In their own words : capturing the voices of young artists


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In their own words : capturing the voices of young artists
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Project in lieu of thesis
Ritchie, Marcia L.
College of Fine Arts, University of Florida
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Gainesville, Fla.
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Ideally, art education for young children supports the development of the cognitive and verbal skills necessary to appreciate, describe, and discuss artworks. Art and its processes provide an exciting avenue for conversation with children. For young children, mark-making and drawing are primary tools for communication, prior to learning symbols of letters and words (Jalongo, 1997). In an attentive atmosphere of casual investigation into a child’s art-making activities, I encouraged children in my preschool classroom to “show and tell” their art and other creative endeavors. In doing so, children have gained an understanding that through art-making, they communicate ideas with pictures, along with their words. In this study I have collected and analyzed field data based on listening and observing how children respond to art when lead by the teacher. Children can learn to think critically through seeing, investigating, and communicating about their art and the artwork of others in teacher-lead discussions. The implications of my project in the field of art education and early childhood development are to further the evidence that engaging in classroom talk about art can help young children learn to communicate and realize their voice in and beyond art. I demonstrate how to use developmentally appropriate prompts and questions to engage children in caring conversations as they “read” their artwork aloud.
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Art Education terminal project

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University of Florida Institutional Repository
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University of Florida
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IN THEIR OWN WORDS: CAPTUR ING THE VOICES OF YOUNG ARTISTS 4 LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE PAGE 0-1 .... pg. 20 1-1 pg. 22 1-2 pg. 22 2-1 pg. 24 4-1 pg. 26 4-2 pg. 28 4-3 pg. 29 5-1 pg. 29


IN THEIR OWN WORDS: CAPTUR ING THE VOICES OF YOUNG ARTISTS 5 Summary Of Capstone Project Presented To The College Of Fine Ar ts Of The University Of Florida In Partial Fulfillment Of The Requirements For The Degree Of Master Of Arts IN THEIR OWN WORDS: CAPTURING THE VOICES OF YOUNG ARTISTS By Marcia Ritchie May 2012 Chair : Craig Roland Major: Art Education Ideally, art education for young children supports the development of the cognitive and verbal skills necessary to appreciate, describe, and discu ss artworks. Art and its processes provide an exciting avenue for conversation with children. For young children, mark-making and drawing are primary tools for co mmunication, prior to learning symbols of letters and words (Jalongo, 1997). In an attentive atmosphere of casual investigation in to a childs art-making activities, I encouraged children in my preschool classroom to s how and tell their art and other creative endeavors. In doing so, children have gained an understandi ng that through art-making, they communicate ideas with pict ures, along with their words. In this study I have collect ed and analyzed field data based on listening and observing how children respond to art when lead by the teacher. Children can learn to think critically through seeing, investigating, and communicating about their art a nd the artwork of others in teacher-lead discussions. The implications of my project in the field of art education and early


IN THEIR OWN WORDS: CAPTUR ING THE VOICES OF YOUNG ARTISTS 6 childhood developm ent are to further the evidence that engaging in classroom talk about art can help young children learn to co mmunicate and realize their voice in and beyond art. I demonstrate how to use developmentally appropri ate prompts and questions to engage children in caring conversations as they read their artwork aloud.


IN THEIR OWN WORDS: CAPTUR ING THE VOICES OF YOUNG ARTISTS 7 CHAPTE R 1 In Their Own Words: Capturing the Voices of Young Artists In many classrooms, art education in the earl y years of child development is primarily limited to making arts and crafts to develop kinesthetic skills (Diachenko, 2011). The general misunderstanding about art educatio n, as it is offered in the pub lic schools, is that art is something children make for fun or as a reward after the academic learning is finished. Art is generally accepted as something isolated and outside of academic learning. In reality, the world of art is integrated into all aspects of learning and life. As Sir Herbert Read said in 1966, Artis a way of education, not so much a subject to be taught as a method of teaching any and all subjects (in Keel, 1969, p. 48). Children are bombarded with images on a daily basis and yet our educational system doesnt provide them opportunities to respond to what they see in the popul ar culture. With the current trends in education in which success in school is based upon test scores in reading and math, art is one of many subjects that has been si delined. This concerns me. In this environment, how will children learn to appr eciate art? Will students find art important? How will society learn about the cultural and aesthetic aspects of life? Children can learn to relate critically to the visual culture with guidance and conversation from a caring adult. As I work with young children in an art-ba sed pre-school, I observe children freely appreciating a variety of art and materials. As these children progress in painting, drawing and experimentation with materials, th ey begin to judge their work and compare it to others. This judgment is usually a reflection upon well-mean ing adults and peers, and how they have


IN THEIR OWN WORDS: CAPTUR ING THE VOICES OF YOUNG ARTISTS 8 responded to the artwork. Com pliments intended to bolster self-esteem of the child or to encourage representational drawing are commonly heard. I wonde r: How do these verbal cues affect childrens understanding of their work or of artwork in general? Can adults help to facilitate a childs understanding of art though questions that encour age interpretation rather than judgment? Will looking at and talking about art he lp them understand that art-making is a way to express their own ideas? For this study, I used qualitative action research to practice conversing with children about their art in an effort to foster their verbal and visual thinking skills. Statement of the Problem When art is treated as a reward, as a d ecoration, and solely as development of art techniques, art appreciation is neglected. These types of prescrib ed and pre-cut art activities leave little or no room for chil drens experimentation, imagina tion, critical thinking or selfexpression. The product that they manufacture is hung on the wall in order to display or demonstrate their productivity and provide d ecoration to the room. There may be some interaction with the occasional pa sserby, but, generally, childrens ar twork is considered cute or interesting. It will be consid ered good when they mature and learn how to draw, or, so it seems. I witness children in my pre-school classr oom creating paintings and drawings everyday, which are hung beautifully and silently on the wall before be ing wadding up and shoved into their backpacks to take home. Do they value their mark-making? Who is taking an interest, supporting or confirming their experimentation or e xpression? In order for art to be appreciated an investigation and inquiry should occur with the child. We live in a highly visual culture and childre n should question and th ink critically about the images that engulf their world. Children can begin these investigations with their own


