The Panama American

MISSING IMAGE

Material Information

Title:
The Panama American
Portion of title:
Weekend American
Physical Description:
Newspaper
Language:
English
Donor:
Scott Family Library Fund ( donor )
Publisher:
Panama Times, Ltd.
Place of Publication:
Panama City, Panama
Publication Date:
Frequency:
daily (except saturday and sunday)[may 12, 1973-]
daily[ former oct. 7, 1925-dec. 4, 1966]
daily (except saturday)[ former dec. 10, 1966-may 5, 1973]
daily
normalized irregular

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Newspapers -- Panama (Panama)   ( lcsh )
Genre:
newspaper   ( sobekcm )
newspaper   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage:
Panama -- Panama

Notes

Dates or Sequential Designation:
Oct. 7, 1925-
General Note:
On Saturday published as: Weekend American, Dec. 10, 1966-May 5, 1973.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
This item is presumed to be in the public domain. The University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries respect the intellectual property rights of others and do not claim any copyright interest in this item.
Resource Identifier:
oclc - 18709335
lccn - sn 88088495
ocm18709335
Classification:
lcc - Newspaper
System ID:
AA00010883:01938

Related Items

Related Items:
Panama America


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PANAMA, R. Pi SUNDAY, JULY 88, 195$

' "7 want mart than anybody else to -.
some day make America the biggest na na-,
, na-, Hon in the world Jnot for its size and
. : riches hut for Ur freedom and glory."

Sirnon Bolivar.

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Oh rirl lnmarcesible!
. Oh jubilo inmortal!

En sureoa At dolorei

A orlllts del Crib -1 Lft Tirjen iui cabellotw j
Hambriento un pueblo lucha, Arranca en afonia i
.Uorrorea prefiriendo ..' T de an amor viuda, ..
A perfida aalud. ; Loi euelfa del ciprea.
- Oh. ii. it Tartarrna t Laments

El bien f ermlna ya. -t abneacidn ennucha Que enMe lora f rii, f -.

- -i, .. i ewomoroa ue la muene rero f lonom rrnii '
" i.Degpreeia an Tirtud. ,f Circunda an-alba tea.4' v' r'
" & j ESTKUf AS J S v V ' S .""'.' t t-. i t .
' ,'v;1- ; i tn;;
Ceso la horrible noche Pe Boyici en tog campog ',! "1" La patrla asi t forma
La llbertad sublime El tenia de la Gloria, Terniopilaa brotando;
Derrama las auroraa ; Con eada espiga un heroe 4, ConstelaclAn de iclopea
Da an lnTencible luc. Jnricto corono. $n tioche liumlno
La homanidad entera, T Soldados tin corata' 'La flor estremecida, ''' "'
Que entre cadenaa rime, Ganaron la victoria; Mortal el rient. hallando, 1
Comprende las palabras' ..; . 8u Taronil allento ; Debajo lo,laflreles
Del que murio en la Crus. De escudo lea iirrio.- Sernridad basce.,,

INDEPENDENCIA srita Bolirar eruza el Ande
El mundo americano; Que riecan dos oceanos;
Se baiia en sa nitre de heroes : Espadai cttal eentellas
' La tierra de Colon. Fulfuran en Junin.
Pero este fran principlo: Centauros lndomableg ;
EL REY NO ES SOBERANO y i Descienden, a Ios llanos,
Resuena, y Ios que aufren Y empleia a presentirsa
Bendicea sa pasion. De la epopeya el tin.-

Del Orinoco el cauce
Se colma de despojos;
De aangre f llanto un rio
Se mire kill correr.
En Barbula no saben,
Las almas nl log ojos,
SI admifacion espanio
Sentir 0 padecer.

. Mas no es eompleta florla
Veneer en la batalla,
Que al braio que combat
, La anlma la verdad. v
La Independenela sola f
EI rrn clamor no acalla; f
Si el so! alumbra s todos,
Justleia cs Ubertad ,. ,

, Li trompa vlctoriosa
En Ayacucho truena; ' ? ;
,.T en eada triunfo creca ;
Su formidable aon 1
; En sa expansivo empuje
La libertad se estrena,
Del eielo americano v,
Uaciendo on, pabellon. i-.
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Del.hombre los derechos
Narlfia predlcando,
El alma de la lucha
Profetlco ensefto.
Ricaurte en San Mateo, 1
En atom' TOlando,
DEBER ANTES QUE V1DA
Con llamas escribio.

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. TEX PANAMA' AMERICAN AN fSPEFEXECTT PAILT. XTKSTXTTH

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-Colombian culture lias its
on eharaeteristiess iisting'ouh iisting'ouh-.able
.able iisting'ouh-.able from the rest of Hispino Hispino-American
American Hispino-American nations. Host e n t t-standing
standing t-standing among 'cem are these:
a Christian ouCook on life,
deep-rooted HLspank- tradition, a
Jove for -the Soa nish language,
( a humanist tread 1 of dture,
historic aspirations .toward na national
tional national unity, addiction, to .legal,
procedures, love for poetry and
Classic discipline, loyaily to su-,
verier tateUigene, a desire 1o

reconcile liberty .'with justice
and.. order,'.ideaJisnir spiritualism;-respect
for. Greco -, Latin
frditioB,Move, for the essen essential,
tial, essential, 'culture which 'places its
, center on the sacred being, of
man,' who to Colombians js j
catholic, Latin. Hispanic I n d
American. ;,,,,'.'?
'The definite nature of J the
spiritual activity, of ,ColqrabU,
is its haumanjtariaa .1 ease,
j it? a s p l r a.U o n lowaras
hierarchy. It is symbolic' that
the first ; Colombian writer
should be the same founder of
this, nationality,," flpn Gonzalo
Jimenez de QuezadaK who,;, ia
edditioa to being. a captain, was
a: lawyer with unosuaj talent. s
.writer of prose and verse, as.
an orator "and as. a debater..!
r. lATJREANO'GOMt ex ex-Prealdent
Prealdent ex-Prealdent of Colombia,: who
has earned prestige in bis
newspaper Activities. .
Colombia has een tailed ibel
Nation, of Poet" Ker poetic
tradition ? is undeniable. : Siace
colonial times wlthTnten 1i k e
Juan de CasttllifoS,4,"'catled
"The rustic Homer of the Co Colombian
lombian Colombian homeland," and Her:
aando Dominguez Camrgo, a
disciple of Gdngora in the 17th
eenturv. som very interestmg
stages .have .passed. Ve' are got-
i infi .to "enumerate? these Brief.
' pointing, out m passing their

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' mo&t representative poets. ;
1 Tho iott-eolanralptrltd, when

romanticism alrtady Vd be-
gun to. dawn with Simon .Boli-J
rar,' the greatest poei oi wis
generation. at the.. helm: We
, must" also' include.' Jose ."Maria
Salazar, Jose Fernandez Ma-
Dr. EDfJARDO SANTOS, ex ex-Presldent.ofColomWtnd
Presldent.ofColomWtnd ex-Presldent.ofColomWtnd Publisher, of ."El TieP,. T
today -"El intermedlo." He U
ffiatlonaUy'weil known.
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THE NATIONAL STMPHONlC ORCHEST RA, ohe of the most highly considered
magical institution in Latin America, offers concert seasons in the Colon Theatre'
and in tHher music halls of the country. ; ' :

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MORE THAN 301 NEWSPAPERMEN, representor nearly 101 periodicals from all
over the ennntry, : attended the Tihrd Press Congress thronsh which they drew ap
a p!alform f social-rights which was approved ad supported by the Government.
President Rojas PihiBa, shown in the above photo, officially inaugurated the sessions.

drid and Luis Vargas Tejada
among these first poetic cuL
riM,.tne. worK oi; jose -iwcdio
Ca.ro. was. being considered, as
the expression -of Colqinbian ro romanticism
manticism romanticism in ajl its glory. The
metric richness, of his vefsifi-.
cctioa the classic content of
iiis poetry and his. precedence
iver Becquer and modernism
should. lso be'taken- into con'
;ideratioa. "A-.ontemporary;i of
vCaro (boan -. in 4 died: : ip
.-J9H) V a tf; J u 1 Arbokda,
f hose: tfiov '-"onzlo,i.de'!,'0-
ven-'was justly, coa&iaerea as
thev most klasaie -epic -verse in
latin American- literature.
Within these same, romantic
iioes,. we also find poets Jose
Joaquin Ortiz, Gregorio ,Gutle-J
rrez Gonzalez, author; of .the
.Virgilian elegy "Memoria so-
bre. jBl.CuUivo deJ ilaiz.en. An-
lumvajion 91 -V?P1 "uo-
quia),; "Jpr8 JsPn,uUpr, of
the world-famous novel, ,','Ma.
lia"; Bafael Pombo, the' most
prolific and complete of, the ro romanticists;
manticists; romanticists; .Diego .Fallon,) au au-tbor.rof
tbor.rof au-tbor.rof '1 Canto; i HtovFi
MiU Antonip CarOj Jransla-.
tor 01 xun merajure :.wno, is
fsmous for his "Oda a la es-t?tua-d4'
Libertador1'-- Jose
Maria Rivai Groot, author,, of
"Las -Constelaciones", and Ju Julio
lio Julio Flores, who presides over
he ; so-called "Symbolic Grot Grotto",
to", Grotto", refuge of the romanticists.
Jose Asuncion Silva, famous
for his VKocturno" and who
old of transition between ro-
I manticism and the new esthetic
fifvrms of (be 1900s, also .should
be taken into account.
:. Another -period of Colombian
if poetry ;i the modarftist period
during which Guillermo Valen.
ciajt the prince of the "poets,
Stands out as the leadef.-: Re Refinement,
finement, Refinement, ideological im p 6 r r-tance,
tance, r-tance, an addiction to the forms
of clear molder of verses, and
tance, an addiction to the
forma, of a clear .molder of
verse's, an virtuosity are the
characteristics which should be
remembered when his work is
spoken; of. ; ; .i;; .i;;-Cornelio
Cornelio .i;;-Cornelio Hispano, Max Grillo,
Ricardo Nieto and Carlos Vi-
istfr-'-i yuan
if
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ijlaiane belong to the heritage
left by Valencia. "-'
Departing from the modernist
ideals was-the great Cartage
na poet Luis Carlos Lopez, fa
miliarly known as "El Tuerto
Lopez", a h u m 0 r u s poet
whose verses denote an ironic
reaction against the decadent
rtmantieism and the excesses
of some modernists. t
., One of. the greatest poets of
America". comes to the fore in
the. period, known as Hi can can-tnnry
tnnry can-tnnry janaration, which shows
up, at the turn of the year 1810;
Porfirio Barba Jacob, whose
poetry is. well known for its
trascendence uirougnout me
length and breadth of the A
m eric an continent and in not a
few European countries.
r Also tOj.be considered as part
of this generation are the well-
l)cnown .poets. Eduardo Castillo,
Jose Jtsustaoio Kivera, Aurciw
Martinez. Mutis, Miguel R ash
Isia',. Leopoldp de la Rosa' and
Angel Maria Cespedes.
. Immediately after the centcn centcn-nary
nary centcn-nary generation came the new
generation, which comes into
being in, 1820 ', and which, in influenced;
fluenced; influenced; .by the esthetic revo revolution;
lution; revolution; preserves for Colombi Colombian
an Colombian literature its traditional hu
manist Outline. The poetry of
Leon de Grief, Rafael Maya)
German' Pardo Garcia, Jose U-
mafia, Bernal, Juan Lozano y
Ixzano, Alberto Angel Monto-
ja, tiiibcrto uarnoo, Mario
Carvajat,' Rafael Vasquez, and
Octavlo Amortegui; are repre
sented in this period. .
Finally, as the last impor important
tant important stage in Colombian poet
ry;; Eduardor Carranza and ior
X Rojas founded what is
known in Col 0 m b I a as the
"piadra cialit mo' for the.slo.
gan which comes from "Piedra
yj Cielo"r(Rock and Sky)., A.
longside of these two great po
etical pinnacles of present-day
Colombian literature, a Tery
significant and important group
is formed by Carlos Martin,
Arturo Camacho, Tomas Var-
aas Osorio. Antonio' Llanos .' Au
rclio ''Arturo ;'nd Gerarido Vm
IenciaJ j
A' new, post pitdracitliita
group probably is being form
ed by younger folk who recent
ly have begun to fill .the poeti
wf p -
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'A
1
EOUARDO ZULETA ANGEL,
distinguished writer of Inter International
national International Law, He was Presi President
dent President of the General Assem Assembly
bly Assembly of the JJnlted Nations.
cal needs of the present time,
like -Eduardo Cote Lemas, Jor Jorge
ge Jorge Gaitaa Duran, Heeler Ro
jas .Heraw, Helcias M 1 1 ia
Gonzalez, Carlos Castro Saave.
dra, Ramiro Lagos, Oscar E
cheverri Mejia, Fernando.; Air-
bdaez,; Hugo ; Salazaf, Valdes,
Marco FjdeJ Chavez, Felix Tur-
b,-y, tMaruja Viera Dolla Me-
jia, and Dora Castellanos, a-
mong the most significant con
tributors. '
, f i, ;-'s.f-'i;jf !:. r 1
HUMANISM: '
JTbo liberating .'generation Is
impregnated with .classic dis discipline,
cipline, discipline, which is. not foreign to
Caldas.Torresi Zea.Jfarino
and Jo?e Manuel Restrepo. But
Colombian humanism,' reaches
its .most' glorious heights with
the works of Caro, Cuervo and
Suaret.ii nV:
':'tr$,i '.' '-. f","' -V t-
Miguel Antonio Caro Is the
most 1 complete .humanlsta Co Colombia
lombia Colombia has ever hac(:; prolific
writer, poet," lawyer, ..essayist,
orator .and translator; of.; the
classics. But Rufino Jose Cuer Cuer-vj,.
vj,. Cuer-vj,. the great philosopher whose
"Diccionario de Construccion 7
Regimen de la Lengua Caste Caste-llsna'l
llsna'l Caste-llsna'l is considered as ; t h e
most daring work by any Span.
uh language philologist up to
today should also be -remem
bered. Marco Fidel Suarez is
the Colombian Cervantes,
Worthy followers ; of -the work
of their masters,, humanists Jo
se: Manuel Rivas, Rafaet .To-
rfes umterq,;Lws;Jhoxes.:'er
nanao Anioaw atarunex ra n a
others now help 1q operate the
Ward ; liddCtierv Institute. :
ISSAYSt
i, J
IlssaVs have "flourished. In Co
lombiafii diverse iorms,i-E-
f ys,,wn, a oroaa sense are me
monographs :f Caidas,: the
philosophic 1 works' 6f. Cuervo,
Carb aid Suarez,-: the biogra biographies
phies biographies of Valencia and Jose. Joa Joaquin
quin Joaquin i Cases', the i critiques of
Gomez' Seslrepo,' the medita
tions, of Carlos Arturo .Torres,
the writings df Ezequiel Urico-
ches, f Miguel Schiper and Ca.
machoRoldan. Worthy of men
lion also are: Baldomero Sa-
mn Cano) Rafael Maya, Ger-
knan Arclniegas. Hernando Te
lies", .Jose Vicente Castro Suva,
Abelardc Fortro Benavides, Fe-
lix;; Angel Vallejosr Carlo Ver-
j'araDuarte .and Valsio Arte.
Doubtlessly the most famous
nuvelof aO time in, Colombian'

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literature is Jorge Issaes"'Ma-

ri", a romantic novel which
shook,' and still shakes,. .. the
Tiling generations of all .Amer
ica and which Jas been trans translated
lated translated into all civilized lan languages.
guages. languages. From .the literary
ramblings of Isaacs grew an.
other important novelist: Eu Eu-genio
genio Eu-genio Diaz, author Of "Manue "Manue-lita",
lita", "Manue-lita", which, was more 1 des
criptive of customs than poetic.
,Laterr Jose Maria Marro Marro-quin,
quin, Marro-quin, country nobleman, gram gram-miriaa
miriaa gram-miriaa and 4 politician; also
wrote some excellent, novels,
uke "Bias Gil": "Entre Pri-
mos'i "El Moro", etc How.
-everr for the quantity of his
work, the greatest Colombian
novelist Tonus Carrasqui
iia: r
In, the modern era, the best-
knowa Colombian novel is the
work of the poet Jose Eusta
e-o Rivera, ,"La Voragine",
which is included among the
three great American novels
today, along, with "Dona .Bar-
wra" and "Don Segundo Ri
vera". "La Voragine" is a lit literary
erary literary textbook in all Latin-American
colleges and has been
translated into many languages.
" V';." V
Among the contemporary nov-,
elists, the most outstanding are
Jose Antonio Lizarazo, author
of "El Hombrej Bajo Tierra"
and "El Garabato"; Jesus Za-
rate Moreno, Elisa Mujica, Jai.
me Ardila and Adel Lopet Go
mez. i
THIATII
t
The most important names
in the Colombian theatre are
Jose Fernandez Madrid (1789-
1830) author of ', "Atala" and
luabmoe"; Luis Vargas Te
jada, author of the satirical
play "Caton de Utica" and of
"Las-Coovulaionea," 1 a gay
comedy, and others which at attempt
tempt attempt at being neo classic
tragedies.'"-""' ; -.' ,' "i
Ia our day, works worthy of
mention have been written by
Alejandro Mesa Nicholls, au
thor of Lauro Candente": Aa-
ticnio AlV a f. Lleraa.' "whd
wrote Almas de Ahora" aad
'aC0BMtlM Muertos'-1; Luis En Enrique
rique Enrique V Osorio;' Jorge Salamea,
author of 'E1 Regreso de E E-va";
va"; E-va"; Oswaldd Diaz Diaz, au author
thor author of '"La Gaitana", add G&
rardo Valencia, Rafael Guisa-
do, Jose Geneco Moso and
others.' : t :
Dr.r ALBERTO LLERAS CA-1
MARGO, ex-President of Co
lombla and ex-Secretary Gen General
eral General of the Pan American U-
nion. He eniors veil deserv
ed prestige throughout the
Continent
HISTORY i ; ' f-''
To enumerate all the names
and the historical works they
have "written since that monu
mental chronicle by Castellanos
Vp to the" present time 'would
tak( tip too much-timfctir ls"'
enough to men tion '.the jnaines
ot;thpselho. have' succsesful-
ly I made' -historiral sfudiea in
thisVceolur) -r Rduardo Posada.
RaimuAdq RivasEnrique' Ote-
rt. J) Acosta, Epnque Orteifa,
.Gustavo. Otero, Guillermo Hef Hef-nandex
nandex Hef-nandex de "..Alba," Luis Augasto
Cuervo,' Cornelio Hispano' Lau Lau-reano'
reano' Lau-reano' Garcia Ortiz, Ernesto
Festrepo, Carlos: Cuervo and
others. i --MUSIC
MUSIC --MUSIC
Among the '- Colombian abo
rigines, particularly among the
Chibchat, there was a -decided
flair for music. Warlike eoi-
sdcs and religious rites all
h a d a ; musical background.
Their main instruments were
the flute, the drum, the gourd'
and horns made of. shells.
The mixture of these ancient
Indian-and European elements,
mainly Spanish; gave birth to
the typicardemonstrations of
Colombian folklore, Character
istic musical airs, according to1

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S!?.1 MALVTAINS RELATIONS of friendship and tooperaUon: with all the
ifii&SXSSFSlu .,7W v' wit the United fiUtes. In the above f
a-S" 5,,jM Ptal" eB,t? wltb- Assistant Secretary .of. SUU. for Latin
American Affairs Henry Holland, to San Carlo Palace.

the different, regions," can be
classified thus:
Atlantic coast:- Currulao, Po
rro, tumbia, merengue and
mejoras.
Eastern, plains:
icron, Guars cha..
Joropo, Ga.
Cundinamarca -and Bovaca:
Guabina, Torbellino and Bam Bam-buco.
buco. Bam-buco. v j
' r(. L' $ .-....-0
-Tolimat Bambuco, Guabina,
Pasillo and Bundo. ..;
SaiwanderrTorbellino and pa-
siUo. I ..' ..
Antiowuia : Cafiasj i n n d e,
randanguillo. and Bambuco.I,,
Narina and Cayca: "Danza,
Pasillo-Lento, Sanjuanito and
GuandeAa.
...... (. ,jb.-..r, f
Outstanding' among the folk-

lorists are.Emilio MuriUevAJ-hn

berto JUrdaneta, tuis A. Galvo,
Pedro Morales Pino,', and Jose
Roto .Contreras. r '-
The 'author
,or
the operas
"Ester",-and "Florida" is Jo
se- Marias' Leon; Guillermo. Uri Uri-be
be Uri-be Hdlguirt 'is the author of the
opera "Furatena'V and maes"T
tr6 Antohfo .Maria Valencia
wrote ''Sonatina Boyancense'Y
At present the young com
poser 'Luis 1 Antonio- Escobar is
preparing an "Indian" Ballet",
which it la said will be sensa sensational.';
tional.'; sensational.'; Francisco. Benavides is
the. most., distinguished concert
artist with the pative Colom Colombian
bian Colombian guitar:or "tiple1.". ?
journalism"
Colombian journalism h a s
been considered proverbially
and traditioaally i the best m
Latin America. It has always
distineulshed. itself hv its Meo-
logical nature, its' independence
and it literary .brilliance.
Worthy' of note is the fact that
almost all the leaders of the
Colombian nation have bee n
newspaper writers,
'-
ii
t..
THE SEVENTH CONGRESS
about import an taireement
congress Inanguratedl

r v.

. coiomoiaa journalism e a n
now boast of such distinguish distinguished
ed distinguished writers as Laureano Gomez,
Eduardo Santos, Juan Lozano
y Lozano, Fernando Gomez
Martinez, Silvia Villegas, Car.
lus-Vega Duarte, Alberto Lle-
rai Camargo, Gllberto Alzate
A vendafio, Juan Cristobal Mar
tinez, Lucio Pabon Niineir, En Enrique
rique Enrique Santos 'CasUlIo,'BeliSario
Betancdurt, Rafael Ortiz V Gon
zalez, Jose Constante, Bolaflos,
Hugo Ochoa and Alberto Acos Acos-ta,.
ta,. Acos-ta,. among others too numerous
to mention. ". ''
In' the capital city,. Bogota,.
some of the best newspapers
in the tin- World are- publish published:
ed: published: La Pazr Intermedin (which
Succeeds El Tiempo) La Re Re-publica",
publica", Re-publica", : EI Dia,- Jornada and
DSario de Colombi. "But' just
gW-'arthestf: are Ihbse eaf
Hed'-ta other .pirtj of Wire-'
public Kke Lh Patrii; of 11a 11a-eizates;
eizates; 11a-eizates; EI- Pais, 1 Diario". ? del
Pacifico and- Relator,, of Cali;
El Coloftibiano and El Correo,
of Medenln; La Patriae of Ma.
nizales; El Frente, of Bucara Bucara-manga;
manga; Bucara-manga; El'Naeional;rLa Pren-
sa' and El Hefaldo, of '.Barran '.Barran-quilla;
quilla; '.Barran-quilla; EI Diario de ta Costa

.TS 17??'"7 oM-guagei

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THI COLOMBIAN
ACADKMY:.
r. ( vH ,'
; The Colombian Academy of
I mguages: is the oldest In the
Americas. Founded in 1871 by
Miguel Antonio Caro, Jose Ma Maria.
ria. Maria. Vergari and Jose Manuel
Marroquin, it now has 25 mem-

bers,- among: whom, are ''suchlBsmon Menendei Pidal. lt was

pillars of present day' Colombi
an culture as Luis Lopez ide
Mesa, Felik Restrepo S,
se Manuel Rivas Sa'cco'ni, Jo-i
sv Vicente Castro Silv, E E-duardo
duardo E-duardo Caballero Calderon, E-
duardo Carranza, Manuel Jose
Casas Manrique, Rafael Maya,
I1
(i

OF THE POSTAL UNION, fael.l in Colombia, brouthtS
for the Improvement of the, different tasks of all the '.-

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" S JROLGOIN I

-iGILLERMO URIBE HOL-
who has given bis country
ereat masical, prodnctions.
: -J-. rr :
Gerardo; Arciniegas,BaHomer
Samn Cantf, Julio Cesar Gar Garcia
cia Garcia and Juliad Itfotta Salas",
Headed by .the greaf Jiumiin-
ut, writer, and; philosopher Lfs
up
now. has1 published two
tol
umes- of aa "Annual", and fiya
of a "Bulletin",- containing' lit literary
erary literary and .linguistic works of
extraordinary ; value. Outstand Outstanding
ing Outstanding in', the Latin American
world was th e work done hy
Colombian delegates to the re recent
cent recent congress of language aca
dpmies held in Madrid, Spain,
which ; was presided .over by
precisely this' ponderous repre representation
sentation representation by the Colombian a.

