Reverend Emeritus Rabbi Dr. Jacob H. Kaplan 1874-1965, His early life from 1874-1927 and a visit to the Holyland to hono...


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Reverend Emeritus Rabbi Dr. Jacob H. Kaplan 1874-1965, His early life from 1874-1927 and a visit to the Holyland to honor the 20th anniversary of his marriage with Adele Hoffman Kaplan
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Emily Madden
Rebecca Jefferson and George A. Smathers Libraries
Place of Publication:
University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida
Publication Date:


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Author currently working on bibliography and citations

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University of Florida
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University of Florida
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Reverend meritus

Rabbi Dr. Jacob 1. Kaplan

1i 874-1 96

His Early Life from 187+-1 927 and
A Visit to The Holg Land
To Honor the zo2 Anniversary
OF His Marriage with
Adele Hoffman Kaplan

Compiled & Written by E-milq Madden
published by Rebecca Jefferson and
George A. mathers Libraries
Clniversit~ of florida
SGainesville FL~ -ebruar j2 202


In the summer of ZOO7, Elizabeth fagel of Gainesville FL generously gave the Isser and
Rae rice Library ofJudaica at the University of lorida's George A. Smothers Libraries,
several rare book editions from the bequest of her great uncle -Reverend Emeritus Rabbi
Jacob H1man Kaplan of Miami FL. Included with the gift were a set of Magic Lantern
slides which celebrated the imminent 20' wedding anniversary of Reverend Kaplan to his wife,
Adele Hoffman Kaplan, whom he had met in Selma AL during his election to the rabbinate
of Temple Mishkan Israel from late 1 o07 to 1 1. ]-The slides present images of their trip to
the 1ols Land, and IEurope circa 1 y25, and indude both photos made by them as
well as tourist photos they purchased of places they visited and of iconic historical events in
the transformation of Mandate falestine into the modern .tate of Israel. in 1926, the
Kaplans moved to Miami FL where several prominent families of theirformer appointment to
Selma AL now lived and, in order to accept Rabbi Kaplan's election as Chief Rabbi to the
Temple Israel Congregation.

Though threatened by 2 very strong hurricanes in 1 z6 and 1927, the Kaplans oversaw the
building of Temple Israels first synagogue, the current eertha Abess Sanctuary in down-
town Miami, and the establishment of its religious school, which put to good use Adele's de-
gree in education until 1956, when Rabbi Colman A. Zwitmanjoined the Temple as Assis-
tant Rabbi and assumed the leadership of it. Rabbi Kaplan retired to emeritus status in 1 9+1
but continued to serve the congregation in various capacities until his death in 1b6y. When
Mrs. Kaplan preceded him in death in 1956, his cousin Maurice Kohen and wife, Anne,
moved in with Rabbi Kaplan to make a home for him during his senior years.

Jacob Kaplan was never a man to tire of professional duties whether sacred or secular, His
life was characterized by a profound capacity for doubled work-loads, as example by his
student days of double-enrollments in Cincinnati On at Hughes High School, University
of Cincinnati, and at Hebrew Union College, and his Temple Israel years shared with a
professorial appointment to the University of Miami in philosophy and history. As well, he
nurtured ecumenical camaraderie with local religious leaders in a weekl radio discussion se-
ries that he founded, he actively supported the African American civil rights movement in the
Miami Area in the l950s and early 1 96s, and he lobbied to help Russian Jews emigrate
from the USSR to florida tojoin congregations with mutual aid societies set-up to assist
them. He was perpetually involved in shaping local, state and national political discourse with
erudite opinion pieces published in the Miami herald, and elsewhere and, last but not least,
was fondly remembered by his chauffeur to have a passion for visiting the Negrojazz clubs in
Miamis Overtown area on Friday evenings after habbat service instead of heading straight
to his home. While known to be an ardent organizer and motivator of people, this man de-
scribed by his congregationists as being one of the sweetest natured men among them, a man

who made you feel dignified and reverent, it was often with the roar of a lion that Rabbi
laplan determined to sway entrenched interests to support the causes of justice and equali-
ty. Whether from a downtown street pulpit, or at a Miami port wharf where an ocean liner
waited for permission to disembark Jewish passengers fleeing itler's Germany-Rabbi
Kaplan remains a beacon in the history of Jewish florida and a champion in the promotion of
human dignity and respect for all.

Mrs. Pages gift has opened a door into early 20ho Century florida Jewish history for us
that expanded our knowledge of how one Miami area Reform congregation was established
and grew, as well as, from where the people who populated it had come and, how its birth was
reflective of the rise of Reform Judaism in America. Study of this slice of life as revealed by
Rabbi Kaplan's ownjourney through it has also shown us how linked the Reform Judaism
movement was to the development of public preparatory and college educational institutions
within the United States of America. beyond the history it has illuminated, the gift also em-
bodies exposure to the media technology of earlier times as Magic Lantern slides, and pro-
vides lessons in both curatorial and professional field work best practices. We believe the
archive possesses a long shelf-life of information for our library patrons and research schol-
ars. In sum, we are very grateful to beth Fagel for her generous gift which importance for
contemporary and future researchers is a springboard to greater knowledge of one of flori-
da's leading rabbis of his day Reverend Emeritus Rabbi Jacob IMyman Kaplan, and, addi-
tionally, the contributions of his wife, Adele Hoffman Kaplan as she assisted his work and
administered Temple Miami's early days of religious and cultural education.

Several other persons must, as well, be thanked for their role in the acquisition, procession,
production and presentation of the Fagel-Kaplan Magic Lantern slide archive; Mrs. Sandra
James, Secretary in (Jniversity of florida's Center for Jewish Studies and who first made
and maintained contact with beth Fagel regarding her collection, and who brought her inten-
tion to make a donation to the University of florida, the Center forJewish studies and the
[rice Library, to the attention of Dr. Jack Kugelmass, Director of the Center for Jewish
Studies, and to Mr. Seth Jerchower, former Head of the rice Ljbrary, so that they could
visit with Mrs. pagel to review her collection and determine those parts of it which would be
appropriate for the (Jniversity of florida to accept in order to support its academic missions;
Jim Cusick~ Dina benson, John Nemmers, and Joyce Dewsbury -employees in the
George A. 5mathers Libraries' Department of Special and Area Studies Collections-for
their curatorial assistance with the slides and with two scrapbooks of material related to Dr.
Kaplan and Temple Israel that had been received by the department at an earlier time as part
of an anonymous donor's gift John Freund, Head of Smathers Libraries' Conservation
(Jnit, for his work to repair and make physically ready for use, the Magic Lantern slides and
case; Dean Judy Russell and Assistant Dean John Ingram for their support in production
of the exhibit of the Magic Lantern slides curated in June 2008, and again in October zoo008,
by me; Harmons Photo Lab, which processed the images in the slides after touch-ups had

been applied using the VicMan image processing freeware developed by INTEXMFEDIA
5L brad Match for his help mounting the 2008 exhibits and with preparation of the covers
for this album, Bill Hanssen, Jr. for his production of the graphics for the 2008 exhibit as
well as his assistance with the printing of this album's pages; Mr. Rob Roberts (retired unit
Head), Mr. Jeff Lajza (current unit Head), and Mr. Peter Miller -all of the 5mathers Li-
braries facilities Unit for logistical assistance; ,F's Information Technology Unit for
5mathers Libraries for quickly restoring PC access when mine caught a virus; and, to the
staff of the 5mathers Libraries' Digital Library Center, headed by Ms. Lois Widmer and
which work was directed by Mr. Randall Renner with assistance from Dr. Laurie Taylor,
Traveler Wendell, Gus CJitoln and Tabitha fursley, to digitize the final artifact before its
flight to Montana commenced.

Research assistance, and often copies of material from primary source archives in the United
States that contain material about Dr. Kaplan, was graciously given by Judy Basen
Weinreb, Chair of The Israel C. Carmel Archives & History Committee at Congregation
Albert in Albuquerque NM; by Janet Bronitskl, fTA, Executive Director of Temple
Emanuel, Denver CO, and by Mr. Kevin Profitt, senior Archivist for Research and Col-
lections at The American Jewish Archives at Hebrew U(nion College in Cincinnati OH.
The following institutions must also be acknowledged for the wealth of information and mate-
rial that have been made available by them and theirfunding sponsors, in the form of Creative
Commons digital archives, and which were crucial to the completion of research for this album
The Greater Ohio Memory project -a digital image archive hosted by The Public Library
of Cincinnati and the 5WON Libraries Network of southwestern Ohio and Northwest-
ern Kentucky; University of Cincinnati Libraries, including the access it provides through
portals it maintains to the U(C Digital Resource Commons and OhioUNK DRC; Ha-
thiTrust Digital Library, a data storage and computational infrastructure at Indiana (Aniver-
sity and the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign; University of Denver's fenrose
Library and several digital archives it houses; New Mexico's Digital Collections housed by
the University of New Mexico and the University of New Mexico Libraries; Googie B5ooks
digital books online; American Jewish Committee Archives (New York); Temple Israel Mi-
ami; Government of Israel Photo Archives; Egypt's History in Photos, ELRETZ YIS-
ROEL.ORG., and the website, buffalo Architecture and History.

Most important of all, credit and hearty thanks must be given to Dr. Rebecca Jefferson, the
current Head of the price Library of Judaica, for giving this project precedence through her
leadership, encouragement, advice, congeniality, patience, and gentle nudging at times when it
seemed as if a scrapbook might never materialize. 1By way of hergenerous support, as well as
her enthusiasm to reproduce a further copy of this work for the 5mathers Libraries' Special
and Area Studies Departments rice Library of Judaica Archives, she has become the
album's co-publisher.

Deep personal thanks go to my mother and father, Sammye and Bobbie Madden, whose
incomparable love, among other forms of support, have sustained me as no other has; also, to
the rest of my family Robert, brenda and Angela, for being there for them and for me, es-
pecially during recent years. To my lovable, huggabl, funy pals for their stabilizing influence
and whose daily presence have been the foundation of companionship in my North florida
Lake Country home -Ranger, Miss Kitty funkin', Chelsea, Roux, Squeaky, and Magicoo.
To Robert 5ingerman for his ever present inspiration and professional example which has
guided me into all things Judaica during the many years we worked together in the frice Li-
brary, with him at the helm and me as his co-pilot I am eternally grateful to his willingness to
bring me on board and to mentor my path through Jewish bibliographic worlds; as well, to his
lovely wife, Marilyn, forgraciously keeping me in lumpa while visiting their home. To my good
friends Elaine Needelman, Jessica & Kitler York, Douglas Smith, Dennis Lee Egan,
5haina Amienyi, Llizabeth Konopka, Carol & fat Whitmer, Marc, Carre & Jim Hunt,
Gessica Schoneck, Sunny & Win barron, billy Robinson, Teresa Turner, Razz-de-
Dorado & fals, Jianming Chen, Lei Yao, Nin Li, fenny Difalma, and bonnie Woodmore -
all of you kept my morale high and some of you endured the service of reading various drafts
of this narrative. In addition to your friendships, your insights have been invaluable.

Lastly, to Lugene "Jesus Gene" Worth Hastings Whitford, my spiritual anchor and closest
companion for many, many years, it is to him that this work is dedicated Thank you for all of
the friendship you cast my way and may your path be blessed with happiness and long life.

Emily Madden
Gainesville PL
14 Febmrary 2012

MIAMI (Miam : Universit of Miami pres6, 1972): pp.8+-91.
ha-TANIN Newsletterof the Center for Jewish Studies at the Uniersity of lorida. No. 19 springg 2003:pp. 7-20.

Table of Contents

Forward and Acknowledgements

Kabbi Jacob Kaplan's Early Life to 1927

A 2z WeddingAnniversary Celebratio'n The Kaplanm' Trip to Europe,
the HolI Land and Egypt as Seen in Their Magic Lantern Slide Collecton




CD-ROM: The Fagel-Kaplan Fxibit Photos of June 2008

CD-ROM- The Magic Lantern Slide Images
The Magic Lantern Slides

Ma-TANIN, Sprng 2008

Lobby Cards F Posters from the Spring & all 2008 Fagel Kaplan exhibitions

Coverfl'osolrap:.Rabbi Kaplan on his Ordination as Rabbi at Hebrew (Union College (Cincinnati) in 1902

_- t

Reverend Elmeritus Dr. Jacob HM man Kaplan


At far right, Reverend Emeritus Dr. Jacob H. Kaplan in 1960 at age 85, wearing a light-
colored tropical suit and his signature bow tie Temple Israel of Greater Miami was
celebrating Rabbi Narot's award of an honorary Doctor of Divinity degree after 20
years in the rabbinate and his tenth at Temple Israel.

L-to-R: Rabbi Morris W. Graff, Rabbi Irving M. Lehrman (Temple Emanu El, Miami
Beach), Rabbi Nathan Perilman (Temple E Manuel, New York City), Monsignor James
Enright (St. Rose of Lima Roman Catholic Church, Miami), Rabbi Narot, Reverend Har-
old Buell (White Temple Methodist Church, Miami), and Rabbi Kaplan. (1)

it is from a novel source -though one so verse American as to almost be humorous, that
the earlu biography of Reverend E merits Dr. Jacob H. Kaplan is known:
a law suit.

In Vol. 8 do Ohio Nii frius and General Tnerm reports, Decisions o the Courts o
Common fleas and robate Courts of Obio also, o the Superior Court o Cin-
cinnatiat GeneralandSpecial Terms (1 90 1), the following court cases appear:

Hamilton County Common Pleas
STATE of OHIO ex rel. JACOB H. KAPLAN v. OSCAR W. KUHN, et al.,
constituting the Board of Directors of the University of Cincinnati
constituting the Board of Directors of the University of Cincinnati (2)

- I

It seems that the universityy of Cincinnati was trying to get out of its founder's charge
to provide them, as citizens of Cincinnati, with tuition-free instruction. From this rec-
ord Jacob Kaplan's early life is revealed; but also along the way, are points of interest
in American Jewish history and in the development of American collegiate education.

"He [Jacob Kaplan] was born in [Adelnau, Posen Province] Germany on December 28,
1874, and was 11 years old when his parents left Europe in 1886, to move their small
family to Buffalo, New York. There his father established a home furnishing store and
proceeded to become a naturalized citizen." ()

It isn't known why the Kaplans settled on Euffalo as their new home. Odds are they
had friends or relatives already living there. It was the largest settlement of German
Jews living between New York and Chicago in the mid to latter 1800s and it didn't
have the socio-economic problems that confronted immigrants in the New York City
megalopolis. This passage from the Jewish history Resources page of the New
York State Archives' web site provides a general historical context for Jewish set-
tlement in New York State:

"Following the War of 1812, improvements in maritime technology and transportation,
particularly the use of steam and the opening of the Erie Canal, combined to intensify
Jewish settlement in New York from Central Europe. Ethnic and class tensions be-
tween the old Sephardic elite and the more recently arrived German Jews resulted in
the break-up of the New York city Kehillah in 1824 and the founding of the city's first
Ashkenazic synagogue, B'nai Jeshurun. As immigration swelled New York's population,
significant Jewish communities developed in Albany, Syracuse, Rochester and Buffalo
between 1820 and the Civil War.