IN THEIR OWN WORDS: CAPTUR ING THE VOICES OF YOUNG ARTISTS 9 creationssom ething personal, a pi ece of work that they have made. How can they learn to value this art as more than a piece of painte d paper if they have no opportunity to talk to someone that models art language? In my expe rience, many teachers, parents and adults do not know how to respond to art or to a childs creative work or proce ss. Many believe creativity is a talent or a gift that you have or you dont (Mulcahey, 2009). Art, for many, is a separate, foreign world filled with strange ideas and languages. I believe that every child is creative and can learn to interpret art and its techniques. I also believe that every child has something to sa y about what they think and know of their world, regardless of their talent or skill in the practice of art-making. What ve rbal clues, encouraging words or questions can I, as their teacher, us e with children to draw out dialogue and prompt their thinking and respon ses about their artwork? How can other caregivers and teachers learn to encourage p reschool age children to talk about their art? How can this be accomplished in a non-judgmental manner? These questions are at the heart of this capstone project. Significance of the Study The significance of this study has been to determine the best ways of incorporating thoughtful, open-ended questions an d prompts into the curriculum for the young child in order to encourage caring conversations with children abou t their art. When teachers display students artwork in the classrooms or on gallery walls, the children recognize the d ecorative value that is inherent in their art. However, educators should go a step furthe r with a discussion of the art. When working and speaking with children about their art it is important to remember that good art is more than the skill of drawing a direct likeness (Fin eberg, 2006). Art expression and interpretation is just as valuable, if not more so, then the technical drawing skill of a direct likeness.


IN THEIR OWN WORDS: CAPTUR ING THE VOICES OF YOUNG ARTISTS 10 Responding to art involves investigating a nd relating the parts to the whole (Jalongo & Stamp, 1997). As we look at artwork with childr en, we should point out specific colors, lines, shapes, patterns or figures. Children can learn to observe critically, notice details and think about how these discovered parts fit together to make a complete artist ic expression. They can see how connecting curved lines and shapes toge ther in the center ca n create a flower. This personal art investigation and response to art can also affect their art-making abilities, as they link their mark-making to language and expression. In some cases Ive witnessed how a ch ilds personal artwork can became more thoughtful, typically when the child understands that there is meaning or a story in their pictures. Language helps guide thought and action (Douglas, Schwarts & Taylor, 1981). This research demonstrates that young children are insightful, creative and can learn to use descriptive language when talking about thei r own and responding to the artworks of others. Calkins (1986) writes: Our job is to respond to children s products in such a way that youngsters learn that marks on the paper have the power to convey meaning. Just as infants learn the power of their gestures through our response to thos e gestures, language learners discover the power of their print and pictures through our response (p. 38).


IN THEIR OWN WORDS: CAPTUR ING THE VOICES OF YOUNG ARTISTS 11 CHAPTE R 2 Supporting Literature The Story in the Picture by Christine Mulcahey (2009) in formed my study of fostering cognitive development and responses of young child ren looking at art. Dr. Mulcahey is a professor at the Rhode Island College and art sp ecialist at the Henry Barnard Laboratory School where she teaches young children. Through he r studies, and through her work with young children, she has written a book that enthusiastic ally supports the develo pment of art programs that inspire communication and cognitive developm ent by looking at and creating art. Her book offers guidance through the use of non-judgmental ta lking points, questions and verbal cues that educators can use in the classroom. This inquiry-based dialo gue fosters knowledge construction, imagination, sharing, diversit y, and appreciation (Mulchaey, 2009). Mulchaey cites documentation from the classr oom, extending learni ng and activities from the classroom to the home. In or der to extend the learning, she offers advice to parents on how to look and respond to their childs artwork. This partnership can improve classroom participation, conversation, and inspire children to respond tho ughtfully to their work. Mulchaey discovered, through her research, that young children are open-mi nded and that they don t generally criticize or disparage their peers artwork. We as educators should strive for this in our remarks to them. She cites constructive suggestions about the use of compliments. Adults are quick with affirmations when a child asks, do you like my picture? A compliment does not engage the child. Commenting on something specific or describing what they are working on provides information that the child can recognize. It also reflects engagement in their activity. Its not important if I like their work, its important that they like their picture (Mulchaey, 2009, p 35).


IN THEIR OWN WORDS: CAPTUR ING THE VOICES OF YOUNG ARTISTS 12 The Relationship of Cognitive Style of Y oung Children and their Modes of Responding to Paintings, by Nancy Douglas, Julia Schwartz and Janet Taylor (1981) presents quantitative research used to exam ine behaviors and correl ations of preschool ag e children and their responses to looking at select ed artwork. Two categories of the Acuff & Sieber-Suppes Manual for coding childrens responses to paintings we re selected as being pertinent to the study (Douglas, Schwartz & Taylor, 1981). The findings of descriptive and interpretive scores were calculated from thirty preschool age children. Res earchers selected three color reproductions of paintings and showed them to each child in a sp ecific order. Questions and statements were posed. Tell me everything that you see in this pi cture. More responses was elicited by, What else? and, What do you think this picture is about? (Douglas, et al., 1981, p.26) Childrens responses from interviews were collected, documented, and interpreted. The children identified l iteral objects such as a house or a vio lin depicted in the painting, yet they lacked knowledge of the qualities of the painting, not one of them me ntioned materials or techniquesnot even when viewi ng the original acryli c painting presented to them (Douglas, et al., 1981, p. 29). Even though these students used a ri ch variety of art-making materials in their school, only rarely did they mention line, shape, co lor, or light within th eir descriptions. These findings reflect a lack of understanding at the conceptual level of ar t appreciation. Since the preschool child is just beginni ng to learn this language syst em, and vocabulary is developing rapidly, that time would seem propitious to introduce simple art terms and beginning art understandings (Douglas, et al., 1981, p. 24). This research dem onstrates that childrens cognitive styles of learning are unique, as are their viewing and interpretations. As a child grows, he or she is more adept at description and communication when properly directed; therefore, art education should not deprive young children of aesthetic


