studies to review

what had occurred at the plant. Locke (1969) estimated that by 1955, approximately

2000 articles had been written on job satisfaction; and by 1969 another 2000 were

produced.

The workplace, its environment, and the human behavior/interaction that

conjoin these components, have been studied only recently. It was the early 1930s

before anyone studied whether degrees of illumination would improve worker

productivity (Mayo, 1933; Lunenburg & Omstein, 1991). Six years of studies

conducted by Mayo showed that environment and social factors significantly

contributed to worker's productivity, and addressed effective management as opposed

to any previous theories regarding administrative dynamics (Lunenburg & Omstein,

1991). Man is not a machine. Jobs that bred monotony and tedium gave little

autonomy to the man on the line, and did little for one's motivation; job satisfaction

later became motivation theory's progeny.

Herzberg and associates (1957) determined that although occupation, income,

and position were closely related in our society, the worker's occupational level was

most accountable for worker satisfaction. He also said as the employee took on more

responsibilities and authority, morale and self-esteem also increased. Reward








systems are inherent. Pavlov's theory of classical conditioning showed that we were

trained to expect rewards and fruits of our labor; conversely, when a reward system

was not in place or is insufficiently implemented, discrepancies and intolerance

related to satisfaction could become evident (Maslow, 1954; Pavlov, 1960).

Roles in the workplace (and perceptions thereof), have generated a

considerable amount of research. Two topics proliferated great interest: role conflict

and role ambiguity. Role conflict deals with the wearing of two hats, trying to

accomplish two unrelated tasks, and having the daunting charge of answering to a

superior as why the tasks could not be completed. Role ambiguity conveys a feeling

of helplessness. The worker is uncertain of the mission, and therefore feels the

negativity and despair associated with the indeterminate issue at hand. Both of these

constructs adversely affect job satisfaction and the worker's overall perception; and

thus, result in tension, stress, apprehension, dissatisfaction, and most likely a new job

posting at the organization (Baltis, 1980).

The behavioral science field first explored the matter, leading to many future

studies and questions to be asked. Summarily, the Hawthorne studies begged the

question: would worker productivity be enhanced if illumination factors were

changed? Furthermore, if the worker's environment were enhanced, perhaps the

employee would be more productive (Roethlisberger, 1941). The research summoned

a considerable amount of additional examination. Elton Mayo (seen as a pioneer on

the matter) examined the correlation between acuity (or perception) and job

satisfaction to discover whether these two factors were related (Mayo, 1933). Mayo's

influence during the late 1920s on administrative theory generated increased scrutiny








of how workers' views of their jobs related to group dynamics, the social scope of

their workplace, and operational management. The important question he raised was

how motivation would increase productivity (Hersey et al., 1996).

Motivation was sometimes diminished or eliminated by the negative aspects

of the job. Nepotism, discrimination, quotas, being overqualified, too rigid a

structure, and many other conditions can diminish motivation substantially reducing

one's growth potential (Haldane, 1974). Herzberg (1959) contended that the structure

of the workplace reflected communication within its ranks, thus affecting job

attitudes, feelings, and outlooks. Group dynamics (whether they were loosely or

tightly constructed) demonstrate the degree of cohesion and attraction, (related to

increased productivity). Goals should not take precedence over employee needs, and

Herzberg (1959) cited the Hawthorne studies' findings to align these ascertions with

the work that was to follow.

Rather than be concerned with group dynamics and the aspect of the team,

Argyris (1957) had a much different perspective. His approach toward manufacturing

and industry focused on the honor of the individual-his/her credibility and dignity.

Although the element of teamwork was an integral aspect to the growth of the

company, the individual's growth would advance the group's goals; in effect, creating

a team of individuals who value who they are more than what they do.

Statement of the Problem

The relationship between organizational climate and job satisfaction has been

studied extensively in industrial settings; but not in educational institutions regarding





5


these two constructs (especially not for community college executive secretaries).

Erikson and Vallas (1990) suggested that

In the age of industrialization and capitalism, however, three developments
have conspired to disturb that natural arrangement. The first is the institution
of private property. Both the means by which objects are produced and the
objects themselves are owned by somebody else in a functioning capitalist
system, with the result that the worker is drawn apart from the work itself.
They are of a flesh, the worker and the work, but that flesh is severed by the
cruel wedge of private ownership.

The second is the development of a more and more complex division of labor.
Workers play a reduced role when a task is broken up into minute segments;
they apply but a fraction of their skill and knowledge to the task at hand and
often lose their sense of the larger logic of the productive process in the
bargain.

The third is the process by which human labor becomes a commodity like all
other commodities. (p.21)

Any corporation or institution will be beleaguered by high turnover, sick-out

calls, and other stress-related or dissatisfaction parameters that may be present

(Edelwich & Brodsky, 1980; Maccoby, 1981; Mintzberg, 1989; Orem, 2002). The

intent of this study was to understand the dynamics of organizational climate and job

satisfaction and how the two constructs interrelate. With respect to pioneers in this

field, researchers such as Herzberg, Mayo, Roethlisberger, and Dickinson were

interested in the dynamics of job satisfaction and organizational climate, and set out

to understand and interpret the effects of industry and manufacturing on workers'

behavior and productivity.

A number of studies have analyzed the balance between job satisfaction and

organizational climate within the industry and manufacturing setting. As a logical

step toward public institutions, a growing number of analyses have studied public

higher educational environments (Chappell 1995, Evans 1996, DeMichele 1998,








Zabetakis 1999). These researchers did not wish to reproduce the same elements of

what Erikson and Vallas (1990) espoused, for the work stemming from these

corporate industry evaluations is extensive; but in part, it is the works authored by the

aforementioned University of Florida graduates that examine an interesting point:

does job satisfaction differ between private corporations/industries versus public

educational institutions? A comparative pr6cis of these various dissertations would

better serve as a further research tool to describe a range of effects regarding job

satisfaction and organizational climate in public higher education institutions

(Chapter 5). This study is concerned with public institutions (community colleges)

and the dynamics of how organizational climate and job satisfaction interrelate.

Purpose of the Study

Because of the lack of data and the sparseness of such studies on educational

institutions (Chappell, 1995), organizational relationships in the community college

setting need thoughtful consideration. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine

the relationship between organizational climate and job satisfaction as it applied to

executive secretaries/associates to the presidents of community colleges. These

personnel hold essential positions to the imported and exported communication and

dialogue that give status, prominence, reputation, and clarity to the positions of their

superiors (Bolman & Deal, 1997). One method was to ascertain community college

secretaries' perceptions of organizational climate using a set of seven identified

factors for climate (rating the extent to which they were satisfied in the context of

organizational climate) to evaluate specific socio-demographic variables such as

Ethnicity.
Years served as a community college executive secretary.









Full-time enrollment (FTE) element related to the size of their institution.
Classification regarding region.

Also of additional interest was the reported overall satisfaction of the position and

the institution. In particular, this study was based on the following questions:

Research Question 1: What was the dimensionality and internal consistency
of the survey instrument? (This question appended notable value to the study,
for other studies that examined educational institutions regarding
organizational climate and job satisfaction did not address the elements of
dimensionality and internal consistency.)

Research Question 2: How did community college executive
secretaries/associates perceive organizational climate in their respective
institutions, using a set of seven identified factors for climate?

Research Question 3: Applying the same set of seven climate factors as an
index, how satisfied were the community college executive
secretaries/associates with the organizational climate of their respective
institutions?

Research Question 4: What were the determinants of job satisfaction among
community college executive secretaries to their respective presidents?

Definition of Terms

For the purposes and functions of this study, the following definitions were

used:

Executive secretary/associate: entrusted with various forms of

correspondence, duties, and organizational skills performed on a routine basis

directed by the executive order of the institution, one who superintends and manages

the executive's affairs (York University, 2001).

Job satisfaction: an employee's viewpoint and perspective of the

organization's environment (Spector, 1997, Gruneberg, 1979). It is considered a








measurable construct when related to both positive and negative attitude and emotion

(Herzberg, 1957).

Executive officers: senior community college presidents and vice presidents

who occupy the highest administration level of the institution (Cohen & Brawer,

1996).

Organizational Climate: the distinctive beliefs and precedents that form the

employee's and the organization's symbolic perspectives. These symbolic

perspectives shape and define various belief systems and how they overlap (Bolman

& Deal, 1997; Peterson & Spencer, 1990).

Limitations

This study was conducted acknowledging the following limitations:

1. The study was demographically limited to executive secretaries/associates in
community colleges that are 2004 members of SACS (Southern Association
of Colleges and Schools) located in: Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky,
Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas and
Virginia.

2. The study concentrated only on organizational climate and job satisfaction as
they are relevant to community college executive secretaries/associates.

Significance of the Study

For a number of reasons, this study was significant. Primarily, individuals in

the workplace face insolvent expectations that would inevitably affect their attitudes

concerning their jobs (Vroom, 1960, James & Jones, 1980). Secondly, job

satisfaction is intrinsically defined through various social comparisons, the economic

climate, preferences based on past experience, and many other character identity

attributes (Locke, 1976). As a result of these comparisons, the individual becomes

satisfied or dissatisfied; thus, the evaluation was multidimensional with strong








underlying factors, both local and global (Smith, 1992). Thirdly, dissatisfaction

creates action and satisfaction usually creates inaction. The worker's motivational

behavior was based on an experience relating to negative stimuli that would create

more of a possibility for a desired change (Dawis, 1992). Fourth, for community

college executive secretaries/associates, teamwork on their part would carry out the

missions of their superiors and of their institutions; in essence, the goals of those who

formed a collectivist culture tend to be role-relevant, long-term, and consistent with

teamwork goals (Oettingen, Little, Lindenberger, & Baltes, 1994). Lastly, few

studies addressed the relationship between organizational climate and perceived job

satisfaction in educational institutions (particularly for community college executive

secretaries/associates).

Organizational climate and job satisfaction are interrelated and

interdependent. Although a primary objective of an organization is to increase

efficiency and enhance performance through specialization and division of labor, the

climate of the worker's environment is integral to the organization's successes

(Bolman & Deal, 1997). This study aimed to increase the realm of knowledge by

testing the theoretical constructs of job satisfaction and organizational climate as they

applied to community college executive secretaries/associates.

Summary

Theories and constructs related to job satisfaction and organizational climate

have been studied for over half a century. Noteworthy is the considerable amount of

work that has examined the corporate and industrial setting, but few have examined

the public educational setting. Recently, more studies are beginning to uncover this





10


vastly unexplored region. This study tested the theories and constructs of job

satisfaction and organizational climate related to community college executive

secretaries/associates. A review of the literature germane to the research follows in

Chapter 2.













CHAPTER 2
REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE

Job satisfaction is a term used increasingly since the start of the industrial

revolution and the resulting division of labor. Faced with low morale and high

absenteeism, and low productivity, business owners and administrators thought the

panacea would be a larger paycheck. They were somewhat mistaken (McKenzie &

Lee, 1998), for what a drives a person? Maslow (1954) related motivation to self-

actualization and the desire to attain a higher rank or status in life. A monetary

reward is merely an addendum to that.

Mayo (1933) spent 10 years conducting studies and developing relationships

between organizational climate and job satisfaction in the Hawthorne Study (the

Western Electric Hawthorne Plant providing power to the greater Chicago, Illinois

area). They experimented with illumination and the effects it would have on

productivity. This produced further research on job satisfaction and motivation. The

Hawthorne studies showed that although money was an issue, it was not a primary

determinant for satisfaction. Furthermore, group dynamics (overt and covert) were

behavioral variables that affected attitudes and climate-hence, proponents for

increased or decreased rates of productivity (Lunenburg & Ornstein, 1991). Building

on Mayo's work, more research was generated that investigated the relationship

between job satisfaction and organizational climate. Researchers took a natural

progression step from classical organizational theory to behavioral science theory to








determine causation and relationship between the two constructs (Gruneberg, 1979;

Vroom, 1964).

Dissatisfaction can play a critical part in the adaptation process precisely

because there is a tendency to manage our behavior rather than change it; in turn, our

behaviors become routine and customary. We don't think about it, for the schedule

becomes almost robotic (Weiss & Ilgen, 1985). Employees who perceived their jobs

as dissatisfactory inevitably sought different ways of responding to that notion. There

are a myriad of complexities as to how an individual may go about this. The

individual was also influenced by a number of variables. The literature stated when a

seasoned and robust economy exists, alternative job opportunities were critical causes

for turnover rates (Hulin, Roznowske, & Hachiya, 1985). Rising costs were directly

related to the latter, and were strongly affected by turnover (Mirvis & Lawler, 1977).

Job Satisfaction

Hoppock (1935) depicted job satisfaction as one or more of a combination of

psychological, physiological, and environmental conditions causing one to be

introspective and ask whether contentment was observable at the workplace.

In many instances, the workplace has become the totality of who we are.

Hopkins (1983) asserted the workplace is one of the key elements of our lives. It

wasn't until the 1930s that scholarly work was devoted to the subject of job

satisfaction. Theorists and/or behaviorists such as Herzberg, Maslow, and McGregor

have revealed that humanistic qualities bounded by their environment's variables

could be studied and measured on a consistent basis (Hopkins, 1983). In contrast, job

satisfaction could be viewed as a more pleasurable emotional state resulting from








one's ability to derive satisfaction or gratification from the work experience (Locke,

1976); Locke linked job satisfaction to how one perceives his/her job and how this

experience may interact with their values. Pavlov (1960) demonstrated how we are

classically conditioned, and that the way we respond is based on a set of experiential

parameters. Over 3,000 studies concerning job satisfaction have been published from

1935 to 1976 (Locke, 1976). Researchers sought to find out if job satisfaction did

indeed relate to the exorbitant costs associated with turnover and dissatisfaction.

Personal orientation and the nature of the work at hand were believed to be

key rudiments of job satisfaction (Hopkins, 1983). She stated there were four

components of personal orientation: education, length of time served, job orientation

related to prominence and mobility, and psychological orientation as verified by one's

allegiance and commitment to the organization.

Job satisfaction increased with age (Lee and Wilbur, 1985). In order for an

employee to gain satisfaction at the workplace, the organization must provide a

positive environment-both socially and occupationally, using effective

communication, opportunities for advancement and for dialogue, coupled with a true

sense of faith and inter-reliance (Likert, 1967); hence, job satisfaction increased as the

worker remained with the institution (Lee and Wilbur, 1985). Schein (1978)

attributed the following frequently occurring factors to studies of job satisfaction:

Opportunity for advancement.
Working conditions.
Social variables.
Supervision and autonomy.
Production and performance.
Organization and administration.