Religious divisions began to appear in New York in the 1840s with the founding of a
Reform congregation, Temple Emanu-EI, which subsequently became the largest syna-
gogue in the world and the spiritual home to much of New York's German Jewish elite
including department store owners, investment bankers and clothing manufacturers.
Isaac M. Wise, the principal architect of the Reform movement in the United States,
served briefly in Albany beginning in 1846 where he established the custom of mixed
[gender] seating in American synagogues before moving to Cincinnati, Ohio in 1851." (4)

As well, the Jewish Virtual Library website gives a synopsis of buffalo Jewry, in par-

"The first Jew in the area came during the War of 1812, when Captain Mordecai Myers
was assigned to the Williamsville cantonment. In 1825 Mordecai Manuel Noah
launched his short-lived utopian plan for a Jewish homeland on Grand Island in the Ni-
agara River, to be called "the city of Ararat", near Buffalo. Jewish settlers came to Buf-
falo in the decades following 1825, a period of great growth for the city. The first Jew
to arrive was Lemuel H. Flersheim, who emigrated from Germany in 1835 and taught

-- 2-

his native language in the public schools. Jewish merchants and manufacturers soon
followed Flersheim. Buffalo's first retail clothing store was opened by Mordecai M.
Noah's nephew in the 1840s. Congregation Beth El, composed of Polish and German
Jews, was established in 1847. Needy German-Jewish arrivals were aided by the Ja-
cobsohn Society, organized in 1847 on the community self-help idea. The society last-
ed into the 1860s and also established Buffalo's first Jewish cemetery. Differences in
background created dissension in Beth El, and in 1850 the German element seceded to
form Beth Zion, one of a succession of splinter groups to emerge from the original
congregation. By 1864 the various Reform elements had united to form Temple Beth
Zion. Eventually, Beth El became a Conservative congregation.

Today, most Buffalo Jews are descendants of the Eastern Europeans who came after
1880. These newcomers worked as peddlers, tailors, junkmen, and storekeepers, and
with the immigration, the main location of the Jewish residential population shifted
from lower Main Street to the East Side. A community house, a Jewish library, and
about twelve Orthodox synagogues were set up in the area.

There were 13 congregations in Greater Buffalo in 2004: three Conservative, five Or-
thodox, one Reconstructionist, three Reform, and one Traditional. While the syna-
gogues were unable to bring unity into the ghetto, the lodges and charitable organiza-
tions were a unifying force. A hevra kaddisha appeared early in the life of Buffalo Jew-
ry. Montefiore Lodge of B'nai B'rith dates from 1866 and was the first of many groups
which provided social companionship and mutual aid. In the 1850s the Buffalo Young
Men's Hebrew Association, one of the first in the U.S., aided Jews traveling through
the city and also offered cultural programs. Other institutions that were set up includ-
ed an orphans' home, operated in conjunction with Rochester Jewry, a sheltering
house, and Zion House, established by Beth Zion's Sisterhood to care for the newly ar-
rived Russian Jews. Zion House was popularly known as the Jewish Community Build-
ing and formed the nucleus for the Federated Jewish Charities of Buffalo, which was
established in 1903. The Federated Jewish Charities incorporated several rival socie-
ties and became the direct ancestor of the present United Jewish Federation. While
Buffalo Jews established afternoon and Sunday Hebrew schools early on, it was not
until the late 1920s that a Bureau of Jewish education was established. In 1928, it es-
tablished the High School of Jewish Studies which today has over 200 students. In
1959 the Kadimah School created an elementary and middle school. The weekly Buffa-
lo Jewish Review has been published since 1917." (s)

Meanwhile, back at court, the scribe continues Jacob Kaplan's story of how he came
to Cincinnati, and why he is claiming it as his domicile:

"... he had, from childhood, cherished the purpose of following the ministry and be-
coming a rabbi; that, about a year before he came to Cincinnati, he had heard of this
city as a center of reformed Judaism, and of the educational advantages offered here
in the high schools, the University of Cincinnati, and the Hebrew Union College. In
1894, [he -aged 19] came to Cincinnati with his father. He was informed that if he was
studying for the ministry, he would get his academic and theological instruction free.
His father at that time had some small means and could contribute a little to [his] sup-
port ... but, had the [further college] tuition not been free [nor had] there been pro-
spect that [he] would have the opportunity to earn something himself and receive as-
sistance from the Hebrew Union College, Jacob could not have undertaken this course
of instruction. The father confided his son to the authorities of the college, Jacob en-

tered Hughes High School, where after three years tuition free from 1894 to 1897 [ag-
es 19-21] he graduated, and was accepted into the future Class of 1901 at the Universi-
ty of Cincinnati for the academic year 1897/1898. After the first year of Jacob's stay in
Cincinnati, there was a change in his father's circumstances so that, since that time, he
has received nothing toward his maintenance from that source, but has been support-
ed by a stipend from the Hebrew Union College, a salary he receives as instructor in
the Jewish Sabbath School of the Richmond Street Temple, and from what he earns by
private tutoring. About one-half of his whole maintenance comes from the Hebrew
Union College." (6

Forgood measure then, to bolster his stature as an upright citizen of the city, the ac-
count emphasizes separately that:

"In 1896 Jacob H. Kaplan voted, also in 1898 and 1899." (7)

Several paragraphs later, the report returns to his deposition:

"Mr. Kaplan says that when he first came to Cincinnati, he knew he could not return to
Buffalo, but that his coming at that time was only for the purpose of getting an educa-
tion. Since then, and since attaining his majority, he has chosen this as his city of resi-
dence; he says, 'I have chosen this as my home.' [He] says that it is his present inten-
tion to complete his academic and theological studies, and he expects to graduate
from the Hebrew Union College as a rabbi. He hopes that he may be then favored with
a call from some Jewish congregation to officiate as its minister. The probabilities are
greater that such call will come away from Cincinnati than from a congregation of this
city. In regard to his intention of making Cincinnati the city of his residence, [he] was

'Q: What is your present intention, Mr. Kaplan, in regard to removing yourself from
A: I have no intention whatsoever on the subject.

Q: Mr. Kaplan, is it not rather your intention to go, but you don't know when or
A: Well, my intention clearly is this: that I shall stay here until I shall get a better place
as a rabbi of course, but if that does not come, then I have no other place to go
except this city.

Q: If you can't do that, you will stay here?
A: No; my intention is to stay here until I get somewhere else a position to better the
position I have here, because I have something to make my living here.' (s

Jacob Kaplan's testimony ends with information regarding his ownership of worldly
possessions and his taxpayer status:

"Mr. Kaplan makes no tax return, and says that his clothes and his books are the only
property he owns in the world." (9)

Julius J. Gusfield's testimony follows, with several pages ofjudicial consideration of
the cases' merits and, after which, thejudge concludes that both meet the require-
ments for Cincinnati domicile, and politely tells Oscar Kuhn and the (University of
Cincinnati, to 'pay up':

"Taking these general principles and applying them to the facts in Jacob H. Kaplan's
case, and being persuaded of the sincerity and veracity of his declarations, I find all the
facts and circumstances surrounding him consistent and reconcilable with such decla-
rations, and conclude that since becoming of age be has abandoned Buffalo as the
place of his domicile and has in good faith adopted the city of Cincinnati as the place of
his domicile, and has become a resident and citizen of this city. I am therefore of the
opinion that under Charles McMicken's will, the statute R. S. 4100 and the rules and
regulations of the University of Cincinnati, Jacob H. Kaplan is entitled to free tuition."

There is another curious event that occurredjust prior to Jacob Kaplan's senior year
at IC which may or may not have had anything to do with his suit against the board: a
significant uproar was created by (C's first expressly elected (c university Fresident,
professor Howard Agers UulJy 18 y-June 1 0o+). 5hortlq after his selection, he so-
licited from the board of Directors their full support for whatever he might deem nec-
essary to improve the university. This allegiance was apparently requested at a pri-
vate dinner in his home on October 1+, 1899, with most, though not all, of its members

Dr. Howard B. Ayers, President
University of Cincinnati, 1899-1904 (1


Then, in January 1900 -during the latter half of Kaplan'sjunior year- Ayers dra-
matically asked for the resignations of the entire university's faculty! Though this
number was subsequently reduced to just 10 seats, understandable turmoil ensued
with demands for explanation from students, faculty, and citizens-at-large, and with
various board members claiming they never realized the degree to which Ayers had
demanded their complicity at the October dinner. (12)

A Cincinnati concerned citizens' group led by the President of the Cincinnati Gas &
Electric Company -General Andrew Hickenlooper- protested the situation in a
formal report in support of deposed faculty and a call for Ayers to resign instead. (

General Andrew Hickenlooper General Andrew Hickenlooper
during the American Civil War (14) circa 1900 (15)
This General Hickenlooper was no creampuff. Though born in Hudson, Ohio, he
was a lifelong citizen of Cincinnati who had graduated from one of the predecessors
to University of Cincinnati, Woodward College. Woodward College had been part
of Woodward High School and was Mughes High School's "competition", and the
high school from which Jacob Kaplan had graduated. As a civil engineer and innate
military genius, he had earned his military rank with distinguished service in the UJnion
Army during the American Civil War and had won a gold medal for valor in the battle
of Vicksburg, partially by constructing a bridge across the big black River out of
cotton bales and a timber frame. 16) frior to the war, Andrew Hickenlooper had also
graduated from Xavier College (Cincinnati); thus, he presented a formidable and elo-

luent spokesperson for the committee. ('7) In addition to his leadership of the city's
primary gas utility company, his other achievements included being city surveyor and
city civil engineer before he entered the Union Army and, in 188 of the Reconstruc-
tion era, being elected the 15tI Lieutenant Governor of Ohio. He also authored 2
books on natural gas delivery and incandescent street lighting, and made numerous
writings and speeches in his capacity as Corresponding secretary of the 5ocietq of
the Army of the Tennessee, to which most Ohio soldiers had been assigned. l)

General Hickenlooper's character had been molded for determined action and victory
during his rise to the brevetted position of Brigadier-General, but Professor Ayers
and the board proved to be intransigent. Given his very successful biography, it was
likely one of the very few defeats in life that he experienced.

Citizen's Committee Report, April 1900 (19)

Another prominent figure in opposition to the board, and in particular to Ayers, was
Professor Fhillip Van Ness Myers, who had come to the University of Cincinnati as
a high-prized addition to the faculty. Myers' peppery resignation letter from the UC
faculty is included in the Reports documents along with articles and opinions from lo-
cal newspapers.


Professor Dr. Phillip Van Ness Myers and Professor Dr. William Oliver Sproull in 1897
Sproull, who was Professor of Latin and Arabic, had also once served as Dean of the Facul-
ty and was one of those who were "resigned" (20)

Cincinnatians had struggled since 1819 to establish a well-respected institution of
higher learning culled from its early schools of advanced and professional education:

Cincinnati College, the Conservatory of Music, the Medical College of Ohio, the

Cincinnati Law School, the Ohio College of Dental surgery, and later, the Mt.

Adams Astronomical Observatory and the Ohio Mechanics Institute which, became
the Technical College.

Charles McMicken (1782-1858) Founder, University of Cincinnati
Farmer, Educator, Cotton Trader, Financier and Founder of Ohio in Liberia (West Africa) (21)


:~t~w~'.~ ~:

It had taken almost 20 years from the time Charles McMicken had made his
$ 1,000,000 bequeath in 1858, to hold classes for the Academic Department, in its
own building on the McMicken homestead on McMicken Avenue.

The McMicken family homestead on McMicken Avenue circa Summer 1873 (22)

While little of the Civil War was fought directly in Ohio, due to the leadership, man-
power, and wealth it sapped from city and state, it was an event that had delayed Cin-
cinnati's university plans during the 8 60s and early 1 870s. 3) As well, the 5tate of
Louisiana refused to recognize the McMicken will's validity over $500,000 worth of
property that was part of the endowment but located within Louisiana's borders.
This resulted in almost 30 years of litigation between the Louisiana McMicken heirs
and the (iC board of Directors before (IC was able to gain control of it and the
income it could produce.

k v A"

Old Woodward High School on Franklin & Abigail Streets (24)


Chartered by the Ohio Legislature in 1873, at that time, there was yet no campus
nor building, and classes had to be held in several locations about the city from the
old Woodward High school building on franklin and Abigail Streets, to the building
which had housed the ~rj Intermediate School, also on Franklin 5t., and finally, to its
first home in the McMicken Aniversity building on McMicken Avenue in 1 875.

McMicken College on McMicken Avenue ca. Winter 1875
The smaller building had been the home of the McMicken family (25)

by 1 880, the college student population had grown so swiftly that plans were already
under way to move the campus to a more permanent campus, pending the outcome of
litigation with the McMicken heirs in Louisiana, and legal petitions to move from the
McMicken homestead site: Charles McMicken's will had explicitly specified that the
homestead property was to be the location of the university buildings. While well-
intentioned, it had not anticipated the meteoric rise in demand for higher education
that would occur during the 40-year period following his death; thus, this directive
proved to be impractical. (26)

Yet even as planning progressed, action was sluggish, due both to declining rental in-
come from McMickcn endowment properties and legal settlements to the heirs of oth-
er persons who had endowed the university in their wills, including those of Charles
McMicken. Consequently, until 1 895, only the L(niversity building at the McMick-
en homestead had been built. Via petition to the City Council, to the Ohio State
Legislature and lastly, to the Ohio Supreme Court, the UC board were finally al-
lowed to develop a new campus on +3 acres of burnett Woods Fark that had been
provided by the City of Cincinnati For that purpose. (7)


Even so, a further financial setback had occurred earlier in 1 885, when the L(niversity
building located at the McMicken homestead was gutted by a fire that started in the
basement laboratory on November 7. somewhat of a blessing in disguise, the resto-
ration enabled the board and faculty to make adjustments to the building's design,
as well as, accept the benefits of its close relationship with the nascent Hebrew ( n-
ion College.

Basement and First Floor Fire Damage to the University Building on McMicken Avenue (28)

The fire, which decimated the interior of McMicken universityy, led to its brief tenure
at the I(UC building at 72+ N. 6th .Street for the second half of the 18 5/1886
academic year. Reverend Dr. Isaac M. Wise served on the (IC board from 1 88z-
1900, and immediately offered the -(I C premises to the (Iniversity while its first
home was repaired:


"The Board met with a serious loss by the partial destruction of the University building
by fire on Saturday morning, November 7, 1885. The fire, which was discovered about
four o'clock in the morning in the Chemical Laboratory, was confined to the principal
room of the Chemical Laboratory, the Physical Laboratory, immediately under it, and
the Lecture Room of the Professor of Philosophy [this would have been Benedict], with
the lower hall and cellar. Some injury was done to the Lecture and Recitation Rooms
in the north side of the building, and the Mathematical Recitation Rooms in the south
side of the second story.

The most careful investigation has not discovered the cause of the fire. The janitor
had removed the ashes and prepared the fuel for the fires to be lighted on Monday
morning, and had turned off the gas from the whole building, while the Professor of
Chemistry is very positive that the flames did not originate in the Laboratory itself.


The Fire Department rendered efficient service, and prevented the destruction of the
entire building.

The damage to the University was of such a character as to make it necessary to pro-
vide for some temporary rooms in which to hold the class recitations and lectures. In
response to a call of the Chairman of the Board, the Directors met at the University
Building on Saturday afternoon following the fire. A meeting of the Faculty was called
at the same hour for conference. Facilities were kindly extended by the members of
the Union High School Board and the officers and teachers in charge of the Public High
Schools. The Board fortunately was relieved from embarrassment by the following
communication from Reverend Dr. Wise, President of the Hebrew Union College and a
Director of the University:

CINCINNATI, November 7,1885.
Hon. Samuel F. Hunt, Chairman of the University Board:

DEAR SIR: The University building being burnt down, I take pleasure in informing you
and the Board that the Hebrew Union College Building and each room thereof is at
your service to be used as temporary quarters for the University of Cincinnati. There is
sufficient room in the building for the University classes. The Hebrew Union College
Building is at your service from this P. M., as long as you may deem proper to use it.