IN THEIR OWN WORDS: CAPTUR ING THE VOICES OF YOUNG ARTISTS 13 learning. T his formal assessment shows that child ren have not been guide d to look at, think or respond to art. Although this study uses unfamili ar artwork to elicit responses, the findings do reflect a need for further investigat ion into childrens responses to art. In the Spirit of the Studio: Learning from the Atelier of Reggio Emilia (Gandini, Hill, Cadwell, & Schwall, 2004) provi des insight into the atelier e nvironment that supports creative learning through materials, relationships, inve stigation and communication. Reggio Emilias The Hundred Languages of Children are revealed within this fr amework of learning. One of the seventeen key concepts of this exhibition proclaims: The old theories of separation give way to the educational theo ry of participation. The relationships between the childre n and the adults those of the school and those of the family are consolidated through many forms of excha nge and dialogue, and this leads to the shared elaboration of new educational experiences (Tarr, 2001, p.34). Essentially, children do not lear n in a solitary environment. They learn by their unique investigative activities with the assistance of a guide who is actively and mindfully supportive in the continuing learning evolution (Gandini et al., 2004, p.52). Reggio Emilias philosophy informs my practice of actively engaging in conversations with children in addition to documenting and recording their responses. Likewi se, a responsive family environment is also essential for optimal learning. Abigail Housen and Philip Yenawine, founders of Visual Thinking Strategies (VTS), also informs my teaching practice. Housen is a rese archer in aesthetic development and VTS, which are used in educational programs in muse ums and schools around the world. The intended audience for these strategies is anyone who wi shes to improve aesthetic development and the experience of looking at art, in addition to development of critical thinking skills.


IN THEIR OWN WORDS: CAPTUR ING THE VOICES OF YOUNG ARTISTS 14 The central them e of Housen and Yenaines (2007) Art Viewing and Aesthetic Development: Designing for the Viewer is applied research of visual understanding in education. Through this research, five stages of Visual Thin king Strategies were deve loped that would help people experience visual art. Through each stage the learner is supported by Vygotskys pedagogical scaffolds, which bridge current need s with newly-emerging questions and interests (Housen, 2007). The teacher encourages learners, thr ough questions, to discover new ways to find answers to their own questions, to construct meaning, to experience, and to reason about what they see (Housen, 2007, p.14). This theory of questioning can be used with pre-school ch ildren to elicit responses and build knowledge about their artwork. Although thes e strategies are used in conjunction with selected museum prints, the techniques can be ea sily transferred to looki ng at personal artwork. The VTS website ( gives examples of situations involving art dialogue with kindergarten students in a group within a structure d, teacher-lead situation. In this example, the teacher models descriptive language when looking at art, and in doing so, coaxes the children to relate the words to what they observe, think, and interpret. My approach to VTS was more informal with my students as I sought to listen and let them help guide the questioning when we talked a bout their art. Most of the artwork created by preschool children is expressionisti c and requires the artist to describe, reflect, and verbally interpret the work. I used these facilitati on techniques of paraphrasing comments neutrally, pointing at areas to be discussed, and linking comments and obser vations to engage the children (Housen, 2007). Tollifsons (2011) Enhancing Students Responses to Art through Qualitative Language illustrates this teachers belief that teaching and l earning in art is mediated to a large extent and


IN THEIR OWN WORDS: CAPTUR ING THE VOICES OF YOUNG ARTISTS 15 enhanced by languages qualitative characteristic s (p. 11). In a classroom setting, the teacher models the language on three major aesthetic co mponents: form, media, and subject matter. The students become more attentive to the qualiti es of media, subject matter, and form as well as the ways of developing their own qualitati ve vocabularies for responding to works of art (2011, p.12). Gentle prompts help coax young students to respond. Group discussions are also useful to allow children an opportunity to hear different ideas and words from each another. I found that the use of comparisons and the searching for dist inctions can encourage the students to be more specific in talking about artwork. Does this line look heavy or lig ht? Is Macys picture more active than Jacobs? By modeli ng qualitative language with preschool children, I teach specific words that they can use when responding verbally to art. The power of responding to visual images can inform their verbal language, personal expression of feelings, values, ideas, and imagina tions. Tollifsons article informed my practice as a teacher who models descriptiv e language when talking and inquiri ng about art with children. As children examine and respond to their art, th ey will learn and enhance their language with the use of adjectives, verbs, a nd adverbs that reflect the visual qualities of the works of art (Tollifson, 2011, p.11). Improving Student Dialogue About Art (2004) is an article by teaching artist/professor/author Terry Ba rrett which underscores the belief that learning to interpret meanings of works of art is more valuable than learning to judge their value; artwork that is not interpreted is reduced to a mere object, and ar tworks do not speak for themselves: they carry multiple meanings and not fixed, single meanings (p.87). Barrett submits a general set of prompts in logical progression when addressing and talking with student s about art: thematic,


IN THEIR OWN WORDS: CAPTUR ING THE VOICES OF YOUNG ARTISTS 16 descriptive, interpretive, and judgm ental. Facilitators must gain trust and respect from the students, and select developmentally-appropriate works that can have multiple interpretations. Trust, respect, interest and patience are crucial when wanting ch ildren to respond verbally. These strategies, in simplified, developmentally-approp riate language, are also useful when working with young children as they look at and respond to their own artwork. This article confirms my belief that art, as Barrett comments, does not speak for itself (p. 86).


IN THEIR OWN WORDS: CAPTUR ING THE VOICES OF YOUNG ARTISTS 17 CHAPTE R 3 Research Design This capstone project is a desc riptive case study in which I ex plored the practice, in my classroom, of speaking with children about their art and art-making. Through art, children create meaning or stories based upon their imagination and knowle dge, and learn to associate their marks and symbols with words. The problem I see in early childhood learning practices is that teache rs (and parents) tend to focus on learning the techniques of the art process and the product crea ted, but not necessarily on the meaning constructed. If we limit the ar t experience to crafts, holiday decorations, and coloring pages, we mislead the students into believi ng that art is merely decorative. This doesnt give the child the freedom to be self-expressive. When children learn that their artworks contain information to be shared, they will seek to shar e it verbally as well as visually. Verbal language is considered to be most useful in the context of viewing and reflecting on the art forms with the mediation of a teacher and peer gr oup (Schwartz & Douglas, 1975, p. 9). Young children are curious and learn quickly. By using descriptiv e art terms that are modeled by the teacher, they can l earn how to use specific words to describe what they see, feel, and think. The benefits will include stude nts constructing their own knowledge, their appreciating of diversity, improved imagination in story-telling and the sharing of ideas, and improved critical thinking skills (Mulcahey, 2004). Children can learn to talk about their artwork like artists. I conducted qualitative action research through observation an d audio-recorded documentation of my teaching practices and co nversations with children in my ArtStart


