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The involvement of on-campus and off-campus students in academic and non-academic activities in Nigerian universities
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 Material Information
Title: The involvement of on-campus and off-campus students in academic and non-academic activities in Nigerian universities
Physical Description: xiii, 148 leaves : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Falade, Christianah I
Publication Date: 1988
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: College students -- Nigeria   ( lcsh )
Student activities -- Nigeria   ( lcsh )
Dormitories -- Nigeria   ( lcsh )
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Thesis: Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Florida, 1988.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Statement of Responsibility: by Christianah I. Falade.
General Note: Typescript.
General Note: Vita.
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Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 19563087
ocm19563087
System ID: AA00011206:00001

Full Text

















THE INVOLVEMENT OF ON-CAMPUS AND OFF-CAMPUS STUDENTS
IN ACADEMIC AND NON-ACADEMIC ACTIVITIES
IN NIGERIAN UNIVERSITIES









BY

CHRISTIANAH I. FALADE


A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS
FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY



UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

1988


17 LRSj~y OF FLORIDuma
04 MM













































Copyright 1988

by

Christianah I. Falade


















DEDICATION


To the honor and glory of my God and Savior Jesus Christ.

"Thine 0 LORD, is the greatness, and the power, and the

glory, and the victory, and the majesty; for all that is

in the heaven and in the earth is thine, thine is the

kingdom, 0 LORD, and thou art exalted as head above all.

Both riches and honor come of thee, and thou reignest over

all; and in thine hand is power and might; and in thine

hand it is to make great, and to give strength unto all.

Now therefore, our God, we thank thee, and praise thy

glorious name." (1 Chronicles 29:11-13 KJV)


















ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS


The completion of this work has been possible through the help,

support, inspiration, and guidance of many people to whom I will be

forever grateful.

I would like to extend my gratitude to all the members of my

supervisory committee, Dr. James Wattenbarger, the chairman, who

supported, encouraged and directed me throughout the Ph.D. program.

I also extend my appreciation to Dr. Arthur Sandeen and Dr. Max

Parker for their contributions to this dissertation.

I am very grateful to Dr. James Heald for his support and the

part he played in shaping my ideas and in correcting this work. I am

also thankful to all the people at the Department of Educational

Leadership who offered me a graduate assistantship throughout my

program without which it would have been financially difficult for me

to finish my doctorate.

Special appreciation is hereby extended to Kathy Carroll and

Sharon Lake at the department office for the warm and friendly

environment they provide. I also thank Leila Cantara for her support,

help, and most especially for her expertise and enthusiasm in getting

the typing done.












I would like to express my appreciation to my parents Joseph

Richard Oni and Janet Omotayo Abiodun, though deceased they are

remembered for the character instilled in me from youth. I am also

grateful to my stepmother who loved, served, and invested in my life.

I extend thanks to my Uncle Gabriel Ojo Falegan who believed in me and

planted the first "seed" of my college education. Special gratitude

is also extended to my brothers, Vincent and Victor, for their love

and support for their "baby sister" and for willingly and joyfully

sponsoring me throughout my undergraduate education. I am also

thankful to my sister Bodunde for her love, moral and financial

support, and contribution towards my education.

My special appreciation is extended to all Maranatha Church

brethren and also to Dr. and Mrs. M. Sadiku, Dr. and Mrs. F. Ogunji,

Dr. and Mrs. Nweke, Dr. Bisi Ugbebor, Mr. Kayode Odunuga, Granny

Waveney, and Ms. Marlene Darlington for their support and prayers.

I would like to express my deepest gratitude to my husband

Christopher who gave his "all" to make this achievement possible and

to my children 'Seyi and 'Seun who sacrificed, prayed, and helped me

in their own little ways to finish.

Finally, I thank God and my Savior Jesus Christ for giving me the

life, guidance, the provision, and the opportunity to achieve this in

life; for in Him I live and move and have my being.


















TABLE OF CONTENTS



ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS . . . . . . . . ... ...... iii

ABSTRACT . . . . . . . . ... . . .... xii

CHAPTERS

I INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . ... ... .. 1

Statement of the Problem . . . . . . . . 9
Justification . . . . . . . . ... . . 11
Delimitations . . . . . .. . . . .... 13
Limitations . . . . . . . .... ..... 14
Assumptions . . . . . . . .... ..... 15
Definition of Terms . . . . . . . .... .16
Research Procedure: An Overview . . . . . ... 19
Data Analysis: An Overview. . . . . . . ... 21
Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . 21

II REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE . . . . . .... 23

Introduction ................ .. .. 23
Academic Achievement, Library Usage, and Study Habits .. 29
Extracurricular Activities . . . . . . ... 38
Student/Faculty Interaction . . . . . .... 40
Students' Outcomes . . . . . ........ 41
Residence Location Factors . . . . . ... 43
Peer Relationships . . . . . . . .... . 46
College Satisfaction . . . . . . . ... 49
Summary . . . . . . . . . . . 51

III RESEARCH METHODOLOGY . . . . . . ..... .53

Research Design . . . . . . . . ... ... 53
Setting . . . . . . . . ... ...... 54
Sample Selectiono . . . . . . . .. 57
Procedure for Data Collection ............. 58
Statistical Analysis of Data . . . . . .. 59
Summary . . . . . . . . ... .... 61













IV RESULTS OF THE STUDY . . . . . . . . .. 63

Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . 63
Description of the Sample . . . . . . .... .64
Test of Hypothesis One . . . . . . . . .. 72
Test of Hypothesis Two . . . . . . . ... .. 83
Test of Hypothesis Three . . . . . . ..... . 86
Test of Hypothesis Four . . . . . . ... .. 89
Test of Hypothesis Five . . . . . . .... .92
Test of Hypothesis Six and Sub-hypotheses 6a, 6b, 6c,
6d, 6e, 6f, and 6g . . . . . . . . . 98
Summary . . . . . . . .. . . . . 109

V SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, DISCUSSION, AND RECOMMENDATIONS . 110

Summary . ............. . . . . 110
Nigerian Students' Residence and Students' Academic
Achievement and Activities. . . . . . . 112
Nigerian Students' Residence and Students' Involvement
in Clubs and Organizations . . . . . .. 113
Nigerian Students' Residence and the Students' Number
of Hours of Weekly Involvement in Extracurricular
Activities .. . . .. ....... .. . 114
Nigerian Students' Residence and Friendships Made by
Students During Undergraduate Education . .. . 115
Nigerian Students' Residence and the General College
Satisfaction of the Students . . . . . . 116
Nigerian Students' Residence and the Student/Faculty
Relationships .. . . . . . . . .117
Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . 119
Discussion . . . . . . . . . . . 121
Areas for Future Study . . . . . . . . .. 130
Recommendations . . . . . . . . . . 131

REFERENCES . . . . . . .. . . . . . . 134

APPENDIX . . . . . . . .. . . . . 140

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH . . . . . . . . .. . ..148

















LIST OF TABLES


Table Page

1 Ages of Sample Population from the University of Ibadan . 65

2 Ages of Sample Population from the University of Lagos . 66

3 Gender of Total Respondents from Both Universities . .. 66

4 Ages of All Student Respondents from Both Universities . 67

5 Residence Locations for Total Respondents from Both
Universities . . . . . . . . ... . . 68

6 The Most Important Reason Why Students Resided Off-Campus 69

7 Percentage Distribution of Commuters' Distances to
Residences . . . . . . . . ... ..... .70

8 Percentage Distribution of Commuters' Means of
Transportation . . . . . . . . ... ... 70

9 Percentage Distribution of Students Most Desirable
Residences . . . . . . . . ... ..... 71

10 Percentage Distribution of the Locations of Students'
After-Class Activities . . . . . . .... .72

11 Differences in Academic Grade Point Averages for the
University of Ibadan Students . . . . . .... .73

12 Differences in Academic Grade Point Averages for the
University of Lagos Students . . . . . .... .74

13 Differences in Study Hours of Students at the University
of Ibadan . . . . . . . . ... .... .. 75

14 Differences in Reported Hours in Library of Students at
the University of Ibadan . . . . . . .... .76


viii













15 Differences in Study Hours of Students at the University
of Lagos . . . . . . . . . .. . . 76

16 Differences in Reported Library Hours of Students at the
University of Lagos . . . . . . . .... .77

17 Differences in Reported Library Hours of Students from
Both Universities . . . . . . . ... ... 78

18 Differences in Reported Study Hours of Students from Both
Universities . . . . . . . .... ..... 79

19 Students' Study Partners at the University of Ibadan . 80

20 Students' Study Places at the University of Ibadan . . 80

21 Students' Study Partners at the University of Lagos . . 81

22 Students' Study Places at the University of Lagos . . 81

23 Students' Study Partners at the Combined Universities . 82

24 Students' Study Places at the Combined Universities . 82

25 Membership in Clubs and Organizations of Students at the
University of Ibadan . . . . . . . .... .85

26 Membership in Clubs and Organizations of Students at the
University of Lagos . . . . . . . .... .85

27 Membership in Clubs and Organizations of Students at the
Combined Universities . . . . . . . .... .86

28 Average Number of Hours Spent in Club Activities by
Students at the University of Ibadan . . . ... 88

29 Average Number of Hours Spent in Club Activities by
Students at the University of Lagos . . . . .. 88

30 Average Number of Hours Spent in Club Activities at the
Combined Universities . . . . . . . ... .89

31 Locations of University of Ibadan Students' Close Friends 90

32 Locations of University of Lagos Students' Close Friends 91

33 Locations of Residence of Students' Close Friends at the
Combined Universities . . . . . . ..... 92














34 Satisfaction of College Experiences at the University of
Ibadan . . . . . . . . . . . . 94

35 Satisfaction of College Experiences at the University of
Lagos . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94

36 Satisfaction of College Experiences at the University of
Ibadan by "Satisfied" and Not Satisfied" . . . . 95

37 Satisfaction of College Experience at University of Lagos
by "Satisfied" and "Not Satisfied" . . .. . . 95

38 Satisfaction of College Experience at the Combined
Universities . . . . . . . .. . . .. 97

39 Frequency of University of Ibadan Students' Informal
After-Class Meetings with Faculty Members . . .. 99

40 University of Ibadan Students' Frequency of Informal
Discussion of Class/Course Problems with Faculty Members 100

41 University of Ibadan Students' Reception of Academic
Advice-from Faculty Members . . . . . . ... 100

42 University of Ibadan Students' Frequency of Receiving
Informal Academic Advice from Faculty Members . . .. 101

43 University of Ibadan Students' Frequency of Informal
Discussions with Faculty Members About Social, Political,
or Campus Issues ............. . . . 101

44 University of Ibadan Students' Frequency of Informal
Discussions with Faculty Members About Personal Problems 102

45 University of Ibadan Students' Frequency of Informal
Discussions with Faculty Members About Future Careers . 102

46 University of Lagos Students' Frequency of Informal
Discussion of Class/Course Problems with Faculty Members 103

47 University of Lagos Students' Reception of Academic Advice
from Faculty Members . . . . . . . ... 104

48 University of Lagos Students' Frequency of Informal
Discussions with Faculty Members on Social, Political, or
Campus Issues ............. . .. . . o 105













49 University of Lagos Students' Frequency of Informal
Discussions of Personal Problems with Faculty Members . 105

50 University of Lagos Students' Frequency of Informal
Discussions of Future Careers with Faculty Members . . 106

51 University of Lagos Students' Frequency of Informal After-
Class Meetings with Faculty Members . . . . .. 106

52 University of Lagos Students' Frequency of Receiving
Informal Academic Advice from Faculty Members . . .. 107

53 Students' Frequency of Reception of Academic Advice from
Faculty Members . . . . . . . . . .. 108

54 Students' Frequency of Informal Discussions with Faculty
Members About Future Careers . . . . . .... .109















Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy

THE INVOLVEMENT OF ON-CAMPUS AND OFF-CAMPUS STUDENTS
IN ACADEMIC AND NON-ACADEMIC ACTIVITIES
IN NIGERIAN UNIVERSITIES

By

Christianah I. Falade

August, 1988

Chairman: James L. Wattenbarger
Major Department: Educational Leadership

Some researchers have postulated that excellence in higher

education is related to student involvement. This theory was proposed

by Astin in his 1984 and 1985 reports on research studies related to

college success. In these, as well as earlier literature, Astin

classified dormitory living as one involvement factor and linked it

with several other factors of involvement. He reported that the

dormitory factor contributed positively to the involvement of students

in their academic and nonacademic activities.