President Hebrew Union College

It is needless to say that this generous proposition was gratefully accepted, and in-
struction in every department proceeded without interruption." -Samuel F. Hunt, FIF-
31, 1885. 129)

Reverend Dr. Isaac M. Wise
Founder and President of Hebrew Union College, 1875-1900
Member of the Board of Directors, University of Cincinnati, 1882-1900 (3o)


The 1886 Annual Report further clarified the arrangement and Dr. Wise's generosi-

"The threatened controversy with the insurance companies having policies on the Uni-
versity Building, to which attention was called in the last report, was settled by arbi-
tration, and work was at once commenced by the Board in the way of repairs. As early
as February such progress had been made that temporary rooms were provided for
recitations and lectures, and Academic instruction was transferred from the Hebrew
Union College to the University Building. It is but proper, in this connection, to bear
testimony to the courtesy of the officers of the Hebrew Union College for the use of
that building so generously tendered. The President of the Board of Trustees of that
institution, in a communication to this Board, dated February 15, 1886, declined to ac-
cept any compensation for the occupancy of the building by the Faculty and students
of the University. The Board, by resolution, directed the Chairman to acknowledge the
kindness, which was done by letter." -Samuel F. Hunt, SIXTEENTH ANNUAL REPORT OF THE

The involved citizens and faculty who had cultivated (IC's rise to prominence felt
they had just begun to make real progress: by 1895, they had a bona fide university
campus at burnet Woods, and with the employment of Ayers specifically hired to
serve as Fresident, had expected to further build its future with him rather than to be
stymied by cross-purposes.

But the prime mover and shaker behind Ayer's call for reorganization was Oscar
Kuhn, who was the same counsel representing CUC in the lawsuits brought in 1900 by
Kaplan and Gusfield to secure domicile to be eligible for the free tuition specified in
Charles McMicken's will.

Oscar Kuhn had been schooled by several of the faculty members set to be retired,
and had graduated from (IC not long before hejoined the board in 1890. Ayer's
cuimculum vitae reflected extensive experience abroad at institutions in Europe and
exposure to the latest in technological and scientific practice. With a strong desire to
modernize (IC and enhance its academic stature, Kuhn supported him to achieve it
as quickly as possible.

~ 13~

Oscar W. Kuhn, Chairman of the Board of Directors,
University of Cincinnati (1901) (3)

prior to Ayers arrival, faculty and various board members had rotated the responsi-
bilities of the presidential office, and all had actively supported the idea of hiring a
president albeit, apparently, with different motivations. For the faculty, to be re-
lieved of the interference of its obligations with their regular teaching endeavors in or-
der to focus more on student progress and their own professional development and
production -but for the board, the opportunity to accomplish what they considered
to be progressive and profitable changes- such goals as:

To establish a more rigorous curriculum,
To attract more paying, non-resident students from outside Cincinnati to offset the
education they were required by McMicken's will to provide free to citizens; and,
To emphasize faculty publications as part of the new criteria by which faculty compe-
tence and professionalism would be judged. (33)

Ayers, as the new-comer, would be able to clear the decks and retire faculty perceived
as roadblocks. He would also be able to claim that modernization would be all the bet-
ter for (IC in order to position it to enter the imminent century with prestige. To
support his push for a publications-based faculty retention program, the board es-
tablished the (Jniversity fress in 1901 with a completely equipped printing press do-
nated to it by Charles P. Taft, and under which auspices scholarly works from all are-
as of the university could be published and coordinated for release to scholarly jour-

The University Bulletins will consist of two series of publications, to be designated the
Literary and Scientific series and the General series. The former will consist of original
contributions from the professors in the several departments of the University, and
others whose contributions are accepted for publication by the University, and such
essays and contributions on historical, literary and scientific subjects as it may become
desirable to preserve in permanent form. The latter series will consist of University
catalogues and announcements of courses of study, circular letters to teachers and
others, circulars of information, and the various other publications which the Universi-
ty may find it needful or advisable to publish for the dissemination of information, the
publication of University regulations and the preservation of University records. One
series will constitute the contribution of the University to the intellectual life of to-day;
the other will be composed of the administrative records of the-University as they are
made day by day and year by year.

Arrangements have been made to enter the University Bulletins in the post office as
second-class matter, and they will be issued quarterly or oftener. The price to regular
subscribers is fifty cents per year for the bulletins of the second series, while the price
for the first series will vary, and cannot be determined until the time of publication.
The publication of these bulletins is very important for the furtherance of the work of
the University, and they will form a medium of communication between the adminis-
trative and teaching bodies on the one hand, and the alumni and friends of the Univer-
sity on the other, serving to keep them informed, in an authentic way, as to what the
University is doing, what progress is being made, and what the outlook at any time
may be. (3s)

None of the changes desired by Ayers and Kuhn were particularly unreasonable
aims, and which implementation eventually benefitted (IC, but cutting short the vision
of faculty who had expected to build the institution through to their retirements sud-
denly fomented a period of elevated tensions, student distraction, and much disap-
pointment for faculty and concerned citizens. Nevertheless, professor Ayers and the
board prevailed.

Once the dust had settled, c C's Annual Reports, as well as, accounts of the event
that gradually percolated to national academicjournals noted favorable outcomes for
LIC. There were increases in non-resident students and a claim of general improve-
ment in faculty and staff morale. (36) Departments were reorganized and position va-
cancies filled -mostly, with Ayers' specific recommendations-and thus, the improve-
ment in staff morale. (37)

In hindsight, the conflict initiated by Ayers possessed some of the seeds of contem-
porary university practice that is focused in production, not only of notable graduates,
but of prestige for the institution from a faculty prolific in publications, and scientific

- 15-

discoveries or inventions made. Given Professor Myers' vehement indignation over
the handling of the event, it also highlighted likely simmering differences in notions of
progress and educational outcomes between the faculty eventually resigned, several
of the board's members -and most notably, Ayers and Kuhn.

Thus it was against this background of institutional upheaval that Kaplan, who in
1 897 had entered (IC only two years after it was settled into its first campus building,
brought his domicile law suit to bear, and which was heard at court during early 1 900.
(IC was trying to raise money to fund the ambitions the board and Ayers had for it
and it had begun to challenge students' domicile standing in order to increase its
population of paying attendees. (38

Of note, Jacob Kaplan's philosophy, history and psychology professor, Wayland
Richardson benedict (1875-1907) survived the purge as one of the more highly paid
faculty in the Academic Department -both before and after changes had been made.
(39) In the brief biography which follows here from the (IC Department of Psychology
web site, he is cited to have been one of (IC's most well-liked faculty members
through to his retirement.

Professor and Reverend Dr. Wayland Richardson Benedict circa 1897
Professor Emeritus of History, Philosophy, Logic and Psychology, Benedict was also a
Baptist minister at the Mt. Abram Baptist Church (Cincinnati) and, he was an early
mentor to Jacob Kaplan regarding the philosophical and psychological underpinnings
of religious experience and thought. He also served as an excellent example to him of
men functioning professionally in several roles which straddled the sacred and secular
spheres, as well as, interreligious cooperation. (40)

- 16-

Tihe passage gives insight into the curriculum and perspective with which Dr. Bene-
dict impressed upon Jacob Kaplan, and provides clues to a developing personal phi-
losophy that would later mature in his works, TiE PSYCHOLOGY OF= FROFPE-

"Professor Benedict received his bachelor's and master's degrees from the University
of Rochester, and attended Rochester Theological Seminary before coming to Cincin-
nati as the pastor of the Mount Auburn Baptist Church in 1873. In 1875, he accepted a
position as one of the three faculty members of the Academic Department at the Uni-
versity. Benedict had a perspective on philosophy that is somewhat surprising for
someone trained as a clergyman. Benedict's lectures on intellectual philosophy fo-
cused on the physiological conditions of mental activity, and psychology, as the sci-
ence of mind. Assigned readings included the work of Alexander Bain and Herbert
Spencer, both important contributors to the 19th Century fusion of British association-
ism and evolutionary thinking. Twenty years later, Benedict was still lecturing on the
relationship between "nerve-matters" and consciousness, but had shifted with the
times and was using texts by Titchener and Kulpe that reflected the early German in-
fluence on psychology. Benedict, who was liked and respected by a large following of
students, retired in 1907 after 32 years of service to the University." (41) Professor
Benedict retired to Massachusetts. (42)

The preceding account alludes to the work Jacob Kaplan would encounter for phi-
losophy and psychology under William benedict. EBy the time he entered the (lni-
versity of Cincinnati, the Academic Departments degree offerings had grown from
three to nine courses of educational attainment -each to be attained over a four-year
period. (43

1. Bachelor of Arts.
2. Bachelor of Letters.
3. Bachelor of Science.
4. Bachelor of Science in Astronomy.
5. Bachelor of Science in Biology.
6. Bachelor of Science in Chemistry.
7. Bachelor of Science in Civil Engineering.
8. Bachelor of Science in Mathematics.
9. Bachelor of Science in Physics.

In arranging these nine groups of studies the University recognizes on the one hand
the fact that the same studies are not suited to all minds, and that different tastes and
powers call for diversity of instruction; on the other hand, led by its own experience,
and by that of similar institutions, it perceives clearly that college students need guid-
ance in the selection of their studies, and that such guidance is best provided by the
presentation of symmetrical and distinctive groups of studies from which the student
is to make his choice.


Biblical instruction is given in compliance with the terms of Charles McMicken's will,
which provides that the Bible, in the Protestant version, is to be used as a book of in-
struction. The treatment is expository, and is believed to be in full accord with the
spirit of the founder's will. In order that all students may avail themselves of the in-
struction, no other exercises are held during the same hour. Attendance is voluntary,
as the University, being a public institution, supported in part by taxation, cannot in-
sist upon any form of religious compliance from its students. (44)

The curriculum to attain a BA "in the Classical Course" when entering CC in 18 97
is shown in the following chart:

H ers a Week. Hours a Week.
I Se. I. Semn. 2 Rcm. i.) Sea. 1.
Bnglish i, i Biolo 3, 2
German, .... i 4 4 t .nglsa and 3,. 3 3
Greek 1, 3 3 |German .. .I
Latino 4 4 Greek a nd 3, 4 4
Mathematics 4a 4 4 History l .. 3 3
Latin a. .... 3 3
JUNonR YEAI. nsaNmol YEAR.
Houns a Week. Hours a Week.
coSM semn. .l m aR co*. oi-m. i.lSenL a.
Bnglish4, 2 2 Philso h a,. 3 3
French 4 4 Political Ecoomy I, 3
Philoophy ... 3 3 lectives, .. .
Physics 3 3
Elective a s.. ,
The regimen under which Jacob Kaplan entered the University of Cincinnati

The electives in science are to be chosen from the followingcourses: Physics 3. and
4; Chemistry I, and a; Biology; Geology :; Astronomy.
t Students who offer German for admission take Preach I. this year.
The numeral after each subject is used to designate the course. The courses are
described in the statements bf the departments of instruction.
Explanatory notes for the charts (45)

Though Cincinnati students could enter (UC and not have to pay tuition, entrance
examinations still had to be passed and the students accepted to study. For the

1897/1898 Fall term, requirements were outlined in the 1896/1897 CATA-




The privileges of the Academic Department are extended to men and women alike.

Applicants for admission must present certificates of honorable dismissal from the
school or college last attended. They must file their credentials, and obtain permits of
examination at the Registrar's office.


Applicants for admission by examination must register on Monday, June 15, or on
Monday, September 21. Applicants for admission on certificates must register on
Tuesday, June 16, or on Tuesday, September 22. Non-matriculates must register on
Wednesday, June 17, or on Wednesday, September 23. The Registrar's office at the
University building will be open from 9 A.M. to 5 P.M. on those days. A fee of one dol-
lar will be charged for the registration of an applicant at any other time.

The examinations for admission will begin on Tuesday, June 16, 1896, at 8.30 A.M. Ex-
aminations for admission will also be held, beginning September 22, 1896, at 8.30 A.M.,
for the benefit of those who fail or are unable to be present at the June examinations.
No examination of applicants for admission will be held at any other time.

Applicants may attend a part of the examinations in June, and a part in September. All
applicants are advised to attend the June examinations, so that they may have an op-
portunity to make up any deficiencies at the September examinations. Applicants who
apply for examination in September, and fail to meet the requirements, will not be
admitted until the following year.

The University will not consider itself under obligation to receive applicants after the
work of instruction has begun. The assignment of examination subjects appears in the
Calendar, at the end of the Catalogue.

After registration, all applicants for admission, subject to examination, receive from
the Registrar cards containing a list of subjects in which they are to be examined. The-
se are to be presented to the different examiners at the hours scheduled for examina-
tion in the various subjects, and receive their signatures. At the conclusion of the ex-
aminations these cards are to be returned by the applicants to the Registrar, who will,
in the case of successful applicants, enroll them as full matriculates.

Applicants deficient in any of the subjects required for admission, who may be admit-
ted conditionally by the Faculty, will not be permitted to remove such entrance condi-
tions by attending University instruction in those subjects, and will be regarded as on
probation. Students, who have not removed all such conditions before the beginning
of the academic year following admission, will not be permitted to continue their stud-
ies until they have removed their entrance conditions.*

Any applicant for admission whose knowledge of any subject is, in the opinion of the
examiner, not sufficient to enable him to make up his deficiency without the help of
an instructor, but who may be admitted by the Faculty, will be considered to have,
failed in that subject. He will be required to study such subject with a tutor approved
by the examiner, and will be regarded as on probation*. He will not be permitted to
take any study in the University in which knowledge of the subject in which he has
failed is prerequisite, until he has passed a satisfactory examination in that subject.(46)
*A student who is on probation may be excluded from the University at any time by vote of the Faculty.


Examinations for admission to the Freshman class are given in the following subjects --
but, not all of these are required of any one applicant for admission (see "Examination

- 19-

(a) BOTANY or ZOOLOGY, Elementary.
(b) CHEMISTRY, Elements of Inorganic Chemistry.

NOTE: No candidate will be accepted in English whose work is notably deficient in point of
spelling, punctuation, idiom, or division into paragraphs.

(1) Reading and Practice: A limited number of books will be set for reading.
The candidate will be required to present evidence of a general knowledge of
the subject-matter, and to answer simple questions on the lives of the au-
thors. The form of examination will usually be the writing of a paragraph or
two on each of several topics, to be chosen by the candidate from a consider-
able number -perhaps ten or fifteen- set before him in the examination pa-
per. The treatment of these topics is designed to test the candidate's power
of clear and accurate expression, and will call for only a general knowledge of
the substance of the books. In place of a part or the whole of this test, the
candidate may be allowed to present an exercise book, properly certified by
his instructor, containing compositions or other written work done in connec-
tion with the reading of the books.

The books set for this part of the examination will be:
1896: Shakespeare's Midsummer-Night's Dream; Defoe's History of the Plague
in London; Irving's Tales of a Traveler; Scott's Woodstock; Macaulay's Essay on
Milton; Longfellow's Evangeline; George Eliot's Silas Marner.
1897: Shakespeare's As You Like It; Defoe's History of the Plague in London;
Irving's Tales of a Traveler, Hawthorne's Twice-Told Tales; Longfellow's
Evangeline; George Eliot's Silas Marner.
1898: Milton's Paradise Lost, Books I and II; Pope's Iliad, Books I and XXII;
"The Sir Roger de Coverley Papers" in THE SPECTATOR; Goldsmith's Vicar of
Wakefield; Coleridge's Ancient Mariner; Southey's Life of Nelson; Carlyle's Es-
say on Burns; Lowell's The Vision of Sir Launfal; Hawthorne's The House of the
Seven Gables.
1899: Dryden's Palamon and Arcite; Pope's Iliad, Books I, VI, XXII, XXIV; "The
Sir Roger de Coverley Papers" in THE SPECTATOR; Goldsmith's The Vicar of
Wakefield; Coleridge's
The Ancient Mariner; De Quincey's The Flight of a Tartar Tribe; Cooper's The
Last of the Mohicans; Lowell's The Vision of Sir Launfal; Hawthorne's The
House of the Seven Gables.
1900: Dryden's Palamon and Arcite; Pope's Iliad, Books I, VI, XXII, XXIV; "The
Sir Roger de Coverley Papers" in THE SPECTATOR; Goldsmith's The Vicar of
Wakefield; Scott's Ivanhoe; De Quincey's The Flight of a Tartar Tribe; Cooper's
The Last of the Mohicans; Tennyson's The Princess; Lowell's The Vision of Sir

(2) Study and Practice:--This part of the examination presupposes a more
careful study of each of the works named below. The candidate will be exam-
ined upon subject-matter, form, and structure and, the examination will also
test the candidate's ability to express his knowledge with clearness and accu-


The books set for this part of the examination will be:

1896: Shakespeare's Merchant of Venice; Milton's L'Allegro, II Penseroso, Co-
mus, and Lycidas; Webster's First Bunker Hill Oration.
1897: Shakespeare's Merchant of Venice; Burke's Speech on Conciliation with
America; Scott's Marmion; Macaulay's Life of Samuel Johnson.
1898: Shakespeare's Macbeth; Burke's Speech on Conciliation with America;
De Quincey's The Flight of a Tartar Tribe; Tennyson's The Princess.
1899: Shakespeare's Macbeth; Milton's Paradise Lost, Books I and II; Burke's
Speech on Conciliation with America; Carlyle's Essay on Bums.
1900: Shakespeare's Macbeth; Milton's Paradise Lost, Books I and II; Burke's
Speech on Conciliation with America; Macaulay's Essays on Milton and Addi-

*The University has adopted the report of a Conference on Entrance Requirements in English,
consisting of a committee of ten appointed by the Association of Colleges and Preparatory
Schools of the Middle States and Maryland, a committee of three appointed by the Commission
of Colleges in New England on Admission Examinations, and a committee of two from the New
England Association of Colleges and Preparatory Schools. The meeting was held in Philadelphia,
May 17,18 and 19,1894.