IN THEIR OWN WORDS: CAPTUR ING THE VOICES OF YOUNG ARTISTS 18 preschool classroom After submitting the proper IRB forms to the University of Florida and receiving parent permissions from all fifteen children, I began my research. Population The children that were used for this study ra nge in ages from three to five years and attend the half-day ArtStart presc hool four days a week at the Parkersburg Art Center. I am one of the two teachers that provide a caring and safe learning environm ent with a curriculum that is rich in integrated artmaking activities. The beauty of worki ng with these young ch ildren is that they have not developed preconceived ideas about the meaning of art. Art-making, to them, is a fun way to explore media, learn skills and practice literacy. They have not yet begun to judge critically their art on merits of good or bad, right or wrong. Implementation The ArtStart curriculum is designed to learn the alphabet, science and math through artArt through the A,B,Cs. As the children are we lcomed to class, an ar t activity is arranged for the children to work on until all the students ha ve arrived. For example, if the letter of the day was O they would create a collage with a variety of orange objects. I sit down and coach the children on the process of gluing and cutting and arranging as I engage in conversation with them. Later on, during normal class activity of fr ee play, the children can choose to paint at one of the three easels or work on another ar t project that was planned for the day. For this research, I casually approached the children at the easel (or anywhere in the room) who were nearly finished with project in order to question their tr ain of thought as they worked. Sometimes, I asked the children to shar e their finished artwork with the classshow and tell. Other times, I would take two or three children in the other art-room to work together on a special project. With my recording device on (iPhone), and within a one to two foot


IN THEIR OWN WORDS: CAPTUR ING THE VOICES OF YOUNG ARTISTS 19 distance, I comm ented on their art and asked prob ing questions that encouraged them to see, think, and talk about their artwork. The following list is an example of such prompts; Can you tell me what you are drawing? What are you making with thisribbon, paint, wood? What do you see? Are there shapes, colors, or lines? How did you get this vivid color or make this shape, etc.? How many round shapes are in your picture? How would you describe this to me if I had my eyes closed? What does your image do? Why did you decide to ? Tell me about how you made your art. What do you see in your art that you like? If you can make a story about this, what could it be? What title will you give this? What in this picture makes you say that? This open-ended form of inquiry provided an opportunity for the children to realize a creative and investigative relations hip with their art-making. I adjusted my questions based on their responses. With young children, asking simp le questions such as, what colors did you use? is appropriate. Beginning with simple, obvi ous observations, gives them confidence in their reply.


IN THEIR OWN WORDS: CAPTUR ING THE VOICES OF YOUNG ARTISTS 20 Figure 0-1 Marcia (Investigator) transcribes and records conversation I digitally recorded and transc ribed a number of conversati ons between all the children and myself in my classroom, both individually and in a small group. The collected voices were recorded through the SmartRecord and Voice memo applications on my Smartphone. These were later converted to an mp3 format, and then we re edited using the Audacity program to produce two five-minute audio files of the childrens voices. These audio recordings of the childrens responses to their art are uploaded onto my website for public listening. I used these record ings to analyze our conversations and to transcribe narratives. The final project will be interpreted with a gallery exhibition for friends and family of the ArtStart class at the end of the school year This exhibit will include auditory recordings reflecting the children s responses to their art, texts, and ar twork, as well as the verbal cues that initiated these responses.


IN THEIR OWN WORDS: CAPTUR ING THE VOICES OF YOUNG ARTISTS 21 CHAPTE R 4 Data Analysis and Narratives As I listened to the recordings of the childre n in my classroom, I identified specific types of responses. I listened for descriptions, interpretations or stor y, and feeling of emotion about and in the artwork. In addition, I also documented the type of situation or activity children were engaged. Some responses were elicited alone at the easel, some within a group activity at the table and some in a separate room. The responses reflected the childs visu al literacy as well as communication skills, imagination, and personality. Responding to childrens artwork proved to be challenging. I had to restrain myself from judging the look of the work. No longer did I automa tically exclaim Oh, thats a beautiful flower! Now, I thought, what if it wasnt a flower ? It could be the childs mother. Rather than make my own judgment and assumptions, I deferred to the artist. Could you tell me about this shape? If it did not elicit a re sponse, I pointed out what I saw and asked another question related to the work. It proved more effective to begin with questions that soli cited simple descriptive responses before moving to interpretations. Ev en if the response was one word, it will be considered valuable to mention when reflecting on their artwork. Preschool children have diverse learning styl es, personality traits, social skills, and knowledge base. A child can be outgoing and talkative, or shy and uncomfortable during a conversation. Generally, the children (the names are fictional to preserve privacy) were comfortable talking to me, with the exception of Ava, who rarely says two words to anyone, and Jacob, who are both happy, yet seem to struggle or are more cautious in formulating the right words. The challenge was to find a way for th ese children to look at their art and tell me


IN THEIR OWN WORDS: CAPTUR ING THE VOICES OF YOUNG ARTISTS 22 som ething about it. I found it helpful to sit down and create art with these quiet children in a separate room, away from the noisy, hectic classroom. Narrative 1 Figure 1-1. Ava, age 4 Figure 1-2. Claire, age 5 (Transcribed recorded dialogue with Ava and Claire.) I discovered that Ava (age 4) responded the best when we worked toge ther at a given task in a separate room with only one other student at the table. As Ava and Clair (age 5) chose pieces of scrap wood and other items to assemb le a wooden sculpture, I inquired about their selections. Both girls gathered materials, assemb led, and talked as I assisted with the hot glue gun. Ava directed my attention for gluing her pieces. Marcia (The Investigator): What have you got there, Ava? Ava: A bridge goes across here( She continued in a sing-song voice.) Dont stick it to the table. Marcia: What shape do you have in your hand, there? Is it thick or thin? Ava: Its thin. This goe s right here, right here..its hot. ( Ava discovered a curved piece of reed and looks at it. ) Me want the head band on! Me want the head band on right here. ( Hummed to herself, as she picks up a marble .) The green one goes right there. Marcia: What other colors do you have? Ava: Orange, oang, oang I want this right here! (She counted and lined up five


