Historical development of education in Trinidad and Tobago

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Title:
Historical development of education in Trinidad and Tobago
Physical Description:
26 p. : illus., charts, graphs. ; 24 cm.
Language:
English
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Trinidad and Tobago Independence Celebration Committee
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Gov't. Print. Off.
Place of Publication:
Port-of-Spain
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Subjects / Keywords:
Education -- Trinidad and Tobago   ( lcsh )
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federal government publication   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage:
Trinidad and Tobago

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General Note:
On cover: Education 1800-1962.

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University of Florida
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All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
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oclc - 20802979
ocm20802979
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AA00010880:00001


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TRINIDAD

AND

TOBAGO

INDEPENDENCE

EXHIBITION
















HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT


OF


EDUCATION


IN


TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO












LATIN AMERICA







CONTENTS


I. HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF EDUCATION IN TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO

II. PRIMARY EDUCATION:
1. Curricula, Syllabuses and Methods
2. The Primary School Teacher
3. Teacher Training

III. SECONDARY EDUCATION

IV. TECHNICAL EDUCATION

V. HIGHER EDUCATION

VI. FINANCE

VII. CONCLUSION









CHAPTER I


HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF EDUCATION IN
TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO


1800-1850
The population of Trinidad in 1797 when the Spanish surrendered to the British
was 17,718; by 1834 when slavery was abolished it had increased to 43,678 consisting
of 3,632 Whites (Spanish, French and English), 18,627 Free Coloured, 20,657 Negro
Slaves and 672 Aborigines.
Prior to 1834 only the children of the Free Classes received any education at all
through private teachers, and the first record of any state-control in Education was
in 1817 when Governor Woodford required all schools to be registered.
Immediately after emancipation several attempts were made to dispense educa-
tion. The Cabildo or Town Council had organised two schools for boys. The British
Government had in 1835, and annually thereafter until 1842, made available for the
erection of school houses in the whole of the West Indies and South Africa (ex-slave
areas) tne sum of 20,000, some of which the trustees of, the Mico Charity utilised
'to augment their own funds in building several schools for the children of freed
slaves throughout Trinidad. For the which, the British Government having now
some vested interest in education took the precaution to appoint one C. J. Latrobe,
Inspector of Schools for the West Indian colonies in 1837. The Roman Catholic and
Anglican churches also had established a few schools for the propagation of their
religion, and the Wesleyans as well as other christian bodies sought to the same.
By the middle of the century the denominational bodies remained alone in the
field of education supported by some grant-in-aid from the State in part payment
of teachers' salaries. A major problem in education-was religion; and adding to the
complexity of the problem was the influx of East Indian indentured labourers from
1845 onwards : they were non-christian and spoke no English.
In respect of Secondary Education the Roman Catholics had begun as early
as 1830 conducting a finishing school for young ladies "of class" at St. Joseph's
Convent. Port-of-Spain-at once taking the lead in the field of secondary education
and giving it a long tradition of being for a privileged class only.

1851-1900
The first educational policy for the island was formulated by Governor Lord
Harris in 1851. The aim was to unify the diverse racial and cultural elements and
political loyalties (without regard to religion) through a state-control system of
secular education. It was to operate under a Board of Education composed of laymen
and the Governor, with decentralised local authorities responsible for establishing
schools and providing for education in their own areas or wards into which the island
was divided. English was to be the medium of instruction and compulsory for all.
Several ward schools were built and wherever this was done aid to the denomina-
tional school was withdrawn. Undaunted, the pioneers in education remained on






the scene; and another one, in the person of Dr. John Morton under the Presbyterian
Church of Canada, appeared to minister to the East Indians, and established the
first school for them at lere Village in 1868.
As early as 1852 two model schools where teachers could be trained were built
in Port-of-Spain, and in 1859 the Government started a boys' secondary school called
Queen's Collegiate in a rented building in Port-of-Spain. In 1863 the Roman Catho-
lics, and later (in 1884) the Presbyterians, established secondary schools for boys
in Port-of-Spain and San Fernando respectively. However, it was the denominational
reaction to the ward system of primary education that led to its failure and the
appointment of Mr. Patrick Keenan in 1869 to enquire into the state of education
and make recommendations.
Apart from the three secondary schools there were at the time 30 Ward Schools,
two Model Schools, three Borough Schools, 30 Denominational Schools and one
Indian School. Mr. Keenan recommended the handing over of all the schools to the
various denominations, and the use of monitors as teachers.
The Education Ordinance of 1870 effected a compromise by recognizing the two
types of schools, namely-the State or Government Schools supported wholly by
public funds, and the Assisted Denominational Schools receiving financial aid from
Government. This was the inception of dual control in education.
Other Education Ordinances of 1875 and 1890 served mainly to determine and
regularise the new partnership of State and Church in education, and revise, as the
need arose, the conditions of grant-in-aid to Assisted Schools. Progressively the
State was becoming the bigger financial partner; the denominations the executive,
establishing and conducting the greater number of schools.
In 1899 Tobago became a ward of Trinidad. Its population consisted almost
entirely of freed Negro slaves and coloured people whose children were receiving a
type of education with a strong religious bias in a number of schools organised by
the Anglican, Moravian, Wesleyan and Roman Catholic Churches. These schools,
like those in Trinidad, had been in receipt of some government grant-in-aid; and
from 1875 came under the supervision of the Board of Education. Twenty-eight of
them, all denominational schools, were now brought together with the government
and denominational schools of Trinidad under the one Trinidad and Tobago Board
of Education.
The table below summarises the position at the turn of the 19th century when
the total expenditure on education was $183,654.

PRIMARY No. of No. on Expendi- SECONDARY No. of No. on Expendi-
Schools Roll ture Schools Roll ture
$ c. $ c.
Government 56 6,973 49,545 60 Government ... 1 100
1,291 20
Assisted .. 183 23,164 113,222 40 Assisted ... 2 250
All told, there were 35,464 primary school places provided of which 5,846 were
unused; 350 boys were receiving secondary education.






1901-1925
Education development in the first quarter of the present century, when Trinidad
and Tobago was directly under colonial rule without representation till 1924, was
largely a matter of strengthening and consolidating what had already been started.
With respect to the teacher, government undertook in 1901-1902 to pay the
whole salaries in assisted primary schools. In 1912 a Pensions Ordinance extended
the privilege of pensions, hitherto enjoyed only by teachers in government schools,
to teachers in assisted schools; and in 1925 through agitation of the teachers them-
selves, Boards of Managers of assisted schools replaced individual managers, with
the power to appoint, transfer and dismiss teachers.
Teaching bursaries were also introduced to raise the standard of education of
the primary school teacher; and in 1821 the Education (Intercolonial) Conference
recommended the establishment of a Central Training College in Trinidad.
As a result of much agitation, the Compulsory Education Ordinance was passed
in 1821 and the Governor proclaimed Port-of-Spain and St. James compulsory areas.
In the same year a type of school known as an Intermediate School was
established. It was introduced to fill the wide gap that existed between primary and
secondary schools resulting from the exclusiveness of the latter; and to provide a
higher-than-primary education for a rising middle class that was becoming more
articulate and seeking some measure of representation in government. Five such
schools-two government and three Roman Catholic-were organised, and though
like the secondary schools they collected fees, these of necessity were small.
The following table shows the progressive increase in the number and kind of
schools provided during this period.
Teacher
YEAR Primary Intermediate Secondary Training
Schools Schools Schools Schools
1900 ... ... 239 3 5
1905 ... ... 240 3 5
1910 ... 256 3 5
1915 ... 281 4 5
1920 ... 293 4 5
1925 ... ... 290 5 6 5


1925-1950
The period 1925-1950 was ushered in by part-representation in government, and
closed with adult franchise in 1946 followed by the ministerial form of government
and a Minister of Education with portfolio in 1950. It saw a widening of the scope
of education and improved facilities for it; as well as some radical changes in both
the content and method of education.
Earlier in 1923 the old device of testing the school's efficiency by a rigid
examination of th6 individual pupils began giving way to a method of systematic
inspection.