This study was an exploration of the differences of on-campus and

off-campus Nigerian university students and their involvement in

college programs. The students' academic achievement and activities,

student/faculty interactions, student/peer relationships, and

extracurricular activities were used as indicators of involvement of

students in their college's academic and nonacademic activities.

Twelve null hypotheses were tested at the .10 alpha level for these










involvement variables and also for the level of students' satisfaction

with their college experience.

The students from the University of Ibadan and the University of

Lagos were used as the populations from which the samples were drawn.

Survey questionnaires were administered to a randomly selected number

of students. These questionnaires were supplemented by onsite

observation and interviews. The data were analyzed descriptively and

inferentially by chi-square and t-test statistics for independent

samples.

The level of involvement of Nigerian on-campus and off-campus

university students was found to be similar with few statistically

significant differences noted. The on-campus students at the

University of Ibadan had significantly more on-campus friendships

than their off-campus counterparts. The on-campus students at the

University of Lagos reported significantly more friendships

on-campus than the off-campus students; they also related

significantly more to their lecturers in the area of reception of

academic advice and in the frequency of discussion of academic related

problems. The on-campus students at this institution had

significantly higher academic grade point averages than their

off-campus counterparts.

Although few statistically significant differences were noted in

this study, the on-campus students of both institutions showed

consistently higher levels of involvement than the off-campus

students. While this study provided support for Astin's theory of

student involvement, it also raised questions about several points

that are not in agreement with the theory.

xiii

















CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION



In recent years, successive waves of educational improvement

programs have passed through the higher education systems. Since the

1983 controversial national report entitled A Nation At Risk: The

Report of the National Commission on Excellence in Education (National

Institute of Education, 1983) and subsequent reports such as

Involvement in Learning: Realizing the Potential of American Higher

Education (National Institute of Education, 1984) and Integrity in the

College Curriculum: A Report to the Academic Community (Association

of American Colleges, 1985), leaders of American universities and

colleges have grown more concerned about the ways through which

quality and excellence can be restored to undergraduate education.

The achievement of excellence has become one of the major goals of the

institutions of higher education in this country. The Study Group on

the Conditions of Excellence in American Higher Education recommended

three means through which the quality of undergraduate education can

be improved (National Institute of Education, 1984). These are (a)

increased student involvement, (b) higher expectations, and (c)

improved assessment and feedback.














According to the staff of the National Institute of Education

(1984), the student involvement area is probably the most crucial

factor for the improvement of undergraduate education. The

justification for this is expressed in the following excerpt:

there is now a good deal of research evidence to suggest
that the more time and effort students invest in the
learning process and the more intensely they engage in
their own education, the greater will be their growth and
achievement, their satisfaction with their educational
experiences, and their persistence in college, and the
more likely they are to continue their learning. (p. 17)

Astin (1984, 1985) elaborated more on the issue of student

involvement by developing a theory of student involvement. The five

basic postulates of this theory are given below.

1. Involvement refers to the investment of physical and
psychological energy in various "objects." The
objects may be highly generalized (the student
experience) or highly specific (preparing for a
chemistry examination.)
2. Regardless of its object, involvement occurs along a
continuum. Different students manifest different
degrees of involvement in a given object, and the
same student manifests different degrees of involvement
in different objects at different times.
3. Involvement has both quantitative and qualitative
features. The extent of a student's involvement in,
say, academic work can be measured quantitatively (how
many hours the student spends studying) and qualitatively
(does the student review and comprehend reading
assignments, or does the student simply stare at the
textbook and daydream?).
4. The amount of student learning and personal development
associated with any educational program is directly
proportional to the quality and quantity of student
involvement in that program.
5. The effectiveness of any educational policy or practice
is directly related to the capacity of that policy or
practice to increase student involvement. (Astin, 1985,
pp. 135-136)













The student involvement concept concerns the behaviors of

students who show active participation in their learning. It

incorporates the activities that are geared towards intellectual and

personal development of students during their undergraduate education.

The participation of students in student organizations, frequent

interaction with faculty members and student peers, the students'

devotion of time and energy to school work, and the involvement of

students in on-campus activities are some of the physical behaviors

usually noted as evidence that students are actively involved (Astin,

1984, 1985; National Institute of Education, 1984). The greater the

involvement of students in each of these activities, the greater will

be their rewards in terms of their intellectual and personal

development. According to the theory of student involvement, "the

extent to which students can achieve particular developmental goals is

a direct function of the time and effort they devote to activities

designed to produce these gains" (Astin, 1984, p. 301).

The student involvement concept has been recognized as vital to

improving the quality of undergraduate education. Astin (1984, 1985)

claimed that it is crucial to the intellectual and personal

development of college students. The concept of involvement was

further hypothetically illustrated by Astin (1985) as follows:

a highly involved student is one who, for example,
devotes considerable energy to studying, spends a lot
of time on campus, participates actively in student
organizations, and interacts frequently with faculty














members and other students. Conversely, an uninvolved
student may neglect studies, spends little time on campus,
abstains from extracurricular activities, and has little
time contact with faculty members or other students.
(p. 134)

According to Astin (1984), the student involvement theory grew

out of his 1975 longitudinal study of college environmental factors

and students' persistence. He summarized the findings as follows:

It turned out that virtually every significant effect
could be rationalized in terms of the involvement
concept; that is, every positive factor was likely to
increase student involvement in the undergraduate
experience, whereas every negative factor was likely
to reduce involvement. (p. 302)

In the same study and in later papers, Astin (1984, 1985)

identified the student residence as the most salient environmental

factor that contributed to students' retention. In examining all of

the different kinds of students' residences, Astin (1984) credited the

on-campus dormitory as being the most supportive element of student

involvement in the various aspects of campus academic and

extracurricular activities. He used the following statement to

buttress this point:

It is obvious that students who live in residence halls
have more time and opportunity to get involved in all
aspects of campus life. Indeed, simply by eating,
sleeping, and spending their waking hours on the college
campus, residential students have a better chance than
commuter students of developing a strong identification
and attachment to undergraduate life. (p. 302)

Similar conclusions about the relationship of on-campus students'

residence halls have been reached by other researchers. For example,















Chickering (1974a) found that on-campus residence students

participated more often in extracurricular activities than their

commuter counterparts.

In the United States, researchers have generated a number of

studies in the area of students' residence location during the last

two decades. Those who have studied the impact of colleges on

students during their undergraduate education have findings that can

be generally classified into three areas. The first group refers to

studies in which the researchers found differences between commuter

and on-campus students and attributed the positive effects to the

on-campus residence (Astin, 1973, 1975, 1978; Chickering, 1974a).

Commuters and on-campus residential students were found to differ in

the areas of academic achievement, persistence in college, faculty to

student relationships, participation in extracurricular activities,

peer relationships, the level of satisfaction with college, and future

academic aspirations. Much of the research in this first category has

led writers to credit the on-campus residence living as being

positively related to the aspects mentioned above. Chickering (1967)

stated that residence halls "provide a significant context for student

development . it is there that close association with other

students occur" (p. 179). Astin (1975, 1984, 1985) identified

on-campus living as an important factor in promoting student

development and involvement. Burtner and Tincher (1979) reported less














satisfaction among the nonresidential students at Auburn University in

the area of their social lives. Chickering (1974a) and Astin (1975)

supported the finding that campus residence students are more

satisfied with their total undergraduate experiences.

Researchers in the second category have found no differences

between the commuters and those students living in the residence halls

on campus. Dressel and Nisula (1966), Mussano (1976), and Foster

(1975) reported no differences between the commuter students and the

on-campus students in the areas of academic achievement and

persistence in college. Graff and Cooley (1970) reported no

significant difference between these two groups of students in their

relationships to faculty members and their student peers. The

researchers also found no difference in their academic achievement

after the students have completed one semester in the college.

The third group of findings in the students' residence

studies is higher academic achievement and satisfaction among the

commuters. Bukowski (1975) reported higher grade point averages for

the commuter students. Belock (1978) also came to a similar

conclusion when she compared the grade point averages of freshman

commuters and residential students at Castleton State College during

1976, 1977, and 1978. These two researchers found the means of the

grade point averages of the commuters to be significantly higher than

those of the residential students. Hardy (1973) reported more














satisfaction for the commuters when both groups were compared on their

feelings towards the university administration.

Concluding from the three different sets of findings above, one

may note that there appears to be no consensus on the particular

students' living environment that can be associated with the student

outcomes mentioned. However, Flanagan's (1975) conclusion, based on a

review of literature on commuters reported from 1971 through 1975,

would suggest otherwise. According to him "a student's loci of living

seems to have a significant effect on his/her learning experience.

For a commuter student the loci of living tends to be off-campus" (p.

10). If it is true that the students' loci of living do actually

affect the students' learning experiences as claimed by this

researcher, then there should be a relationship between the students'

residence locations and the involvement of students in the learning

process. This relationship has been claimed by Astin and others, but

because the student involvement concept is becoming an important

by-word in the higher educational system it needs further study. The

present study was designed to explore the relationship that exists

between student involvement and student residence.

Astin (1984, 1985) has positively associated dormitory living

with other forms of involvement including relationship with faculty

members, relationship with student peers, participation in student

government and other student organizations, academic achievement, and














satisfaction of students in undergraduate experience. If dormitory

living is enhancing students' involvement in their undergraduate

education, the provision for dormitories on a campus may be one way of

making available an environment conducive for student learning.

However, the issue of dormitory versus no dormitory facilities

requires a considerable expenditure of money. And, again, not

everyone agrees with Astin's conclusions about the importance of

dormitories. Most, if not all, the research supporting the positive

relationship of on-campus living and student development and

involvement has been conducted in the United States. In foreign

nations, the relationship between dormitory living and student

development has not clearly been established; In order to make the

concept of student involvement applicable to other countries, there is

a need for it to be tested within the context of other nations'

cultural and social environments.

The nation of Nigeria is one of the foreign countries that will

benefit from research on the relationship of dormitory facilities and

student involvement because the Nigerian universities were, at the

time of this writing, reevaluating their commitment to the provision

of such facilities. The building and maintenance of dormitory halls

have been cited continuously by researchers and university

administrators as one of the main activities causing the greatest

drain and financial burden on the budget of the university (Enaowho,















1985; Oduleye, 1985). In an effort to avoid this dormitory problem,

the Ondo State government in Nigeria started the Ondo State University

as a non-residential institution. Enaowho (1985) suggested the

"acceptance of off-campus status as a precondition for offer of

admission to qualified candidates" (p. 316). The decision and

policies concerning the issue of dormitories in Nigerian universities

have not been based on any known research dealing with how they affect

the students and their satisfaction.

Given the existing fiscal condition within the nation, it was

believed that the provision of dormitory facilities for Nigerian

university students could be phased out as a result of limited funding

and low priority. This situation made this research on the students'

residence locations and student involvement in college activities most

useful in providing necessary data for future policy decisions for the

Nigerian university leaders, as well as offering findings from a new

context that addresses the importance of student involvement.

Statement of the Problem

This study was designed to investigate the differences in

on-campus and off-campus students' involvement in university

activities. The purposes of the research were threefold: (a) to

determine the differences in the involvement of on-campus and

off-campus students at two Nigerian universities, (b) to test the

validity of Astin's student involvement theory in Nigeria, and (c) to

determine the differences in the general college satisfaction of

on-campus and off-campus students at these two institutions.














The residence location factor was used in testing the theory of

student involvement. The students' average academic achievement and

activities, membership in student clubs and organizations, time spent

in extracurricular activities, friendships with other students, and

relationships with faculty members were used as measures of the level

and types of involvement.

The following general null hypothesis was used to test the

relationships that existed between students' residence locations and

involvement in various college activities.