IN THEIR OWN WORDS: CAPTUR ING THE VOICES OF YOUNG ARTISTS 23 marbles.) Marcia: What colors do you have there? Ava: White, green, blue, and white and y-loow, and blue and orange and green and green and green and y-ll ow and blue and orange and green and y-llow and thats all, thats all, thats allme wants some more, hey can you turn it around a little bit? ( She continued to sing, as she picked up a thin, curved shape of wood.) Add some more, add some more, we gota do a moon, we got a moon. (Avas was experimented with the sound of her voice as she changed her pitch.) Marcia: What would you call that shape? Ava: A door. ( She continued to chant and sing to herself.) Here it is, here it is, put this on top of this! Marcia: What are you going to call this? Ava: A-V-A all done! This conversation, as Clair and Ava and I worked together, was successful in giving Ava a more comfortable situation to express herself verbally w ithout the distractions of the classroom noise and activity. This was the first time she spoke with more than one word. Generally, Ava uses nonverbal l ooks and clues and a single word to get what she wants. Throughout this assembling activity, Clair wa s also talking about each piece she found and its purpose on her structure. It was a cha llenge to listen and re spond to both girls while gluing their projects. Th ankfully, I didnt have to encourag e or prompt Clair to respond. Her words flowed and were primarily interpretive. Claire: Put this right here, its a hamburger. Marcia: I questioned her, its a hamburger? ( I thought it looked like a hotdog.) Claire: Its not a real hamburger, its a sign. (Clair continued to assemble and asked me to glue her pieces.) Thats the room that will help the passengers get off the boat, thats so they can go outside, but they have to go downstairs inside the boat to go out, to keep them dry, and I have a coin. ( She picked up another wooden shape. ) I got this, its a cottage, and its not a cottage from snow white, its the other one, the cottage in the Black Cauldron with three witches living inside, but this is actual ly a boat instead of a cotta ge, I have a book on it. Can you glue it right there? This is something that would help it, if it needs help; it has lots of tools on it. Are you glad I got that? How bout we glue on these gem stones? Put it across, right here, it will power the engine and these have minerals that help it. This goes over here to help that to get all its energy to help it. If it runs out, the sun will help it. Each object she picked up seemed to tr igger yet another thoug ht in her monologue.


IN THEIR OWN WORDS: CAPTUR ING THE VOICES OF YOUNG ARTISTS 24 Marcia: W hats this shape right here? Claire: A horizontal line. Marcia: It is a horizontal line. Claire: I want this stac ked up. Im making something for a Monarch to sit on if its windy. Were making a trophy boa t. Thats not a ship th at floats on the water. Im done with it. Are you glad I did this? Marcia: Are you glad? Claire: I am. Claire has rarely been hesi tant or shy about talking. He r knowledge is extensive for a five year old and her use of descri ptions and stories are prolific. It was benefi cial for Ava to hear Claires imagination through words. Narrative 2 Figure 2-1. (Transcribed recorded dialogue with Claire) There were many instances that Claire creat ed stories in the classroom depending on themes or a passing thought she had. One day, Clair was talking, out loud to anyone that would listen, about a mouse and a pizza. I suggested that she draw a picture of her story. While she finished her drawing, I asked her to tell me about it.


IN THEIR OWN WORDS: CAPTUR ING THE VOICES OF YOUNG ARTISTS 25 Claire: This is a pipe and the water travel s from here to here and the m ouse got stuck behind it. Marcia: It got stuck behind what? Claire: The mouse and the pizza. Marcia: Whats the shape of your pizza? Claire: A triangle and a loop. Marcia: Tell me about this shape right here. Claire: Its a mystery! Marcia: It looks like a question mark, is that what it is? You ar e busy coloring arent you? Claire: Yea, I have to finish it or Ms. Je ssie wont believe me and think one of us put it in there, she believes me though, but Marcia: What are you coloring right now? Claire: Thats actually a rat. Marcia: Oh, I see, its got teeth. Claire: Its a rat. Ther e was once a mouse in my house. Marcia: Whats this shape righ t here that goes up and down? Claire: It is something that gets all the wa ter from the rain and puts it in here, see i goes there, but, this is what happen; First, the first time the rat went there, the first time that I say, the last time it was a ll full of rats. Have you ever saw a rat? ( Clair continues to color her rat black. ) It went through the red door up here, and then it went into this place, and went, down, down, to here and put the pizza in, and then the water got stuck, those are the waters and they got stuck behind the rats and pizza and they c ouldnt get out. Thats what happened so we have to save that rat. Marcia: Oh, my, thats interesting; tell me about these shapes down here. Claire: Those are sinks. Its th e title called the Pizza Got Stuck. ( Claire walked away .) Besides inventing stories, Claire likes to draw, label, and create signs for the classroom that reflect her imagination. Her use of descri ptive language revealed her knowledge and verbal skills. Narrative 3 (Transcribed recorded dialogue with Johnny) As I paint along with the children, I speak of the specific colors I use and how to draw shapes with lines and paint. Modeling artistic be havior as well as descriptive language is a step in word recognition associated with images. I asked, What kind of line are you making? Johnny (age 4) answers, Monster lines! Why are they monster lines? I wondered. Johnny


IN THEIR OWN WORDS: CAPTUR ING THE VOICES OF YOUNG ARTISTS 26 replied, I dont know. I aske d, W hat color are they? John ny looked at his picture and pointed, Kind of purple, green, black, and brow n thats all Then I asked, Are they straight lines or wiggly line s? He responded, wiggly lines! I continued, Do they go horizontally, vertically, dia gonally, up, down,Which way do they go? Upside-down! he proclaims. During this conversation, I used too many unfamiliar terms, so he found his own way of describing a line. Narrative 4 Figure 4-1. (Transcribed recorded dialogue with Abby.) The first child I began to ta lk with about their painting during class was Abby (age 4). She likes to paint and was always at the eas el, painting, during free time. She enjoys mixing colors and painting pretty pictures. She w ould always say, Do you like my picture? Of course, I liked her colorful pictur es. But, I wanted to know more and I wanted her to think about