J.Jo-Ieademicians whicb prompted

the- delegates:. of Latin Ameri.
ctn and. Spain to unanimously
.'hbose Bogota as the -site of
the1 next' congress of Latin A-
mencan Academics.
-v
rmma oeciares me .



jAXAMA, JtLT 22.' lis IT

TEI PANAMA AMISICAV AN INDEPEXDENT DAILY KTWSPAFER
l ii oil m u s m

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IX
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' In toe course of in interview with Gen. Gustavo
' Rojas Pinllla. President Of the Republic of Colombia, ht
; made the following statements; . ; -
' f .With' reference to the roost, important works com com-tleted
tleted com-tleted during the first three years of his government,
the President of Colombia slated:
-- ; "
- "When the Armed Forces asumed the executive
I power v on June -13, ,1953,-the greatest 'and most
" pressing need which the country .had was peace. It
, J wai unthinkable to mak3 any material advance or
a to-c4ve the problems 'confronted by our; people
'13,000,000 inhabitants living in an area of close to :
' 500,000 square' miles. ; On April 8, 1948, the .whole
.- American continent saw the painful projections of
' -a great national tragedy, which was the result of
: political: sectarian policy and ancestral hatreds be- ;
ti tween Colombian factions, ; which: at a propitious
psychological moment were encouraged and ably ex-
' plqited by communist agents in such a.waythat ;
' Vthey brought with them consequences which affect-'
t ed, the very foundations of the nation. 1
YK V '''V--T'."- '-' --" V; V':-'V--;-' ;;'.-
;.-,'vV It was. necessary that the men in-the' govern-
merit -should, then begin the hard and difficult task
v?,pf nitional reconstruction. But the American con--'
v.' ;" tinent .wasmisledby. erroneous theories 'presented
v -V by the international. press, which wished that we
v- '' should no.T;:be ourselves; but rather that rwe should
' .act. in' accordance "with ;thelrr; interests instead of
with the interests of Colombia. : For .that reason it 1
may be that they may not .understand the great
sacrifice which Colombia and its government havev
- had to make hi carrying out the changes brought
about under conditions which it was thought could
'riot be altered and the re-birth of a country which
v f was thought would be in the process of fatal dissolu-
t -tlon: . .
. : ,k "In- spite of the fact that there, are still certain
. Violent demonstrations, encouraged by intelectual
- elements, who wittingly or unwrittingly -are giving
i special comfort to, the' communists, by reason of
' v which welt known Colombian and foreign engineers ,
i i; Wve lost their lives while engaged in works of im im-.
. im-. . portanc for the economic development of the coun coun-try
try coun-try not to mention the hundreds defenseless citi citi-tens
tens citi-tens in, the country who have died at the hands of
; bandits events which do not- seem of interest to
' v those' who from foreign countries try to prompt Us
to return to thfc free play of the political activities
which have caused, so much harm to the country',1 -nevertheless,
my government can point but with
" pride to a great number of public works. All of them
l ' were inspired by general interest in ;.the advance-.
1 ment of the country, with a proper understanding
: of, the rights and duties of the citizens, in advancing
'rc'intellectual nd-arUstie production, in raising the
; standard of morals. in public life, in the growth of1 1
. wealth-and in extending the standards of hygiene
-t -' and comfort. .Thbse are real facts, the result, of a
' new policv;ithe application of fundamental prin-'
' : doles of ihe Third Force a" national movement rely-

a rng ton the-Ioyal support of a great-majority of the
1 Colombian citizens, which,1; notrbelng ; ft new" party,
paralizes .the traditional fighting-element of the po-? j

.""liticalpaitles ana so, untier tne laeaisoi peace, jus--'
tice and liberty, has become the driving force of the v
, government., s t
'!Wlth reference to works which-the administration

intends' to give greater attention to 'the future and to
the result which it is expected that such works may
'yield for the benefit of the country, the President of Co Colombia,
lombia, Colombia, made the following statements: ',.-
j V: 'These are the worka to which 'the government

. has been giving special attention: The conquest oi
- public peace and its consolidation; the cordial rela-
- '. 'tions withrthe Catholic Church; which have found
; in my government the best ally in itisocial and spir- -1
' '' itual missiori; the conquest of social peace through
M 'the efforts of, the authorities to reach conciliation
. !:."'' between capital and ,labor, which has been attained
' .""hj.a tjuigible way without pro.voking- conflicts be-
- '' tween "the different classes, but rather by stimulat-
' hig n ample policy of freedom for the formation of
I '!-; syndicates, and the protection at the -same time of
- 'V ) 'A6 interests of (Capital ,from the extreme demands
"' 'j t the communists; he,-umanitarian ork carried
- f i otif by' the National Sectefariat of Social Activities
' .- 'in favor of destitutes; the5 extension of credits for
- v I", the deY-elopment Of.the cattle industry; building liv liv-'
' liv-' '.irig''quarters In the cities and in 'the country;, min-

.

i M; ;-v;

His Excellency The Prsldent"of the Republla
of Colombia, General Gustavo Rojas Pinllla. v

"If in loctl mttters my country, follows strictly
the "policies which the Liberator .indicate in order
to reach the objectives to which we are entitled, in
our relations with the countries, we were associated
with during the period of independence, we. follow
the doctrine expressed .by Marco Fidel Suarez, gen generally
erally generally known is ','Bolivanan Harmony." .
.rh "In so far as refers to her. relations with the
United States, Colombia cannot forget the beneficial

h

ing exploitations, industrial development, all through
the adoption of long term loans and the reduction
' of the rate of interest; a proper adjustment of in in-;
; in-; w ternational balance of payments, thereby maintain- ;
ing the confidence of our creditors and checking the
tendency to increase the cost of living which in v
other countries has. reached very high levels; the
enlargement of the plant in "Paz del Rio";, the adop v
. tion of the plan Lillianthal; the preservation of the
refinery in Barranca; the completion of the Atlantic v
- railroad; the improvement of existing roads and the
- building of new ones; they increase in the number x
of airports and the construction of the international
airfield at Bogota, which will be one of the best,in
America; the adoption, of modern methods for cohi-
munications and television; the construction of wa water
ter water works, sewers, school buildings,' health centers,
the National Administration Building and other
, buildings connected with public health; the enlarge-
' ment of. hydroelectric and industrial plants and the
installation of new works, the fight of tropical' dis
' eases; the amendment of the courses for. the, Bach-.
! elor degree, and the campaign to 'teach illiterate
- persons, for which purpose we rely on the experi-
ence of radiophonetic schools; the reforms introduc- (
ed in the university curriculum so that the unlver-
1 sitles should become technical and not political in-
stitutions; the extension of the vote to women which ..
. my government was influential in obtaining the re- ','
cognition of their political rights. No doubt women
will have a great-influence in the moral. and civic t
n development pf the-Colombian citizen., .g., r ;
- i "It is difficult. to give. a. complete list of the
rwt works which the government qf the. Armed Forces ; -'J
have started and of those which it has completed j
which were being very slowly constructed by former
governments. But over all those contributions to na na-,
, na-, f tional advancement, the suprems guaranty of stabil-
' ity really rests in the moral, intellectual and. politic-
.. al trend adopted by the overnment without which v,
: ,' material improvement, financial policy. and admin-1
istratlve order cpuld not be possibly maintained." :
-" -'In. the same' interview the President of Colombia
''made1 reference to the: principal points of the. interna-.
tional' policy of his government, specially in connection.'
, with the other countries, of Latin America and the Unit United
ed United States. On this subject he made the following im important
portant important statements: ''-')'' 1
-"Colombia-has nd international problem.:' Every : ; ,.
day she enhances 'her relations with friendly na--tions.
She maintains mos diplomatic, economic and
cultural exchanges with them. My government,
. through the Ministry of Foreign Relations and the .
, foreign services continues the traditional Colombian Colombian-policy,
policy, Colombian-policy, of loyalty -and good faith in. the, fulfillment
f "l of treaty oblieations: she. maintains" her position of ',

: "responsibility and acts in that way as a Bolivariin
nation and as a member of the Grganiztions of the
; American States and of the United Nations.1 .

. influence derived from the constitution of Philadel

phia. Besides, for a long time Colombia has realiz-
ed the derisive importance which for peace and uni- --
versai progress has the policy adopted by the Unit Unit-.
. Unit-. ed States, with their immense resources and special- -....
- ly with their democratic organization. Those rea
sons are. reinforced by considering that in the fight
: against communist materialism, the United States '
, f J' a represent the most formidable force in the .defense '
Ot the Western christian dviliaation. ',
, -".Not .only. for elemental reasons of solidarity
;i- : and coopeiltiorr among the peoples of this continent,-
f but also because the Panamerican ;doctrines cOnstl- .'
. f' fV.tute the greatest ideals of the Liberator, Colombia r
; has teiterated;4ier fajth and.has offered her decision
support to the Organization of the American States '
a ', 'f; which has become, for the justified pride of the men
i 6f the New World the' best regional system govern govern-r
r govern-r ed by law and'jeciprocal consideration of the. mem-
' bers thereof. ,'f'$ ,: '
: k , 's ;'',:- ,'' fj
-. "Colombia has also extended full confidence and '
. support to the Organization of the United Nations ;
; because we are convinced that peace and universal' "s
lil: security depend, upon, the, existence of such lnstitu-.
r! ;tlons and that there is hardly any, conflict which' '"
- could not be solved within the .realm of law, by said
v Organization. '. , T v : w
- r. "Loyai to the obligations set forth in, the ChirtVv -5,.-;

or san Francisco, Colombia did hot hesitate in send-

1

ing muitary lorces to light .against communist ag aggression
gression aggression in Korea: Colombian soldiers who went to
fight in the Far East did not merely go as repre-
sentatives of a country respectful of its .contractual
; obligations. iThey also carried with them Jhe repre
sentation of our country as part and parcel of west- v
' ern christian civilization. V'-V
- v "Colomb'ia "is a country of peace. She 4s ilwaya
ready for the. solution of conflicts by Juridical ?neans.
: This explains the diplomatic efforts made -by reason
' of the asylum extended to Dr. Hsya de-la' Torra 1n
Our Embassy jn Lima, and explains aisothe cordial

way in wmcn.tne imai unflerstanding was reached.
This may be justly deemed ki a good example of,
sound Panamerlcanism in the' relations between Co Colombia
lombia Colombia and Peru. 1 . : i
The position of this country, which is frank-
" ly antteommunlst; is really the expression of our. f
thought to the. effect that, the true danger for the
free world is found not only beyond the iron curUin,
. but also' in all the, expressions of discontent, insplr-
ed1 by1 the Soviet and which pass, ;from the domes-
' tic field ; to the international levM: ; This happen! p
throughout the world, even in countries of the great-
est democratic vitality.", t, t i, i t t
Finally the President of Colombia indicated in 'ihe
following manner the opinion which his government hat
relative to the tendency found in Latin America to try
to give solid economic basis to Panamerican ideals, as
initiated by Simon 'Bolivar.'

. "The Ideals, of, Panamerlcanism-, could "not be
based exclusively; oA the political and cultural ks-

pects. Tliey most necessarily extend to the field'of
economics. Economic cooperation is one of the prin principal
cipal principal objectives of modem internationtl 1 relation! relation!-In
In relation!-In as? much as Latin America-has principally ra
materials, and inasmuch as these must be exported,
in order "to obtainproper resources for raising the w -.
standard of living of .the people and .thereby con- ;
front the danger of communism, which springs prin principally
cipally principally from Ignorance and misery, the Latin Amer-
ican nations are justly, interested 'so' that interna interna-tional
tional interna-tional solidarity, .and specially, Interamerican, soli soli-darity,
darity, soli-darity, should rely on an economic policy, so that
the prices of. the produce of those -nations should
3 ittainva stahle and compensatory basis. Otherwise)
1 it would not be possible to maintain continuity in,
the' plans for economic development and progressive "o
' 'advancement in living standards.,v ,A ; v

.f I if til

"IV

CQLQMBmiSm GOLD MINE FOMHEkSM ALL INVESTOR

- '"The;',conVu5stadores"-came -to

Colombia seeking; goldj' but in
recent years jAmerican'lJusiness-

men have i-feund outithat actu actu-T
T actu-T aly, there -fli' mtfre .'gold ".hre

, than the early Spanish travelers

ever dreamed. about. '." I
v AlI over ,tbe'. country,.., with- Its
great, mountains and- rich val-
leys,- many f the better known
American' firms have establish established
ed established factories and-are making big
profits on their, investments. Y
-.v y.: ; ; .. ;
; iSpnie'fllriris like "'the! Colgate
company and the -" : Goodyear
Rubber Co..., have already sur surpassed
passed surpassed their early production -7
timates and have gone on to ex expand
pand expand 'and' build other factories.
'
In Caliakne, there' are "more
than 50 American companies in
cperationtoday, and -about 250
. American "families 'have become
an integral part of; the social
and industrial life Of-the clfy:
Koweve.r, not only' the big
business enterprises are making
money in tne -progressive mar markets
kets markets of Colombia. Small Invest Investors
ors Investors jeithicapitali of Just a-few
thousand, tloljars,' but' possessing
jolld technical knowhow, are be being'
ing' being' handsomely! repaid on .their
investmenls.'. ? .' u'i
r s; ; i r - t :? :.

-Here- la'an' example. Bernardi
Rosember left Brooklyn 'four

years ago with $50,000 and a de degree
gree degree in electrical engineering
I In. Call, h hptran t.h mnnu-

factura of fluorescent lamps. At

present he sells. $350,000 worth
of his product annually and he
would not part with his business

for $500,000. ',.".
- AI Schaef ferr who Is promi prominent
nent prominent in Bpgota'a construction

business, has enjoyed similar

success..

.4-

' According to Richard .Lanke

nau, who is In charge of Invest

ments made: by the Banco, Po Popular,
pular, Popular, Schaeff er came to Bogo Bogota,
ta, Bogota, at the conclusion of 'World
War fl-with a capital of $10,000.
Ie noted that no one In Colom Colombia
bia Colombia was good at making cement
construction ; blocks. ,s;
He started making blocks and

today he has a thriving business

valued at $500,000
. John Miller," another Bogota
resident, overnight has become

a building contractor because of

his knowledge of how to dry out
lumber, by the furnace system.

At present Miller 1s supervis

ing the. construction of a mil

- j'
' 'r ";'"":f'r;Vvvf,ri-u- ' S;
; t -1 1
f v
IL
0

THE NATION'S CAPITOL, lights ablaze, tands out like a center of light in Bogota's
;nlRhts. In the foreground, a silhouette of the statue of the Liberator Simon Bolivar,,
in the plaza of the same name, -.

, ''','"
lion-dollarhouslng project be being'
ing' being' financed .by the Banco Po Popular,
pular, Popular, arid is setting up saw mills

In Bogota: Miller is also the
manager of his own, "firm,. ?o ?o-lombla
lombla ?o-lombla Engineering Enterprises,
and owns forests and saw -mills,
? Two young Americans, Al Tur Turner
ner Turner and William Brt of Miami,
recently Joined "force with Mil Miller
ler Miller to expand his "construction
business. Accordinf to Unkenua,
Miller Irrlved In Bogota: with
$8000 to $10,000. 1
Medellln. one of the oldest Co

lombian cities, and one of the
biggest textile centers in' the
country,, also offers AttratttonS

for North American capital.;. V
- Like.' Call J.Medellih is" about

300 feet above. sea level, and Its
climate- Is pleasant- throughout

the year. j i -, 1
t Like the famous -iostoa Back
Bay, "among the private resi residences
dences residences of Medellln can be found
the most, luxurious homes.
The 250 or more Americans

' I who live In Medellln are occu

pied in from heavy construction
work to giving-engineering con consultations.
sultations. consultations. Many of them are
engaged in their own business..

Tony Kell, of Seattle, Wash Washington,
ington, Washington, owns, one of Medellln't v
most famous furniture factories. :
The rich Medellln residents buy
up hlir well-made, products as
fast' as they are put ,out. Kell
also supplies ; sears, Roebuele
stores in Bogota and Barranqui-'
Ha., s j v ,v
-1 Two,' other enterprising, young
American,! accompanied by
technicians, willi arrive soon. In
Medellln,- from Indiana, to start
modern chicken 'farms,-'
!' At: present the; demand, for-;
poultry in Medelllii i ls inAde-
4uately met -by, small ehickeit :
farmers, ; "
"Capital jls .-necessary,! t says't ;
Jofque E. Qoesada, director Of,.,
the Colombian Associitlon for
Small Business.But,',.he con con-tinues,
tinues, con-tinues, "what we consider morl j'
vital' is ablUty and knowhbw. ;
There 1 a lot of room for well
orientated firms whlth can c6n- ;
tribute to the expahsion of Our
Industries." t
Quesada ys .the factories
Colombia heeds Ire for the pro production
duction production of plastics,- electronic
articles, pharmaceutical' iteml,
foodstuff, home and office fur fur-nlture,
nlture, fur-nlture, leather articles, office
equipment, clothing and baker
ies. s ,

;

'

I
ti
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(
J



tes rixiau mrsjCA-i as cromxrisT daily Nrrrirra

"Fasama, jriT i::t
LT3 fl

-V jl IL u II
J, Li u .i LJ. W U U U LJ u u
j ;''

. The Ic-wer portion or Bar-? plant ha at present 15JJ00
ranquffia li situated, about-cnes, and tU rapacity will be
four meters! above sea leveL doubled by now and 1951
IU greatest height reaches aniThus, fa the near future Bar Bar-aBftode
aBftode Bar-aBftode of 127 meters. It ea-iranquEla win have 30,000 ae ae-tesds
tesds ae-tesds for a distance of about jtlTe telephone lines. The fore fore-eight
eight fore-eight kilometers, from narth'going facta and figures win

to south, and .about stx kUo-
meters from east to west.
Daring the atonths of De De-eamber
eamber De-eamber to March, the mini
mum temperature is about 21
lerrees. )t toward the mid-1
die of the Tear ft rises- to
more than 34 decrees. -i
. ,
The main feature of Bar

raoquiUa; tn a material point.'onfy process It million fal falls
ls falls its,- tremendous tndustrJaJjjQQ, ,1 a quantity whleh
development. In effect-not a1, inadequate to meet "the
few of the leading industries needs of a swelling popuia-

oi tee country are ncwo
were, ana wis tact anesta w
the rapid rhythm of its prog progress
ress progress and great economic un-
-toKUng,. ;
Amooe the most Important
industries we can. count the
cement factory, breweries,

ta ctories of Tegetable oils andtrlc power. Technicians feel

fats. garette factories; di-
ttllerles, steel, mills,, textile
and plastic factories, and kin kindred
dred kindred enterprises. In addition
there are flour mills, a ship shipyard,
yard, shipyard, .shoe factories, dairies
and-a factory of paints and
chemical products.
,:
These local industries "em "employ"
ploy" "employ" more than 40,000 work workers:
ers: workers: 20.000 laborers, 14,000 fe-
jnale employes, and tfiM of
sundry occupations, sucn as
technicians, proprietors, and
executives. In salaries and so
cial grants, this group of em employes
ployes employes (personnel) receives
approximately : flve million
pesos-annually.
. j.---
tilNDS AND ACTIVITIES
In order to give a general
outline or pic tore of the in intense
tense intense life that throbs' lit this
city, the following statistical
data is presented:
In 1955, 15,7J passengers
entered through the Barran-
quiua airport, and 16,110 left
The bus lines bandied more
than 58,000,000 passengers.
Movie attendance ; was more
than 5,000,000 In admissions,
not including free shows. Oth
er public spectacle drew sub
stantial numbers.
In this same year.- -622
houses were built two a day
at a total cost of over 8,-
3004)00 pesos.
The food .requirements of
the swelling population made
necessary the slaughter of
45,085 heads of cattle, whleh
were. consumed by the urban
,resdents. -
72J183 tons of cargo were
exported during this same
period from the port ot Bar
ranquilla, while tn 1 a x
month stretch imports sky
rocketed to 1,237,004 tons a
startling figure. -
tVBUC VTIUTUS : u
. .In- March of this ryeaC
new automatic telephone ex exchange
change exchange was inaugurated. This
' 'r,-
fr -ml t'- v-v
- vx r

IV-i'jiuA.wari ii ma i n nawMnet. J it

TBZ OLD "CABRERA IGUALDAD" now pavrd and eon
. verted into one. of the widest avenues in Barranquilla.

give anyone gome idea of the
progress that is taking place
in the development of this

avxtern city. "'
The sewerage and aqueduct
were appreciably enlarged
darter the last year. Actually
lthe aqueduct can-supply U
Jmuaon raQona of pnrified
lntr dan nmnerf tt could
tim
- Up to last October, the elec electric
tric electric plant could supply; only
30,000 kilowatt, fiereral new
plants "hare been built" with
the object of doubling the
present output which would
!mMn mmm Htowatti of elec
that this' amount can flB aO
existing needs and also pro provide
vide provide an ample reserve or the
future. This planned expan expansion,
sion, expansion, will probably be com completed
pleted completed this month. X V
WORK Of TEX MAJOR I
- The present incumbent of
the mayoralty fa Dr. Kodrigo
Carbonell, a citizen who .has
distinguished himself as a
dynamic dvle leader with "a
clean public record. He has
held this, high municipal of
The chief accompllihments
of hi present administration
are; the widening and paving
of city thorough! ares-, the
building of new school plants
and a super-market, in the
Boston district the initiating
of plans to construct a Muni
dpal Palace and preliminary
arrangements for the estab
lishment of a Free Zone.
" Currently,' he is negotiating
a thlrty-mllllon-peso loan to
carry out his program of
sweeping modernisation. More
schools and streets are need
ed, also public parks to adorn
the city: a modern abattoir
and markets to be located in
the various districts within
the city are pressing needs.
With regard to the estab
lishment of the Free Zone
action is being taken to re
claim the "Black Zone," site
of the free zone. This new en
terprise will eventually re
dound to the credit of the en
tire nation, not merely Bar-
ranqmna. The "Black: Zone'
win be erased from that area,
and its present population of
squatters will move to ; the
Lansa Housing Development
area to occupy good quarters,
or to other urban sections.
The municipality has deliver
ed 1,700,000 pesos to the Pub
lic Utilities Corporation to ac
compllsh the final phase 'in
establishing the free cone.
PRIMARY IDVCAT10H
The work being done by the
autnortues of Barranquilla
''-iT ":f hX-d
i r:i7 .".f
.tj - i t

I ".-' ... ... '' .

BOUTAK ATCrcc.'one of the most modern of the Industrial city of Barranquilla, the
modem buildings which are being built dally owing; to the rapid growth of the city.

with rtlation to primary eda
cation' fa' synthesized tn the
following statistical data:
Trtal
14.960
L ttf
ft tk 40
Tetai.
- 7J
Chwiw tai (atrt) 40
NmWt.af NadMi
1(1
$1,19720.00
peatfitaMS
TetaTaawmw ftU
. t
far Mats! f pri-
20,000.00)
lwMaa. ywrfr
Cst't'af kIimI
M.710,00
12,000.00
INDUSTRIAL FREg ZONE
The Atlantic' Development
Plan, prepared by the Nation National
al National Planning Board during the
course of 1952, was the first
regional study ever undertak undertaken
en undertaken by this entity. The origin original
al original project was prepared by Dr.
Lauchlin Currie of the Inter International
national International Bank of Reconstruc
tion and submitted to the
President of the Republic for
study. The President approv
ed it after jnaking a few mo
difications.
Within the objectives of
this plan, "aimed at bolster
ing, the', economic wealth of
this region, lies' the necessity
of effecting a survey prepar preparatory
atory preparatory to establishing a lree
Porti- r-'-
It was thus that the reports
of the World .Bank and the
Committee of Economic De Development
velopment Development recommended the
establishment of a free port
so as to obviate the investing
of capital in imports and sub
sequent interruptions of in
dustrial production due to de
lays in scheduled receipt or
shipments. The National Bu
reau of Economic and Fiscal
Planning approved the rec recommendation,
ommendation, recommendation, without hinting
where the free port would be
built since adequate studies
bad not been made to select
a desirable site, a mission of
Swedish technicians, compos composed
ed composed of HJahnar Malstrom, and
Rune TJlfsax were engaged to
perform the study, and they
rendered a well-documented
and extensive report Indicating-
that Barranquilla was
Ideally -suited for establishing
such an institution.
This -project was then sub
mitted to the Economic Plan
ning Board for consideration.
After having weighed the re-!
latlve advantages and disad disadvantages
vantages disadvantages of 'this thorough re report
port report the Board recommended
the government to establish a
Free Zone instead of a Free
Fort because the latter always
entails' many customs and
storage 'problems, with which f

Barranquilla, the great Co Colombian
lombian Colombian city, which is today
the capital port along the At Atlantic
lantic Atlantic and which holds an

outstanding position In "this-
country- as well as m me
whole, of South America be
cause of its enormous, indus industrial
trial industrial wealth and cultural and
civic advancement1 was

founded in U29 by some hum-tacts

ble. but hard-worklna cow-
hands who, settled. along the
ravines oi oan nicoias.
The ideal location and the
enthusiasm of the first in
habitants, and also oi those
who later Joined them. have
served to stimulate the growth
of the region, and their labors
have converted that erstwhile
humble village into, an indus industrial
trial industrial and commercial empire,
a modern center of cultural
and civic unrest that is fust
cause to make the heart of
every Colombian citizen tin tingle
gle tingle with pride.
On April 7, 1013, the inde independent
pendent independent government of the
province of Cartagena issued
the charter in Villa that au authorized
thorized authorized the Incorporation of
this seaport village. This
measure was fully justified by
the tremendous progress of
the cite, and was granted at
a prise to the inhabitants of
Bananquilla for their magni
the inexperienced local per personnel,
sonnel, personnel, might not be able, to
cope, in a free port all kinds
of goods may be received and
shipped free of -customs doty
and of most customs regula
tions. This condition harbors!
within Itself a strong temp temptation
tation temptation for contraband. Then,
again, the sundry nature of
the goods bandied would nec necessitate
essitate necessitate a wide range of stor storage
age storage facilities. These draw drawbacks
backs drawbacks make a free zone seem
more desirable than a free
port for Barranquilla. ;
This recommendation of the
national government was ten tendered
dered tendered in detail and was care carefully
fully carefully considered in order to
determine whether it would
be more in keeping with the
alms of the Atlantic Develop Development
ment Development Plan to erect an Indus Industrial
trial Industrial Free Zone in lieu of ei either
ther either a free port ot a free zone.
This was how the Governor
of the Atlantic Department
and the Mayor of Barranquil Barranquilla
la Barranquilla got together with the Na National
tional National Advisory Planning Bu Bureau
reau Bureau to start setting up the
Industrial free tone. Conse Consequently,
quently, Consequently, the Bureau appoint appointed
ed appointed Dr. Lulgi Ca pod anno, tech technical
nical technical adviser of that organ, to
make a study of the Atlantic
coast and thus determine the
most suitable location for es establishing
tablishing establishing the industrial free
zone. Dr. Ca pod anno complet completed
ed completed his study and turned in
his exhaustive report recom
mending Barranquilla as the
site .since ii nas au

1 f I E

ill
f1 i
ficent contribution to
zause of their country.
the
Two years later, on April
25, 1315, royalist troops, com
manded by Capt Valeton
Campmani. marched in, oc
cupied the. heroic village: for
eight' daysi -and "dedicated
themselves to plundering" and
burning it. These inhuman
were perpetrated so as to
punish the rebellious citizen
ry far its stake In. or support
to, the cause of independence.
However, a : column of the
people's army (soldadoa pat-
iriotas) soon reversed the slt-
nation as CoL Mariano Man
tilla arrived on the scene
with his soldiers and repelled
the enemy. , .
He- regained control of the
city, and set it once again on
the course of liberty.
. '
In 1820, Simon Bolivar, the
Great Liberator; came to Bar
ranquilla. From these he ef
fected plans aimed at recon reconquering
quering reconquering Santa Marta. then in
the hands of royalist forces.
Throgh this stratagem, it was
also possible to rid Cartagena
of Spanish soldiers, and clear
the Magdalena river of deep
ly-entrenched enemy forces.
This move was indispensable
to consolidate the independ
ence or we country, ; r
the necessary qualities for
such an undertaking. Barran-
quuia's record ot achievement
as a pioneer city of important
industries' and technological
progress makes it a fitting
place for this economic ven
ture.'
By virtue of this report and
the previous ones prepared by
the National Advisory Flan
ning Bureau, the government
approved a decree authoris
ing the establishment of an
Industrial Free Zone in Bar
ranqullla, considering that it
Will also fulfill one of the
cardinal objectives of the
Atlantic Development Plan
which alms to stimulate the
economic growth and main'
tain a favorable trade equili
brium of the Atlantic coast.
An Industrial Free Zone is
an enclosed portion of terri
tory, conveniently isolated by
specified limits within an in
habited region, in which raw
materials (Imported or other
wise procured), are received
stored, and processed for the
exclusive use of industries lo located
cated located therein, free of customs
and Import duties.
the industrial zone, there
fore, is destined for the in
stallatlon of Industrial and
manufaetu ring establish'
ments, whleh are permitted
to use, consume, and convert
Imported raw materials In all
kinds of productive processes,
free of customs duty and reg regulations.
ulations. regulations. General warehouses

I

A
Atlantic Capital, with ne
, r .
may be established jn a "free
zone" for the storage of raw
materials which, because of
the nature of the transforma transformation
tion transformation process, are slowly con consumed.
sumed. consumed. Such warehouses en enjoy
joy enjoy the same franchise as the
industrial and manufacturing
establishments located there
in. -. ..-.f.-
The zone serves' to estab establish
lish establish standards of classifica
tion and comparison for raw
materials used in production
except for those items' whose
introduction into we country
is expressly prohibited by im import
port import U&S.- t.:f r j& i
Every free zone must be es
tablished on eovemment-
owned land, for obvious reas reasons,
ons, reasons, considering Jts- charac character,
ter, character, organization and func function.
tion. function. All industries' operating
therein must: meet certain
nrereouisites. relative to the
use of foreign, or native, raw
materials in their productive
Drocessea. Anv industrr desir
ing to operate outside of such
stipulated conditions will be
denied the privilege of being
installed. -.'
Every individual niece or
article of raw material intro
duced into the free sone from
a foreien country will lose Its
domestic nationality, and im-
nort tax will be charged only
in the event the article is in
troduced in some ; common
territory of the nation, and
not in the free zone proper.
Native raw ": materials in
combination with foreign' raw
materials to manufacture a
given product will be tax-ex
empt if used exclusively witn witn-in
in witn-in the confines of the free
zone, but the finished product
in whose manufacture mey
were consumed : or absorbed
will ha aubtect to rezular tax
ation when H &e d outside of
the free zone.1'' .
Industrial free zones re
nanallv administered bv a
board of advisors of qualified
vmrernment' officials, mer
chants, and industrialists.
This bnanl is resDonsible for
wages and salaries paid ltn"
in the zone, and for the de
termination Of tariff rates.
duties, etc." applicable to com commodities
modities commodities manufactured which
are retailed or wholesaled to
various business establish
ments and trade ships at the
nnrt '. i
This board of advisors will
negotiate contractual agree
ments tor the crantinX'Of
land leases and concessions
to native and foreign bus!
nessmen. A breakwater, piers,
factories and industries, are
amnna- the many things need
ed to make this huge venture
a reality. ? To this end the
board has pledged itself and
it will be acting within its
scope of authority to effect
mutually favorable contracts
to fulfill these objectives. Na Native
tive Native lessees will be given pref preference
erence preference over aliens to establish
industries within the zone;
alien lessees will be required
to meet tU existing legal re requisites
quisites requisites for the functioning of
foreign companies and indus industries
tries industries domiciled in the coun country."
try." country." i ' ".
AH physical structures
erected by the lessees will be

considered as Improvements'

to the zone and, as such, will
become government uiopeity
tn accordance with contrac contractual
tual contractual stipulations. AH lessees.!
both native and. foreign,- will
be obl'gated to employ and
utilize native labor in every
possible phase of their Indus
trial actrrstiesk In -technical
work, maximum utilization of
available Cnlomhitn person-!
nel will be sought at all times.
To' this end competent tech technicians
nicians technicians will train land 1 In
struct them tn the, various
operations, and in proportion
to their proven skill and pro-,

fidency. they. will he. promiHtion. For instance, new-school

' 'T. v.r
No business enterprlsei suchf
as, hotels, general store, -or)
the Hke, wm be permitted to
operate within- the. premises
of the zone. The only excep
tion to thia prohibition are
the Internal Security person personnel
nel personnel and customs, inspectors
who are Indispensable to the
maintenance of law- and or order
der order therein. -1
Due to the belief that a Tree
zone- U foreign territory from
a customs viewpoint and tht
import duty is assessed only
when imported goods are re
ceived tn common territoryJ
that is. outside of the free
sone. its many business es
tablishments reap substantial
profits, for the good of the
country, and hence bolster
the overall economy. For ex
ample: free importation of,
raw materials used tn pro
ductive processes; improved
transportation of such mate
rials and a better distribution
of finished goods, I and -non
payment of taxes. on mate
rial spoiled in. productive!
'All these advantages' serve
to, stimulate- the growthr of
manufacturing Industries gnd
as an incentive to skilled. and
unskilled labor,". since. goods
that were.'Jormerly Imponea
can now be fabricated focat-H
ly. Concommlttant production
costs are lowered because of
improved transportation faci
lities and import and customs
tax exemptions. Besides, ma
nufacturing industries locat located
ed located in the industrial; free zone
hold a, favorable position -to
export t h el r .'products as
though they had never enter entered
ed entered the' country, and In this
way they can compete suc
cessfully in international
markets.' :
These manufacturing in
dustries' -and their, finished
products are a healthy source
of national revenue, since
natural resources, such as
electrie' power, water, direct
and indirect labor, transpor
tation and capital are used In
the various productive proc
esses, .xne industrial .jyee
Zone is a wholesale enterprise
for the! general economy 'of
tne nation because the. com
modities made therein 'are re
tailed throughout the country
at lower 'unit prices than
when they are imported. Thus
the resultant volume ef sales
is greater and, the national;
government gets a- bigger sheet
of the profits as it still levies
Import duty on the propor
tionate content of foreign raw
Duwu usee in we manu-
Pi
!''.
.