(d) FRENCH OR GERMAN: The text-books and works on which the examina-
tion for admission will be based are those given in the announcement in
the catalogue under first-year French or German. Translation at sight of
ordinary French or German prose will form a part of the examination. The
candidate will be expected to show proficiency in French or German
grammar and facility in translating easy English prose into the foreign lan-
(e) GREEK: (1) Xenophon's Anabasis, four books; (2) Homer's Iliad, three
books, with the Prosody; (3) Greek Grammar; Jones' Greek Prose Composi-
tion (or an equivalent); translation at sight of any of the less difficult pas-
sages in the Anabasis.
(f) HISTORY: (1) Myers' Roman History (or an equivalent); (2) Myers' History
of Greece (or an equivalent).
(g) Myers' General History (or an equivalent).
(h) LATIN: (1) Latin Grammar: Jones' Latin Prose Composition (or an equiva-
lent); reading Latin text according to the Roman pronunciation; (2) Caesar,
first four books (or an equivalent) and translation at sight; (3) Cicero, six
orations, including the four against Catiline, and translation at sight; (4)
Vergil, first six books of the Aeneid, including hexameter verse.
(i) MATHEMATICS: Algebra, to Arithmetical Progression; Plane Geometry;
(j) MATHEMATICS: Algebra-including Arithmetical and Geometrical Progres-
sions; Binomial Theorem and Logarithms; Solid and Spherical Geometry;
Plane and Analytical Trigonometry.
(k) PHYSICS: Elementary.


Applicants for admission as candidates for the degree of Bachelor of Arts must pass
examinations in Subjects c, e, f, h, and i.

-z1 -

Applicants for admission as candidates for the degree of Bachelor of Letters must pass
examinations in Subjects c, d, g, h, and i.

Applicants for admission as candidates for the degree of Bachelor of Science must pass
examinations in Subjects a, b, c, d*, or h (1 and 2), j, and k.

Applicants for admission, who do not intend to become candidates for a degree, must
pass examinations in all the subjects of one of the above groups.

No application for admission to the Senior class will be considered after the beginning
of the academic year.

BY EXAMINATION Applicants for admission to advanced classes must pass the exami-
nations for admission to the Freshman class, and also in the studies previously pursued
by the class they wish to enter.

WITHOUT EXAMINATION Undergraduates of other colleges of approved standing,
who present certificates of work done, may be admitted provisionally to such stand-
ing' as the Faculty may deem the evidence of proficiency to warrant.

Persons at least twenty years of age may be admitted as visitors to lecture or laborato-
ry courses, on the recommendation of the professor concerned; but they will not be
admitted to classes in which recitations are held. (47)

While Jacob Kaplan's matriculation was only challenged for domicile near the end of
hisjunior year, he get may have had to pay lab or chemical fees for science electives. If
he was more or less an impoverished student, as his deposition seems to indicate, en-
rolling in science electives such as Astronomy or Geology may have spared him lab
fees even though those for the other courses were only five dollars peryear advanced
chemistry students taking multiple weekly labs paid a whopping $+5.oo per year.
These catalogue entries describe what a four-year degree cost between 1 897 and
1901 atIC:


Students applying for registration, or submitting schedules of study, on days other
than those designated in the Calendar, will be required to pay a fee of one dollar.

A fee of one dollar will be charged for each supplemental examination.

- 22 -

Instruction is free to bonafide residents of Cincinnati, and to alumni of this University.

Non-residents will be charged seventy-five dollars a year for any full course of study,
or for special studies involving more than seven recitations a week. Non-resident spe-
cial students, not college graduates, taking seven hours a week or less, will be charged
thirty-eight dollars a year.

Graduate students, not alumni of this University, and not residents of Cincinnati, will
be charged for instruction in special studies (involving less than seven recitations a
week) a fee of five dollars a year for a course of one hour a week, ten dollars a year for
a course of two hours a week, and pro rata for courses of more than two hours a week.

Tuition fees for the year are to be paid in advance to the Clerk of the Board of Direc-
tors. Receipts for tuition fees must be presented to the Registrar before the student
can be enrolled in his classes.

Students taking laboratory work in Chemistry, Physics, and Biology (Elementary Biolo-
gy), will be charged five dollars a year for wear and tear of apparatus. Special students
in Chemistry, taking more than three laboratory exercises a week, will be charged for-
ty-five dollars a year for chemicals, plus breakage. Other laboratory students in Chem-
istry will be charged twelve dollars a semester for chemicals, plus breakage. (4)


The system of classification of studies adopted is that known as the Course System. A
course occupies four hours weekly throughout the scholastic year. The recognized
fractional courses are the one-eighth, one-fourth, one- half, and three-fourths courses.

Non-resident students must present to the Registrar receipts from the Clerk of the
Board of Directors for their annual tuition before they can be enrolled in their classes.
Newly matriculated students shall present their schedules of study for the year to the
Registrar as soon as they are matriculated.

All students in attendance during the second semester, and proposing to continue
their studies, must personally present to the Registrar satisfactory schedules of study
for the ensuing year, during the week from May 18 to May 22, 1896. Students who, at
a subsequent time, make any changes in their schedule, or who delay presenting them
until after May 22, will be charged a registration fee of one dollar. In case any student
does not present a satisfactory schedule of study for the ensuing year before the end
of the academic year, a schedule will be prepared for him by the Faculty, and no
change of any kind in such a schedule will be permitted.

No changes in schedules of study can be made after the beginning of the first semester,
except by special permission of the Faculty. Requests for such changes must be en-
dorsed by the Professors concerned. No credit will be allowed for work not properly
registered. After October 13, no student, already registered, will be enrolled in any
class which has begun work.

Students wishing to be absent from their classes must present written requests to this
effect. In general, students will not be excused for absence at the beginning nor near
the end of a semester.

It is required as a condition of honorable dismissal that every student wishing to with-
draw from the University shall submit to the Dean a written request to that effect.

The studies in the groups prescribed for degrees must be taken in the order given. In
the election of [i.e., elective] courses necessary to make up the complement required
for graduation, the student is free to choose from all courses which he may be fitted to
undertake, subject to the approval of the Faculty. Studies involving a conflict of hours
cannot be taken.

By special permission of the Faculty, students free from conditions may be allowed to
undertake a maximum of four and one-half courses in one year. Students not free
from conditions will be restricted to the number of courses prescribed for each year.
With the approval of the Faculty, students in the Junior and Senior years of the Aca-
demic Department may take, as their electives, courses in the Medical and Law De-
partments. The Medical Faculty accepts the academic courses in Chemistry, Physiolo-
gy, and Histology for equivalent courses in the Medical Department.

After matriculation all students, except those admitted to advanced standing, are reg-
istered as members of the Freshman class in one of the three general Groups of Stud-
ies leading to a Baccalaureate degree. Formal promotion to the higher classes follows
when a student has successfully completed all required studies of his chosen group for
one or more years in the order prescribed or approved by the Faculty.

Students having conditions at the beginning of the academic year will be required to
repeat in class the full work of the year in those subjects in which they have incurred

Supplemental examinations for the removal of conditions will be held in June and Sep-
tember, during the weeks in which entrance examinations are held, and, for Seniors
only, during the week preceding the first day of March. No other supplemental exam-
inations, except in connection with laboratory exercises, will be given during the aca-
demic year.

A student who is absent from one-fifth of the class exercises in any subject will be
conditioned in that subject, and will be required to take such subject with the class of
the following year, unless excused by the professor in charge.

No student who fails to remove all conditions incurred during the first semester of his
senior year before the first day of March, or who incurs a condition during the second
semester of his senior year, will be permitted to graduate that year.

In order to receive a Baccalaureate degree, the equivalent of fifteen courses must have
been satisfactorily completed --certain of which are prescribed, others of which are
elective. The courses are arranged in three groups, leading respectively to the Bacca-
laureate degree in Arts (B. A.), in Letters (B. L.), and in Science (B. S.). The group lead-
ing to the degree of Bachelor of Science is further divided into seven groups: a general
group with considerable latitude of election, and six special groups, with more re-
stricted election, and giving prominence respectively to Astronomy, Biology, Chemistry,
Civil Engineering, Mathematics and Physics. (9

As previously mentioned, classes were at first held in the old Woodward high
School -an absolutely gorgeous building in its own right (0) -and later, at the rj In-
termediate School building on Franklin street. When the entity then known as
McMicken (Jniversity completed its first building on McMicken Avenue to house
classes leading through 'the Classical Course" to a b. A. degree -the degree which
Jacob Kaplan pursued- the board of Directors almost immediately changed its
name to "The universityy of Cincinnati", only keeping McMicken's name for future
use as the name of the college that would evolve from the Academic Department and,
as the name for the building in burnett Woods Heights that would first house it. "1)

between 1875 and 1o01, (C's campus planners had raised funds from the sale of
bonds issued by the City of Cincinnati, income on the McMicken estate properties,
and the Hanna, Cunningham and Van Wormer endowments to build the university's
buildings: the original L(niversity building, on McMicken Avenue, and at burnett
Woods Fark, McMicken Hall, Hanna Hall, Cunningham Hall, The Van Wormer Li-
brary, and the Technical School that would house all of (C's workshops and the
printing press. Samuel F. hannaford & 5ons were the architects of the early C-I
buildings and were so through most of the 1 9z0s. (52)

S i ,, > Iinrlniall U
University of Cincinnati's earliest campus buildings circa 1900 on Clifton Avenue: Hanna
Hall (on left-1896), McMicken Hall (middle-1895), Cunningham Hall (on right-1899) (s3)


Though the last of these were completed by mid- z902 when Jacob Kaplan was or-
dained a rabbi at MICC, the dedication ceremonies for these didn't occur until June
20, 1903:

"The University buildings are: McMicken Hall and Hanna Hall, recently erected in Bur-
net Woods Park, the Observatory at Mt. Lookout, and the old University Building on
McMicken Avenue, and currently occupied by the Medical Department. The new
buildings are in the style of the Italian renaissance. The material is buff brick, with
free-stone trimmings. The buildings are heated and ventilated mechanically, and their
construction conforms to the requirements of the best sanitary practice.

McMICKEN HALL This building was completed and occupied in September 1895. It
contains lecture rooms, the Library, the Assembly Hall, and the Gymnasium. It has a
frontage of 186 feet, contains about 1,300,000 cubic feet of space, and consists of
three stories and a basement. A noteworthy feature in the general construction of
McMicken Hall is the provision of a seminary room in connection with each classroom
[10 of each]. The working libraries of the departments are kept in these rooms, which
are open to the students for use as study rooms at all hours. The General Library con-
tains the Eugene F. Bliss collection, consisting of the complete Teubner edition of the
classics, a collection of the British poets, and other books; the Moses F. Wilson Refer-
ence Library, made up of choice works in English, French, Italian, and Latin; the Library
of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, of 6,000 books and pam-
phlets; the Thorns Library, consisting chiefly of works on political economy; and, a col-
lection of miscellaneous works donated to the University by various persons. The
Gymnasium embraces a floor space of 3,600 square feet, and is provided with dressing
rooms, lockers, and shower baths. An annex of McMicken Hall contains the boilers,
engines and fans for heating and ventilating the entire group of University buildings.
The dynamo room will be equipped for lighting the buildings and also for experimental

HANNA HALL This building is the gift of Mr. Henry Hanna, of Cincinnati. It is designed
for the use of the departments of Chemistry and Civil Engineering, and comprises two
separate structures connected by a short corridor. One has a floor plan 56 by 100 feet,
and contains two stories and a basement; the other has nearly the same floor dimen-
sions, and consists of one story and a basement. The Chemical department has a floor
space of about 13,500 square feet, apportioned to lecture room, library, museum,
general laboratories, supply rooms, engine and dynamo room. The Civil Engineering
department has a floor space of about 9,000 square feet, apportioned to lecture room,
study room, heliograph room, museum, drafting room, hydraulic laboratory, and test-
ing laboratories for cement and metals." (54)

And,just as his Junior year began:

CUNNINGHAM HALL Finished in 1899, this was funded by the Cunningham endow-
ment and housed the Physics and Biology departments which had been holding classes
in the old University Building on the former McMicken estate. When these depart-
ments left that building, the Medical Department moved into it while it waited for a
campus location to materialize (55)

The Cincinnati Observatory had already been reconstructed on Mt. Lookout in
187) by the city, which later ceded it to (IC's administration and use. The building
had been moved from a previous site that had been dubbed Mt. Adams, in honor of
former president John Quincy Adams' dedication speech, in 1 8'+, to lay its corner-

Adams was 77 and in poor health, but he made the trip to Cincinnati because of his
strong interest in Astronomy. He had tried unsuccessfully to get Congress to estab-
lish a national observatory for many gears. The speech at Mt. Ida, as it was known at
that time, was the last public speech Adams ever made; thus, it was renamed to honor
his support. (56)

OF further interest, the building had once been the residence of Nicholas Longworth
-an original subscriber and donor to the Cincinnati Astronomical society. The
Society had been organized by professor Ormsby McKnight Mitchel of Cincinnati
College, with earl meetings held at Woodward High School from 1842-1 8+5. (7)


Cincinnati Observatory in 1844 on Mt. Adams
Formerly Mt. Ida, the site was renamed after US President John Quincy Adams,
who made the dedication speech; it was the last public speech he ever gave. (58)

Today, the site on Mt. Lookout hosts 2 buildings: the original one moved from Mt.
Adams in 1 87), and a smaller one that houses the original telescope from Mt. Adams.
The Mt. Adams telescope is believed to be the oldest continuously operated tele-
scope in the world and is used for public education purposes. It is likely that Jacob
Kaplan used this telescope if indeed he did choose Astronomy as an elective. A
newer, larger telescope was installed in its place in the reconstructed Mt. Adams edi-
fice in 1 05. (59)

"THE OBSERVATORY was erected in 1873 from the building on Mt. Adams that had
originally been the residence of Nicholas Longworth. It crowns the summit of Mt.
Lookout, at a point six miles from the center of the city, where the atmosphere is free
from smoke. It contains, besides the rooms in which the instruments are located, a li-
brary and computing room. It is constructed of brick, with heavy stone foundations
and piers. The surrounding grounds comprise four acres." (60) The telescope is the
original one from 1844. In 1905, it was moved to a smaller building and a 16-inch re-
fracting telescope was installed in the main observatory. (61)

-28 -

I ~i

Elm St. Incllne-plane & Medical Department, Universily, Cin.