Many studies concerning job satisfaction reiterated many of the same terms applied;

thus, can be considered interdependent and relevant to each other.

A footnote to job satisfaction involves two important but diametrically

opposing provisions: intrinsic and extrinsic satisfaction. Extrinsic job satisfaction

mostly deals with the monetary and immediate rewards of the job such as income,

benefits, and security. Intrinsic satisfaction takes on more of a self-actualization route

embracing values such as contribution to society, opportunity for educative

advancement, autonomy, creativity, and the opportunity to constructively evaluate

and communicate those opinions to one's peers (Smart & Ethington, 1987).

Without incentives, there would be more studies citing dissatisfaction rather

than the opposite. Due to the renowned work of Frederick Taylor in the first third of

the Twentieth Century, organizations were intrigued and inspired to structure

motivational pay programs to stimulate productivity and performance (Kanigel,

1999). Although determining how much one should receive in additional benefit is a

complex issue, it was well received by many organizations and has thereby been

implemented (Katzell & Yankelovich, 1975).

Incentive plans and their effectiveness have been documented over a number

of years (Lawler, 1971, 1973). The summation of what Lawler has read and cited

amounts to this simplicity: when an organization pays the employee for the amount

produced, productivity will increase.

Katzell (1975), who has studied an extensive amount of research concerning

incentive plans and motivational theory, summarized incentive plans applying the

following conclusions:








1. All other factors held constant, tying at least part of a worker's pay to some
measure of performance has a positive effect on productivity.

2. The closer a system comes to tying individual pay to individual performance,
the greater will be the productivity increase.

3. Aspects of the task, such as complexity, necessity for cooperation and liking
for it, can moderate the general effectiveness of incentive systems; in
particular, conclusion 2 should be modified in the direction of group
incentives where production requires teamwork among group members.

4. The effectiveness of wage incentive plans is neutralized by worker restriction
of output when used in a climate of insecurity and mistrust, or in other ways
characterized by divergence of the goals of workers and management. (pp.
322-323)

Smart and Ethington (1987) had a much different viewpoint regarding the

aforementioned conclusions. They argued that monetary reward did not directly drive

output. There are those who strive to find balance, autonomy, self-fulfillment,

altruism, and a coupling of social and vocational gratification-all reflecting basic

intrinsic values, while also shedding light on not just job satisfaction, but how

satisfied one may be with his/her existence as a whole.

The relationship between the organization and the worker must satisfy the

values, desires, and expectations of the employee. Job satisfaction variables that have

been identified and measured by facet-specific instruments were working conditions,

administrative practices, monetary benefits, co-workers, the opportunity for

advancement, job security, and company policies (Glick, 1992).

Content/Motivational Theories

Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs

Abraham Maslow (1954), considered to be the founder of human relations

psychology, proposed that individual drives and desires will not be achieved unless








other basic human needs are satisfied first. As the human being moves up the

pyramid to the most complex aspect of motivation, they all are intertwined. The more

basic levels were more fully satisfied before graduating to the next; however, they all

are simultaneously addressed during our daily lives, and elicit an interrelationship

between each category. The following characterizes human motivation into five

categories:

1. Physiological needs: sex, food, water, and shelter-an infant is a clear
example.

2. Safety needs: protection from adversity and danger, deprivation, and threat.

3. Social needs: the sharing, receiving, and giving of love, friendship, affection,
belongingness, and acceptance.

4. Esteem needs: freedom, the need for achievement, self-respect, strength, and
self-worth.

5. Self-actualization: to reach the zenith of one's potential and becoming the
best at what one can be.

Maslow (1954) did not advocate that one level be satisfied completely before

the next. The categories were broken down into two classes: the bottom three dealt

with evading pain-deprivation being the most important to eliminate. Maslow's

work described the complete person. Although the most venerating function of his

work dealt with the workplace, it was not merely limited to that environment.

In theory, any lack of the aforementioned needs will increase the possibility of

job dissatisfaction, albeit, the statistical evidence is difficult to ascertain. In addition,

although money was considered to deplete dissatisfaction on the job, no amount can

motivate a worker to enjoy his task if he detests what he does. This does not suggest








the worker would not execute the task(s) sufficiently, but he may not find enjoyment

or satisfaction in doing so (Kable, 1988).

Yang on Maslow

Although Maslow's theory is preeminent and a standard many researchers

have incorporated when addressing motivational theory, Yang (1998) put forth one

that is more complex and multifaceted. He contended that safety and physiological

needs were universal; but subsequently after these needs were fulfilled, there were

three categorical hierarchies. One category dealt with genetic make-up and diffusion,

and consisted of sexual needs, off-spring bearing needs, and parenting needs. The

additional two were based on individualistic interpersonal needs, self-esteem,

interpersonal belongingness needs, and individualistic self-actualization need. The

self-actualization needs partly corresponded with Confucianism, who is at the heart of

all relationships. Yang noted it was better to sacrifice the self in order for the group

to flourish.

Herzberg's two-factor theory

In The Motivation to Work, Herzberg, Mausner, & Snyderman (1959) created

a concept concerning job satisfaction and dissatisfaction. They conducted a study

consisting of 200 male engineers in a town in Pennsylvania. Each subject was asked

to answer questions integral to episodes that made them feel extremely good or

extremely bad about their jobs. Upon the data being collected and analyzed, this

study generated their theory regarding job satisfaction, which was termed either the

"Two-Factor Theory" or the "Motivation-Hygiene Theory." The researchers

determined there were two sets of associated job factors; both job satisfaction and job








dissatisfaction were at the foundation of the premise (motivators-the intrinsic

aspects of the job, and hygienes-extrinsic aspects of the job, respectively).

Herzberg et al. (1959) developed five motivating factors, or intrinsic variables

(a sixth was later added) for job satisfaction. Lawler (1967) defined intrinsic

motivation in terms of the degree to which an employee was motivated to produce

based on the personal rewards or feelings derived from how well the job was

performed. Furthermore, motivators such as how one may respond to factors such as

recognition, growth, and development had a positive effect on job satisfaction and

worker productivity (Hanson, 1991; Herzberg et al., 1959).

The list that follows are the terms Herzberg et al. (1959) attributed to how an

individual may categorize his/her desire for psychological development and growth:

1. Advancement transcended the idea of upward mobility or change in job status
pertaining to the individual within the organization. It also had bearing on any
hope for the possibility of advancement.

2. Achievement referred to any or all events leading up to the completion of a
task, or fulfilling of the job related personal goals, or realizing the fruits of
one's labor.

3. Recognition gave credence, support, and praise regarding the work
environment for a given task. Conversely, it could also be negative and
announce blame and/or fault for the employee as perceived by his superior or
customer.

4. Responsibility related to the worker's satisfaction derived from reports in lieu
of the responsibilities given for tasks completed by him or supervised by him.
Furthermore, if there was a loss of responsibility or an overwhelming sense of
it, the worker showed a loss of job satisfaction.

5. Work itself asserted whether or not there was a sense of positive or negative
feelings related to the task at hand, and the opportunity to finish a given
assignment.








6. Possibility of Growth conveyed that with regard to any specialized skill, the
individual was afforded the opportunity to advance and foresee the prospect of
personal growth in the organization (Herzberg et al., 1959).

Concerning its significance to industrial psychology, many researchers have

tested Herzberg's two-factor theory. The grounds for remaining in an organization

were unlike those for leaving, and not merely the opposite of each other (Friedlander

and Walton, 1964). For example, Herzberg (1966) stipulated that the reasons for

leaving/quitting jobs were more aligned with hygiene factors, where as the reasons to

remain were closely related to motivators. The hygiene factors Herzberg and

associates (1959) identified consist of the following:

1. Company policy.
2. Supervision.
3. Working conditions.
4. Interpersonal relations.
5. Salary.
6. Status.
7. Job security.
8. Personal life.

Herzberg (1966) asserted that these hygiene factors (extrinsic variables) are

directly related to dissatisfiers and can lead to job turnover and/or job productivity:

Since the dissatisfier factors essentially describe the environment and serve
primarily to prevent job dissatisfaction, while having little effect on positive
job attitudes, they have been named the hygiene factors. This is an analogy to
the medical use of the term meaning "preventative and environmental." The
"satisfier" factors were named the motivators, since other findings of the study
suggest that they are effective in motivating the individual to superior
performance and effort. (p. 74)

As adults, we hardly tolerate a consistency to committing mistakes, but with

regard to a child, parents/adults are more yielding and understanding (Erikson, 1964;

Herzberg, 1966; Jung, 1958). As a child grows, it is the understanding of parental

guidance that will ease the sensations of insecurity. Herzberg (1966) stated:








This is one of the most difficult challenges in growing up-to live with
insecurity, to accept change and alteration, to deal with complexity. Inasmuch
as complexity and change constitute a more real phenomenon than do
absolutes and finalities, it becomes necessary to see further complication in
order to get closer to reality and away from the fiction of a child's world. (p.
63)

Herzberg (1957, 1959, 1966) echoed much of what the aforementioned

leading behavioral/developmental psychologists such as Maslow (1954), Jung (1958),

and Erikson (1964) have theorized: for human beings to achieve self-actualization, a

sense of self-worth and purpose must be an imminent factor. Herzberg made many

references to social behaviorism, for that is in part how he has developed much of his

research tailored for the workplace regarding worker mentality and behavior

(Gruneberg, 1979; Wanous, 1973).

Support for Herzberg's Theory

Support for Herzberg's work regarding the motivator-hygiene theory is well

supported (e.g., Bockman, 1971; Blai, 1964; Eckert & Williams, 1971; House &

Wigdor, 1967; Myers, 1964). Cummings and El Salmi (1968) understood that

whether it was the environment or the work itself, both would affect dissatisfaction

and motivation. Herzberg maintained that the two sets of factors have two separate

themes:

1. Man's relationship to what he does were satisfiers or motivators.

2. Man's relationship to context or environment in which he does the job were
dissatisfiers or hygiene factors (Herzberg, 1966).

Herzberg's two-factor theory was relevant not only to the educational setting,

but relatable to the business and manufacturing sector (Sergiovanni and Carver,

1973). The reasoning of the two-factor theory proposed the following rationale: the








theory was consistent with the humanistic belief pattern that formed one dimension of

the applied sciences of educational administration; and upon testing Herzberg's

theory using educators as respondents, the results were comparable to those found in

other groups. But Herzberg never claimed, despite reversals in some studies, that the

hygiene factors were perfect predictors.

Criticisms of the Motivator-Hygiene Theory

Several researchers were critical of Herzberg's theory. Aebi (1973) cited

there were over 100 attempts to test the reliability and/or significance of the study.

Whitsett and Winslow (1967) argued that there was too much ambiguity in

determining overall satisfaction-that Herzberg purposely did not include this very

point (Hulin & Smith, 1967). Vroom (1964) was skeptical of Herzberg's findings

due to subjectivity and methodological applications; furthermore, the respondents in

his studies may have not realized their own shortcomings and therefore related job

dissatisfaction to work environment factors.

In addition to Herzberg's failure to address overall job satisfaction, Soliman

(1970) found oversights in his methodologies; and moreover, Herzberg only

considered two populations-engineers and accountants-while acquiring his data

associated with his findings (Pallone, Hurley, & Rickard, 1971).

McClelland's Need for Achievement Theory

Needs were learned experientially through a given environment (McClelland,

1961). Maslow's theory did not scientifically account for assertions about self-

actualized people or reflect cultural and personal assumptions, and he argued that as a

person experiences strong needs, it served as a motivation that prompted behavior








that satisfied a particular need (McClelland, Atkinson, Clark, and Lowell, 1976).

Subsequently, the need for achievement was described as a person's desire to

independently master objects, ideas, and other people by exercising his or her talents

for the purpose of enhancing self-esteem (Pardee, 1990). Johnson and McClelland

(1984) explained that most people who have an increased desire for achievement set

attainable goals, look forward to genuine feedback about their performance, enjoy

being personally accountable when considering problem solving, and take calculated

risks. McClelland was in favor of the idea that persons whose objective was to obtain

achievement were content when this need was met; and conversely, failure to achieve

their goals reduced task motivation for a given organization.

Macgregor's X and Y Theories

Douglas Macgregor's (1960) work concerning motivation and management is

still a commonly used reference within this field, and it remains a basic principle for

others to understand and gain positive management techniques and strategies

(Chapman, 2001).

Theory X, or authoritarian style management, consisted of the following

criteria:

The average person dislikes work and will avoid it if s/he can.

In turn, most people must be forced with the threat of punishment to work
towards organizational objectives.

The average person prefers to be directed; to avoid responsibility; is relatively
unambitious, and wants security above all else.

Theory Y, or participative style management, conflicts with theory X by

assuming that people have profound psychological work needs to self-actualize and to








be high achievers. Mcgregor was exceedingly more predisposed to the portrayal of

theory Y, thus suggesting the following ascertions:

Effort in work is as natural as work and play.

People will apply self-control and self-direction in the pursuit of
organizational objectives, without external control or the threat of punishment.

Commitment to objectives is a function of rewards associated with their
achievement.

People usually accept and often seek responsibility.

The capacity to use a high degree of imagination, ingenuity and creativity in
solving organizational problems is widely, not narrowly, distributed in the
population.

In industry, the intellectual potential of the average person is only partially
utilized (Chapman, 2001).

With respect to Mcgregor's two types of theories, Erickson and Vallas (1990)

asserted that "... the more autonomous and self-directed a person's work, the more

positive its effects on personality; and the more routinized and closely supervised the

work, the more negative its effects" (p. 2). Although Erickson and Vallas emphasized

that much of the research to date reflected the latter quote, Drucker (1973) was

critical of theory Y, and argued that most people are not capable in curtailing their

impulsivities. Therefore, they cannot adhere to such an autonomous code of ethics in

the workplace.

Alderfer's ERG Theory (Existence, Relatedness, and Growth)

Clayton Alderfer (1972) has presented an existence, relatedness, and growth

theory based on motivation and satisfaction. Alderfer's (1975) theory minimized

Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs from five to three definitive components:

1. Existence needs-which combined Maslow's two lower order needs.









2. Relatedness needs-such as with sociological aspects of being: family,
friends, and work.

3. Growth needs-the highest order in Maslow's model.

Furthermore, he refuted the idea that needs were sequential, and instead argued that

they may be simultaneously met. Alderfer concluded that existence needs were

predicated on issues such as food, water, pay, and shelter; that relatedness needs

attributed to self, family, friends, and employer could be affected by frustration and

subsequently lead to a decline in the pursuit of growth needs-as a result, the

simultaneous affectations the various needs would have on one another. There was

not a large quantity of research associated with Alderfer's theory; however,

Lunenburg and Ornstein (1991) have noted that it has been gaining further attention

and interest.