In 1928 a School Medical Service was introduced. About the same time a new
set of books, West Indian Readers, designed especially for the West Indian child
was produced by the Senior Inspector of Schools, (later Director) Capt. J. O.
Cutteridge, for use in the schools; this was followed by his West Indian Arithmetic,
and Capt. E. W. Daniel's West Indian History-all now out-dated but useful in
their time.
Significant also were changes in teaching methods and techniques, which became
more practical and made use of visual aids in teaching-the government acquiring
three mobile cinema units by 1951. Less stress was laid on the teaching of formal
grammar, and attempts were made to correlate subjects.
In 1931-1932 the Marriott-Mayhew Commission reported on Education in Trini-
dad and Tobago and made recommendations that were embodied in 1935 Regulations
for Primary Schools. The uniform curriculum was abolished, and a teacher was
required to frame his own schemes of work to suit the character and needs of his
particular locale. Provision was made for the teaching of Domestic Science and
Woodwork at approved Centres. The grants-in-aid to assisted schools were extended
to include provision of apparatus and equipment. The government had also since
1936 introduced the Private School Ordinance by which it exercised;the right of
supervision and control of buildings, classrooms, furniture, sanitary arrangements
and the general health of the pupils. By 1940 there was noticeable allround improve-
ment in school buildings-which were enlarged and reconstructed-in additional
Domestic Science and Handicraft Centres with free transport of children to and
from the schools, and in the daily distribution of free milk and meals to under-
nourished children in Port-of-Spain and San Fernando.
The teachers too had become more assertive, and the 1955 Code of Regulations
was introduced bringing all teachers under the same regulations governing civil
servants in respect of politics and writing to the press. But a new "class" of teachers
was also emerging, now that the full Teachers' Certificate which had hitherto been
granted to teachers who had come up from the pupil teacher system was to be
issued only to those teachers who had passed through a recognized Training Col-
lege. The School Teachers' Pensions Ordinance of the same year extended pensions
to teachers in Training Colleges, Industrial Schools, Orphanages and Institute for the
Blind, and made provision for increased gratuity for the dependents of a deceased
teacher.
The Educational policy at this time is reflected in the Development Programme
Council Paper No. 27 of 1946 which was laid before the Legislative Council on the
10th May, 1946, but never debated. Some of its significant features were :
(1) Provision of free education for all children 5-12 at Primary Schools.
(2) Provision of Central Schools for children from 12-15 who did not proceed
to Secondary Schools.
(3) Facilities for religious instruction in all government schools.
(4) Implementation of the Marriott-Mayhew recommendation on teacher
training.






The status of the 12-plus child not proceeding to a secondary school had long
been a problem; and in 1945 the Board of Education recommended a Primary
School Leaving Certificate, though the first examination was not conducted until
1948. Through this examination recruits for teaching were selected and awarded
bursaries to secondary schools as a preliminary to further training as teachers.
The number of schools with the approximate number of pupils receiving educa-
tion in 1951, exactly 100 years after the first planned educational policy was put
forward by Lord Harris, is as follows :
1. Primary Education for age 5 to 15-312 schools (including 8 Intermediate
Schools) with 120,847 children in attendance-85 per cent. of the esti-
mated school population.
2. Handicraft Centres-9 serving 90 schools and 7 sub-centres attached to
primary schools.
3. Domestic Science Centres-18 serving 98 schools and 12 sub-centres
attached to primary schools.
4. Secondary Education for age group 12 to 18-13 recognized schools
with 6,074 children in attendance; and 16 registered private schools with
3,827 children in attendance.
1951-1962
In this last decade, 1951-1962, Trinidad and Tobago has felt a quickening in
the pulse of life of a nation being born-in rapid succession from a ministerial
system, through party politics to Cabinet Government, and finally Independence.
Characteristic of the period were bold and vigorous attempts to re-orientate
the educational system to the demands of a modern age and the specific needs of
an emergent nation.
Early in 1951 Government recognized and incorporated in the system of educa-
tion the first non-christian denominational school (El Socorro Islamia). Today there
are 66 assisted schools organised under several non-christian denominations.
In 1954 government established its first technical school in San Fernando; and
thereby it assumed some of the responsibility of technical education which since
1906 had been borne solely by industries under a Statutory Board of Industrial
Training receiving small grants-in-aid from the State.
Before any major steps were taken careful studies were made of our educational
problems.
In 1954 the Missen Working Party of three foreign educationists made a quick
survey of our educational system and re-emphasised the problems of an unrealistic
curriculum and obsolete methods. It severely criticised the College Examination as a
means of entrance to a secondary school.
In 1956 the Hammond Committee recommended a fairer system of grants to
assisted secondary schools and the same salaries and pension rights for teachers in
assisted secondary schools as those for teachers in government schools. These recom-
mendations were accepted.






In 1957 a Regional Conference on Teacher Training made suggestions for an
accelerated training programme.
In 1957 the Maurice Education Committee was appointed to re-examine fully
the educational needs and problems of the Territory. This committee was the first
of its kind, comprised largely of natives from various sections of the community,
who were able to present different points of view. The comprehensive report it
submitted forms the basis of much that is being done in education today.
Public Education has been reorganised in three distinct phases : Primary 5-11;
Secondary 12-15-18; and further or higher 18 plus; and it is, as far as it is provided,
free to all.
More primary schools are being built to cope with the increasing number of
children. Secondary education has been completely reorganised to provide a variety
of courses-academic, technical, general or practical-according to the needs and
abilities of the pupils themselves, and the requirements of the community. In this
connection a new type of secondary school, the Secondary Modern, has come into
being, and a Technical School (John Donaldson Institute) is soon to be opened.
The paying of fees is abolished; and free tuition at a secondary school is no longer
through a competitive College Exhibition Examination for which only a few were
coached, but through a Common Entrance Examination open to all children of
primary school age. A number of bursaries and scholarships to Universities and
other Institutions open the way to higher education; and variously organised adult
classes, aided financially by the State, provide many opportunities for further
education either in relation to one's vocation or for one's allround intellectual
development. The following table gives the number and distribution of schools and
institutions in the territory today.