Ho: There is no difference in the involvement of Nigerian

on-campus and off-campus students in the total university

program.

To test this hypothesis and determine the differences in general

satisfaction, six research questions were posed.

1. Is there a difference in Nigerian on-campus and off-campus

students' academic achievement and activities at the

university?

2. Is there a difference in Nigerian on-campus and off-campus

students' participation in campus clubs and organizations?

3. Is there a difference in the number of hours that Nigerian

on-campus and off-campus students spend in college-related

extracurricular activities per week?

4. Is there a difference in the friendships made by Nigerian

on-campus and off-campus students at college?















5. Is there a difference in the general college

satisfaction of Nigerian on-campus and off-campus

students?

6. Is there a difference in the student/faculty interactions

of Nigerian on-campus and off-campus students?

Hypotheses related to these questions were tested at the .10 level of

significance.

Justification

Historically, the Nigerian universities have been built at the

outskirts of the cities. This location justified the existence of

dormitory facilities. For example, the University of Ibadan, the

nation's first university, was patterned after London University which

epitomized the British system of higher education. At the time this

university was established in Nigeria, the residential feature along

with other British aspects of higher education was imported into the

nation. The Asquith Commission that recommended the establishment of

the university "emphasized the principles of a residential university

college in special relationship with London University (University of

Ibadan, 1977, p. 23). The dormitory, therefore, became an essential

feature of the Nigerian higher educational system. The provision and

maintenance of the dormitory facilities became one of the most

important services provided students. The service was considered an

essential one since more than 90% of the students did not have

personal transportation.













At the time of this writing, the future of dormitory services

could not be guaranteed in Nigerian higher education because of

financial exigencies (Enaowho, 1985; Oduleye, 1985). As early as

1977-1978, it was reported in the University of Ibadan catalog that

the institution's residential concept was being "threatened" by the

problems of larger enrollment and limited funds (p. 24).

Dormitory halls had been cited as causing unnecessary financial

drain on the Nigerian universities' limited budgets. However, there

was no known research on the influence of dormitory halls and Nigerian

university students. Further, the decision and recommendation on the

services of the dormitories had not been based on factors other than

economic influences.

This study resulted in the development of empirical data that

could help the Nigerian university policymakers in developing better

decisions about the role of dormitory halls in the future of the

nation's higher education. Living in the dormitory halls has been

found to be positively related to student involvement in some North

American universities. It was important for policymakers in Nigeria

to be able to know empirically the relationship between dormitory

living and student involvement in Nigerian universities.

The student involvement theory used in this study rested on five

basic postulates; two of these are considered crucial to higher

educational systems. These are














1. The amount of student learning and personal development
associated with any educational program is directly
proportional to the quality and quantity of student
involvement in that program.
2. The effectiveness of any educational policy or practice
is directly related to the capacity of that policy or
practice to increase student involvement. (Astin, 1985,
p. 136)

These two postulates had not been tested empirically (Astin, 1984,

1985), but they had been given as recommendations for excellence by

The Study Group on the Condition of Excellence in Higher Education.

The validity of this theory and its different postulates needed to be

tested so that the higher educational system leaders could base

recommendations and policy on them. Astin (1984, 1985) pointed out

the necessity for validating the theory and also the need to establish

the relationships that exist among the different forms of student

involvement.

North American researchers such as Astin (1984, 1985), Chickering

(1967, 1974a), and others have pointed out the students' residence

location as an important factor in students' involvement in

undergraduate experience; this study was designed to determine if this

theory was applicable in Nigerian universities as well.

Delimitations

This study must be reviewed with the following delimitations in

mind:

1. The research was conducted with the Nigerian university

students registered during the 1987-88 academic year;














therefore the population sample only included those

students registered during this academic year period.

2. The study sample was drawn from the University of Ibadan

and the University of Lagos. Both universities are

located in the southwestern part of Nigeria.

3. All students living off-campus were classified into one

group for residence location. There was no attempt made

to group them according to the different types of off-

campus housing.

4. Indicators of involvement were limited to self-reported

academic achievement and activities, student/faculty

relationships, students' peer relationships, and

participation in extracurricular activities.

5. Lastly, it should also be noted that the study was not

developed to prove a causal relationship, but only to

determine the presence or absence of a relationship among

the different factors.

Limitations

The research design contained the following limitations:

1. The study was based on the students from the universities

in Oyo and Lagos States of Nigeria; therefore, the

results are generalizable only to those settings.

2. Residence location was used to test the theory of

involvement. Since this is an attribute independent















variable, it cannot yield itself directly to the

manipulation of the researcher. The study was therefore

subject to the weaknesses of ex post facto research.

Assumptions

The following assumptions were basic to this research:

1. Four areas of student behavior were used to represent

involvement in the total university programs. These areas

were (a) academic achievement and activities, (b) students'

peer relationships, (c) faculty/student relationships, and

(d) participation in extracurricular activities. The

foregoing were assumed to be adequate representations of

student total involvement in university programs.

2. The residence location factor was used in this research to

test the student involvement theory. This was assumed to

be a valid factor in testing this theory as Astin (1984,

1985) linked residence location with so many other forms

of student involvement.

3. Involvement in academic activities was assumed to be

evidenced through the students' study hours, study partners,

study places, and library usage.

4. Since the students in the sample population were randomly

selected, the subjects in the sample were assumed to be

representative of the population from which they came.














5. The self-reported answers of the students were assumed to

be credible and reliable.

6. The living environments of off-campus and on-campus

residence students were assumed to be different in ways

that are consistent with the findings in other studies.

7. The Nigerian university students classified as non-

residential and residential were assumed to be comparable

in precollegiate characteristics such as academic

aptitude and social status since Nigerian university

admission policy was based on standard academic

requirements, and also since all the universities were

owned by federal or state governments and were free for

those who are qualified.

8. The use of experts in reviewing the questions on the

instrument, the pilot testing of the research instrument

at the University of Florida, Gainesville, and a test-

retest reliability check using students at the University

of Ibadan in Nigeria were assumed to provide a validated

instrument for use in the research.

Definition of Terms

Commuter. This term is a designation used for students who live

in residences outside of the university campus. This term is used

interchangeably with off-campus and non-resident student.














Dormitory hall. This term refers to students' residence within

the university campus. The term is used interchangeably with

on-campus residence.

Academic achievement. Academic achievement refers to students'

academic performance as reflected by their self-reported grade point

averages.

Academic activities. This term is used for student's behaviors

in academic-related variables such as the self-reported average

weekly study hours, library usage, study partner, and study place.

Library usage. The term is used for the self-reported average

weekly hours that students spend in the library studying or doing

class assignments.

Extracurricular involvement. This term refers to the reported

participation of students in activities that are not academically

related, mostly arising through out-of-class social and athletic

activities.

Student/faculty relationships. Any reported formal and informal

interactions between the faculty members and the students, mainly

outside the class, constitute student/faculty relationships.

Students' peer relationships. The self-reported friendships of

students.

General college satisfaction. Students' self-reported fulfilled

expectation of college experience.














Student development. This term refers to student growth

especially in the areas of intellectual ability, interpersonal, and

social activities that can be attributed to the impact of education.

Preliminary (prelim) year. This is the Nigerian university

classification for students admitted into the university with either

the General Certificate of Education (GCE) ordinary level or with West

African School Certificate (WASC) coupled with the passing of the

concessional admission examination. The students that enter through

the prelim status spend 4 years in the university to obtain their

baccalaureate degree. Prelim status is equivalent to the freshman

status in an American university.

First year. This is the student classification for those

students admitted into the Nigerian university with the Advanced GCE

or the Higher School Certificate. The students in this status need

3 more years to complete the bachelor's degree. It is equivalent to

the sophomore status of the American university.

Second year. This is the student status for those students who

have 2 more years to complete the bachelor's degree. The

classification is the equivalence of the junior status in American

universities.

Third year. This is the last year of the student attending a

Nigerian university. The status has the equivalence of the senior

year in American universities.














Research Procedure: An Overview

Samples from the student populations at the University of Ibadan

in the Oyo state and the University of Lagos in the Lagos state of

Nigeria were used in the study. The lists of names of the University

of Lagos on-campus students were obtained from the student affairs

office. Two halls for male residents and two halls for female

residents were selected from which 100 students were randomly

selected. With tables of random numbers, 25 students were selected

from each residence hall. These students constituted the group that

represented the on-campus sample from the University of Lagos. The

off-campus students were from two academic faculties, the Faculty of

Arts and the Faculty of Sciences. Due to the lack of an official

off-campus residents list, the questionnaire was administered to

Faculty of Arts students during classes that were supposed to be taken

during students' off-campus years. The questionnaire was administered

in the Faculty of Sciences to all the students who identified

themselves as living off-campus. All the questionnaires were hand

delivered or administered within a 2-week period.

At the University of Ibadan, the questionnaires were administered

to students from the Departments of Mathematics, Education, Foreign

Languages, and Classics. The University of Ibadan sample came from

those who returned their questionnaires from these departments.

The instrument used in gathering the data consisted of a 41-item

questionnaire developed by the researcher based on the findings in the















area of students' residence and students' outcomes. The findings of

Chickering (1974a) and Astin (1973, 1975, 1978, 1984) were especially

used in determining the types of possible response items. Sudman and

Bradburn's (1982) guide to questionnaire design was used for the

technicality of the instrument construction. The questionnaire

contained items formed to receive information in the areas of

students' residence locations, students' academic classifications,

faculty relationships, academic performance, study habits,

satisfaction with university experience, and the students'

participation in extracurricular activities (see Appendix). This

instrument was pilot-tested with graduate students of the Department

of Educational Leadership at the University of Florida, Gainesville

and also with the University of Ibadan undergraduate students. The

reliability test of the question items yielded 86% congruent answers

over a 7-day period for the University of Florida students and 84%

congruent answers over a 7-day period for the University of Ibadan

students. This indicates a high stability for the instrument. Two

University of Florida professors, both experts in the area of higher

educational administration, judged the appropriateness of the research

instrument and deemed it to be adequate in measuring the research

hypotheses. All the data used in this research were obtained from the

self-reports of students on the questionnaires.















Data Analysis: An Overview

The data collected from the study of Nigerian students'

involvement and residence locations were of quantitative and

qualitative natures. The data were analyzed descriptively and with

t-tests and chi-square for independent samples.

The students' data on age, gender, and place of residence were

analyzed descriptively by percentages. The grade point averages,

students' weekly study hours, and the number of hours students spent

in the library in a week were analyzed with t-tests for independent

samples.

The nominal data related to students' friendships, students'

study partners, students' study places, faculty/student

relationships, and the satisfaction of students with the college

experience were handled statistically with chi-square for independent

samples. The data on the hours of students' involvement in clubs and

organization activities were analyzed also with chi-square test.

All the data were analyzed with the micro-computer software

package Microstat. The level of significance was set at .10; this

probability level was used as the basis for rejecting or accepting the

null hypotheses.

Summary

The need to study the relationships between the Nigerian

university students' residence locations and their involvement in the














total university programs has been described in this chapter. The

justification for the problem, the general null hypotheses to be

tested in the study, the research methodology, and the procedure for

the data analysis are areas that are covered in Chapter I.

Chapter II contains the review of related literature associated

with students' involvement and students' residence factors. Chapter

III contains the description of the site of the study, procedure for

data collection, and statistical analysis of the data.

In Chapter IV, the results of the data analysis on the

test of the null hypotheses and related research questions can be

found. Chapter V contains a discussion and interpretation of the

results. It also includes the implications of the study, the

recommendations, and the conclusions.

















CHAPTER II
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE



Introduction

Astin (1975, 1978, 1984, 1985) related students' living

environments to their involvement in total university programs. Astin

classified the student residence as a form of student involvement and

indicated it was associated with other forms of involvement. For

example, dormitory living has been reported to be positively related

to student involvement in extracurricular activities (Astin, 1975,

1978, 1984, 1985; Chickering, 1974a; Chickering & Kuper, 1971;

Smallwood & Klas, 1983), academic achievement (Astin, 1973, 1978,

1984, 1985; Chickering, 1974a; Levin & Clowes, 1982; Nowack & Hanson,

1985), student/faculty relationships (Astin, 1973, 1978, 1984;

Chickering, 1974a; Pascarella, 1980, 1984, 1985), peer relationships

(Chickering, 1974a; Pascarella, 1980, 1984, 1985), and college

satisfaction (Astin, 1978, 1984; Chickering, 1974a).