Glasser's Control Theory

William Glasser's Control Theory (1994) (later named Choice Theory) is

somewhat analogous to Maslow's, but included with it some variations. The

supposition stated that people couldn't be forced to undertake anything they do not

deem important in the workplace. Control theory also advocated workers. When

workers were taught to perform a job utilizing a better system, they would accomplish

the task while continuing to use the new technique, for the theory additionally

stipulated that the worker bears the inherent need to do a good job. Glasser's theory,

like Maslow's, involved five themes comprised of the following elements:

1. Survival: this is similar to Maslow's Physiological and Safety level. They are
basic needs that are of little interest unless they are threatened.








2. Love and Belonging: this is the same as Maslow's Belonging need and
recognizes how important it is for us as a tribal species to be accepted by our
peers.

3. Power or Recognition: to some extent, this associates itself to Maslow's
Esteem need, although the Power element focuses on our ability to achieve
our goals (which is perhaps a lower-level control need).

4. Freedom: this is the ability to do what we want, to have free choice. It is
connected with procedural justice where we seek fair play.

5. Fun: an interesting ultimate goal. When all else is satisfied, we just want to
enjoy our leisure time (Changing Minds, 2001).

The more the employer and manager could facilitate a sense of autonomy, to

encourage the sharing of ideas and values, to foster meaningful relationships coupled

with meaningful tasks, and to incorporate laughter into the work environment, the

more productivity and quality would be obtained (Glasser, 1994).

Criticism of Content Theory

Physiological and psychological needs were fundamental components of

content theory. The behaviors associated with these components had three basic

drawbacks:

1. Critics assert that there is an insufficient amount of empirical data to support
these conclusions.

2. They erroneously standardize the measurements of motivational and
situational factors to be comparable among all workers.

3. The perception that motivation and satisfaction are like terms and have no
distinctive qualities, in essence, content theory would be better cast as theories
of job satisfaction rather than theories of motivation (Hanson, 1991).

While Maslow and Alderfer deliberated over an individual's needs in a

society, McClelland, Glasser, Macgregor, and in particular, Herzberg, have made the








distinction it was the high order needs which were true motivators in a work setting;

and furthermore, not every need served as potential motivators (Owen, 1991).

Process Theories

Expectancy (V.I.E.) theory

Expectancy theory was developed by Victor Vroom (1964). It was tailored

for job satisfaction and served as a widely used model. It assumed that a worker

understood what subjective choices would be considered of value as to the variable

amount of successes gained through individual assignments; and thus, produced

individual choices that were beneficial to the worker. According to Cook, Hepworth,

Wall & Warr (1981), to work hard on a particular undertaking (motivation) is an

application of

1. The individual's estimate that expending effort in achieving the task goal
will be followed by certain outcomes (Expectancy).

2. The desirability to the individual of those outcomes (Valence).

Vroom stipulated that his theory allowed for the individual differences in motivations

among people. Therefore, in order to derive a measure of job motivation, researchers

have used different variations of Vroom's model (Campbell, Dunnette, Lawler and

Weick, 1970; House, 1970; Mitchell, 1974; Vroom, 1964).

Vroom's valence-expectancy-instrumentality theory was based on the

following concepts:

Expectancy was the amount of effort exerted in lieu of a given assignment that
would produce a particular level of performance.

Valence was the perception of the value of the reward (Owens, 1991).








Instrumentality was the extent to which an individual believed that one
outcome would lead to another reward or outcome (Lunenburg & Ornstein,
1991).

Outcomes, categorized by two levels, derived from specified work
performance (Vroom, 1964).

Additionally, Owens (1991) recognized that expectancy theory was based on

the following assumptions:

The worker constituted a more reactive than proactive behavior.

The worker normally employed alternative behaviors coupled with rational
methods.

The worker dealt with events based on experiential knowledge; in turn,
modifying their behavior in order to achieve specific outcomes.

Equity theory

Equity theory stated that workers perceive their skills and completing of tasks

to be concurrent; therefore, there is justification to assume equitable compensatory

values from the employer for an accomplished assignment. If this occurred, the

worker rendered satisfaction due to the equity of return received from the employer

(Adams, 1965). The basic premise specified that the employee received

compensation commensurate to his/her contribution to the value of the service or

product (Herrick & Maccoby, 1975). Conversely, if inequity is perceived, the worker

became dissatisfied (Adams, 1965). The latter translated to a minimization of

productivity, tension in the workplace, and a reduction of morale (Beck, 1990).

Moreover, equity theory maintained that motivation was initiated by an employee's

need for fair and equitable treatment (Pinder, 1990). Lawler and Porter (1967) argued

that the reward would lead to satisfaction to the extent that it was valued, and that








intrinsic rewards would be more directly involved in the performance-satisfaction

relationship.

Steers and Porter (1987) recorded six possible behaviors a worker may have

employed to alter or reinstate the equity of the circumstance:

1. Alter the inputs: an employee who felt underpaid reduced his/her effort, while
an employee that felt overpaid would increase his/her effort.

2. Alter the outcomes: an employee received a preferable working environment,
working hours, and/or salary without increasing his/her effort or input.

3. Subconsciously twist inputs or outcomes: an employee modified the
incompatible perceptions in a form of coping behavior to reduce tension and
regain equilibrium.

4. Modify the inputs or outcomes of the comparison employee: the modification
was in many forms. It could be in reduction of inputs, or even a dismissal of
the employee.

5. Find another comparison employee: when employees felt inequity, they could
switch their comparison employee.

6. Move to another environment: an employee could transfer or leave the
organization.

Lastly, when considering equity theory, Witt & Myers (1992) speculated that

a monetary reward does not always serve as compensatory value. When personnel

were encouraged to assist with decision-making judgments, their perception of

fairness and equity were more favorable and positive; consequently, when the

decision-making process emanated from the lowest level in the organization, it

translated to an inclusive atmosphere that was conducive to constructive outcomes

(Honeyman, Wattenbarger, & Westbrook, 1996).








Criticism of Process Theories

Critics pointed out (as with content theory) that there was a lack of

quantitative data to support those hypotheses. Researchers have noted that it was

difficult to assign a value to measure performance subjectively, for this involved

measuring human behavior; furthermore, there has been no conclusive evidence

stating performance and satisfaction were directly related or possessed a causal

relationship (Hanson, 1991). Expectancy theory researchers argued the conclusions

were flawed due to people who were under investigation not accessible to the

pertinent information needed in order to make conscientious decisions concerning

value and success probability (Lunenburg & Ornstein, 1991). Content theories

alleged that performance and job satisfaction had a causal relationship, whereas

process theories depended on the strength of the employee's performance as it related

to job satisfaction. Although both are considered by critics to have drawbacks,

Lunenburg and Ornstein (1991) maintain their significance to job satisfaction.

Job Satisfaction Factors Under Investigation

Participation in Decision-making

Participation in decision-making was characterized as the college's process

for decision-making and opportunities for mental and emotional involvement by the

employee to participate in that process. Daft (1983), Fryer and Lovas (1990)

described the decision-making process as the nucleus from which the organization

would derive its power for efficacy and success. Peter Drucker (1974) developed six

stages to the decision-making process:

1. Define the problem.
2. Analyze the problem.








3. Develop alternative solutions to the problem.
4. Decide on the best solution.
5. Convert decisions into effective actions.
6. Monitor and assess the results.

Subsequently, Lunenburg and Ornstein (1991) considered four out of the six

steps with slight variations that lead to effective decision-making:

Define the problem.
Possible alternatives.
Realize the predicted consequences.
Staying the course regarding the alternative solution.

If decision-making begins at the lowest level, which is most preferable

(Honeyman, et al., 1996), it would benefit the participant's development in the

organization; thus, enhancing the communication and motivation within the

organization. This would increase the organization's ability to render more effective

decisions (Peterson et al., 1997). Paramount to the latter statement, if the employee

was directly affected by an inclusive decision-making process, it was more likely to

enhance the position of the institution or the branch thereof (Kanter, 1985);

essentially, organizations that accounted for participatory decision-making throughout

the ranks established increased productivity, job satisfaction, and overall

effectiveness (Argyris, 1964; Bolman & Deal, 1997).

Autonomy, Power, and Control

Autonomy, power, and control focused on the degree of discretion that an

employee was able to wield while performing his or her job. While Kanter (1985)

submitted that autonomy was the sovereignty of organizational subdivisions from

control by other subdivisions, or perhaps even the entire organization, Katz (1968)

suggested autonomy worked within the established bounds of a highly structured








environment enabling creativity among the work force. In contrast, Twombley and

Amey (1994) reported that autonomy was directly opposite of structure.

Human resource theorists have consigned little emphasis to power, though

they often endorsed the idea of empowerment (Bennis & Nanus, 1985). Jeffrey

Pfeffer (1992) argued:

Unless we are willing to come to terms with organizational power and
influence, and admit that the skills of getting things done are as important as
the skills of figuring out what to do, our organizations will falter and fall
behind. The problem is, in most cases, not an absence of insight or
organizational intelligence. Instead, the problem is passivity (p. 12).

In contrast to human resource theorists, Glasser (1994) submitted the idea that it was

a feeling of security when individuals could be in control in order to satisfy their

needs. In many cases, power could take on the semantics of an ugly word, but in

reality, power produced truth and certainty (Foucault, 1977).

Relationships with Colleagues

Relationships with colleagues were defined as the quality of the affiliation that

an employee maintains with his or her peers, subordinates, and supervisor. Positive

interpersonal relationships have been reported as conducive elements to job

satisfaction (Hutton & Jobe, 1985). Argyris (1964) emphasized that it was of utmost

importance, from top to bottom, to have good interpersonal skills; moreover, it should

be a fundamental managerial skill. If interpersonal skills were not present, managers

had a tendency to be over-controlling, too competitive, and deaf to other people's

ideas (Fisher, 1984). Glaser (1976) studied a medical supplies company and found

when management took an active role rather than a reactive one, involving free and

open communication, worker productivity and job satisfaction were enhanced.








Hence, collegiality should be considered as a positive condition for increased job

satisfaction.

Salary and Benefits

Salary and benefits were described as the perceived equity and adequacy of

the salary and benefits package received by the employee. Herzberg (1959)

contended that salary was a hygiene (or extrinsic factor) as was status and job

security. He defined salary as the series of events that warrants compensation. Salary

could add to dissatisfaction and would not automatically motivate workers (Herzberg

et al., 1959). Principally, workers were not apt to perform better when considering

routine salary schedules; however, it may have had an effect on limiting

dissatisfaction (Pardee, 1990). To counter this point, ". organizations have devised

a variety of ways to link employee rewards more directly to corporate productivity,

including gain sharing, and employee stock ownership" (Bolman & Deal, 1997, p.

126); the latter is a component of equity theory thus proposing that salary and benefits

be fairly distributed, and that employee compensation may be resultant upon the

performance of the organization.

Professional Effectiveness

Professional effectiveness was defined as the perceived overall effectiveness

of the employee in his or her position. Achievement, growth, and the work itself,

were identified by Herzberg et al. (1959) as factors that affected job satisfaction; and

the work itself was considered as the overall motivator for employees. Kunda (1992)

explained that professional effectiveness had to empirically address measures of

productivity, profitability, survivability, and innovation to show a relationship with








worker satisfaction. He further concluded that workers who were content showed

increased productivity. McClelland and associates (1976) resonated the fact that

while workers who equated success with doing a job well-done, were also the same

brand of workers who were driven to achieve and were constantly attempting to

improve themselves. This was also an inherent quality for those who achieved high-

level positions within the organizational culture (Lawler, 1986). The two factors that

affected job satisfaction were the individual's aspiration for achievement and growth

(Herzberg, 1976).

Organizational Climate

Although organizational climate or culture has overlapping concepts (Kunda,

1992), the literature provided insights to understanding the intricacies of

organizations. Organizational climate was defined as a culmination of tangible

perceptions about conspicuous characteristics of the work environment or

organization (Schneider, 1990; Owens, 1991). Organizational culture was also

identified as what was conveyed to the individuals within the organization, what they

experienced, believed, and demonstrated (Nadler, 1998). Researchers have suggested

that job satisfaction factors correspond with organizational climate, except that job

satisfaction has been conceptually unique from perceptions of climate. Climate has

also been described as a shared pattern of meanings, values, beliefs, norms, and

thought processes among individuals regarding the chief characteristics of an

organization's framework (Lawler & Porter, 1967; Lunenburg & Ornstein, 1991;

Peterson & White, 1992). Edgar Schein (1992) presented a more prescribed

definition of organizational climate: "A pattern of shared basic assumptions that a








group learned as it solved its problems of external adaptations and integration, that

has worked well enough to be considered valid and therefore to be taught to new

members as the correct way to perceive, think, and feel in relation to those problems"

(p. 12).

To differentiate between climate and culture, Peterson and White (1992)

defined culture as ".. the deeply embedded patterns of organizational behavior and

the shared values, assumptions, beliefs, or ideologies that members have about their

organization and its work" (p. 181). Climate was classified as ". the current,

common patterns of important dimensions of organizational life or its members'

perceptions of and attitudes toward them" (p. 181). For this study, organizational

climate was the predominantly used term to provide the conceptual framework

regarding the aforementioned authors' overlapping definitions and descriptions.

Organizational climate literature provided pertinent information for explaining

and understanding the complex composition of organizations. Litwin and Stringer

(1968) reasoned that organizational climate was the character of the environment

perceived indirectly or directly by the participants. Hence, it was climate that

provided the connection between the organization's structure and the individual's

behavior.

With reference to educational institutions, Moran and Volkwein (1988)

claimed ". the campus' organizational climate was likely to be most positive when

leaders succeed in making members highly aware of organizational goals and

evaluate members on the basis of their contribution to those goals" (p. 379). Vroom

(1964) and Nanus (1992) further illustrated the point that Moran and Volkwein made








by noting there was a number of important factors which affected organizational

climate such as the nature of the job, leadership style, communication, vision, the

nature of the relationships among peers, reward systems, and the organizational

structure. Furthermore, organizational climate also provided the relationship between

administrative procedures and applications, and the needs and/or concerns of the

person, and allowed the administrator to evaluate how different systems and

applications affected employee behavior (Litwin & Stringer, 1968).