SECONDARY FURTHER SPECIAL
PRIMARY
Gram- Modern Techni- Inter- Teacher Others Special
mar cal mediate Training

Government 90 ... 4 10 2 2 1 3 1 Blind
R.C. 123 ... 11 5 1 (1 Poly. 1 Deaf and
technic Dumb
E.C. 66 .. 4 1 1 Farm 1 Physically
Inst. Handicapped
Presbyterian 73 ... 5 1 + 5 Industrial
U.C.W.I.
Baptist 4 ... 2 Youth
Training
Moravian 2 ... 1 Mentally
Retarded
Methodist 12 ... -
S.D.A. 4 ... 1 1
A.M.E. 1 ... -
T.I.A. 5 ... -
T.M.L. 3 ... -
A.S.J. 7 ... -
Hindu 35 ... -
Vedic 9 ... -
K.P.A. 2 ... -






CHAPTER II


PRIMARY EDUCATION

As outlined in the last chapter, Primary Education in this Territory developed
under a dual system whereby Government and Religious Denominations, both
christian and non-christian, co-operate in the control and conduct of schools for
children 5-12 years.

The Primary School system falls into two main categories-Assisted Denomina-
tional and Government Schools. The Assisted Denominational Schools are controlled
by Boards of Management, but. the salaries of teachers in these schools are paid
by Government and on the same scales as Government teachers. The building grants
now represent two-thirds of the cost. Furniture, books and equipment in the school
are provided almost entirely by Government. One of the conditions of the grant
is that the school must be open to all children without distinction of race, religion,
nationality or language.

Education in the primary school is today regarded as a process of growth-not
a syllabus to be covered--and while the acquisition of basic skills in the 3 R's is
inevitable in this period of a child's development, it is not the teacher's job merely
to instill literacy. Consequently, progress in Primary Education will be considered
from the three points of view :
A. Curricula, Syllabuses, Methods.
B. The Primary School Teacher.
C. Teacher Training.


A. Curricula, Syllabuses, Methods

CURRICULUM AND SYLLABUS
As in many other spheres of education, our early syllabuses, curricula and
methods were closely patterned after English models with a time lag of one or
two decades.

From a rigid concentration on the 3 R's and a few allied subjects, there is a
gradual widening of the curriculum to include practical, creative and aesthetic sub-
jects and social and cultural studies. The curricula of past years occasionally
reflected misconceptions of the aims of education and as late as 1954 the Missen
Report emphasised "the urgent need for a new re-orientation to the conception
generally held of the purpose and design of the educational system in the colony."
It stressed that, "the need of Agriculture, Industry and Commerce, which are the
life blood of the colony must be interpreted in education." The point was again
stressed by Dr. Eric Williams in 1955 in a lecture on a new curriculum for the
West Indian Schools.






There is now a steady movement towards a unification of the curriculum
through correlation and projects or centres of interests with an underlying purpose
of all-round development of the physical, the intellectual, the moral and the spiritual
demensions. At the same time, owing to changing conceptions of Infants, Junior
and Post Primary education as separate phases in the process, there has been a
diversification of structure and organisation resulting in more definite progress of
work in each phase. The child of each age group is recognized as having his own
needs and interests, and therefore requires an education peculiarly suited to him.
This is what the more informal play-way and activity projects in infant and junior
schools cater for.
The path of progress has not always been smooth. Sometimes there was retro-
gression in the development of the curriculum, as instanced by the change from a
flexible curriculum to uniform syllabuses and schemes of work; and forward again,
as in 1935 when the Regulations abolished uniformity and gave Head Teachers an
opportunity "to frame their own scheme of work to suit the character and local
needs of their respective schools."
The year 1960 saw the introduction of a tentative syllabus allowing for
"flexibility and the use of the teacher's initiative and imagination". Teacher Training
has had to adjust itself from the era of the general practitioner to a system per-
mitting additional subjects and a degree of specialisation to cater for the special
abilities of children.

METHODS
However, despite the scope given by the administration, educational practice
has been dominated by several factors in turn-school inspections, school competi-
tions-especially in agriculture-panel inspections, the college exhibition and the
11-plus examination. There is still great pressure for entry into secondary schools,
though the rigid inspection of the schools themselves has given way to Open Days
and Education Weeks.
Classroom practice has been slow in catching up with modern trends towards
economy of time and with maximum effectiveness and results. Modem methods
in the teaching of individual subjects have been curtailed by restricted teacher
training. Nevertheless, some progress has taken place since the time of Keenan who
reported that "teaching from day to day was haphazard and that there was no
organisation and schemes of work".
Modern methods have caught on in some subjects. In geography we have moved
from parrot-like repetition of lists of capes and bays, &c. to direct experience of
the environment, and the use of audio-visual aids; in English, lessons are of a
more functional kind; in Physical Education, in Science, Art and Craft, the method
is learning by doing; in many others the approach is through School Broadcasting.
Chalk and talk no longer hold complete sway. Nevertheless, the limitations and
problems created by lack of space, unsuitable furniture, inadequate buildings,
insufficient equipment and apparatus and by a rising school population are the main
considerations for future progress.






B. The Primary School Teacher
The Primary School Teacher from his crude and uncertain beginnings in the
early 19th century has travelled a trying road to his present state of certainty,
security and maturity. This progress can be traced under these headings :
(a) Progress in Qualification.
(b) Progress in Emoluments.
(c) Progress in Status.
(A) PROGRESS IN QUALIFICATION
1801-1850
Some of the teachers of this period, 1801-1850 were inefficient and incompetent.
They were not seldom little better off than their charges and served largely to keep
children together to teach religion and the recognition of letters and words. Many
however, were very intelligent and aware persons. They were imported from England
or in the case of natives they were trained at the training school in Antigua (Mico
Training School). Some of these persons later left teaching and played a prominent
part in agitation for social and political reform and conducted some of the news-
papers.
1851-1900
After 1851 with an organised system of education in operation the efficiency
of the teacher improved. In order to be employed he had to be certified by the
Board of Education as competent in the 3 R's and possessing the qualities of a good
teacher. He further had to be efficient as his work was open to scrutiny by the
Inspector of Schools. The Pupil Teacher System was established in 1870 and this
helped him academically and professionally although he lost the training and guid-
ance of the Normal School established in 1851 and abolished by the 1870 Ordinance.
Since the teacher's salary depended on the examination results of the pupils he was
compelled to be efficient. His academic standards were, however, low and the
examinations that he was required to pass can be equated to that of the present
Post Primary examinations.
1901-1950
In the period 1901-1950 we see another advance in the improved qualification
of the teacher. His minimum qualification for appointment as a pupil teacher was
equivalent to that of the fifth standard class. During this period teachers were more
or less categorised into three groups-
(1) Trained Certificated Teacher.
(2) Certificated Teacher.
(3) Uncertificated Teacher.
Beginning as a Pupil Teacher he had to pass as many as six or more examinations
to move to the bracket of Certificated Teacher. To become a Trained Certificated
Teacher he had to get his Training College Diploma. Towards the end of this period,
teachers were already taking the London Matriculation and Cambridge School Certi-
ficate examinations. Others were taking the A.C.P. and L.C.P. examinations and
a number was going abroad to take specialist courses in Infant Methods, Art and
Craft and Post Primary methods.