The concept of student involvement is relatively new in the area

of higher education. It was featured prominently as a focus in the

pursuit of excellence in higher education (National Institute of

Education, 1984). Prior to the report by The Study Group on the

Conditions of Excellence in American Higher Education (National














Institute on Education, 1984), Chickering wrote elaborately on

the differences in the behaviors of commuter and resident students.

In his book Commuting Versus Resident Students, he reported on the

differences in the involvement of these two groups in extracurricular

and academic activities. Astin's (1975, 1978) studies also

highlighted the differences in the participation of these two groups

of students in various aspects of college activities. The contention

of both of these researchers was that environmental factors contribute

to the enhancement or deter the involvement of students in their total

undergraduate education. Astin (1984) summed up the relationship

succinctly in the following words: "It is easier to become involved

when one can identify with the college environment" (p. 303).

Astin (1975) also related the importance of environmental factors

to college persistence. According to the researcher, "students'

chances of completing college can be significantly influenced by

environmental circumstances" (p. 107). Moos (1979) further emphasized

the importance of environmental factors on college students. In

commenting on the research in the area, Moos wrote "conclusions about

the influence of different environments vary, but all authors agree

that the social-ecological setting in which students function can

affect their attitudes and moods, their behaviors and performance, and

their self-concept and general sense of well-being" (p. 3). There is

an agreement among these authors about the relationship between the

student residence and other forms of involvement.














The exploration of the relationships between student residence

and other forms of involvement was the focus of this research. Since

student involvement has become an important concept in higher

education, its relationship with an aspect such as student residence

merited further study.

The Study Group on the Condition of Excellence in Higher

Education (National Institute of Education, 1984) considered the ways

to enhance this concept of student involvement as "one of the greatest

challenges to administration and faculty" (p. 23). The reasons are

that the students in higher education institutions are very diverse;

many of them are both commuting and/or part-time students. The group

viewed these two conditions as causing difficulties for active

involvement of students in collegiate activities on both quality and

quantity bases.

The concept of student involvement has been one of the major

findings in Astin's research pertaining to college environment. Astin

(1975) paved the way to the development of the theory of student

involvement in this study. He underscored the importance of

involvement as a crucial factor to student persistence in college.

According to him, "students who are involved in the academic life of

the institution are more likely to expend the effort necessary to get

good grades than are students who are not involved" (p. 100).

Astin used his 1984 and 1985 works to propose and discuss the

theory of student involvement. In both of these research projects, he














tried to prove the relationship between the concept of student

involvement and student development. Astin (1985) also tried to

establish the concept as related to the talent development view of

excellence in higher education. The major point stressed in this

theory was that "students learn by becoming involved" (p. 133).

The students' residence is an important environmental factor that

affects students' involvement and development in college. The impact

of colleges is experienced by students through their living

environments. The relationship between the living environments and

student development has been underscored by a number of researchers

such as Chickering (1967, 1974b) and Scott (1975). According to

Chickering (1974b),

residence hall living influences student development in
three ways. First, close friendships develop initially
with persons whose rooms are nearby and it is in the
context of such friendships that values, future plans
and aspirations, and decisions for current behavior occur
and are thought through. Second, a housing unit may
become a subculture with its own values and standards,
may become a reference group for its members and thus
behavior and attitudes may be modeled with reference to
this culture and its expectations. Third, under certain
arrangements there is opportunity for a student to observe
the impact of his behavior on other individuals and on the
larger social unit. This clear feedback allows behavior
to be modified through conscious awareness of results.
(p. 76)

Scott (1975) reported increases in self-actualization for

students living in on-campus residence halls. When compared with the

commuters, the residents in his study showed twice as much increase













in their self-actualization. Scott, therefore, concluded that "more

development was fostered during the academic year among students

living in the campus dormitory halls than among students living

off-campus" (p. 218).

Davis and Caldwell (1977) conducted an inter-campus study of

commuters and residents at two different universities (a residential

and a commuter institution). Greater positive response was reported

for residential students in the areas of personal and social

development. Commuters, on the other hand, responded more positively

in the areas of intellectual and academic environment. The

researchers concluded that the residents were more involved with

social and interpersonal activities while the commuters were more

inclined towards the academic environment.

Pascarella (1985) tried to determine the influence of resident

living on intellectual and interpersonal self-concept of students.

Significant positive relationships were found between students'

interactions with their faculty members and students' interactions

with their peers. No direct effect of residential living was found in

the areas of students' intellectual level and self-concept.

Pascarella concluded that the influence of on-campus living on student

development may be indirect, and that living on-campus was only one of

many influences of college impact on students. According to him,

there was an indirect effect mediated through other influences like

faculty and student relationships.














In spite of Pascarella's (1985) findings, he tried to argue in

favor of on-campus living. "Thus even if resident status does not

influence student development directly, it may play a central role in

the impact of college by increasing those kinds of student involvement

that positively influence development" (p. 298).

Welty (1976) also pointed to the many interactive factors,

including student residence, that work together to produce student

growth. According to the researcher, it was not residence exclusively

that produces student growth, but one of many factors, some of which

include the number of new friends during the freshman year, the

quantity and quality of student/faculty interactions, and the

interaction with administrators.

Other writers, such as Millman (1972), seem to be more convinced

that the living environment of resident students exerts direct

influence on student development. In support of this view, Millman

stated "there is no question that on-campus residence living

facilities can, through conscious effort and reasoned action, provide

a milieu which is not only supportive of student learning and personal

growth, but actually facilitates such human development" (p. 5). This

statement expresses the assumption and/or view of many people in

higher education as regards the relationship between student residence

and student development.

The literature reviewed above on student residence appears to

support dormitory living as the important factor in student














involvement and student development. In fact, Astin (1978) referred

to student residence as a "potentially important index of student

involvement" (p. 22). This present study was an extension and further

exploration of this relationship between student residence and student

development. The student residence served as a basis for

measuring student participation in some specific forms of college

involvement and will also include one more area, the students' degree

of satisfaction with college.

The forms of involvement that were used are (a) academic

activities (academic achievement, study habits, and library usage),

(b) involvement in extracurricular activities, (c) student/faculty

interaction, and (d) peer interaction. Therefore, review of related

literature following is organized according to these four forms of

involvement and it also includes the students' degree of satisfaction

with college.

Academic Achievement, Library Usage, and Study Habits

Nowack and Hanson (1985) referred to on-campus residence halls as

a "favorable environment for facilitating academic achievement" (p.

26). The researchers who have reported higher grade point averages

for on-campus residence students will agree with this statement.

However, others will disagree with the same statement based upon their

research and findings which have shown that commuters achieve

academically higher than resident students.















The research in this area of academic achievement and student

residences seems to be inconclusive. Three categories of findings

have been reported. For the first group of research findings the

on-campus dormitory residence is credited with the higher academic

achievement; for the second group of findings the commuters are

reported to have the higher academic achievement; and for the third

group similar academic achievement is indicated for both commuter and

resident students. The literature in the area of academic achievement

following herewith has been organized according to these categories of

findings.

Chickering (1974a), Astin (1973, 1975, 1978), and Levin and

Clowes (1982) have reported higher grade point averages or higher

levels of involvement in intellectual matters for the residents. In

fact, Chickering (1974a) believed that the degree of commuters'

engagement in their academic activities was less than the resident

students. This researcher reported the academic characteristics of

commuters in his study as follows:

commuters who live with their parents more frequently
flunk a course and are on academic probation; they less
frequently take pass-fail courses or participate in an
honors program or ROTC. They frequently study less than
five hours. Compared to dormitory residents, they less
frequently do extra reading, check out a book or journal
from the college library, study in the library, type a
homework assignment, or argue with an instructor in
class; they more frequently fail to complete an
assignment on time and come late to class. They much
less frequently discuss schoolwork with friends or
read books not required for courses. In general,
therefore the students who live at home with their
parents appear to be less fully engaged in academic
activities than their dormitory peers. (p. 61)














Astin (1973, 1975)) also reported positive benefits for the

dormitory students in the area of educational progress. The residents

in his study were more likely to persist in college and to finish

their degrees in 4 years. They were more likely to go to graduate

school and even to earn higher grade point averages when compared with

their commuter colleagues. In one of his works, however, Astin (1978)

was able to detect increase in undergraduate grade point averages

for only the male students living on-campus.

Levin and Clowes's (1982) research yielded results similar to

Astin's. In their study of college persistence and student residence,

Levin and Clowes found 66% of those who resided in housing owned by

the college graduated within 4 years of the enrollment in college,

while 55% of those who lived with their parents did. Academic grade

point and probation were used by Nowack and Hansen (1985) as measures

of academic achievement in their study of 1,302 resident and 740

commuter freshman students. Nowack and Hanson reported higher

academic achievement and lower probation for the resident students.

Nearly 25% of the total residence hall students sampled were placed on

probation while 31% of the non-residence hall students were on

academic probation. The researchers considered the on-campus

residence halls as "favorable environment for facilitating academic

achievement" (p. 26).

Matson (1963) investigated the influence of the different student

housing environment on students' academic abilities. The students














were classified into high, average, and low college potential. The

sample included 1,181 male students who entered Indiana University in

1954. The fraternities were grouped into high, average, and low

prestiges, and their levels of academic achievement were compared with

the residence hall and the off-campus groups. Matson reported the

highest academic potential for the students in the high prestige

fraternities. By the third year of college, the residence hall

students were slightly lower in academic potential than those in high

prestige fraternities. The residence hall group was recorded as

having the same overall academic potential as the middle prestige

fraternities. These two groups were above the off-campus and the low

prestige fraternities in academic potential. The researcher reported

no significant differences among all five groups by the time the

students were in their senior year.

In another study of commuter and resident students' achievement,

Stark (1965) divided the students into four groups according to males

and females in the commuter and residence categories. The researcher

reviewed the students' scores on the Cooperative English Test-Reading:

Comprehension and Vocabulary and found higher scores were obtained by

the two resident groups. Furthermore, Hountras and Brandt (1970)

reported similar findings. The researchers investigated the

relationship between student housing and academic achievement in five

colleges at the University of North Dakota. The study involved 270














full-time male, single undergraduate students enrolled during fall

semester of the 1966-67 academic year. Among all the different

students categorized by residence, the resident students' group had

the highest mean grade point average of 2.57; this group was followed

by students residing at home with 2.34 mean grade point average. The

lowest grade point average (2.30) was earned by the students residing

in off-campus housing.

Hountras and Brandt (1970) concluded that the residence hall was

an important factor in the academic performance of college students.

This was justified by the following explanation:

The fact that residence halls generally provide appropriate
facilities for individual study and relaxation, and that
they are in close proximity to classrooms, laboratories,
and libraries could play important and varying roles in
the motivation of undergraduate students. The planned
cultural and educational programs available to students
residing in residence halls, as well as the ready
accessibility to staff, conceivably are other important
factors contributing to the findings. (p. 353)

The results reported by Smallwood and Klas (1983) also supported

the relationship between on-campus living and higher academic

achievement. Smallwood and Klas (1983) compared 145 male university

students in three types of campus residence halls and off-campus

lodgings (students in the off-campus lodgings were students who had

applied to be in the campus residence hall but were denied due to a

shortage of space). These groups were compared on academic success,

participation in extracurricular activities, study habits and

attitudes, personality factors, and involvement in community affairs.














The students in the three on-campus halls had higher academic

success than those in the off-campus lodgings. When compared on the

Brown-Holtzman Survey of Study Habits and Attitudes, the students in

the three on-campus residences had significantly higher scores

relating to study habits and attitudes than students from the

off-campus lodgings.

