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'_:..'i' OF THEb .1 IC. HIGH
CC', I-- 'l. AT "T-..'.'- Prince.
January 1, 1923
PORT AU PRINCE, HAITI
TO THE SECRETARY OF STATE
JANUARY 1, 1923
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE
REPORT OF THE AMERICAN HIGH COMMISSIONER AT PORT
AU PRINCE, HAITI.
LEGATION OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA,
Port au Prince, Haiti, January 1, 1923.
The SECRETARY OF STATE,
Washington, D. C.
SIR: I have the honor to report that, having been appointed
American High Commissioner to Haiti, I left Washington on March
4, 1922, arriving in Port au Prince one week later on board the
U. S. S. North Dakota. Upon landing I was received by the magistrate
communal of Port au Prince, who in a short address welcomed me
to the city. The streets in the neighborhood of the wharf were lined
with people and automobiles, and on passing I received quite an
On Monday, the 13th of March, 1922, by arrangement I visited
the National Palace, where I had an audience with the President of
Haiti. The President was surrounded by his secretaries of state,
and after I had made a short speech and presented a letter from the
President of the United States to the President of Haiti, M. Dar-
tiguenave, President of Haiti, responded in a few words of welcome
to me on my return to Haiti.
During the ensuing three weeks I had almost daily conferences
with the Haitian Secretaries of State for Foreign Affairs and
Finance and the Acting Financial Adviser, the subject under discus-
sion being a preliminary agreement regarding a loan for Haiti and
the working out of a financial program.
On April 10, 1922, the Council of State met as a National Assem-
bly, and proceeded to elect a President of Haiti. On the evening of
the same day a decision was arrived at by the National Assembly
electing M. Joseph Louis Borno as President of Haiti, to take office
on May 15, 1922. On May 15 the inauguration ceremonies were held,
and Haiti for the first time in its history witnessed the spectacle of
two Presidents taking part in an inauguration. A recently published
history of Haiti in this respect states as follows:
Thanks to the Occupation, the transmission of presidential power was peace-
fully effected and without violence. On the 15th day of May, 1922, the people
of the capital looked on with astonishment at this unique spectacle in the
annals of our history: that of two Presidents exchanging mutual felicitations
ut the National Palace, one going in and the other leaving to go peacefully and
embark on a vessel for his native village in southern Haiti.
Immediately upon taking the reins of office President Borno
showed himself to be a man of energy, desirous of assisting and de-
veloping his country, and to this end he at once devoted his time to
the consideration of the making of a loan to Haiti. As a result, on
June 26, 1922, a law authorizing an exterior loan of $16,000,000 and
an interior loan of $5,000,000 was passed by the legislative body, the
Council of State.
While the loan law had been passed and the loan authorized, much
work had to be concluded before the loan could be effected. Pri-
marily it was essential that a sound financial program should be
agreed to by the Haitian Government and the United States, and to
this end exchanges of notes were necessary. In order that Haiti
might obtain the best results from the loan, it was suggested that
proposals be sent out and competitive bids invited. This arrange-
ment was finally agreed to. A law was now passed by the Haitian
legislative body authorizing the issuance of the interior bonds.
series B. Shortly afterwards Monsieur L6on D6jean, Minister of
Foreign Affairs, and Monsieur L6ys, consul general at New York,
were sent to Washington on a special mission regarding the loan
negotiations. Proposals were now sent out by the Financial Adviser
in Washington and sealed bids submitted for the exterior loan, the
bid of the National City Co. of 92.137 per cent being accepted. This
bid was considered excellent, and I believe that it is due to the com-
petitive feature that it could now be said that never before in the
history of Haiti had a loan been made under such excellent condi.
Immediately following the signing of the loan contract, on October
11, 1922, Mr. John A. McIlhenny, the Financial Adviser, resigned,
and Mr. John S. Hord was nominated by the President of the United
States and appointed by the President of Haiti as Financial Adviser
On November 1, 1922, Mr. Hord arrived in Port au Prince and im-
mediately assumed his duties as Financial Adviser.
One of the first duties that devolved upon the new Financial Ad.
viser was the purchase of francs for the redemption of the 1896 and
1910 French bonds. This purchase was at once taken up through the
fiscal agent for the new loan, who acted without a commission and
purchased the required 83,500,000 at an average of 13.83.
The Council of State, which had been called in extra session for
the purpose of sanctioning the loan contract, after disposing of that
question, took up the consideration of certain laws and toward the
end of this session, the latter part of December, the council passed a
number of laws that will be of material benefit to Haiti. One of
these laws provides for the establishment of a rural police under
the direction of the Gendarmerie d'Haiti. It is expected that this
police force will be able materially to reduce, if not entirely to pre-
vent, the thieving that is now being carried on in the various com-
munes. Another law relates to the press.