Organizational Climate Theories

The Organizational Climate Description Questionnaire

Andrew Halpin and Don Croft (1963) sought out to develop a measuring

instrument for organizational climate while adapting this tool uniquely for the

educational setting. Subsequently, they developed the Organizational Climate

Description Questionnaire (OCDQ), which was broken into six primary components

to organizational climate:

1. Open Climate: Teachers who work well together and who embody an
extremely high spirit. They were not inundated with continuous tedium, and
the group members enjoyed friendly relations. The principal demonstrated a
belief system that facilitated problem solving from the faculty members.

2. Autonomous Climate: Teachers were allowed the freedom to develop their
own social relationships. Morale is generally high, although not as high
within an open climate. Teachers achieve their goals and work cohesively.
The principal remains aloof, and is skillful at modeling desired behavior, but
autonomous climate is more restrictive than an open one.

3. Controlled Climate: Workers find themselves quite task-oriented and broke
tendency with the social needs. They feel an urgency to complete a given
assignment, and usually work individually. Job satisfaction came from task
completion rather than social fulfillment. The principal in this case is
domineering and authoritative.








4. Familiar Climate: The environment is characterized as conspicuously friendly
while catering to the social needs of the group. The principal exhibits little
control, and there is an espousal of group belongingness. Most faculty
members do not work to their full capacity, coupled with little direction and
evaluation. Job satisfaction was average and was predicated on social
relationships.

5. Paternal Climate: Characterized by ineffective attempts by the principal to
control the faculty and to satisfy their social needs. The principal was
considered by the faculty to be ineffectual concerning work achievement and
motivation. Although the principal was trying to be everywhere at once, there
was little effect to achieve progress. Friendly relationships were typically
nonexistent, while also provoking a sense of futility.

6. Closed Climate: This environment produced two negative effects: (a) little to
no social cohesiveness giving way to apathy; (b) minimal task achievement
resulting in dwindling productivity. Busywork substituted itself for an
individual's achievement value, and job satisfaction was at a nominal level
(Halpin, 1966; Halpin & Croft, 1963).

The OCDQ has been shown to have considerable value for the K-12 sector,

and has been revised twice since its inception to educational research; subsequently,

one has been tailored for elementary schools and one for high schools (Lunenburg &

Ornstein, 1991). Contrary to the latter findings, Owens (1991) has demonstrated that

the same instrument was not comparable for use in higher education.

The Organizational Climate Index

George Stem (1970) wanted to develop an approach to measure excellent

schools, for he believed these schools took on a particular organizational climate. His

reasoning was similar to that of Lewin (1935) who claimed that an individual was

judged within the confines of their work environment. Stem contended that attempts

to evaluate the climate of an organization must measure both the environment and the

characteristics of the individual (Lunenburg & Ornstein, 1991). Aside from the work

of Lewin, Stem also investigated the analyses of Murray, Barrett, and Homburger








(1938). Stem (1970) suggested that there were needs of the individual (need)

conflicting with the priorities of the organization (press), better known as need-press

factors. This research resulted in the development of two instruments using Murray's

concept of the need-press theory: the Activities Index (AI) that assessed the needs of

the individual, and the College Characteristics Index (CCI) designed to assess

organizational press. Subsequently, the amalgamation of the aforementioned research

led to the adaptation of the Organizational Climate Index (OCI) that Stem first used

in the public school system of Syracuse, New York in 1965. The OCI measured the

following six factors:

1. Intellectual Climate: schools with high scores in this area supported scholarly
interests. Generally, the atmosphere was conducive to intellectual activities
and pursuits.

2. Achievement Standards: environments with high scores on this factor are
perceived to emphasize high standards of achievement. As tasks were
completed, recognition was awarded for quality and quantity of work.

3. Personal Dignity: a factor that indicated the degree of integrity and respect
for the individual while supplying a supportive environment.

4. Organizational Effectiveness: high scores indicated that the organization
promoted the efficacy of task performance and completion.

5. Orderliness: high scores on this factor indicated a press for organizational
structure and orderliness. Teachers were expected to follow the rules
prescribed with pressure to obey them.

6. Impulse Control: high scores here implied that the organization was
restrictive and controlling. There is hardly the opportunity for impulsive
behavior (Owens, 1991 & 1995).

To summarize, the OCI provided a description of an organization's climate.

The potency of the need-press method was founded on a strong theoretical concept of

organizational climate that has endured repeated empirical testing (Owens, 1991).








Through the years, researchers have noted its effectiveness and value regarding

educational institutions (Owens, 1995).

Person-Environment Fit Theory

Agyris (1964) argued that the organizational structure prohibits the possibility

of the individual being involved in the job. According to Agyris' theory, job

specialization afforded no real opportunities to identify with a job as a core aspect of

one's life. The needs for fulfillment must be met, but this was a difficult objective

due to the bureaucratic quagmires that were an inherent part of organizational

climate, thus producing conflict (Agyris, 1973). In order to deal with conflict, the

individual would manage this in a number of ways:

1. Apathy.
2. Absenteeism, resignation, or reclusion.
3. Unionizing.
4. Alternate job prospecting.
5. Negative speech regarding the organization (Bolman & Deal, 1997).

The opposite of incongruence or discord is accordance or "fit." Stem (1970)

was one of the first to examine how congruence (fit) between an individual and

his/her environment could be measured. A fit must be evident between the

organization and the worker. Various researchers have discovered that when there

was fit between the organization and the worker, productivity, morale, and

satisfaction would ensue (Downey, Hellriegel, Phelps, & Slocum, 1975). Cohen and

Brawer (1996), and Blau (1987) concurred with Agyris' theory by affirming when the

organization and the individual realize commonality, camaraderie, and cohesion,

effective management and greater success would come to bear.








Argyris' theory is still not fully understood due to the broad spectrum from

which so many aspects of congruence or fit may be studied; consequently, the breadth

of possible attributes regarding this model has made it quite difficult to not only

comprehend, but to quantitatively examine (Edwards, 1991).

Total Quality Management

Total Quality Management (TQM) is an "... example of a comprehensive

strategy that combines structural and human resource elements as total management

(TQM), which swept across America in the 1980s" (Bolman & Deal, 1997, p. 134).

Hackman and Wageman (1995) outlined four essential assumptions for TQM:

1. Quality problems are cross-functional.
2. High quality is actually cheaper than low quality.
3. People desire to accomplish good work.
4. Top administrators are responsible for quality.

The potency of an integrated approach to TQM occurred in the case of New

United Motors Manufacturing, Inc. or NUMMI. It was a joint venture between

General Motors and Toyota. In 1985, NUMMI resurrected an old GM plant and

began building cars in California. The previous workers involved had been laid off,

and in essence, were offered a new start for those originally disenfranchised. The

workers had a previously unpleasant reputation due to fistfights, absenteeism, alcohol

abuse, and the like (Lawrence and Weckler, 1990). As they began their second year

of production, absenteeism went down, morale was up, and NUMMI became ranked

as one of the best in the customer satisfaction field. The reason as stated by Lee

(1988) had to do with egalitarianism-such as the workers and supervisors wearing

the same uniforms. Toyota initiated a new style offering a different environment that

cultivated small sub-group communication regarding key concerns such as








management, design, and fairly apportioned work detail. Everything was team driven

(Lee, 1988). There was a lesson to gain applicable to educational institutions

regarding organizational climate and job satisfaction from the NUMMI instance: new

thinking and behavior patterns may provide a more positive environment (Senge,

1991).

Initially, TQM was unwillingly adopted by the educational sector in order to

advance a much-needed overhaul of how the daily business of education was

conducted (Cohen & Brawer, 1996; Peterson, et al., 1997). Peterson et al. (1997)

considered the following steps that were first employed in the private sector as a

comprehensive emphasis to go forward in the educational area:

1. An inculcation of continuous improvement in the organizational environment.
2. Customer or client-centeredness.
3. Logical and rational decision-making utilizing data and measurement.
4. A focus on process design.
5. Teamwork.
6. Empowerment of the individual.

It is of significance to understand that when there was a combination of creative

human resource management coupled with challenging and demanding work

standards, it served to enhance productivity and satisfaction (Leadership and

Supervision Report, 1955).

Organizational Climate Factors Under Investigation

Internal Communication

Internal communication was defined as the college's formal and informal

communication processes and style. Without good, open communication strategies

and processes, companies and institutions were doomed to dissatisfy and fail

(Gronbeck, 1992; Langley, 1994).








Communication can serve as a motivating influence, for researchers such as

Herzberg and associates (1957, 1959, 1976), Maslow (1954), and Skinner (1974)

have shown that most people are at a level of development where they seek

recognition and encouragement through various means of communication and

incentive; in addition, positive internal communication falls under satisfiers, or

motivators, and has been shown by researchers to directly inspire even more so than

hygiene factors (Haldane, 1974). The communication process was the transmission

of meaning through the exchange of information and ideas (Hanson, 1991). Deas

(1994) posited that communication was an element to organizational climate. All

departments not only need to continuously communicate with each other, but they

each had their own interests to share or to safeguard (Sims et al., 1993).

Organizational Structure

Organizational structure was defined as the college's hierarchical channels of

authority and administrative operation. Organizational structures concerning

community colleges have developed in a variety of ways and will vary from one to

another, emanating from structures grounded in the public school system (Deegan &

Tillery, 1985); or as independent districts governed by local boards and trustees

(Cohen & Brawer, 1996). The common bond that all organizations shared was that

they advanced open systems due to the natural current of activity that acted as a

consistent ebb and flow continuum in an organization (Katz & Kahn, 1978).

Community college leaders are rethinking their current bureaucratic methods and

forming new techniques to build superior structures (Twombley and Amey, 1994).








With regard to the aforementioned researchers in this section, Davis and

Newstrom (1985) have reported on how the collegial model-workers and employees

fostering a team concept rather than a horizontal structure of communication-has

constructively united the hierarchy as a team unit (e.g., NUMMI). Structures with

less dictatorial, authoritative, and bureaucratic methods of organizational structure

were not beneficial for the community college setting (Tuckman & Johnson, 1987).

Political Climate

Political climate was defined as the nature and complexity of the college's

internal politics, or the degree to which employees must operate within a political

framework in order to accomplish their tasks. It was a normal occurrence for an

organization to have different degrees of power struggles affecting the climate to

different levels; hence, the political climate would affect employee attitude as well as

the organizational body (Orpen, 1994). Political climates were not only engaging, but

could become explosive. It was important to work through this sometimes-

contentious process to affect change or organizational transformation (Block, 1987).

Mintzberg (1989) explained that both positive and negative climate were traits

of politics in education, and that it should be recognized and understood within the

realm of education. When viewing politics from a vertical top-down model housing

the concentration of power at the highest positions, the visibility and acuteness of

political climate was more clandestine when countered by a horizontal power model

(Bolman & Deal, 1997). Pfeffer (1992) defined power as ". the potential ability to

influence behavior, to change the course of events, to overcome resistance, and to get

people to do things they would not otherwise do" (p. 30). When a coalition formed








because of interdependence among its members due to the fact they needed each

other though their tasks ephemerally coalesced, it was the political climate that

defined these dynamics within the organization (Bolman & Deal, 1997).

Some variables that determined how political climate was affected were:

power relationships, interdependence, resources, deficiencies, communication, and

realizing intended and unintended consequences (Honeyman et al., 1996). There has

been no obvious trend to suggest the importance of political climate, for there were

arguments to suggest that political climate would definitively affect advancement

within the organizational body, and others to negate its very existence. (Dr. Alex

Kajstura, Provost of Daytona Beach Community College West Campus, personal

communication, March 10th, 2004).

Professional Development Opportunities

Professional development opportunities were defined as the opportunities for

employees to pursue and participate in activities to enhance job performance.

Professional development opportunities were important incentives for the

organization's members. Herzberg (1959) stated that growth was an ingredient of

professional development, and therefore was a catalyst (motivator) to job satisfaction;

in addition, the reason the leadership needed to initiate professional development was

to ensure the subordinates grew as persons. It has been examined and concluded that

organizations who invest in the continual training and professional development of

their staff would ultimately realize a better retention rate translating to an enhanced

cost-benefit ratio (Ewell, 1993). In essence, if management realizes the potentials of

allowing individuals to hone their skills, to be trained in new innovations and








techniques, and to improve the quality of their work while generally improving

themselves (self-actualization), morale and job satisfaction would be positively

affected (Kouzes & Posner, 2002; Vaughan, 1986).

Evaluation

Evaluation was defined as the colleges' procedures for evaluating employees

through positive feedback intended to provide professional growth for the employees

(Halpin, 1966). Langley (1994) stressed the importance of timely and continual

evaluations, for it communicated the organization's criteria for quality and efficacy.

Benefits of the evaluative process included:

1. A formalized examination of the results.

2. To improve performance.

3. To assist in formulating equitable and effective academic personnel decisions.

4. Gauging the managerial efficacy of the evaluative process.

5. Necessitating the alternative procedures if little or no results are rendered
(Gappa & Leslie, 1993; Hersey et al., 1996).

B. F. Skinner has stated that both positive and negative reinforcements are

used to strengthen and maintain desired behaviors (Epstein, 1982). Lastly, evaluation

is the process that serves to control performance through both positive and negative

reinforcement (Bolman and Deal, 1997).

Promotion

Promotion was defined as the college's commitment to internal promotion and

advancement from within the organization. Promotion will most likely endow

additional authority and the opportunity for a better salary. Promotion was usually

predicated on a good work ethic, superior evaluations, and commitment (Vaughn,








1986). Successful companies promote from within their own ranks (Nanus, 1992;

Collins and Porras, 1994). Advantages of promoting from within entailed a known

performance record, improved morale and dedication, and dismissed the need for new

recruiting (Lunenburg & Ornstein, 1991). Promotion was usually viewed as a

satisfier and had a positive effect on organizational climate (Lunenburg & Ornstein,

1991). Herzberg made distinctions between the two classes of factors in job

satisfaction, and included promotion or recognition as an intrinsic dynamic or

motivator of his theory (Gruneberg, 1979).

Regard for Personal Concerns

Regard for personal concerns was defined as the college's sensitivity to, and

regard for, the personal concerns and well-being of the employees (Duncan &

Harlacher, 1994; Vroom, 1964). Hersey et al. (1996) judged regard for personal

concerns as a high relationship leadership approach. Employees' needs, desires, and

concerns were crucial matters. Employees who felt that their organization looked

after them and were in sync with their needs were apt to remain on board (Blau,

2001). At an interpersonal level, trust was considered by Covey (1991) to be the

foundation of regard for personal concerns. Hopkins (1983) has concluded,

"... individuals who had a positive life-view seemed more likely to feel positively

about their job and its environment than those who had a negative or pessimistic life-

view" (p. 75). This quote begs the rhetorical question of which is a causality of the

other: the positive person whose personal concerns are met due to their positive

demeanor, or is it a positive workplace environment that creates a positive employee?