THE NEW "SIFfK DE AEKIl' AVEXE (formerly 'Ca
. rrera del Cuartel),. widened, and paved, it crosses the
city of BarranquUJa from east to west and is one. of the

of finished products
consumed outside' the Indus
trial Free Zone.
TEE MAJOR SPEAKS
With' regard to the work
being done under his direc direction,
tion, direction, the work already accom accomplished,
plished, accomplished, and future projects,
Dr. Carbonell speaks thus:;
Tn the two long years that
I have -held-this high pfifce,
many projects of great impor importance
tance importance t tins city have been
undertaken and most of them
have been completed.. Those
thafve yet -unfinished are
well on the way to compie-
plant have oeen constructed.
m now more than 3.000 chit-
dreir are obtaining prlmr vf
cducatlon in this city; many
city, streets and avenues have
been paved and Widened; a
merous ? nrban roads have
been macadamized and as asphalted;
phalted; asphalted; a modern. mar t
was erected in the Boston dis district
trict district and f land,' funds, and
blueprints, are reawy for the
construction of three more in
other section, of the city; be besides.'
sides.' besides.' a Municipal Palace is
now under construction." ...
The mayor had the follow
ing to say about the fiscal sit
nation, of the cltjr:'.
ue :niunl4ality is th
sound fiscal shape. The budg budget
et budget is in balance and the city
is; paying, lts debts on time.
Actually, '. effortf are .being
made to secure a lon?-term
loan of about twenty-five or
thirty million pesos from na-.
tlonal babks, This' loan is
needed to accomplish' vast ur urban
ban urban improvements. With th's
opefjUon. Barrahouiira's rx rx-ternal
ternal rx-ternal ; debt," which exceeds
half of a million collars ar-d
which is- guaranteed by the
product of .the city's.' bl c
enterprises, could be cancell cancelled
ed cancelled This same product-cold
be employed again to euaran
lee future loans." i :

facture

future of1 Barranquilla?" the jfth j
reporter' asked. And the' No. 1Z&4

ww v Jim a .uuui V I

citizen -of i Barranquilla an
swered; with enthusiasm:
. "Naturally, we wok into tne
future- of our city with opti-
mism. Barranquilla is ever
pressing,, onward;, seeking to
consolidate apd secure its
vealth and prosperity. Publle
utilities aqueduct 'the tele telephone
phone telephone exchange,: the electric
power plant, etow have dou doubled
bled doubled their capacities in order
to meet the' urgent demands
of. a growing city. The sea seaport
port seaport is in excellent condition.
and, in general, urban publio
services and .facilities are ad adequate,
equate, adequate, not only 'for preset)
needs, but also for the fu future.;
ture.; future.; -..
?Tba : Atlantic Department
and ) especially, -the city of
Barranqmlla-added the dis distinguished
tinguished distinguished mayor. Dr. Rodrigo
Carbonell, "should prepare
themselves ;to receive during
the, course" of ,.thc hext two
years,' the greatest-industrial
and agricultural impetus yet
to br experimented in their,
long history. 'Within this lapse,
of time a -sweeping. progrm
how under study by the fed federal,
eral, federal, departmental," and mu municipal
nicipal municipal governments ; will bo
inf full awing.1

jhosen

....... .-



PANAMA, JULY 22, 195

TEE PANAMA AMERICAN AN INDEPENDENT DAILY NEWSPAPER
PAGE
200 Million Pesos Spent 16 Provide
-.. .; ., J. J : '.. .' r. A 1 U : ', ; vi
Homes f or 30,000 Colombian Families
Ond&qhl

FORMING THE
CORPORATION 4

-The orderly and technical
process of .Colombia's main
activities is unfolding with
progressive rhythm in order to
provide the country with more
able institutions anainswu
ments to study and undertake
the solution of those prob
lems and needs aimed at pro providing
viding providing economic progress for
the nation and welfare--for
all Its inhabitants.
Among the institutions
which' decentralized them-
' "selves from the administra administration
tion administration v-" but which have been
commissioned .with the tech technical,
nical, technical, planning of specific
- problems one of the most
Important in Colombia is the
National Corporation of Public
Services, (CNSP) a depart department
ment department which is exercising a de decisive
cisive decisive influence on Colombia's
development 1 '
'The CNSP has 'been 'com 'commissioned
missioned 'commissioned to study and resolve
three basic services: Housing
Electricity and Aqueducts and
Sewers,
i Heretofore these activities
-were carried out in a haphaz haphazard
ard haphazard manner, not following any
-organized plan and without
any real aspect of unity and
coordination.' Early in April
the ancient institutes of Ter Territorial
ritorial Territorial Credit, which dealt
with housing; the Electrifica Electrification
tion Electrification and Water Exploitation
Institute, and the Institute of
Municipal Development, which
concerned Itself with aque-
i ducts and sewers, were merg merged
ed merged Into the CNSP.
close to ; 1000 persons all
over the country are occupied
dally carrying out the plans
of the CNSP. A wide variety
of nmert economists and spe
clallsts In social and economic
affairs, architects, engineers
draftsmen, etc.. : are charged
with the task of manipulating
the administrative ana tecn-
nicaT machinery involved In
the'policy of better conditions
for Colombians. 1 i
v.Tht iob of the CNSP: It
seeks to provide the common
tnan with : comiortaoie, sani
tary t and ,.low-cosn housing
Which will mean social and
economic redemption for the
workers; provide power, ana
light for both urban and rural
areas and sufficient electric
potential to permit the ex expansion
pansion expansion of its industries; pro
vide the towns with pure
drinking "water and improve
health standards by supplying
all -Colombian localities, even
to-the smallest, with such es
sential services and water
mains and sewers. f
.. The magnitude of the Job
the CNSP has started and. still
has before It, Is extraordinary
and .consequently it has en endeavored
deavored endeavored to give this project
the most rigorous precepts of
technical planning, because
the construction of housing
the supplying of electrical
power, the drainage and Irri Irrigation
gation Irrigation and the supplying of
potable water1 all have one
aim: promote the, welfare of
the people and open new
avenues to the economic
progress of the country.
v Planning of the magnitude
of the kind undertaken by the
CNSP, is destined to bring a a-bout
bout a-bout fundamental changes in
the living conditions of' Co Colombians
lombians Colombians and influence deci decisively
sively decisively the economic progress
of the country, -. i i
The National Corporation;
of public Services, formed by
the three former Institutions i
already mentioned, now con converted
verted converted into the Housing, De Department,
partment, Department, Department of War
ter and Development and the
Department of Aqueducts and
Sewers, is managed by
board of outstanding business
men with wide experience not not-only
only not-only in; the administration of
affairs of state but also : of
important '. Colombian prob
lems. The general manager of
this Institution is Lt. Col. cai cai-deron
deron cai-deron -Rodriguez, who in oth other
er other important positions dem demonstrated
onstrated demonstrated outstanding quali qualities
ties qualities ag an organizer and- a
man with a profound knowl knowledge
edge knowledge of the country's most
pressing needs.; ...
In conformity with the or orderly
derly orderly and technical proce procedures
dures procedures being employed in these
activities all over the country
the CNSP is working Jointly
and in close contact with the
National Economic Planning
Committee, which operates
directly under the president
of the Republic and wnicn. in
- turn, is following a course laid
out by the present Colombian :
government in order to oper
ate in a more technical, in
tense and orderly manner for
the r Improvement of living
conditions' for all Colombians
and' the consequent aggran aggrandisement
disement aggrandisement of the country.. t
INTERAMERICAN HOUSING
CONFERENCE
: By designation of the Econ Economic
omic Economic and Social council, one

nt thm most important organs

of the OAS, Organization of
American states) uoiomDia
was selected as the site for
the First Inter-American
Technical Housing and P.ian
nlng conference. .
Th main oblect of thi:
meeting is to orient member
governments of OAS on the
Inter-American. ucu """"
that Is in progress in the field
of housing. The main points to
be discussed at the meeting
which will begin at Bogota
Nov. 26, are listed c-eiow.
. Thf action of official in
stitutions in national housing
and planning programs: ?
1. Government policy
war hmislnv nroblems.
8. coordination of state ac
tion and- private initiative,
a. Evaluation of needs and
nrenaration of social and
housing programs.
4. Design and construction
5. National financing.
gonial nsDects. J :
7. Housing to community
development programs.
' 8. Administrative aspects.'
' 9. investigation and techni
pal pdiirntion. :s y :--
bV Action, coordination and
technical, inter-American co
operation in the field of hous hous-w
w hous-w and nlannine. according
to the terms of ; Resolution
XXV of the Tenth inter
impHcon Conference..
1. Nature and objectives of
an Inter-Amertcan program
of action.
.. coordination and consul
tatlons between organs of the
OAS and other institutions..
3. Organization and site of
the next meeting.
PREPARATIONS ,
'raphiisr it is the body re-
nnnslhle for the orientation
1 .... ull.
oi. national pians ior puum
service and housing,, the Na National
tional National rornoration of Public
Services has been chosen by
th' government to organize
and prepare-for the meeung
n win he the first time rep
resentatives of:' American
states will congregate to dis-
I tk-oeh -,f thO pnn.

omic and social problems thatLPlaclng or improving housing
confront :them.thelr're-ondttUs for a half a million

spectlve .countries.
Colombia Is proud that her
Capital city has been chosen
as the site for such an impor important
tant important meeting and she has be be-tnin
tnin be-tnin ninnnlne not only to give
the best attention' possible to
the representatives oi ner sis sister
ter sister nations, but also to. prove
that the republic has made
great strides in the solution
of the housing problems of her
workers and farmers.
In conformity with the' plan
drawn up by the Economic
and Social council of the AS
when the matters which af affect
fect affect the majority of the coun coun-tri.
tri. coun-tri. of the : continent are
brought up, Colombia, as the
host nation will make every
effort to insure that the Im
portant conference be a new
contribution toward ensuring
Inter-American solidarity..
HOMES FOR COLOMBIANS
The housing problems be began
gan began to demand attention from
Colombian legislators since
1918, with the passage oi iw
46 which imposed on munici municipalities
palities municipalities with more than 15, 15,-Odo
Odo 15,-Odo inhabitants the setting a a-side
side a-side of' two per cent of their
incomes lor the construction
of sanitary housing for "the
proletarian class," according
to the expression in vogue at
th time. This obligation was
later Increased, in 1936, wnen
th. contribution of each mu
nicipality was upped to five
per cent.
v lAw 46 of 1918 should "be
considered among the Iirst of
Its kind in America, since it
precedes the Chilean law pro promulgated
mulgated promulgated Oct 10, 1907, which
authorized a loan of six mil
lion pesos to purchase "land
and build houses for workers;
and taw 8687 of Argentina.
ADDroved Oct. 5.-1915. which
created the National Commis
sion of Low-Cost Housing
ther laws, like the one of A A-pril
pril A-pril 4, 1921, No. 170 of 1936
and No. 166 of 1938, provided
for the construction of a good
ly numDer oi uroan nousmg
through Institutions like the
Banco Central Hipotecarlo
But the real impetus on behalf
of sanitary and low-cost hous housing
ing housing for. the poorer classes
with the promulgation of Law
No. 200 of 1949, which author authorized
ized authorized the creation of the Insti
tute of Territorial Credit
'which later became the Hous
lng Department Of the Na
tional Public Services Corpor
ation, i
MAGNITUDE OF TOE :
PROBLEM
The Job of the Housing De Department
partment Department of the CNSP in Co
lombia Is tremendous. The
construction of 300,000 houses
is needed to give appropriate
adequate housing, and;
shelter to an equal number of I

r
l a

THE HUMAN DRAMA OP THE BLACK ZONE Is pathetlca Uy depleted In the above photo, which gives an Idea of the.
condltidns under which the residents of slum district have been living. The transfer of these people to more'con more'con-fortable
fortable more'con-fortable and healthful areas has been made possible by -I the National Corporation of Public. Services. ,( J. (

urban, families now Hving In
there is also tne neea for re
hand, 11,116 urban housing
units are needed annually to
house new- families and 8,000
houses for farm families.
tion of 800.000 housing units
Is needed to provide for Co Colombian
lombian Colombian families who lack
nroDer housing. .To get an
idea of the magnitude. oi me
problem, we only have to look
at the 1955 statistics covering
A4 Colombian cities with more
than 18,000 inhabitants, who
need a total of 206,219 houses.
Presuming that of the 831
municipalities or urban cen centers
ters centers In the country, the CNSP
nnlv limited its activities ito
these 64 cities with more than
10.000 inhabitants, It would
need a sum of 2100 million
Colombian pesos to partially
meet the problem, estimating
the cost at 10,000 pesps .per
house. "' '
PROJECTS
- 1 s 1
Despite these problems, the
CNSP has made considerable
progress in solving this prime
worry of the government and
vital need of the working
classes, in the last three
years, up to 'June 13, 1956, Co Colombia
lombia Colombia built 19,462 "houses
throughout the country for
workers and farmers, .which
cost 175,453,289 pesos. Added
to these are the 10,763 built
at a cost of 644121,329 pesos in
the 14 years prior to 1953.
That means, compliance
with the laws and dispositions
seething forth the govern.
mental policy towards the so
cio-economic needs oi tne
working classes, more than
30,000 Colombian lam! lies
have been provided with their
own, comfortable nygienic
and low cost house, an Invest Investment
ment Investment of more than 240,000, 240,000,-000.
000. 240,000,-000.
BOGOTA'S EXAMPLE
Bogota is a capital city with
a larger perimeter than some
of the famous American and
European cities, and there are
some who insist that lt is one
of the cities with the best res residential
idential residential districts -with a pop population
ulation population which this year ex exceeded
ceeded exceeded one million inhabi inhabitants,
tants, inhabitants, It is the most populous
city of Colombia. The capital

of the Republic and one of,Which at their completion

its largest' industrial and,wiH transform what was. an

commercial centers, it is nat nat-tural
tural nat-tural that Bogota would have
one of the biggest housing
problems. Therefore It wou.'d
be Interesting to use Bogota
as an example of what the
housing project of the CNSP
consists of.
, The CNSP has Invested close

PrF

I -V. K.-rf ....

. I f.
PANORAMA VIEW of the new settlement, installed with
all conveniences and sanitary facilities,, which, is being
put up In Barranquilla to bouse the people who now live
' In the slum area of the Black Zone.

i
to 80 million pesos in the 6,
095 residencies it has built in
the four sectors or boroughs
built for workers and employ
es in Bogota, distributed thus:
A total of 814 houses in Los
Akararez: 1.181 In Muzu: 3.
919 in the Quiroga Barrio ana
181 In the Soledad plan. In
ratio to the financial condi
tions of the workers, the cost
of these houses varies between,
5,00 and 25,000 pesos.) i
The same kind of a lob Is
being carried out in cities like
Barranquilla, Call.' Cartagena-;
Medellin, Bucaramanga ;and
others which are the seats oi
government or industrial, a a-gricultural
gricultural a-gricultural or cattle centers.
Modern architectural con
cepts, the most: advanced
technical systems are being,
aDnlied to the construction of
houses, the scope of which is
based on the socio-economic
study of family composition
its earning power and Its
Joint necessities.
IMPORTANT
ACCOMPLISHMENTS
One of the most outstanding
accomDllshments of the CNSP
in the matter of housing -can
be observed on the Pacific
and Atlantic coasts: the re rehabilitation
habilitation rehabilitation of Buenaventura
and Tumaco, the principal
Colombian ports on Balboa
Sea; and Barranquilla and
Cartagena, tha big ports ; on
the Caribbean Sea.
Jn Tumaco. which, has been
partially razed by two big
9 razea ey two oig:
JVL .;.HrtVH

ra .17 S tha inhabl".

strucUon which includes low
cost housing nlans for the in
habitants and other projects

, i
lis,
. f
Buenaventura's former de deplorable
plorable deplorable housing conditions
are being corrected with the
construction of modern build buildings.
ings. buildings. ,. ;'

antiquated port city, Into a quarters made or the most ru- ,:ot.r of CoTom CoTom-modern,
modern, CoTom-modern, progressive metropo--dimentary and Inadequav "wwricai chapter or coiom

j
ON THE ATLANTIC! COAST.
Cartagena, the beautiful cl
ty founded by Rodrigo de Bas
tidas; Is Colombia's main
tourist center, because of her
Imposing castles and wails
the beauty of her marine pan
orama and the nobility which
characterizes her- people.
The CNSP, In its determin determination
ation determination to add, to. .the urban
beauty of Cartagena, first
solved the housing problem.
and then with a View to pro promoting
moting promoting tourist trade, built a

huo amusement nark on the.lumlnum houses are being

island of Chumbacu. ;
The island of Chambacii has
for a long time been one of
the most sordid slum sections
of the Atlantic. The Island's
1500 families for years have
lived In over-crowded huts
set up on mud flats, among
garbage and without sanitary
services and schooling facili facilities.'
ties.' facilities.' ' 1 r "'
. Life on chambacu Island Is
a pitirui spectacle oi ""
..... . i
.'nourished, barefooted and
half-naked
neoples who live
lust a stone's throw from the
rltv under conditions similar
to tnose unaer wnicn uhi"
SS2? "the moT miserable
under the t most miserable,
to those under which human
A
complete "1iM
complete
.tMp Wr;
tahts to a more suitable area
where water, sewage and elec
I-,.,,... t. ,.m
vawui ""
. Next. :,' improvised 'living'
i
far from the Island, with new
houses which will offer to the'
people at .moderate .cost un under
der under comfortable Jiving condl-

- This project will be finish- the necessary drainage sys-1
i '('- o 4 ':-..':, V'l-',if,,r "'it,11.'!.'-,''

USX"'

ed within a prudent time, but
the goal of the Housing De
partment of :theCNSP. U not
only to furnish sanitary, mod
ern and low cost housing; but
also to see. that the families
concerned adout ethical ways
to encourage necessary work
to progress socially and econ economically.
omically. economically.
Medical attention," markets
parks, gymnasiums, schools
and churches are to be pro provided,
vided, provided, in addition to housing
IN BARRANQUILLA
- A problem similar to that
of Chambacu is found in
Barranquilla in an area be
tween the city and the water
front, facing' the Magdalen
River, where veritable black
zone is located. A 'population
of 12,500 persons live In 1.400
nouses mat are -not -reauy
houses but thatch roofed
shacks built of zinc, card cardboard
board cardboard and wooden slat'a which
barely off er shelter from, the
rigors of the tropical climate
and' the" "Indlemency 'of the
weather. ;
The Inhabitants v of thej
DiacK zone are being movea
out to a new sector of Barran-
oullla in the old Lansa air
field where the CNSP nas
drawn up a new modern hous
ing nroiect where a .large
number or pre-iaoricatea a-
with-such rapidity that it will
be terminated within a few
months, as an example of the
CNSP to solve problems of this
nature.
Barranquilla, a city of tre tremendous
mendous tremendous development and
Colombia's leading commer commercial
cial commercial port, 'receives constant
aid from the CNSP for the so
lution of other problems. And
thus, wnat is now me oiarx
zone will be transformed into
th Industrial Free Zone in
which several of the large
';'"; ", V nntrv
iwmrn wvpru 11 liiiK
Willi
"V-
Such" a gigantic effort that
is being made to solve tne vi
- hemil roiomblans
5WS ffl-S SorXn
h ...,.,, dlrfiC.
- tors of the CNSP, as well asi
other
ind Wltitlon, thl coon.t-1
U .m. .M.h cr in in
to give shape and mak-
? reality of tne lunaara. aeii
.ft onRoiS
IPinllla, who is steering the
x-uiuia.
political -course of the- mill
fnr vmrxmnt .towards. an
am rii-riuumun w. mraaw w nm a-iraaHwiii
WATER SUPPLY AND
SEWAGE
Any' housing without elec
tricity, drinking water and

terns would be Inhabitable,
This elementary c o n c e d t

gives an idea of the lmnor.
tance of the- Department of
Aqueducts and Sewers which
which supplies these public
services-to ail tne municipal!
ties of .the country and. Its;

colonies and at the same time I ten-year period for thee
gives its technical and flnan- same projects and the 31 mil mil-clal
clal mil-clal aid for the construction: Hon pesos during the 195053
of large aqueducts and the ex- period for the same undertake

tensive sewage systems that
some of the capital cities of
the country require.
Besides these n r o 1 e cts
which constitute the- base' for
improving and guaranteeing
the healthful and hygienic
condition of the people in the
so-called national territories,
otners are formed in the most
extensive regions of the coun country,
try, country, Inhabited mostly by .In .Indians.
dians. .Indians. The Department is al
so in charge of constructing

elementary and vocational j"1? on the one hand; and In In-schools
schools In-schools in which the nonula- creasing the' standard of iiy-

tion i taught to- read and."1 nd earning power of
write and .is..also specialized : workers,.

in dinerent occupations, especially-agricultural
and- cat.
tie, farming. ,
Lasf year the cNSPi through i
the Department of Aqueduct
and Sewers, spent 26,864,292
iu. pesos on projects to supply
the 831 municipalities of Co Colombia
lombia Colombia with aqueducts and
sewer systems.. This sum add added
ed added to the 1956 budget for the
completion of more than 145
aqueducts and an almost
equal number of sewers makes
a total expenditure by the
Department, of Aoueducts. and
Sewers during, the last two
years of $48,209,657. These
expenditures have been dis distributed
tributed distributed In all 16' departments
of the country as well as In
its colonies. ,., 4, ,
The manner ut which the
ELECTRIC
Ml

.,Th proieptMne rarrjed M hy theCNSP to. provide
electricity for-the country for the necesary public services,
for social betterment and improved' health standards,' and
to, supply adequate housing for the working classes, haw.
another important repercussions the push they have
given i factories and Industries engaged in the production
, . . . i 4 .
and fabrication of- construction material. f& tr&-'
The enormous consumption of construction materials
has brought about not only the expansion and intensifica intensification
tion intensification of those, already in eklstence, but: at the same time
has, fomented the creation of new industries and factories.
. VIT promote the pfoductloh' pf construction materials, :r
last yeac the Housing Deoarbnent of thff CNSP Invested
the sura of $23,773,340 pesos which were distributed t-hus ;
Bogota for pre-fabrlcated- houses .,.".rin.lV 20,000,000 .Z
Bogota;- for wooden doors .,..) 1,000,000

Bogota: for wooden floors
Ubate: for brick factories
Bog6ta:;fofi byick) factories

Bogota: for cement blocks.,.,...........,... 1,950,000
Medellin: for cement blocks', ;-300;000':

Barranquilla: for cement blocks ; 400,000

With advance payments credited to the production
and supplying them with machinery, In addition those con

tributlons', the' manner in which the, CNSP, contributing

towardsi stimulating theje.
from .the following repart pf

only. In the construction of urban housing by the Institute

of Territorial Credits which is now. the Housing Department
of the CNSP, In 1952 and last year. '? O"7 .'.'

Material
Unit
Orajl cemenf
iacV
-. f f
' cu. meter
. ft
cu. meters
Sand'
Gravel, cu. meters
Ordinary Bricks. each 1 1
Heavy bricks . ; each
Gress. tubing
.meters.
Eternit. tubing f'.''5unlt
" unit
. :
""'w.w.. -.:;
sq. meters
'ea.
Iclios
kilos
' piece
'meters ';
wooden doors
Kitchens
Iron bars
Wire'.'..".',
Tile
Electric wire'
Stoves
ToUeU
Plate glass
ea.
sq. meters

work on these undertakings
have been intensified, and is

being attended to In order to
improve tne neaitn ana ny ny-glenlc
glenlc ny-glenlc conditions, can be em
phasized even more if com compared
pared compared to the 24 million pesos
spent during the 1940-1950
ings.'
CUT IN INTEREST
OJT HOUSING" LOANS .
Since the first of. this
month, Colombia has placed.,
itself among the countries of
the. world with the lowest
Interest rate, on housing loans.
This .measure Is derived
from a resolution adopted,, oy
CNSP. in conformity with the
alms of the government to-
'ward lowering the cost of Uvi-
' On houses costing between
5,000 and 25,000. pesos, accord accord-lng
lng accord-lng to the types and financial
conditions of the workers,-an
interest rate -of eight- per
cent per annum was., being
charged. But thig. has been
reduced to five per cent, and
consequently a u t omatlcaily
affect the cost of the houses
which had already been as assigned
signed assigned by the corporation.
Thus, for, example, payments
of 48.25 pesos wer : being
made monthly on a 5000-peso
house at the rate of 8 per
cent per annum; the same,
monthly payment, at 8 per
cent, was reduced to 38.76 pe pesos.
sos. pesos. In the same ratio. 20,000 20,000-pe?q
pe?q 20,000-pe?q house was amortized at
the monthly rate of 193 pesos
and- now the monthly. Tray Tray-ments
ments Tray-ments are only 155.07 pesos.
POWtR
t-450000
60,000
613J40
i i"
Industries can be. appraised
.the .amount, of material usVd
' 1951 r,l95S'
1319,795 . 479,455
....... ,.,.t i .!-,. ...
. .. ; 13,256 1 20,192
( ;' 094,201
1425.603
JL5li,411
v 1,924,456
X" 37.860
. 4 75.120 1
I Vi,524
.... ... 2455
49,710 -'
'" 1,657;"
jt -- ,e
26,512
' 99" 420 420-18,570',"
18,570'," 420-18,570'," 13,256
' 1.657
,' 595,820
15,887
"1,986,500.
"23812,',
1,986
, 27,802
;'i5i.4W
,'' 25,'340
20,192
, .W24
: 753,760
20,566
"2,476
301,500
2,400
2,400
- 33,500



FAdi i.

nr-n-.n r n
-
oiomuia

.
!i
n
4,
i!
i

CARRERA It. JC CALLE 14 BOGOTA, D."t.V
STATEMENT OF COIIDITIOII AS QF MAY 31, 1956

COLD AND DEPOSITS ABROAD:

bou ana oeposns xo, ;-

. or At in Banksi.abreid V.. w 8 275.13422.89
: Contribution in gold to '"... '?; 1 ?''.;

International Monetary Fun 5 246543.69.