During the early summer a program of development had been
drawn up, and immediately after the sanctioning of the loan con-
tract, thus making the money from the loan available, the sum of
$300,000 was appropriated by an extraordinary credit, and made
available for the department of public works. This amount was
necessary for preliminary work connected with the development
work to be undertaken by this department later on, and it was
essential that the gathering of material in certain investigations be
made at once in order to take advantage of the dry season.
Negotiations were now undertaken for settling the interior bonds
comprising the 1912, 1913, and 1914 A, B, and C bond issues. This
subject was inquired into very carefully, and finally a proposition
was submitted by the Haitian Government to the bondholders
whereby all interest would be paid up to December 31, 1922, but the
principal of the interior bonds would be reduced as follows:
1!9'2 ---..---------.-- --- ------ None.
1913----- ---------------------- --------- 5
1914-A ----------- --- ---------- 15
1914-B----------------------- ---- -------- 20
This arrangement was considered most equitable in view of the
manner in which these bonds had been originally issued, and two
days before Christmas, over 70 per cent of the bondholders having
agreed, payment of interest was commenced.
In accordance with the provisions of the protocol, an arrWt6 was
issued by the President organizing the claims commission and ap-
pointing as members Mr. John S. Stanley, American; M. Abel Ilger.
Haitian; Mr. Hector Saavedra, Cuban.
During the consideration of French claims, M. Rend Delage
will replace Mr. Saavedra, while for British and Italian claims
Mr. Briscoe and Mr. Oscar Scarpa will serve on the commission,
UNITED STATES FORCES.
The United States forces, consisting of the First Brigade, United
States Marines, and three small naval vessels, have continued under
the direct command of the brigade commander. During the period
covered by this report the efficiency of these forces has been main-
tained at a high standard, and in addition it has been indoctrinated
with the purposes for which we are in Haiti and the necessity for
the maintenance of the most cordial relations and cooperation in
all dealings with Haitians. The conditions throughout the country
have so materially improved that it was considered proper to with.
draw some of the interior marine posts. This withdrawal was
gradually made and at the beginning of the year only two interior
posts, Mirebalais and St. Michel, are garrisoned by marines.
The Gendarmerie d'Haiti has been most efficiently handled during
the past year and as a result it has been brought to a very high
standard of excellence. The full report of the Chief of the Gen-
darmerie d'Haiti is attached hereto,' but it is believed that the most
important work of the gendarmerie has been the establishment of the
Department of Central Haiti with headquarters at Hinche.
The yearly report of the public works officer is appended and
shows very clearly the progress that has been made in this important
department, and when the limited funds at the command of the
Director General of Public Works is considered, the work accom-
plished is phenomenal.
This department has been greatly handicapped by a lack of funds
but with the small amount available it has succeeded in maintaining
an excellent condition of health throughout Haiti, and has even
extended its public health and sanitary service. The report of the
public health officer is appended.
The Receiver General's office has continued during the year its ex-
cellent work of collecting the import and export duties. This office
is exceptionally well organized, and when it is considered that the
customs laws with which it deals are exceedingly antiquated, the
results that have been obtained are exceptional. The obsolete cus-
toms laws will shortly be revised, but such revision could not be made
until after a loan had been effected and an internal tax law put in
The report of the Receiver General is hereto attached.
During the greater part of the year covered by this report the
Financial Adviser was absent on duty in Washington in connection
SThe reports of the treaty officials, which are too voluminous for publication, are on
file in the Department of State.
with the flotation of a loan and his duties in Haiti were assumed by
the Receiver General of Customs, who carried them out in a most
Upon the arrival of the new Financial Adviser, Mr. John S. Hord,
his office immediately commenced the study of an internal-tax law
and a law covering the putting into effect of a general accounting
system. It is expected that both of these laws will be ready to be
placed before the legislative body when it meets in April next, and
that they will be in operation before the end of the present fiscal year.
The judiciary system of Haiti is sadly in need of renovation. In
the lower tribunals, generally speaking, the administration of justice
is entirely unsatisfactory, and there is a general feeling that political,
family, and other interests have an undue weight.
The salaries given to judges are considered to be much too small,
and it is believed that with a reduction in the number of officials and
a: material increase in the salaries the efficiency of the judiciary
system will be increased; but it will not be satisfactory until certain
laws are passed changing slightly the methods of procedure. The
framing of such laws is now receiving consideration by the Haitian
The present unsatisfactory condition results from insufficient pay,
no provision for retirement, lack of careful selection, and inadequate
corrective measures where necessary. The entire administration of
justice should be placed outside of politics and other improper in-
The judiciary system is the foundation stone of stable government,
and when the Haitians have been taught to look with pride on their
courts and to respect them, much will have been done toward estab-
lishing permanent stability of government in Haiti.
In conclusion, it is my opinion that the future of Haiti has never
been brighter, and it is believed that a continuance of the present
policy of cooperation with the Haitian Government, together with a
maintenance of the sincere and earnest cooperation that has been
given by it during the past eight months, can lead but to the de-
velopment and progress of Haiti, the maintenance of peaceful condi-
tions, and the increased welfare and prosperity of the Haitian people.
