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ADVOCATING FOR VISUA L ARTS IN THE SMALL PRIVATE SCHOOL BY DENEAL PEDERSON SUPERVISORY COMMITTE E: CRAIG ROL A ND, CHAIR SUSAN WHITELAND, MEM BER SUPPORTING PAPER FOR CAPSTONE PROJECT PRESENTED TO THE COLLEGE OF FINE ARTS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS UNIVERSITY OF FLORID A 2012
ii 2011 DeNeal Pederson
iii ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I would like to thank my husband for his unwavering support during this time where I have been stretched in so many directions. I would also like to thank my daughter who has been walking side by side with me in this college journey. I am so proud that we will be graduating one day apart. A special thanks to Michael A Burroughs of the Florid a League of Christian Schools for his assistance in my research process.
iv TABLE OF CONTENTS A CKNOWLEDGMENTS ................................ ................................ ............................... iii LIST OF FIGURES ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 1 ABSTRACT ................................ ................................ ................................ .................. 2 CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION ................................ ................................ .......................... 4 2: LITERATURE REVIEW ................................ ................................ ................ 8 3: RESEARCH METHODS ................................ ................................ ............. 13 4: REFLECTION ................................ ................................ ............................. 18 APPENDIX A ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 20 APPE NDIX B ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 26 APPENDIX C ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 30 REFERENCES ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 31 BIOGRAPHY ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 33
1 LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE PAGE 1 1 ................................ ................................ ................................ ...................... 4 2 1 ................................ ................................ ................................ ...................... 8 3 1 ................................ ................................ ................................ ...................... 16 3 2 ................................ ................................ ................................ ...................... 17
2 ABSTRACT OF CAPSTONE PROJECT SUPPORTING PAPER IN LIEU OF THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRA DUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORID A IN PARTIAL FU LFILLMENT OF THE REQ UIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS ADVOCATING FOR VISUA L ARTS IN THE SMALL PRIVATE SCHOOL By DeNeal Pederson March 2012 Chair : Craig Roland Member: Susan Whiteland Major: Art Education Abstract There is an entire population of students that have no formal visual arts education in their school curriculum; this is the population of students in small private schools. I define a small private school as having a total population of less than 200 students or 10 or fewer faculty/staff members. I previously performed a quantitative pilot study (Pederson, 201 1 ) of small private schools in Central Florida and determined that the small private school is least likely to have a designated visual arts program in their curriculum According to my independent research project (Pederson, 2012) the main reason given for this deficiency is financial limitations. As a result of these earlier studies, I decided to focus this capstone project on advocating for the inclusion of visual arts education in the small private school curriculum. I have researched a wide variety of art advocacy methods from various sources to determine the most effective approach to advocate for the visual arts in small private schools. I have also researched available art curriculum that could be used by private school educators to integrate the teachers who have no art background. I have also investigated free on line resources for lesson plans and museum
A DVOCATING FOR THE VI SUAL ARTS 3 resources that ar e available to any teacher interested in incorporating visual art into his or her curriculum. My capstone project consisted of an article for submission to the publications of various private school agencies and organizations along with a supporting webs ite providing links to the resources I discovered during my research. This website is a one stop guide for teachers and administrators of small private schools.