Lunenburg & Ornstein (1991) have deduced that a regard for personal concerns was a

major contributor to job satisfaction, and would effectually improve climate.

Organizational Climate and Job Satisfaction

Although organizational climate and job satisfaction had separate and distinct

indicators, they still assumed a symbiotic relationship, and that relationship fully

rested on one assuaging the other and the leadership styles and environments they

embraced. As researchers and authors have shown (e.g., Argyris, 1957, 19664, 1973;

Herzberg, 1957, 1959, 1966; Lunenburg & Ornstein, 1991; Hersey, 1996; Gruneberg,

1979; Spector, 1997; Bolman & Deal, 1997), private and public organizations take on

unique characteristics and deserve increased scrutiny as to how the dynamics of

organizational climate and job satisfaction interrelate and affect one another.

Griffiths (1959) contended that organizations ". take their common form from the

decision-making process, and their differences occur in the modifications of the

process as required by their task and the way in which the public perceives that task"

(p. 78). In order to have a sense of value within the workplace, Judge (2000)

exclaimed that success was contingent upon the individuals) having a sense of

satisfaction which can perceptibly be associated to involvement with the decision-

making process.

Whetton and Cameron (1985) characterized the growth of post WWII higher

education as assuming the following indicators:

1. Changing student demographics.
2. Fluctuating enrollment patterns.
3. Varying curricula to meet a new generation of demand.
4. Fluctuating funding patterns.
5. Government and private industry involvement.








Effective leaders needed effective staff members, for a leader was only as

good as the team he or she assembled (Cohen & Brawer, 1996; Gratton, 1993; Senge,

1991). This team concept was only evident if the senior administrators conveyed the

perception that their subordinates/assistants were cared for, coupled with the

willingness to listen to their ideas (Bulach, 2001). Fryer and Lovas (1990) pointed

out that decisions were made every day at all levels of the organization that were

critical to the institution's effectiveness. In addition, they suggested that institutional

governance (the organization's official processes for deciding and communicating)

created the conditions and established a climate in which all other decisions were

made. Senior administrators had to be attentive to the fact that their decisions-both

small and large, and the manner by which they were communicated, in turn, affecting

the everyday lives in organizations-established the sources of how people were

valued in that particular climate (Fryer & Lovas, 1990). The climate of the

community college has been shown to have an effect on job satisfaction among

employees, and a key fundamental attribute of the mission was considered to be the

performance of the faculty and staff (Myran & Howdyshell, 1994).

The Role of the Executive Secretary/Associate in the Community College

The role of executive secretary carries with it many obligations and

undertakings. They perform a myriad of tasks under the title of executive secretary.

In any community college president's office, experienced secretaries are given a great

deal of responsibility. They not only have to order supplies, schedule meetings, track

the assimilation and dissemination of communiques, make travel arrangements, but

they may have to spend a tremendous amount of overtime engaged in assisting the








president during after-hours events such as board meetings and so forth (Association

of Business Support Services International, 2004). The executive secretary usually

has general responsibility for managing the Office of the President and in undertaking

such duties as are necessary to establish and maintain an operation that is responsive

to all constituencies, including students, faculty, staff, trustees, directors, alumni and

community, and reflects the values and style of the college (York University, 2001).

According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, more than three million

administrative assistants coupled with an additional one million administrative

managers account for the position of corporate/business assistants. There is a stark

difference between administrative assistants and personal assistants. Administrative

assistants do not customarily follow their supervisors to a new position. As top

executives come and go, the administrative assistant is usually the one to offer key

information during a transitory environment; in essence, to act as a secondary leader

for the employees as change occurs (Robo, 2004).

Executive secretaries, whether working for a public institution or large

corporation, have analogous missions. Their jobs encompass a wide range of

responsibilities such as serving as a focal point for communication with the board of

directors, shareholders, and senior management. He or she is often a key confidant

and advisor to the Chief Executive Officer and other members of senior management.

Board meetings take an exorbitant amount of planning and attention. He or she must

have a good understanding of the business, legal, and regulation matters which can

surface during any meeting.








The executive secretary must also be available to attest to the legitimacy of

documents, and must constantly update, index, and organize a myriad of paperwork.

Although a legal background is helpful, it is not essential to being hired for the

position. Clearing and/or approving purchasing orders and the like are also within the

job's description (American Society of Corporate Secretaries, 2004).

The following specifies the responsibilities that are a uniform standard

pertaining to the job description of a college/university executive secretary:

Function as the communications hub for the Office of the President, assuring
that requests for information are handled promptly.

Manage the daily calendars for the President to include the scheduling and
monitoring of appointments and assisting the President in effective time
management.

Handle travel arrangements for all faculty and administrative personnel and
work with appropriate staff to coordinate all other travel arrangements, e.g.,
athletic travel, study tours, student trips.

Under the direction of the President, develop and maintain effective working
relationships with the directors, trustees, and senior staff assuring that
necessary information is provided on a timely basis.

Take notes and prepare minutes of trustees and directors meetings, including
full board and committee meetings, and assure that these minutes are
distributed, approved and recorded. Also, to prepare and track memoranda of
action in lieu of board meetings.

Handle all written, web-mail generated, and telephonic communications in
and out of the Office of the President and using professional judgment to
determine how each communication can be best handled.

Manage all communications equipment in the Office of the President, assuring
that they are in working order and operating as intended.

Establish and maintain proper records and files of correspondence, meetings,
reports, governance documents, and the like.

Prepare special reports as directed by the President.








Supervise work-study students in the Office of the President.

Supervise other staff on assignments or projects that emanate from or relate to
the Office of the President, as appropriate.

Provide assistance as necessary to other senior executives.

Serve as a role model and representative for administrative support staff,
providing assistance as appropriate, and coordinating the standards and
integrated performance of all administrative assistants and secretaries
throughout the college.

Qualifications for the Executive Secretary position usually include:

Evidence of ability to handle multiple tasks with ease.

Demonstrate a high level of competency with a personal computer, and all
facets there of, such as Microsoft Office@ programs.

Evidence of ability to execute specific duties as outlined and to initiate
additional tasks that lead to more effective office operations.

An Associate degree is almost always required; a Bachelor's degree is
sometimes preferred, with a high level of competency in preparing and editing
written documents and presentations.

Five years of administrative support experience or its equivalent.

Evidence of the following characteristics: honesty, integrity, ability to
maintain confidentiality, teamwork.

Commitment to the mission and goals of the college (York University, 2001;
Association of Business Support Services, 2004).

Other Factors that May Affect Job Satisfaction and Organizational Climate

Years of Experience

Years of experience were examined due to its relevancy to job satisfaction and

burnout. Burnout can be ascribed to the work itself not being meaningful, and thus

the employee may opt for younger retirement, shorter work weeks, absenteeism, and

other methods of cutting down the work detail (Katzell & Yankelovich, 1975); this








differed with the contentions of Boronson (1976) who stated that job satisfaction may

not be affected by the years of experience one has; for he stressed that some people

embrace their work and may even use it as a diversion from other personal issues.

Yet Ganzach and Pazy ((2001) found a positive relationship to time served on the job

and job satisfaction with the following assumption: their experience presented the

employee with more complexities complemented by higher pay and achievements.

Gender and Ethnicity

Both men and women convey leadership styles differently based on how they

observe situations through their own gender looking glass. Gender leadership

differences have been noted by researchers such as North, (1991), and Shakeshaft,

(1987). Situational leadership relies highly on the leadership method. There is no

one best way to manage (Dr. James Doud, Chairman, Educational Leadership, Policy

and Foundations, University of Florida, personal communication, February 15th,

2003). One source of job dissatisfaction for men and women involved members of

the opposite sex occupying most of the jobs (Cassidy & Warren, 1991). "The

institutionalized manifestations of sexism, although damaging to both sexes, almost

always place women at a disadvantage when it comes to power" (Edelwich &

Brodsky, 1980, p. 147). Vaughan's (1989) research stipulated that most boards do

not agonize over the gender or ethnicity of leaders; they just want them to be

extraordinary. Furthermore, Fricko and Beehr (1992) concluded that there was not a

substantive difference between genders regarding determinants of job satisfaction.

This study pointed out that gender differences would not be major a factor, as the

population was predominantly female.








Research concerning women in higher education and job satisfaction

provoked some interesting considerations. According to Hersi (1993), three areas

affected job satisfaction for women in particular: (a) conditions that contributed to

job stress, (b) how communication is perceived in the organizational climate, (c)

aspects of support systems such as personal relationships with colleagues.

Unfortunately, there was not a large quantity of information regarding the possible

ethnic differences pertaining to job satisfaction or perceptions of organizational

climate.

Classification of the Organization

Most organizations and community colleges have synonymous organizational

dynamics. There may be some speculation as to how the college's magnitude may

effect job satisfaction and organizational climate with various organizations. Stress

could occur if the professional's attitudes were affected due to negative strains such

as boundless bureaucracy (Chemiss, 1980). For regional comparisons of community

colleges, Katsinas' (1996) research facilitated the following system of classification

used for this study:

1. Rural community colleges-these are typically single campus institutions
offering both vocational and transfer programs.

2. Suburban community colleges-these typically serve people who live one the
peripheral city limits. Few first-time students are attracted to suburban
community colleges compared to rural and urban community colleges. A
concentration toward transfer curricula such as liberal arts or transfer courses
dominate, coupled with vocational programs that are high-tech based.

3. Urban/inner city community colleges-these are located in the inner city and
are likely to offer vocational and career education programs designed to
quickly train students for the workforce.








Summary

Community colleges play an important role in serving the citizens of our

country, not just for the curriculum that has been taught, but also to enact an agenda

conducive to those in need of an affordable means for furthering their future

endeavors. The foundation of this study was to investigate the nature of the

relationship between measures of organizational climate and job satisfaction as

applied to community college executive secretaries/associates to the various

presidents who were members of the Southern Association of Community Colleges

and Schools (SACS). This study further sought to ascertain community college

secretaries' perceptions of organizational climate using a set of seven identified

factors for climate (rating the extent to which they were satisfied in the context of

organizational climate) to evaluate specific socio-demographic variables such as

Ethnicity.
Years served as a community college executive secretary.
Full-time enrollment (FTE) element related to the size of their institution.
Classification regarding region.

Of additional interest was the reported overall satisfaction of the position and the

institution.

Community college decision-makers could play a more advantageous role if

they sought to promote greater job satisfaction and by having a better understanding

of how organizational climate factors influence job satisfaction (Balch, 1999). Job

satisfaction would improve if those decision-makers support a positive organizational

climate (May & Decker, 1988). As noted, there was less job satisfaction research

when comparing educational institutions to corporate industry; but regardless, there

was a need for talented leaders who could promote job satisfaction through various








reward systems while also demonstrating recognition, support for growth and

autonomy, design elements for effective communication systems, competitive salaries

and benefits, and finally, to offer an environment encouraging involvement and

performance. Job satisfaction referred to an individual's response to his or her job,

both positive and negative (Beck, 1990; McCormick & Ilgen, 1980; Spector, 1997).

Findings of this study should further advance the body of knowledge for this subject

by testing the theoretical constructs of organizational climate and job satisfaction as

they applied to SACS community college executive secretaries/associates to the

president. Chapter 3 describes the design of the study, methodology employed,

population, data collection, instrumentation, statistical analysis, and reporting

procedures.














CHAPTER 3
DESIGN OF THE STUDY METHODOLOGY

The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between

assessments of organizational climate and job satisfaction as applied to community

college executive secretaries to the presidents located within the Southern Association

of Colleges and Schools (SACS) involving eleven states. In addition, tantamount to

investigating the relationship between the two constructs was to

Determine the community college secretaries' perceptions of organizational
climate using a set of seven identified factors for climate.

Determine the extent to which they were satisfied within the context of
organizational climate.

Assess the determinants of job satisfaction.

Evaluate specific socio-demographic variables (such as ethnicity, years served
as a community college executive secretary, the full-time enrollment (FTE)
element related to the size of their institution, and regional classification.

Of related interest was the reported overall satisfaction of the position and the

institution.

The Southern Association of Colleges and Schools was used due to its

consistency regarding regional issues, the similarities in accreditation, disciplines, and

standards. The Association has taken on a key role in influencing legislation and

regulation governing the accreditation process in order for its constituents to practice

self-evaluation and self-examination principles; in essence, ensuring that the methods

are valid, meaningful, and reliable as possible. SACS also affords an accommodating








and supportive database from which to access information concerning the 342

community colleges in its system. Coupled with the aforementioned database, the

American Association of Community Colleges' (AACC) website was also

instrumental for obtaining pertinent information. It was for these reasons stated that a

regional sample was utilized, and as a result, revealed unique insights regarding this

population and area.

To answer the research questions, a survey instrument (see Appendix C) used

to collect data was a replica of the survey used in a University of Florida dissertation

that tested the theoretical constructs on community college chief instructional officers

(Chappell, 1995). The instrument, which was also applied to previous studies,

utilized the following organizational climate variables integral to determining job

satisfaction:

Internal communication.
Organizational structure.
Political climate.
Professional development opportunities.
Evaluation.
Promotion.
Regard for personal concerns.

Although the survey used in this study targeted a different population, the

original instrument was derived from research related to job satisfaction and

organizational climate; Chappell's dissertation served as a platform for other studies

(Evans, 1996; LeFevre Stevens, 2004; Zabetakis, 1999) that employed the same

instrument for measuring those theoretical constructs while targeting other

administrative positions.








This study addressed the following four questions:

Research Question 1: What was the dimensionality and internal consistency
of the survey instrument? (This question appended notable value to the study,
for other studies that examined educational institutions regarding
organizational climate and job satisfaction did not address the elements of
dimensionality and internal consistency.)

Research Question 2: How did community college executive
secretaries/associates perceive organizational climate in their respective
institutions, using a set of seven identified factors for climate?

Research Question 3: Applying the same set of seven climate factors as an
index, how satisfied were the community college executive
secretaries/associates with the organizational climate of their respective
institutions?

Research Question 4: What were the determinants of job satisfaction among
community college executive secretaries to their respective presidents?

Subsequently, the survey was used to identify data pertinent to the community

college executive secretaries' perception of the seven aforementioned components

associated with organizational climate, and the significance of five grouped factors of

job satisfaction to the application of their responsibilities to their president. In order

to examine and develop a descriptive profile of the population this study used

concerning the research questions, data was collected relating to the assessment of

organizational climate, job satisfaction factors, and socio-demographic variables.