Authorized Securities

.1J50.O0O.00

Total'LsgaJ Reserve i J j
CASH AND SPECIAL DEPOSITS: :- ;'; '-.J'-,
Funds broad 321.558:47
: National' Bills : ..' .7. .I. .V i K'ur; '3J43AH.00
. Fractional Coin ..........."Vr'f'' fi 626.025.97
Other Calculate specie ... 69,213.23,
. :. s Totaf Reservea . ... ... - r j .
.' Othtr Non-Calculable 'eft'V.ir'I:.'ir;''.'r-'-"-VV-.---

Total Cash and Deposits Abroad Y. i i .'.74' -.'

30150.066.58

6J59.998.67
307.810.065.25
28.452.62

307J38.517.87

LOANS AND DISCOUNTS TO BANK SHAREHOLDERS:

- Duo within-30 clays v.v.-.v.; : a-T i'ii-"'. 'v 1 .000.000.00
,DiccTHJnta?5T f a:2.-V':: --tr'.fe-T-'. C'

'? CfsfoS jirithin v0 ftys'. .Vl .VV; 'j 56J16J47.57 ;JJli'V J.; t;; J...
Duo vvrth'm .90 days ."'.v; ,'.-V. 'V.-.i--; 43545.464.70 T'i"
Duommoro than 90 days .i..i...;.;.v1i7.745.611J4 35126.763.63 352.626.763.63

Indemnity Dioeountt-Doeross v. -'v--;

Duo .'

4

.............

' 97.617.00

' ,,'-;-,:-.77.458.95
X, v i : 2a570
"4 r. : 76JD35.75

11.123.465.52

, Duo within- 30 days";

i Duo within 60 days ;. i
Duo within '90 days . .

; Duo in mors than 90 days , e, . i' j ; r

Diseountc-Decrto 384 of -19501 A .. f'- v
7-uolii;30'days-;rr'i jt .";ViVVi i J"vl.i;;J-'v't;i"r-VJ 57.870.584.12
f 'Duo whin.'TO dy" 1 1450.749.09
- Dao within 90 4ays VViiv-:': f.vr 15. 0095147
-. i.Tr'.'' ji'j. v. :. .. 'c. v a

11J95.1 55.72

DuT.in-.moro.'ihai) 90 days' ...

32.111.231.04 94.542.471.72

LpANS 'AND. DISCOUNTS TO BANK NOM-SHAREHOLDERS: I f,,. hh;.
Lsahst:;5-?-i ; .. v; r;-'. v, f.V- .-v -yv;:
r Duowiin;' diys :;','..; ' "-
' Dii within 90;lty:, 4iiyTyr,:y: 0,PQ i S0?,000'e0
. -iDuo Soltys ; . ti:'-t20SM22JS2 ; '
. 'iDuo with60ys..;Ui. ;
; Dua: within, 90 days i s .; UV'i. : 411J507.37 'j' 'H.
; Duo in more than 90 days JV; -i 1.574.763.69'- 9J31.57lli
.A' THE'NATIONAlCp -; ,y
. DjmifiprathanQ days ..,.,J1 'v: .'vf! .. V..
4jLCA7iSa DISCOUNTS TO PRIVATt PERSC4IS:Vv : i ? M-t fT M

14.481.572.11
74576.457.98

: tourwrthiii 30 1 davt .". j.s.'i.i i i w ;n 84000.00!

Qldyi

fttriir

Oayav. iiT.-J. 1;!; ; 863.000.00';?

4.431.118.95

iDurw:

uui. in more vim v bt . ..
t .-, .... ' T",
' ; Diseounts: ;.- ? ';. ;;v

iUI ., . ...... ................ f ..........

8.488.61 8 J5

23.390.00

Duo within-0 .days ...........'.... 10.337.527.00 ? a

' Dlk'.within' 60 days 11.1 51120.00 .
, Duo within 90 days ..'..,':f.;,.:.t'.f.' 12566.6760 34.479.012.00 40.945.630.95
INVESTMTS:' ' '.' f '-rF-:;-; f. -y-v, '"..;..
Steeks In Banco Central Hipotteari'a t : : ; r ,13.810.000.00
'ofUrncnts. of Public Dobt and athors . . ;.-.i;." ; 419J844I08.36 v 433.574.808 J6
CONTRIBUTION" TO BANCO' JNTIRNACIOjIAL DE RECONSTRpCCiOH Y FOMENTO 13.649.317.91
CONTRIBUTION In COLOMBIAN CURRENCY to INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND V 73.1 23 .780.45
SUNDRY, DEBTORS ,... .. ,".... .. . ... fi; 28,949,741.63
REDEEMABLE ACCOUNTS DECREE 2057 of 1951 .i.'. . ... .-. i . 9.884.350.00
BANK'S' BUILDINGS . ... ; ; ,t i, ,;, ,,, .'.". ; 21.566.327.61
SILVER IN GUARANTY OF -CERTIFICATES ,',,V. .-.A TTf-TT 140,000.00
OTHERS 'ASSETS' ';,"" .' ,','V. '"' m ..,. v s; 21.797.659.28

.TOTAL ASS ETS V .' '. V .' ; i

i o-o-cr-o .,' o x o-oo oooooooos)

S 1.497.492.572.22

LIABILITIES

8ANK BILLS IN' CIRCULATION

f" -i-V

256743.024.42

t 20.113.357JB9:

v;...-. 3,848.453.13
i 12.201450-32

-V-; 63.508.488.35- V- : :
2.134.948.88 437.936.135.34
iV. .. 2755.208.88
--;v -'.: : t..':'-" 48.749.500.00
jii; V ; 174V5J14.65
. 63.365.698.34 80.641.61 2.39,
. ; -;!.::..U54.9926aU U
: ------12.074.808.94

. deposits:
V: From. Bank Sharoholdort ................ ....'.,,
F om Bank Non Sharoholdors . . :l . iv;
i:. From' National .Gavtrnmont...,.
t From tho Judiciary. . . .....
I From Other' Official Entities .. . . .... ..... ". '.
.'. From Private ;Forsons . ,v . . .'. . i .yViV
-r- OtHer 'Doposits J-i . i; v ;;; .v.'i Y. ;
J RATIONAL GOVERNMENT INTERNAL OEBT;;. ,;

I .INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND
f,fVNfftY CREDITORS: ; N
Jlational Government .'. . . . ,

. vthar: Creditors.-
TOTAL LIABILITIES ON DEMAND ...-. ;
BANCO JNTERNAClONAL DE RECONSTRUCCION Y FOMENTO -5
CAPITAL AND RESERVES: ;
paid u capital ....... i....;;..;.. (
Reserve Fund .4 ........ ... .... ... ;.,.h'':V:y
. Eventual Reserves'. v ... ....... ..... '.'7 1 7" 7T
i SILYER' CERTIFICATES IN. -CIRCULATION
INTERNATIONAL MONETARY, FUND (non, cashable)
INTERNATIONAL COIENTIONS ..., i

Lejtl Reserve for Deposits r,.i,. f. .' 45430
, Lejtl Rossrvs foK Bills ....r.. ........ !321
" ; Total Reserve for Bills V.V:.........i.r.V;.M;.J.;.... 32.46

... DISCOUNT RATES;

C84.905.803.50

' 4

.1,

St ". Is ? "-s-r -rr-"J

28.477 J00.O0
16.946.5586

42,379.151.75 87.803.710.11

V 140.000.00
' .73.106.783.51 -.7

. 281035.75
69.092.973.80

1.49792.572.22

I ...... .

Loans guaranteed with agrarian pledge i .. '. .'. . .... .' t 3

Operations on produce In tho General Warehouses f.. ..1.-. :3

. Tht'Tico Mansrcr Jb tcrctaryv .- Th Aiditer.

, CDEAJtDO AKLiS-SOKLf DO

. 1 The Manarer. 1
tCIS-ANGEL AKAXGO

ALBEKTO DIAZ 80LEK

" By milMm 6. 6aW p
lcRr W Latin AmaricM -' f

toiomaii iudu oat u oc

..rfJke really wrprakj pera-

des ia all of tbt Amencta
: rrpublies. Ia faiteraatioaal 'cir

cles, outside of Colombia many

sturies are told arid repeated a

bout its growing political prob problems.
lems. problems. The main theme is that
Geo. Gustavo Bojat PiniHa has
established a "p li c e state"
ita military authorities openly

and completely in control

1 The mam reason why these
sturies are heard abroad is the

faet that, as far as internal po

litical matters are concerned.
: the country's press is under a

rigid censorship. The state of

cige is still in effect and Gen
Fojas has the authority to gov

era by decree. This means there
ran be no doubt that the mili

tary authorities are io firm
cyotrol of the government

. However, "police state? also'
implies: control over freedom1

of speech, control over the right
to work and the place where it
caa be done, control over the
internal economy and control o.
ver the economy of the country
- from an international s t a a d d-poinl
poinl d-poinl Acd none of these char

acteristics of a real "police i Colombia. Production is In-jing in

i

i

;
-

THE AIRPORT OF CIMITARRA'in the eolonhed rtytons of Carafe represents the
prerress that penetrates te trcB the most, remote comers of the eeontry, spreading
dnltsatioa aad coltare... v :

itato' exist ia Colombia under, creasing, but in no wise is hi their profits in dollars. But thej

.the government of Gen. Gusta-j sufficient to fully supply the do- d not get the dollar at the of

to loajs Fmina.' i mand. ; : I-:: Ificial ;rato of oachange, ; they

The real fact is that the gov- The shortage of cement is sojaust buy them is the open mar
erameat is running' its own sf- acute that the government isjket i f

fairs and instead of trying to being pressured to permit the The incredible part, is that e e-intervefle
intervefle e-intervefle ia matters of busi-'.free importation of thir prod- eonomie prosperity, of the coun coun--
- coun-- ness, is constantly stressing thejnet 'untu a new. factory can be ay is simply strangling the na na-bnoortanee
bnoortanee na-bnoortanee of nrivat enternmeibuilL ; -'i'.. ''. !" "'v"'-.C- Hon. Years aed.'before the ors-

and uutneed for foreigB invest- ;Tho ieinand' m the: eountry 'expand so 'that
. meats, .foreign machinery and and the scarcity of VdoUarsJbegan, off. whici.. is. the these produets.. can be lexport-

' "oreign technical akflL The ,re-iwhich' brings about restrictions'main source of dollars,, produc-

suit is that United States firms op importl, is resulting .into' at ed enough1 strong money to 1

Colombia: na exportjlars. No matter how It is eon-

i t"

1

.. j

-h (

1

f

1-

T

I-

f

J

sidered, the inescapable fact, ii
tbU Colombia has grown s 0
much that the 500 million dot
lira, coffee' produces : annually :
is simply not enough money. 1
. Suggestions have been mads
to the. effect, that XL. S. firms
which have factories' operating

or under construction in Co

ed to other- Mtiar American
markets. The problem: here 'is

have

that Colombia does"; not

enough skilled workers' for o.
Derations of this kind on a
large scale and It "wbuld take
;overal years to s train such a -personneL
t" .. p -..
. The greatest ,nope Les, in the

production of, oil. The Foerst

Oil' Company, has obtained a
contract to reopen, wfth mod.
era methods, oiljfielcls.' which
have long been abandoned. In
addition, Texas oilman John
yf. ? Ifecoro. "of Houston, heads
J lj'..1."-Hii.-'.'i t

a ivnmcaie wnica nas oeen
: -v ; ; 1-9
granted concessions tojbore oil
wells, in, an aye comprising
500,000 acres of ,- land on the
north coast,, These', totfeessions
also Include' off shore perfora.
aons, Undoubtedly any impor
tact .discovery of oil would
htve a real impact on 1 the
whole nation and provide the
dollars the country needs so
badly..- 1

M
it J
i

f5

THE MILITART HOSPITAL, built at a cost of several mjllion pesos. monsUates
the desire U the present rovermnent to Increase and improve Its help towards com community
munity community heajth ami welfare, t

are, coming into Colonibis like new complete overhauling t of Lw Colombia to make whatev whatev-nr
nr whatev-nr before. In Uedellin, CalijColombia's economic situation.Jer purchases were needed a-

PjgoU. Barranquilla, CarUgena.Big U. S. factories like Reming-j broad. During this -period.' the

and other important cities, busi-jtcn Rand, .Seiberling, Ameri Ameri-ness
ness Ameri-ness activity; is breaking' all can Motors and a half a doren

other,- are 'establishing' assent-

Colombian' peso remained" sti.

ble. But now the plso in the V

pea market is quoted at 'more
than 4.23 to the dollar Six years
age, the' rate of exchange was
less than two pesos for each A A-meriean
meriean A-meriean dollar.' ; -j
Thus, Colombia's problem is

crecedents.

Mwhfle; the government Isf W t?"?'
:arrykg out Us, public : works P? .rtuation.is
' programs to -tho- greatest possi- f ' 1
bleextent loads' ere Ibeing! tn foP P011- te
- buitt evere mountainous .-IPP T"e nd Four, are vir-

roas, which up tonow had beenitu,11J' prohibitive, firm operitte find new ways to earn dol-

- considered impassable; the

railroad is being extended from
Bogota 'along' the Hagdaleoa
'rifef.'tO' Jhe Caribbean; Com Com-munications
munications Com-munications re improving; hos hospitals
pitals hospitals are being built and new
. schools-are" appearing" all over

(he country, The map of Colom-J

bia is being completely trans

formed

The population not only has
increased but is also bettering
M standatd of living to the ex extent
tent extent that the demand for con consumer
sumer consumer goods is such that the
majority of. stores do not have
envugh to supply the public. In Industry
dustry Industry is developing rapidly.

but not with enough speed tol

satisfy the demand.' Here is a
typical example: six years ago,
a salesman of U. S. manufac manufac-rjred
rjred manufac-rjred washing machines consid consid-ed
ed consid-ed himself fortunate if he sold
three machines; today, when
dollars are available, orders are
for as much as whole box cars
f UlL r -1 :
U.S. manufacturers of s t e e 1
cabinets and similar items used

t do a big business in Colom

bia, but now these purchases I
have been reduced to a mini-1
mum. To ease the shortage, J-

Meanwhile, 'the situation i S
bf coming difficult for the av 'i
erig wage-earn att. pverMhy 1
country t Wages nave increased, i
Because of the purely-pohti- -cjil
aspect," it ; is ; possible ..to" 5
rear att k&ds of stories.' There -'
are those who., insist that a j I
great abyss separates the. Lib "'
eral and Conservative parties,
Indicating that the gap has not

lessened. .There, ara those who'
s.y the two parties are uniting-,
ii an attempt to form a civil -,
gtfvernment bectuse of t h e f f
opposition', to Lthe miiitary regl-
me of Gen. Rojas. It ia abso absolutely
lutely absolutely .and completely difficult
say, th aby degree of
certainty, who .is right. But

there is one thing definite:

Gen.

Rtjas'ls in the saddle.'5

1

4

hi

1

yeral factories, using U. S. -rHE pQRr qF Tr;RB0 j, eBe ef the' eons tractions tnat Is helping to improve the ;
patents, have been established- exploitation ef the Colombian nation's immense natural resources. : :

7

tt'



the course of the first yeir of

work while I have been the

bead of the Ministry of Com-

. nrunicationa" so stated Major
General Gustavo Berrio Munot,

; "demonstrated to me the ur

gent necessity to make changes

in the methods of work: as it

was done, in order to comply
with the requirements ; of the

department. That was the ret

: son why, starting from the first

t January, 1956, a new plan of
action was, established. That

plan includes the different tasks

f, the. different sections to be

accomplished during the prea prea-f
f prea-f ( year. J. y.
,,-"The Ministry of Communica Communica-tions
tions Communica-tions is an institution entirely
technical for which reason it is

: necessary to have well trained

'personnel with modern equip

ment and Installations in : ac-
eerd with the rapid progress of
' the country which pushes us en
day by day. It is well known

that the growth of a nation in

its different aspects is measur

ti by the development of its

systems of communications...
' 'The system of communica.
tions in every civilized country

- must cooperate efficiently t o

the development of the nation

al economy, 'the culture of .the
people .and the expansion of

, their' spiritual bonds.' For that
reason it la easy to understand
that it becomes necessary : to
invest considerable.' amounts of
money for the technical train training
ing training of the personnel and for the
, modernization of the equipment
. that must be used.
DEPARTMENT OP
' PLANNING
"The Department of Planning
has been attending to the tech technical
nical technical organization of the differ different
ent different sections, of the Ministry. It
attends permanently to the in in-jpection
jpection in-jpection of all the telegraphic
lines in the country in order to
maintain them properly; it
draws the maps required for
each xone; it fixes the location
of the different plants and of offices
fices offices and takes charge of the
control of the accounts of the

administrative services, as well
as the study of -the commercial

organization of mail, telegrams
and money orders.
TELEGRAPHS
"The telegraphic system cov covers
ers covers a very high percentage of
the areas of the country. It may
. be stated that there, is hardly
any town of importance within
-the republic which does, pot en enjoy
joy enjoy .this human, ; indispeible
; contact We have 62.000 kilome kilometers
ters kilometers of telegraphic lines which
tender to the inhabitants a service-
which must ; be considered
as one of the most efficient in
very -civilized community. "y
'l "If we compare what is being
done during this' year with
what was done in 1935, we may
,'wy that little was done, but
this was due to the difficulties

which arose in the last moment

Hv1 t

h ai
i J
"; i
ft y g
if

Feeder roads f rom the main Orlente? hleh way shown. on a relief map to keep the
: public Informed-on. the public work program -being carried out by. the government.

in obtaining' the necessary mi.
terial, which could not be easily'
acquired in the world market.
Nevertheless, 22 new telegraph
offices were' opened and 168 kil

ometers of telegraphic lines
were changed for copper wire.
We may be able to establish 15
new offices, before the end of
the year. And also there is the
possibility of changing 5.000 kil kilometers
ometers kilometers of iron wire for cop

per; wire, as well as the recon reconstruction
struction reconstruction of 1.000 more kilome kilometers.
ters. kilometers. Besides, we shall continue

substituting the old "Morse"

system for the modern system
of teletypes "Siemes" which are

giving splendid results.

Some statistical infomation

may give an idea of the magni magnitude
tude magnitude of the service done by this

department During last year
there were transmitted more

ban 5.800.000 private messages;

2.300.000 official messages and
3 100.000 press dispatches from
different newspapers in t h e

country,
DEVELOPMENT OP
SERVICES

"Telegraphic statistics during

the years between 1945 and 1954

show great changes jn t h i s.
branch of the public service. In'

the year 1942 there was xeduo :
lion of 4 000.000. words of the

transmissions, with reference to
the previous year, and in sub subsequent
sequent subsequent years ttiere were eimi-'
lar reductions,' until the ; year
1953 wherein' the reduction a-

mounted to 11.000.000 'words, as

compared with (he transmis

sions of 1952.

"In my opinion, these reduc.

tions were-due "to the irregular
functioning of many stations and
the provisional closing of oth others
ers others by 'reason of the political
violence which existed in the

CiHintry from the year 1948.' It

is worthwhile to point oat that
yince June 13, 1953, which was
the date on which the present
government took charge the
statistical information shows a

V X ,J- J,.
remarkable I,n c r e s s e in the
service. In the year 1954 there
was an increase of .1.200.000
messagess;.with.;'ai total of, 2$;
000.000 words. : f
"With a view to' improve the
service, the Ministry of Com Communications,
munications, Communications, bearing in mind
the national demand, has been
gradually increasing the tele-.

graph offices and at the pre

ent time there are 1.216, of which
i high percentage can. use tele teletypes.
types. teletypes. In sp far as refers to tele

phone service, t h e statistics

Uiow the: following, data! .Ten
a disadvantage if c o m p a r e d
with the ratio of telephones used
in some other countries, it is
possible to hope that in the next
years ago only 1 person in ev

ery 200 inhabitant ;had tele
phone service. Today that num

ber has increased so that there
is 1 telephone for every 79 per persons.
sons. persons. It is to be noted that the
telephone'; service: is being' in.
creased It'; a : higher rate than
that of me population. In. spite
of the fact thaV Colombia is at
few years, with' this facilities

offered by long distance tele telephones,
phones, telephones, e 'can reach a ratio of
1 telephone for every 25 inhabit

ants.

V:

OFPlCE OP THE DIRECTOR
OP TELECOMMUNICATIONS'

In order to ; modernize the
service, the government has es

tablished the office of the Di

rector General of Radio Com-

munitatjQns.hich'.is in charge

o: establishing t h e necessary

regulations and- to give .ade.

quate supervision to the branch

of telecommunications, with a

harmonious plan. This office has
a very wide field: of action' be

cause it includes radio commu communication,
nication, communication, both commercial a n d
educational, television, r a d t o

telegraph, tity telephones, spe'

cial .services for air and mari maritime
time maritime communications, radio no

tice, -radio reViews,' amateurs'
and the allocation and registra-

t?on of national -and internation

al radio electric frequencies,

tbt issuing of licenses and ev

erything which may be needed
for the technical development of

this branch of the service.
NATIONAL CONSULTING
BOARD ON RADIO
COMMUNICATIONS

"The present administration

bak also established, a Rational

Consulting Board on Radio with

tne principal object of providing

the regulations .for., radio. com
rnunication, and t also. as : i

means of contact between the

government; ana raaip msuiu.

tions. The same office acts 'as

mediator in the conflicts which
may arise between radio sta stations;
tions; stations; it must see to the main,
lainance of mutual cooperation

btstween different-enterprises, a

voiding every. clAvhlchmay

Imply unfair cbnipe.tiSqnt it

must stimulate artistic tivi-

Wfrf specially ; Owie cojmec'ted

with the study folklore, .the na

tional culture and similar ac
iivities. :.v

ROAns brHgea which Join Bogota with the, rest of the country are shown on
a huge reiiFJ.map displayed by the Ministry of Public Works in patio, pf. the

National Museum,

1-

MAIL

!fte improvements iii the post

II service in so far as refers to

speed and security is remark

hable lt may be sUted that 90

Ipef .cent of the national .mail

in Colombia are carried by air.

Eighty airliner which were car

rying malls twice a week,' now

are carrying it daily. In the last
vear 29 new post offices were

established.

INTERNATIONAL
CONVENTION

An accomplishment of impor

tance for the National-Post Of

fice in Colombia was, without

doubt, th meeting held in Bo

gota on October 12 last year,
Wherein 57, 'delegates of the 23

countries' which'form the Post Postal.
al. Postal. Union of the Americas and

Srain, were represented.. in. or.

der to hold, sessions for the pur

pose oi revising the minutes of

the former meeting which .was

held' in Madrid in 1950. One ira

portant point in that meeting
was the approval of the Gratu

itous Service of Transit" which
Colombia defended inasmuch as
our1 country has considered it

as one of the basic principles

of the Postal Union. Measures

are being taken to apply the

provisions of the agreements so"
that parcels of printed matter
may be. admitted up to -15
grams. Arra ngements have
been made with several coun countries,
tries, countries, i n c l u d 1 n g the United
States, Denmark, West Ger Germany,
many, Germany, Portugal and Switzer Switzerland
land Switzerland for the service of money
o'ders with said countries.
TELEGRAPHIC
MONEY ORDERS

The Department of Jloney.

I Orders is carrying out Impor

tant work. This' department is

rendering more efficient serv

ice. It has offices in remote lo

calities wherein commercial!

banks, because, of financial rea- of ms

sons cannot establish, branches.
At tie present time tiiere .are in
Colombia 4 offices and in the

near future 20 offices' Aore Win
be opened ;ln towns wherein it

has neen considered; necessary

U render this service; 743;
-'?. ''! i?&&T-3t'fi'i k4

"In the Immediate future we

hive iff mind the establishment

Ut postal savings, collective 'uj-

surince and obtaining- the ne.

cessary. mechan1cal;'eqttipmenl
for all tte Dranchesvmi sri 'dif

ferent! postal 'zwsi';Writh'effices

w Bogota. Manizales, MedelUX
Bsrranquilla, BUcaramagVin4
Call, 'wherein transactions' re

lating, to the Issuance, nd pay

ment' of jervice- may be made.

When this reorganization: isv. in

effecUiti hoped td Pbtin with
due speed, U;ttenc::n.
maining in each: cfflce;, and it

will be possible to exchange inv

lilieaTjitelylM

tances, tnereoy avoiding tne un
necessary nd dangerusVtraniit

fers of money to branch offices.

ens' And telegraphsi' :

this without mentioning tho i"t-.. ;
pwements" made ,in. radio .torn: ;

munica tions. In. this m a n,n t
said" syltems futtill; 'tfeir'ewcial' ;
function oi bringing 'into contact;
eiater communities' which, tot,' I
kng '.'ttayi. did not have" j an ;
meant -it communicaUon. iln j
thie way we can bring to ail'ciL.. ,;

ueni the ideals ef peace, jfjua- (,

.(.'!

';'-,.mv

5

POSTAL SCHOOL

The" school for telecommdnl-

cations has efficiently complied

with thet objects wevfovern-

ment has in mlndK that is, ,tp
prepare -technicians jrequired by

tbe) Ministry.' There are courses

for radio operators, mechanists,
telegraph operators, eter T wo
hundred ffurt. five have-taken

ujeur degree aveaay;

In accordance with the. pro

gram adopted,, the school, shall

have f laboratory for r a d 1 0

technicians, in the course f thij
year,' at well :as electric work.

shops which: will help tn the in instruction
struction instruction of mechanists and for

"; In closing his interview,- Mai-

or General Gustavo Berrio Mlf Mlf-Muftoz,
Muftoz, Mlf-Muftoz, Minister of Communica.
tions, stated: "It most be stat stated
ed stated that the-efficient work car carried
ried carried out by we present' govern government
ment government -U: indisputehle -proof : of
tiir special, Interest- of the id-;
ministration to five to Colom

bia, even by the most remote

sections, the modern, services

'.Marv.i.rr'

"l"' -s" .4 '!
7 -!''-'.vr.Jf,'i.:!
iiT ,y;.-.:,,; z ;": ..- I
' ; i '---sfl V,
fi' t 'r"?'-a "-'.it'. '.if';'. j L. C

i

11

S'sSV.'iVA"!!