A DVOCATING FOR THE VI SUAL ARTS 4 CHAPTER 1: ADVOCATING FOR THE VISUAL ARTS IN THE SMALL PRIVATE SCHOOL Introduction The reason for the existence of private schools in the United States today is mainly to provide a high quality educational experience that meets the needs of individual students in a way that is not available through the public school system. According to W. J. Stauch Nelson ( 2002) parents in private schools assume d that their children are receiving art education in their private schools felt that (p. 241) M educational experience, inclu ding visual arts, and theater. For the small private school, however, there are major challenges to offering this quality arts experience. According to my recent study of private schools in Central Florida (Pederson, 2012) small private schools, defined as 200 or fewer students or 10 or fewer faculty/staff members, were the most likely not to have a designated visual arts program in their overall curriculum. In the main reasons were financial limitations, lack of quali fied instructors and curriculum resources (See figure 1 1) My capstone project serves to advocate for the visual arts in these small private schools through an article to be submitted to publications for the private schools in various organizations and a website that provides numerous resources for planning an art curriculum, plus free lesson plans and museum resources that can be used by both
A DVOCATING FOR THE VI SUAL ARTS 5 qualified art instructors and regular classroom teachers. It is made clear that financial limitations should n ot prevent a school from providing a valuable visual arts experience for their students. Figure 1 1 Reasons for No Art Program Pederson (2012) Statement of the Problem My previous research project indicate d that the small priv ate school is not likely to include a visual arts program in their overall curriculum (Pederson, 2012) My capstone project address es the following questions:
A DVOCATING FOR THE VI SUAL ARTS 6 Research question : What is the best method to advocate for the visual arts in the small private school? Sub question? What are the limitations that prevent a small private school from including the visual arts in their curriculum ? Sub question : What resources are available that will be most beneficial to the small private school to include the visu al arts in their curriculum? There currently is very little research on the issue of the visual arts in private schools. None of the research looks at ways to advocate for the visual arts in the small private school My research provided insight into th e reasons these small private schools do not offer visual arts as part of their curriculum. In order to effectively advocate for the visual arts to these schools, I believe it is necessary to : (1) reinforce the ducation ; (2) help small private schools overcome the limitations of inadequate finances ; and (3) highlight the availability of low cost art curriculum readily available art lesson plans and art museum resources. Definition of Key Term : Art Advocacy A rt advocacy is the process of developing sound and educationally supported reasoning for inclusion of Curriculum The particular course of study used in teaching a specific discipline. Most states have guidelines an d standards that must be met through the curriculum. Art Education The educational discipline of teaching art including, art history, art production, art evaluation/critique and art careers.
A DVOCATING FOR THE VI SUAL ARTS 7 Small Private Schools For the purposes of this paper the sma ll private school refers to a school with a student population under 200 students and/or a faculty and staff of 10 individuals or less. Visual Arts The arts created primarily for visual perception such as drawing, graphics, painting, sculpture, photograp hy and the various aspects of visual culture Limitations of the Study A l imitation of this study is that I am only looking at small private schools in Central Florida. It is possible that small private schools in other parts of the country would have dif ferent priorities in their curriculum. From my research study there appears to be a direct correlation between the size of the school and inclusion of visual arts in their curriculum My assumptions are that the same would hold true for schools in other p arts of the country. The schools for my study included two different licensing organizations, The Florida League of Christian Schools that obviously is limited to private Christian schools, and the Florida Conference of Independent Schools which includes all types of private schools. Since nearly half of the responding schools are private Christian schools it may bias the value that these schools place on the visual arts, however, it appears that there was no difference between the schools in the two grou ps.
A DVOCATING FOR THE VI SUAL ARTS 8 CHAPTER 2 : L ITERATURE REVIEW My research of supporting literature and existing research did n ot produce very much useful information. A limited quantity of literature has been written or researched regarding the visual arts in private schools. One i tem of significance was a doctoral dissertation (Stauch Nelson, 2002) regarding the state of art programing in the private school choice environment in the Milwaukee school system. In her dissertation, Dr. Stauch Nelson investigates the state of the visu al arts in various types of private schools in Milwaukee, based on the school choice program available there. She determined through her studies that many parents deemed visual art education to be important yet they usually did not use that as criteria fo r choosing a private school and most of them assumed that all private schools were required to provide a visual arts education since it was required in the public schools. Most parents that choose to put their students in a private school expect that thei r students will be getting a better education than what they would receive in the public schools but in reality, that often is not happening in relation to the visual arts. This supports my idea for the need for art advocacy in private schools so that adm overall education Art Advocacy There is a great deal of information on art advocacy that I research ed in order to determine the best approach of advocacy to encourage the small private school to include the visual arts in their curriculum. From my research study (Pederson, 2012) it is apparent that the majority of small private schools that do not offer visual arts as part of their curriculum are religious schools.