The Population

All community college presidents' secretaries were solicited based on the

Southern Association of Community Colleges and Schools' (SACS) website-locater

page. The eleven states in this organization included: Alabama, Florida, Georgia,

Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas,

and Virginia. All 342 community colleges were invited to participate in the survey.








In some cases, more than one executive secretary directly assisted the president;

subsequently, additional surveys were mailed out to adjust for this situation. Most of

the respondents had a considerable amount of time invested, not only in the context of

a higher educational institution employee, but also within the boundaries of the

secretarial field. Their jobs included a wide range of tasks, such as serving as a hub

for communication with the board of directors, shareholders, and senior management.

The executive secretary also had a good understanding of the business, legal, and

regulation matters relevant to their job descriptions. Furthermore, almost all of the

respondents were female, and worked for rural, urban, and suburban public higher

education institutions. No tribal community colleges existed in this region.

Procedure for Data Collection

A letter of invitation was sent to each community college president within the

SACS system requesting their executive secretary(ies) fill out the survey (Appendix

A). The envelope's exterior summarized what it contained: "Attn: University of

Florida Doctoral Survey Enclosed." Included with the invitation was a letter of

consent (Appendix B), the questionnaire/instrument survey, and a self-addressed

stamped envelope. The participants were asked to fill out the responses within a

three-week time frame; the deadline was indicated on both the cover letter and the

questionnaire. Contact addresses and phone numbers were offered to those interested

in following the research results. A follow-up mailer ensued to increase the chance of

an acceptable response rate; subsequently, since some of the mailings were disrupted

by the abnormal amount of hurricane activity we endured in central Florida at the

time of these mailings, a prudent measure was taken to send replacements containing








duplicate copies for instances whereby the president had more than one executive

secretary. Follow-up calls ensued shortly after to kindly ask if the potential

participants would return a completed survey.

In total, 342 community colleges were invited to participate in the survey. In

some cases, more than one executive secretary directly assisted the president; and

subsequently, additional surveys were mailed out to adjust for this possibility. Upon

their return, the surveys were inspected for error and oversight, coded, and analyzed

to complete the research. Based on the demographic data received by the respondents

who were part of the Southern Association of Community Colleges and Schools, a

profile of the community college executive secretaries/associates to the president was

developed. The information illustrated the community college executive

secretaries'/associates' perceptions of organizational climate, their levels of

satisfaction with organizational climate, and the importance of each of the job

satisfaction variables related to their responsibilities.

Instrumentation

The survey used for this research was adapted for executive secretaries to the

presidents of the SACS system of community colleges; thus, it was field-tested by a

panel of eight former and current college executive secretaries for face validity. They

confirmed that the questions were clear, concise, and understandable; therefore, no

rewrites appeared necessary. The survey instrument also included two solicitations

for the community college executive secretaries' overall satisfaction: the satisfaction

with the institution and with the position itself, addressed in Chapters 4 and 5.








With regard to the two standardized Likert scales used in this survey (Tables 1

and 2), as was used with related studies (e.g., DeMichele, 1998; Evans, 1996; Palmer,

1995), a set of seven organizational climate factors was examined in order to

determine their relationship to the job satisfaction variables reported by community

college executive secretaries/associates to the president. The seven organizational

climate factors included and defined were:

1. Internal communication-the college's formal and informal communication
processes and style.

2. Organizational structure-the college's hierarchical channels of authority and
administrative operation.

3. Political climate-the nature and complexity of the college's internal politics,
or the degree to which employees must operate within a political framework
in order to accomplish their tasks.

4. Professional development opportunities-the opportunities for employees to
pursue and participate in activities to enhance job performance.

5. Evaluation-the college's procedures for evaluating employees through
positive feedback intended to provide professional growth for the employee.

6. Promotion-the college's commitment to internal promotion and
advancement from within the organization.

7. Regard for personal concern-the college's sensitivity to, and regard for, the
personal concerns and well being of the employees.

The climate factors were replicated from a survey instrument used in previous

studies. These climate factors were used in a series of other studies to determine if

there was a relationship between job satisfaction and organizational climate. The

climate factors were used in two scales: the organizational climate scale and the job

satisfaction scale.









Table 1. Organizational Climate Scale


Instructions: Please rate the level or degree to which the following qualities listed below you
perceive to be present at your community college, with five (5) indicating the highest level of
presence and one (1) indicating the lowest level of presence
Internal Communication: the
college's formal and informal 5 4 3 2 1
communication process and style
Organizational Structure: the
college's organizational structure 5 4 3 2 1
and administrative operation
Political Climate: the nature and
complexity of the college's internal 5 4 3 2 1
politics
Professional Development
Opportunities: the opportunity for
the college's executive
secretary/associate to pursue and
participate in professional
development activities
Evaluation: the college's procedures
for evaluating the executive 5 4 3 2 1
secretary/associate
Promotion: the college's
commitment to internal promotion
and advancement from within the
organization
Regard for Personal Concerns: the
college's sensitivity to and regard 5 4 3 2 1
for the personal concerns of the
executive secretary/associate


Job satisfaction variables were identified and applied to various other studies

that were relevant to organizational climate and job satisfaction, and subsequently

combined the following factors:

1. Participation in decision-making-the college's process for decision-making
and opportunities for mental and emotional involvement by the employee to
participate in that process.

2. Autonomy, power, and control-the degree of discretion that an employee
was able to wield while performing his or her job.


Response Item









3. Relationship with colleagues-the quality of the affiliation that an employee
maintains with his or her peers, subordinates, and supervisor.

4. Salary and benefits-the perceived equity and adequacy of the salary and
benefits package received by the employee.

5. Professional effectiveness-the perceived overall effectiveness of the
employee in his or her position.

Table 2. Job Satisfaction Factors

Most Not Least
Response Item Most Important Neutral Not Least
Important Important Important
Instructions: Please rate how important each of the following factors is to you in your
position as an executive secretary/associate, with five (5) indicating the highest level of
importance and one (1) indicating the lowest level of importance.
Participating in Decision-making:
the college's process for decision-
making and opportunities for
involvement by the executive
secretary/associate
Autonomy, Power, and Control:
the degree of autonomy, power, and 5 4 3 2 1
control held by the executive
secretary/ associate
Relationship with Peers: the
quality of the branch campus 5 4 3 2 1
executive officer's relationships
with peers
Relationship with Subordinates:
the quality of the branch campus 5 4 3 2 1
executive officer's relationships
with subordinates
Relationship with Supervisors: the
quality of the branch campus 5 4 3 2 1
executive officer's relationships
with supervisor

Salary: the salary of the executive 5 4 3 2 1
secretary/associate

Benefits: the benefits of the 5 4 3 2 1
executive secretary/ associate
Professional Effectiveness: the
perceived overall effectiveness of 5 4 3 2 1
the executive secretary/associate in
her/his position








According to Chappell (1995), the instrument was tested for validity,

reliability, and consistency (Appendix D). The Board of Directors on the National

Council of Instructional Administrators then revised her initial survey. In addition, it

was field-tested to substantiate validity, reliability, and consistency. On two different

instances, nine community college professionals completed Part I of the validation

process. Subsequently, a range of responses was recorded to confirm the validity and

reliability. Consistency was established by comparing the answers received in both

the pretest and posttest from eight of the nine community college professionals who

completed the field test in its entirety (Chappell, 1995).

Procedure for Analysis

Research Question 1

It is important to note that an assortment of other researchers such as

Zabetakis (1999), and Bailey (2002), who have investigated the relationships between

organizational climate and job satisfaction within the realm of higher education, did

not address dimensionality and internal consistency. It was essential to articulate that

dimensionality referred to the validity of score-based inferences indicative to the

extent from which it can be demonstrated that the dimensional structure foundational

to a test was consistent with the blueprints (De Champlain & Gessaroli, 1998).

Internal consistency was the degree to which the individual items that represented a

test correlated with one another or with the test total (Hatcher, 1994). In order to

satisfy the requirements of Research Question 1 regarding these elements, a principal

components analysis was performed for the following two reasons:








1. To assess the dimensionality and internal consistency of the survey
instrument.

2. To create factor scores for components to be used as predictor values in the
logistic regression. (SAS statistical program was used to perform the
principal components analysis in this study.)

Principal components analysis is a variable-reduction procedure involving a

mathematical procedure that transforms a number of (possibly) correlated variables

into a (smaller) number of uncorrelated variables called principal components

(Hatcher, 1994). The first principal component accounted for as much of the

variability in the data as possible, and each succeeding component accounted for as

much of the remaining variability as possible. The principal axis method was used to

extract the components followed by a varimax orthogonall) rotation on survey

responses to job satisfaction using l's as prior communality estimates. Accordingly,

factor scores were generated from the three components retained for rotation and

subsequently incorporated in logistic regression analysis as independent variables.

The number of components extracted is equivalent to the number of items in the

questionnaire. However, the optimal number of components retained for

interpretation included the components that accounted for meaningful amounts of

variance. Once the optimal number of components had been identified, they were

subjected to a varimax orthogonall) rotation to ensure that successive, retained

components were independent of each other. In other words, consecutive factors

were uncorrelated or orthogonal to each other. As a result, factor scores

corresponding to the components were generated such that


Ci= biIXi + bi2X2 + ..... bipXp


where








ci = respondent's score on principal component i,

bip = weight used in creating component i for observed variable p
Xp = respondent's score on observed variable p

The final result yielded components consisting of linear combinations of optimally-

weighted observed variables (Hatcher, 1994).

In order to test for internal consistency, a Cronbach alpha reliability estimate

was completed for the three components of the analysis:

Satisfaction with organizational climate.
Relationship with coworkers.
Importance in job function.

It was necessary that all three components exhibited a Cronbach alpha value greater

than .70 to signify that the scale items associated with all three components were

internally consistent. Scale reliability was assessed once the principal components

analysis was completed in order to determine whether responses to retained

components offered consistent scores upon repeated administration. This was

accomplished with the computation of the Cronbach alpha reliability coefficient

(Cronbach, 1951). The Cronbach alpha reliability coefficient was computed as

follows:


a= (k/(k-1)) [1- E(s2i)/2s2.]

where

a = Cronbach coefficient alpha

si = variances for k individual items

s2um = variance for the sum of all items








(SAS was used to compute the Cronbach coefficient alpha in the present analysis.)

Research Questions 2 and 3

Research questions 2 and 3 examined the inter-item relationship between

assessments of organizational climate and satisfaction with organizational climate. In

order to determine these values, a Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient

analysis was used to analyze the data as reported by the SACS community college

executive secretaries/associates to the president. "By far the most frequently used

statistical method of expression of the relationship between two variables is the

Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient, r" (Cohen, 1977, p. 75). The

Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient analysis examined the nature of the

relationship between item assessments of organizational climate and satisfaction with

organizational climate; subsequently, to measure the strength of association between

the two aforementioned variables and also, to describe a linear relationship between

the two variables.

The research sought to identify which organizational climate characteristics

had a significant relationship between assessments of organizational climate and

satisfaction with organizational climate. Thus, the application of previously tested

theories regarding the relationship between job satisfaction and organizational climate

was tested as they pertained to community college executive secretaries to the

president.

To further account for questions 2 and 3, a paired t-test was used to determine

if significant differences were evident in the measure of job satisfaction when

comparing like-item assessments of organizational climate and satisfaction with








organizational climate. The purpose of using a paired t-test established whether two

paired sets of measured values differed from each other in a significant way under the

assumptions that the paired differences were independent and identically, normally

distributed (Goulden, 1956). To estimate the probability that an observed difference

in the means was due to chance factors such as random variability or sampling error,

an analysis of variance (ANOVA) was employed and ". accomplished by

partitioning the total variability in the data into two independent estimates: one that

reflected variability within the various experimental groups and another that reflected

the variability between the same groups" (Christensen & Stoup, 1986, p. 313).

Research Question 4

In order to resolve Research Question 4 regarding determinants of job

satisfaction among community college executive secretaries to their respective

presidents, a logistic regression model was utilized to examine the relationship

between job satisfaction and a set of independent variables. Additionally,

respondents were asked to state the level of overall satisfaction with their position and

with their institution on a five-point Likert scale ranging from 5 (highly satisfied) to 1

(highly dissatisfied). Job satisfaction was dichotomously partitioned between

individuals stating the highest level of job satisfaction and respondents stating that

they were less than highly satisfied with their position. The results of the factor

analysis scores were generated from the principal component analysis and used in the

job satisfaction model (Table 3).









Table 3. Independent Variables Used in the Specification of the Job Satisfaction
Model


Assessment of Organizational Job Satisfaction Factors Socio-demographic Variables
Climate

Internal Communication Participation in Decision- Number Years in Position
making
Organizational Structure Autonomy, Power and Ethnicity
Control
Political Climate Relationship with Peers Number of FTE

Professional Development Relationship with Community College
Opportunities Subordinates Classification
Evaluation Relationship with Superiors

Promotion Importance of Salary

Regard for Personal Concerns Importance of Benefits

Professional Effectiveness



A logit model was run based on Table 3. Job satisfaction could be observed

as a function of"... attitude, which results from a balancing and summation of many

specific likes and dislikes experienced in connection with the job. This attitude

manifests itself in evaluation of the job and of the employing organization, (and) as

contributing suitably to the attainment of one's personal objectives" (Bullock, 1952,

p. 7).

Logistic regression is widely used for models where the dependent variable is

qualitative in nature (Table 4), and in like manner, factor scores were developed as a

result of the principal component analysis (Allison, 1999).

The present analysis used a binary logit model where the dependent variable

was coded as 1 for individuals who stated highest satisfaction with their job and 0 for

individuals with less than highest satisfaction with their jobs.