1951-1962
The last period 1951 to the present day has seen the greatest advance in the
qualifications of teachers. The Pupil Teacher Examinations are on the way out
and are being replaced by the Cambridge School Certificate and General Certificate
of Education, London University. The number of Pupil Teacher Examinations has
been reduced and the standards raised. In the Training Colleges the standards,
professional and academic, have risen-the academic side being geared to meet
the G.E.C. (Advanced Level) examination in some subjects. There are now many
teachers with G.E.C. (Advanced Level) subjects to their credit, and occasionally
a University Graduate may be found in Primary Schools.

(B) EMOLUMENTS
1801-1850
Teachers were paid amounts which depended partly upon their educational
qualifications and partly upon their colour. Regardless of qualifications natives of
colour received below $40.00 per month, more often than not less than $16.00,
sometimes $5.00 and Englishmen at least $40.00 per month sometimes more. Teachers
were free to accept other employment, which indeed they often did; for salaries in
mercantile houses and as managers of plantations were better than those in teaching,
although these jobs required lower or similar qualifications.

Compared with other wage-earners in the Colony, (e.g. up to $2.00 per day
for the able bodied labourer) the teacher was not a highly favoured person but he
was reasonably well paid and carried much social prestige and religious influence.

1851-1900
The position in the period 1851-1900 was clearer, and although the amount
fluctuated considerably from year to year, the emoluments received were based on :
(i) a fixed salary according to the Class of Certificate from the Board of
Education held by the Teacher
(ii) a Capitation Grant in proportion to the attendance of the pupils at the
school
(iii) a Capitation Grant in proportion to the examination results.

During this period Government paid only three-quarters of the salaries of
teachers in the Assisted Schools.

1901-1950
The 1901 and 1902 Education Ordinances brought great relief to teachers; as
Government undertook to pay the whole salaries of all teachers in Primary Schools.
There were considerable salary differences, however, which varied not only accord-
ing to the Class of Certificate the teacher held, but also according to the
Class of School in which he worked. Further, the salary of a Female
Teacher was 5 lower per annum than that of her male counterpart; and Tobago
teachers on the whole received 10 each per annum less than their colleagues in
Trinidad. All these anomalies were corrected in 1949.






The following table shows scales of salaries for the period-


1951-1962
This last decade, 1951-1962 has produced a satisfying scale of salaries for
Teachers. Head Teachers go on to $5,040 per annum and Assistant Teachers to
$3,840 per annum. This new recognition of the teacher's labours has not only reduced
the frustration emanating from low wages, but has given him encouragement for
better work and proficiency in his profession; what is more, it is a welcome signal
to those who by-passed the profession because of its unattractive emoluments.



(c) PROGRESS IN STATUS

1801-1850
(a) Control of Teachers
During the period 1801-1850 teachers were controlled by the Managers of their
schools (e.g. missionaries in the schools of the various missions, the Cabildo in the
schools of the Cabildo and the Agent of the Mico Charity Schools). In all cases the
control of the teacher was rigid and his welfare depended largely upon the relation-
ship that he maintained with his Manager and often upon his religious rather than
educational value to the body concerned. He was hired and dismissed by
his Manager.

1850-1900
In 1851 teachers in the Ward Schools were appointed and controlled by the
Board of Education and their work was supervised by the Inspector of Schools.

In 1870 with the passing of the 1870 Education Ordinance the control of
teachers in assisted schools was again in the hands of religious Managers who had
the power to dismiss, appoint and transfer teachers as they pleased.

Primary School Teachers in assisted schools of Tobago were controlled
exclusively by their Religious Head. In 1899, however, they came under the super-
vision of the Trinidad Board of Education.






1900-1950
An Education Department under a Director of Education was set up in 1918.
From then on the executive authority lay in his hands, although individual managers
continued their control. In 1925 the code was amended and teachers in Assisted
Schools were to be controlled by a Board of Management in each Denomination
instead of a single Manager. The teacher, however, had the right to appeal to the
Director of Education who had the final word in the administration of education
throughout the colony,
In 1950 a Minister of Education was appointed, whose powers superseded those
of the Director; thus giving the teacher a further authority to whom he could appeal
in times of difficulty.
1951-1962
With a change in constitution in 1956 a Minister of Education has taken full
control of education and though Boards of Management continue to select and
appoint teachers they must submit these for approval by the Public Services Com-
mission. Policies for control and administration are the responsibility of the
Minister of Education.
(b) Conditions of Work
Many of the school buildings were new; for they were erected after 1834. Some
schools were conducted in houses which belonged to eminent persons in the island.
The British and Trinidad Governments gave half the cost of building to some
Anglican and Roman Catholic Schools after 1837.
Letter cards and reading cards, books and maps were sent out from England.
They were not related to environment and their supply was never regular. Still they
were useful. Cases of overcrowding were not very frequent.
1851-1900
The period 1851-1900 saw a change in the condition of buildings. The Education
Ordinance of 1870 awarded grants for improved school buildings, furniture, appara-
tus and maintenance. Health conditions therefore also improved. Better text books
were available and eased a bit of the uncertainty in the minds of the teacher. But
since a part of the teacher's salary depended upon attendance of children, he had
to put in extra hours of work to boost attendance. He had to walk miles to get
irregular children out, or accompany them to schools.
1901-1950
School buildings continued to improve, but with the expanding school popula-
tion room was inadequate. Occasionally, however, because of irregularity, especially
among East Indian children, the search for absent children continued; and teachers
had to go through mud often barefooted to collect them. Teachers in Government
Schools had pension rights but those in Assisted Schools were without. This facility
was extended to Teachers of Assisted Schools in 1912. Compulsory Education Acts
of 1921, 1935 and 1945 took away the burden of having to call children to school.
The 1946 Ordinance made women resigning because of marriage eligible for
marriage gratuity.






1951-1962
In the last decade there has been an all-round improvement in working condi-
tions for the teacher. He has extended sick leave, as well as leave for causes other
than illness. Study leave is available, amenities in schools have improved, his
salary is better, Teachers' Scholarships and Bursaries are available. He has a com-
petent bargaining body in the Teachers Union, and various ways of overcoming
injustice without fear of victimisation.

C. Teacher Training
GENERAL SURVEY
The training of teachers is an important aspect of education; as it is the teacher
who is immediately concerned with the education of the child.
From the inception of teacher-training in this territory in 1852 it has not been
overlooked, although the Keenan Commission in 1869 suggested that teacher-
training should be abolished and be superseded by a monitorial system.
Apart from Keenan's, all other Education Commissions and Committees which
investigated education in the territory made proposals for the improvement of the
training of teachers. These were supported in part or in whole by the relevant
Ordinance.
As early as 1851 Lord Harris in his proposals for education provided for the
training of teachers, and the Education Ordinance of 1890 made provision for the
maintenance of both Government and Assisted Training Schools.
In 1921 the International Conference of West Indian Territories recommended
the establishment of a Central Training College to serve Trinidad and other West
Indian Islands. Ten years later, the Marriott-Mayhew Commission re-emphasised
the necessity for the training of teachers and suggested a Central Training Institute
as a centre of research and experiment.
When the West Indian Royal Commission investigated conditions in Trinidad
in 1939 it stressed the importance of providing better teacher-training facilities.
Acting on this advice, the Government purchased a site at Centeno in 1940 for the
establishment of the Teachers' Training and Farm Institute. Construction work
was started, but the project was abandoned midway in 1947.
The Education Working Party of 1954 recommended, once more, the establish-
ment of a Central Training College. A 65-acre block was secured at Mausica for
this and construction work at an estimated cost of $1,700,00 commenced in 1959.
The buildings are complete and await occupancy as a residential institution for
200 students.
While plans for Mausica were being studied the Maurice Committee, sitting in
1957-1958, recommended the introduction of a one-year Emergency Course at the
Government Training College as a temporary measure to assist in eliminating the
back-log of untrained teachers in the territory.