A DVOCATING FOR THE VI SUAL ARTS 9 There is one entire issue of, The Journal of Adventist Education, which deals with art advocacy for the Christian school. There are a number of articles that would be good resources to use to convince a small Christian school of the need for visual arts in the ir curriculum. In the first article, Why Are the Arts so Important ? Dickenson ( 2008 ) published a list of reasons why the arts are so important to education (Appendix C) This list is a quick reference that could be presented to parents, administrators a nd educators in small private schools to give them an understanding that visual arts is not In another article Integrating the Arts into the Classroom, Elkins ( 2008) discusse s her research in art education that has centered on curriculum integration and visual culture. She has a middle school and high school teaching background that led her to seek solutions for the challenges faced by the average educator in teaching art. She concluded that in multi grade schools, the only way to successfully teach the arts is to integrate them into the regular curriculum. She feels that a classroom teacher does not have to have artistic talent to expose students to the traditions and history of art that are vital to an understanding of different cultures John Wesley Taylor ( 2008) in an article for The Journal of Adventist Education states, our capac ity for observation, train our power of reflection, and help us to identify and (p. 5) The arts are a reflection of who we are as thinking, creative beings and our understanding of our lives and relationships. The fact that art in some form has been part of every culture since before written history speaks to the value it has in the human experience. From the cave painting in Lascaux, France to story and to express his feelings and place in this world.
A DVOCATING FOR THE VI SUAL ARTS 10 There are many on line resources for advocating for the visual arts including the NAEA website and their published Advocacy White Papers for Art Education They also 10 Lesso ns the Arts Teach (Eisner, 2002) Many of these resources are listed on my website for this project, artonadime.weebly.com Figure 2 1 Art on a Dime Website (Pederson 2012) Parents can play a big role in advocating for visual ar education. I looked at, Empowering Parents to Advocate for the Arts Davila, ( 2010 ) addresses the major questions of how parents can be in volved in art advocacy in their their understanding of school structures and how to provide them practical tools for advocating for the arts in their schools. Anothe r source that gives a well rounded look at art advocacy is, The Four Principles of Art Advocacy: Public Awareness, Professional Development, Policy making, and Patronage (Irwin, 1993). Irwin criticizes some of the art advocacy methods
A DVOCATING FOR THE VI SUAL ARTS 11 used to promote the arts in education as a commodity for consumerism and instead encourages an approach that really values the arts for themselves by developing public awareness, professional development, policy making and patronage. Curriculum Choices for Small Private Sch ools A paper I used to help develop resources for curriculum choices for the small private school is a thesis, Art for the Home Schooled Student: A Document Analysis of Art Curricula Commonly Used by Georgia Homeschoolers (Albright, 2010) where the author evaluates various curricula that are used most often by home schooling educators in Georgia. Many small private schools already use similar type of curricula that allow for the regular classroom teacher to teach a subject that they may not have a particu lar expertise in. This thesis gave me a starting point for exploring additional art curricula that could be recommended on my website. I also read several books on various teaching methods to determine if and how they integrate the visual arts in their c urriculum. I read Montessori: The Science Behind the Genius ( Lillard 2005) to get a better understanding of the Montessori Method and how basic elements of art are incorporated into their learning processes. I discovered that they incorporate basic art concepts along the way with their manipulative items from the earliest stages of learning. Color, shape, form, line, value and texture are part of the learning experience in many forms. A rt can be integrated into a core curriculum in numerous ways. The Reggio E m i lia approach is more project oriented allowing students to thoroughly explore an area of study while using art as a method of exploration. This
A DVOCATING FOR THE VI SUAL ARTS 12 approach can be used in a school with limited resources. From the book The Language of Art: Inquiry Based Studio Practices in Early Childhood Settings ( Pelo 2007) states, scale art studios in each school building, as well as mini studio spaces, and no art teac and the spaces are small, with every bit of space at a premium. Our studio spaces double as eating and napping spaces during the course of our days with mmunity of children, families, and teachers engaged together in collaborative inquiry and joyful play. We aim to embrace beauty and full bodied sensory experiences. And we aim to (p. 1). This book provides very practical methods of integrating art in the overall learning process. Waldorf schools also integrate the arts into their learning experiences. In Understanding Waldorf Educatio n: Teaching from the Inside Out ( Petrash 20 02) states learning process. Emotional activity is an integral part of the Waldorf grade school experience. Drawing, singing, painting, and poetry have their regular place in the educational program because they provide nourishment for the effective a spects of a ( Ch. 4). Waldorf is another teaching method that successfully integrates art into the learning process and can be of benefit to educator s with limited resources to help them find ways themselves to incorporate the visual arts into their curriculum.