THE UNIVERSITY BUILDING (McMicken Avenue & Elm Street; frontal photo on page 10)
This was the original building in which the 1885 fire had occurred. It had been fund-
ed by a mixture of income from the McMicken endowment and bonds approved by
the Ohio Legislature for the City of Cincinnati to sell; additional funding came from a
one-tenth mill levy on properties within the city's limits. It originally housed the Aca-
demic Department, including Chemistry and Biology -which were, at that time, con-
sidered to be Liberal Arts studies. As the Academic Department moved into McMicken,
Hanna, and subsequently, Cunningham Halls, the old University Building became home
to the Medical Department while it also waited for further structures to be built at the
campus. (62)

The track upon the incline was typical for Cincinnati and there were several of these
lifts for passengers, cars and other cargo to access the heights and hills around Cin-
cinnati. OriginallI horse-drawn, they eventually connected the suburbs with down-
town Cincinnati via its well-developed system of street cars, as well as to the railway
station near Frice Hill and the West 5ide neighborhood where Hughes High
school and the original Hebrew Union College had been built.

Though it is not certain at this time if Rabbi Kaplan studied astronomy, it was quite
en vogue, and many lecture series were devoted to it. (63) Given the economic ad-
vantage it presented of no lab fees, it may have been attractive to him from a financial
perspective in addition to scientific interest he may have possessed in it. The next
academic institution he attended, University of Denver, also sported a brand new,
observatory and, at that time, would have provided unparalleled night-time viewing in
the thin, dry Colorado air -especially at near 5,000 ft. above sea level.


At UC, McMicken Mall became the hub of campus academic life and the new As-
sembly Hall supplanted the old Robinson's and Odeon Theaters for lectures, class
plays, musicals and concerts, as well as for annual commencement exercises.

Drawing by artist John Rettig of the Odeon Theater interior where commencements
had been held by UC from 1885 to 1895. The organ at mid-stage was its crown jewel.
The Odeon was part of a complex of buildings used by the College of Music of Cincin-
nati an entity that would eventually merge with the Cincinnati Conservatory of Music
and, in 1962, would become part of the University of Cincinnati. (64) Though Kaplan
didn't graduate in this hall, he likely attended the ceremonies of friends just ahead of
him in grade level, and given the vibrancy of post-bellum Cincinnati social life, also lec-
tures, plays, and musical performances which were the entertainment staples of the
day. Robinson's was used during the pre-university days of McMicken College as well
as by other academic institutions in Cincinnati. (65)

I~bhascu'. Opo.r. ~oa su W t~ Srh St.
Clueln,,. -t)

Ine assembly room in ivcmviicKen nali set-up iur a play
Commencements and lectures were held here after 1895
This is the room in which Jacob Kaplan received his B. A. degree (66)

The Van Wormer Library with original dome 1901
Hanna, McMicken and Cunningham Halls are in the background (67)

The Van Wormer Library had yet to be finished until May 1901 -right as Jacob was
to graduate- so, he definitely witnessed its construction even if he wasn't able to use
it A "General Library" room was located on the third floor of McMicken Hall, and
each department maintained its own collection of reading materials in "seminary rooms"
that functioned both as departmental reading rooms and meeting halls. (68)

While the seminary rooms were available 2+ hours a day, students were also strongly
encouraged to make use of the excellent public and professional libraries of the day
that existed around Cincinnati (6) -and the Fublic Library was quite impressive.

-51 -

L7" -. -

This is handwritten on reverse of the photo:

"Interior View of Public Library Showing Reading Room and Books Cincinnati, Ohio

Located at 629 Vine Street, on the west side, between 6th and 7th Streets, it is now re-
ferred to as "Old Main" Public Library. Completed in 1874 and designed by architect
J.W. McLaughlin, the building was considered the "the most magnificent public library
in the country". The heads of Shakespeare, Milton and Franklin stood guard over the
Main Entrance.

It was built in three sections, the first being the Lobby, which was a 4-story structure
and contained offices and the Children's Room. The second section was the Vestibule,
the 3-story center of the building. For many years it housed the Reader's Bureau and
Lantern Slide collection and the Registration Desk. The building's feature was its third
section, with a 4-story atrium (as seen in this photograph) with five levels of cast iron
alcoves, which could hold an enormous quantity of books. This Circulation area was
the main part of the library. It was topped by a skylight and also had many library
workrooms. The entire floor of the library was covered with a checker board marble

Though the building was considered modern when it was built, having central heating
and an elevator, by the 1920s the library had outgrown the building. A series of legal
and financial problems caused problems and a new library was not built until 1955.
The old building suffered from overcrowding and neglect during that years of its life
and was demolished when a new building was completed at 800 Vine Street.

This photograph was taken from top level at the back comer of the atrium, facing to-
wards the front of the building. Visible is the Catalog Desk and a bust of James Mur-
doch, the Cincinnati actor and public speaker (underneath the sign for 'Fiction'). It is
one of the few statues that survived the move to the "New Main" and can be found in
the Literature & Languages section. The Public Library of Cincinnati and Hamilton
County is now one of the largest and busiest public libraries in the world and operates
41 branch locations." (69)

The last (UC building to be built while Jacob Kaplan finished his first sojourn in
Cincinnati was the Technical College (1901), affiliated with the College of Lngi-
neering, and which housed the workshops and, the university printing press donated
by Samuel p. Taft.

Wood-working Shop in the Technical School of the Engineering Department (70)

While Jacob Kaplan had little time for leisure between double enrollment at UIC and
MUC, tutoring to supplement the stipend he received from HIUC as a Sabbath
School instructor, plus whatever housekeeping duties he must necessarily have en-
gaged, it is still likely that he attended the occasional sports activity and accompanied
friends to musical or dramatic events and, perhaps, even young ladies to a dance or


During Jacob Kaplan's senior year, $5,000.00 were raised by citizen's to have an
athletic field graded and outfitted to host track, field, football and baseball events.
The future Carson field -named after Dr. Arch i. Carson who had served as (JC
Director and had submitted a proposal for it in 1895- had originally been a burnet
Woods' lagoon filled-in with soil and rubble from various campus building projects. 7)

before the site was formalized as an athletic field, underclassmen used the area to
hold "rushes" to steal one another's class flags. The photo on next page gives an idea
of how such affairs were conducted.

N* we a 13 oF 3petlwes .h &wce to theTw= i Prezyw PI
We dhlofreamu. toaCl BIDy ; ttuns we wraft the The to otay,
SOr i'tdehmhip pd k Y i iA M wea es Qd iR &S DDay ofore-:
M Ihf wa ri h o flor ll i. .nd l till Dan metudeathi1
SaEr etr adeA or a r w used to Mo Aw
I *L' B
NM to 16

Conception of Class Identities for 1901-1904, in the 1901 CINCINNATIAN (72)(73)

The Flag Rush between Sophs and Freshic, held in Bumel Woods September 21, 1901.

Sophomores attacked freshmen as they rallied around a greased pole to defend
their class flag flying atop it. At the same time, freshies, as they were called, attempt-
ed to wrest the Sophomores' flag from its bearer, to be burned at the end of the day's
festivities if they prevailed. In the 1901 yearbook drawing above, "the Sophs" pre-
vailed -note the striped shirt and '0-flag that the 'o classman waves.

Waiting for the Enemy Flag Rush at U. Cincinnati, early 1900s

Apparently, it was a day-long affair, and in 1 05, the Freshies won the contest: (74)


The nsul greisy pole,. the nsal inacce,-,
ible gully and a fine Wmrning garKcnld ll
tlary visitors In thle scemr f lh. : ainml l1;1-
trah n Lith caOqlum. bclill 'Talsilt
Around the pnlel, in ami-liclv-l wvcd lr-
lationr the ragged tktk- f'riashun hand still
"H'tu hllcy ciic .r!"
I'iwn tilt hilll, ihllr-Iskellr lit Irilhie.
1iorcs kcant Itirinlg.
"Cmine on. vIu fllv lir i hii, hi br
JlMa look how ;scared l tli ar." All thit :i.
prnicilini. flnni ia nIilhlgt ~iAiiltIreil in a
full-gr rvn red and black rari lr.. ".ll revail.'
"Vhail's tIhe nrirttr will Fili ''
"He's all ri-"
"Cat it-.. G"rt recuh icil n-.. No t'"
With auni balar arvl lihaib him lliv ncid unIIt
Wrt thr nwinran tlaninns -ulslih irnraartl
"Now iltii, go in'"
"'.;. in, Ack."
"Girt riinr hold--y.vir ihi. g,'I hir'
"YcTn-. vPi--l|Uit i)14 liir .iFggii'."
'lliff him!"
"D1n't I"
"Break his hlAd. lrcak bis. hokl-.sak liun
Irenk Iis hold--.that'. riglh; tn. wi. Il.l
lol' nui yvmlr fi51. Elie flal---iunir lbandl--lhi
'HBack. veirvylxd-y awk. hack. I sm.
"Not yel, aot yel-gn in al--ri--a--
"Have you gol lim? Gut biln?'"
"Ali rigih-pull, everybody pull. pull like
"Ohl--ouch, my feell"
"Shut up aud pull. Are ionu llal ''
"'Rah-h.h! Ki-y-i-i-i! Hooray!"
"'irelt Aork, freshis, fine work old man .
They're dead eaiy, dead easy, nTie. jit*t keep
it up." And the juniors pomided the pantiIng

frahmiinci Ill tie baIrk. while the r',ice< ill tlhe
rd wevatc.r vtatiedil tle MIplis.
1Tw hil11 li nii to hit. Ilehr a knkl if
Irrehmen girl. smlttiatolvl near their clivlnisimt ni
littellrl ;ill liil h llcu l anid a aithrnatsh.
"I lave ni flra;rp litr tils year.
We'll all kcil 6fr iiiwlervn-tr-,- "
Shi, IlI, u will I. l, ii-dilii n itiili, lii i[rill ltha
.iul'irJ nLi'trag; t,. r'r.y relilllaili hlsirt
Siire :asI strletcllil ih, kT-p l-i-L tIh
cri u it
%ui.i ll cr 4liill : nl Vllh, e talk lllsii
I- *ra-. Itik c I Il., aLr idal will ili rnl
t il. IGr 'ill- it ll l 1 Ilall. I ll l, ?
V ilIAC V.1k. |1 l> (ulk4 ,iC. Al'ili piL
.i rn-rlt l." qiintiil .a ft l i ,l .1 11,i
T"he Imain with tllr camera calnil "dihil" a.
r.uili lve r%' liuni Il r in ll iw.
l i the ill;L ilra'1 gci i L lis iiit l Ie lth
Inisn him :ii r i fl: mi on tbstc laiut u''heir
I.mle. *la4l ithr lsoh.r Iland a n III !it ITahre 'ilslitil
I .1. --. i rt s u lknil.'.l able
W'lhil i shr l ip'l. i l hSi ll i ~inlli Il ll
>'n, "l.iii. c "i' '" 1. a lin t lit. J.:ivl .
Ili.f i.ra Iv kiirvll tlr hip ll-eClr. llhf 1pinels-r
"*ftllvhd h1ni. ,
'i icn did iiz w~i il.i mii lash, ,.i hliln"
,.a. ll 'small tll't c iV 1,n'l tll.l .
I he .aiterna nii raggrilr l in theIi red
scatri uiNlil .linui iind llt' uiwic tisthilii iil-
plurril il upli s, its nuike )u1-t i-t more rull.
Rushing %ias hard
lonin Iw the i iilr the crowds, MIurged lck
.anI allth in a ccaselcs strliggli' ior advanii
tageluil'' standing r-Kiiii.
"Cheew. it. lit cup.'" Waid staid andl steni
lcmieaN or the hiii-coinedi guardian of tli lan
madr hii; wai in t llthe fresinman captain and
ilniiunkd the return oi sundry shovels., axes.
spiders and shovels purloined the night before.


Arrclts were prevented, and he departed as hr
"Here trt' come."
Tle ic phumliorr ruinlid--in vain.
"Watch that Ilan. rwaltl lhat man.
A daring snph hadl rlmhred a tre. maii wa.
Ibhi hlangin:g b his klitn frairnl nipt on a
limb. trIing t. cut the liag.
"He canmm do ainm ha.rmi-hliild fiot Mnlusl '
"Dl)iimtalifv that iumn. di.I.Ialify' Illat lmnill."
"Time mut."
fIvr lifuen minutes Cenwl tdy giA in crttn-
Idyr elser's wa% aild %celd l hi 11ii.llnis1t caacity..
"'lime in. The man's disqualifid." and

the rush went on.
Fiercely the soplis. ruiliciL Leaping from
the hank iqiun th heads and shoulders of the
Ir*ishmnl, Iher tried to clamber lip the gnrai
ulmk. enly I 1w yanked down by tie excited
fnhimais. Evetrhod. was sellingg wildly. Jun.
ionr clanrd tlie air and raved. Seiuirs taunt-
ell. velled anld rnixred. St.l4lnniores fIaugll
liklc .Iranmun anld Ireshamen fought as freshmen
never foughtl Ivlore.
Then all was over. 'I he nptlaimircs heat-
rn. reiril grmnlding,. 'Tie freshmen. exull-
anLt.crried ldwir slinmi pole in triumph through
the halls. And the great day was ended,

Carson Field circa 1913 -New Hughes High School's square tower is visible in the distance
as are (from L-to-R) the backs of Van Wormer, Cunningham, and McMicken. The field
looks much as it would have at the end of Jacob Kaplan's final year as wood bleachers
were built into the slopes during 1902. The Gymnasium is the building nearest the field
at back left, and was built as a co-ed facility in 1912. Today, it has been renovated as
part of UC's Music Complex (6)


The field has been flanked by Nippert Stadium since 1 916, but the playing surface
is yet referred to as Carson field. Nipperes several enlargements and renovations
over the years have resulted in a current capacity of +5,000 persons.

Nippert Stadium around Carson Field today
Hughes High School's tower is at top of photo with McMicken Hall at upper right (77)

At the turn of the century, buumett Woods featured a tranquil park-like atmosphere,
occasionally punctuated with performance and sitting gazebos where one could listen
to the latest in song and orchestral composition, study or read a favorite book under
large shady trees, and in summer, visit nearby bumnett Lake with its row boats and
other outdoor facilities.

A Music Pavilion in Burnett Woods (78)


The Lake at Burnett Woods Park(79)

These buildings were the primary edifices in which Jacob Kaplan studied, attended
lectures and labs, possibly viewed the wonders of the heavens and, in which he gradu-
ated. Today, McMicken Hall anchors the (UC historic campus district amidst the
university's more recent campus planning decision to have future buildings designed
and constructed by "signature architects", and which began with CIC alumnus, Mi-
chael Graves' Engineering Research Center in 1 99+. Since then, eight new build-
ings have been erected on campus by a literal "who's who" list o internationally known
architects and firms. (8

After the 1 Y00o/ 01 academic year, Jacob Kaplan received his "ree" b.A- from
the University of Cincinnati.

Walking to UC Commencement circa 1902 (81)


Now aged 25, he appears a rather serious young man in THE 1o01 CINCIN-
NATIAN, as a member of its graduating class and where his reputation as a philoso-
pher was noted in a friendly9 senior yearbookjibe from his CC. classmates.

Jacob Kaplan during his senior year among the graduating class photos in the 1901
University of Cincinnati yearbook, THE CINCINNATIAN. His UC classmates' jovial as-
sessment of his future prospects follows: (82)

Time iu Iher flight dlipels nany doubts and obsemrities, but never did
she ai ,onimlish greater regiult tflan the unfolding of Mfr. Kaplaan into a
geninl phiIusolJhr. D)u not mislunderst!nd! Mr. Kaplan has always b*ei
a philosopher from the llnys that lie tr're the pages from the dietion tif
the lime t.hnt hu eIllted 11he Tlil; ersitv minirely to learn in how far the pro4
fecsors agreed with his own theories. It was our own fault that at first W~i..
could 'not conprelheld his worth nor realize how ill we could have spared
Mr. Kaplin. Our friendly epects to enter the ministry next year als a grad~ i
Iate of the Hebrew I'uion Collkge.