TRAINING COLLEGES
Prior to 1850 the supply of trained teachers:in the West Indies depended upon
recruitment from England and upon the two "Normal Schools" operated by the
Mico Charity in Antigua and in Jamaica. Trinidad and Tobago drew their supply
largely from the one at Antigua. Many of the Missionary bodies used the monitorial
system and expected their teachers to be religious leaders and assistant missionaries.
Piety was more important than talent as a qualification for teaching.

The following are the Training Colleges in the territory :
(i) Government Training College (G.T.C.)
The Government Training College was established at Tranquillity in 1852
in separate buildings for male and female teachers, and the highest combined
enrolment reached 57 in 1934. In that year the College was transferred to
its present building (formerly the Portugese Club) on St. Vincent Street,
Port-of-Spain, on a temporary basis. It is now, however in its twenty-eighth
year of service there.
The enrollment climbed steadily and at present it is 174 students-male
and female-with teachers being trained for government schools and all the
denominational schools with the exception of the Presbyterian, the Roman
Catholic schools employing women, and the Seventh Day Adventist.
G.T.C. trained teachers for the Government of the Windward and Lee-
ward Islands of the West Indies during the years 1913 to 1955.
In 1958 the one-year Emergency Training Course was introduced at
G.T.C. on Wrightson Road. The combined enrolment of both courses is 349
or about 70 per cent. of the total intake of all the training colleges in the
territory. G.T.C. is non-residential.

(ii) Naparima Training College (N.T.C.)
The Naparima Training College, residential, was established by the
Canadian Mission in 1894 in San Fernando for the training of teachers for
the Presbyterian schools. Starting off with seven male students its enrolment
was up to 21 in 1916 when it began admitting female students as well. Today
the enrolment stands at 90. Over the years, N.T.C. has increased its facilities
considerably.

(iii) Catholic Women's Training College (C.W.T.C.)
In 1895 the C.W.T.C. opened with 13 students at the St. Joseph's
Convent in Port-of-Spain. The enrollment decreased with the opening of the
R.C. Men's Training College, and in 1921 there were only seven students on
roll. The enrolment at present is 50.

(iv) The Caribbean Union Training College
This Training College opened with a full programme at Maracas in 1960
with 11 students. Its intake is every two years. The present enrolment is ten.






RECRUrrMENT AND SYLLABUS
All the Training Colleges in the territory are controlled by the Ministry of
Education and Culture; and the entrance requirements, the duration of courses
(except the Emergency Course) and the syllabus are the same.
RECRUITMENT
In the early years only a two-year course was offered, and recruitment was
through the pupil teacher system, later augmented intermittently by teaching bur-
saries for a few years. In 1927 a three-year course was introduced, and in 1937 a
one-year course together with the then existing three- and two-year courses.
At present the minimum requirement for entry to a Training College is:
(a) The Teacher's Provisional Certificate;
(b) the Cambridge School Certificate, Grade II or its equivalent.
All students are recruited from teachers in service, and since 1951 they receive
their full salaries while undergoing training.
THE SYLLABUS
Over the years the syllabus has undergone many changes in the light of
educational theory and practice. From a syllabus of almost purely academic and
practical subjects the syllabus today embodies a number of professional subjects
such as educational psychology, philosophy of education, principles of education,
organisation of education, practical teaching and sociology. The academic subjects,
especially the optional ones, are geared towards the G.C.E. Advanced Level.
The final assessment for the award of the Teacher's Diploma is based on course
work and a final examination.
In each of the Colleges, students indulge in a number of extra-curricular
activities of an avocational nature.
SUMMARY
There are definite indications that teacher training has progressed over the
years. Apart 'from the actual increase in the number of trained teachers, plans
for providing better facilities in this important field of education-TEACHER-
TRAINING- have almost materialised with the completion of the Central Training
College at Mausica.

CHAPTER III
SECONDARY EDUCATION
EARLY DEVELOPMENT
Before 1850 the Sisters of the Order of St. Joseph of Cluny operated a Convent
High School for "Young Ladies" and the Roman Catholic authorities conducted a
secondary school for boys called St. George's College.
Following Lord Harris' provision for state-run primary schools in 1851, Govern-
ment decided to support a Government secondary school called Queen's Collegiate
School. The enrolment was 34.






In the year 1869, when the enrolment had risen to 68, it is recorded that out
of a total expenditure on education of 8,800, an allotment of 2,700 was made
to this college. Two private secondary schools had a bigger enrolment; St. Mary's
R.C. for boys, operating since 1863, ha'd 111; and St. Joseph's Convent, operating
as a private boarding school for young ladies since 1836, had 82.

The Education Ordinance of 1870 provided for the replacement of Queen's
Collegiate by a new college. This College, the Royal College of Trinidad, was sited
in Port-of-Spain and was placed under the management of the Governor and a
Council appointed by him. The college council was empowered by the Ordinance
to affiliate schools of secondary instruction, such schools upon application becoming
entitled to grant-in-aid. As a result, St. Mary's became affiliated in 1870, and
Naparima, a Presbyterian College operating since 1884, became affiliated in 1900.
By this time the attendances at these schools were :
Royal College ... ... .. ... approximately 100
St. Mary's ... ... ... ... ... 200
Naparima ... ... ... ... ... 50

1900-1950
ASSISTED SCHOOLS
During the period 1900-1950 several of the leading schools which had been
in operation as private schools for some time began receiving aid. Among them were :
St. Joseph's Convent, Port-of-Spain ... ... 1911
St. Hilary's E. C. Girls' ... ... ... 1924
Naparima Presbyterian Girls' ... ... ... 1925
Bishop's E. C. (Mixed) ... ... ... 1927
St. Benedict's (now Presentation Boys') ... ... 1936
St. Joseph's Convent, San Fernando ... ... 1936
St. Joseph's High School, St. Joseph

The total number of pupils in attendance at the one government school and
these assisted schools had increased in this period to 5,609, with the number of girls
steadily rising to nearly the same as the number of boys.

1951-1962
Since 1951 several other secondary schools organised by the Roman Catholic,
Presbyterian and Anglican denominations have been established for both boys and
girls and have been receiving government aid. If was not until 1953 that the govern-
ment established its second secondary school, St. George's College-a co-educational
school at Barataria. The first government secondary school exclusively for girls
was established only in 1961.
Since 1951 there has been a broader concept of secondary 'education. This is
now seen as a stage in 'development rather than a type of training.. Two new kinds
of secondary schools were introduced-the Technical or Vocational and the
Secondary Modem.






The Junior Technical School, opened in San Fernando in 1954, was developed
and in 1959 became the first Secondary Technical School.