Table 4. Socio-demographic Characteristics of Respondents


Socio-demographic Characteristic
0 Less than 1 year
Number of years served as community college executive 2 6-10 years
secretary/ associate 3 11-14 years
4 15 years or more
0 Black
Ethnicity 0 Hispanic
1 White
0 Less than 2,000
1 2,000-5,000
2 5,001-10,000
3 10,001-15,000
4 15,001-20,000
Total Number of FTE 5 20,001-25,000
6 25,001-35,000
7 35,001-45,000
8 45,001-55,000
9 55,001-75,000
10 75,001-95,000
11 Greater than 95,001


Community College Classification 0 Suburban
0 Urban
1 Rural



For k explanatory variables and i=1,... .,n respondents the model can be stated


log [ pi/(l-pi) ] = a + 0lXili + ..X2 +..+ nXnk


where


p = probability that the dependent variable = 1

log [ pi/(l-pi) ] = logit or log-odds ratio

a = estimated intercept from maximum likelihood estimation (MLE)

in = estimated coefficient from MLE

XA = Independent Variable








Formally, the logit model utilized in this study can be expressed as follows:

Satisfaction = f(Organizational Climate, Job Satisfaction Factors, Socio-
demographic)

where organizational climate refers to the distinctive beliefs and precedents that form

the employee's and the organization's symbolic perspectives. These symbolic

perspectives shape and define various belief systems and how they overlap (Bolman

& Deal, 1997; Peterson & Spencer, 1990). Job satisfaction factors referred to job

satisfaction; in essence, it was simply how people felt about their jobs, their

workplace, and their work environment. It can also be categorized as a universal

feeling about one's job related to a multiplicity of attitudes about the various

components that make up what is performed and accomplished (Spector, 1997); in

accordance with job satisfaction, socio-demographic variables referred to a set of

socio-demographic variables elicited from the survey instrument.

Researchers evaluate the integrity of their qualitative response models on two

levels. First they assess the appropriateness of their model selection using criteria

such as the Likelihood Ratio, Wald, and Lagrange Multiplier tests (Agresti, 1990).

Secondly researchers evaluate the model's goodness offit to the data, using a pseudo

R2 measure for logistic regression models. The remainder of this section will

concentrate on the Likelihood Ratio (LR) test and one form of pseudo R2 measure

based on a likelihood ratio index (Allison, 1999). Both measures are utilized in this

study.

To test for misspecification in the logistic regression model, the Likelihood

Ratio test was employed. The LR test statistic is computed as








LR = -2(Lo-Lft) X2,

where Lfit represents the maximized value of the log likelihood function with fitted

regressors and Lo represents the maximized value of the intercept-only log likelihood

function. The null hypothesis is Ho: LR=0 and the alternate hypothesis Ha: LR>0.

The LR test statistic approaches 0 as the Lfit and Lo maxima approximate each other.

If the null hypothesis is rejected, the introduction of model parameters contributes to

an improvement in the overall model fit. An improvement in the model fit occurs if

the sacrifice in the degrees of freedom is smaller than the value increase of the chi-

squared (X2) test statistic following the introduction of model parameters.

Mathematically, this translates to the computed X2 test statistic exceeding X2a at

significance level a (Allison, 1999).

Qualitative response models such as the binary logistic regression model fail

to offer a natural counterpart to the R2 measure of ordinary least squares (OLS)

models. A number of so-called pseudo- R2 measures have been developed as cursory

indicators of goodness-of-fit. These include the Pearson residual and deviance

pseudo R2. The pseudo- R2 measure considered in this study was one based on the

likelihood ratio index (Allison, 1999; Hatcher, 1994). Formally this was introduced

as

R2= 1-Lt/L,

where Lftt represents the maximized value of the log likelihood function with fitted

regressors and Lo represents the maximum value of the intercept-only log likelihood

function. The likelihood ratio index was an attractive goodness-of-fit measure

because it assumed a value of zero when all slope coefficients equaled zero.








Drawbacks to this pseudo R2 measure exist. Although it can closely approach 1, it

was highly improbable that that likelihood ratio index would ever achieve unity,

regardless of how well the model fitted the data. Additionally, negative R2 values

were possible.

Summary

The study of this research regarding job satisfaction and organizational

climate is now entering its sixth decade. Researchers have concluded that a

correlation exists between job satisfaction and organizational climate. Although a

great deal of research exists pertaining to many different work environments, the

educational environment has been examined to a lesser extent than business and

industry. As a product of examining analogous studies in this area, this study tested

the constructs of job satisfaction and organizational climate with relevance to SACS

(Southern Association of Community Colleges and Schools) community college

executive secretaries/associates to the president.

Chappell's research has initiated additional works on this subject using the

same survey instrument utilized in this study, but they were naturally adapted for the

populations that were targeted. Some examples to illustrate this point are as follows:

Zabetakis (1999) studied the relationship between job satisfaction and organizational

climate as reported by community college business officers; DeMichele (1998)

studied the relationship between job satisfaction and organizational climate as

reported by campus recreation program directors; Evans (1996) examined the

relationship between job satisfaction and organizational climate as it related to

presidents at community colleges; Gratto (2001) investigated the relationship between








job satisfaction and organizational climate as reported by directors at physical plants;

LeFevre Stephens (2004) studied the relationship between job satisfaction and

organizational climate as it related to adjunct faculty members in North Central

Florida Public Community Colleges; and Palmer (1995), who investigated the

relationship between organizational climate and job satisfaction as reported by

directors of health occupation programs. All of these studies controlled for similar

demographic factors.

As a result of this study, the theoretical constructs of job satisfaction and

organizational climate were tested. The significance of job satisfaction variables,

perceptions of organizational climate, and a composite of their demographic data,

reported by community college executive secretaries/associates to the president, is

indicated in Chapter 4.














CHAPTER 4
PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA

The purpose of this study was to investigate the nature of the relationship

between assessments of organizational climate and job satisfaction as applied to

executive secretaries or associates in community colleges.

Additionally, tantamount to investigating the relationship between the two

constructs was to

Determine the community college secretaries' perceptions of organizational
climate using a set of seven identified factors for climate.

The extent to which they were satisfied within the context of organizational
climate.

The determinants of job satisfaction.

To evaluate specific socio-demographic variables (such as ethnicity, years
served as a community college executive secretary, the full-time enrollment
(FTE) element related to the size of their institution, and regional
classification.

Of related interest was the reported overall satisfaction of the position and the

institution.

This research was based on the following four questions:

Research Question 1: What was the dimensionality and internal consistency
of the survey instrument? (This question appended notable value to the study,
for other studies that examined educational institutions regarding
organizational climate and job satisfaction did not address the elements of
dimensionality and internal consistency.)

Research Question 2: How did community college executive
secretaries/associates perceive organizational climate in their respective
institutions, using a set of seven identified factors for climate?








Research Question 3: Applying the same set of seven climate factors as an
index, how satisfied were the community college executive
secretaries/associates with the organizational climate of their respective
institutions?

Research Question 4: What were the determinants of job satisfaction among
community college executive secretaries to their respective presidents?

Survey Responses

A survey, letter of consent, and a letter of invitation for participation were sent

out to 342 executive secretaries/associates to the presidents of community colleges

within the Southern Association of Community Colleges and Schools' (SACS) eleven

state region. Included in the mailer was a self-addressed stamped envelope for the

completed survey. A three-week deadline was requested for all the respondents'

entries; this was located both on the letter of invitation and the survey instrument.

The initial mailing provided 138 returned surveys. Afterwards, a second mailing was

sent out as a reminder to effectuate additional responses; this follow-up mailing

prompted another eleven responses totaling 149 returned responses, thus providing a

43.5% rate of return. Two of the survey respondents wrote that they were too new to

the position and could not continue after the first page. Those responses were

discarded. An additional ten respondents noted that they were confused about

Section A and Section B, and therefore, their responses were not tallied. In total, 137

responses were calculated which furnished a return of 40.1%. In a few cases,

specifically regarding full-time enrollment figures (FTE), several respondents left

some questions unanswered, but all other responses were recorded and utilized.








Profile for the Executive Secretaries/Associates to the
Presidents of Community Colleges
Gender and Ethnicity

A total of 137 individuals responded to the question regarding their gender

and ethnicity. Tables 5 and 6 illustrate gender and ethnic patterns for community

college executive secretaries/associates to their presidents. Three (2.2%) were male,

and 134 (97.8%) were female. Gender was not incorporated because 98% of the

respondents were female, and was not considered in the analysis due to the lack of an

adequate representative sample of males to determine if there was a statistically

significant relationship between extreme job satisfaction and gender.

The ethnicity of the executive secretaries were summarized as follows: the

majority of the respondents, 119 (87%) were Caucasian; 11 (8%) were African

American; 6 (4.3%) were Hispanic; and 1 (.7%) was Native American. All

respondents responded to the questions pertaining to gender and ethnicity.

Table 5. Gender

Gender n %

Male 3 2.2
Female 134 97.8
Total 137 100.0

Table 6. Ethnicity

Ethnic Origin n %

Caucasian 119 87
African American 11 8
Hispanic 6 4.3
Native American 1 0.7
Asian American 0 0
Other 0 0
Total 137 100.0








Number of Years Served within the Community College System

With respect to the number of years each respondent served within the

community college system, 136 answers were recorded. Table 7 shows that the

majority of this population (94%) had worked within the community college system

for more than 6 years. Seventy-six (55.9%) of the respondents had worked 15 or

more years in the system.

Table 7. Number of Years Served within the Community College System

Years Served within the System n %

< 1 year 1 0.7
1-5 years 7 5.2
6-10 years 32 23.5
11-14 years 20 14.7
15 years or more 76 55.9
Total 136 100.0


Number of Years Served as a Community College Executive Secretary

Table 8 illustrates the distribution of SAC's community college executive

secretaries to the presidents according to the number of years served in this capacity.

Of the 342 sent out, 137 surveys were included in the data. Ninety-three secretaries

(67.8%), the majority, had served as executive secretaries to the presidents for at least

6 years, and 40 of them (29.1%) had served in that position for 15 years or more.

Table 8. Number of Years Served as a Community College Executive Secretary

Years Served as an Exec. Sec'y n %

< 1 year 2 1.5
1-5 years 42 30.7
6-10 years 40 29.2
11-14 years 13 9.4
15 years or more 40 29.2
Total 137 100.0








Number of Campuses in the Community College System

The number of campuses in each respective community college system that

was listed by the community college executive secretaries is shown in Table 9. A

total of 137 individuals responded to this question. The data exhibited a wide range

of campuses within each system, from 1 to 34. The higher percentage (91.2%) was

found in the range that included 1 through 6 campuses in each system respective of

their institution. Community colleges that included 1 to 4 campuses were shown to

have the highest range of responses.

Table 9. Number of Campuses in their Community College System

Number of Campuses n %

1 32 23.4
2 27 19.7
3 20 14.6
4 23 16.8
5 13 9.5
6 10 7.3
7-34 12 8.7
Total 137 100.0

Full-time Enrollment System-wide

Marshall (2004) has examined size and FTE numbers at various colleges and

has made the determination that customized, strategic planning takes patience and

persistence, and when properly thought out in a collaborative way involving all

constituencies, a successful program could be effectuated. Table 10 indicates the

responses of the executive secretaries to the presidents regarding the total number of

FTE system-wide for the Fall 2004 term. Eleven said they did not have the data

readily available at the time they filled out the survey, thus rendering a total of 126

tallied responses. The figures ranged from 19 (15.1%) on the lowest end of the








spectrum (FTE less than 2,000), to 5 (3.9%) responses relating to the highest number

of FTE system-wide within the 75,000-95,000 range. The first three categories

indicated that the number of students enrolled ranged from 2,000 to 10,000.

Table 10. Full-time Enrollment System-wide

FTE System-wide n %

Less than 2,000 19 15.1
2,001-5,000 42 33.3
5,001-10,000 33 26.2
10,001-15,000 6 4.8
15,001-20,000 8 6.4
20,001-25,000 3 2.3
25,001-35,000 5 4.0
35,001-45,000 2 1.6
45,001-55,000 0 0.0
55,001-75,000 3 2.3
75,001-95,000 5 4.0
Total 126 100.0

Community College Classification

Table 11 reveals the distribution of the respondents by the classification of the

institution. Three different classifications of community colleges were available to

choose from as discussed in Chapter 2. All 137 participants responded to this survey

question. As a result, 64 (46.7%) specified their community college was in a rural

area, 35 (25.6%) stated theirs was located in suburbia, and 38 (27.7%) indicated their

community college was in an urban area.

Current Position Title

The executive secretaries to the presidents were asked to write down their

current title. The majority of them (97.1%) wrote they were either the Executive

Secretary or Assistant to the President. Other titles that were listed included:

Associate or Assistant Director totaling the remaining 2.9%.








Table 11. Community College Classification (See Chapter 2)

Community College Classification n %

Rural 64 46.7
Suburban 35 25.6
Urban 38 27.7
Total 137 100.0

Personal Career Goal

Out of the 137 respondents, most had decided to reply to this question that

related to their future aspirations. The largest number (64 or 48.1%), acknowledged

they would be retiring within the next five years. Only 19 (14.3%) indicated they

would continue at their current capacity. The most evident career aspiration sought

by 11 (8.3%) of the participants was to become an administrator at some level.

Additionally, 5 (3.8%) wanted to bring the position to a higher level, thereby desiring

to improve the organization and themselves. Lastly, others in this field aspired to

completing an M.B.A. degree (1.5%), or becoming a community college instructor

(1.5%).

Profile Summary

An executive secretary/associate to the president within the SACS region was

apt to be a female, predominantly Caucasian, with the majority (55.5%) possessing

experience serving in some capacity in a community college for fifteen years or more.

The respondents who specified that they were located in a suburban or urban area

exhibited greater diversity relating to their ethnicity. And finally, most of the

executive secretaries that had been serving in the community college system for

fifteen years or more were looking forward to retirement within the next five years.








Research Question 1

The first research question examined the dimensionality and internal

consistency of the survey instrument. Dimensionality referred to the validity of

score-based inferences indicative to the extent to which it could be demonstrated that

the dimensional structure foundational to a test was consistent with the blueprints (De

Champlain & Gessaroli, 1998). Internal consistency was the degree to which the

individual items that represented a test correlated with one another or with the test

total (Hatcher, 1994). A principal components analysis was performed on survey

responses to the Job Satisfaction scale using 1's as prior communality estimates

(Table 12). The principal axis method was used to extract the components followed

by a varimax orthogonall) rotation. Three components displayed an eigenvalue

greater than 1. Results of the scree test further reinforced the multidimensional

argument for the Job Satisfaction Survey. As a result, these three components were

retained for rotation. Collectively, components 1-3 accounted for 61% of the total

variance. Factor loadings and associated questionnaire items are presented in Table

12. An item was defined to load onto a component when the item's factor loading

exceeded .40 for a given component while simultaneously maintaining less than .40

for the remaining components.