Images from the 1901 CINCINNATIAN The UC Class Annual Yearbook. In the image
above, the front of UC in the background is seen as from Clifton Avenue. In the image
below, the back of McMicken Hall with Hanna on the right & Cunningham on the far
left (83)

'Wile ent

qla co.lla nI t" C0 1 u(,w
ttf i f.l..wita l11Ms h
I15 illia ts Mia a D (1i tt i
"IAnleRIH ^^ torh wit, DEli
ist ,yle () y Wi i, W,...,

t Il wiud VO Ite li .
Ou~pred to $11M u1 f6d Oalk wt
jis Senisr prand ot


I ~'

Caption from the 1901 CINCINNATIAN reads, "Athletic entertainment, Music Hall, Sat-
urday, March 23, 1901. Scenes from student life in Germany and America" (84)

L .- yl I



Program cover for the Senior Class play, The Knight of the Burning Pestle,
Staged June 24, 1901 [as reprinted in the 1901 CINCINNATIAN] (85)

WWW-w^ "l

Events of the Year,

al- qI

.N emnbrr IS. .FwAmqMan Rswipkin.
Frrw6err ..lur M, bylli Carrn.I D Wrigir
Alwmn Rhla'I|d..
OLp Mertin of td I Literary SM -
Ierrember Ii. Senior Si-tal
flrsbrnr r R-.. tisnewlsiirn aExzln-1
J nwinr J.. (n.lyt Ilub Pls.i, "Iloyal Bond Io
twaith "

Jaim rp if. Frv.limumn Iarr.
February T. ..JnMlr Prninrimnr.
February J.. S.vphQrnur l1rmnintic
UNth .. ..lunior ;irlw" Pa'nm.
sniir S|. .ller l*IIli rnniurt
MaUnrrch iii Famlty Rriceptio
.Vurrl -* .I' ,rirlaNuiIn Elriwsi.t
Rntrlrimneenl at iMuri Hall fmr
April I .. .(lsrllly 'iltlnl,
April 19. firatonrial (surrnit.
l{rnr.. Vi Tdnn. Wi..... '

ApWi a.. Reep ,an w Min uHSarbo.
May 10o..Opi a Martin of thlia LUtmriy oit..
.a, J.I..l Fauliy eptio. '. '
JMP IS Field Day.
JMg t4. l4 Meeing of the LAtermay Sel*ty.
Mape A0.. lmauEodl lDay -
Jame I..CLumey Club Play. *"E'~dymln.'
Jare 41, Frisry. .tenlar Rnlt-rOlf.
Jawr Ia. luueat. Bacsrslauult Stleioo C. hi*
CaurnI, 11 a. a, ly Rev.
Flak 11, Nedlm,.
The C'hritian AsociatlmAd-
drew. p. m.. M-lickru lIliL
JuPr .. d ay.. lrning, Chlu Day. f Bmt
Ino. ('laM Plly, L' T Kllshl
of Iiw RUing iuAtk." Uy
Ifeamani ul al Fietritr.
.e J.35, 7lraTedr.. .IMornt. Undnutieoni Alam-
lAil Bmpetiion. --3l) I m.:
('lei Supper, p. m.; ClaI
Entertalamn t. m p, m.

Calendar of Events for 1900/1901 at UC(86)
The Senior Play and Graduation crowned Year's End (87)

Sll ewJ ^.!lW
r if U mk n tOR

IE* W & Im Vol* vha

L ir 1o ,M.r W" Itr __

__i -s }thatW ht em"? J oir'ou



The Dreamer's Poem

Rubairat for Class of

S, take s tat btd e bte dear ol Lake-
Sfeem~orw amh a aslm weoo a at taks;
S1 Tonmur~ w we shall both b-t-Oraates I
S came, mr, for the Preent'a esotlag mko.
And tib do Burunt Woads whren y and I
Have loved t l lt me Goldae m M ine by-
Hwi wit It ever Ieem te sae tIhcm,
SThe cminng Fmrehma we cu just dAcry ?
SThis dear Old Tre, how anar thes we laid
/ A lc du er ad m ath its i aba I
-a L met sm mthe Wcioe Ligr Still
T our gclad, happy sbheam mabd ?

.1 '

Some rigb far PameC. d some for Naeey slgh :
Some luog drink the Fots of Learalm g dry:
Gi e this lake, a Spring Day, and theu Tree
The sating brds arm ot M -l d s I. .
We tried to read .om Poetry moe day
For English V,. but brhethsig sate ray
n much petic forms meond us hber,
We had to put the Priated Boks away.

The Gram they told lof grw just at our feet;
The Whisprling Tte Just e'er u heads did eet; -
So where READ bout them very things?
To LIVE them were iMned y far mare sweet.

Some for the Woods mc longigs ever feel,
To ens the Fields have nothing to rveal,
NBt lkwe eld Chacer. when the Spring retrnes.
We meek a Daisy before which to kaeel.



The Scies Studnam hive a Lab in which
Te g d Me Miae of Science, deep and rich a
oer H i dbeme Weeds Is Poetry's ow Lab
Of S1 gbt and Baonds that raptne rad bewitch.
I must saeesa I do Int know ths name
Of every bird I hear; but ywr I claim
That each swet-thrdted melody appeals.
And tmacha me moreovre Jaust the ii.
nor could I t*ll you o'e the ery tree
DBersth which I hswe lan laxrloslry
But thb I knew, the leamv kept whispering on
Their sylvan secret, unabashed by me.

The hours that 3I he- new four yea have mpeot
L these we t-aOellag Woods bow fat w eCy weat It
I ay that these te very happIest
Of all my 'Vara ty Ulf do represent.

The snpy ebing that bhures me new. Is this:
That som eme aeals who new a junior la
Will net year walk thele Paths, them, mlae and
And OUR Tres be will lllkly call them HIS I


It with another, asruaSe. unacuth and harsh,
And be euncoealem of the black disgrace I

These are the sad, mad feelings tha of Late
Have croaeed my brooding mind as I have sae
In my old gramsy Hooks. Alas I in JUrT
A few days liXuteme-One wll graduate I

T sum & =

"The Dreamer" wrote this lovely ode to Burnet Woods and fellow senior classmates, as
well as, several poems and other pieces for the 1901 UC yearbook. Though this person re-
mains unidentified in the text, fellow classmates likely knew who the person was.8)

-+5 -

Though he seems to have done some post-baccalaureate work in 1 902, also among
the 1901 UC graduates and Senior Class president, was a young scholar named
Julian Morgenstern, who would later rise to international notoriety in the Jewish Re-
form movement, as well as, visit and speak at Temple Israel in Miami on various occa-
sions after Rabbi Kaplan assumed its helm. Like Kaplan, he co-attended Hughes,
HUC and ClC, and was also ordained in 19 02. (9)

Just ahead of both of them by a couple of years, was fizer W. Jacobs a young man
who won the award for best senior essay of I s97 at UC. He also finished at HMIC
to become the rabbi Kaplan would soon replace in Albuquerque, New Mexico, in
September 19 02, as his first congregational appointment. (0)

Jacob Kaplan spent his last year in Cincinnati enrolled at Hebrew Ulnion College to
attain his goal of becoming a rabbi. KE-NNY'S ILLUSTRATED CINCINNATI
(1 879) describes HM C's early days much the same as the AMERICAN JE.W151
YEAR bOOK. (AJYb) does but, with some additional information, such as class
times and boarding arrangements:

"Hebrew Union College, The.-was founded in 1875, and permanently established in
the City of Cincinnati. It is entirely supported by the Union of American Hebrew Con-
gregations. The College provides free instruction to everyone, irrespective of religious
belief, who may wish to avail himself of its benefits, and it is hoped that the future
Rabbis and Sabbath School teachers of American Israel may be selected from its grad-
uates. In order to obtain a thorough, liberal secular education, students of the College
are required by its rules and regulations to be regular attendants at, or graduates from,
High Schools, Colleges and Universities. Worthy poor students, a large number of
them selected from the best inmates of the Jewish Orphan Asylums throughout the
U.S., have their boarding, clothing, books, and other necessaries paid from the fund of
the College, and from voluntary contributions, especially those subscribed by the He-
brew ladies of America. All students are placed with respectable families, and
watched over by the Board. Hours of instruction, daily, from 4 to 6 o'clock P. M., at
the Plum Street Temple, where the College work is temporarily conducted until the
funds necessary for the erection of proper buildings, are raised. The management of
the College is entrusted to the Board of Governors. This Board reports to the Council
through the Executive Board of the Union of American Hebrew Congregations." (91)

From 1875, the first classes of the Hebrew Union College had been held in the ves-
try rooms of the Flum Street Synagogue and the Mound Street Temple. (92)


Isaac M. Wise Synagogue at 8th & Plum Streets (93)

City infrastructure near Eighth and Plum Streets circa 1900
The twin steeples and left chambers of the Isaac M. Wise Memorial Synagogue are
mid-ground while the street car tracks seem to align to their entrance. 951


Beth Tefila Temple at 8e & Mound Streets(94)

I~IAC eventually opened its first home at 6th and Cutter Streets in 1881. This is
where Jacob Kaplan attended classes and passed ordination exams. (') It was also
the IMuC building that (AC students used for classes while the (Lniversitq College
building was repaired after the laboratory fire in 1 885.

"Hebrew Union College -Sixth Street, west of Cutter Avenue, started October 1, 1875;
supported by the Union of American Hebrew Congregations; course eight years; edu-
cates boys for the Jewish ministry free and allows them a monthly stipend of $25 for
board; confers degrees of Rabbi (after 4 years) and Doctor of Divinity (after 8 years).
Dr. I. M. Wise, President of the Faculty; B. Bettman, President of the Board of Gover-
nors; Isaac Bloom, Secretary; has finest and largest Hebrew library in the United
States." (97)

The present ICJIC-JIR campus wasn't begun until 1905, when land was purchased
for it on Clifton 5t. north of the new Hughes High School and just down the hill to
the northwest of (University of Cincinnati at burnet Woods. When Kaplan returned
to Cincinnati in 1 909, this is what he would have seen at the college's new location:

Hebrew Union College circa 1915 (")

And by the time he and Adele left for the Holy Land in the mid-i 920s, the college
had grown from 2 to 5 buildings:

Hebrew Union College circa 1924
Administration Building is at center with Library at lower right (99)

S49 -

Located today~ at 28.9 Clifton Avenue across the Street from urnumet Woods and

just down the


street from the current Hughes High School and the (Aniversity of

411 H ,.

4 .. HUC ;"Wooo' .
unw vCOrfIdl

,Ig ,. a ...i e

The Heights W Pi t



E McMint s

Q Mt Aubnm
Ban 81DrchA re

\ .
\ WLhen ,.
Ovei-Ihe E ~S r
West End Rhine /
This map shows the relation of the current locations of UC and HUC HUC is the tan
triangle across the street from Burnet Woods and caddy-corner to UC at the nexus of
Clifton Avenue and Dr. Martin Luther King Drive; "new" Hughes High School is located
at the comer of Clifton and W. McMillan St. From mid-bottom, Elm St. runs north and
ends at W. McMicken Avenue near the original UC University Building site. (o00)

Interior of the HUC Library circa 1913 from the Librarian's annual report The Library is
the smaller of the 2 original buildings. As can be seen in the previous postcards, the
large window is likely facing north since the double doors at left would be the build-
ing's entrance that faces west. (101)


Hebrew Union College-Jewish Institute of Religion, (HM C-JIR) is the oldest Jew-
ish theological school in the United States. Founded by Isaac Maser Wise in 1 875,
he was president of the institution until his death on March 26, 1900. In 1 89, enroll-
ment was about the size of a lecture hall class at UC; thus, oversight of students was
more intimate, albeit still within the formal social protocols typical of the late 9 cn-

E)eing "watched over by the board", as is noted in the AJYB above, literally meant
just that. Dr. Wise's monthly and additional faculty addenda to his annual reports to
the board made note of individual students' acceptance into the college, their pro-
gress, illnesses, thesis assignments, degrees earned and ordinations made. His report
to the board of Directors of September 4, 1984, notes the enrollment of a certain
young man from buffalo NY: (121
September 4, 1894-5654
To the Board of Governors, Hebrew Union College

MR. PRESIDENT AND GENTLEMEN --I have the honor to report to your honorable body
that the Hebrew Union College opened yesterday its twentieth scholastic year, 1894-
95, with fifty-seven students, and in the charge of teachers you have elected. The stu-
dents are 42 from last year and 15 new comers, viz:

Julian Gusfield, Birmingham, Ala.
Emanuel Kahn, Cincinnati, 0.
Eugene Mannheimer, Cincinnati, 0.
Julian Morganstem, Cincinnati, 0.
Maurice Goldsmith, Cincinnati, O.
Charles J. Friend, New York.
Solomon Foster, Scranton, Pa.
Solomon Lowenstein, Cleveland, O.
Charles Simson, Cincinnati, O.
Maurice Sanders, Breslau, Germany.
Elmer Ely, Grand Rapids, Mich.
Ernest Satler, Cincinnati, O.
Leon Magnus, San Francisco, Cal.
Jacob H. Kaplan, Buffalo, N. Y.
Adolph Marks, Detroit, Mich.

The classes are the same as last year, only that senior and junior are joined and have
the same studies in common. D Grade has been formed from new comers and consists
of ten students [this included Kaplan]; the others are in higher classes. Today we
commenced the work for the present year.

Your most obedient servant,
President, Hebrew Union College

-ii1 -

As is true for today, the curriculum and faculty were ever evolving to encompass new
information, teaching methods, and technologies to expand and deepen the offerings
and stature of the college. While the report for Academic Year 1 89+/1 895 submit-
ted to the board on July 2, 895, is lengthy, it well describes Kaplan's first year at



July 2, 1895-5655


MR. PRESIDENT AND GENTLEMEN -Permit me to offer my heartiest congratulation to
your honorable body, and through you to the Union of American Hebrew Congrega-
tions, to the termination of the twentieth scholastic year of your Hebrew Union Col-
lege. Under your wise guidance and zealous labor the college passed its years of youth,
and according to Holy Writ (Numbers 1: 3) reached the age of maturity and manhood in
the ranks of Israel's champions, to lead the myriads of Jeshurun into the Promised
Land. In unison with your honorable body I praise the Lord of Hosts for the gracious
protection and assistance which he vouchsafed to this conservatory of sacred love, and
remember with profound gratitude the benefactors and patrons of this institute, the
quick and the dead, the noble and generous chains of men and women, who contrib-
uted their treasures, energies, and good will to the erection of this habitation of light
and truth, and the apostles of science, the zealous faculties of this college, of the Uni-
versity of Cincinnati, and the two high schools, the direct messengers of light and truth
to the gifted youth of our country and our people. With trust in God and the sacred
cause we enter with this college upon the age of manhood.

Within the past twenty years the success of this college is marked by the following
facts: It has acquired and improved this palatial building in which the college is perma-
nently located, at an expense of no less than thirty thousand dollars. The building is in
excellent condition, well-kept inside and outside. Within its walls a library has been
collected and scientifically arranged and catalogued of no less than 13,000 volumes,
and among them the choice works of Hebraic, Rabbinical, philosophic literature, which
exists in no other library of our country. The rough valuation of this library reaches the
sum of $40,000.