There is appended hereto a summary of the reports of the re-
I have the honor to be, sir.
Your obedient servant,
JOHN H. RUSSELL.
SUMMARY OF ANNUAL REPORTS OF DEPARTMENTS.
There is herewith submitted a summary of the achievements to the
credit of the various departments in the development of Haiti since
the beginning of my tenure of office as American High Commissioner.
The points emphasized in this summary are entered into in detail
in the separate reports from the heads of those departments which
are attached to this report.
SUMMARY OF REPORT OF DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC WORKS.
1. There are associated with the 10 treaty engineers under the
Chief Engineer, Commander Archibald L. Parsons, Corps of Civil
Engineers, United States Navy, 15 commissioned Haitian engineers
and architects. The assistant to each treaty engineer is a Haitian.
The officer in charge of the legal work and library is a Haitian, and
other architects and engineers are detailed on special projects of
design and construction. Practically the entire clerical force is com-
posed of Haitians. In the stream gauging service there are 3
Haitians as hydrographic aids and 13 gauge readers. The entire or-
ganization is so planned that upon American withdrawal the depart-
ment will have the services of Haitians trained in every phase of its
activities and equipped to carry on its functions.
2. The average number of Haitian laborers employed is 2,700 and
the pay-received by them is 50 per cent higher than that of common
labor in Haiti.
STORES AND SHOPS.
3. A storekeeping department has been added to the adminis-
trative activities and has shown a turnover of 2.95. A direct econ-
omy of $20,000 has been realized by direct purchases from American
manufacturers and direct shipments. Sales to other departments
of the Haitian Government have netted $64,340.51 and a surplus of
4. Construction of new store yard, with railroad into yard, saving
costs of handling and expediting deliveries. Installation of work-
shops and concrete tanks for creosoting bridge timbers, telegraph
poles, etc., begun.
5. Operation of the system of shops and supplies on thoroughly
LEGAL WORK AND LIBRARY.
6. Enlarged scope of legal work and professional library through
collection of all Haitian legal works affecting public-works develop-
45451-23- 2 (7)
ment, technical reference books in both French and English, com-
plete file engineering products catalogues.
7. Completed photographic plant with photographic record of all
work done, airplane photographs of cities and photographs of public
buildings, parks, streets, and structures.
8. Supervised operation of electric lighting of Port an Prince,
Cape Haitien, and Gonaives, completely renovating last-named sys-
tem. Completed preliminary work for electric lighting plant at
9. Maintained all hydraulic services in the Republic. Through
active collection campaign and improved collection system doubled
receipts from subscribers in three cities and made total increase of
131- per cent in the nine cities affected, while lowering total cost of
10. In addition to maintenance and improvement completed new
construction to total of $38,013.
11. Placed in operation in Port au Prince salt water high pressure
fire protection system.
TELEGRAPHS AND TELEPHONES.
12. Operated 1,500 kilometers of pole lines in Haitian telegraph
13. Outstanding achievement of period was installation of auto-
matic telephone system, with capacity of 350 phones, in Port an
Prince, with approximately 300 subscribers.
14. Built up existing telegraph and telephone system, entirely
reconstructing parts, and completing new line between Port de Paix
and Cape St. Nicolas.
15. Increased telegraph traffic 26 per cent and doubled long dis-
tance telephone traffic. Reduced personnel 10 per cent and lowered
cost of operation and maintenance 17 per cent. Reduced time of
telegram deliveries 75 per cent and rates for telephone service 15
per cent. Increased receipts of telegraph and telephone systems
30 per cent.
16. Installed modern system of business administration.
17. Opened schools for instruction in modern methods of con-
struction, repair, and maintenance of system, installation and super-
vision of posts, installation of cables and cable splicing, linemen and
18. Operated irrigation service in Plains of Cul de Sac, Leogane,
and Aux Cayes.
19. Completed the Digue des Matheux Dam in the Plain of Ar-
cahaie to serve 5,000 acres of land free of tax for service.
20. Made preliminary investigation of other irrigation projects
and examinations of sources of water supply in other plains.
21. Determined by preliminary investigation that 100,000 acres
in the Artibonite Valley can be irrigated, an area of immense
promise to Haiti's future.
22. Organized river gauging service and now securing rainfall
and other meteorological data from 82 stations in the Republic.
23. Trained corps of Haitian engineers and gauge readers in this
24. Throughout five months of flood season in the Artibonite
Valley kept the important St. Marc-Gonaives section of main road
across the island open to traffic at all times by repairing of breaks
and dikes, reconstruction of dikes, and by raising several kilometers
of road above flood water. Saved the city of Grande Saline at
mouth of the Artibonite from destruction by flood.
25. Placed four new automatic flashing acetylene lighthouses,
with visibility up to 16 miles, in commission. Renovated four light-
houses of old type, increasing visibility of important Point Lamen-
tin Light at entrance to Port au Prince from 8 miles to 14 miles.