Seven items loaded on the first component (labeled Organizational Climate),

three items loaded on the second component (referred to as Relationship with

Coworkers) and four items loaded on the third component (termed Importance in Job

Function). Factor scores were generated for these components and subsequently









Table 12. Rotated factor pattern and final communality estimates from principal
components analysis of Job Satisfaction Survey

Component h2 Items
1 2 3
0.66 0.33 0.16 0.5775 Internal Communication

0.68 0.35 0.02 0.5927 Organizational Structure

0.56 0.39 0.08 0.4785 Political Climate

0.79 -0.11 0.06 0.635 Professional Development Opportunities

0.71 0.26 0.05 0.5818 Evaluation

0.78 0.01 0.12 0.6235 Promotion

0.62 0.14 0.14 0.4298 Regard for Personal Concerns

0.18 0.20 0.61 0.446 Participation in Decision-making

0.24 0.13 0.78 0.6775 Autonomy, Power and Control

0.12 0.86 0.19 0.7987 Relationship with Peers

0.18 0.85 0.25 0.8076 Relationship with Subordinates

0.24 0.80 0.18 0.7254 Relationship with Superiors

0.09 0.17 0.75 0.6009 Importance of Salary

-0.08 0.07 0.73 0.5448 Importance of Benefits

N=137. Communality estimates appear in column headed h2


incorporated in logistic regression analysis as independent variables. The variable

Professional Effectiveness was not included, for it loaded high on more than one

component; therefore, the ambiguity could not lend itself to determining a distinctive

construct.

Table 13 reports the Cronbach alpha reliability estimates for the three

components of the analysis. All three components exhibited a Cronbach alpha value

greater than .70 signifying that scale items associated with all three components were








internally consistent, to determine the extent to which the individual items that

constituted a test correlated with one another (Cronbach, 1951).

Table 13. Coefficient Alpha Reliability Estimates for the Study's Variables

Component Cronbach Alpha
1. Organizational Climate 0.84
2. Relationship with Coworkers 0.88
3. Importance in Job Function 0.73


Research Question 2

The second research question inquired as to how executive

secretaries/associates to the presidents perceived organizational culture at their

respective institutions while applying a set of seven identified factors for climate.

With respect to this study, the definition of organizational climate referred to the

personality of the organization. It was the distinctive beliefs and precedents that

formed the employee's and the organization's symbolic perspectives; they would

align themselves with what belief systems they had previously shaped and defined

(Bolman & Deal, 1997; Peterson & Spencer, 1990). The seven organizational climate

factors that were under investigation consisted of

Internal communication.
Organizational structure.
Political structure.
Professional development opportunities.
Evaluation.
Promotion.
Regard for personal concerns.

The executive secretaries/associates to the presidents were asked to rate the

seven organizational climate factors that were under investigation on a scale of 1 to 5.

The rating of 5 acknowledged a very high level of existence; 4 was a high value; 3








was a moderate level; 2 was a low level; and 1 was the lowest level of existence of

the respective organizational climate components. Furthermore, the organizational

climate factors incorporated the following codices:

IC1 = Perception of Internal Communication
OS1 = Perception of Organizational Structure
PCL1 = Perception of Political Climate
PDO1 = Perception of Professional Development Opportunities
EVAL1 = Perception of Evaluation
PROMO1 = Perception of Promotion
RPCI = Perception of Regard for Personal Concerns

The greater majority (94.2%) of executive secretaries/associates to the

presidents marked internal communication as either a 5 or a 4, very high to high,

respectively (Table 14). Although most of these secretaries/associates believed that

internal communication was considered to be isolated to the two highest ratings,

almost half (48.9%) believed it was a 5, the highest level. Furthermore, an additional

38% perceived the internal communication at a high level; thus, it is feasible that

most felt that the colleges' formal and informal communication process and style

such as articulation of mission, purpose, values, policies and procedures, was

revealed as demonstrably open and highly perceptible.

The levels of organizational structure were regarded with a high rate of

presence in their respective institutions with over 87.6% of the respondents

acknowledging this quality. The amount of participants who marked either a 4 or 5

was almost equally distributed. Only 2.9% of the executive secretaries perceived

organizational structure to be at the lowest levels of presence at their colleges (Table

15).









Table 14. Executive Secretaries' to the Presidents Perceptions of Internal
Communication


Perception of Internal Communication n %

Very High Level of IC Present 67 48.9

High Level of IC 1 Present 52 38.0

Moderate Level of IC 1 Present 13 9.5

Low Level of IC Present 5 3.6

Lowest Level of IC 1 Present 0 0.0

Total 137 100.0



Table 15. Executive Secretaries' to the Presidents Perception of Organizational
Structure

Perception of Organizational Structure n %

Very High Level of OS I Present 64 46.7

High Level of OSI Present 56 40.9

Moderate Level of OS1 Present 13 9.5

Low Level of OS 1 Present 4 2.9

Lowest Level of OS 1 Present 0 0.0

Total 137 100.0



Political climate was defined as the nature and complexity of the college's

internal politics; for example, the degree to which the college's executive

secretaries/associates must operate within a political framework in order to

accomplish his or her job. Most of the respondents perceived that the political

climate at their workplace was very noticeable, with 81.8% assigning a rating of

either a 4 or 5 (Table 16).









Table 16. Executive Secretaries' to the Presidents Perception of Political Climate

Perception of Political Climate n %

Very High Level of PCLl Present 50 36.5

High Level of PCL1 Present 62 45.2

Moderate Level of PCL1 Present 22 16.1

Low Level of PCLl Present 3 2.2

Lowest Level of PCL1 Present 0 0.0

Total 137 100.0



The bulk of the respondents reported they perceived their professional

development opportunities as quite favorable (Table 17). Professional development

opportunities were defined as the opportunity for the college's executive

secretary/associate to pursue and participate in professional development activities;

essentially, how they were encouraged to learn, develop, and/or share innovative

practices for career enrichment.

Table 17. Executive Secretaries' to the Presidents Perception of Professional
Development Opportunities

Perception of Prof. Dev. Opportunities n %

Very High Level of PDOl Present 65 47.5

High Level of PDOl Present 38 27.7

Moderate Level of PDO 1 Present 21 15.3

Low Level of PDOl Present 8 5.8

Lowest Level of PDOl Present 5 3.7

Total 137 100.0








Most of the executive secretaries/associates to the presidents (85%) perceived

the evaluation procedures of the colleges as fair and supportive (Table 18); that the

process focused on improvement rather than faultfinding. A nominal representation

(3.7%) believed that their organizational climate exemplified a non-supportive

evaluation process.

Table 18. Executive Secretaries' to the Presidents Perception of Evaluation

Perception of Evaluation n %

Very High Level of EVALl Present 75 54.7

High Level of EVAL1 Present 41 29.9

Moderate Level of EVALl Present 16 11.7

Low Level of EVAL1 Present 5 3.7

Lowest Level of EVAL1 Present 0 0.0

Total 137 100.0



Although the majority of executive secretaries/associates to their presidents

regarded the organizational climate of their colleges to promote internally and

advocate advancement from within the organization (e.g., providing career ladders,

internship opportunities), there was a fair number of respondents (15.4%) who

perceived an either moderate to low rate of effect for this quality (Table 19).

A substantial majority of these community college executive secretaries/associates to

their presidents (91.3%) regarded the colleges' sensitivity to, and regard for, the

personal concerns of the executive secretaries/associates to be extremely evident; that

the college was supportive and flexible during times of personal emergencies. It can

be deduced that the organizational climate regarding personal concerns for these









executive secretaries was receptive and responsive regarding their personal matters

(Table 20).

Table 19. Executive Secretaries' to the Presidents Perception of Promotion

Perception of Promotion n %

Very High Level PROMO I Present 75 54.7

High Level of PROMO1 Present 41 29.9

Moderate Level of PROMOI Present 16 11.7

Low Level of PROMO Present 5 3.7

Lowest Level of PROMO I Present 0 0.0

Total 137 100.0



Table 20. Executive Secretaries' to the Presidents Perception of Personal Concerns

Perception of Personal Concerns n %

Very High Level of RPC1 Present 95 69.4

High Level of RPC Present 30 21.9

Moderate Level of RPCI Present 11 8.0

Low Level of RPC 1 Present 1 0.7

Lowest Level of RPCl Present 0 0.0

Total 137 100.0


Analysis of Satisfaction with Organizational Climate Variables

The three organizational climate factors (Table 21) that obtained the highest

mean ratings regarding satisfaction within their respective organizational climates

were organizational structure (4.31), evaluation (4.39), and regard for personal

concerns (4.59). The components that received the lowest mean scores were









promotion (3.82), political climate (4.11), and professional development opportunities

(4.11).

A paired t-test was conducted to examine the statistical difference among like-

items across both scales (Table 21). The items Organizational Structure, Evaluation,

and Regard for Personal Concerns were statistically significant. In aggregate, the

mean values of both scales were statistically significant. Additionally, correlation

coefficients across like-items of both scales ranged from .77 (Regard for Personal

Concerns) and .90 (Professional Development Opportunities). Table 21 also indicates

an aggregate of organizational climate and job satisfaction means, standard

deviations, and correlation coefficients addressing research questions 2 and 3.

Table 21. Means and Standard Deviations for the Organizational Climate Scale


Perception of Satisfaction with
Organizational Climate Organizational Climate Correlation
Items g-g-___--_--_--- Coefficient
Mean Standard Mean Standard W()
Deviation Deviation
Internal Communication 4.316 0.795 4.262 0.885 0.82
Organizational Structure 4.316** 0.766 4.233** 0.797 0.86
Political Climate 4.117 0.826 4.124 0.826 0.85
Professional Development 4.117 1.095 4.116 1.050 0.90
Opportunities
Evaluation 4.397*** 0.791 4.292*** 0.823 0.86
Promotion 3.823 1.101 3.824 1.162 0.88
Regard for Personal Concerns 4.595* 0.670 4.518* 0.728 0.77
Total 4.242*** .9027 4.196*** .925 0.87
N=137
*Significant at the .10 level
**Significant at the .05 level
***Significant at the .01 level

Research Question 3

The third research question examined community college executive

secretaries' to the presidents satisfaction with organizational climate using the same

seven climate factors as with research question 2, but instead asked how satisfied they








were with the organizational climate at each of their respective institutions.

Analytical results were derived from a descriptive composite of how satisfied the

executive secretaries/associates to the community college presidents were with

organizational climate. Additionally, the same model of codices was applied (as

shown in the following representation) employing a slight alteration, as per the

numeral 2 was added as a suffix:

IC2 = Perception of Internal Communication
OS2 = Perception of Organizational Structure
PCL2 = Perception of Political Climate
PDO2 = Perception of Professional Development Opportunities
EVAL2 = Perception of Evaluation
PROMO2 = Perception of Promotion
RPC2 = Perception of Regard for Personal Concerns

The executive secretaries/associates to the presidents of their community

colleges were asked to rate the seven organizational climate factors that were under

investigation on a scale of 1 to 5. The rating of 5 acknowledged a very high level of

satisfaction; 4 was a high value of satisfaction; 3 was a moderate level; 2 was a low

level; and 1 was the lowest level of satisfaction pertaining to each component of an

institution's organizational climate.

Executive secretaries rated their satisfaction with internal communication as

high to very high (84.7%). Their satisfaction with the communication process, both

formal and informal, clearly outnumbered those who felt the opposite; this minority

rating was reflected as 5.1% (see Table 22). These data were also similar and

consistent with their perceptions of internal communication. Comparable to internal

communication, the executive secretaries to their presidents specified (Table 23) they

were very satisfied with their institution's organizational structure (83.2%).









Table 22. Executive Secretaries' to the Presidents Satisfaction with Internal
Communication

Satisfaction with Internal Communication n %

Highly Satisfied with IC2 66 48.2

Generally Satisfied with IC2 50 36.5

Somewhat Satisfied with IC2 14 10.2

Generally Dissatisfied with IC2 6 4.4

Highly Dissatisfied with IC2 1 0.7

Total 137 100.0



Table 23. Executive Secretaries' to the Presidents Satisfaction with Organizational
Structure

Satisfaction with Organizational Structure n %

Highly Satisfied with OS2 60 43.8

Generally Satisfied with OS2 54 39.4

Somewhat Satisfied with OS2 19 13.9

Generally Dissatisfied with OS2 4 2.9

Highly Dissatisfied with OS2 0 0.0

Total 137 100.0



Conversely, Table 23 also illustrates that no more than 4 respondents (2.9%) rated

their organizational structure with general dissatisfaction.

Of the remaining five climate factors, the community college executive

secretaries' higher satisfaction ratings were prominently found in the following three

components: professional development (Table 24), evaluation (Table 25), and regard

for personal concerns (Table 26); furthermore, regard for personal concerns related to









the college's sensitivity to, and regard for, the personal concerns of the executive

secretary included the highest rating (67.9%). Also noteworthy, these data similarly

coincided with the respondents' perceptions of organizational climate concerning the

same climate factors.

Table 24. Executive Secretaries' to the Presidents Satisfaction with Professional
Development Opportunities

Satisfaction with Dev. Opportunities n %

Highly Satisfied with PDO2 66 48.2

Generally Satisfied with PDO2 39 28.4

Somewhat Satisfied with PDO2 19 13.9

Generally Dissatisfied with PDO2 10 7.3

Highly Dissatisfied with PDO2 3 2.2

Total 137 100.0



Table 25. Executive Secretaries' to the Presidents Satisfaction with Evaluation

Satisfaction with Evaluation n %

Highly Satisfied with EVAL2 66 48.2

Generally Satisfied with EVAL2 46 33.6

Somewhat Satisfied with EVAL2 22 16.0

Generally Dissatisfied with EVAL2 3 2.2

Highly Dissatisfied with EVAL2 0 0.0

Total 137 100.0









Table 26. Executive Secretaries' to the Presidents Satisfaction with Regard to
Professional Personal Concerns

Satisfaction with Regard for Pers. Con. n %

Highly Satisfied with RPC2 93 67.9

Generally Satisfied with RPC2 29 21.2

Somewhat Satisfied with RPC2 15 10.9

Generally Dissatisfied with RPC2 0 0.0

Highly Dissatisfied with RPC2 0 0.0

Total 137 100.0



Overall, the ratings for promotion (the college's commitment to internal

promotion and advancement from within the organization), and political climate (the

nature and complexity of the college's internal politics) presented discernibly lower

ratings than the other five components, and simultaneously, they were almost

congruent with the perception ratings exhibited in research question 2 (Tables 27 and

28).

Table 27. Executive Secretaries' to the Presidents Satisfaction with Promotion

Satisfaction with Promotion n %

Highly Satisfied with PROMO2 47 34.3

Generally Satisfied with PROMO2 43 31.4

Somewhat Satisfied with PROMO2 29 21.2

Generally Dissatisfied with PROMO2 11 8.0

Highly Dissatisfied with PROMO2 7 5.1

Total 137 100.0