A DVOCATING FOR THE VI SUAL ARTS 13 CHAPTER 3: Research Methods In order to accomplish the goals of my capstone project; which was to provide resources to small private schools t o integrate the visual arts into their curriculum I needed to first define what the reasons were that prevented them from including the visual arts in their programs. Through a quantitative survey of private schools in the Central Florida region (Pederso n, 2012 Appendix B ) I was able to determine that the small private school was most likely not to include the visual arts in their overall curriculum and the top three reasons were; 1) limited financial resources, 2) lack of qualified educators, and 3) lac k of available curriculum. This gave me direction for developing my project which is an article for publication in the publications of the a gencies involved in the study and a website giving a wide variety of resources that meet the needs of these small p rivate schools including art advocacy, curriculum resources, free lesson plans and museum resources. M y research also investigate d through critical analysis, scholarly writings and resources of various organ i zations on art advocacy to determine which meth ods of art advocacy are most advantageous to present to these schools and parents Many of these resources are listed on my website as part of this project and were used in the article presented to the licensing agencies Through on line research I found n umerous art curriculum resources that are used by home school groups, small private schools as well as art curriculum from well respected publishers of art curriculum such as Davis Publications. While some of the schools in the study felt there was not cu rriculum av ailable, I was able to show that there are many resources that are affordable and easy to incorporate in a school curriculum even with teachers that do not have an art education background.
A DVOCATING FOR THE VI SUAL ARTS 14 I also looked at teaching methods of art integration a nd curriculum that could be used effectively by these small private schools. I look ed at curriculum available for home school students. I also investigated Montessori, Waldorf and Reggio Emilia t eaching methods and philosophy to determine if and how vis ual arts are incorporated in their curriculum. Population The target population of this project was administrators and teachers in small private school s From my pilot study (Pederson, 201 1 ) it is apparent that the small private school is much less likely to include the visual arts in their overall curriculum. This leaves an entire population of students that do not have visual arts as part of their education. By focusing on this population of small private schools, I was able to provide them with adequa te reasons and resources to make the effort to make the visual arts an integral part of their overall curriculum. The majority of them are certified by the Florida Council of Independent Schools or the Florida League of Christian schools Analysis S mall p rivate school s are not likely to include a visual arts program in their overall curriculum. My capstone project address es the best method to advocate for the visual arts in the small private school These schools perceive that there are limitations that prevent them from including the visual arts in their curriculum. Through my research I have discovered resources that are available that will be most beneficial to the small private school to include the visual arts in their curriculum.