V .'-.i'v' V,. ''':': 'fk 't-i 'v?.:t.:H-';'.Q ;(t f. (;
:"-' -tw-.fvV '-iiv't v-r;;rH-''fiTji.;.:.p

t

s
ii



fANA-MA. JO.T H,
LARGEST COAL DEPOSIl
IN THE ENTIRE AMERICAS
Cattle Industry's Steady Growth

ttx Panama Arriry ax mtrrccrrr? rinr xrrmrr

if

Among the many posslbia posslbia-tles
tles posslbia-tles for the Immediate future
of the Department of Magda Magda-lena
lena Magda-lena is that which is offered
to Investor in various fields.
In spite of the fact, which has
been frequently claimed that
this is a country of a single
line of development, it is evi evident
dent evident that the economy of
Magdaiena presents, different
aspects. One of the most im important
portant important is represented in this
fair, which places the City of
Fundadon as the special cen center
ter center for an the cattle raisers
of the Atlantic coast. For the

third time they had demon-1

strated their efforts and nave
shown with precision the ad
vancements made in the se selection,
lection, selection, of different breeds.
In this wy.we cooperate to

raise the standard of living

for the people, which is the

principal aim jst tEe Govern Government
ment Government of the Armed Forces,

Waunnf r thereby not only

splendid pedigrees for the
cattje, but also seeking high higher
er higher production of meat -which

is sKrode In the basic dally

diet of the Colombian homes,

thereby reaching the proper

balance required by scientific

men: tat tat diet of tberpeo-

i It 1 well known that cattle

raising la on of the principal
economic reserves f or the
country.-For that reason; the

Department or Magdaiena

has taken tap the task of pro

ducing and. selecting day.bj
day the best breeds. 'In' th

fulfillment of this task we di di-"
" di-" reet our efforts, although we

Are confronted With adverse

.factors, because we are con

winced of the fertility of our

lands, ...we have insisted in
maintaining the best ranches
with breeds of the highest

Quality. t

r. .-.

3.

' MODERN FATED HIGHWAY;, of special design, constructed hr the administration
. of Governor CoL Hernandez Pardo of the department of Magdakinrhe highway t

connects sanu .ataxia,, witn me -zj itoaaaero ieawvoi"" . .. ... ."Tr,
i'i-ir- '""A- '-t1,:.' ir'r, ,:A' if: K' f .'iii'.i'

:-.r t 'jt.

the A o n n 1 1 i attention. Is
drawn specially to transac transactions
tions transactions which have only a tran transitory
sitory transitory meaning' which do not;
show the advancement ''ob ''obtained,
tained, ''obtained, .the Department of

Magdaiena every year gives a

new surpnseoy showing se selected
lected selected breeds' 'demonstrating

thereby that cattle; men of

this section have special con-
cern for the future develop-'

ment otmatlonal economy.

selected delegation from, Ven

ting abundant pasture during

the. whole year and the lac
of elastic fredltlacilities.

I have the certaintyrthat

our brothers from Venezuela
will cany with them the lest
opinion of our- cattle from

jwhat they will seejn Funda-j

cion, wherein cattle raising in

Magdalena.has the best dem dem-onstratidn
onstratidn dem-onstratidn f o r "the '' effort

shawn. although 'they are not

seeking specially -the -Teim-

bur semen t -of their expenses,
but rather they.feelsure. that

TV

r :-.

M4 XT r'V

41 1 T 4

i

' v. ,r J

J'f ''r'r : "" s-is sssis;

1

5

"IX 10DADERO" BATHING RESORT, built on the hostorlcal beach of Tamaci or
Oalra by the governor of the .department of Magdaiena. Col. Rafafel Hernandez
Pardo, where the more prosperous Santa Marta resoldents get together.

Hie government, has not
been indifferent to the inter interests
ests interests of cattle raisers. If last
year drew attention to the
policy of the government in
connection with Banco Cafe Cafe-talexo,
talexo, Cafe-talexo, the National Federa Federation
tion Federation of cattle Raisers and
Cmja de Credito Agrario, to today
day today I must 'draw your atten attention
tion attention to the branch of human
activity in relation to the es establishment
tablishment establishment of. Banco Gana Gana-ilero
ilero Gana-ilero which, In specialized

manner, will show new ways

for cattle raising so that pro proper
per proper attention shall be given

to this section of the country

'So doubt you remember

that one of the most lmpor
tant aeti of my adminlstra

Uon when I decided to com compromise
promise compromise with the Council of

the National Railroads. in

connection' with the'partlci

patkm which periodically

were due to the Sectional

Treasury by reason of the ex

"ploiUtion of the Division bf
the Magdaiena Railroad.. But
perhaps you do not know that

the amounts involved in the
compromise, half a million
pesos, have passed to the
Treasury of Fondo Ganadero
del Magdaiena. 8.A. This is
an allotment of the Govern Government
ment Government of this Department for
the benefit of cattle raisers
who are members of that in institution;
stitution; institution; the aim of which Is
the industrial development of
this section.
t'y v'V -., i. : .,. , ......
Cattle raising is a great en enterprise
terprise enterprise for the future. That
fact is shown in exhibitions

as that which we now have,

because the Third Fair is a
clear indication of the devel development
opment development of .that kind of en

terprise among us.
While in other sections 'of

f '. ... V
esuela' leads' us to think that
in the near future we may
satisfy our ambitious project,
such as the obtaining of for foreign
eign foreign markets for our excess
production" of cattle.. This
would be the best encourage encouragement
ment encouragement for cattle men from the
Department of Magdaiena
who have been so far discour discouraged
aged discouraged by the expectation that
we- may have art excess of
cattle and nevertheless they
continue their activities in

spite of the difficulty of get-

the best breeds allow sound

selection which Is the princi

pal aim of official and pri private
vate private enterprises. v

. The government of 1 the
Armed Forces .easily: realize

that, without credit facilities

Lit is not possible to obtain

adequate development in this
Industry. That is. the reason

why it adopted certain meas

ures, which, 'although they

have been contested, such

flexibility i has been secured

for an activity which only terests they represent.

c l -f"5 ';

gives., dividends., afjter, four

fyears. In that way the ad

ministration has. .shown tits.

interest in-tfte petitions ;of ;of-cattle
cattle ;of-cattle raisers and has given

an, .adequate solution, as is

shown by the results 'which
have been obtained,

If it "were necessary to pre

sent proof of the .favorable
opinion gained for cattle' rais raising
ing raising in the country, and .spe

cially in the Department of
Magdaiena, with a view to its

(development, all of .which, is

based on the assistance grant granted
ed granted by the National Govern Government
ment Government and" this Department,'
we' could point out to this

Third Fair, which although it"

will not be a surprise for
those of v wbo;know tht
facts, it will really be a sur surprise
prise surprise for other who c6me to,
the Fair for the first' time and

to whom we extend our cor?

dial welcome. :-.:A'fk'

With this Fair whlcb wlth

pleasure and optimism we art
inaugurating; we demonstrate
to the country At Marge the

ability shown by a well-dlscl-

plined, honest andAard woik
ing people whose only ambi ambition
tion ambition is to maintain peacr-m

order to increase employment

As Governor of this Depart-

ment l feel proud -of the re results
sults results obtained. Much has been

advanced during the three.

years which; the Fair ha been
presented.; it allows us to look

into the future; Tins has been

fully realized by the Govern Government
ment Government of the Armed' Forces,'
inasmuch as it has -adopted
the necessary measure to

cope with the difficulties eon-

fronting cattle raising It has

appreciated the trust shown
by those who have devoted

their lives and, their,, money

to the development of this
important branch of human

In behalf of Bis Excellency

the President of the Repoblie
and in behalf of the Govern Government
ment Government of the- Department of
Magdaiena I solemnly declare

inaugurated the Third Fair of

Cattle Industry in Fundacl6n,

ana I present my. warm greet greetings
ings greetings to those Who have come
to this city, 4 and my-'best
wishes so : that their visit

should be' not only pleasant,

out also profitable for the in-

ar2

THE DOCKS OF SA?fTA MARTA'8 waterfront, constructed by the, firm of Cam- ,-,
penon Bernard Ltd. of Colombia durinr the administration of the. Armed Forces
and the terminal of the Atlantic Railroad which will unite Santa Marta with Bogo
a and the other cities. ,,. ,;

Latin Aaericaa industry. I sr
unin( a; mountain of mineral'
e. a layer of 20 thousand sail-; -lea
tons,! near the flowering i

aroductioa eeaUre f Cau,. Co-;

loatkia. :- '...

Coal -far coke, taken fr o m
what is beuevad to be the great-

'est supply center a an South

America, will supply eoke-mm-

jrry : steel plants in Argentina,
Brazil, and. Chile. Coke,' which
fa iadispensable for the prod uc.
' tioa ef steel, was imported from
pe 43nifed Siatei'and other
countries.
., -v -.'v ' a
Tie layer being mined along

the Andes mountain range south

, of .Call, is 'expected to supply
South American steel, plants

with enough coke- to fill their
veeds' and those of other mark

ets.' It is expected that produc produc-txtm
txtm produc-txtm -will reach one. thousand

tons- daily by the end of 1S5
' and production on a larger scale

is bejng.considered. ;.
' ; TJ.;S. industrialist Henry Kai

ter; during .a recent visit,- sug-

'x

:i

)

THE BARRANCA OIL REFINERY which is helping to solve the problem orsupplying;
refined petroleum. The importation of re fined oil has been notably reduced. saYlnit
jua expenditure' of .million of dollars annually. :::,,,.,-- :., t - A.

sesW a coal pice-line which' b foamed the soft coal Indus- repays the go v e r a m e n t. But company. The two-million pesoi

would cross" the Ander u :toM J&uuoa we mwiey is not jne oniy seea. ieu sieei pmui jiwtr sucuiju
tho modern Seaport ef BneM3,of't,layen of coaLjby the company. It also needs wj supply; of CoW. But Japan,
ventora-However .'the JaitfalThe fir jrecenfly finished bu workers and expert which is presently buying some

t will baS PUm m wtuch the coal u: administrators, ac c o J a 1 n g to 3,5W,ww tons annuauy irora am

Am a rA .f ttim mrs-f will

supplied by the; usual .means, 'washed: beore being eirt" oyione or its spokesmen.;'.,'' ; j ynneo suies,ris csusiuH-iog w
ceordlng to IndustrUi Bmlera'140 Buenaventura. The plant! Efforts to increase sales will; possibility of buying ,c6alrom
t!e-San Francisco,' (soft coal8 "Mced 8vernbe carried out almost exclusive-jColombia. Other countries : als
' industry.) the- firm-which eoa-ment land ownership "win be j!y outside of Colombia, accord- are considering the sSnje po,
. ... .... : Itinuil mw (n fh firm m7Kj.f1 il ino tn infrtrmll inn fritron. fin thjk clhilitv '. ...

.' rich lodes 'ry,'ffi.:.
"We have raihwaa' cars andl'
s w are krintinf iri 201 Italian

i miners to werk aUnt

leeai werkers in the minM'

. S)MktinaA ff er me,
, avany said. v .. ':vv,v;;"'--':

jThaJirm Is buuding a mile-

long tunnel aoo f a t under-

l?round, a. the heart, of tb e

mountain, to meet with a sec second
ond second tunnel from the other side.

The .coal veins are between five

1 and ten feet thick. These are
Nt horizontal ones like ii the

U.S- mines, instead they r u s
at 'an angle. For this reason
the firm is using machinery
. manufactured in Europe for the
' bteral type of eeal veins. ;

t Ail over the Cali region there
ant indications ,of the existence
vf rich layers- of eoal, Family

exploitatioa of hundreds of small

vines have supplied the needs
of local industrial and domestic
uses.' But -rarely have 'these
mines been bored more than
1M feet into the mountain. v,.
The government of Colombia

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THE OLYMPIC VILLAGs Akene of first rate sports events.,

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THE CAFITAL OF COLOMBIA is extending with amazing rapidly. Influenced by the Ttwesslt? to Impctt food' for its'.
Inhabitants who now number almost one million. This view shows that large buildings are springing up to the north'
oftb city also, making it an important continental metropolis. ; , -. ::.-.-? ; 4

- Churches In Colombia are governed by Archdioceses
(union of two or 'mare dioceses), Dioceses, Vicarates, Apos Apostolic
tolic Apostolic Prefectures and Nullius Prefectures and are independ independent
ent independent Jurisdictions in themselves and subject to the Pope of
Rome. r-;'- ;:,:: ":':
' Their territorial Jurisdiction resembles the political di division
vision division of the Departments, In Antioqula, Caldas, Cundina Cundina-marca,
marca, Cundina-marca, Vaile and Santander there are several jurisdictions
and In National Territories one for" several of them.
. The'r names'are:.
Arcndiocese of Bogota and Primate of Colombia

" ,'. i of -Cartagena
of Medellin
; tm. of Popayan'
ofManizales
Dioccst of Barranquina
of Santa Marts,

'of Monteria :,
at AnUoquia ,. ;
of Jerlco f f-of
of f-of 6ta, Rosa de Osos
of Pereira
of Armenia
of Call
of Pasta ; v
of Garzoiv
of Palmira

' of' jiedf Uln

ot Pgpayan

Diocese of Tunja

(Suffragan of Bogota)1

(Suffragan of Cartagena)

of Ibague
of Socorro and San Gil
of Nueva Pamplona
of Zipaqulra
of Bucaramanga v
f Dultama

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TOBACCO is one of the many sources of riches offered to Colombia, by nature. -Whilft
the tobacco Industry is 'being developed and modernized with amazlnjr ra rapidity,
pidity, rapidity, the quality of the- precious golden leaf keeps, improving on the tobacco-. ,
'plantations, ; ' '
In accordance with Informs- gation. After a careful study of .the principles followed herein

tion .supplied 'by Dr. Hernando!
" Salazar Maia, Minister of Ag

' i riculture, the Colombian gov gov-i'ernme4t
i'ernme4t gov-i'ernme4t l carrying out' an
V atuple program' of activities di di-f
f di-f rerted to amplify and improve
agricultural production In the
' country, In all of Its aspects. It
'. isMeemed that the cattle Indus.
. .-" try and. agriculture are the fun-
mental bases for the develop-

sjent of the national economy.
. In explaining the worK done
' up" lo the present in that respect,
' Pi"; Salazar Mejia stated that
j' thegovernment has created the
( Department ,oi invesugauon oi
I Cattle "Development, "which is
' 7 in charge of the studies neces
? tary for' increasing the basic
i cultivation and- the raising oi

s f catUe and poultry, This work is
' .,? being, done in experimental sta-
tions .and' improvements have
already been a 1 1 a I n e d. the

seeaa, ootamea are u greai ue ue-v
v ue-v mand. i There are three varie
ties of "frijol" which the farm
ers" prefer. There are several
, hybrid corn seeds for different
' zones, of cultivation; investiga
tons are being made in order
to obtain seeds which would be
appropriate for cold zones; dis
tribution is being made of the
new variety of "Bonza" seed,
and barley of the variety known

. as ""funza" has been well re
efived bt the farmers.

In so far as. refers Jo the, 1m.
provement of different breeds
' ef eattle -special care is being
taken. The Rockefeller Founda Foundation
tion Foundation hat sent .well known experts-to
visit the country, and
recommend the steps that must
. be taken in this kind of invest!'

namic

the different breeding zones in
the country aBd after consider-;
ing what is required, the com committee
mittee committee has prepared a report
which will be the basis for fu-

ture investigations in order : toltineni

improve the breeding of cattle,
poultry and pigs. '
AGRICULTURAL
CONFERENCE IN BOGOTA
More than 150 scientific men
from all countries of the
Unent, came to Bogota for the
Third Conference of Agricultur
al-Sciences which -met in June
last year. Those who attended
the conference and .who studied

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ag r i c u 1 1 a r a 1 investigation
reached t the. conclusion that
such investigations in Colombia
nave reached the most advanc advanced
ed advanced level in the American too
By reason of that conclusion
several Latin American t -countries,
, with- the cooperation of
the Rockefeller Foundation are
sending professional men to take

con-L'Pe.""1'0" eounet in the sta-

uons m tne Department u;ui
Agricultural. Investigations ,' i a
this country.
WORK IN'""
THE UNIVERSITY '
The Ministry-- of Agriculture
is considering' the -foundation of
an institute, for such pathoLjgi-J
cal investigations as are et-vi-tal
importance for- determining
cattle diseases: It has been con considered
sidered considered eonyenient that said institute-
should "work -along with
the Veterinary Faculty, 'se ;a
to coordinate its. work with that
the ISfatipnal Univeraity Be Be-'des,
'des, Be-'des, 'with the i cooperation-of
? Ml

jhe MicAigan Stata College and'
with funds innted by the Rock-,

(efellet Foundation, modern lab-
oratonei lor tnescnoois winne,
erected and technical assistance
will be fiven, so that Colom Colombian
bian Colombian professors will acquire
ample and useful knowledge in
these matters.
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' One hundred -and seventy five
scholarships were awarded this
year; by -the Ministry of Agri.
vulture' for agricultural engi engineering
neering engineering and veterinary studies.
AGRICULTURAL
f LAN -:
IXTINSION
This department, hu neea
.created for the purpose of show
ing to farm-hands the results of
the investigation carried out
In this connection a plan of ac action
tion action will be adopted for the pur pur-pise
pise pur-pise of coordinating the efforts
of, the Ministry with those of
other' institution's,-' and t hereby I
'obtain effective and ample re
mits.
'. Some of the. campaigns : for
extension studies are carried on
in accordance with plans pre previously
viously previously fixed by the Ministry of
Agriculture, the. Ministries of
I, JPubJic Health and. me Ministry
of Education. Plans et action
Jim been approved by those
Ministries in order to bring to
the man who. works the land,
knowledge which, would help him
to improve his way. of life and
enable him to obtain more ben
efits from his work. .There is
no doubt that the work tlone by
those Ministries will be very
beneficial to the C o 1 o ra hi a l
people. ,-. .- y.
PRACTICAL CAMPAIGN
' There are certain, prpllems
which confront the man', who
'works the land in Colombia, as
well is in other countries of A-
merica. The government is de
termined to carry, out cam
naigna for the purpose of solv
ing such problems in a practi practical
cal practical manner, in order t prevent
the ruin of agriculturists and
cattle men., Among juch cam
naigna it must be mentioned
that "excellent results have been
obtained in connection with the
plans adopted to theck soil e-
rcsion. This i Kllr4n defense
of. the family, of the children
hnd of the. future of the coun country.'
try.' country.' The campaigns Jor avoid avoiding
ing avoiding erosion, for -reforestation,
for .opposition to 'the, destruc
tion of the forests, are effective effectively
ly effectively preventing the. loss of the
-Tichesb jelemei?ts -ofwork. Ae-
4ivities of this nature nave neen
taken in different sections of
the ( country aa i ipermenent
commissions for .that; purpose
Jiave been' working sin' Santan Santan-derdel
derdel Santan-derdel orte' Ei:,VaJle j Cal-
..The.': Technical Agricultural
Service of Colombia rendered
jointly with the- United States,
has made important studies in
the Experimental Station of
Piedras B 1 a n c a s, Antioquia.
This station was enlarged for

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the purpose of obtaining an an-
nual production of 175.000.000

( trees which are freely djatirib-
utea. jsesiaes, reg uienons nave
len established for the protec
tion of hydrographie valleys of
Jleusa and Call. ; v
. There is also an effective
campaign to. control "rabia par par-siante",
siante", par-siante", which '.started in the
Department 'of Magdalena and,
it was. feared, might extend to
the rest of; Colombia. Happily,
the disease. was effectively con
trolled,.. with the help of the
Pan American Health Office.
J THI HELP OP
TELEVISION
. The Ministry of Agriculture is
carrying out work for the edu
cation of farmers by means of
television. The programs ire
multiplied constantly and an1 ef
fort is made so that the public
should 1m informed of the activ activities
ities activities carried' out by this branch
of the government.
. These programs are of great
service because agriculturists
and cattle-men ht this way ac acquire
quire acquire sound knowledge concern
ing different aspects of life 'in
the coflntry.'" -.
NATURAL RESOURCES
'The Ministry of Agriculture is
completing the work connected
with: a ; Code of Natural ; Re
sources which will be of spe special
cial special importance. A committee is
ftuding the draft of: the code
and within a short time it will
be presented for consideration
of the gdvernment,..The govern
ment has shown special interest
in increasing day by day the
number of land owners. For
that purpose titles are being
granted,, without cost tq the
grantees,. Large sections of
lands, as those of Theobromma
in the banana eountry of Mag
dalena,- have been granted to
occupants. In the same' way
studies have been made for .the
adjudication to occupants of the
fertile lands in Llanos. Orienta
lea.
INCREASE IN THE
PRODUCTION OF CATTLE i
, With the idea v of increasing
the production of cattle the gov
eminent has requested the In
ternational Bank, to -study the
existing conditions, as well as
the manner of increasing the
production. The report has been
delivered to" the authorities who
will make recommendations and
adopt adequate measures
lit order to assist the govern.
ment in its plans relating to ag agricultural
ricultural agricultural matters, th& Interna
.tional Bank has sent to Colora
bit an. expert who knows the
possibilities of the country; and
will study the recommendations
which have vbeen made by a
Special Commission.
THI COTTON f UNO
The Institute of "Fomento Al-
gtdonero" has increased the
cultivation of cotton The areas
under cultivation .of cotton are

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NEW TYPES OF COTTON with finer' and more-resistant fibers and richer seed are
being obtained through tho application of technical skill to, agricultural activities. v
This is another of the many aources throu gh which Colombia not onlv tries to nrovide'

euwuKii w urn own neeaa
larger than those devoted to
other yearly cultivations.' Be Be-I'des,
I'des, Be-I'des, the study of the soil in
tbesections in which cot,too
may be planted in Magdalena
andjLa fiuajira.haa been con
cluded,, and it is hoped that in
those sections the industry' will
reach soon, a level at least e-,
qualo that maintained in To To-lima:
lima: To-lima: M '-v
,. . i f. J.i. M:.
In order to increase the cul cultivation
tivation cultivation of cotton the govern government
ment government has fixed new prices in
accordance with the quality of
the yarn Besides,, it -provides
without f cost, insecticides; it
gives free advice to improve
production and new equipments
hpve, been installed' in Neiva,
Buga and Ambalema. -'
TOBACCO DEVELOPMENT
: The "Institute de F p m e p 1 0
TabaCalero j started its w p r k
last year: with the preparation
-of a tobacco tabulatioa, for the
purpose, of directing off a firm
basis activities in, this respect,
This wui render .valuable ; in.
formation on the different as
pects of the tobacco industry in
Colombian i
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' It has, established offices .in
severai production centers in or order
der order to attend. to all the techni
cal aspects connected with the
cultivation, the. distribution o f
teedsfthq -supplying information
di to the practices that must be
frllowed, as to sanitation, as
welLas (fertilizers', etc. Seeds of
new .varieties' of tobscco 1 are
being distributed; experiments
have been made with varieties
of other "types, and -other simi

mq
T
out iso enougn TO export.
lar work is being done, with the
hope of improving the quality
and quantity of production. ;
Besides,, the .Institute, has pur.-.
chased large properties for
planting, tooacco. anq has par
celled them ut -among fiultiitat'
tors. This has been, done in the
Department of BHyar. The culr
tivators, not only received par.
eels of land, but, also technical
and economic assistance for the
erection of the Improvement
they need. -Such a policy has in
view to improve the quality, of
the produce and the economic
and social' condition ot agricul agriculturists,
turists, agriculturists, it-
DEFENSE OF
"ft
.AGRICULTURAL. ri -S
slODUCTION '. ..U ;
''fir:-'?.- : lisKl?:.'Vi,i
The Corporation for, the De
; fense of Agricultural Production
is carrying out specially im important
portant important work '. in ; the- national
production. It' is Establishing si
los' for the purpose of protect,-,;

pro g

ing and conserving in an .ade-Jthe'

auate manner agriculturalpro
duce and also in order fo main'
tain stable. prices and ay old
fluctuations which, .sometimes!
ruin their owners and io others
feaclr immoderate levels, f:
i The: corporation ; purchases
rfce,' corn, wheat,"potatbea' and
other produce which are stored

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in the silos. In order to regulate
the price and the distribution of
commodities, a system, has been
adopted in, order to sell direct-ly.thrbjUgh-
the commissaries and
small private stores. j-
RlCkAND RANANAS
Int order -to-increase the ex
purtl the government has takes
kteps to extend, the banana plan,
tatloflj. I has been provided,
for insiahcC'to reimburse in
free dollar,4hB-:alue" of th
bananas exported. This measure
has extended the planting of the
fruit, which i fym increases
the exportation! to ,th Unitod
States and Europe. -In
so far! as refers to rice;
winch .is till asic foocj for the"
Colombian' people a plan ;i
being studied fqr the purpose of
making more efficient the task
of the Federacion Nacional dl
.Arroceros,' thus 'Increasing the
cuitivation of; "this grain, ira-"
pryvinjf its, Quality and, making
price more stable The Fed
oration hopes that in. the. near
fiifare the national production.
of rice will be ample' even for
4 .-- I, t, ; -. -.
export
; With that end in "view- differ different
ent different modes '.of cultivation are
being studied, so ai to -increase
production by giving (technical
issistance to. the farmers.; .'I
fW consider "that -the best
thing- is to amplify and .perfect
the plans we have 'established
IV-so stated Dr. HemandVSala-.
tar Meia, Minister pf.AgricuI pf.AgricuI-tdte,
tdte, pf.AgricuI-tdte, bechu.se such p I a n $
have .been prepared after ) a,
'conscientious study of the con-..
ditions and necessities of the
country.' It ji' essential, that we
dedicate ourselves to increase
production in the certainty, that
such an effort will contribute to
the- spiritual and material pro progress
gress progress of all Colombians.- Im Improvements
provements Improvements ; in agriculture will
contribute to advancement in
! other fields of hum an activities.
To find theway to fortify ajn- .V
culture ai i. hasis for' the dt dt-velopment
velopment dt-velopment of-the.; country, is
what we all must do, if we truly
wish to struggle for ? ideals,
which would permit us lo enjoy
ire wealth which the Supreme
! Creator has granted, to us.?. ;

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THE f AN A Ml AMERICAN AN INDITEXDENT EATIT VT?t?PAPFH

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the most interesting city in Colombia, has the best public services in Colombia.
- r We invite industrialists of the entire continent to visit us and to study the .
V ; ; possibility of operating here.
Cartagena de Indias: A 16th Century city with all the advances of modern civilization.

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CARTAGENA'S PUBLIC SERVICES

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THlJ 'BISTORICAL RICHNESS" ofc olooial architecture
laon f the iirtost outs tandinj features of this city,
; satrtd 'mith, tlje troma of : the. past. r Above the
ornate door-of Jcolonial edifice in. one of the typical v, .
v Cartejaa jstreets , ; "v

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HOTEL DEL CARIBE One or the most beautiful hotels in America, Is like paradise v
- hidden near the blue waves of Cartagena's marine panorama. Elegance, beauty, corn.
.' fort and splendor are marrelously combined here to five -an idea of what awaits

visitors to this beautuul corner oi voiomoia. :

PARTIAL VIEW OF THE PESCADORES PORT With beautiful ancient and modern buildings' as the backdrop the
mast and saUs of the boats in the harbor add a picturesque touch to the marine panorama of Cartagena de 4
India,. ; ..- ' ' v

Mofe del Caribe

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.-..;,' Cartagena, Colombia

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UA Corner of Paradise, at the Sea Shore"
Swimming Golf Fishing Dancing Casino
DAILY RATES
J (EUROPEAN PLAN)
. Lodging only, ,r ; ;
1 Rooms with a Viw of the BocagrandclRtsidentjial. Area
; One person Two' persons. Three persons
$22.00. ; ,: .$35.00 $50.00

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Cartagena has a

Luxurious

Gambling

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Visit Cartagena, one hour"-

v. '1

by plane: from Panama

the Salon Colonial of the Caribe Hotel, with : :

. . : iThe most beautiful night club in Colombia is ;

Rooms with a View of the Caribbean Sea-

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une person i wo persons i nree persons- -.i r---

. : nampi Kanrl and the best show in the Carih- 1

$25.00

$40.00

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$55.00

Luxury Suites ,: : .-x-

Kjiif. iirivni ... vvu Ull J ,.: 1 1 i i. ulijuiij. -. .