Installed lighthouse structure at Jacmel and inspected sites for
others to give a total of 15 new automatic lights to Haiti's thousand
miles of coast line.
26. Completed plans for lighthouse depot at Port au Prince.
27. Completed program for buoys and harbor lights for all ports,
and installed new buoys in four of the leading ports.
28. Repaired wharves in various ports and completed plans for
reconstruction of all small wharves for use of native sailing vessels
ROADS AND BRIDGES.
29. Maintained 960 kilometers of road through permanently organ-
ized road-maintenance organization. Reconstructed and resurfaced
most important stretches. Made surveys for new road projects and
kept all main roads passable at all times.
30. Began road from Las Cahobas to Belladere on the Santo
Domingo border to link it with Santo Domingo road system. This
stretch, when completed, will reduce the present three-day travel
by automobile between the capitals of the two Republics to one day
of travel and will open to commerce and intercourse a hitherto iso-
lated section of central Haiti.
31. Improved existing trails.
32. Completed new bridges and masonry culverts and maintained
and repaired existing ones.
33. Collected material for construction and erection of 40 new
timber truss bridges that will keep open to traffic in rainy seasons
stretches hitherto impassable.
34. Completed program for new road construction and bridges
and the reconstruction and improvement of trails.
35. In addition to the repair of streets and the lighting of cities,
water was furnished free for public fountains and fire hydrants.
This department in Port au Prince alone has maintained 78 kilo-
meters of streets, with an average width of 11 meters, graded,
bridged, and provided drains and masonry culverts for them.
36. Through the creation of a cadastral commission has begun
work to determine all state, communal, and private properties in
Port au Prince.
37. Partially completed study for a city plan and traffic control for
Port au Prince, and prepared plans for its park development.
38. Completely renovated the Palais des Ministares which houses
the Haitian Government departments and treaty officers, and in-
stalled modern furniture therein.
39. Completed fireproof building for Haitian Government archives.
40. Renovated and repaired state, communal, and school structures
in seven leading cities.
41. Completed building for nurses' home at City General Hospital
of Port au Prince and begun construction of two new wards.
42. Completed plans for most urgent school-building projects.
UNITED STATES GEOLOGICAL SURVEY.
43. Through data collected by United States Geological Survey in
Washington and mapping of the country, discontinued through lack
of funds in January, 1922, this department has begun preparation
of outline map of Haiti.
44. Through data collected by geological reconnaissance of the
country by the United States Geological Survey, this department is
completing, in both French and English, a complete report on the
mineral resources of Haiti, and has already issued a pamphlet on
its oil resources.
45. Has issued its annual printed report in both French and
English with many maps and diagrams.
46. Has expended $757,056 on its work, of which amount there
was $22,585 contributed by individuals, communes, and the Marine
Corps. The balance of this sum was allotted from the collections of
47. Secured an extraordinary credit of $300,000 through the
Haitian loan and had already prepared a program for public works
in Haiti covering a two-year period on a basis of $2,991,000.
48. Has maintained the roads, bridges, city lighting, water and
street systems, harbor improvements, aids to navigation, hydraulic,
telegraph and telephone, public buildings and schools, and the irri-
gation services of Haiti on its appropriation of $757,056.
SUMMARY OF REPORT OF PUBLIC-HEALTH SERVICE.
1. The public-health service, in addition to the total of 7 com-
missioned naval surgeons, under the supervision of Lieut. Com-
mander James M. Minter, Medical Corps, United States Navy, as
chief of the sanitary service, and 10 chief pharmacists and phar-
macists' mates, includes in its personnel 11 native Haitian physicians,
1 pharmacist, and 1 dentist. Native physicians are also employed
as assistants to the public-health officers of Port au Prince and Cape
Haitien. In addition, 13 native nurses completed the two years'
training course at the General Hospital of Port au Prince and 26
are in training.
2. Through the training of these Haitian medical men and nurses
a corps is being formed competent in time to take over all sanitary
activities and trained in all phases of public-health work, such as
administrative, hospitalization, sanitary, and quarantine duties.
3. Growing cooperation between this service and the Haitian medi-
cal fraternity is further strengthening the policy to equip Haitians
to man their own public-health service.
4. As a result of intensive vaccination campaign carried on
through 1920 and 1921, final traces of smallpox epidemic wiped out
early in year. Believed this campaign will prevent spread of small-
pox for several years.
5. Secured increased cooperation of communes in maintaining
sanitary labor squads, this service contributing money and equip-
6. Examination of all sources of water supply, cleaning cities,
eradication of mosquitoes, supervision of cleaning of markets, and
inspection of foodstuffs, places of sale, slaughter of animals, cam-
paign against rats, mice, and stray dogs. Examination of one out of
every seven rats trapped showed negative results.