In all the studies reviewed above the academic achievement of

on-campus residence hall students was higher. However, contrary

findings have been offered by Davis and Caldwell (1977), Bukowski

(1975), Belock (1978), and Chickering and Kuper (1971). In these

studies, the commuters have been reported to possess the higher

academic averages or more positive identification with the

intellectual environment of their colleges.

Davis and Caldwell (1977) compared the commuter and resident

students on their responses to personal, social, and academic

environments. The commuters responded more positively in the area of

academic environment while the resident students responded more

positively in the area of personal and social environment. The

researchers concluded that the commuters identified with the academic

environment of the college while the residents were more involved with

social activities and interpersonal relationships.

Bukowski (1975) studied the freshman commuter and resident

student at Johnson and Wales private business college. Higher grade















point averages were indicated for the commuter students. In spite of

commuters' higher grade point averages, more of these students still

voluntarily withdrew from the college during that same period.

A similar finding has also been reported by Belock (1978).

Comparing the grade point averages of freshman commuter and resident

students for 3 consecutive years at Castleton State College, the

researcher reported significantly higher grade point averages for the

commuters during the 3 years. Consequently, the commuters were

pronounced academically better or equal to their resident

counterparts.

Chickering and Kuper (1971) also indicated increased intellectual

interests for commuters when they were compared with the residents on

the Omnibus Personal Inventory. Clodfelter, Furr, and Wachowiak

(1984) reported similar results to those above. In a research study

of perceived impact of student living environments on academic

performance, 304 students at the University of North Carolina at

Charlotte were studied. The students were asked to rate themselves on

a scale from 1 through 5 (extremely negative--extremely positive) on

the effect of some environmental factors on their academic

performance. The highest mean grade point average (GPA) was 3.25 for

the off-campus married students, the off-campus students living with

parents had a mean GPA of 3.00, the off-campus single students had a

mean GPA of 2.95, the dormitory students had a mean GPA of 2.88, and

the students living in on-campus apartments had a mean GPA of 2.75.













The different off-campus housing groups had higher GPAs than the

on-campus residence students.

In spite of these different findings about the commuters' and

residents' academic achievements, other researchers have reported

findings which have differed from the first two. These researchers

have reported similar academic achievement for both groups of students

(Baird, 1969; Burtner & Tincher, 1979; Dollar, 1966; Dressel & Nisula,

1966; Graff & Cooley, 1970; Mussano, 1976; Prusok & Walsh, 1964; Pugh

& Chamberlain, 1976).

Dressel and Nisula (1966) and Mussano (1976) reported similar GPA

and attrition rates for the commuters and residence students. The

results from Burtner and Tincher's (1979) study showed the Auburn

University commuters and residents to be almost identical in their

grade point averages. Dollar (1966) conducted a research study of

male freshman students at Oklahoma State University during the spring

semester of 1963. No significant differences were indicated among the

students in the three different types of housing. Prusok and Walsh

(1964) also studied the male freshman students at the State University

of Iowa. Comparing the mean adjusted grades of students at fraternity

houses, residence halls, off-campus houses, and students living at

home after the first semester in college, the researchers reported no

significant differences in the adjusted grades of students in these

different housing situations.















In another study by Pugh and Chamberlain (1976), comparisons were

made among students living in the different housing arrangements in

the area of academic achievement. No significant differences were

reported for the students. Baird (1969) compared the traits and

achievements of 2,295 males and 2,834 females in different types of

housing at 29 colleges. The students in this study rated themselves

on 31 traits and 35 life goals. The students also reported on their

college experiences and college average grades. According to the

researcher, the students in the different housing groups rated

themselves similarly on 24 of the 31 self-ratings. No significant

differences were recorded in 31 out of the 35 life goals. The women

residing in off-campus apartments reported the highest corrected mean

GPA.

Finally, Graff and Cooley (1970) found no significant difference

in the achievement of commuter and residence students after they had

completed one semester in college. No significant differences were

identified in the areas of "study skills, practices, planning, and the

use of time" (p. 57).

In summary, the research conducted in the area of academic

achievement and the college living environments is inconclusive,

producing three categories of findings. While some researchers have

reported significant differences among the commuters and the

residents, some have found them to be similar in their academic

achievement.














Extracurricular Activities

Researchers have overwhelmingly attributed involvement in

extracurricular activities with on-campus residence (Astin, 1973,

1978, 1984; Baird, 1969; Baker, 1966; Burtner & Tincher, 1979;

Chickering & Kuper, 1971; Davis and Caldwell, 1977; Smallwood & Klas,

1983; Welty, 1976). In only a few unusual studies, nonsignificant

differences have been found between commuter and resident students'

involvement in extracurricular activities (Foster, Sedlacek, &

Hardwick, 1975).

Commuters have been reported to participate in extracurricular

activities at a lesser degree than their campus resident counterparts,

and even when they do participate their range of activities is said

to be limited in comparison to the on-campus students (Chickering,

1974a; Chickering & Kuper, 1971). These researchers also claimed that

residents were more often in leadership positions than the off-campus

students.

Baird (1969) reached similar conclusions as those presented

above. In a comparative study of students living in different housing

arrangements and their participation in extracurricular activities,

the researchers found that the sorority and fraternity students scored

highest in social involvement and leadership achievement. Fraternity

and sorority students were followed by the residence students on the














same measures. The students living at home and those in off-campus

housing scored the lowest in their involvement in extracurricular

activities.

Welty (1976) and Davis and Caldwell (1977) provided further

evidence in their studies to support findings of more active

participation of dormitory residents in extracurricular activities.

Similarly, Smallwood and Klas (1983) found the students residing in

campus housing were significantly more involved in extracurricular

activities. They participated more in voluntary extracurricular

activities when compared to the students living in the off-campus

lodgings. Burtner and Tincher (1979) concurrently offered results

indicating commuters' lack of involvement and less satisfaction in the

area of social lives when compared with the resident students at

Auburn University. According to these researchers, "less than 20% of

these [the commuter] students engaged in many extracurricular

activities" (p. 23).

Contrary to the consensus findings of the researchers as

discussed above, Stark (1965) and Foster et al. (1975) reported no

significant differences for commuters and residents in the area of

extracurricular participation. Stark (1965) studied the differences

in the needs and problems of freshmen resident and commuter students

at a large, private, non-sectarian university. No significant

difference was reported for these two groups of students in their














involvement in extracurricular activities with "an average week in the

spring semester" (p. 280).

The research of Foster et al. (1975) was based on expected

behaviors and attitudes of incoming freshman students. The result of

her study was an anticipated involvement of the students and not an

actual participation. The actual experiences of these students could

be expected to be different from their anticipated behaviors.

Most of the researchers in this area agreed with the conclusion

of Dressel and Nisula (1966) that "commuters are to some extent

detached from campus life" (p. 45) and probably may be restricted in

their involvement in extracurricular activities.

Student/Faculty Interaction

The informal after class interaction between students and faculty

has been acclaimed by many researchers as an important factor

contributing to the students' intellectual, social, and personal

development during their undergraduate education (Chickering &

McCormic, 1973; Pascarella, 1980; Pascarella & Terenzini, 1976, 1978;

Terenzini & Pascarella, 1980; Wilson, 1974). The researchers

in this area have linked frequent and high quality student/faculty

interaction positively with students' intellectual, social, and

emotional development (Endo & Harpel, 1982; Pascarella & Terenzini,

1978).

Feldman and Newcomb (1969) summarized a series of studies on the

sources of influence in the students' lives. Their overall conclusion














was that students considered the faculty members to be more

influential than their peers in the areas of intellectual

development and occupational and career choices. There is a general

consensus that the faculty members act as a powerful force to shape

the students' intellectual and academic abilities.

The students' frequent faculty/student interaction has also been

positively related with the students' general satisfaction with their

total undergraduate education (Astin, 1978, 1984; Endo & Harpel, 1982;

Pascarella, 1980). According to Astin (1978),

frequent interaction with faculty is more strongly related
to satisfaction with college than any other type of
involvement or, indeed, any other student or institutional
characteristic. Students who interact frequently with
faculty members are more likely than other students to
express satisfaction with all aspects of their
institutional experience, including student friendships,
variety of courses, intellectual environment, and even
the administration of the institution. (p. 304)

The studies in the area of student/faculty informal interaction

can be grouped into two major areas. The research with the emphasis

on the impact of the relationship on students' outcomes such as

intellectual, social, and personal development; and the studies in

which commuters and resident students are compared on their general

interactions with faculty members. This section of the review of

literature is organized into these two areas.

Students' Outcomes

Endo and Harpel (1982) studied the effect of student/faculty

interaction on students' educational outcomes after 4 years in














college. The researchers affirmed the positive influence of student/

faculty interaction on intellectual, personal, and social outcomes of

students. Also, positive effects of frequent informal student/

faculty relationships were indicated on the overall satisfaction of

students' college experiences.

Pascarella and Terenzini (1978) reported a "modest statistically

significant association" between student/faculty informal

relationships and student self-perceived intellectual and personal

development. In Pascarella and Terenzini's work of 1976, the

researchers classified the freshmen studied into high, moderate, and

low interactors. According to their results, the high and moderate

interactors had a more positive view of their academic experiences

than the low interactors.

Pascarella and Terenzini (1976), Astin (1975), and Pascarella

(1980) noted a positive association of student/faculty interaction and

students' persistence in college. The conclusion from these studies

was that students who interact more frequently with their faculty

members have a greater chance of persisting in college.

Some researchers have further classified the interaction between

student and faculty members into quality and quantity of contacts

(Endo & Harpel, 1982; Pascarella, 1980; Terenzini & Pascarella, 1980).

Pascarella and Terenzini have conducted extensive research in this

area. In one of their studies (Terenzini & Pascarella, 1980), they














found that quality of students' contact with the faculty members was

only related to personal and intellectual development. According to

Terenzini and Pascarella,

frequency of contact to obtain course or academic
information was positively associated with intellectual
development while frequency of contact with faculty to
socialize informally was positively associated with the
personal development scale. (p. 526)

Endo and Harpel (1982) also classified student/faculty contacts

into "mere frequency" and "quality" of interactions. Mere frequency

of contact was reported as not adequate to bring about influence in

students' lives while quality of informal interaction was credited

with the effects on a student's life.

Wilson (1974) not only identified students as those that can

benefit from the student/faculty relationship but also the faculty

members who were more likely to be "very satisfied" with the

stimulation they received from the students. The researcher suggested

"that the out-of-class interaction may also increase faculty's

knowledge about their students' academic strengths, weaknesses,

interests, problems, and perspectives" (p. 88). The benefits of

student/faculty relationships as suggested by Wilson are not for

students only but for both the students and the faculty members.

Residence Location Factors

When resident and commuter students have been compared on

student/faculty interaction, the results have almost always favored














the resident students. The researchers have found the on-campus

students' close proximity to the faculty to be an advantage to

dormitory students (Astin, 1973, 1978, 1984, 1985; Chickering, 1974a;

Pascarella, 1980, 1984, 1985).

Chickering (1974a) found that the commuters' contacts with

faculty members were less than those of the resident students. Astin

(1978) also related closeness to faculty members positively to

on-campus living. Pascarella (1985) indicated that living on-campus

was significantly and positively related to students' involvement with

the faculty members and student peers. In his study, he established

that living on-campus was an indirect college influence that is

mediated through other influences such as faculty members'

interactions and peer relationships.

Pascarella (1984) affirmed the positive significant direct

effects of dormitory living on social integration with faculty and

peers. According to him, "living on-campus had its strongest

influence in the areas of fostering interaction with peers and

faculty" (p. 257). Pascarella (1984) and Lacy (1978) also supported

other researchers who found the influence of college environment to be

indirectly mediated through interactions with college significant

figures like faculty members and students' peers.

Graff and Cooley (1970) presented findings different from those

described above. No significant difference was found between














commuters and residents relative to their relationships among their

faculty members and peers. It should be noted, however, that the

interaction of students and faculty members in this particular

research was based on the students first semester in college. The

researchers have supported overwhelmingly the positive influence of

residence living on student/faculty interaction. No negative evidence

was found in the literature review.