The latest and most vigorous growth in secondary education is the Secondary
Modern School. This concentrates on neither an academic programme, nor a special-
ised technical programme. Its emphasis is on a high standard of general education
and its practical application to life. There are nine such schools in the territory,
centrally situated in populous areas :-Woodbrook, St. James, Diego Martin, Rio
Claro, San Fernando, San Juan, Tunapuna, Arima and Tobago. Two other schools
at Sangre Grande and Point Fortin, have been offering two programmes of work,
academic and general, to suit the needs of the pupils in attendance.

CURRICULUM
In the early days secondary education was narrowly classical-emphasis being
laid on French, Spanish, Latin, Greek, and, to a less extent, German.

Science teaching was restricted to chemistry and was confined to the pupils of
Queen's Royal College and St. Mary's-composite classes being taught by the
Government Analyst at the Royal Victoria Institute during the late 19th century
and the early 20th century. When these arrangements ended, Mr. Wheeler of Queen's
Royal College did his chemistry experiments in the corridors of the college. Queen's
Royal College got its first laboratory in 1922, sometime after St. Mary's. In that year
St. Joseph's Convent was already offering Botany and Physiology. Today even
private unaided secondary schools are making an effort to include Science in their
programme; and the Secondary Moder Schools are introducing General Science
to a larger number of pupils. Generally the curriculum has been expanded to include
Languages, Mathematics, Science, History-West Indian in 1939-Geography,
Literature and such subjects as Music, Art, Home Economics, Metal work,
Geometrical and Mechanical Drawing and Commerce.

In keeping with the aim of achieving the all-round development of the child,
the schools now provide extra curricular activities calculated to produce intellectual,
moral, physical and aesthetic development, Cricket, Football and Athletics are
old favourites; but Netball, Hockey, Lawn and Table Tennis and Volley Ball are
now popular. Other activities include, Cadets, Scouts, Guides, Red Cross and
St. John Ambulance Brigade; while societies for drama, music and gymnastics are
commonplace, as well as as choir singing, choral speaking and orchestral work.

EXHIBITIONS AND COMMON ENTRANCE EXAMINATION
In 1960, the principle of free secondary education for all was accepted.
The idea of free secondary education (for a restricted number) is not new. As
early as 1870, three places based on the results of the highly competitive College
Exhibition Examination were offered to Royal College and St. Mary's. Since then
the number has steadily increased as follows : in 1900-4; in 1918-8; from 1935
onwards an annual increase reaching 100 in 1950. In 1961, 3000 free places were
offered.






The allocation of these places was effected by means of a Common Entrance
Examination-an examination that is selective rather than competitive and open
to all children of 11-12 years of age.

EXAMINATIONS
In 1870 both Queen's Royal College and St. Mary's took the Senior and Junior
examinations. The examinations of the Lower Forms were first conducted jointly
by the Principals of the two colleges and a third person appointed by the Governor.
From 1877 the Lower Forms were examined by the Cambridge Syndicate because it
was thought desirable to bring local standards in line with those in England. In
1923 the Lower Forms were examined internally but the Middle Forms continued
with the Cambridge Syndicate up to 1930.

An important change came in 1917 when the Senior Cambridge examination
was replaced by two examinations, Higher School Certificate and the School Certi-
ficate. Since then the Island Scholarship has been awarded on the former examination.
Within the last few years the General Certificate of Education has been becom-
ing increasingly popular.
SCHOLARSHIPS
From 1863 until 1869 two scholarships were offered on the results of the School
Certificate examination. They were tenable for three years in the United Kingdom
at a value of 150 each. A boy had to be over 17 to qualify for the award of such
scholarships. From 1870 to 1903 four scholarships were offered; in 1904 the number
was reduced to three but the value was raised to 200. In 1918 the awards were two,
one the Open Scholarship and the other called Agriculture later Science; in 1932
the number was increased to four, and later the value was raised to 800 each.

With the accelerated growth, in recent years, towards independence, many
more scholarships have been, and are being, offered; for only with well equipped
and trained personnel can the Territory shoulder the full responsibilities of
nationhood.

In recognizing with gratitude the great part played by the denominations in
promoting secondary education in Trinidad and Tobago, the Territory can-
not forget the numerous private schools which have provided secondary education
entirely unaided by Government. Several of them, like the Granger Institute,
have perished with their founders, but names like Pamphylian, Progressive, Osmond
and Ideal will live long in the history of secondary education in this territory. The
Abbey School at Mount St. Benedict, and the many-sided Caribbean Union Adven-
tist College at Maracas, and other private institutions are contributing to the spread
of secondary education.

In 1952, following the compulsory registration of private schools, it was found
that there were some 5,000 students in attendance at them as against 6,185 in the
government and assisted schools. In 1956 the respective numbers were 6,900
and 7,303.






The question of State aid for any of these schools desiring it has come before
government, and their incorporation in a system of free secondary education for
all is envisaged.


CHAPTER IV

TECHNICAL EDUCATION

The history of Technical Education dates back to 1906 when the Board of
Industrial Training was established. The terms of reference of the Board included
inter alia "To arrange as far as possible for the Technical Education of artisans
and apprentices". The original classes, consisting of about a dozen students, were
conducted in Typography, Bookbinding and Tailoring. Subsequently, further trades
were included.

During World War I the number of classes diminished and in 1922 the Board
was reconstituted and the extent of the tuition greatly expanded.

Today over 3,000 students are enrolled in classes conducted by the Board.
The classes are held in eight (8) centres, viz., Royal Victoria Institute, Tranquillity,
Arima,. San Fernando Government School, San Fernando Technical Institute,
Siparia, Fyzabad and Rio Claro. Classes are conducted in forty-three (43) different
trades, the syllabuses being designed to meet the examination requirements
of the City and Guilds of London Institute. All these classes are conducted as part-
time evening classes.

The first full-time classes in Technical subjects started when the Junior Techni-
cal School was established by the Board of San Fernando in 1943. This school
offered a two-year course of pre-vocational training for boys and was the forerunner
of the present Technical Institute.

With the expansion of industry, particularly in the "oil belt", further training
facilities became necessary and in 1946 Trinidad Leaseholds Limited, now Texaco
Trinidad Inc., established their own Company Training Schools at Pointe-a-Pierre
and Forest Reserve, providing in-service training for some fifty (50) apprentices.
During the period 1946-1962 some 800 student apprentices, 350 Refinery Trainees,
40 Stenographer Trainees, 1,000 Supervisory Trainees, among others have benefited
from the facilities provided by the Company.

In 1949, United British Oilfields, Trinidad Ltd., now Shell Trinidad Ltd.,
established a Company Training School with an enrolment of 18 apprentices. This
establishment continued training operations until September 1960 when the Com-
pany donated the buildings and equipment to the Government of Trinidad and
Tobago. Some 80 apprentices had been trained in this School.






The Trinidad and Tobago Electricity Commission has since 1951 been con-
ducting its own training school. Young men 15*-17 years are admitted to a five-year
course. They spend the first 21 years doing Basic Mathematics, English ard First
Aid in the Training School proper and the next 2j years doing practical work in
the various departments such as Bench Fitting and Turning, Electrical Installation,
Lines Training, Draughtsmanship and Machine Shop Engineering.