IN THEIR OWN WORDS: CAPTUR ING THE VOICES OF YOUNG ARTISTS 27 her picture. So, I directed the inquiry back to her. This is a ten m inute dialogue occurred during which Abby painted four paintings. Marcia: Look at all the colors that you used, could you tell me about this? Abby: Look! I mixed two colors to make green! Marcia: (I pointed to the green.) This is? Abby: The grass! Marcia: Tell me about these blue shapes right here. Abby: Thats my family, thats mommy, that s Izzy, thats me, a nd thats daddy! Isnt that pretty, its a blue sky. You can mix two colors to make-green! If you use yellow and blueit makes dark green And you can paint even over it. Do you know what that is up there? Marcia: Tell, me. Abby: Its the sun! ( she finished this painting and begins another ) Now do you know what Im making? ( pause ) Its my room! Marcia: Your room is pink? What else is in your room? Abby: Do you know what I most of all like? Marcia: Tell me. Abby: It is my favorite. It is a Youwho, I like Youwhos, I ha ve, like, a ton of them! Marcia: Tell me, what is a Youwho? Abby: Its my unicorn. Ill show you one (She started anothe r painting.) It is something.., its a little stuffed animal and some of them are b eanie boos, the beanie boos dont make noise, but the Youwhos do. Well, Santa Claus brought me like a really giant one! (She pointed to the picture ) That ones my unicorn Youwho, it a little one, Ill show you what it looks like. ( She finished with this one and began another painting.) Abby: (Singing and painting) splat, splat, slippity, splat, spla t, splat, slippity,, red, red, this is a turkey at the bott omup at his tail ( Called out .) I think I need a different paint brush. Marcia: Why? Abby: Because, this is kind of tough. ( She pushes the brush up and down .) Marcia: Do you want a soft er or harder brush? Abby: Softer. I retrieve a watercolor brush for her. Th en Abby also requested brown paint and yet another smaller paint brush. She thoughtfully remembered what her Beanie Boo turkey looked like as she mixed paint in order to achieve the brown and orange for the feet. She was using her prior knowledge to reconstruc t the image of her toy. She was painting from memory.


IN THEIR OWN WORDS: CAPTUR ING THE VOICES OF YOUNG ARTISTS 28 Figure 4-2. Abbys Turkey painting. Abby: It has a brown belly and has a red waddle. How do you make brown? I think we need to put l ittle feet, It need s little feetnow.let me think, oh, I remember, it was a brown face, and ahh, let me remember what color, lets just make this any color, I remember the side was black. All of these, inside the little circle inside the color right here was bl ack. How are we going to make black? Im making this for my turkey beanie boo. This is an example of how thinking can dire ct the action of painti ng and vice versa. Abby thought about her family. The idea of her family led her to think of her home and bedroom. While thinking about her pink bedroom, she rememb ered her favorite thing that she painted a picture of. Children paint what they know and like. Ev en as I stepped awa y, Abbys happy attitude was reflected in her singing as she painted. She used her imagination, listened to my questions, responded clearly and coherently, made decisions found solutions, described the content of her work, made special comparisons, shared her tho ughts, recalled data, asked questions and learned about mixing and paint application. This conve rsation required listeni ng and observation on both


IN THEIR OWN WORDS: CAPTUR ING THE VOICES OF YOUNG ARTISTS 29 our parts and m y careful consider ation of words. The next day sh e brought in the Turkey Boo to show me. Abby continues to enjoy painting and dr awing. Her drawings are becoming more realistic as she critically thinks about her work. Figure 4-3 Abby age 4. Narrative 5 Figure 5-1 Liams Dinosaur painting


IN THEIR OWN WORDS: CAPTUR ING THE VOICES OF YOUNG ARTISTS 30 (Transcribed recorded dialogue with Liam and Ethan) I also look for an opportunity to talk to som e of the active children about art that normally dont spend much time creating on paper. Occasionally, I point out a piece of artwork that has been hanging on the wall from the previous day. On this occasion, during snack time, I held up a painting of (what looked like to me) a di nosaur. I sat down with Liam (age 5) as talked to the class. His friend Etha n (age 5) is standing nearby. Marcia: Who painted this? Liam: I did. Marcia: Would you like to te ll the class abou t your painting? Liam: Sure, its about a dinosaur. Marcia: What color is your dinosaur? Liam: Its red, blue, and yellow. Marcia: Tell us about the shapes. Liam: This one is a triangle, and this one is a triangle, too. Marcia: How about this white space in the middle? Liam: Thats his contro llers, its a robot dinosaur. Marcia: A robot dinosaur? How does he move? Liam: He moves with his robot legs. Ethan: You need robot feet! (Interrupting) Marcia: Tell me about these yellow lines. Liam: Its for his body, for his face. Marcia: I see that you have three blue spots right here. Liam: Those are his spikes. Marcia: Is he a nice dinosaur? Liam: No, hes ahes is a yea, hes a nice dinosaur. Ethan: Hes a mean dinosaur! ( Interrupting again) Marcia: Ethan thinks hes a mean dinosaur. Liam: Yes, thats what I was going to say. (He paused ) I know what a dinosaur looks like. Marcia: How do you know what a dinosaur looks like? Liam: Cause, because a dinosaur movie and it has a t-rex in it! Ethan: I know about dinosaurs too! ( Interrupting ) Marcia: How do you know about them, Ethan? Ethan: I saw a dinosaur before, on Bubble Guppies. (I nterrupting) Marcia: Is that a TV show? Liam: Thats what I was saying! Marcia: Are they this color? ( Pointing to the picture .) Liam: Theyre different colors. This one has no shirt on, and this is where his spike is. Marcia: How did you make these colors? Liam: I used paint.


IN THEIR OWN WORDS: CAPTUR ING THE VOICES OF YOUNG ARTISTS 31 Marcia: With your fingers? Liam: No, with a paint brush. I really did it with three brushes; I didnt want to mix them up. Marcia: I see that the colors are separate. Marcia: Liam, what should I do with this picture? Liam: You should put ityou should frame it. This conversation with Liam and Ethan exhibite d responses that were descriptive as well as interpretive. Liam thought and spoke about the concept of the painting that included: color, line, shape and the mood of his dinosaur. He also knows what to do with a painting. You should frame it. After Liam finished describi ng his painting, Jenna and Macy al so wanted to tell the class about their artwork. When give n an opportunity, children want to be in the spotlight with undivided attention from the class and the teachers to share what they know.