The research findings in the area of student/faculty interaction

have been further classified according to purposes: those based on

discussions of academic and intellectual matters and those based on

social and personal discussions (Iverson, Pascarella, Terenzini, 1984;

Pascarella, 1980; Pascarella & Terenzini, 1978; Terenzini &

Pascarella, 1980).

In Pascarella and Terenzini's (1978) study, the student/faculty

interaction that focused on intellectual or course-related matters was

reported as one with the strongest association. This type of

interaction was significantly related to the students' academic

performance.

Iverson et al. (1984) studied commuter informal contact with

faculty members. The commuters' most common contacts with faculty

members were also noted to be for academic purposes.

In summary, researchers have suggested the interaction between

students and faculty members to be a desirable college influence which














yields intellectual, social, and personal development in the students.

These researchers have positively linked these relationships with the

students' general satisfaction with college experience and persistence

in college. Most of the researchers have attested to the positive

association of dormitory living and student/faculty interaction.

However, some of the researchers have also suggested that the

influence of dormitory living was not a direct one; rather it was an

indirect effect mediated through faculty and peer interactions.

Peer Relationships

Peer relationships and faculty interaction are two influences

that researchers have found to be responsible for mediating other

college effects such as living on-campus and student development

(Lacy, 1978; Pascarella, 1984, 1985; Welty, 1976).

Lacy (1978) found that faculty influence on students was of more

limited value than that of the students' peers. The students' peers

have been reported to be a powerful influence on the social and

personal development of students. According to Tinto's (1975)

research, students' social integration in college occurs through

faculty members, peer relationships, and extracurricular activities.

In his theoretical model of college drop-outs, the author regarded

successful social integration as one of the essential elements that

increases student persistence in college.














Feldman and Newcomb (1969) summarized the research on the

influences of faculty and peers on students. The students' peers were

regarded as being more influential than the faculty members in the

areas of social and interpersonal development. Also, Chickering and

McCormic (1973) have expressed views similar to the research findings

in the area of peer relationships. The authors believed that a

"student's personal development in college is influenced by diversity

and frequency of contact between faculty and students" (p. 66).

In spite of the inconclusive evidence of the effect of on-campus

living on certain college impacts, on-campus residence halls have been

shown to be a conducive college environment, fostering faculty/student

and student/peer relationships, and students' involvement in

extracurricular activities (Chickering, 1967, 1974a; Pascarella, 1984,

1985; Welty, 1976). Astin (1973) indicated that dormitory living

"increased the chances that students would be satisfied with their

overall undergraduate experience, particularly in the area of

interpersonal contacts with faculty and other students" (p. 207).

Most researchers who have compared the resident and off-campus

students on their interaction with peers attributed on-campus

residence positively to students' friendships (Astin, 1973, 1975,

1978; Chickering, 1974a; Davis & Caldwell, 1977; Pascarella, 1984,

1985). According to Welty (1976), the dormitory students established














more friendships with other students at college during the freshman

year.

Davis and Caldwell (1977) also associated more interpersonal

relationships with the resident students when compared with their

counterparts. Similarly, residents have been found to depend more on

peers for help and psychological support while the commuters depend

mostly on themselves for such support. Bishop and Synder (1976)

reported on the perceptions of commuters and residents on pressures,

helps, and psychological services on their college campus. The

residents indicated that they depended on friends as their number one

source of help, while the commuters' number one source of help was

self and "others" (p. 235).

Other researchers have reported different findings. Graff and

Cooley (1970) and Dollar (1966) have indicated no significant

differences in the relationships of commuter and resident students

with their peers. In his study, Dollar (1966) measured the

interpersonal relationships of male freshman students at Oklahoma

State University during the spring semester of 1963. The researcher

found no significant differences among the residents, fraternity, and

off-campus male students at this institution.

Significant differences have been reported far more often in the

area of students' peer relationships than have findings of no















significant differences. When significant differences were found,

they were in favor of residence living.

The characteristics of commuter and resident students'

friendships have been further analyzed to depict the nature of

occurrences (Dressel & Nisula, 1966; Flanagan, 1975; Grobman, 1980;

Reichard & McArver, 1975). Some researchers have indicated that the

commuters' relationships with their fellow students were of a limited

nature (Chickering, 1974a; Welty, 1976). Also, the commuters'

friendships have been reported to be mostly with neighbors and other

people not associated with the college. The commuters continued to

maintain high school friendships while their residential counterparts

developed new friendships at the college (Dressel & Nisula, 1966;

Flanagan, 1975; Reichard & McArver, 1975).

In summary, the research in the area of peer relationships has

been favorable towards the on-campus residents. The living

environment of the residents has exposed them to new friendships and

relationships that the commuters have not been exposed to due to their

staying away from the college campus.

College Satisfaction

Many of the researchers who have compared the college

satisfaction of commuters and residents have shown evidence of a

positive relationship between on-campus living and college

satisfaction (Astin, 1973, 1975, 1978, 1984; Baird, 1969; Chickering,














1974a; Davis & Caldwell, 1977). According to Astin (1978), the

residents in his study expressed "much more satisfaction with

undergraduate experience, particularly in the areas of student

friendships, faculty/student relations, institutional reputation, and

social life" (p. 221).

Baird (1969) also indicated that the commuters were more

dissatisfied with their college when compared with their resident

counterparts. In this study, the commuters showed evidence of not

being as satisfied as the residents. Davis and Caldwell (1977)

provided further evidence to support the positive relationship of

on-campus living and college satisfaction. In an inter-campus study

of students at two different residential and commuter institutions,

Davis and Caldwell (1977) reported that 76.4% of the resident students

showed satisfaction with their university selection, while only 58.2%

of the commuters did. Also, a higher percentage of the residents felt

that they were given a good education at their institution. In their

conclusion, the researchers wrote that

a greater percentage of the residential students felt
that they had received a good education and a socially
rewarding experience that prepared them for understanding
the world today. Residential students were pleased with
their choice of university and felt that the university
had provided them with the opportunity to be part of the
decision-making process. (p. 289)

Pascarella (1984) and Hardy (1973), however, presented a

different finding from those discussed above. After holding the

students' background characteristics and institutional control














constant, Pascarella (1984) declared that the effect of on-campus

living was indirectly related to the general college satisfaction of

students. According to Pascarella, the effect of on-campus living on

degree aspirations and general college satisfaction was mediated

through students' relationships with faculty members and peers.

Hardy (1973) compared the commuter and resident students of North

Texas State University in regard to their satisfaction with the

university administration. The commuters in this study were

significantly more satisfied than the residents. Hardy also indicated

no significant difference between the two groups when they were

compared on their satisfaction with faculty members.

In summary, the research in the area of college satisfaction has

suggested differences in the commuters and residents. More evidence

tends to link positively college satisfaction with on-campus living.

It appears that on-campus resident students are more satisfied with

their college selection, and their general on-campus experience.

Summary

In this chapter, an overview of the research has been provided in

the area of students' residence and its relationship to student

involvement in college activities. The literature reviewed has

produced varied and inconclusive results that can be classified into

three groups. Some researchers have showed differences in the

involvement of commuters and residents while other researchers














reported similarities in their involvement in college activities. The

researchers who have claimed differences in the involvement of

commuter and resident students have further reported contrary

findings. Some have reported positive relationships between on-campus

living and involvement while others have reported positive

relationships between off-campus living and involvement.

In spite of these varied results, the majority of the researchers

have suggested specific differences in the involvement of commuters

and residents in many college activities that are deemed to be

important factors in the total educational program.

















CHAPTER III
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY



The procedure for carrying out the study of the relationship

between Nigerian students' involvement in college and their on-campus

or off-campus residency status was briefly described in Chapter I.

Chapter III contains further elaboration on this. The contents of

Chapter III include the research design, site selection, procedure for

selection of subjects, and statistical analysis for the collected

data.

Research Design

This research was focused on the differences of on-campus and

off-campus students in several aspects of college life. Residence

was an attribute variable that could not be manipulated by the

researcher. Thus, an ex post facto design was selected as appropriate

for this study involving residence location that had been determined

prior to the research.

The ex post facto design has two main weaknesses: (a) the

inability of the researcher to manipulate the independent variables and

(b) the lack of randomization or the problem of subjects'

self-selection. In ex post facto research, the subjects have already

been assigned into categories (commuter/resident); hence the














researcher cannot randomly assign the students into these groups.

According to Kerlinger (1986),

subjects can "assign themselves" to groups, can "select
themselves" into groups on the basis of characteristics
other than those in which the investigator may be
interested. The subjects and treatments come, as it
were, already assigned to groups. (p. 349)

Setting

Two universities in the southwestern part of Nigeria were

selected as the sites for the research. The University of Ibadan and

the University of Lagos were chosen because of factors relevant to

this study. Paramount was the history of both institutions.

University education started in Nigeria, in 1948, with the

establishment of the predecessor of the University of Ibadan, which

was then called University College Ibadan. Prior to the creation of

the college, Nigerian college aspirants had traveled outside the

country to obtain a college education. The founding of this first

institution at Ibadan, therefore, opened up university opportunities

in the nation.

The University College Ibadan inherited the collegiate system

from London University. The college was founded as a residential

institution. During its early years, all the students lived in the

dormitories with housemasters/mistresses and later with their wardens.

This 100% residential nature continued until the 1960s when the

institutional leaders were forced to change the residential policy to

accommodate nonresidential students (Ajayi & Tamuno, 1973).














In 1988, the University of Ibadan operated as an institution

for both residential and nonresidential students. In fact, the

institution had a residential policy that allowed students to live the

first and last years on-campus and the 2 middle years in off-campus

housing.

The University of Lagos had a history different from that of the

University of Ibadan. The Ashby Commission, which recommended the

creation of the institution, conceived an "urban non-residential

institution" (Federal Republic of Nigeria, 1963, p. 13). This idea of

a purely nonresidential university was later modified to provide for

40% campus residential accommodation for the students (Federal

Republic of Nigeria, 1963; Yesufu, 1973). The University of Lagos was

finally created in 1962, as a partially residential institution.

In 1988, the university had an elaborate residential policy

comparable to that of the University of Ibadan.

The two universities in the study were conceived with different

residential concepts but were later changed to accommodate both

residential and commuter students.

The Universities of Ibadan and Lagos were selected to be in this

study because they are both located in metropolitan areas. In Ibadan

and Lagos, private off-campus housing and public transportation are

easier to find for the off-campus students than is the case with other

universities located in smaller cities in Nigeria. This environmental














condition helped to provide a sufficient number of both kinds of

students to permit comparing off-campus and resident students.

Furthermore, the two institutions used in this study were chosen

because each had a residence policy that required students to live

on-campus and off-campus during certain academic years.

The different conditions of students commuting should be borne in

mind whenever Nigerian university students' residence is considered in

light of counterpart students in American universities. The students

in Nigeria were most likely chose to live in off-campus housing for

one of two main reasons: (a) university regulation that allows only

certain student classifications to live on-campus during their

academic years and (b) dormitory space that is limited. Since

university education was free in Nigeria, the students did not face

the problem of financing their education as do most students in

American universities. The cost of university education including

that of living in the dormitory was minimal for Nigerian students.

For example, in Nigeria, university tuition was free and students in

the universities' residence halls paid lodging fees of about N91

($21.00) per academic year (personal communication with students and

university administrator).

The different cultures surrounding the students in Nigeria and

American universities should also be considered when evaluating the

residence issue. In Nigeria, it was more convenient for students to

live on-campus; in fact most student lived off-campus not because they

wanted to, but because of circumstances such as those mentioned above.














The condition of not wanting to live off-campus has led many Nigerian

students to live illegally in campus dormitories with their friends

(Oduleye, 1985).

Commuting presented Nigerian students with a different kind of

problem from that experienced by many American student commuters. In

Nigeria, students who lived far from the university campus relied

almost totally on public transportation to get to the campus from

their off-campus residence; they had less access than American

students to personal automobiles.

The different environmental conditions of Nigerian and American

university students described above are not exhaustive but reflect

differences in their respective cultures.