At first admittance was yearly; now it is every 2j to 3 years as follows :
Year: 1951 1952 1955 1958 1961
Number : 20 7 21 34 38

Of the present trainees 23 who come from rural areas have two-thirds of the
cost of their board and lodging paid by the Commission.

At the end of their training the students are free to seek employment wherever
they wish; the Commission guarantees none. At present there are 12 of its trainees
on the monthly paid Staff, and two are studying abroad.

The Government established its first Technical Institute at San Fernando in
1954. It opened with 70 students and offered a two-year pre-vocational course
similar to that offered by the former Junior Technical School.

In 1957 the course was extended to three years and in 1959 a five-year course
was instituted leading to the General Certificate of Education Examination of the
Associated Examining Board. The first students wrote this examination in 1960.

In response to request from Industry, the Institute in 1960 introduced Day-
Release Courses which are attended on one day per week by students employed in
Industry. These courses lead to the Ordinary (National) Certificate in Mechanical
Engineering, Electrical Engineering and Building. Day-Release courses are also
provided in Metal and Woodwork for teachers in Industrial Arts Centres.

The present enrolment in these courses is about 200.

The Government Vocational Training Centre was the name given for the former
Shell Apprentices' Trade School when the latter was handed over to Government
in September 1960. The first intake consisted of 30 full-time residential students
pursuing a one-year basic training course, together with 48 trainees on a part-time
Day-Release Scheme. Present enrolment include 48 full-time residential students,
20 Day-Release students, and 20 full-time non-residential trainees undergoing a
26-week accelerated basic training programme.






CHAPTER V


HIGHER EDUCATION

Trinidad and Tobago today place great emphasis on Post Secondary or Higher
Education. Political developments over the last decade have created the need for
more University graduates and more highly and suitably qualified personnel. Prior
to 1950, University Education was reserved for the very few Colonial Scholarship
winners and those fortunate enough to "be able to afford it". But with the steady
increase in the number of scholarships awarded and the establishment of the Univer-
sity College of the West Indies, now the University of the West Indies, university
education has been brought to those who would not otherwise have obtained it.

The following is an extract from the Development Programme :-
"Government is convinced that there are many young persons in the
the country who are good university material but who lack the opportunity and
means to receive higher training. The results of the Higher School Certificate
Examination indicate that some forty persons a year achieve a standard which
guarantees them to be good university material. Every effort will be made to
assist such persons to obtain advanced education ."

Consequently, scholarships have been offered in various fields, the emphasis
being on Education, Engineering and Agriculture. The following table will give
some idea of the awards made between 1955 and 1961.

Year : 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961
Number: 11 11 19 46 89 74 75

Since 1960, Trinidad and Tobago has taken part in the Commonwealth Scholar-
ship and Fellowships Plan which resulted from the Commonwealth Education Con-
ference held at Oxford in July 1959. In making nominations for awards, the
usefulness of the field of study chosen by the applicants is taken into account as
the plan is used to supplement the annual Government Scholarships. Civil Servants
and teachers who receive awards are paid their regular salary for the duration of
their course; other expenses are part of the Scholarship.

The following are the awards made to date:
1960 1961 1962
Canada ... ... ... 2 3 2
United Kingdom ... ... 3 2 -
India ... ... ... 3 3
Australia ... ... ... 1

In addition, the territory has also received awards from the Commonwealth
Teacher Training Bursary Scheme which was instituted to afford further training
in the United Kingdom to qualified Commonwealth teachers in fields of their choice.






Persons who are not teachers, but who have considerable skill and the necessary
qualifications in certain fields, are also chosen for this training. Under this Scheme
the following awards were received :
Year : 1960 1961 1962
Number: ... 16 16 18

Until recently, all the students of the West Indies who sought University
Education looked to institutions abroad. Very many of them still do. In 1943, how-
ever, the Asquith Commission enquired into higher education and the West Indies
Committee headed by Sir James Irvine in 1944 worked in collaboration with the
Asquith Commission. Their report was completed in August 1944 and it was as a
result of this report, presented to Parliament in June 1945, that the U.C.W.I. was
founded. The essentials of the report were :
1. A University should be established in Jamaica to serve the needs of the
B.W.I., British Honduras and British Guiana.
2. It should provide teaching and research in the Faculties of Arts, Medicine
and Natural Science.
3. It should be governed by a Council made up of the Governments concerned
and Academic Staff.
4. Academic questions should be controlled by the Senate composed of mem-
bers of Academic staff.
5. A grant towards capital expenditure should be made from C.D. & W.
6. Recurrent expenditure should be borne by the colonies.

As regards academic status, it was linked with the University of London, it
had the initiative in proposing the syllabus for each examination and some members
of its staff were appointed to serve with representatives of the University of London
on the Board of Examiners.

U.C.W.I. has made rapid progress and today has full University Status. In
addition to the original faculties, there are a Faculty of Economics and a Depart-
ment of Education in Jamaica; the Faculties of Agriculture and Engineering
at St. Augustine in our own territory. Trinidad contributes about one-fifth of the
recurrent expenditure and, provided the courses are available at the University our
scholarship students are sent there.

Considerable contribution to education in the Territory is made by the Depart-
ment of Extra Mural Studies of the University. Work in this Department is carried
out under the direction of the Resident Tutor. A major part of the department's
work is carried out in classes in which various subjects including English, French,
Spanish, Mathematics and Social Sciences are taught. Many of the students prepare
for external examinations to gain University entrance requirements and some for the
London B.A. and B.Sc. (Econ.) Finals.






With the possibility of the Polytechnic Institute offering courses leading to the
London External Degrees, the Extra Mural Department has organised its classes
with two 'distinct groups of people in mind-those who have professional and voca-
tional ends in view and those who seek the study and discussion of a subject out of
interest and without regard to examination and professional achievement. The
department offers a liberal education.
The Imperial College of Tropical Agriculture was established as early as 1920
and the work consisted of, teaching Caribbean Agriculture at undergraduate level,
giving orientation courses to the agronomist who had a degree in agriculture in a
temperate climate, post-graduate teaching in Tropical Agriculture and Research. Up
to 1958 students worked towards the Diploma of I.C.T.A. (D.I.C.T.A.); but in 1959
the courses leading to the B.Sc. were instituted.
Following is the number of awards made for the period 1957-1961 :
Year : 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961
Number : ... 6 6 2 6 8
In October 1960 the Imperial College of Tropical Agriculture became the Faculty
of Agriculture of the University of the West Indies. This Faculty undertakes the
teaching of Agriculture for the B.Sc. Degree in a three- or four-year course depending
on the qualifications of the student on admission.


CHAPTER VI
FINANCE
19th Century
In 1838 the Trinida'd Government spent $4,320 on public education. By the
middle of the 19th century less than $9,600 was provided in part-payment of
teachers' salaries to 40 Denominational Schools accommodating about 1,000
children.
(a) 1851-1869
This aid to Denominational Schools was suspended when the Ward System,
under which schools were financed by rates from each Ward, was in operation.
From 1859 the State began spending money on Secondary Education in sup-
port of its own school for 34 boys.
In 1869 the State had spent $42,240 on education conducted in its own institu-
tions as shown below :
No. of Schools Enrolment Expenditure
Primary ... ... 30 Ward 2,836 $29,280
Teacher Training ... 2 Model Under 20 $9,
Secondary ... 1 Boys' 68 12,960

Total ... ... ... $42,240






There were 35 Denominational Primary Schools with as many pupils in atten-
dance as at the Ward Primary Schools, but the State made no contribution towards
the cost of the education of those children.