7. Drainage and filling of swamp areas.
8. Study of bacillary dysentery, known in Haiti as cholerine,
stamped out severity of epidemic late in the year. Microscopical
studies of 1,140 stains and 1,520 types of cultures, use of serum,
and intensive educational campaign in affected areas brought this
disease under control.
9. Study and preparation of plans for medical survey of Haiti.
10. Distributed throughout the Republic bulletins of prophylatic
measures for prevalent diseases and special bulletins for combating
11. Employment of visiting nurses for the poor.
12. All hospital facilities improved and working to full capacity.
13. Prepared plans for mobile field laboratory with efficient per-
sonnel and transport.
14. Secured services of American specialist in eye, ear, nose, and
throat for treatment of poor at each of the public-health hospitals.
15. Haitian mass responding in greatly increased numbers to the
opportunities for medical and surgical treatment. Patients under
hospital treatment 22,316, as compared to 7,305 for previous year.
16. Port au Prince: Completion of modern operating pavilion,
home for the native nurses in training, a 70-room ward and morgue.
Begun construction of new ward for treatment of pay patients.
Cape Haitien: Begun plans for increasing capacity of Justinian
Hospital. Completed new ward for isolation and treatment of
Port de Paix: New hospital with 50-bed capacity 70 per cent
Gonaives: Completed 40-bed ward for women patients.
St. Marc: Renovation of old hospital.
Jeremie: New hospital under construction with 40-bed capacity.
Jacmel: Constructing new operating pavilion and ward for isola-
tion and treatment of tubercular patients.
17. Completed plans for quarantine and detention station at Port
au Prince. Haiti now has no quarantine station, but this service
boards all vessels entering ports.
18. Plans under way for insane asylum. At present there are no
facilities for their segregation and treatment save at the prisons.
WELFARE AND RELIEF.
19. Distributed foods and medicines and employed native Haitian
physicians in areas where cholerine epidemic was most prevalent.
20. Intensive inspection of child-welfare work in schools.
21. Placed in commission hospice communal in Port au Prince for
relief of paupers.
22. Opened five free dispensaries in the interior in sections where
no physician or drug store exists within radius of several miles and
lack of medical assistance was appalling. Haitian doctors and
nurses in charge. Large number of peasants applying for treatment
justifies the planned extension of this help that is to be carried
throughout the Republic.
23. The American Red Cross has cooperated splendidly with finan-
cial assistance and supplies in relief and free dispensary measures.
ASSISTANCE TO HAITIAN MEDICAL MEN.
24. Clinical teaching facilities at City General Hospital of Port
au Prince extended to the National Medical School of Haiti. Senior
medical students have use of all hospital facilities, with certain one
assigned for special laboratory work.
25. Haitian physicians have full use of facilities for treatment of
private patients in new private ward of general hospital.
26. Employment of native Haitian physicians in public-health
service, extension of hospital and laboratory facilities to physician
and students, training of native nurses, opening of free dispensaries
relief measures, educational measures, and free and full cooperation
has greatly strengthened the hold of the public-health service both
among the native medical fraternity and the peasant class.
27. Continued efforts to build up accurate vital statistics resulted
in 60 per cent of the communes making reports as compared to 10
per cent for 1921.
28. With a total budgetary appropriation of $264,000 from the
customs collections receipts this service has accomplished the above
in a country of 2,500,000 and an area of 10,000 square miles at a
pro rata of 11 cents gold per person for the year. Under these
conditions its most important work was necessarily restricted to
operation in the larger centers of population.
29. In anticipation of greater funds for its work plans have been
prepared for a medical survey of Haiti, research work to study and
eradicate the prevalent diseases, establishment of quarantine station,
segregation and treatment of insane and lepers, further establish-
ment of free dispensaries, increased hospitalization, and an intensive
educational campaign among the 95 per cent illiterate population.
1. The gendarmerie is officered by 102 officers and noncom-
missioned officers detailed from the Marine Corps, 12 officers,
warrant and petty officers of the Navy. In addition there are 16
lieutenants and 7 acting lieutenants appointed from Haitian citizens
and 22 aspirant officers from the same source; a total of 45 of
Haitian birth. The enlisted personnel of 2,414 is wholly Haitian.
2. This total of 45 Haitian appointees, comprising both line and
medical officers, is the present nucleus of what will eventually be-
come an armed force wholly Haitian in both its commissioned and
enlisted personnel, trained on modern lines, to act both as a police
organization and an armed force capable of putting down internal
_ disorders and maintaining the prestige of Haiti in her relations with
the nations. It is also the avowed policy of the present corps to re-
place the medical officers detailed from the United States Navy by
native surgeons, and three have been so appointed.
3. It is worthy of note that the Haitian young men who are com-
missioned, serving as acting officers, and in training for commission
have been recruited from the best families in Haiti and represent the
best type of Haitians. Their service has been excellent and full
4. The period just passed has been the most peaceful in the annals
of the occupation. There has been no semblance of an uprising and
banditry has been nonexistent. In addition to these evidences of
peace the efficiency of the gendarmerie police and the constant patrols
of the interior have resulted in a notable decrease of crime and
offenses against the Haitian laws.