A DVOCATING FOR THE VI SUAL ARTS 15 Using the informa tion gained from my research study, I evaluate d which art advocacy methods would best meet the needs of the small private school, its students and parents. The majority of the larger private schools had full visual arts programs with art teachers and a ful l line of courses available. The small private schools did not other means of integrating the visual arts into their curriculum. In my article I gave them well as engage them in life long learning that is cross curricular and valuable. I gathe r ed curriculum resources that were very affordable that use materials that most educators would have available in their classrooms. These curriculum resources do not require the educator to have a background in art education or to have any particular arti stic skills. Many of the resources integrate the arts into the core disciplines while actually teaching art understanding and skills. I also gathered resources of free lesson plans that are written by art educators that are easily ad apted for the classro om teacher ( See figure 3 1 )
A DVOCATING FOR THE VI SUAL ARTS 16 Figure 3 1 Art on a Dime Curriculum Page I have also provided links to numerous on line museum resources that offer incredible virtual museum tours accompanied by lesson plans on historical and cultural subjects that can be beneficial in engaging students in study of history and the cultures of oth er countries all over the world (See figure 3 2). With these resources at their fingertips, there is no reason that the small private school should not be able to integrate and inc orporate the visual arts into their overall curriculum.
A DVOCATING FOR THE VI SUAL ARTS 17 Figure 3 2 Art on a Dime Museum Page
A DVOCATING FOR THE VI SUAL ARTS 18 CHAPTER 4 : REFLECTION Based on my pilot study, it is clear that the small private school is much less likely to have any type of visual arts program in its over all curriculum. The main reason visual arts in their program. curriculum without having to have a trai ned art specialist, even though that would be the ideal situation. It is clear that the visual arts can be integrated into an overall curriculum in a small school by the classroom teacher. There are also art curriculum resources, often used by home schoo l groups, which can be taught by a regular classroom teacher without special training in the arts. By providing affordable art resources to the schools, lack of funds is no longer a reason for not providing visual arts. According to Stauch Nelson ( 2002), many parents agree that they want their children to have a visual arts experience in their schools, and many of them assume their children are school. I anticipate that parents do have i nfluence and input into what is taught at small private schools but if they are not educated in the value of the art experience, they may not know to ask for it when they are choosing a school. Future research may need to be done on how to reach these par ticular parents that choose the private school. I research ed scholarly articles on art advocacy and develop ed a web site as a resource for educators to show them the value of a visual art education for their students. This web site a lso provide s resourc es for various types of art curriculum that could be implemented by a regular classroom teacher. It makes available links to free on line lesson plans created by art educators that can be used by the classroom teacher to integrate art into their curriculu m. I also researched on line museum resources and provided links to museums all over the world that offer virtual on line tours with
A DVOCATING FOR THE VI SUAL ARTS 19 accompanying lesson plans. Making these resources available to the schools is the goal of this project. I have written an article for the publications of various private school organizations to advocate for the visual arts and share the link to my website artonadime.weebly.com that gives them the means to access all of the resources I gathered during my research process. By distributing this information to these private schools, my desire is that it will impact the lives of the young people in these schools by convincing their schools that they are able to incorporate the visual arts into their overall curriculum.