$50.00 $80.00 $100.00 v- ;

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Hoteles Escorial

' 1 ; Colombia's First Hotel Organization

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EflJOV. YOURSELF IN CARTAGENA AND

GET MORE FOR YOUR DOLLAR

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Cartagena a Historic Refa

Ernesto llanos lviarceio junenez

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MAYOR
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:lie- .democratic

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fc.The.foreign -policy f tht Jta.
-. public cof Colombia i Inspired
' ,m; the traditional ideas I of loy-i
-.alty- ti; the letter! and pirit; oi
x ' taeatids, to-which she is, a
partyy In. htr eminently ;xottiial
Jr mtiments 'shown in rhet reli reli-tJ:X
tJ:X reli-tJ:X Hons -.with friendly-nations eitlU
' dirtctly-, or through, th Or-'
gariifatieKjof tht A m er.i c a a

K' States iawi ,'Th United Nations,:

' Mi ittatwally,. said foreign pol-

Uhet vrinclei iha. has: adoptfcd
, lor ttet pacific -etUemnt (tf aji
n 1 "t wofflets it- waa, ;ttate4, Kb;
t?: ailllCferJbx 'Pf. .Eyariato.Soqif.;

V isk punster oi.r preign Aiwjrs
tB J?.epnbiie; p Colom bi.j; c ',
'Xvl 'WtitCsa) ivfia& taad

i J .Ministry of .Foreign; Air:hM
-f eoh tiautd to' request r the valu-
1 "aTie obperaUbn" b a aections

Jhatmatters'Berlainin to inte

s-kiftibiial "quAtions J aVe :no fp

v rm reiiriciea' 0 exclusive group
WevW fc i lingl poliHeal
- V 1 'thf'probleinof immigiratibn;
doear"Ot' "tterelyr involve r the"
bringing people1 fro m other
countries' to;: tiki part' of the
Colombian labor.'- In a country
like Colombia -where' there is
hardly untmployment-no im im-'
' im-' migrant should be brought' by
reasoh of the simple .criterium
cf trying to help the labor ques question,
tion, question, because such a policy
. would bring about unnecessary
1 a n 4 1 Inconvenient- competition

with'rthe people born ; in ouri
county., It would not be pos
sible to extend to a foreign im immigrant,
migrant, immigrant, because he is an Inv
migrant, a better standard of
living than that offered to our
workman. Our objective is far

mora' important, that is to ob
, tain: an improvement in our1 av

erage human .type, so that, our
citizen with more stamina,
more, initiative, more happiness
and a better conception of, or
der, and nabits,.eould fulfill the
program of realizations to which
Colomhia aspires, based on her

natural resources and other fa
' Torabk factors for the Colom-
bian people. ?' -"' 'h',r

."By means of a sound immi immigration,
gration, immigration, based on .what may be
called a noble admixture of ra
cisl elements, as above indicat
ed, it could be said that it would
have an educational element by
the example set up or the spirit
vf imitation which in all the as.
pects of life may be created
he it individual," or social
; which. good -immigrant may
bring with him. v
AIR TRANSPORTATION -. --
ACRECMiNT WITH THI U.S.
Mn so tar as refers to inter
national, transportation, the Min
istry has. given great impor
tance to the conversations on
a new aviation agreement be be-'tweeh
'tweeh be-'tweeh Colombia and (he United
States, : initiated in Bogota: on
Kcbruary .ast.-thif" year, he d d-pinion
pinion d-pinion of .the Ministry is based
ui of the advantage afforded by, j
on two cuiiSiuerauuns. iu wuci
Tfle privileged position 01 in e
cijuntrv, osoecially as to the
city of Bogota which should not

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cular transportationwhile

continue ioujsidei of the: acUyJVfnjfi'Our cbuntryj could, not

ties of ; the grea international
traffiq and also tq contribute
further to tbe, national efforts
oanfid) out in ..regard to civil
aviation,' Jfqr which we are Just Just-At0kt
At0kt Just-At0kt iNfRCY V" :'
"Due to the assistance of the
United States ( Government, Co
lombia wa ; the. first Latin A
meridian country to lake part in
the, study otnudear energy for
peaceful purposes.; Qur. Ambas
sador in Washington signed an
Agreement of Cooperation for
technical 'assistance by the Unit
ed States and set's forth the bas
es for the exploration of lands
whttfh' may contain Radioactive
minerals: and the training of
Colombian personnel who would
take-r charge of the- in vestigia
tions.fi Fob the implementation
of that Agreement The Rational
Commission of 'Atomic Energy
w( created sq that it would
lake, charge not only of the or-,
eanization of the work but. also
of, the' necessary studies,, espe especially
cially especially those Svh'ich may'help in
the advancement -of .medicine.
and "the development of agri
culture and industry.
TERRITORIAL WATERS vf.
'fff'the' sessions'; of, the Spe Specialize
cialize Specialize Conference held, at Ciu Ciu-dad
dad Ciu-dad Tnijiilb, certain resolutions
weris approved Regarding the
CuntinentalJPlatform. the Terrl Terrl-turialjW.aters
turialjW.aters Terrl-turialjW.aters and related; prob.
lems, ,, wtych, '.deal only; with
pointson .which afi the' Ameri American
can American Delegationswere' fulty in
"la 'ftt 4he. fact that Co-1
lumhia., iroted .in." favor of Ae
principal, proposition approved
by all the other American dele dele-gatioBsi:
gatioBsi: dele-gatioBsi: it" deemed advisable to
insiSrt,";bf 'way ': of reservation, i
a declaration to the effect that1
the concepts of 'territorial wa
tersV ;&e: submarine platform',
and : adjacent waters', especially
in regarxr to the defense .of ich ich-thyologiq
thyologiq ich-thyologiq Resources,- could, and
fhould, be .studied in the ight
of present scientific knowledge
which were not taken into ac-
cuuut wucu uiuar vuuccjiis wqio
regulated, in, accordance .with
he classic rviews then prevail-

- n
Q

IT)
U
Sjkvui'g or Vhlcfi robening
the, laat droves .of ?be5ta Of
iure. the fact that, speaking in
general ierms. the development
of n International; La w ji f very
slow and much more so-if such
development refers .to principles
so new as those connected with
the, continental platform and re
lated problems. For that rea.
vm Colombia e x p r e s s e d the
hope that future, efforts should
be made to provide for regula regulations
tions regulations appropriate 'to the rights
which should be' recognized to
countries bordering on the seas
SPECIAL FUND FOR THI -UNITED
NATIONS
"Within the plans for cooper
ation advanced in the United
Nations, it is, proper to draw
attention to the effort shown by
Colombia in creating Special
Fund for economic help to
countries which are' not suffi sufficiently
ciently sufficiently developed. In the course
of the Jast sessions of the Gen
eral Assembly a resolution was
adopted wi t h o U t reservations,
regarding the advisability o f
Treating this Fund. In the dis
.-ussions, Colombia took a firm
view through her delegate, Dr,
Ilisael Pastrana Barrero. Be
cause of that attitude Colombia
was elected by unanimous vote
as a member of the group of
16 countries for the purpose, of
making a study on the function
ing of the-Fund, the principal
object of which will be to ex
tend loans to under developed
countries, for programs of
works which do not yield an
immediate economic advantage,
such as hygiene, education,
colomria Abroad : ?
r. 7.,.,... j'., ,...-
"The jMimstry of Foreign Af
fairs, follows, through its Diplo
matic "and Consular representa
tives abroad, a systematic. pro pro-tram
tram pro-tram to focus attention on Co-
(t-mbian 'matters so as to fur-J
nish adequate information con concerning
cerning concerning the country in all of
the aspects of its economic and
cultural developments. To that
effect, besides appropriate ma material
terial material a 1 r e a d y in circulation,
there are being printed for dis distribution
tribution distribution in foreign lands ten
books on general information,
geography: history,;, literature

' A1
tor
' 't ... Iflr

4-
ihef wlrtfiodern Kehl-c
Jiurdeny hnd herds of cattltf

lg-.musjcJ:::pJs(Uc ; arts, etc.?; Writ-

ten by, specialists: nd. edited in
accordance with, the most mod modem
em modem 'meth00''b,O'';;;-;j';
"In j :thi$ sam connection
there has been distributed al
ready the first, 'volume, of the
Colombian. Anthology of Record Recorded
ed Recorded Music, a work, in which have
taken, part, well known Colom Colombian
bian Colombian ComDosers, who have co
operated with a high civic spir
it,. This .edition has deseryed at
home and abroad special praise
which has-been extended t,o
the Ministry by the Colombian
Association, of Composers.' These
measures of publicity will be
helpful not only to, our business
men but will also become an
important element, in the field
of immigration. '
THE PROBLEM OF -COMMUNISM
"I must ireiterate the firm po.

sition- of Colombia on the aidesense ofy responsibility and ofi'ombia, obtain

BOGOTA'S COMMERCIAL CENTER seen from the air Is mute evidence of, the growth
and modernization that has taken! place. (Picture taken from the itop 'of Mount
Mohserrato).'. 1

" . .-Rj! .'.') w t.ao t-a- I-r ; 5v3p
1 1 :- ,"o-vk'w-.i.."v;

BOS

99
ces.

of the forces of Democracy, hernational convenience- There Is

unawearing faitlf in the Chris-Ian

tian organization of the State, I part of. the government and of
and. her absolute rejectioh, in -very Colombian citizen to ex ex-accordance
accordance ex-accordance with thedoctrine of amine with the greatest atten-l

'he Catholic Church, of the phi phi-lusuphical
lusuphical phi-lusuphical solutions of commu communism
nism communism 'in' matters affecting" u:
man beings and coin munitter.
"This definite position cannot,
of course, place in suspense the
consideration of -certain aspects
ii international relations through
which, the- county could .find
a way to Improve- jts, econo economy
my economy but maintaining a autious
and, permanent, attention to the
effect of such rdatidni. 'Special
attention must be given" to the
manner in which certain na nations
tions nations who appear to be leaders
in the democratic field and-defenders
of the essential liber
ies established by Charter of
rate United Nations; ma Tn f a i n
diplomatic and commercial.' re relations
lations relations with communist c o U n-
tries, showing thereby that those
relations are based on conve
nience or necessity. We see that
such relations in the Old World
tend to Increase in quality and
importance. And it must also
be noted that in Latin America
several nations among the most
prosperous maintain relations
with those countries.
"The government will not;
permit that those relations or
the carrying out of economic
lnterehang e should beeom
within the country a danger dangerous
ous dangerous instrument of propaganda
i,t a means,, even though re
mote, of causing tension in the
commercial situation of Colom Colombia
bia Colombia with countries which have
been traditionally our fr i e n d s
and from whom we have deriv derived
ed derived benefits of different kinds.
this problem, it would be nec-j
tssary to make a detailed and
minute study of its different
phases, bearing in ,mind a high

...... : :. ' r ."

ition alongi?f

unavoidable obligation on the
'ion all possibilities of expan expansion
sion expansion of our economic means in
tifde 'to.' obtain through' pru-l
dent and legal methods' high!
standard of life for 'the Colom-;
bian workers in -" accordance
with -his .-necessities' and" hi
merits, v tJ ,' '.-,
CARDINAL Crlsant Luque,
Primate of Colombia, the first
Colombian-born Prince of the
Church, who has distinguish distinguished
ed distinguished himself by his dedication
and efficiency in his job of
spiritual leader of Colombian
Catholics.
THE RELIGIOUS QUESTION
"Some representatives of the
foreign press h a v intensified
during the last few months
their information and comments
on. the position of protestants
Jn Colombia for the purpose of
advancing the idea that we
have, here a certain prosecu prosecution;
tion; prosecution; against members of reli-
gions which are not catholic.
Constitution, the laws and the j
government, members of th e
jprotestant faith and in general!
nomcatholics could' HVe In: .'Co-!
their education
. "Ufl I
3
!
a

. if '"' U

f, v

'It' 1

j 1.
J I'':
I. s (
i 11
15'
2 '''
t
ft "--! ", rlii -ii f -r-iif-iiTiTi-i

v. w.:vaw, i,'..-';J5 r -s-.v---;-i--'.
; THE CISGA DARt isvanother .activity! whtrh-ha created
new sources of energy and fertility for the Immense re regions
gions regions ,of Colombia,, providing better living; and, working
'. A :kv r.'-e :"-f;-conditians,v1iK:', ?U -r. j

nd comply with'-the; precepts
of their faith, without: b e 1 ft g
subjected 'to; any trouble '-and,
on the cdntrary, withitf l-a-at;
mospherc! of liberty and toler tolerance.
ance. tolerance. -i '.
- "But, in the same way, I
must reiterate that our country
is not in any manner a field of
the -unfaithful, wherein protes protes-tant
tant protes-tant missions may have t task
to, fulfill. 1 The conditions pre prevailing
vailing prevailing and the dignity of the
nation present all the charac characteristics
teristics characteristics of r e 1 i g i o u s unity,
which is considered an essen
tial element for the integrity of
the country, and this is the cath catholic
olic catholic creed of the Colombian
people, in a ratio of more than
99 per cent, a ratio which has
not been doubted eve by the
members -.of the press which
Save taken up a campaign a
gainst the country.
"One thing is to practice i
religion' different from that of
the Catholic Church which is
dune under the protection of
me government ana in accor
t'ance with, our legal system,
throughout the national territory
and quite a different thing
is the aggressive c a m p a i g n
which certain non-catholic sects
carry out in the. country fully
aware that they should not do
so. It is in this, connection that
difficulties have arisen. n ac-
curdance with the Agreement
on Missions entered into with
!he Hoiy See;' the labor of misr
ions is reserved for the Cath.
olic Church. Therefore, those
who do not act in accordance
with that Agreement are vio violating
lating violating the law and also the as aspirations
pirations aspirations of the-nation.. It is
strange that acts of this nature
which are; against the catholic
unity of the : country should at attempt
tempt attempt to find support in mat matters
ters matters which are outside of reli religious
gious religious ..beliefs... :i p :jJ.l-J'
INTERNATIONAL T r; 1
REFERCUSSIONS.., C. ; ;
"It is impossible to Ignore
certain international -'repercussions
on the life of private in individuals.
dividuals. individuals. The fact,, is, that if
we examine the development of
a given foreign policy in the
cumestic life of its inhabitants
and Colombia is not an ex-.
ception to the rule it is easy

y i 1

U f
i f 4'
tiif" I'll 1IM 11 ill.
tu see thitvcertainrpo 1 1 1 1 e a 1
views car considerable Influ Influence
ence Influence mainly by; reason of the
m"uMipljcity ;and speed of mod mod-mh
mh mod-mh methods1 of propaganda. It
does not seem an exaggeration
to state that the life of a com
muhity depends now more than
ever and pi a greater degree
on foreign influence. ,' For the
Colombian citizens this is quit
clear. Recent events in our in internal
ternal internal politics find in a w a y
their explanation in the devel.
opment throughout the world of
two conflicting ideas: a the indi individual
vidual individual is brought up for service
tu the State, or the State is
enly a means to cooperate with
the individual for the realize-
Ition of temporal matters.
"Those of us who definitely
adhere to christian culture, can
not have doubts or hesitations
concerning these questions. But
it is also true that foreign ideo ideologies
logies ideologies in their effort' to univer universal
sal universal empire avail themselves ef
every incident arising from the
internal politics of other nations
to sow the seed of confusion
and disorder.
"In a deliberate manner I dt
nut wish to : enquire now Into
uch a disquieting factor. But
it would not be irrelevant to
point out that the propaganda
of philosophies and forms of
iife absolutely foreign to our
culture and to our way of living
may furnish ample explanation
for: the social and political dif-
fculties which we have lived in
the Jast few. years. It is neces necessary
sary necessary that all Colombians should
think of this aspect of our;
struggles in order to reach a
Surt of fraternal understanding
which, setting aside a n t a g o o-wsms
wsms o-wsms could bring us to clean'
politics, giving to this idea its
authentic, meaning, so that Co
lombia could al soon as pos sible
and vin ,a definite manner,
reach the ideals stated in its-;
coat of arms. -1 ; am a witness
' the sincere efforts made by
His Excellency the President ot
the Republic in order to reach
that ideal. I am very pleased,
tu recognize that fact in an ex express
press express manner." In this way the
Minister of foreign Affairs of -Colombia,
Dr. Sourdis c l'o s e d
his interview.

1



The Marvels of Colombia:

0

M
u y us
3 m

In Call nobody stays home in
bed to read- Cali is "The mar-

n Lights '- off frequently, in
Calij" Electric current is .very
intermittent because of tfie ex ex-eessiv,,load
eessiv,,load ex-eessiv,,load on the generating
rlant cnmethintf whirh h A

1 1 r o
V been going on for the last five
years and, whicVwill Hive to go
on happening for the next pve,

without muah hopejof the situa situation
tion situation getting any better in 1 the
following ten years.
Cali is a new-born city in one
of the richest valleys in t h e
world and no one can estimate
where its progress will end, if
ever it does come to an 'end.
Hundreds of men and women
' are spending millions of dollars
i for its progress. They are, build build-1
1 build-1 teg nydro-eleetac plants, widen,
'ing rivers, dredging canals 'and
dryingoutt swamps to develop
even more his M-mile long,
30-mile wide valley.
Cali lies on the banks of the
Caupa river, whicjv. 4s horn in

' the high Andes, neac Ecuador,

an runs inonm unui a empties
!ntovlh Caribbean Sea. Along
; part of its course, the river
winds itself; between the middle
and eastern mountains of the
Andes through lands whose rich richness
ness richness make experts marvel at Us
possibilities. v '
Some Hawaiian s u g a r cane
growers who visited Cali during
a world tour exclaimed:
V'This is Incredfbler JWeVe
never seen land like this in any
part of the world, with such nat natural
ural natural fertility, like in the Cauca
river valley." r
Colombian businessmen in' Ca

ll invited David XUlienthal,' the
former director of the' Tennes-

MORE THAN 5,000 persons have found comfortable low
block of fdarlng buildings which help to solve' the middle

b
I,
'1

THE BEAUTIFUL TOTA LAKE in the east, Is onewf the enchanting spotanature has bestowed on Colombia for the
ntertainment of both natives and visitors.'

see Valley Authority, to "-make
a plan for the development of
the, region. Lillienthal came,
toured the' region,1 examined the
land and .thejri commented:
"This $ the richest lapd tfhave'
e'seen;,.'iv4pv : f,
: In the areas surrounding Call,
three crops a year is a common

!ceiirren4e. Airy plant which
dies, not. giva4 two crops- 'is up up-footed
footed up-footed afi turned. Cattle, gets
fat and becomes covered- with a
soft hide, on the grass of the
Cauca River Valley," just like
the cattle on the richest ranches
of Iowa. ; :,' ;
Ten year ago, there were
only two business edifices with
several floors. Cali's business
center today resembles Detroit
r NashvQe,iConrf)iqing th bet bet-tier
tier bet-tier parts ufcTjotB-cjtieii. -3
a: v
'for innumerable'cejjturies, the
rich Cauca River has formed
its bed along the slopes of the
Andes and has deposited iitt
rich mire intpthevalley. Agro Agronomists
nomists Agronomists believefthis good, black
Mrt$ has a-tdepth of 3ft feet in
tome; places! Jnd never), less
than ten feet. It is deeper and
richer than the most fertile
lands of Iowa or Lancaster
County in Pennsylvania.
The residents of Cali do not
exactly "hustle about the streets,
but they don't loaf either de despite1
spite1 despite1 thexbot. Sun whkh shines
tioiti -EquatorV Every Everybody.
body. Everybody. is-'WibucytjO build,
nsta;to-'. redpfor, -'tomanu
teddre.-spnttjuig. ,.'
i American'tapjtalrimg through
he Caucaivap Valleyke the
t)de; Between 80 and 85 per cent
of all American capital invested
r

IT

s.

2n.
'IS.

CALI FROM THE, AIR shows a "majestic perspective i of
Hth whir.! r'aii mri .th nt.im Tiaiipv rpirimvJs -srowlne

'blans and. foreigners alike,'.

mlColQiiA.t-aas-l:bee1i ; Jpintf toxinr new laws of 'the-country al-.

this region, v " t -
Colombia- is well awar. that
foreign Capital' is necessary to
help rebuild the country.' In rec-.
iprocity for' the loans received,
cost housing In the Antonio
class" housing problem.-
'Or
i

, '. '..'.''',,,

Iojws hot only the dividends from
these investments to, be-sent a-
broad,' l)ut-also-the capital it itself.
self. itself. But no industry which, has
been set up In The. VaHty has
4
7"
Narifio Center, In Bogota, a
' a r
t
a-

modern city repletet with promising posslbllltles.The speed
Is the-subject of amazement .and admiration .lor. Colom-

: 1
found U necessary to pack up
and move to another region,
The first factories to be set
up had to supply their own pow
er with Diesel generators. But
thi was not permanent. G o v
Diego Garcea saw the need for
a vast plan of general expan
sion and called on Mr. Lillienth
al, This was born the Co
thai. Thus was born the Corpo Corpo-racion
racion Corpo-racion del Valle del Cauca (Cau.
ca Valley Authority), generally
called the CVCr and the man in
the 'street now attributes almost
every bit of progress in the re-:
gion however small,t and every
change to take place, to the Lil Lillienthal
lienthal Lillienthal Plan a
CVC engineers,- most of them
Americans, have planned a gi
gantie electrical power, project
for the" whole valley, based on
network of hydro-electric plants.
The first power station, now be
irg built on the Anchlcay a Riv
er, has already covered 60 per
cent of its full capacity. Other
stations to be built will be at
Salvajina, Timba and Colima.
There are one million miles of
level land in the Valley, but
frequently, when the river rises,
the lowlands arejDooded. Conse
quently; CVC plans to dredge,
widen and straighten the course
of the river. This' wQl not only
permit a better control over the
current, but, through the drying
outo f the swamps and inunda
led 1 a n d s,: also; will provide
ume 30,000 acres more of land
for cultivation to be adde dto
potentiatilities of the soil. '
Industrial explorers are hope
ful tnat this electrical power
oroject will be completed ; in
five years and the widening of
the river in seven years. Thus,
maximum utilization of t h e
land will be obtained In 30 years.
In addition, as an extra divi
dend the dams for the four
hydro-electric plants will supply
water for four large lakes for
recreational purposes.
Of course, this is a fantastic
d earn. All S o u t h f America,
fram Caracas to Buenos Aires,
is awaiting these transforma.
tons which -are constantly
changing the face of the valley.
u Laun America looks upon
the CVC as the pilot plan by
neans of which the continent
will attain prosperity and opu
lence. The way the plan is go
ing, it represents an example
(or he other American nations
are avidly searching for their
own "Cauca Valley" within their
boundaries.
mis writer nas nact tne op
portunity of visiting some very
prosperous cities. But the af
mosphere of enthusiasm and ex-
cUemeot over progress and
growth is more pronounced in
Call than anywhere else, proba
bly aside from the uranium
mining camps.
In the center of. Cali is 'the
comfortable "El Alferea Real"

1)

' . ,''
Hotel, which is a place of; un
believable contrasts. During the
evening hours beautifully dress
ed' women dance ;with' their
beaiis to music from the Hilda
Bryari orcheStraJ T h 'dresses
they' wear come from Paris and
Fifth- Avenue) The music Is right
out of' TiriPans Alley:
Rubbing shoulders' with t K e
hotel guests can be seen khaki-
clad men, wearing helmets and
work coats. While they "ire5
joying ihe, fruits Of their labor,
others ire seeking riches 'in the
interior of the region, Jmilding
gigantic, dams or opemng'coal,
gold, emeraia or otcer mines.
The city and the nrhole valley
is1 teeming with people w h o
have made't h m i e 1 r e t rich
merely by- guiding their-desires
for advehture toward; the Cauca
River Valley. For' countless gen
erations, their flocks grazed on
the green' prairies' pf the Cauca
Valley?- S,"...,6V.
Today,4 with.' tie increase, of
the population, 'the' government
2a'study1nK.''7Powi,t:r
those fertile lands which can
produce corn, rice, p o t a t o e a,
wheat and: vegetable to ; feed
hundreds of thousands : of fami families,
lies, families, now being used" only? to
crate a few cbws'foir one or two
families
The big hacieridai will come
to an end. It la not a matter of
socialism or of expropriation, it
is just a simple economic, mea
sure bated on mathematical
logic;1 This can bring about bet
ter living conditions for mil
lions, a frantic Increase ;K the
sales of farm machinery and of
equipment to process foods and
the metamorphosis of an entire entirely
ly entirely rural hife towards a" rural-
urban life
! The first signs of change are
beginning to be felt in Call. The
q.Q rea-rooiea nouses are vegw
ning to disappear to make' room
for modern dwellings with more
colorful roofs. Some of the nar
row streets are disappearing al
so, to' make room for wider av avenues
enues avenues suitable" for JBuicks, Dodg
es and Fords,
, The railroad itself has the' ap
pearance of something from
Walt Disney movie, but t b e
new terminal station,' built at the
cost of several million pesos, is
as modern and as luxurious as
the best one built in the United
States in the last decade. Every
where you look there are1, new
buildings; Around the plaza, in
the center of the city, skyscrap
er office buildings are being
built.' 1
All visitors, Including Ameri
cans,5 look at 'these' buildings
with amazement. The owners of
tbe new houses in Cali seem to
be bent on changing the, "resi
dential district as drastically as
possible the design' or' the
style is never too original or too
rare for the happy, light-heart

ed "CalcSos"... .

NEW RAILROAD PLAN :
READY FOR MAGDALENA

BAKftAWL-A, juiy iaoo 1IU5
small but noisy fity on the
banks of th Magdalena river,
is the scene of activities which
will' determine the future of
Colombia.. The most important
region in oil production is locat
ed within an area of 50 miles.
. At present there are s o m e
1500 oil wells' in operation and
oil exploration crews' are rapid
ty spreading out over' the area
The large Intercol Refinery, a
subsidiary of Esso Standard, is
located in this area. And if Cit Cities
ies Cities Service finds oil in sufficient
quantity, it too will set up its
own refinery Cities Service re recently
cently recently received a concession to
explore the jungles south of this
The next project being under
taken here deals with' transpor
tation. For. almost 400 years,
the 1000-mile Magdalena river,
hat been the ; principal means
of cargo transportation between
the Caribbean, cities like Carta Cartage
ge Cartage n a, Barranquilla and the
.ountry's capital, Bogota. As the
crow flies, Bogota is 550 miles
away from the Caribbean cities.
When the level of river is
normal, shipments from Barran
quilla, for example, can reach
Puerto Saigas- a rail terminal
from Bogota along the Mag
dalena itself in about ten days.
But when the river drops, the
huee tugs and barges loaded
with merchandise can lake as
long m two months td. reach k
port oJ debarkation. The same
thing can be said of travel in
the opposite direction. r
Consequently, to avoid t h e t e
long, delays a large portion of
Colombia'!, exports and imports
take the" Pacific route through
the port of Buenaventura. From
here merchandise is sent to the
interior of the country: by rail
or by road. This situation has
caused serious congestion at the
port of Buenaventura and at
key railroad or highway cen centers.
ters. centers. In a d d 1 1 i o n, the high
freight rates which these condi
tions impose tend to limit ex
ports of costly items and thus
hinders business and progress
throughout the entire country'-;
The Atlantic Railroad, as the
Colombian Ministry of Pub 1 1 c
Works calls its new cargo route;
will remedy, this situation. For,
the first time the railroad will
be an uninterrupted means of
transportation between, the Car
ibbean porta and the now-booming
Interior regions of the re republic,
public, republic, of which Bogota is the
center,::' K;-'-:"r 4''.y'f.
These high regions, divided by
three branches of the Andes
mountain range, are within 3,000
and 8,000 feet above sea level.
Comprising only about one-fifth
of Colombian territory tome
440,000 square miles,' an area
larger than the Northwest of
iWU.SI from Colorado to the
Pacific these .area's have 8
per cent of the total' population,
presently estimated at close to
14.000,000' inhabitants,
.. ...
Colombian cities w 1 1 h the
greatest growth are to be "found
in this,, region as well, as' its
most important industrial and
agricultural zones, which enjoy
a temperate but energizing cli
mate throughout 'the year and
is geographically compared with
many of the, mountainous re
gions of the .United Stales and
Canada. This region, which is
also favored with havinfl sever
al American in d u s t i i e s, will
probably derive the most ben
efit from the" new, rail line.. It
already has 1,816 miles of rail
lines connecting with the most
important interior towns, like
Cali, Medellin and B6gota, and
extends in all directions to
wards the rich and still unex unex-ploited
ploited unex-ploited agricultural and mineral
regions.