The Union of A. H. C. succeeded in collecting sinking funds to the amount of nearly
$60,000, twenty-two thousands of which are for the support of worthy students. A
sinking fund of one million of dollars would suffice to keep up this college in best con-

The first regular Faculty of Theology in Judaism was established in full obedience to
the laws of our country, the law and custom of Israel, with the chartered right to con-


fer academic degrees, to ordain and license Rabbis:, and bestow the post-graduate de-
grees of Batchelor of Theology and Doctor of Divinity on distinguished students; nei-
ther of which exists yet or did yet anywhere exist in Christendom. The Semichah was

It has made of the Hebrew Union College a free institute, the like of which exists not in
this country,-free of any fees for the student, free of all tests except good moral con-
duct, free to both sexes of all races and sects, free of all conditions and obligations ex-
cept competency for admission and progress in the prescribed courses of studies.

It has established and enforced the law that none can be ordained and licensed as a
Rabbi, or receive any post-graduate degree who is not a college-bred, regularly aca-
demic, graduate of the University of Cincinnati, or any other university of the same
grade. This changes the status quo of the Synagogue pulpit, which aside of the largest
congregations, was frequently occupied by incompetent and unauthorized persons.

The College has sent to the congregations forty-four authorized Rabbis thoroughly im-
bued with the mission of Israel and the American spirit of freedom, humanity, univer-
sal brotherhood and benevolence, college and American bred teachers for the Ameri-
can Israel and two eminent lady teachers. So far the reform of the pulpit was accom-
plished, and a new life in the Synagogue was engendered. These Rabbis are located

Rabbi Israel Aaron, D. D., Rabbi
Henry Berkowitz, D. D.,
Rabbi Seymour G. Bottigheimer, B. A.,
Rabbi Edward N. Calisch, B. L.,
Rabbi Herman J. Elkin, B. A.,
Rabbi Leo M. Franklin, B. L.,
Rabbi Wm. L. Friedman, B. L.,
Rabbi Aaron Friedman, B. L,
Rabbi Charles Fleischer, B. A.,
Rabbi Julius Fryer, B. L,
Rabbi Moses J. Gries, B. L.,
Rabbi Alexander Geismar, B. L.,
Rabbi Samuel Greenfield, B. A.,
Rabbi Louis Grossman, D. D.,
Rabbi Rudolph Grossman, D. D.,
Rabbi Adolph Gutmacher, B. L.,
Rabbi Abraham Gideon, B. L.,
Rabbi Bennet Grad, B. L.,
Rabbi Max Heller, M. L.,
Rabbi Samuel Hirschberg, B. L.,
Rabbi Moses Perez Jacobsohn, B. L.,
Rabbi Israel Joseph, B. A.,
Rabbi Joseph Krauskopf, D. D,
*Rabbi Charles S. Levi, B. L.,
Rabbi Clifton H. Levy, B. L.,
Rabbi Alexander Lyons, B. L.,
Rabbi David Marx, B. L.,
Rabbi Jerusalem Moses, B. L.,
Rabbi Isaac Marcuson, B. L.,
Rabbi Morris Newfield,

Buffalo, N. Y.
Philadelphia, Pa.
Des Moines, La.
Richmond, Va.
San Antonio, Tex.
Omaha, Neb.
Denver, Col.
Minneapolis, Minn.
Boston, Mass.
(left Meriden, Miss.)
Cleveland, O.
Brooklyn, N. Y.
Pittsburgh, Pa.
Detroit, Mich.
New York City.
Baltimore, Md.
Harrisburg, Pa.
New Orleans, La.
Boston, Mass.
Youngstown, O.
Montgomery, Ala.
Philadelphia, Pa.
Cincinnati, O.
Baltimore, Md.
Albany, N. Y.
Atlanta, Ga.
Port Gibson, Miss.
Macon, Ga.
Birmingham, Ala.


**Rabbi David Philipson, D. D.,
Rabbi Wm. Rosenau, B. L.,
Rabbi Charles Rubenstein, B. L.,
Rabbi Isaac Rubenstein,
Rabbi Isidor Rosenthal, B. A.,
Rabbi Isaac L. Rypins, B. L.,
Rabbi Marcus Salzman, B. A.,
Rabbi Tobias Schanfarber, B. A.,
Rabbi Joseph Silverman, D. D.,
***Rabbi George Solomon, B. A.,
Rabbi M. J. Solomon, B. L.,
Rabbi Joseph Stolz, B. A.,
Rabbi Abraham Simon, B. A.,
Rabbi Max Wertheimer, B. L,
Miss Emily Bloch, B. H. and B. A., teacher,
Miss Jennie Mannheimer, B. H. and B. L., teacher,

Cincinnati, O.
Baltimore, Md'.
Little Rock, Ark.
Brunswick, Ga.
Lancaster, Pa.
Evansville, Ind.
Wilkes-Barre, Pa.
Baltimore, Md.
New York City.
Vicksburg, Miss.
Los Angeles, Cal.
Chicago, III.
Sacramento, Cal.
Dayton, O.
Chicago, III.
Cincinnati, O.

*Member and Secretary of the Faculty.
** Member of the Faculty.
***Assistant Superintendent, Jewish Orphan Asylum, New York.

The College conferred the degree of B. T. on Rabbi Voorsanger, of San Francisco, Cal.,
and Professor Feldman of the College. It conferred the degree of D. D. as post-
graduate honors on those Rabbis in the above list of the alumni whose names are fol-
lowed by D. D.; also honors causa on Rev. Drs. Davidson, New York City, Hahn, of
Cleveland, Szold, of Baltimore, Zirndorf and Eppinger, of Cincinnati, 0., Prof. Marks, of
London, England, and Prof. Dr. Lazarus, of Berlin, Germany. The degree of B. H. L. was
conferred on sixty-seven graduates of the Preparatory department.

With this work behind us, the college leaves its age of minority, and enters upon its
age of majority with the following Faculty and students.

Your Faculty is composed of the following doctors:
President, Isaac M. Wise, Professor of Systematic Theology and Introduction to Holy
Rabbi Moses Mielziner, Ph. D., Professor of Talmud and Rabbinical Disciplines.
Rabbi G. Deutsch, Ph. D., Professor of History, Instructor in Philosophic Literature.
Rabbi David Philipson, D. D., Professor of Homiletics, Instructor in Assyriac and Arabic

The five Assistant Professors who instruct alternately in all disciplines of the college
Rev. S. Mannheimer, B. L., Librarian.
Rabbi Charles S. Levi, B. L., Secretary of the Faculty.
Ephraim Feldman, B. T.
Max L. Margolis, M.-A. Ph. D.
Rabbi Jacob Mandel.
No invited lecturers filled their appointments this year.

There remained in the college fifty-three students classified for the coming year, thus:


Seniors, three; Juniors, six; 2"d Collegiate class, six; 1st Collegiate class, six; thus, twenty-
one in the Collegiate department.
In A Grade, fourteen; in B Grade, six; in C Grade, eleven; in D' Grade one; thus, thirty-
two in the Preparatory [i.e., high school] department.
Altogether, fifty-three the freshmen to come in next September are not counted.
Three of last year's students graduated; five left the College prior to June.
There were during the past year sixty-one students in the college.
There are among the students two Germans who attended the Gymnasium in Breslau,
one from Alsace who received his education from boyhood up in Pennsylvania, and
four Hungarians who came to this country under twelve years of age.
The other forty-seven are native Americans who, of their own accord chose the Rab-
binical course.

Hebraica --The Bible with ancient versions, ancient and modem commentaries, in
eight classes.
Grammar-Hebrew in four classes; Aramaic in one class; Syriac in two classes, together
with Neginah and Massorah.
Rabbinica -Mishnah in four classes; Talmud in five classes; Codes in three classes; lec-
tures on Rabbinical disciplines in three classes; Hebraic philosophic literature in five
classes; Midrash readings in two classes.
History -In eight classes.
Homiletics -In two classes.
Elocution -In one class.
Systematic Theology -In three classes.
Introduction to Holy Writ -In one class.

Sermons were preached every Sabbath afternoon in the college Synagogue; also, out-
side thereof by the advanced students. During the past year Rabbi Newfield assisted
in teaching in Rabbinica, and Rabbi Mandel in Hebraica. Both of them have done good
work in their respective classes.

President Wise taught from his text book: "Pronaos to Holy Writ" in
1st Collegiate class: Introduction to Holy Writ, and Agreements and Disagreements of
Judaism and Christianity; also from his own text book in
2nd Collegiate class: Fundamental Theological Philosophy, according to his "Cosmic God,"
and Defence of Judaism vs. Proselytizing Christianity; also, according to
his own text book in
The Junior and Senior classes: Systematic Theology in lectures and readings.
Held examinations in all classes.

Professor Mielzinertaught this in:
a. The Senior and Junior. Classes Combined
1. Talmud, with Rashi and selected Tosaphoth; Massecteh Kiddushin;
Perek I, from folio 2a to 7b, from folio 29o to 406;
Perek II, from folio 41a to 43a, from folio 49a to 50b;
Perek III, from folio 58b to 59b, 61a to 62b, 63a to 64b, 66a to 69a.
In all, about 50 pages, besides prepared readings of passages from
Masechtoth Berachoth, Chagiga, Yebamoth and Ketuboth.


2. Codes, Shulchan Aruch Orach Chayim, Yore Dea, Hilchoth; Eben Ha-ezer, select
3. Midrash, Debarim and part of Midrash Shir Hashirim.
4. Torah, with Targum and the commentaries of Rashi and Ibn Ezra; Debarim from
Chapter I to XVII.
5. Lectures on Introduction to the Talmud, on Introduction to the Midrash, and on
the Jewish Law of Marriage and Divorce.

b. The Second Collegiate Class
1. Talmud, with Rashi, Mishna Chullin, Perek I to III, V to VIII.
Talmud Chullin from folio 42a to 50a, from folio 54a to 65b;
In all, about 35 pages, besides select passages from Massecheth Baba Metzia,
prepared by the students.
2. Shulchan Aruch, Orach Chayim, select chapters.
3. Torah, with Targum, Rashi and Ibn Ezra, Bereshith, from Chapters I to XXIII.
4. Lectures, on Hermeneutics of Halacha, on Principles of the Civil Law of the Talmud;
and, three lectures on Targum, Rashi and Ibn Ezra.

Respectfully submitted,

Professor Deutsch taught this:

During the scholastic year 1894-95, I taught the following classes and subjects in our

History: A Grade: a synopsis of the whole of Jewish History, from the destruction of
the Second Temple up to modern times (1869). As text-book, Cassel's Out-
lines of Jewish History was used.
1t & 2"d Collegiate classes: The history of the Jews from the close of the Mishna up to
the rite of Karaism.
Seniors and Juniors: The history of the Jews from the beginning of Jewish litera-
ture in Spain (10th century) until the decline of scientific research (13th centu-
ry). The students read frequently from the historical sources and from the
general literature of that age.
Philosophy: 2nd Collegiate class: Maimonides' Moreh Nebuchim (III: 26-49) were read.
Seniors and Juniors: Jehuda Halevi's Kusari, Parts I and II (1-50), were read and illus-
trated by the analogous parts from the Jewish philosophers.
Talmud: 1" Collegiate class: Talmud Synhedrin f. 46b to 47a, 23a to 27b (89 to 105).
Mishna Synhedrin, Makoth, Baba Kamma, Baba Mezia and parts of Aboda Za-
ra. Tur Orach Chajim, the chapters on Seder 473 sqq. on Chanuka, Purim and
Fasts with selections from Beth Joseph.

Respectfully submitted,


Professor Philipson taught this:
During the scholastic year 1894-95, I have taught the following:

In the 2nd Collegiate class: The Books of Joel and Hosea, with full exegetical notes. The
class has committed to memory the whole Book of Joel and five chapters of the
Book of Hosea.
In the Senior class in Homiletics: I took selected chapters from Zunz',
"Gottesdienstliche Vortraege die Juden," and delivered a series of lectures on

As ordinarius [i.e., assistant professor] of the 2nd Collegiate class, it gives me pleasure
to report most favorably: the class has been regular in attendance, studious, and well-
Respectfully yours,

Assistant Professor Mannheimer taught this:
During the scholastic year 1894-95, i. e. from September, 1894 to date, I taught the fol-
lowing branches:

Grade D:
Exodus: Chapters I-XXIV.
Hebrew Grammar: The noun, the pronoun, the verb in all its conjugations; i. e.,
the strong verb and the Verb with gutturals, with oral and written exercises.
Jewish History: From the return from Babylonian exile to the reign of Hyrcan II; i.e.,
the period from 536-63 B. C. Text-book, Dr. 1. M. Wise's History of the Hebrews'Se-
cond Commonwealth.
Grade C: -The Book of Numbers with select passages of Rashi's and Ibn Ezra's com-
mentaries. Psalms: 42-78, of which were memorized Psalms 42, 43, 44,45, 50, 55,
61, and 67.
Grade A: The Books of Daniel, Ezra and Nehemiah. Aramaic Grammar: The paradigms
of the noun and the verb with written translations from Aramaic into Hebrew.
1st Collegiate class: Genesis: Chapters I-XXX, and Chapter XLIX, with cursory reading
from Rashi's and Ibn Ezra's commentaries and Targum.

Respectfully submitted,

Assistant Professor Feldmann taught this:
In Grade B: Talmud Pesachim. Seven chapters from the Mishnah and selections from
Gemora to Chapter X.
In Grade A: Bible. The Book of Proverbs, Chapters X-XXVIII.
Talmud Rosh Hashanah. Mishnah, entire, and Gemara to Chapter I, as fol-
From folio 2a to 4a, 7a to 8a, to 8b, 16a to 17a.
In connection with this was given a course of lectures on the princi-
ples of Jewish calendation with problems and exercises to be worked
out by the students.
Philosophy: The philosophic and ethical portion of Maimonides were read
by the class and essays written on the following subjects:
The life of Maimonides,
Maimonides' proof of the existence, unity, incorporeity of God,

-57 -

The ethics of Maimonides,
Maimonides on Prophecy and Miracles,
Maimonides on Free Will and Necessity,
Maimonides on Immortality,
Maimonides' peculiar treatment of Scriptural and Talmudic passages.

In the 1st Collegiate class: Bible. Isaiah, Chapters XL-LXVI.
Philosophy: Albo's, Ikkarim, Part 1: Introduction, Chapters I-V and VII, IX and X.
In Part 3, Chapters VIII, IX, X and XII were read in the text and an ab-
stract in English was given the class of Chapters XIII, XIV and XVI.
By the kind permission of your President one hour a week was devoted, for
about six weeks, to the reading of Descartes' Discourse on Method. This is in-
tended as a beginning of a course of readings in modern philosophical classics
which might be advantageously pursued throughout the Collegiate depart-
ment. Considering the shortness of the time devoted this year to Descartes,
the students may be said to have only dipped into the subject. However, the
interest manifested promises good results.

Essays have been assigned as follows, with student name following the hash mark:
1. The philosophy in the two centuries preceding Descartes. /Ed. Landau.
2. Life of Descartes. /Abraham Hirschberg.
3. The "Discourse on Method,"-an abstract. /Max Peiser.
4. Is Universal Doubt Possible? /Leon Nelson.
5. The Nature and Value of the" Cogito Ergo Sum." /M. Sander.
6. Descartes' Proof of the Existence of God'/Joseph Kornfeld.

Your most obedient servant,

Assistant Professor Rabbi Charles S. Levi taught:
C Grade: History: (Two hours weekly)
Text-book: Wise's, "Second Commonwealth"
Period of Independence, 142-63 B. C. E.
Chapters XIV, XV, XVI, XVII, from the rule of Simon, the Prince
and High Priest, through the reign of Alexandra Salome and the
capture of the Temple by Pompey.
Palestine under Roman Vassal rulers.
Chapters XVIII, XIX, XX, being the period of history from
63 B. C. E. to 7 C. E., from the reign of Hyrcan II, to the banishment
of Archelaus.
Rule of the Procurators under Augustus and Tiberius to the expulsion of
the Jews from Rome, 7 to 37 C. E.
Historical essays were written by each of the students.
C Grade: Mishnah: (Two hours weekly.)
As an introduction to the study of the Mishnah, Dr. Mielziner's text-
book was used.
Yoma, Chapters I, II, III, IV, VI, VII, VIII.
Pesachim, Chapters I-II, pts. 1, 2, 3, 4, VIII, IX, X.
Select passages from Bartinoro were also taken.