A DVOCATING FOR THE VI SUAL ARTS 20 APPE NDIX A The Status of Visual Arts Education in Private Schools Pilot Study November 27, 2011 Introduction The intent of this pilot study is to determine the validity of my proposed capstone to determine whether private schools offer a designated visual arts program as part of their overall curriculum. From my personal experience, I have found that small private schools are less likely to offer a visual arts program than larger private schoo ls. My thesis focus es on the reasons that small private schools do not have visual arts programs and what type of art advocacy would be most effective in assisting these small private schools to initiate a visual arts program in their curriculum. In orde r to determine the status of the visual arts in private schools, this pilot study looks at the websites of various types and sizes of private schools to get a more accurate picture of whether they offer visual arts or not. Hypothesis The research question the small private schools are much less likely to have any type of designated visual arts program or c urriculum. This would leave an entire student population in small private schools without any type of visual arts experience in their educational career. My passion and desire is to find a way to encourage these small private schools to
A DVOCATING FOR THE VI SUAL ARTS 21 incorporate the visual arts and to help them understand the value of a visual arts Research Design The research of this pilot study is a statistical analysis of information obtained from the websites of various types of private sc hools. The schools are identified by type of school; Catholic, Christian, Hebrew, Independent Day School, Military, Art Schools, Montessori, Waldorf and Reggio Emilia. They also are categorized as a small private school defined as having fewer than 200 s tudents and/or 10 or fewer faculty and staff members, or as a large school having more than 200 students and a larger faculty and staff. Using on line databases to obtain the websites for the various types of private schools, I determined the size of the school and whether the visual arts are offered as a designated part of their overall curriculum. This data was categorized according to the type of school, the size of the school and the place the visual arts place in their overall curriculum. Conclusio ns were then drawn as to whether the hypothesis that small private schools are much less likely to offer visual arts as part of their curriculum is correct. Findings My research looked at a total of 57 school websites, primarily in Central Florida, broken down as follows; Catholic 10, Hebrew 10, Christian 10, Independent Day Schools 10, Art Schools 5, Montessori 3, Waldorf 3, Reggio Emilia 1. It was more difficult to find and identify Montessori, Waldorf and Reggio Emilia schools in the Cen tral Florida region on the internet but since it is already known that the visual arts are an integral part of their educational philosophy, they were included mainly to verify that
A DVOCATING FOR THE VI SUAL ARTS 22 they do in fact integrate the visual arts as stated in their websites. Be low is a breakdown of the statistics.
A DVOCATING FOR THE VI SUAL ARTS 23 Pilot Study Statistics Type of School Large School Small School Designated Visual Arts Program Integrated Visual Arts Program No Visual Arts Program Catholic 10 9 1 Catholic 0 Hebrew 9 8 1 Hebrew 1 1 Christian 4 4 Christian 7 7 Independent 9 9 Independent 1 1 Military 5 5 Military 0 Art 4 3 1 Art 1 1 Montessori 2 2 Montessori 1 1 Waldorf 0 Waldorf 3 3 Reggio Emilia 0 Reggio Emilia 1 1
A DVOCATING FOR THE VI SUAL ARTS 24 Breakdown of Findings by Type of School Catholic Schools All ten Catholic schools were large schools and 9 out of 10 provided a designated visual arts program in their schools. Hebrew Schools Nine of the schools were large and 8 out of the 9 provide d a visual arts program, one did not provide any visual arts. The one that was small had no visual arts program. Independent Schools Nine of the schools were large and all of them provided a designated visual arts program. One was small and had no visu al arts program. Military Schools All five schools were large schools and did provide a designated visual arts program. Performing Arts Schools Four were large schools, three provided a designated visual arts program and the fourth had visual arts int egrated in the curriculum as it was also modeled after Montessori and Waldorf educational models. One performing arts school was small and did not provide a visual arts program. Montessori Two of the Montessori schools were large and one was small and a ll three had visual arts integrated in their curriculum. Waldorf All three Waldorf schools were small and all three integrated the visual arts in their curriculum. Reggio Emilia The Reggio Emilia school was small and integrated the visual arts in their curriculum.
A DVOCATING FOR THE VI SUAL ARTS 25 Breakdown by Size of School Large Private Schools Forty three of the 57 schools were large schools and of those 38 had designated visual arts programs, 3 integrated the visual arts in their curriculum and 2 had no visual arts programs. Small Private Schools Fifteen of the schools were small private schools. Of the 15, 10 had no visual arts programs and 5 integrated the visual arts in their curriculum. If you exclude the Montessori, Waldorf and Reggio Emilia schools which integrate the vis ual arts as part of their educational philosophy, the remaining 10 small private schools have no visual arts programs whatsoever. Conclusions Based on the hypothesis that the small private school is much less likely to provide a designated visual arts p rogram, the statistics seem to support the hypothesis. Of the 43 large private schools, only 2 did not provide a designated visual arts program, one Catholic school and one Hebrew School. Excluding the Montessori, Waldorf and Reggio Emilia schools, the r emaining 10 small private schools had no designated visual arts program. These statistics give value to my thesis project of looking at why small private schools do not offer visual arts as part of their overall curriculum and as a result of that study, I was be able to determine the best art advocacy approaches to reach this student population that is being deprived of a valuable art experience.