(b) 1870-1899
Grants-in-Aid to Denominational Primary Schools were resumed in 1870 and
extended in 1890 to include buildings, school furniture and three-quarters of the
teachers' salaries.

From the same date Government began to give Grants-in-Aid to Denomina-
tional Secondary Schools affiliated to its own. St. Mary's College, with an enrolment
of 111 students, was the first of the affiliated Secondary Schools. It received to the
end of the century a flat $2,400 plus $48 per pupil, the total not exceeding $4,800.

(o) 1899-Tobago
In 1899 when Tobago was made a Ward of Trinidad the "take over" of its
28 Denominational Schools increased the Government expenditure on Grants-in-Aid
to Assisted Primary Schools by $13,000.
The total expenditure on Education in this year (1899) was $195,937-an
increase of $23,200 over the previous year.

20th Century
In the first quarter of the twentieth century the cost of Education increased to
almost three times the cost at the turn of the century. A table below gives an idea
of the increase in government expenditure coupled with the increase in the number of
schools and the primary school attendance.

PRaIMAY SECONDARY
YEAR No. of ---- --
Schools No. on Average No. of Total
Roll Attendance Schools Expenditure
$ c.
1900 ... ... 239 30,187 18,580 3 183,654 00
1900 ... ... 240 38,735 22,572 3 201,888 00
1910 ... ... 256 44,850 27,262 3 235,425 60
1915 ... ... 281 48,669 28,917 4 217,732 80
1920 ... ... 293 50,381 27,806 4 420,340 80
1925 ... ... 290 57,725 36,404 6 560,588 60


From 1925 to 1935 government increased its grant to assisted schools by way
of teachers' salaries, pensions and gratuities in the case of Primary Schools; and
by the cost of science equipment in Secondary Schools. Grants were also extended
to University Scholars.

The effect of the Marriott-Mayhew Recommendations (1931), tending to a
widening of the scope and improved facilities for education, began to be reflected
from 1935 onwards in increasing expenditure on education.










GRAPH SHOWING INCREASE OF EXPENDITURE ON

SECONDARY EDUCATION WITH PROGRESS OF YEARS

i N 1 1 1 1 ~~i 1 I 1 1 l l i ii I I II ilir IJ 1I- 11111


THIs UmT Is
$10.000


- I- Il l I I I ii I II I i


19830 1940 1950 1960


THIn UNIT 18
$1,000
,, F7-7I-


..J L


-----I THIe UNIT Is
---- 100.000


l-----1--








10 0--1-- ---
4-




1900 1910 1920












GRAPH SHOWING EXPENDITURE ON PRIMARY EDUCATION

IN GOVERNMENT AND ASSISTED SCHOOLS


13' I

GGOV~RNENT SCHOOLS

12, ASSISTED SCHOOLS

TaHs UNIT IS $500,000


11 -


9



8




. ... 7 .. .



6'





"i







._3 ..._____._


L-


(4,,-


1940 1945 1950 1955 1960
1944 1949 1954 195a 1962


__ _I -9-r.4


----------- -f---



.1




._ ---c------- ----- ---








~-------.-..i-.... .~.


_~_1 __









GRAPH SHOWING EXPENDITURE ON PRIMARY EDUCATION
IN GOVERNMENT AND ASSISTED SCHOOLS





SU---NT-ISTED i OO
F_ / ui














_ 1_ 1_


0 091. 1905 1910 1915 1920
1904 1900 1914 1919 1924


1925 1930 1935
1929 1934 1939








GRAPH OF INCREASE OF TOTAL EXPENDITURE WITH
PROGRESS OF YEARS II
ExP r rrNa-ONE UNxT=$250,000 ---11


90





I Iff
- _( _ _ _ _















A0_


------1L1.1 LJ L
3]::::::::::::::::::::^:::::::::::::1 ::1


I II I I J I I I I I I


1910 1920 1930 1940


1950 1960






More money was voted for building and maintenance, furniture and equipment
and apparatus. More colonial scholarships were awarded, more house scholarships
and, from 1942, there was a steady increase in the number of College Exhibi-
tions. In 1936 Domestic Science and Handicraft Centres were first established.
School transport was started in 1939. In 1944 Adult Education Classes were organ-
ised; and in 1954 there was a significant increase in the provision of facilities for
Technical Education, when the State established its first Technical Institute. In
addition, there were increases in teachers' salaries. In 1956, on the Hammond
Recommendation, government adopted a new system of paying grants to Secondary
Schools for scientific laboratories, the maintenance of workshops and work rooms
for practical subjects and full payment of teachers' salaries. In 1960 "Schools
Broadcast" was inaugurated. There has been an acceleration in the school building
programme both primary and secondary.

Free secondary education is being extended; and grants to the University of
the West Indies, increased number of scholarships for further study in various
fields and extension of teacher training are parts of the government development
programme for education already begun. Added to these are numerous grants and
subsidies paid by Government to special schools, vocational schools and the
continuation of adult education.

In the last two years government has been spending approximately one-eighth
of its revenue on education.

A partial "break-down" of the rising cost of Education is shown in the
following Graphs :
I. Increase of total expenditure with the progress of years 1900-1962.
II. Expenditure on Primary Education in Government and Assisted Schools.
III. Expenditure on Secondary Education.





CHAPTER VII

CONCLUSION

In this brochure we have confined our attention to the progress in Formal
Education in Trinidad and Tobago. This restriction is not meant to imply that
other aspects of educational development in the Territory are not worthy of
consideration or even of mention. The main purpose of the foregoing survey is to
provide a background against which may be viewed, in proper perspective, the
display in the Education Section of an Exhibition which purports to portray the
growth in the Territory in respect of Health, Housing, Agriculture, Industry and
Commerce as well as Education.






The very occasion-the emergence into democratic nationhood-with which
the publication of this brochure is connected is in itself a manifestation of progress
in Education in this Territory; for Education (in all its aspects) has made a
dynamic and significant contribution to the Development of our society and our
evolution into National Independence.

As we enter into Independence, it is fitting that we recall our progress towards
this state. It is important and, indeed, if it is to be truly worth-while, essential
to view the progress with humility rather than pride, with objectiveness and not
bias, with honesty and not self-indulgence. Progress in Education there has been;
and pleasing it is to recount. We are aware, however, that there is very much yet
to be achieved. There is still an urgent need for increasing the number of primary
schools, not only to relieve overcrowding but to make a place available to every
child of the appropriate age. Secondary education is yet to be a stage in every
child's development. The provision of free secondary education for all is a declared
objective, and much remains to be done before this can be accomplished. There
is need for expansion of facilities for Further Education-advanced Technical and
all aspects of University education.

Yet with the momentum developed-especially during the last decade-there is
confidence that, with unity of purpose, determination, and dedication, we shall
attain our goal of dignified nationhood as together we aspire and, with concerted
action, achieve.




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