When these areas, are indus

trialized .and developed in oth- ,,
er ways through. the rtimulur,
uf the Atlantic Railroad, it. is
expected that the resurgence of
the less-populated areas is sure
tu-jresult,-' v
VAt present, a' trail has been
opened in "the jungle along the
Magdalena River "rom Puerto
Calgary up to, the nearest point
ten miles south of Barranca: a ;
dUtance iof 146 miles. One group '-of
of '-of Colombian; contractors just
completing the' rigging of tev.
eral of "the first bridges to be
hungT'Dver the tributaries j of .-'
tbe Magdalena. t V.
It, is Important to point out
that -although the .railway line
follows the course of the Mag Magdalena
dalena Magdalena for approximately half
he djstancewbetween Puerto
Salgar and3arranca, further
on from Puerto Berrio the rail
.'ines take routes: far' away
from -the- Magdalena to avoid
i areas which are alwaya
flodded and swampy during the
rainy season. And at one point
above Gamarra 250 miles
ndrth of Puerto Salgar the
rail lines totally abandon the
course of -the Magdalena to a a-void'
void' a-void' the muddy areaa which
bordervthe river for a distance
ofOO'mneSk'Despitt. this,' torn
40 b'ridgesi will b needed along
sofne 46CrUes of the new route,
and some ol4haTirkHiar-t
W lOOO feet long'T
'. Here in Barranca, where the
skin f a jaguar (which bringa. :
to"' mm? the virgin' junglei to
i flound ,in certain regions of
Colombia) occasionally hangs in
stores, the job ef getting .the.
route ready' for the, rails is be
ing carried out under the super
vision of the Madigan Hyland
Corporation,' engineer's who spe,
cialize" in this kind pi worKi Gi Giant
ant Giant bulldozers cut down -and
level the dense vegetation. Be-
hind them come the.'giant earth
movers, the men, with macht-!
tea,, shovels and the rest of the
equipment, t. ;.,( ,? ;
Some 600 men are being used,
on the job of making embank-,
ments, a task, which i being
accomplished at the rate of one
kilometer a month at a cost of
approximately $350,000 per kilo-,
meter:, The job .began Jn 1953. '.
A terminal la, planned for Fun-t
dacion, tome 35 miles from the-,
Caribbean coast, where there ia i
a local rail line already. The
Atlantic Railroad is expected to
be in complete operation by
The local train runs- f romv
Fundacion to Puerto del -Carl.
be Santa Marta To connect
'Barranquilla with the"1 Bogota'
Railroad, the Ministry1 of Public ",
Works is now ; completing .the
construction 'of an autobahn be
tween Barranquilla and Ciensga,
which ii the port' of embarka-
tion 'for the railroad between 1
Santa Marta and Fundacion.
. The'.Madigan Hyland Corp. 1
recently made a study which
estimates that the railroad a a-long
long a-long the, Magdalena River will
increase the annual income from
railroads by almost 33 per cent.
According to the Ministry of
Public Works, the Colombian
government hat spent up to
vow one hundred million pesos
' about' $40,000,000 L on the
construction 'of that Railroad.
Tbe World Bank has loaned Co Colombia
lombia Colombia 125,000,000. and has alj
ready approved $16,000,000 more.
The Magdalena Valley Raik
road, as this gigantic project it
also called, was one of the first
development projects for an A-
merican country presented t o
the World Bank for study when
it was founded in 1945, '-'

....

si



WSAMA, JULY ; V 1556

' TS1 PANAMA AMXSICAX AN EEEFXDEXT DAILY NEWSPAPER;
11
Sdf'AufflrisJwf
. j i
ai faA iu paulih
foi' Colombia

- at -v. -

"the ; VASiSuKiDiE RGRiiWIjMis of
COLOMBIA WT THE SERVICE iifiliiTION"
; lo$k& ,.-v --
- S tfF CART AG EM A. kEEIt-M FULLY

-: '"wji. I J11"', r-

Vt i vf 1 v v -v -. v

SUPPLIES THE COUNTRY

' "Th Ministry of Mines and
Petroleum of the Republic of

Colombia is, without doubt, one

of the department of great im

portance for the future of the
country. It must be borne In

mind that there' aa Immense
wealth to be found in the subsoil

which practically every day
fives new and extraordinary

revelation which promise a fu future
ture future of permanent growth for

the welfare of the people..

o "Under the direction of Dr,

' Felix Garcia Kamirez, the Min

later,'; the department ha ear

tied out a great. task, as may
5 bfen aeen by the brief resume
I hich follows as given by said

UAii6tiiioi council'

;t.TbJ technical and consulting
organization was established in
1954 and its member are men
of the greatest ability who are
ieeialist in the matter With
which they are concerned. It

hts made a complete revision

of the rate applicable for oil-

duct r it hs studied the provi

buns contained in the-contracts

of eleven companies which ap applied
plied applied for concessions for explo

rations iqd exploitation of oil;

.It ha expressed opinions in, an

measures-dealing with the ex

plorations, exploitations and ne

gtiations concerning oil and it

by-products, and it has prepar

ed a draft of the, decree where whereby
by whereby the statu of the lands,' sub

ject to concession which were
kbandoned before the period for

exploitation had started to run,

as. well as the areas on which

applications have been made,

but the applicants did not sign

the respective concessions with-

.in the term fixed. by the law.

That decree does not ignore nor

' violates Vested right of eon eon-3
3 eon-3 cenis established in the coun

try, inasmuch is its provisions

refer specifically to the lands

which have been abandoned
and on which the enterprises
referred to have, declared that

they haye, no interest thereon.

Speaking in general terms,: the

cbject in view Is that the con

cessionaires should either con
;;nue the work, or make it pos

tille for a new applicant (o car carry
ry carry it out in accordance with the
law. Besides, it is considered
that it is Just and equitable that

the country should receive the

benefits which are due by rea

son of the exclusive right which
was originally granted involving

large areas which at the pres.
nit time are abandoned with

cut any yield to the State."

"At the; present, time there
are pending 279 applications for

exploration a n d exploitation,

which cover the enormous fig

ure of 15.t01.6M hectares. If to

this is added an area of 3.150.

000 hectares, which are granted
hy reason of 60 contracts which
are in force,' we have almost
19.000.000 hectares which may

be subject to such explorations

and exploitations. ....

"The above shows that by
reason of the incentives offered

to the oil Industry In the amend

ment of the law, the persons
who are interested have increas

ed their applications for con

cessions, so that at the present

lime almost the entire, area

which potentially may have oil

has been covered. At the pres

ent time there are new con

cerns which wish to invest large

amount of money in explora

tlons. v

As the purpose and the splr

it" of the decree is to speed up
the exploration and avoid un

justified acts f or establishing

reservations by certain compa

n'es, the government has made
if known that in the concessions
of lands which have reverted to
the nation, preference shall be

given to the offers Which con

cam the most attractive pro program
gram program for explorations and the

greater investment for the de.

velopment of the respective a

reas, there being no intention

of establishing discrimination a

gainst any person whatever who

may wish to work in Colombia

in the discovery and exploits

lion of oil fields.

"During the last year the

Ministry received 34 a p p 1 i c a

tiuns. In the year, before they

were 59. Only 21 were accepted,

During the last month 9 appli

cations were made. New con

tracts were signed so that there

are 57 at the present time. 10

of these are for exploitation and

47 are for exploration.

'.'In so far as refers to conces

sions for exploitation the follow

ing facts may be mentioned:

in the Mares Concession the

Empresa Colomblana de Petro-

leos, with new drilling, ha a
production of more than 30.000

barrels per day; the Yondo Con

cession his maintained it pro production
duction production at 34.000. barrel per

day;, in the Bareo Concession
the Colombian Petroleum Com

pany has carried out studies for

using natural, gas in its wells,

in order to .inject it into the oil

deposits, to, as to avoid waste
and obtain a better' production
of oil; the 'San Pablo Conces.

sibn st t a r t e d the exploitation
with two well which are yield yielding
ing yielding a daily production of 3.000
barrels; the Aguachica and To-

tjmal Concessions,' belonging to

Ipternational Petroleum in the

t r- 1 i 3 " . t
Tl fTT T -in n ii- -in m i 'ninii turr ii.mm inin ,imim m univ i if in -....- v . t..

THE CAUCA VALLEY seen from the air shows the rapid and tremendous progress
that eaiv be- accomDlished by a people de trmined to reach the heights of civilization
throuRh the adequate exploitation of their; vast natural resource ', -, ,n-s ... f

Department of Magdalena, have

started, the exploitation; the in

crease in production in Guagua-

lui-Teran, in Boyaca, belonging

to the Texas Petroleum, -has
been remarkable from I.00Q
barrels a day it reaches 24.000

This company ha made use of

the oil-duct for exporting 1.275.
400 barrels representing a value
of 3.071.668.99 titM. y,-)

"Explorations have started by

means of drilling in the fields

covered by concessions in El

Llmon, Santander; in Las Mer

cedes, in the North; in Lebrija,
Magdalena; in Chagui, Nafiiio,

and in Floresanto, C o r i b a

Drillings will begin shortly in

the concessions of Cicucu, Boli Bolivar
var Bolivar and in Sampues, Cordoba.

"The production of crude oil

was in excess of 41.000.000 bar-:

.-els, which ; represents' 'an In Increase
crease Increase of more than. 5.000.000

compared with the p r e v i o u s

year. More than 14.000.000 bar

rels of crude oil were treated
in the refineries of the country,

and more than 26.000.000 bar

rel were exported, representing
63 000.000 pesos. Due to the in

crease of production of refined
oil it has been possible to use
7C per cent of the oil consumed

in the country, but it ir Acces

sary to import about so per cent.

The new refinery" in Cartagena
will cover this deficiency, in the
Itcal requirement .(; f ;'i

"The. preliminary installations

for the refinery in Cartagena

have been practically completed

and very soon it will be ready

f.r operation.1 The wharfs' and

docks are ready lor-unloading

the; heavy machinery and soon
the construction of warehouses

and workshop will" be, ready.

The greater; portion, of; the v r
quipment necessary has. b e e n
ordered and part of it has al

ready reached Cartagena.; This

refinery' win have a Capacity
for 26.000 barrels per day. ;

"In so far as refer to oil-

duct the following are tte most

important facts: the oil-ducts of ra electric plant wilV be ready

Velasquez Galan is already

with : capacity of 30.000 bar

rels a day; the pumping from

Ruenaventura.Yumbo has. start-

ed. In this way the oU imported

through the Port of Buenaven

turf for. the western section of

Colombia win be carried; it has

a capacity of 25.000 barrels pef

nay ana snan oe usea as soon
4s the refinery in Cartagena is

completed and then the impor

tation will be stopped. Besides,

the studies for the oil-duct be.
'.ween Barranca and B u c a r a

manga were completed and the
respective contracts v were ap approved;
proved; approved; the Department of Cun-

dinamarca contracted the I n n-crease
crease n-crease of the oil-duct in order

U have it with a capacity of

12000 barrels per day .in the
first place, and later to 22.500,

rt a cost of 1147.500 pesos.

-'The royalties received by

the National Government during
the last year amounted to more

than 11.000.000 pesos; the taxes

for oil-ducts yielded 737.000 pe

so and the rental for space,

1.300.000, pesos.' The number of

persons occupied in this' indus

try was 12.700 who had In aveiM

age. "salary, 'of 13.7f neio, each

f'.aayA:,l,.VfVr;.-;;i'i

BMPRISA COLOMIIANA'X :

DI pttitpi,ios sVjS''jrcV

fin order -to Improve its pro-

consumption, the. enterprise .has
drilled 24'pev weUs and made

contract for the injection of

water in the' areas of La Cira

and Infantas: It has been es

timated that the structur alone

jn La Cira ha an approximate

reserve of. 142.000.000 barrels,

and the, exploitation orit. wiU,

..VDuej t? tte .increase (a ja

consuption, the enterprise h a
nude' studies for reconditioning

:is plant for ga in El Centra,

io as to increase Its' production,

it being estimated that the in.
crease will be .in 70 'per' cent,
lit January of next jrear 'aVmod-

fcr operation at a cost of 4.000.
000 pesos; -kt'irt'.H:h
. ''Thie. n?w refinery with v a

capacity 'of 37JW0, "barrets'per.necessary for the analysis and

day will -mean a saving for' OieJ'jtudy of prime materials which
country; of 43.000.ooo dollarsarmay serve for the production of
year in exchange rtt, due to, nuclear .onergyi-ift ha already
the great volume of the prod- done service in connection with
nets which win be refined, so the; analysis of uranium. With-

mat u would not oe necessary i m a thort time w snail nave

to import oil.. : V:"''':1

'Empresa Colombians de Pe

troleo' has established a school

it order to prepare in the trade
the children of its employee,

wherein all, the courses requir required
ed required for- theVindustry W 1 1 1 pei

faughU Thia enterprise at the

present time is carrying' out the

education .of 1.405 boys. In so

far as refers to taiytary mat matters
ters matters and hospitalization thi, en

terprise ;h a "-everything 'that

(jouio ne oopea ior ju we pres

ent time 5-418 persons receive

attention including in, that fig

ure workmen and their fami-

lies'; as .well as 1-163 agricultur

ists who live in the lands.. More

over in .cooperation with, Banco

Popular the enterprise is build building
ing building in Barrancabermeja a -sec-

iiveopportunitles to AsVem-

pjbyljsj: to luVith9wm
dences? '( KtrO a'g k a bnlicill

method of, loaB.,..i v

Reside, Empresa Colombia

ns de Petroleos granted last

year half a million; pesos to the
OU Faculty in the Ihdustril U U-niverity
niverity U-niverity of Santander, an4 has
ranted cholarsWps. .for more
than tt.oof -ipe'sor to. th 'Minis
try of Mines and ftfiroletim .for
the preparation of 'technicians in
hp (Jifftreoi rincfiej -of the
mining. anl,,oii industries, il pt,
which. wijl-' i vet he.advantage

If having,' within a short, time,

sufficient number, of .expert in
wW'matters.j:'.,tiH'i'i.''i.v:
OiyiSJOM OF MINIS x' 7' jr

f'The' government has entered

itio a Contract with Enterprise

Mining Corporation -for the ex-

ifploitation uf mine In Marmato.'
j It is hoped that y It hi six

months the machinery shall ba
Listalled, ready fof- exploitation

"The. salt mining exploitation,
which sipce. 1932 is managed by
CI Banco de la Republicayield

a net profit during the fast

year of 7.148.146.90 pesos.
"The exploitation of the em emerald
erald emerald mines' in Muzo and Cos'

tuez has 'continued through El

Banca- de Kepublica. T h
debt due by. the government to

,th .,bhk in this respect was

diminished, during, the year te
the extent of 305.720 pesos. 1
RAOIOACTIV1 MIMfRALI1
"A 'deeree has been issued
regulating: the discovery, t h e
exploitation and distribution of
radioactive substances'.. It has
teen decreed 'that the deposits
'.f WanlumradiumVforium and
other -substances, the ; desinte
jration of which may product
ktomic energy, ; belong to the

nation and shaU ; be exploited
directly by the government or
by virtue of contracts entered
into in accordance, wjth the reg regulations
ulations regulations established, in the de."

eree.i' rv.' tiU'.ln i .
NATIONAL CHIMICAL : t
tAlOMTORy ; .; ,-' :it :,

This laboratory has already

acquired a considerable portion -of
its equipment which -will-be

imported other equipment need-'

ed for the laboratory, n order
to-, renderr the most, important
services c p n n c t e A wiUithe
peaceful, use of nuclear energy.
MJAU,, '..,'., ';.;.;
"yood .results have been.ob been.ob-tiiaed
tiiaed been.ob-tiiaed jhthi new pU'nt'-ncent-

y Acquired for the, assaying of
Fietals. Important jtudies .have
been" made wijhregkrd ,tpf cop copper,'
per,' copper,' tine and manganese.' The
'abbfatory has rendered services
of great importance io official ,'
and private Student : With i re regard,
gard, regard, to fertilizer, coals,' win win-ra1,i
ra1,i win-ra1,i water, iugar, textiles,
paper,' tttve.&r.. ';
. J'.The' laboratory 5 Ja equipped
with modern instrument and it
u) managed by well-known ex ex-pert..
pert.. ex-pert.. In the opinion -of a fa famous
mous famous foreign technician,' there
in no! othef department which
fould be of more -value and
mure helpful in the -develop- t
ment M Colombia.': ".

CONCIUSION-V: -w'' 1

"The : above- i onlyia brief

ketch of the great task which
the Ministry-of Hints and Pe
troleum ha carried' out during
'hk latt year. The Wealth of the
Colombian subsoil is taormou.
'fhe exploration has, only sUrt-'
ed in the tremendous .' natural
possibilities which' when exploit.
ed win convert thl ;eointry in
one of. tK reachest 'nations' of

the New World as is ahowa by

the grert speed at which, the
material and cultural develop.

ment in aU sections of the coun-

try ", are visible. Thi -is so that
even Colombian themselves are

surprised at such development. '-

i
'A
f
.
I
t
i
ii,
I1
ir



flZT TOVKTTES

THE PANAMA AMERICAN AN INDEPENDENT CA7IT NEWSPATZS

PANAMA, JttT tl, ml

EDUCATING THE FAMILY TO BUILD UP; THE COUNTRY

In accordance with the. Opi-way rit- sees that 70 parrochial

"V,

nm of the Minister of .Educa .Education,
tion, .Education, Dr. G a b ri e 1 Betancourt
Mejiat the- activities carried out
in 'Colombia! in connection with
dutation are based' in the fol.
lowing 'statement made by the
Chief of Stated Tor this-government,'
education- must be in
f tit' respect essentially catholic

and bolivarian. The individual
J ,...-. .: . '
a 111 i ...

u dc lormea wm a aeep ao ao-tial
tial ao-tial sense and with a true' na national
tional national spirit. It is-necessary to
Mtate' him Jove1 his countrynien
had to instill a -deep sense bi co."
operation. The ends of education
' ahould be not So much to five
Instruction, but 'to form citizens
who fear God and should have
discipline in seeking (truth, .and
tecocniiins; error and who will
fi&Ul in a noble manner their
bligations vasVmembers' of the
a
fatherland;, of a community and
ef n'famijy." f
, t .. f t
Wjth a iview.to have the ne necessary
cessary necessary means for the develop development
ment development oC an intense. and ample

program of education, this gov

ernment has Increased the ap appropriations
propriations appropriations for that purpose
from ,35. million pesos.- which
were; allocated in 1945, to 1?.
00.000 million pesos set apart

.. for. the- present yeiiV.In that

manner,, it his 'beeh possible,

, for instance, to erect thousands

f 'school buildings, to increase
tfft number of teachers and to
increase also their a a 1 a r i e s.-

;iney now earn 390 pesos per

month as was indicated, by Dr.

Btancourt in the course, of an

Interview. ''
l f i. r :.
rammar' schools
. I ... J '1.

' The importance of .the initial
work carried on in primary ed

ucation is, shown by the follow

ing statistical .data: In 1945

there, were, admitted to the pri

mary; schools in the country
C7I.00Q children; for the present
' year; that figure has grown to

1.265.400, is, almost double

me ogure in only ten years.

Besides the sums paid by the
Departmente-and Municipalities,
tn Ministry-of Education pays

out more than 2.00Q.OOO pesos in

salaries for teachers in elemen

tary schools who have charge

- of more than 55.000 children: In
the ,same way, it gives assis assistance,
tance, assistance, to the education of 7.000
. children who attend .27 in. Nor

mal schools in the country.: The
Ministry f Education -also
helps, in .the physical' training
and! adequate education Of 600

children who go to school dur during
ing during vacation -periods These, chil

dren- come principally from rei

; mote places, such as Guajira,
Vichada, Vaupes, Casanere's,

Choco,CAmazonas rand the Is-

- lands of San 'Andres 'and Prov Providence."
idence." Providence." S - 1 A
.'"('
. 'The -Ministry of Education is

attentive to the comphance of

, the decree which binds enter-
prttes ,'to fill 'certain' require requirements
ments requirements :-and .establish ; "and
maintain schools. In the same

. several private schools engaged i

schools; should, function proper- lm primary education and in the

ly.y attends to the teaching of; oreparation of teachers.
the Indians,' 'a task which is in'

suuvKiiun run'
AGRICULTURAL LABORERS

charge; of: catholic missions in
?evert -tei-ntones and which
glveVtoVindians food, clothing
and" education.
IMPROVlMENTS IN
TJM04INJB
4i& i of improving the
methodsur teaching -has differ differ-ent;
ent; differ-ent; aspects. One of them, prob probably
ably probably 'the smos,tr important," relers

to 'the radio courses1 for teach

ers in the rural districts More

than' 7.000 teachers in" the rural

districtsreceive instructions by

radio,-the courses having being

specially, prepared by the Min

istry of Education using1 the

more advanced technlque.'These
courses' also serve as 'a source

ofstimulus for those who folow
them and show that they have
icqujred the necessary instruc instruction
tion instruction in order that' they i m a y
form" TSart of the national group

ofy teachers,' and lso in order

that-they may' derive other im

pnrtant' benefits- for .their per

sonal and professional improve,
ment'.' f
Besides the Ministry provides
for special courses on pedagogy
whjch courses are given for two
months in several cities in the
country. Recently they were giv given'
en' given' in the ciUes of Cali, Cucuta,
Popayan, Medellin, 1 Maniziles,
Pasto and Florencia. :
The government'' 'maintains

1.778 scholarships for student
teachers by granting" more tlfan
one-; million pesos annually to

With a view to offer the ben benefits
efits benefits of education to a greater
number- of people residing in

country places, 8 new establish

ments were created, thus: the
Agricultural Teachers College

Lorica, Cordoba; Rural Teach

ers College in Guapi, cauca; a

Normal Rural School in Boll

var: Normal Rural School of

Fundamental Education in Gua

jira, and Vocational Schools for

Agriculture in Cauca, oyaca,

Santander and Guajira.

, Other informations relating to
educational improvements o f

farm-hands indicate that 100.000

grown-up persons, male and fe

male, receive education through

72 special' courses; 300 special

ized teachers receive their de degrees;
grees; degrees; 70 cooperatives in the
country with 6.000 members and

a capital of-90.000 pesos have

been, created; 3200 homesteads

were organized; 6.500 children

of agriculturists receive their

education in schools of that sec

tion, and 1.000.000 fruit and fine

wood trees were planted in or:
der to improve the sections

which have suffered from ro-

TECHNICAL EDUCATION
FORWORKMEN
' ,'' '
The technical education of la laborers
borers laborers have been intensified by
means of cooperation of official
institutions with the managers
of industrial plants,' so that

BOGOTA IS THE CENTER of nationwide educational avstem T'whlch '.lnp.ltir ffnm1

auiwi tuitu ouiuuuiuu3es ui,uie okckwuuqs w siaie ana private-universities,' oi wnlcfl"

Minun ku iu uin ckviuu tivjr una waica re ratea tops in .uie .wnoie continent.

n'ght courses are offered in
such schools. It is remarkable

to note the increase of applica applications
tions applications to enter such schools by
grown-up workmen, who ; are
Working in the different' indus industries
tries industries and who seek technical

improvement. lV '

COMMERCIAL EDUCATION

. ...
National and foreign commer-

If-A'

f.

-7L';'

In

of

by

,1' .... A J- -rf .....

avC:t-:rr--1

-

:'

- V

PilTSICAL EDUCATION also demands the attention of educational authorities who
provide playing fields with proper equlpme nt for young and old alike.. Above Is a
panoramic view of the Campln Stadium where the most Important sporting events
are held. . ,- .. : f

rial houses are cooperating

an efficient way with the gov

ernment in order to increase ed education
ucation education in commercial matters
banking,; studies in costs,, ad

ministration, accounting and of

fice management, all of which

may help to meet the require

ments oi commercial enter

prises so as to improve eondi,

tions in their businesses. The

case of Barranquilla deserves

special notice. In that city there

has been .established the. Na

tional School of Comerce
which has in view to prepare

the technicians which are re

quired for the vital development

of the Atlantic coast In order
to reach that finality it has. ob

tained the cooperation .of busi

ness houses; which will render

their assistance by means
specialized technicians and
lending modern machinery.

WOMEN'S EDUCATION

An appreciable advance in the

education pf women has been

obtained.' New centers for

grown-up women have been es

tablished. as a branch of home
schools. Besides, this year there

are functioning VS0 centers. Ed

ucation. is given to 28.000 girls

The Polythecnic Institutes have

oeen reorganized in accordance

with programs for intelectual

development and for teaching In

workshops and in new speciali

zations. New impetus has been

rven by the establishment of

Junior Red C r o I s Institutions

S nd School Saving Plants in the

rauuusumeni aepenaing on tne

division of education for-worn

"B. .Training courses have set

up for teaching administration
in order to raise the work level

of 41 institutions connected with
women's education.

BACHELOR'S DICREEsK
' r -V '- -;.-'- i
- A the present time, thereare
879 colleges m toe. country wrlo
give ..courses towards th'eS'bicb
elor's degree..; These colI;ges
have a total,oii.78.600,1studeits.
Of these, 'Alt. have', beep iieor-:
gnnlzed colleges by the '-Minis-.
try, and '334V are 'of .'a 'priate
natureThe majority of privafe

colleges are in charge of r elk

gioua institutions. ' v -- V
f There are 37 'national colleges
for boys ;s depending d Ir.e .eitj:
fron? the Ministry of Educaon:
The 'cost i of. maintainanee..' Of
these colleges is 4.800.000 pesos.
Eleven thousand students ire-.

eeive free education. One. thou

sand of them' are internal stud-

ents.,-.New buildings have been

erected for the following e o 1-

leges: National College of Jta-

hvar,' University College, N a

ficnal School and San Jose Col

leger. 1 ; v

UNIVERSITY, COORDINATION

The Minister of Education,

Dr. Betancourt Mejia explains
that "it is" necessary to contem.
pjate he university problem as
a whole because it refers not
only to the National University,

but also to other 23 universities
which we have in the country.
When- the '. academical studjes
have thi'sam standards adopt-

vy lav uesi universiues in

fo reign countries we could, then
begin to give1 solution to the
problem of, the universities. It
would be1 necessary that the

programs and plans for study1

should make a distinction be

tween what f' is essential and

what, is incidental, so that more
importance bi a i t e n to the

termer; in, the question of -education.
The; universities m u t
be Jeonyinced that' Iheir. objec objectives:
tives: objectives: is not; only, to 'grant de degrees
grees degrees for. laWyerSi physicians,
tngmeers,- architects or dentists
More or less efficient,-but also

o form men in the full sense

bf .this- word, j For that rekon
the universities should be or organized
ganized organized bearing in mind the re re-a'ities
a'ities re-a'ities of life. r V i
t..TJM:,uniVersities- In Colombia
should follow ta social hecessir;
because our countiry; which' is
advancing- every day,. ''requires

more professors for h e 1 p i a g

that advancement. Therefrom

springs the necessity of not be.
ing satisfied with 'an education

iwhich. followtf 'jt' plan which upj

w jine present ris aevoiea'. xo
grant' degrees, rlt-is necessary
that in each faculty there should
be .institutions for ; inveitigation

whichv would, show Jiew pathf

for those who want to study ;
thejri should. EVve 'courses for

post-graduates t in; order h a t

those who 'dtsire

'may

MOW

1 1 (
CONCLUSION
t In closing his remarks on the
progress attained, the Minister
of Education pointed' out that
'prt from economic factors,
one of the reasons for the in
crease in the cost -of living is
the fact that many citizens ar
carrying out work for ,whicl

they never received proper ed education.
ucation. education. The most- costly item
for a country is inefficiency.
We; can logically reach the con.

elusion that only: through per

severance in education we may
speed .up the development; of
the country. Thiljsthe reason
which moves the- go'vernm'ent t4

request the- cooperation of all

Colombian xitizens; Each one in

his field has unavoidable obli obligations
gations obligations in. so far as refers to
education: the priest, the 'pro
lessor,, the industrialist, the cat

tie owner', the .-merchant, the
laborer,, etc. All of. us will ob

tain' benefits the day on which
we. have put am end to igno

rance and when we a re, ready t6

offer education tolevery ColOm-

bian chiTd' '" .1,

-"In jthis task, I can .consider

of great t importance' the-estab :
Ushrdent -off Parent's Associa Associations
tions Associations who, together -with' the

fovernmentlvtheCatholicChurch
and private institutions' t. o n 1 d
watch carefully the education

hi& their children are receive
mg. We -all' have the obligation''
tov dignify ouri ce'iihtry iruf wo
hall attain that -end when wo
can say that the education, i$ the
basic." jfactor'. for, our religious, -cultural,
economic and o c i a.l
advancement.- T h e Colombian
people pay Jor education? and
this Government "of the Armed
Forces, based and supported by
public opinion,, shall not hesi hesitate
tate hesitate in1 carrying out reforms in
education -guided by" t the Wo
gram off His Excellency ftho
President of the Republic,-General
Supreme Chief G u s t a' v
Rojas PlniilaV L

THE EDUCATION i MINISTRIES educatlort .al program is carried even into jnbuntaln jnbuntaln-oua
oua jnbuntaln-oua and rural, areas like the one bove,.by. means .of constantly increasing Impropria Impropriations
tions Impropriations for the construction ot schools and the payment of UfiChers' salaries. Even in
this far-tlunsr urea- teachers; are ;kept up to-- date on the Jalest teacljing methods,
through radio and ;tIevision; :-y ;'? '-i."t t.