Sample Selection

The on-campus sample from the University of Lagos was selected

from the lists of dormitory students provided by the student affairs

office of the university. The university leaders did not have any

official list of its off-campus students; therefore the off-campus

group was selected from two main academic faculties. The students

from the Faculty of Arts were students in classes that were required

to be taken during the students' off-campus years. Students from the

Faculty of Sciences were those who responded to the notices sent to

the off-campus students by the faculty. Fifty on-campus female

students and 50 on-campus male students were chosen randomly from the













University of Lagos to take part in the study. Fifty questionnaires

were given out at the Faculty of Arts and 50 more were distributed at

the Faculty of Sciences at the University of Lagos.

The University of Ibadan sample included students from four main

departments: Mathematics, Education, Foreign Languages, and Classics.

Two hundred questionnaires were distributed to students from these

four departments. The students from both universities were at the 200

(sophomore), 300 (junior), and 400 (senior) levels.

Out of the 400 questionnaires distributed to students, 148

usable questionnaires were returned by students at the University of

Lagos, while the students from the University of Ibadan submitted 156

usable questionnaires. The total number of questionnaires subject to

study was 304.

Procedure for Data Collection

Questionnaires were administered by the researcher and were

collected directly from the subjects. The data obtained through the

questionnaires consisted of (a) students' demographic data (age, sex,

home state, and academic classification), (b) data related to

students' residence locations, (c) students' friendships, (d)

student/faculty relationships, (e) students' participation in

extracurricular activities, (f) students' academic achievement and

activities (study hours, study places, study partners, library usage,

and grade point averages), and (g) students' satisfaction with

college. (See the appendix for a copy of the questionnaire.)














Statistical Analysis of Data

The data collected for this study of relationships between

Nigerian university students' involvement in college and their type of

residence were of both qualitative and quantitative natures. The

chi-square test for independent samples was used to analyze the

nominal data, and the t-test for statistical significance of

differences was used for the data collected in interval form.

The students' information on age, gender, and place of residence

were analyzed descriptively by percentages. The data on grade point

averages, study hours, and the number of hours spent in the library

per week were analyzed by t-tests.

Chi-square analysis for independent samples was used to analyze

the nominal data related to students' study places, partners, and

friendships; satisfaction of students with the college experience; and

student/faculty relationships. Chi-square test also was used to

analyze grouped data averaging the hours of involvement of students in

club/organization activities.

All the data in the study were analyzed with the use of the

micro-computer software package called Microstat by Ecosoft. Alpha

was set at .10 and was used as the basis for rejecting the null

hypotheses.

The 12 specific null hypotheses which follow were developed from

the various research questions in Chapter I.















Hypothesis 1. There are no differences between the academic

achievement and activities of Nigerian university off-campus and

on-campus students.

Hypothesis 2. There is no difference between the Nigerian

university off-campus and on-campus students' participation in

clubs and organizations.

Hypothesis 3. There is no difference between the number of

hours that the off-campus and on-campus students spend in

extracurricular activities per week.

Hypothesis 4. There is no difference between the Nigerian

off-campus and on-campus students' types of friendships made

during their undergraduate education.

Hypothesis 5. There is no difference in general satisfaction

with college between the Nigerian university off-campus and

on-campus students.

Hypothesis 6. There is no difference in the area of student/

faculty relationships between Nigerian university off-campus and

on-campus students.

Hypothesis 6a. There is no difference between the frequency

of informal meetings of the Nigerian off-campus and on-campus

students with their faculty members.

Hypothesis 6b. There is no difference between the frequency

of informal discussion of class/course or intellectual problems














of the Nigerian university off-campus and on-campus students with

their faculty members.

Hypothesis 6c. There is no difference between the off-campus and

on-campus students' frequency of informal meetings with faculty

members to receive academic advice.

Hypothesis 6d. There is no difference between the off-campus and

on-campus students' frequency of informal academic advice

received from their faculty members.

Hypothesis 6e. There is no difference between the off-campus and

on-campus students' frequency of informal meetings to discuss

future careers with faculty members.

Hypothesis 6f. There is no difference between the off-campus and

on-campus students' frequency of informal meetings to discuss

personal problems with faculty members.

Hypothesis 6g. There is no difference between the off-campus and

on-campus students' frequency of informal discussion about

social, political, or campus issues with faculty members.

Hypotheses 2 through 6g and part of hypothesis 1 were analyzed with

the chi-square method; other parts of hypotheses 1 were tested by the

t-test statistical method.

Summary

This chapter contained a description of the students that were

involved in this study, the methods that were used in selecting these











62



students, the specific null hypotheses to be tested, the research

design, and the statistical methods used in analyzing the collected

data.

















CHAPTER IV
RESULTS OF THE STUDY



Introduction

The study was designed to investigate the differences between

on-campus and off-campus Nigerian students' involvement in selected

academic and extracurricular activities. The sample population

included in the study was selected from the University of Ibadan and

the University of Lagos, both located in the country of Nigeria. The

sample included students from these two universities who resided in

on-campus residence halls and students who lived off-campus and

commuted.

In order to determine the difference between the on-campus and

off-campus students' involvement in total university programs, six

research questions were posed and stated in Chapter I. These

questions were further developed into 12 null hypotheses and stated in

Chapter III. The null hypotheses were tested for each university

sample and the two samples combined when the data were comparable and

the results are presented within this chapter. The chapter also

includes the characteristics of the respondents based on a descriptive

analysis of the data from 156 usable questionnaires returned by the

University of Ibadan students and 148 usable questionnaires returned

by the University of Lagos students.














Description of the Sample

One hundred and fifty-six questionnaires were analyzed that were

completed by the University of Ibadan students. One hundred and

twenty-three (80.39%) of these were male students and 30 (19.61%)

were female students. Of the total respondents, 128 (82%) were living

in on-campus residence halls and 28 (18%) were off-campus resident

students. According to the university administrators, about 50% of

the total university population was legally assigned to on-campus

residence halls, but in actuality this percentage was increased to

about 90% by the many students who managed to live illegally in the

dormitories through a method popularly known by the students as

"squatting." This'group of students was excluded from the sample

population.

The distribution of the ages of University of Ibadan students

that were included in the study is presented in Table 1. Over 96% of

the students from the University of Ibadan 30 years of age or younger;

about 32% were in the 19-21 years category, about 42% in the 22-24

years of age bracket, and about 21% claimed to be in the 25-30 years

group. About 76% of these students were less than 25 years of age

which was the typical college age group.

For the University of Lagos, 148 questionnaires were analyzed.

Out of this total number, 147 responded to the item on gender.

Eighty-six students (58.50%) were males and 61 (41.50%) were















females. The residence location of those included in the study

were 99 (66.89%) on-campus resident students and 49 (33.11%)

off-campus students.


Table 1

Ages of Sample Population from the University of Ibadan



Ages Frequency Percentage


16-18 years 4 2.56

19-21 years 50 32.05

22-24 years 65 41.67

25-30 years 32 20.51

over 30 years 5 3.21

Total 156 100.00




The ages of University of Lagos' sample were similar to their

counterparts at the University of Ibadan. The distribution of the

ages of these students is presented in Table 2. About 98% of the

students were 30 years old or younger. Almost 45% of all the students

indicated that they were in the 19-21 years old bracket. While about

36% reported ages in the 22-24 years category. In total, 82% of the

University of Lagos sample fell into the typical college age bracket

of 16-24 years.















Table 2

Ages of Sample Population from the University of Lagos


Ages Frequency Percentage


16-18 years 3 2.03

19-21 years 66 44.59

22-24 years 53 35.81

25-30 years 23 15.54

over 30 years 3 2.03

Total 148 100.00



Three hundred and four usable questionnaires were analyzed for

the total respondents from the two universities. The breakdown of the

students' genders, ages, and residences is presented in Tables 3, 4,

and 5.


Table 3

Gender of


Total Respondents from Both Universities


Gender Frequency Percentage


Males 209 69.7

Females 91 30.3

Total 300 100.00


- -














Four students did not respond to the question item on gender.

For the total sample, 69.7% were male students while approximately 30%

of the students were females.


Table 4

Ages of All Student Respondents from Both Universities



Ages Frequency Percentage


16-18 years 7 2.3

19-21 years 116 28.2

22-24 years 118 38.8

25-30 years 55 18.1

over 30 years 8 2.6

Total 304 100.0



In the combined data, almost 70% fell into the typical college

age bracket of 16-24 years old. Of this group, about 28% were in

the 19-21 years bracket, and about 39% were in the 22-24 years of age

category. In all, 88% were 30 years old or younger.

Almost 75% of the students who participated in this research were

on-campus resident students while about 25% were students who resided

off-campus.















Table 5

Residence Locations for Total Respondents from Both Universities



Residence Frequency Percentage


On-Campus 227 74.7

Off-Campus 77 25.3

Total 304 100.0



Most of the students who took part in the study were in their

third or fourth year of their college education. For the University

of Ibadan, almost 53% of the students were in the third year and about

37% were in their fourth year. At the University of Lagos, almost 15%

of the students were in their third year while 68% were fourth year

students.

Based on the tabulations for the off-campus respondents it was

found that 72% of University of Ibadan students had lived in

on-campus residences before, while 75% of the University of Lagos

off-campus students had prior on-campus living experiences. When

these commuters were asked the most important reason why they moved to

off-campus residences, the majority of the students indicated the

university regulation and law; about 42% of the students from the

University of Ibadan gave this reason, while about 56% of the

University of Lagos students did. This tabulation is presented in

Table 6.














Table 6

The Most Important Reason Why Students Resided Off-Campus



Reasons Ibadan Students Lagos Students


University regulation/law 42.11 56.41

Financial reasons 26.32 .00

To be with off-campus friends 5.26 .00

To be with parents/relatives .00 .00

Lack of satisfaction 15.79 12.82

Marriage 5.26 2.56

Other 5.26 28.21

Total 100.00 100.00



The commuter respondents were asked the distance of their

residence from their university campus. Presented in Table 7 are the

percentage distributions of distance to commuters' residences from

their respective college campuses.

At the University of Ibadan, about 35% of the commuters lived

less than 1 mile from their campus and about 43% lived from 3.5

through 5.45 miles away from campus. This was unlike the University

of Lagos commuters where the majority (72.34%) lived from 5.5 through

more than 10 miles away. These commuters also responded to the

question item on their means of transportation to their campuses.

Shown in Table 8 is the percentage breakdown of their responses.














Table 7

Percentage Distribution of Commuters' Distances to


Residences


Distance to Residence Ibadan Students Lagos Students


Less than 1 mile 34.78 8.51

1 to 3.45 miles 43.48 14.89

3.5 to 5.45 miles 8.70 4.26

5.5 to 7.45 miles 4.32 12.77

7.5 to 10 miles 8.70 17.02

More than 10 miles .00 42.55

Total 99.98 100.00




Table 8

Percentage Distribution of Commuters Means of Transportation



Means of Transportation Ibadan Students Lagos Students


Walk 73.91 4.08

Drive personal car 13.04 8.16

Ride bicycle/motorcycle .00 .00

Ride public transportation 13.04 83.67

Other .00 4.08

Total 99.99 99.99















The majority of the University of Ibadan commuters (73.91%)

walked to campus while 13.04% rode public transportation. The

University of Lagos students had a reversed situation: 83.67% of the

commuters rode public transportation to campus while only 4.08%

walked.

All the students were asked about their most desirable residence

and the location of their after-class activities. The tables below

contain percentage breakdowns of their responses.


Table 9

Percentage Distribution of Students Most Desirable Residences



On-Campus Off-Campus
Students Ibadan Lagos Ibadan Lagos


On-Campus 92.86 95.65 7.41 4.35

Off-Campus 60.00 95.56 40.00 4.44



For the University of Ibadan students, 92.86% of students

residing on-campus indicated the on-campus location as the most

desirable residence while 60% of those students residing off-campus

indicated the on-campus location as the most desirable. At the

University of Lagos, 95.65% of the students residing on-campus favored

on-campus residence and 95.56% of the students residing off-campus

also favored on-campus housing. There was a higher percentage of

on-campus residence preference among the University of Lagos students.