5. The Central Department has been organized in the period
covered and is functioning with the smoothness of a long-estab-
lished Department. This new Department comprises that section
of Haiti that always had been the first to rise against constitutional
government and most prolific in bandit activities. Since its estab-
lishment the gendarmerie of the Central Department has relieved
the posts of marines maintained at Hinche, Las Cahobas, Thomonde,
and Maissade. These substitutions, with Hinche as the headquarters,
and the contemplated establishment of a court of first instance at
Hinche, will greatly increase the importance of this hitherto isolated
section, materially aid in stabilizing this formerly turbulent area,
and expedite the administration of justice within its boundaries.
These changes are eloquent of the progress of order and tranquillity.
6. The gendarmerie in the period covered has been thoroughly
reorganized along the lines of a modern staff system, and placed on
a sound business basis of administration and supply.
7. Gendarmerie messes and post exchanges, modeled on those of
the Marine Corps, have been inaugurated at all posts where the
strength of the personnel warrants, and the messing system installed
in all prisons. In place of the old system of rationing the rations
are now commuted at the rate of 15 cents per day, and the ration
table is well balanced and scientific. At the end of the first month
of this new system the gendarmes affected registered an average gain
of 2J pounds per man. The gains are still noticeable.
8. All regulations and manuals are now printed in both French
and English. The Codes Penal and Criminal are also printed in
.. New service record books modeled on those of the Marine Corps
have been issued.
10. A deposit system paying 3 per cent interest has been put into
11. A fireproof depot of supplies has been added, increasing the
efficient handling of supplies and reducing the cost of motor trans-
portation alone by $600 for the year.
12. All gendarmes are now receiving a free grammar-school course.
In addition to the benefit that the individual gendarme receives
from this innovation, it has spread the desire for education, been
the subject of much favorable comment among the Haitians, and
proved an added incentive for recruiting.
13. The Ecole Militaire for the training of aspirant officers has
been greatly extended in its scope, and now approximates the train-
ing of American officers of that rank. Eleven aspirant officers have
been assigned to duty, and a present class of the same number is
14. A school for the training of American officers newly appointed
for service in the gendarmerie, covering a period of three months,
has also been established with excellent results.
15. Intensive training in military subjects, sanitation, and rela-
tions with the Haitian officials, treaty departments, and civilians is
now being conducted at all gendarmerie posts.
16. Two recruit depots have been established in the new Central
Department, the course covering 14 weeks and including record
17. For the first time all gendarmes have been required to fire
the United States Army course B, and ranges have been built in
each of the four Departments. Department matches were held early
in the fall and in November the first national team and the Presi-
dent's individual matches were shot. Prizes to the winning Depart-
ments and to the individual winners were personally presented by
the President of the Republic. The results of this innovation fully
warranted this new line of development. Marked improvement was
recorded in the use of the rifle and the gendarmes have manifested
the greatest enthusiasm and esprit in this work.
18. All prisons are under control of the gendarmerie and fre-
quent inspections have shown excellent sanitary conditions and good
physical condition among the prisoners. There were an average of
2,778 prisoners confined monthly and the death rate was held to the
almost irreducible minimum of 0.017 per cent. In this connection
it should be noted that the great percentage of prisoners admitted
are received in deplorable physical condition, and that a number
of the deaths occurred within a few days of their admission. Under
the old regime, prior to the Occupation, the death rate was as high
as 1,300 out of each 2,000.
19. The introduction of the new messing system has greatly im-
proved the health of the prisoners.
20. The number of prisoners has decreased materially and re-
mained low throughout this period. Chief offenses, vagabondage,
21. The prison hospitals have been increased in capacity and
22. In the main prisons, Port au Prince, Cape Haitien, and
Hinche, among the trades taught and carried on are the manufac-
ture of gendarmerie uniforms, prison uniforms, shoemaking and re-
pairing, carpentry, furniture making, brickmaking, mat and basket
weaving. The profits from the sale of prison-made products go to
the welfare funds of the prisons, with a percentage to the prisoners
employed, to be paid to them on their "discharge. In addition to
increasing the discipline and contentment of the prisoners they are
cnabled to return to civil life equipped with a trade.
23. The cost of the manufacture of uniforms, and that of ra-
tions, has been materially reduced and the quality of both improved.
24. New woodworking machinery has been installed in the national
penitentiary at Port au Prince, and facilities for brickmaking at
the Hinche prison.
POLICE AND FIRE DEPARTMENTS.
25. Both the police and fire departments of Port au Prince are now
under control of the gendarmerie.
26. The police have been instrumental in the material decrease of
crime, the principal forms now being confined to those of a minor
27. A fingerprint bureau and the photographing of all criminals
has been added to the equipment of the police department. Studies
of other modern police methods are being carried on.