IN THEIR OWN WORDS: CAPTUR ING THE VOICES OF YOUNG ARTISTS 32 CHAPTE R 5 Summary of Findings I have found that many adults view and respond to childrens art as a nice picture to be admired and complemented for a job well done. In addition to admiration, I have also heard this disheartening question, What is that supposed to be? This question denotes judgment and tells the artist that you are either ill-informed, cant see, or that its a bad painting. We as adults can learn to look at childrens art in a non-judgmental manner and identify what is theresuch as a color, shape, line, pattern or texture. We should not assu me to know that shapes presented in a picture represent people or animals. It could be a robot dinosaur. In order to hear a meaningful response from children, my advice is to first inquire, Tell me about your picture. This will focus their observation skills and thinki ng. Parents and other caregivers can use similar questions to find out what the ch ildren are expressing in their art. I have found that by reserving personal judgm ent, I encouraged children to express and create for themselves not for my pleasure and conformation. As I discovered in my study with these partic ular children, the use of simple encouraging prompts such as, Tell me about the colors you us ed, can inspire the student to think about the painting process as well as the content. Abby sa id, I used two colors to make green! Liam replied, I used a paint brush, I r eally did it with three brushes and I didnt want to mix them up. The question, Tell me something about your picture, produ ced descriptive and imaginative responses from most children in my classroom. As reflected in the narratives, Abby described how she mixed paint, the blue figures represented her family, the pink paint was the color of her room, and her favorite toy is a Beanie Baby. Children al so began to realize that their pictures, constructions, and arrangements contained storieswhether they were


IN THEIR OWN WORDS: CAPTUR ING THE VOICES OF YOUNG ARTISTS 33 imm ediately/clearly visible to the viewer or not. A r ealistic drawing or i llustration was not as important as the story that developed out of it. Some children such as Claire didnt need to be prompted into conversation; she offered stories and commentary throughout the day. As I gave her my attention and listened, I asked probing questions which helped Claire to think a nd clarify her thoughts. She then proceeded to draw and color a picture of her st ory. Claire illustrate d her story of the Mouse and the Pizza in order to tell/show it to her teacher Miss Jessie. I found, that in some situations, wh en asked, Would you tell the class about your painting? that it was too broad or vague a question for some childre n; therefore, finding something specific to talk about is a good star ting point. Tell us a bout these shapes you painted. Once the dialogue commenced, and as I listened, more content wa s revealed to which I inquired further. The key is to listen and ask appropriate non-judgmental questions, without making suppositions about their art but with genu ine interest. Tell me about these blue spots right here, and thats interes ting, tell me about that figure? I found that using questions that reflect art content is a starti ng point in which to draw out dialogue and encourage reflection, thinking and verbal responses. I discovered that the context in which conversations take place has shown to be a factor in a childs responses. Ava, the child who rarely speaks, was quite animated with her responses when we worked on a sculpture pr oject in another room, away from the distractions of the busy classroom. As she picked wooden pieces for her sculpture, I asked, What have you got there, Ava? She looked at the shape and replied, A bridge, it goes across here, goes right here. Normally, her answers would be a nod, or one word. But, by changing the situation, I


IN THEIR OWN WORDS: CAPTUR ING THE VOICES OF YOUNG ARTISTS 34 successfully recorded te n m inutes of conversation with Ava as she assembled her sculpture and described the colors and shapes she found. I have also found that age was not a defining fact or in this class in the type of responses given. The youngest boy in the class surprised me with the attention to detail in his replies. While building a city with Legos, he described the sea monkeys who lived there, what they did, how they talked and their tiny size. This young three year old boy was just as imaginative and descriptive as a five year old boy when talking about his buildings. I now realize that children in my classroom enjoyed looking at and talking about their artwork. Some were more verbal imaginative, and descriptive then others, depending on their individual stage of development. They were also interested in listening to their peers talk about their own art. Even the children who are quiet, wi th a limited vocabulary, or who are not inclined to sit and paint or draw, disc ussed their creations when gi ven the opportunity of undivided attention and gentle prompts. By responding to my prompts I believe that children realized that their art-making is an avenue to communicat e or share their thought s and ideasthrough a picture. As a result of this project, I have modified my teaching practice to include open-ended, specific, and descriptive questions when talking and asking about ch ildrens art. I do not assume to know what they are creating until I inqui re. From now on, whether I am reading aloud, looking at pictures, experimenting with science, or building with blocks I will use and model a more qualitative language as I look, reflect, and respond upon a childs creation. I believe that the children know that I am interested in listeni ng and hearing about their art rather than judging it. It is my advice that it is th e responsibility of th e caring adult to inquire listen, give attention, and significance to childrens creations.


IN THEIR OWN WORDS: CAPTUR ING THE VOICES OF YOUNG ARTISTS 35 Limita tions of the Study Throughout this project I did not presume to th ink that all children can or will verbally express their thoughts for my convenience. Timing and patience are critical when approaching children at their play or work. Depending upon the situation or on the context in which a child is asked to respond, he or she can easily refuse and be uncooperative. I dont feel like talking right now, is the reply I received when I asked a young girl to tell me ab out the picture she had made the previous day. Preschool children have a wide range of de veloped verbal abilities and some may not be able to express their thoughts with words. With this in mind, I had to be inventive to capture even the quiet pre-verbal childrens voices, wh ich can be quite difficult in a noisy classroom. In order for me to be as unobtrusive as possible I did not use a hand-held microphone. By using the internal recording device on my Sm artphone, I had to hold it w ithin one to two feet of their faces, and in a casual manner. As children talk, they move a bout and sometimes wander away. Some sound files had to be reformatted and adjusted to achieve cl arity and amplification. The study may not be all-encompassing and is limited to this small sample of the classroom students in this specific pr eschool of fifteen students.


IN THEIR OWN WORDS: CAPTUR ING THE VOICES OF YOUNG ARTISTS 36 Questions for Further Study By learning to see, r eflect and respond to their artwork, will the children transfer and build on this knowledge to include ot her art forms? I would be inte rested in hearing if they use the same descriptive responses during a gallery tour. As the children continue to respond and talk about their work, will they be more thoughtful in their art-making? Will the parents learn to see, inquire and respond to their childrens artwork with a greater interest?


IN THEIR OWN WORDS: CAPTUR ING THE VOICES OF YOUNG ARTISTS 37 APPE NDIX Consent Form Dear ____________________ (pre-school parent), I am a graduate student in the Department of Art Education at the University of Florida. In association with Jessie Siefert, the director/te acher of ArtStart preschool, and as your childs teacher, I will be conducting research on teaching strategies in which your child learns literacy through their art and mark-making practice. I intend to document and record conversations th at occur with your child about their art and artmaking. This data will result in a public exhibiti on of their art in associ ation with their words and conversations from class. The results of this study may he lp the community of educators, researchers and parents to better understand how the arts can foster literacy (written and verbal communication skills) and can also be beneficial in aesthetic social and c ognitive learning. The results of this study will be reflected in th e group exhibition in March April, 2012 (date to be determined by Parkersburg Art Center director Abby Hayhurst). You and your child have the right to withdraw consent for your ch ild's participation at any time without consequence. There are no known risks or financial benefits. No compensation is offered for participation. The use of your childs firs t name will be used or omitted upon consent. If you have any questions about this research protocol, please contact me at 304-532-1900 or my faculty supervisor, Dr. Craig Roland at 352-391-9165. Questions or concerns about your rights as research participant may be directed to the IRB02 office, University of Florida, Box 112250, Gainesville, FL 32611, (352) 392-0433. Marcia L. Ritchie I have read the procedure described above. I voluntarily give my c onsent for my child _________________, to participate in this study. I have received a copy of this description. ____________________________ ___________ Parent / Guardian Date ____________________________ ___________ Lead Teacher / Witness Date