Table 10

Percentage Distribution of the Locations of Students' After-Class
Activities



Locations of Activities
On-Campus Off-Campus Equally Divided
Students Ibadan Lagos Ibadan Lagos Ibadan Lagos


On-Campus 89.92 79.17 3.36 4.17 6.72 16.67

Off-Campus 73.08 65.96 19.23 14.89 7.69 19.15



About 90% of the University of Ibadan on-campus students claimed

that their after-class activities were held on-campus, while about 73%

of the off-campus students indicated the same. For the University of

Lagos on-campus students, about 79% had their after-class activities

on campus, while almost 66% of the off-campus students indicated their

after-class activities were also on-campus.

Test of Hypothesis One

Ho 1: There are no differences between the academic achievement

and activities of Nigerian university off-campus and

on-campus students.

Part of hypothesis was tested with a t-test for independent samples.

The analysis of University of Ibadan's students academic grade point

averages yielded a t-value of -0.23 which was not significant at the

.10 level of probability. The t-value for the University of Lagos

data was 1.79 and was found to be significant at the .08 level of

probability. This part of the null hypothesis was retained for the















University of Ibadan resident and non-resident students but was

rejected for the University of Lagos students. For the University of

Ibadan resident and non-resident students, the analysis of their

academic grade point averages reflected comparable academic

achievement for both groups. However, the analysis of the University

of Lagos' data indicated a significantly different academic

achievement for on-campus and off-campus students. The on-campus

students were found to achieve academically higher than the off-campus

students; their mean academic grade point average was 2.44 while it

was 2.13 for the off-campus students. The results of the analysis for

the University of Ibadan students are presented in Table 11 and those

of the University of Lagos students appear in Table 12.


Table 11

Differences in Academic Grade Point Averages for the
University of Ibadan Students



On-Campus Students Off-Campus Students


Mean = 4.76 4.85

Std.Dev. = 0.45 0.95

N = 123 28

t-value = -0.23

df = 149

Prob. = NS.















Table 12

Differences in Academic Grade Point Averages for the
University of Lagos Students



On-Campus Students Off-Campus Students


Mean = 2.44 2.13

Std.Dev. = 0.62 0.91

N = 86 40

t-value = 1.79

df = 124

Prob. = .08

Significant at .08 prob. level.



The null hypothesis could not be tested for the combined data

from the two universities because of noncomparable grade point average

scales.

The researcher also investigated, as part of the hypothesis,

other variables that were seen as closely associated with academic

achievement. The t-test for independent samples was used to analyze

the difference between the on-campus and off-campus students' study

hours and library usage. The t-test for the average study hours and

library hours per week yielded t-values that were not significant at

the .10 level of probability for either the University of Ibadan or

the University of Lagos students.















The University of Ibadan results reflected a t-value of 0.08 with

means of 5.13 for the study hours of on-campus students and 5.08

for the off-campus students. Shown in Table 13 are the results

for the University of Ibadan students' study hours.


Table 13

Differences in Study Hours of Students at the University of Ibadan


On-Campus Students


Off-Campus Students


Mean =

Std.Dev. =

N

t-value =

df

Prob.

Not significant at .10 prob.


5.13

2.66

119

0.083

143

0.4669

level.


5.08

3.02

26


The t-value for average number of hours spent in the library per

week was 0.22 with means of 15.15 for the on-campus resident students

and 14.54 for the off-campus students. The results of the analysis

follow in Table 14.

For the University of Lagos students, the t-value for the average

study hours per week was -1.05 with means of 4.97 for the on-campus















Table 14

Differences in Reported Hours in Library of Students at
the University of Ibadan


=


On-Campus Students


Mean

Std.Dev.

N

t-value


Off-Campus Students


15.15

12.46

112

0.2269

134


Prob. = .4

Not significant at .10 prob. level.


14.54

9.12

24


104


Table 15

Differences in Study Hours of Students at the University of Lagos


On-Campus Students


Mean

Std.Dev.


4.97

2.79


Off-Campus Students


5.61

3.79

36


t-value = -1.053

df = 124

Prob. = .1473

Not significant at .10 prob. level.














resident students and 5.61 for the non-resident students. Presented

in Table 15 are the results of the analysis.

The t-value for the average hours students from the University of

Lagos spent in the library per week was -0.71. The means for the

on-campus and off-campus students were 14.10 and 15.53, respectively.

The results of the t-test analysis are presented in Table 16.



Table 16

Differences in Reported Hours in Library of Students at
the University of Lagos



On-Campus Students Off-Campus Students


Mean = 14.06 15.53

Std.Dev. = 10.66 11.06

N = 83 40

t-value = -0.7053

df = 121

Prob. = .2410

Not significant at .10 prob. level.




The analysis of the weekly hours spent in the library for both

university samples combined also yielded a nonsignificant t-value of














-0.2860, with the mean of off-campus students slightly higher than

that of the on-campus students. This analysis is presented in Table

17.



Table 17

Differences in Reported Library Hours of Students from
Both Universities


On-Campus


14.6872

11.7135

195

-.2860

257

.3876


Off-Campus


15.1563

10.3083

64


The t-test analysis on the combined weekly study hours resulted

in a nonsignificant t-value of -0.7858. The mean was 5.0574 for the

on-campus and 5.3871 for the off-campus students. This analysis is

shown below in Table 18


Mean

Std.Dev.

N

t-value

df

Prob.















Table 18

Differences in Reported Study Hours of Students from
Both Universities



On-Campus Off-Campus


Mean = 5.0574 5.3871

Std.Dev. = 2.7115 3.4705

N = 209 62

t-value = -0.7858

df = 269

Prob. = .2163





Chi-square tests were used to analyze the differences between

on-campus and off-campus students' study partners and study places.

The results of these analyses are presented in Tables 19 through 24.

No significant differences were found between the on-campus and

off-campus students and their study partners. The analysis showed

that most of the on-campus and off-campus students studied most of the

time alone.

The chi-square analysis done on the study places of students from

both the University of Ibadan and the University of Lagos students

yielded no significant differences. The result indicated that both














on-campus and off-campus students of the two institutions used their

library most of the time to study.



Table 19

Students' Study Partners at the University of Ibadan



Study Partner

Students Alone Friends Total


On-Campus 81 36 117

Off-Campus 21 5 26

Total 102 41 143

Chi-square = 0.95 (df=l)
Not significant at .10 prob. level.




Table 20

Students' Study Places at the University of Ibadan



Students Library Bedroom Lecture Room Classroom Other Total


On-Campus 53 34 7 11 12 117

Off-Campus 15 4 0 3 3 25

Total 68 38 7 14 15 142

Chi-square = 4.24 (df=4)
Not significant at the .10 prob. level.














Table 21

Students' Study Partners at the University of Lagos


Study Partner

Students Alone Friends Total


On-Campus 51 40 91

Off-Campus 28 15 43

Total 79 55 134

Chi-square = 1.27 (df=l)
Not significant at .10 prob. level.




Table 22

Students' Study Places at the University of Lagos



Students Library Bedroom Lecture Room Classroom Other Total


On-Campus 32 28 5 15 10 90

Off-Campus 23 10 3 5 4 45

Total 55 38 8 20 14 135

Chi-square = 4.31 (df=4)
Not significant at .10 prob. level.














Table 23

Students' Study Partners at the Combined Universities


Study Partner

Students Alone Friends Total


On-Campus 132 76 208

Off-Campus 49 20 69

Total 181 96 277

Chi-square = 1.37 (df=l)
Not significant at .10 prob. level.




Table 24

Students' Study Places at the Combined Universities



Students Library Bedroom Lecture Room Classroom Other Total


On-Campus 85 62 12 26 22 207

Off-Campus 38 14 3 8 7 70

Total 123 76 15 34 29 277

Chi-square = 4.36 (df=4)
Not significant at .10 prob. level.















In brief, there were no significant differences between the

on-campus and off-campus students in their study patterns as reflected

by their average study hours per week, study partners, study places,

and average number of hours spent in the library per week. The

resident and non-resident students of each university were comparable

on all related academic variables tested in this study. The only

significant difference found in the analyses for this first hypothesis

was a difference in the academic grade point averages of on-campus and

off-campus students at the University of Lagos. Therefore, the null

hypothesis was retained for the academic achievement and all academic

related variables for the University of Ibadan. For the University of

Lagos, the null hypothesis was retained for all the academic related

variables but was rejected for the academic achievement of the

students.

Test of Hypothesis Two

Ho 2: There is no difference between the Nigerian

university off-campus and on-campus students'

participation in clubs and organizations.

This hypothesis was tested with a chi-square test for independent

samples. The test indicated no significant differences (p < .10) at

either the University of Ibadan or the University of Lagos. The

analysis of the University of Ibadan's data yielded a chi-square value

of 0.815 while that of the University of Lagos was 0. These














chi-square results and percentage distributions for students'

membership in clubs are presented in Tables 25 and 26. The null

hypothesis was retained for each institution since no significant

differences were found in the participation of on-campus and

off-campus students of the two universities.

About 69% of University of Ibadan on-campus students indicated

membership in campus clubs, organizations, and student groups, while

about 59% of the off-campus students indicated the same. For the

University of Lagos students, about 62% of resident students said that

they had membership in campus clubs and groups while a higher

percentage (63.3%) of the off-campus students claimed membership in

these groups.

Both on-campus and off-campus students of Nigerian universities

showed a comparable membership in campus clubs and organizations. The

students showed similar percentages of participation in these student

organizations.

The data from both the University of Ibadan and the University of

Lagos were combined and a chi-square analysis was done. A

nonsignificant (p > .10) chi-square value of 0.31 was indicated. The

hypothesis was retained for the Nigerian university students as

represented by combined institutions. The Nigerian university

on-campus and off-campus students were found to hold memberships in

college clubs, organizations, student government, and athletic groups

in a similar manner. The on-campus resident students indicated a














Table 25

Membership in Clubs and Organizations of Students at the
University of Ibadan



Membership in Clubs and Organizations

Students Yes No Total

Number % Number % Number %


On-Campus 83 68.6 38 31.4 121 100

Off-Campus 16 59.3 11 40.7 27 100

Total 99 49 148

Chi-square = 0.815 (df=l)
Not significant at .10 prob. level.




Table 26

Membership in Clubs and Organizations of Students at the
University of Lagos



Membership in Clubs and Organizations

Students Yes No Total

Number % Number % Number %


On-Campus 60 61.9 37 38.1 97 100

Off-Campus 31 63.3 18 36.7 49 100

Total 91 55 146

Chi-square = 0 (df=l)
Not significant at .10 prob. level














65.6% membership while the off-campus resident students claimed a

61.8% membership. The chi-square result is presented along with the

percentage distribution in Table 27.



Table 27

Membership in Clubs and Organizations at the Combined Universities



Membership

Students Yes No Total

Number % Number %


On-Campus 143 65.6 75 34.4 218 100.0

Off-Campus 47 61.8 29 38.2 76 100.0

Total 190 104 294

Chi-square = 0.31 (df=l)
Not significant at .10 prob. level.




Test of Hypothesis Three

Ho 3: There is no difference between the number of hours that

the off-campus and on-campus students spend in

extracurricular activities per week.

The hypothesis was tested for the University of Ibadan and the

University of Lagos independently and for the two samples combined.

No significant differences were indicated on the chi-square tests















done. The null hypothesis was retained for the University of Ibadan

based on a nonsignificant chi-square value of 1.2 (df=4) at the .10

level of probability and for the University of Lagos based on a

chi-square of 3.89. The analysis for Ibadan is presented in Table 28

and that for Lagos appears in Table 29.

The majority of the students at both institutions reported 1-3.4

hours of weekly involvement in extracurricular activities. As the

number of hours increased, the percentage of students who were

involved in extracurricular activities dropped.

The chi-square analysis done on the combined data from both

University of Ibadan and University of Lagos students also indicated

a nonsignificant chi-square value of 3.85. The null hypothesis was

retained for the overall data of Nigerian university students that

participated in this research. The analysis is presented in Table 30

below.

Since no significant difference was indicated on each

university's data nor the data of the universities, combined, Nigerian

on-campus and off-campus residents were comparable in the average

number of hours that they spent in club activities per week. As such,

the null hypothesis was retained.