28. The fire department has added to its equipment of two chemi-
cal and one equipment motor trucks a horse-drawn engine in addi-
tion to the two old-type engines.
29. An electric pump has been installed at the head of the city
dock, giving ample salt-water pressure.
30. Firemen are now properly equipped, organized, and trained
in modern fire-fighting methods.
31. In addition to reorganizing and placing the palace band
under gendarmerie control, two additional bands have been or-
32. Under authority issued by the Secretary of the Interior gen-
darmerie officers are now assigned as communal advisers. Through
their auditing of funds and their advice there has been a marked
increase in the amounts collected by the communes, and increased
results from their disbursements. In the commune of Arcahaie, for
example, the receipts for the first month under this system wel
greater than the total for the preceding six months. Reports show
that in a great number of the communes the local officers are coopi
rating to an encouraging degree.
33. The following laws proposed by the Chief of the Gendarmerie
have been enacted: establishment of a rural police; traffic law for
the regulation of motor, mechanical, and animal-drawn vehicles:
34. The authority for the registration of all foreigners in Haiti
has been delegated to the gendarmerie by the Secretary of the In-
terior, reports being made to that officer.
35. Four 24-foot naval type motor boats have been added to the
equipment of the coast guard for its work of transporting troops
and supplies, suppression of smuggling, and relief of coastwise
36. Negotiations are under way to replace with a vessel of the
steam trawler type the flagship of the coast guard, the auxiliary
yacht Independence, totally destroyed by a gasoline explosion at the
naval station, Guantanamo Bay, on November 17.
RECREATION AND MORALE.
37. Two traveling motion-picture machines have been added, and
films shown not only at all gendarmerie posts but to the public in
those localities. They were the first motion pictures shown in the
great majority of the places, increasing the good feeling existing be-
tween the gendarmerie and the civil population, and inspiring many
letters and newspaper articles of commendation. It is proposed to
extend this virgin field by the gradual introduction of films of all
38. Afternoon periods are now devoted to various forms of ath-
letics. Boxing, basketball, baseball, soccer, and field and track con-
tests are encouraged and the gendarmes trained by well-qualified
American instructors. At the recent field and track meet of the
gendarmes stationed in Port au Prince, the first held, there were
fully 20,000 spectators. Libraries, a gendarmerie magazine pub-
lished every two months, rifle contests, and other forms of morale
building have been introduced in the period of this report.
39. New accounting and budget systems have been introduced, and
the business system of administration and procurement and handling
of supplies reorganized.
40. Through increased spread of sanitation and physical develop-
ment and extension of hospital facilities the death rate of troops
has been reduced to 5.11 per thousand.
41. The so-called prison disease has been eradicated.
42. The sum of $1,004,451 was appropriated to the gendarmerie,
including a .monthly allotment of $9,000 for prisons, from the reve-
nue collections of the Receiver General of Customs.
1. As in the other departments, the policy of this office is to build
up a corps fitted to assume in all its phases the task of administering
the collections of customs and the application of the tariff laws
when American withdrawal is made.
2. The total personnel includes 11 Americans and 200 Haitians,
the total clerical force being Haitian.
3. The collections of import and export duties for the fiscal year,
$4,673,314, exceeded those of the preceding period by $1,067,141.
4. The collections for the last three months of 1922, not included
in the above total, were $1,771,380, a gain of $246,199, or 16 per cent,
over those of the corresponding period of 1921.
5. The collections of customs for December, 1922, were the highest
monthly since January, 1920. They totaled $695,221, as against
$522,549 for December. 1921.
6. The above gains reflect a significant improvement in economic
conditions and increased volume of trade.
7. The actual cost of collections was reduced from $0.043747 to
VOLUME AND BALANCE OF TRADE.
8. The volume of trade was $23,062,481, as compared to $16,910,-
775, and the balance of trade was $1,638,061.
9. The imports to Haiti aggregated $12,350,271 as against $11,-
957,206 for the preceding period.
10. The United States led in imports with $10,359,613, the United
Kingdom second with $763,363, and France third with $642,382.
11. The United States increased its volume from the preceding
period by $816,602 and its percentage of the whole from 79.82 to
83.87. The United Kingdom decreased by $55,393 its percentage
from 6.84 to 6.18: and France decreased by $495,207, and from 9.51
12. Of the 10 leading articles of import, namely, cotton textiles,
flour, fish, soap, iron and steel, tobacco, oils, fibers, liquors and
beverages, and meats, the United States strongly predominated,
with the exception of liquors, in which France outranked all other
countries. In meats, rice, leather, and wood the United States had
no competitors and in the remaining minor articles of import the
great bulk was shipped from the United States.
13. The exports from Haiti aggregated $10,712,210 as against
$4,953,570 for the preceding period.
14. The United States ranked second with exports amounting to
$1,438,755, France leading with $6,018,524, and the United Kingdom
third with $589,175.