IN THEIR OWN WORDS: CAPTUR ING THE VOICES OF YOUNG ARTISTS 38 UFIRB 02 Social & Behavioral Research Protocol Submission Form This form must be typed. Send this form and the suppo rting documents to IRB02, PO Box 112250, Gainesville, FL 32611. Should you have questions about completing this form, call 352-392-0433. Title of Protocol: Observation of Children in a classroom setting Principal Investigator: Marcia Ritchie UFID #:1625-8165 Degree / Title: Master of Art Education Email: Department: Art Education U.F. School of Art + Art History Mailing Address: 11 2nd Avenue Ravenswood, WV 26164 Telephone #: 304-273-3522 Co-Investigator(s): N/A UFID#: Email: Supervisor (If PI is student) : Dr. Craig Roland UFID#: Degree / Title: Associate Professor Email : Department: Director of Online MA Program in Art Education Mailing Address: (If on campus include PO Box address): P.O. Box 115801, Gainesville, Fl 32611-5801 Telephone #: 352-391-9165 Date of Proposed Research: January March 2012 Spring A (independent study) Source of Funding (A copy of the grant proposal must be submitted with this protocol if funding is involved): N/A Scientific Purpose of the Study: To investigate best teaching practices in order to conduct conversations with children about their art and mark-making activities in a classroom setting.


IN THEIR OWN WORDS: CAPTUR ING THE VOICES OF YOUNG ARTISTS 39 Describe the Research Methodology in Non-Technical Language: The participants in my regular class will be observed and will be asked general questions about their art work. The dialogue will be documented and digitally recorded. Photographs may be taken of students and their work. Describe Potential Benefits: The children will develop conversational skills with adults and peers. They will understand that they create meaning through st ory and dialogue with their artwork. Describe Potential Risks: ( If risk of physical, psychological or economic harm may be involved, describe the steps taken to protect participant.) No risk will be involved. Describe How Participan t(s) Will Be Recruited: Permission consent forms will be required from pa rents of the children in my pre-school class. Th is will determine participation. Maximum Number of Participants (to be approached with consent) 15 students Age Range of Participants: 3-5 years Amount of Compensation/ course credit: N/A Describe the Informed Consent Process. (Attach a Copy of the Informed Consent Document. See for examples of consent.) Prior to presentation of the consent forms to parents of the preschool children that I teach, I will explain my intention of research through daily teaching and conversation s with their children. This action research will result in a final exhibition that will include their child rens artwork, photographs and words (SIGNATURE SECTION) Principal Investigator(s) Signature: Date: Co-Investigator(s) Signature(s): Date: Supervisors Signature (if PI is a student): Date: Department Chair Signature: Date:


IN THEIR OWN WORDS: CAPTUR ING THE VOICES OF YOUNG ARTISTS 40 Biographical Sketch Since 2006, Marcia Ritchie has ta ught Art Start Preschool at the Parkersburg Art Center (PAC) in Parkersbu rg, West Virginia. Her wo rk at PAC includes developing community art education programs and outreach, membership, fundraising and web co mmunication systems. Her life experiences of raising three children, substitute art t eaching at Jackson County Schools (K-12), coaching, volunteering, and painting, all contribute to an appreciation of the diverse ways different children learn. Marcia is a member of the National Art E ducation Association (NAEA) and the National Association of the Education of Young Children (NAEYC.) Her e ducation includes a BA in Art and Theatre from West Virginia Wesleyan Co llege. Upon completion of the Masters of Art Education from University of Florida, Marcia in tends to continue to teach at PAC and advocate for arts in the community and the early elementary classroom.


IN THEIR OWN WORDS: CAPTUR ING THE VOICES OF YOUNG ARTISTS 41 RFERENCES Barrett, T. (2004). Im proving st udent dialogue about art, Teaching Artist Journal, 2 (2), 87-94. Diachenko, O. M. (2011). On major devel opments in preschoolers imagination International Journal of Early Years Education 19 (1), 19-25. Douglas, N., Schwartz, J. & Taylor, B. (1981). The relationship of cognitive style of Young children and their modes of responding to paintings, Studies in Art Education 22(3), 24-31. Fineberg, J. D., Phillips Collection., & Krannert Art Museum. (2006). When we were young: New perspectiv es on the art of the child Berkeley: University of California Press, in association with the Phillips Collection Center for the Study of Modern Art and Illinois at the Phillips, a program of the Univers ity of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Gandini, L., Hill, L., Cadwell, L., & Schwall, C. (Eds.). (2004). In the spirit of the studio: Learning from the atelier of Reggio Emilia New York, NY: Teachers College Press. Housen, A. (2007). Art viewing and aesthetic developm ent: designing for the viewer. Retrieved February 2, 2012, from ources/0000/0015/HousenArtViewing.pdf Jalongo, M. R. & Stamp, L. N. (1997). The arts in childrens lives: aesthetic education for early childhood. Massachusetts: Allyn and Bacon. Keel, J. S. (1969). Herbert R ead on education through art. Journal of Aesthetic Education 3 (4), 4758. Mulcahey, C. (Ed.). (2009). The Story in the picture; Inqu iry and art making with young children New York, NY: Teachers College Press.


IN THEIR OWN WORDS: CAPTUR ING THE VOICES OF YOUNG ARTISTS 42 Reggio Children (2009). Introduction to the exhibit The Hundred Languages of Children Retrieved February 13, 2012 from n_GB/pdf/storia.pdf Schwartz, J. & Douglas, N. (1975). Where is art education in early childhood today? Art Education 28(4), 6-10. Tarr, P. (2001). Aesthetic codes in early childhood classrooms: What art educators can learn from Reggio Emilia, Art Education 54(3), 33-39. Tollifson, J. (2011). Enh ancing students res ponses to art through qualitative language, Art Education, 64( 6), 11-19.