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TSI PANAMA AMmiCAN AN INDEPENDENT DAILY NEWSPAPER

, PICT filZ'JU

illSS7:'' r:Y.. vV

LZ3

rv rr n ri m rv

r- - - -
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n

. disunity in Iks.
ijudjJ impjfdanl Aicup
ifiU dwsJbfwwd

"CSC' TSA f

VAST WORKING PLAN SETS' THE

PACE OF COLOMBIA'S PROGRESS

mm?.--

i t 'J'"1' t.'t "v l

, v.' J 1,.:,: ... ,.,
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"1 fe--

The Ministry of Development."
'which is headed by Colonel Ma
r;ano Ospina Navia, is hot real
'1 an executive department. It
f israther an Authority Yorplan.
i ning and coordinating therworli
if the government To' that ef effect
fect effect and through important Sec Sec-v
v Sec-v .Uons, the Ministry coordinates

the carrying out of aa ample,

plan of work which in'the course'
. of the last few. years has set up!
.. b, Colombia measures, of inj -J
parlance, for the improvement'
and progress of the country. j
t A detailed list of the worki
.carried out would be impossible J

in a limited space, so that only
' 'm brief resume can be given of
the more; important -activities,
. as stated by Colpnel Ospina Na-

NATIONAL PRODUCTION
. Thjs section of the Ministry
takej charge of an analysis, of
the industrial! condition of, the
country in the light, of the eco

nomic policy oi the govern

ii 1 i!r iTn :Vi' iftt "J 'l ter to(prepare plans
"vyf-O 1 ,ft, which would 'co'ntriW to the

f f

1

tfOTEi: ALFEREZ ftfiAL hi CWL V the innny J. iJ tf

quid contribute

increase, of such national in-1 the, stocks they haye(-ia hand,

lustries as, may be considered
vital for the country In Hs pres-

IS1 S!J CdJvv-cJPPmOt.JLis
taking steps, to study Jhe ,pro ,pro-k
k ,pro-k dqctwn- ot' greases, For that
purpose it, Is. talking intp consid consid-.
. consid-. eration the manufacturing
plants in the country In order

ir

tQ .knowjhe amount of produc-J derlnst7 uch eryice.;rt also, ur
tion; as,;well as Jhe. -consump-ji.,.!, 4rid coliitxols the .routes

. tiqn of prime, materials, bothlln(j tne charges to be made in
national and foreign. Industrial. irder to guarantee a .correct

ists have been, caiiea lor, tne renderm 0f the service and to

avoid at the same time ruinous
ctmpetition. '.'
' At the present time a revision
is made of the files of the trans transportation
portation transportation companies "(in order to
Improve the service and close
the enterprises which are not

giving proper compliance to the
provisions in force. So far t re revision
vision revision has been made of all the

1.300 files which there are of en enterprises
terprises enterprises of this nature.
1300 transport enterprises are
nihnrized to function in the

nsoectors has visited the enter

prises and the results obtained,
o far as refers to internal or organizations,
ganizations, organizations, are satisfactory and
therefore they are re n A e r i n g
better service.
Another important task of this

office is its contribution to the

.on pleoslnii comfort, butlso the opportunity to know a cltywnose K
TwOwert'.WSjilinost incredible. - t . ? r

'capacity, for. importation a n d.for .tourists Jn the country, im poui our cnuuus ...

COMMITTEE FOR STUDIED

TRANSPORTATION
4 S-
lj!,..rl"M of th Ministry
has orgartTzed enterprises for.

transpia-tation in the country.-It
is Sncharge of granting permits
for public service as an indis

pensable requirement, for reji

purpose of establishing an In Institute
stitute Institute for the increase of th i s
dtrelopment;. This Institute will
shortly begin its activities. .
It is taking steps to form a
Committee, for the rubber in industry
dustry industry which will s t u d y the
problems connected with the

production and consumption pf
tubber, and has started nego negotiations
tiations negotiations with .the Point IV Com Committee
mittee Committee in order to consider the
experiences derived from .the
Experimental Station of Villa
Arteaga which has in mind the
establishment, of rubber planta plantations.
tions. plantations. in Turbo.
Studies have been' made on
the convenience of establishing

e ertain industries in order to
request the Minister of t h e
Treasury to grant exemption of
taxes as provided by the law.

A survey has been made to

wurk includes the ; construction ers,

of Hotel. Tonchala In Cucuta,
vhich lis" 'modern huilding of
isyea. storiefufloteL duXuria.
mo- de Melgar, which; has 60
rooms; Hotels 5n .Gil and Ma

laga with a cost of 700.000 pe

-Quite apart froni the impor important
tant important worH. of : regulating. the

plans of the government in the

1c life whereby Its financfaf re

sources and the demand', for
p&pcr are sufficient for the es-

iablishment of new national in

dustries in that field. Several

projects are being studied or

in the course' of establishment,

which probably will be in ef effect
fect effect in the next five years. In
so far as refers to cotton it has
been shown that this is the only
agricultural product of t h 6 s e

imported into the country, the
production of which is in the in.

rrease. Its consumption is great

er than the national production,

but if we maintain the present

rhythm of increase in cultiva cultivation,
tion, cultivation, the Instituto de Fomento

Algodonero hopes that from 1960

Colombia will be able to re restrict
strict restrict or prohibit the importa importa-tiun(of
tiun(of importa-tiun(of cotton. ri ...
INSTITUTE OF INDUSTRIAL
DEVELOPMENT ' ''
The work done by this de
partment includes the following:

1. A plant Of fertilizers which

will use natural gas from oil

fields in the section of Barran-

rabermeja.'This plant will pro

duce 400 tons daily ot synthetic

-mmonia, nitric acid; amf other

products thereby decreasing the

sis each;. Hotel de Turismo inj development of national' econo-

San Andres which wilL complete
the work initiated for the con con-siruction
siruction con-siruction of an international air airport
port airport and roads in that section.
The hotel win have 400 rooms.
Besides, the cities of Popa Popa-yan,
yan, Popa-yan, San Agustin and S a n t a
Marta have received allowances
up to 250.000 pesos for the con construction
struction construction of hotels. This is done
because those sections are very
important for tourists inasmuch
as they have great historical
and archeological interests.
There are being organized

sectional offices for tourist ac

tivities in the principal sections

of the country, and at the prcs

ent time there are only in the

cities of Cartagena, Santa Mar

country. Our office by means of ta Bucaramanga, Call, Maniza

determine the consumption' andi inin of ent ot f he

production of yarns so as to be ro,,ce wu,t"

f ble to approve or deny' Impor

tations -and thereby,' obtain, the

-i Consumptioq of aational produc-
t on U th"is Respect.' S t u d I e s
have beenihiade of the extent
of the importation of prime ma materials,
terials, materials, subject to the approval
"" of the Minister of Fomento.
V Several plants have been visit visited
ed visited in order to determine their

tution recently organized for, the
purpose of, watching, the .fulfill .fulfillment
ment .fulfillment of the jprovislons. regulat

ing national transport aiong .Co

lombian roads. ;
TOURIST ACTIVITIES

k-s, Popyan, Villvicencio, Gi Gi-rrdot,
rrdot, Gi-rrdot, Buga, San Andres and
Providence.'
A plan has been put into -effect
in order to maintain proper
signs on public roadsf so as to
give facilities for tourist traffic
and avoid troubles and delays
U. visitors.
An ample plan for tourist
propaganda has been approved.
II is intended to have publicity
campaigns in different sections
.)( the1 country by means of
films, posters, "p a m p h 1 e t s,

guides,, notices in the press, in

my, this department has start-

decreasing the importation of

the government, of plan for
decreasing the importaion' of

foreign goods' so as to save

rates of exchange and fortify

the national industry, so that

the country will not depend so

much on the importation of for

eign goods.

Within that plan of decreasing

imports, some basic articles
have been considered, such as
paper and pulp, cotton and co cocoa.
coa. cocoa. The conclusion has been

reached that the country is al

ready in a period of Us econom-

been made1 for the establish

ment of a paper and pulp mill

vhieh' will use wood from the

section of Carare. There is' in
that section a forest w h i eh

could supply efficiently the ne necessities
cessities necessities of the country, t

4 Coal from Carre jonv There

is coal in., La Gua jira which
may mean a probable deposit
of 212 million tons and a proved

field of 63 million tons, The ex

ploitation of this .coal is con

sidered of great importance, in

view of the extension and the
place wherein it, it found which
will permit the supply of t Eu European
ropean European demands.

5. Cement in Boy aca. The by

products of Siderurgica J"az id el

Rio will be used and' transform transformed
ed transformed into cement' There is capital

subscribed to the extent t of 10

million-pesos by different .offi

cial and aemiautonomoua (insti

tutions for the. construction of

i plant, the -building of .which

U actively proceeding,

: 6, New Industries.' the basis
(or the study of new plants in

the field of chemistry and me

Chanieal industries is being. eon

sidered. A plan?, for industrial

possibilities including dyes, sub-

importation in many million 0I)y.- ,.y. y

j. ii... .V.ii fc-' oer, .. kcuc, uu, p w"'"i

in full production in-the year

1957.

2 A plant for washing carbon

It Is located in Yumbo, El Vf Vf-lie,
lie, Vf-lie, Its purpose is to treat car car-boo
boo car-boo from that section of-' the
Country 'by washing and classi

fying it in ordecjo supply the
needs of local industry and in
;rdcr to put carbon in such a
condition that it will compete
in the international market.

which is of special interest,: in

v'ew of the prices it could ob obtain
tain obtain The plant has a capacity

of 125 tons per hour. Its cost

is of more than 6.000.000 pesos.

' 3. Paper Mill.; Studies

'tars, Insecticides, electric trans

formers, dynamos and motors,

centrifugal pumps, water, me.
ters, railroad cars, diesel en

gines, copper cables, etc. has

been tentatively, prepared, JBe

sides, information is tcjng' ob obtained
tained obtained for the development, of

public industries connected with
xploitation of minerals in the

country.
CHAMBERS OP COMMERCE
DEPARTMENT

This department is in. charge
of the administrative supervision
of the 30 Chambers of Corn-

have merce .which exist now m the

'-f-ff

t ;

The principal task of this sec-radio, television, etc.; In ..order

tloh is to Increa.se and super-: U draw attention w me aurac.
vise the construction of hotelstiuns that the country can offer

THE CAUCA VALLEY Airlew showing the rapid stride? of .progress In'j.rlculllireJ
based on constructive action of a people with a-definite purpose to rcacl tincy A

vancemeni tnruugn auequaie exiiuttuun i B uiui.,iuy,., ., ,. :

most important cities of the

country. This supervision it

made by means of visits of Of

ficial Inspectors, and by meant

of the monthly reports which,
the Chambers pfCo4nm.et

make,' setting .forth their1 fiscal
and economic condition. ;- .'

In this manner the Ministry

it informed of the different ch
camstances which jnay alter the
commercial movements In each

section of the country in order

to take the secessaryr-measuret

to avoid difficulties which -could
affect, the industrial and eonv
mercial development.

. .. r'- ,.'' 1
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Besides, throuah this depart

ment the Chambers of Com Commerce'
merce' Commerce' have been' able to pre pre-renttheir
renttheir pre-renttheir programs-to the gov government,
ernment, government, se that proper mea-

wet, be taken, ta help their ae
tvitiea. One of the objectives of

th,e,,Ministry is th at each; Chm
oer ef. Commerce should have :
its own building, At the preseat
time they, own buildings in Ba Ba-rranquilla
rranquilla Ba-rranquilla and P a I m I r a and
there are under Construction the'
buildings for the Chambers ot
Commerce of Medellin; Bucart
manga and P, asto. The Chamber
of Commerce of Bogqta is com completing
pleting completing its own building.
f.lt J-r i .t,n iff 1 1 f1iK'-j;-
INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY1 V
SECTION i
The object of this section Is
u' exact the fulfillment of the
provisions' in force concerning
industrial property' and to 'sub 'submit
mit 'submit drafts of the m e a s u ret
which are necessary to solve the
urobtems that may arise in con

nection therewith. At the; pres.

nt time this section is studying
the amendments of the laws on

this matter which, because they

are very -oldr in. many cases

they, are not effective to cope

with the industrial development

of the country. This section hat
proceeded in speed and effi efficiency
ciency efficiency by reason of, the adop-,
tion of the system of microfilm

in the archives of trade marks

and patents.' Up to the present

time films have been taken it
14.301 files. There are a total of
203.731 documents. .

This office will, soon have a-

modern system of filing with,
proper Indexet which will help
in the management of its -.archives,
and thereby give better
service and protection to mer
chants and industrialists. t

CONCLUSIONS' V 11

"I wish to express the idea"'
-so stated Colonel Mariano Os

oin Navia, Minister of Fomen.'
to: in his final remarks "that

Colombia is a country which Ik

initiating the period of greater
importance in its history in so

far as refers to cultural, poli

icsl 'and economic realizations.

All the promises for a better

future for Colombians are aeeri
in the national territory, but it
is necessary to understand that

the best program of govern

ment which may-be devised by

.active' tnd patriotic men does.

not yield any results unless the,
common Afan, the laborer,' the,
farm hand, the employee, the
hfiid "Owner 1 and the industrial industrialist
ist industrialist believe in their own heart

that the ideals of peace, justice
and liberty will be the welfare

of Colombia. For Ust reason we

have the aspiration of bringing

the Colombian people into a
vngle unity of throught and ac action
tion action in order to lead the country
iu the material and cultural

welfare to which it is entitled

by reason of its human element
and its natural resources."

' . .:.

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ITU FAJJAMA iMSHICAJI AS iNEZTrXSrNT I5AHT KnvspAPra

iHISTORICALSKd'a

OF eOLOMpo

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THE BLOOD OF COLOMBIAN SOLDIERS flowed on loJ
rean battlefields in; the defense, of Detnooracy, In- answer

to Hie can oi we united
the. remains of Colombians

Qincral Qiislpvb'JJivjas Pihilla?-

y,jLr resident of-the uxepubltC
- IJia-TEXcellency Lt. Cen. Gustavo Rojas PMlla, Presl Presl-dent
dent Presl-dent of the Republic,, came into power June; 13, 1953. .The
National Constituent Assembly confirmed .Ills' appointment-.'
lot the-rest of.the presidential period which ended Au& i; -1934,
"liter," it reelected him "(Aug.' 3, 4934) lor a cohstltu-
- tlonal period from 1954 to 1958. :'""-,- ? 2 2 :-
- ,'Ue was- born ih Tunja; March 121900. He; studied'at"
the Tunja Normal School, Irom which he graduated as.
teacher.ih" 1915; he studied for his bachelor's degree -at
the Boyaca College, obtaining his diploma in Philosophy
and Letters in 1917- He entered EscueJa" MlUtaf de' Cade-i', i
teg in' Bogota whew he received the rank of Army Officer",
in artillery wjth the x ant of a second lieutenant, lnf 1920.
' In 19M he-voluntarily retired from active-service; wen$ tq.'
thettniied Btates and studied engineering at Trl-State Col-':
lege!mm hlch he graduated as a civil engineer ln; 1A27. 7
His graduation, thesis Was based on "Outline and Construc Construction
tion Construction of. fiad and airfields.",. r.r V'.1'. V
Xatprtheworked as an' engineer on th Socha-Tamsfra,
Vele'hipata,;and Carare! highways asr aif official of the; '.
Ministry of Public Works-, and upon being called back'-intoA-
aervice bythe government he was appointed as Engineer.'
of the technical department of the Munitions Factory; &
' ,' 'AUr several promotions, he reached (lie ran&bf gen-,1
.ralln 1949. During his military careet he held several int-''
. port&npr positions like Brigade Commander, Army 'Com-'"
. mander, Chief of General Staff, Commandant of the mill-
tarj.lforce and delegate to the Inter-Amerlcsn Defense v
Board. He served as Minister of Posts and Telegraphs dur'
lngth,5aaministratlon of President Ospink P6rez. 'He1 is, a;
memberoX $he Colombian Society of Engineer t L',',
Decorations: Military Crosses of Antonio NarlnoFTant
elscp. J'ofif vde CaldaSi'Jostf Maria Cordoba,. Gran cjru Bd-;
yac. Order rot the Liberator of Venezuela."
' He speaks English, French and German. Has visited the y
U.S., England, Prance Germany, Spain Canada, Venezuei"
la, Cuba. Ecuador Japan- and Korea.- His favorite 'sport .-:

are swimming, tennis, horseback riding, fencing and shoot-.

(
t
wigaaiMaaiwswW'iii'iWtih;
LABOR TTJNION LEADERS
(corganizatlons recelve'help
their activities.-,.

.,--" 5 ' ; t ... 1
': NATIONAL RADIO STATION, an enterprise that serves Its listeners vlth informs-
. tlon. recreation and education, reaching all the confines of the ;ountry. - L w

Nations. in the above, photo.
who
pm leu to battle arrive w
Ivr''
w
m

rela at the-ranch house 'of President Rojas Plnllla. Labor
and advice from the goyernment for ,the strengthening of
, ..."

-

- Colombia has three well pro

'nounced stages of historical de development:
velopment: development: the' Conquest, : the
;. Colony and the Republic.5 Since
' it would be -impossible to 6ff er
;a .complete picture" of the his his-torical
torical his-torical unfoldment of this na na-"tiob,4
"tiob,4 na-"tiob,4 we will attempt to. present
V closely -knii, sketchy of jtiie
j most important occurrences dur-
ing the :tbree? stages otts de-vvelopra'ettt.-'
'V'jpiji:
COMQU6ST:., j i-
? "The conquest of Colombia Is
'distinguished by the entry of
the Spaniards and by the series
of battles waged against the In Indians
dians Indians to bring, them 'under the
dominion of the conquerors.. The
- military and spiritual conquest
was an arduous task As gfgaa.
: mountains Were climbed and
. ..... . s ; ii:
Ms uinoHNiaDie.iinosMraversea ini
tork" of the evangelists began
; to harmonize with the develop development
ment development of the military campaign.
This was the period when- mis--j
cegenaaoa began and under under-'
' under-' standing grew between the .'In .'Indians
dians .'Indians and, their. Spanisht coa coa-Cjuerors.,
Cjuerors., coa-Cjuerors., S V.1',-'"" f
L 'THf COLONTJ c
The second sjage of Colombi-
an history waJ $heeolpnization-
period. This "period is charac charac-iterized
iterized charac-iterized by ihe stabilizing oLthe
political; economies m Lilt r j
and religious power of Spain is
Colombia,, Historicallytnis-pe-'riod
beganw with :the torganiza
tion of the iRoyal Court in 1550,
t and ends three.' centuries:: later,
"Jafll, ..V, v, a ;
Spain stabilized Hi dominion
' -In "every sense during this'perT,
od and cooseauentl was 'able
tc carry out the-task of clviliza'-
tion According to' the; lfatufe of
Its catholic and: universal ol ol-ture.
ture. ol-ture. Despite adVene 'natural
conditions, the Spaniard 1 W'a's
A able to. accomplish some, mate
jiaL' tasks ,of .singular impor importance,
tance, importance, like the formidable walls
of Cartagena, which are still
, objects, of universal wonder
ment,!-and1, the
.pique Canal,
which is still in- use in one. of
the backward regions of the
republic,
The conomy h a d paternal
traces .and was featured by the
exploitation of men. by their fej fej-lowmenv
lowmenv fej-lowmenv S p a n i s h experience

S i If f (11- f
I-' '
! s i ;,'!
t I M v f j
i, ,m i him i hi' in i 1 1 i i'i mi

was combined with the natural

ability; of native artists in the
matter of the arts.' Education
ind.-tte Catholic' religion ran
hand in hand id colleges and u u-nversities.
nversities. u-nversities. Social life was main maintained
tained maintained between sobriety and el elegance,
egance, elegance, In the case of the Span Spanish
ish Spanish or native aristocrats, and
between, poverty and. slavery,
in the case of the lower ele elements
ments elements ef the people, comprised
of." Indians, .Negroes imported
ffom Africa and. the series of
mixed-blooded individuals who
make up the trLethnic bases of
the present Colombian popula
tion: whiles, Negroesand In Indians.)
dians.) Indians.) There was no m i d d 1 e
ground in the social standing of
the population. v; r
I.-THK REPUBLIC:
National Independence began
with the birth .of the republic.
The war Of independence last lasted
ed lasted from 1810 to 1824. It wu a
period of gigantic effort and
countless sacrifices. The inde independence
pendence independence from. Spain was gain gained
ed gained on practically nothing, since
the general poverty among the
people and even1 a m o n g the
verjr leaders' of the "separatist
movement,' was something axio axiomatic;
matic; axiomatic; t 7 ',
' Then came a1 series ef events
that affected the nation in an
inwrganic manner.' What ,h a d
once united Spain through joint
communal action (in 'some sec sectors
tors sectors this principle didnt work
wey enough) and the revolution
for the common desires for free freedom,
dom, freedom, began to dismember as a
esult of the selfish actions of
the ideologists. The ideologists
were inspired by the,' writings
of French and British thinkers
free exchange, liberalism in
politics and utilitarianism j i n
philosophy and they launched
Telentless battle to implant
the prevalent European ideolo ideologies
gies ideologies in Colombia,
; A. long series of civil wars
were waged as a result, of this
ideological conflict The imme.
diate .effect was that national
economy was 1 eft rudderless,
the Church wis deprived of its
holdings, priests were persecut
ed and Iibertinage set in every
where. Everything pointed to
wards a total cave in?
But little by little a move
ment to regain unity and to re
vitalize the nation began to take
r
7

THE CATHEDRAL OF SALT, built in the Interior of the
salt mountain that forms the Zlpaquira mines; is one of
the most striking monuments of the New World. The
above photo gives anaspect of the great temple.v

THIS IS
Population: 11,545,172.
census Present estimate
939140. ' ;
(1951
: 13,
VArea: 1,138,355 square kilome
ters (711.472 sq. mi.)
::1191J of the total world pop
uiktm "(2,485 millions) -!
, 11131 ft of the area of the
earth (148.822,000 square kilo
meters) j V
136.9 of the area1 of' the A
mencan, continent (42,106,00 sq.
kilometers).
First in world production of
oft coffee. '
First "m world production of
emeralds.- ' t
First in production of gold in
South America.
First country in the world to
i'se radio lor eaucauonai pur-
Jpusea.
I -,
,

THE CITY OF CALL center of
at Its wonderful views .and

shape.' The common sense of at
few j authentic patriots won out
in 1886. National unity prevail
ed over anarchy and dissension.
A- new constitution, by which
Colombia is still guided today,
with minor amendments, w a s
approved.
However, the dissenting vices
again broke out in 1899 with the
same kind bloody civU wars the
country had ; already passed)
through:; It was 1000 days of
wasieo nauonai energy mat uu
tome up In 'the path of social
and political integration
This was. the; existing condM
tion in Colombia when Panama,
at the end of the hostilities, sep separated
arated separated itself and became an in independent
dependent independent nation.
.Mt',
4
A
COLOMBIA
- Second in world production of
coffee, .' - --,
, --, Second platinum producer in
America. "
Third panana producer in the
worlds i
" Third SoUth,American country
in sire. J ..
Fourth oil producer in Latin
America. '
Fifth in world production of
platinum.
Fifth oil- producer in .Ameri .America,",
ca,", .America,", 1 -.
Seventh American country in
size" v
Eight in world production of
gold ;
.' Ninth in world production of
oil
Agriculture is the basic in.
dustry.

great progressive movement, that -causes Colombians and foreigners alike to marvel
amazing perspective. iPanoramlc view from the- Crlsto Rey Monument.) :

It is possible that this heavy
blow to Colombian interests
contributed towards the return
tc national unity. A paternally
strong regime' began to put. the
nation in order and thus made
it possible for the groundwork
of progress and order to be laid.
: Years later, with- pacific
rh.anireR nf Government from
to Co,ombia ,n
- d . f
.nM:t.t ,AvitlMmt t i r h
tunfortunatv 4 m 0 f f(,u to
pieces' when another struggle
for' power broke' outs between
this, traditional parties Liber
al and conservative- and f a-
gain plunged the nation into an
undeclared civil war.
THE PRESENT TIME:.
For the last1 three years Co
lombia seems to have been un-
dergoing an era of peace and,
tranquility under a leadership,
which excercises a sufficiently
strong hand to enable things
to be conducted along the path
of peace,' justice and freedom.
-The success achieved by the
3

"EL fARAISO" HACIENDA, the 'source of inspiration for
novel, "Maria," which is still enjoyed by the youth of the

THE MINISTER OF HEALTH Is developinu
sicat and mental health of the ColomblRn ColomblRn-explains
explains ColomblRn-explains to newsmen, the points of-the

nationalist elements who are

now running the affairs of state,
has doubtlessly put an end to
violent partisan recriminations.
OUTSTANDING
INDIVIDUALS:
Since the: birlh of the repub-
lie, a powerful group of
tentative men have made them-
wives fett in Colombia.' The,
first of these naturally, was the
Liberator, Simon Bolivar, who,
although he was born in Vene Venezuela,
zuela, Venezuela, gave his heart to Colom Colombia
bia Colombia and came to die on the San
Pedro Alejandrino farm in San Santa
ta Santa Marta. Bolivar,, to whom Co Colombia
lombia Colombia pays! fervent homage
represents the dynamic; creator
of Colombian nationality v J
Then there is Santander,; who
symbolizes the love for law and
oraer, jose xuiaria juipez lyin
bolizes the fight for freedom by
the slaves. Jose Antonio Galan
is the leader of people's upris

ings, Rafael Nunez an4 Miguel the ; much desired continental
Antonio Caro took charge .- of fx aternity on the basis of his his-straightening
straightening his-straightening out, the nation forjtory.i language, religion!' cus
th first time. Rafael R eyes turns and Bolivarian ideals.

ii m vi
r
a plan for the
people. In the
plan.

takes charge of imposing' order
in the midst of chaos, ..r
RELATIONS WITH- r 1. -1 ;
PANAMA:-

Colombia has maintained the
must friendly relations with Pa.
name. Today they are sister

repre-.rauons who admire aha follow,

as they did when they wererone.
the ,ideals of, Simon Bolivar.;
Commercial relations between
the two. nations increase every
Jay and contribute to further
entwinehe jjpnds already ea' -tablished
by their common ori origin,
gin, origin, which 1 started, from tht ;
time of the Spanish conquista conquista-dores
dores conquista-dores and later reaffirmed after ::
the independence with the bless-.
ing of Bolivar.
Thus the ; two nations, who
were born together, who were
united under the samt flag" for
three quarters of a century, are
coming hearer each day toward
Jortje Isaacs immortal'
Spanish speaking world.
J
Improvement of the phy-i
above picture, the minister'

.0

-1

;:f:3 :