15. The percentage of France jumped from 50.70 to 56.18 and the
United Kingdom from 3.61 to 5.50 as compared with the preceding
period. The percentage of the total export going to the United States
decreased, showing 13.44 as against 32.38 of the preceding period.
It is worthy of note that the increase of France, and the consequent
decrease of American export trade was almost wholly due to the fact
that $5,371,116 worth of coffee was exported to France and but
$162,905 to the United States; $574,327 of cotton to France and
$228,432 to the United States. Haitian coffee is given a preferential
rate by France and the United States is primarily a cotton-exporting
rather than a cotton-importing country. Honey was the other
article that outstripped American trade. In all the remaining
articles the United States led in its value of trade.
16. The leading export articles of Haiti for the period were coffee,
sugar, dyewoods, cacao, goatskins, honey, lignum-vitae, and mahog-
any. With the exception of the coffee, cotton, and honey the great
bulk went to the United States. In this period cotton and cacao
trebled in value and honey doubled, no other changes of consequence
17. Prior to this period the amount of export duty was not in-
cluded in the value of exports and prior records of exports are there-
fore incorrect in lessening the trade balances of those years. The
unfavorable trade balance of the preceding period, $7,003,635, is
therefore reduced by this change of computation to $5,336,796.
18. Smuggling during this period has been reduced to a negligible
volume along the Haitian-Dominican border.
19. The revision of the antiquated tariff of 1872, slightly mrodi-
fied by that of 1905, has been studied and plans prepared for its re-
vision along modern lines.
20. A new method of keeping and computing statistical data on
exported and imported merchandise has been adopted.
Among the outstanding developments of the period under consider-
ation may be cited:
1. The holding for the first time in Haiti's history of 118 years of
an absolutely free election for President of the Republic.
2. The unprecedented spectacle of a presidential inauguration, free
from military coercion or civil violence, at which the incoming and
the retiring Presidents took part.
3. Centralization of control in the office of the American High
Commissioner over all officials representing the United States in
Haiti, a vitally needed move that has done away with friction, dupli-
cation of efforts, and has resulted in full cooperation and interchange
4. Full publicity as to the mission of the United States in Haiti
through the medium of the Haitian press and by speeches at official
5. Indoctrinating the people with the desire of the United States
to uplift the illiterate and poverty-ridden mass of Haiti that con-
stitutes not less than 95 per cent of its population of 2,500,000.
6. Fostering among the people the necessity for all factions work-
ing in accord for Haiti through the medium of the press, public
utterances, and the circulation of popular slogans stressing the
necessity for accord.
7. Realization of the loan of $40,000,000 sanctioned by the Haitian
law of June 26, 1922, in ratification of the protocol of October 3,
1919, by which the Haitian Government obligated itself to negotia-
tion of such a loan.
8. Formation of a claims commission, working in accord with
the Haitian Government, for settlement of all pending claims
9. Creation of an internal bond issue for settlement of long-stand-
ing internal and floating debts.
10. Transfer of the bank contract of the National Bank of the
Republic of Haiti, permitting its reorganization along modern
American banking lines.
11. Withdrawal of United States marines from the interior gar-
risons of three important towns and replacement by gendarmes.
1. Comprehensive and detailed agricultural survey of Haiti begun
and completed by detail of an American agricultural expert who
had specialized for many years in tropical countries.
2. Distribution of seed, both American and tropical, to interior
locations, the agricultural farm, and to individual growers, with
expert advice as to soil, planting, care, and methods of avoiding and
combating crop blights.
3. Effecting a considerable saving to the Haitian Government by
purchase of certain bonds of the French loan on the Paris market
at a discount.
4. Formation of stream gauging, irrigation, and river control
services and extensive studies for their development. Preliminary
surveys for needed irrigation projects.
5. The drafting, with the advice and assistance of the American
officials, of several important laws necessary to the economic develop-
ment of Haiti.
6. Formation of comprehensive program of all departments, cov-
ering a period of two years, for the economic development of Haiti
and her resources.
7. Development, to the full extent of funds at hand, of present
program of all departments.
1. All Americans serving with the Occupation have been steadily
and successfully indoctrinated with the American mission of the
development of Haiti to a point where American supervision can be
reduced to a minimum and the American forces withdrawn. The
success of this indoctrination has been clearly reflected in the in-
creasing confidence and friendly relations with the Haitian people.
2. The steady improvement of communications, sanitation, hos-
pitalization and stabilized order throughout the Republic has ma-
terially contributed to the success of our mission.
3. The constant effort to fill vacancies in the various departments
with Haitians, and to extend their scope and increase their relative
importance, has been emphasized with excellent results.
REPUBLIC OF HAITI A T L A T / C O C E A N
Based chiefly upon a map in the Annual
Report ofthe Director oFPub/'c Works Sage TORTUGA 1.
of Haiti, dated Octf 1922, and upon p S
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