A DVOCATING FOR THE VI SUAL ARTS 26 APPENDIX B Research Survey Summary February 2012 Why the Small Private School is Least Likely to Offer the Vis ual Arts The purpose of this research project was to determine why the small private schools often do not include a visual arts program in their overall curriculum. The research was focused on small private schools in the Central Florida region that are m embers of the Florida Council of Independent Schools and the Florida League of Christian Schools. A small private school was defined as schools with 200 or fewer students or 10 or fewer faculty/staff members. A multiple choice question survey was sent v ia Survey Monkey to the schools that were identified from these organizations. Of the 20 schools that responded, 12 were determined to fit within the definition of a small private school. Some of the results of the questions are contradictory and conclus ions cannot be drawn since only one school indicated that they did not have a dedicated visual arts program but on question the reasons there were at least 4 schools that responded. Since the main purpose of the study was to determine the main reasons that small private schools often do not include the visual arts in their overall curriculum, the information from question #5 was used as the indicator for the resources I chose to provide in my project.
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A DVOCATING FOR THE VI SUAL ARTS 30 APPENDIX C
A DVOCATING FOR THE VI SUAL ARTS 31 References Albright, A.L. (2010). Art for the home schooled student: A document analysis of art curricula commonly used by Georgia home schoolers. Art and Design These s. Paper 64. Accessed from: http://digitalarchive.gsu.edu/art_design_theses/64. thesis) California State University, Sacramento CA Dickenson, D. (2008) Why are the a rts so important? The Journal of Adventist Education, October/November, 18 Eisner, E. (2002). The arts and the creation of mind What the arts teach and how it shows (70 92). New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. Available from NAEA Publications. Elkins S.P. (w2008) Integrating the arts into the classroom. The Journal of Adventist Education, October/November, 33 35. Irwin, R.L. (1993). The four principles of art advocacy: Public awareness, professional development, policy making, and patronage Art Ed ucation, 46 (1), 71 77. Lillard, A. S. (2007). Montessori, the science behind the genius New York, New York: Oxford University Press. Nordlund, C.Y. (2006) making reflections. (Unpublished doctora l dissertation) University of Missouri, Columbia MO
A DVOCATING FOR THE VI SUAL ARTS 32 Pelo, A (2007). The language of art: Inquiry based studio practices in early childhood settings. St. Paul, MN: Redleaf Press. Petrash, J. ( 2002 ). Understanding Waldorf education: Teaching from the ins ide out. Beltsvills, MD : Gryphon House, Inc. Pederson D. (2011). The state of visual arts in private schools. ( U npublished pilot study) University of Florida, Gainesville FL Pederson D. (2011). Why the Small Private School is Least Likely to Offer th e Visual Arts (Unpublished research study). University of Florida, Gainesville, FL Stauch Nelson, W.J., (2002). The state of art programing in a private school choice environment. (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee.
A DVOCATING FOR THE VI SUAL ARTS 33 Narrative Bio graphy DeNeal Pederson has been an art educator in Tampa, FL for the past 11 years and has been teaching at the same high school for the last 10 years. She holds a Bachelor of Science degree with distinction in Art Education from the Univer sity of Minnesota. Her interests are in drawing, painting and hand building ceramics as well as being a professional photographer working in the Tampa Bay area. She and her husband own their own photography business doing weddings and portraiture and hav e been selected as Album Designers of the Year for the last 4 years by the Tampa Area