B Grade: History: (Two hours weekly.)
Text-book Wise's, "Second Commonwealth"
Rule of the Procurators 7 to 68 C. E., Chapters XXI, XXII, XXIII.
Period of the Catastrophe 64 to 70 C. E., Chapters XXIV, XXV, XXVI.
General review of the history of Hebrews' second commonwealth.
Historical essays were written by each of the students of the class.

Respectfully submitted,

Assistant Professor Margolis taught:
Grade C -Three hours
(a) Grammar (Margolis' Hebrew Accidence), Lessons LI-LXXV; last year's course re-
(b) A series of graded tests of which, six contained connected discourses;
(c) The English Tenses and their equivalents in Hebrew;
(d) II. Samuel XXII and XXIII (Psalms XVIII; I. Chron. XI and XXVII in part), introduction
to the elementary facts and problems connected with the Biblical text.
Special work:
1. Noun and verb in Hebrew (Morris Feuerlicht);
2. The text of the longer tests with a glossary (Elias Margolis);
3. A glossary of nouns in Judges XIII-XVI (Henry Englander);
4. Of verbs (Joseph Blatt), all with references to the grammar.
5. Illustration from the Bible to the subject mentioned under (c)
(Sol. Lowenstein);
6. A glossary to I. Sam. XXII with reference to the grammar
(David Alexander);
7. The variants in I. Sam. XXII (Max Cohn); and,
8. In Chapter XXIII (Adolph Marx)
The written examination consisted of three papers:
(a) fifty grammatical forms;
(b) a syntactical test;
(c) a test adopted from II. Sam. XVII

Grade B -Six hours
(a) Leviticus entire (also Exodus, Chapter XXIX) with readings from Driver's
(unvocalized) text;
(b) Selected passages from Ibn Ezra and Nahmani (mainly), dealing with exegetical dif-
ficulties or exhibiting examples of harmonistic interpretation;
(c) Proverbs I-XI (also Job XXVIII) with introductory remarks on Hebrew poetry and
with especial attention to lexical and textual problems;
(d) In connection with five longer tests, Hebrew Syntax (mainly the Tenses. with read-
ings from Sweet's English Grammar and Driver's Use of the Hebrew Tenses) and
Phraseology, with copious illustrations from the prose authors of the Bible;
The previous grammatical courses reviewed; tests; incidental remarks bearing on
the history of the Biblical text.

Special work:
1. The origin of the s. c. Segolates in Hebrew (Emil Leipziger);
2. Temporal clauses in the historical Books of the Bible
(Benton Oppenheimer, to be handed in after vacation);
3. A concordance of words and particles in Leviticus (Abe Brill, Moise Berg-
man, Leon Volmer and Leon Magnus);


4. A glossary to Prov. I-XI (Charles Freund and Jacob Mielziner); and,
5. Tests I, II, III, text and notes (George Zepin, Pizer Jacobs and Wm. Fein-

The written examination consisted of four papers:
(a) A text adapted from Isaiah LX, vocalized and translated;
(b) A number of questions covering the syntactical ground;
(c) Job Chapter V, (selected) translated with the aid of a system of references
containing the sum of lexical data for each unknown word or phrase; ref-
erences to words, phrases and thoughts in Prov. I-IX, required of the stu-
(d) A test adapted for the majority of the class from I. Kings 1; for the rest,
from II. Sam. 14; some did both.

Grade A-Two hours
(a) Deuteronomy, the entire book;
(b) A short history of the Biblical text; its relation to autographs; Masora.

Special work:
1. A glossary to Dt. XXXII (Julius Reich);
2. Jerome's pronunciation of Hebrew (Leo Mannheimer)
3. The Alphabet (Simon Cohn);
4. Psalm XVIII compared with I. Sam. XXII (Charles Weber);
5. Some of the variants in the parallel texts of Sam. and Chron. (Israel Klein);
6. Early Hebrew MSS. of the Bible and model codices (Martin Zielonka).

Syriac beginner's course -One hour
(a) Syriac grammar, noun and verb;
(b) Reading from Roediger's Chrestomathy; Matthew XXVI, Acts VI:8-VII:60, Barhebr.
Chron. pp. 415-423; also part of XII.

Syriac advanced course -One hour
(a) Psalms XVIII, XXXVII, LXXIII-LXXV, with constant reference to the Hebrew text and
the other versions; the raison d' etre and problems of textual criticism as applied
to the Bible;
(b) The inflection of the Aramaic noun; the Aramaic vein in Hebrew nominal inflec-
(c) The members of the Syriac class handed in a vocalized text of the first eleven
chapters of the Wisdom of the Son of Sirach (ed. Lagarde).

Juniors and Seniors -Two hours
Job: the entire book was read in the class and studied with the aid of specially
prepared notes; in the course of reading, the methods of scientific exegesis were
pointed out; the work was summed up at the end of the year with especial atten-
tion to the larger meaning of the book and to some of the more important critical
problems connected with it.

Respectfully submitted,


Assistant Professor Rabbi Mandel taught:
Under my instruction have come Grades A, C and D. In each grade there have been
translations and explanations of Scripture: in the B grade, the two Books of Kings, with
review; in the C grade, the two Books of Samuel, with review, and the Book of Ruth,
with review; in the D grade, the same as to the Books of Joshua and Judges.

Respectfully submitted,

Assistant Morris Newfield taught in Grade D:
Mishnah.-Three hours weekly:
Pirke Aboth, complete; Chapters I, II and select parts of III and IV,
also memorized.
Berachoth, complete with select passages of the Bartenoro.
Students were required to familiarize themselves with proper spelling and
correct vocalization of the text, of which evidence had to be given in frequent
written tests.
Psalms.-One hour weekly
Chapters I-XXX were read with due consideration of grammatical forms.
Psalms 1, 3, 6, 8, 11, 13, 15, 19, 23, and 24 were committed to memory.
Exodus.-One hour weekly
Chapters XXV-XL. Having reviewed these studies during the month of May,
students were submitted to a thorough examination, both written and oral.

Respectfully submitted,

On June 14th [1895], the degree of Rabbi was conferred on the three Seniors of the col-
lege, now, Rabbis Bottigheimer, Newfield and Solomon.

The degree of B. H. L. was conferred on the six graduates from the Preparatory de-
partment: Charles Weber, Israel Klein, Martin Zielonka, Simon Cohn, Leo Mannheimer
and Theodore Joseph, which entitles them to enter the Collegiate department.

The last annual examination convinced me that the standing of the college in scholar-
ship is as eminent as it was ever before, with considerable improvements in some de-
partments, especially in history, exegesis and philology. Comparing with the annual
reports from similar seats of Rabbinical learning in Europe, I find that we rather do
more, than less, substantial class work than any of them, so that our students are less
critical and more positive than theirs; prepared to be practical Rabbis of congregations
and less prepared to be professors of orientalia and Shemitic antiquity, which seems
to be the main purpose of the Montefiore Institute, at Remsgate, and the Berliner
Hochschule. With us, freedom and rationality prevail without if or when. They cannot
or dare not do that in the European institutes of the same kind, nor anywhere, else if
orthodoxy is leading norm. I am convinced that we do the best we can for the preser-
vation and promulgation of an enlightened and uncompromising Judaism.


May Heaven vouchsafe its gracious support to the work and workers, to this fertile oa-
sis in the wilderness of materialism and selfishness, of rank superstition on the one
hand and wild nihilism on the other, in the chaos of confused extremes. With His sup-
port and the good will of our patrons and benefactors, our friends and co-laborers, this
Hebrew Union College will disentangle the confounded threats of truth and weave
them into banners of salvation for American Judaism, and for our European pupils, for
our country and for every other country, whose people look westward with the motto
in their heart of hearts, "Salvation Comes From America!"

Like you, gentlemen of the Board, we teachers and pupils stand upon our post, coura-
geous and well equipped to march onward into the age of manhood to perform our
tasks in the workshops of Providence. Your, our motto is:

"Onward, in the Name of God, Onward!"

Your most obedient servant,
President, Hebrew Union College (103)

Other years' course loads are outlined in the reports of Dr. Wise, and have been dig-
itized at'the American Jewish Archives' web site, though none were as detailed as
that above. As well, Dr. Wise's reports chronicle students' progression into each
successive academic level. Similar rosters for the (UC curriculum and course outlines
occur in its Annual Reports, and all illustrate the depth of education Jacob Kaplan
engaged during his tenure in Cincinnati: 5 high school prep years at Hughes High
School, + collegiate at ( C, and a concurrent + years at Hebrew (Union College.
However, this was not to be the end of his academic endeavors as he went on to earn
a Fh. D. at (University of Denver, and, entered post-doctoral study at (University of
Michigan -probably, at the same time that his future wife, Adele, worked to complete
her b. A. at the L(niversity of Michigan Teacher's College after they were married
in 1907. 104'

Jacob Kaplan's exact itinerary from 1901 through 19o7 is a little hazy as several
sources of information from this period seem to conflict. He had rightly predicted that
his first rabbinical appointment would probably come from outside Cincinnati with its
overabundance of seminary students. Exactly when this occurred is somewhat con-
fused as various accounts seem to be out of sync with one another.

Here is Hebrew (nion College's account of his ordination as published in the

AJYEB for 1902/1 903, and which, alludes to a possible pre-appointment for him to
an unnamed congregation:


The Board of Governors, which has charge of the Hebrew Union College, is composed
of Rev. Dr. Henry Berkowitz, Philadelphia, Pa.; Bernhard Bettmann, Cincinnati, O.
(President); Abe Bloom, Cincinnati, O.; Alfred M. Cohen, Cincinnati, O.; Nathan Drucker,
Cincinnati, O.; Julius Freiberg, Cincinnati, O. (Vice-President); Rev. Dr. Gustave Gottheil,
New York City; Samuel Grabfelder, Louisville, Ky.; Edward L. Heinsheimer, Cincinnati,
O.; Rev. Dr. K. Kohler, New York City; Arnold Kohn, Philadelphia, Pa.; Jacob Kronacher,
Cincinnati, O.; Rev. Dr. Max Landsberg, Rochester, N. Y.; Louis S. Levi, Cincinnati, O.;
Rev. Dr. J. Leonard Levy, Pittsburg, Pa.; Solms Marcus, Chicago, III.; Max B. May, Cin-
cinnati, O.; Rev. Dr. David Philipson, Cincinnati, O.; Emil Pollak, Cincinnati, 0.; Rev. M.
Samneld, Memphis, Tenn.; Louis Stem, New York City; Nathan Stix, Cincinnati, 0.;
Samuel W. Trost, Cincinnati, 0.; and, Rev. Dr. Jacob Voorsanger, San Francisco, Cal.

During 1901-02, the number of registered students was 54, divided into eight classes,
of which four were in the Preparatory and four in the Collegiate Department, with
twenty students in the former and thirty-four in the latter. One student died during
the year and two withdrew, leaving 51 students at the end of the year. The faculty
consists of five professors and four instructors, at the head of which is Professor M.
Mielziner, Ph. D., D. D. Students receive instruction in Hebrew Grammar; Bible and its
commentaries of ancient and modern times; Talmud; Rabbinical Codes and Midrash;
Jewish History and Literature; Liturgies; Jewish Philosophy; Ethics, Pedagogics and
Homiletics; Syriac and Arabic. The annual public examination took place from June 2
to June 6, 1902, before the appointed Examiner, Rabbi Israel Aaron, D. D., of Buffalo.
His colleague, Rabbi M. Spitz, of St. Louis, was unavoidably prevented from attending.

The graduation and ordination of ten members of the senior class took place on June 7.
The degree of Rabbi was conferred by Rev. Dr. M. Mielziner. Acting President of the
College on Solomon Foster, Emanuel Kahn, Jacob H. Kaplan, Samuel Koch, Maurice
Lefkovits, Eugene Mannheimer, Eli Mayer, Julian Morgenstern, Abraham B. Rhine, and
Isidor Warsaw. Most of these graduates have already been elected to fill pulpits in dif-
ferent parts of the country. One will continue his studies in Europe. The College Li-
brary, consisting of more than fifteen thousand volumes, has during the past year re-
ceived valuable additions both by purchase and by donation. At the Saturday after-
noon service on October 12, 1901, Professor G. Deutsch delivered an oration in com-
memoration of the hundredth anniversary of the birth of the late celebrated Rabbi and
scholar, Zacharias Frankel. [Underlining is mine] (0o

- 63 -~

Reverend Jacob H. Kaplan upon his ordination at Hebrew Union College, June 7, 1902

Young Rabbi Kaplan had been elected to Congregation Albert in Albuquerque

NM, but its historical records indicate a slightly different timeline? (17)

William H. Greenburg
First Rabbi of Congregation Albert
January 1898- February 1900

Pizer W. Jacobs
September 1900 April 1902

Jacob H. Kaplan
September 1901 January 1907

Edward M. Chapman
September 1907 February 1910

- 6+~

Reasons for the discrepancies could be due to the following:

1. Congregation Albert's online record may just contain a typographical error
and should read September 1902; though, in consultation with its Archivist,
Judy basen Weinreb, it appears that CA's written records from that period
support the fact of his employment in 1901; neither do they mention anything
about the following alternative speculations:

2. It could be a matter of perspective: he may have visited with the congregation
prior to his final year at IUC and been elected to their pulpit pending his or-
dination -especially, if it was expected that Rabbi Jacobs would leave in April
1902. It's even possible that they may have agreed to sponsor his last year at
-lC., or perhaps some of it as well as, paid for his moving expenses to New
Mexico; and thus, had him on payroll prior to his actual arrival in Sept. 1902
(or, 'o0? 'o+?)

3. If no. 2 is a tangible possibility, a variation may have been that he had been
elected to Congregation Albert in 1901 on the condition that he be allowed
to enroll at the (Aniversity of Denver in fall 1902, to pursue a doctoral degree
after his June 1902 ordination; and additionally, that the Congregation Al-
bert would pay him enough to attend CID classes for at least some portion of
the year -akin to an internship or co-operative working arrangement during

This would have provided him with a sort of stipend arrangement with which he
had been familiar at IlUC as Sabbath School instructor at the Richmond
Street Temple. As well, the precedent of (C having established the world's
first engineering co-op program could have served as example to such an ar-
rangement. He would have been able to spend time getting required course-
work completed (Summers) and, once finished, he would have then been avail-
able on a full-time basis to the Albuquerque congregation while he wrote his
dissertation (Fall, Winter, Spring.

This last possibility would have made both accounts "true" in the sense that he
probably would not have become completely "Full-time" until 1905 (or '0+).
Working on his dissertation concurrently with all of his rabbinic duties proba-


bly would have taken a couple of years to write it to his and his advisors' satis-

It would have been easy enough to visit Denver during that period for summer
vacations to have consultations with his doctoral committee; and too, there was
always the mail service for trading his drafts back and forth to Denver.

In further support to this third theory is that, (University of Cincinnati's
ALIMNAL RKGISTELR for 187+-1902, lists him as a resident of Denver
CO, though it doesn't give an inception date for his sojourn there. Since he
had graduated in 1901 from the secular (IC, it makes sense that any plans he
would have had for the Fh. D. in Denver would have been known at the UIC
Registrar's Office, as well as, by other alumni and professors from whom he
would have solicited letters of recommendation. Figuring out how all of these
different accounts indicate his actual path is a matter for further research.

The AJY5 for 19o0/190o+ doesn't mention him in any of the directories
but, 190+/1 905 and 1905/1 906 indicate that he had 2 residences while in New Mex-
ico, as well as, membership in the Jewish publication Society. The entry for
1 90+/1905 is particularly informative as it gives his parents' names and a brief bio-
graphical sketch:

Kaplan, Jacob H. Rabbi (since 1904) of Congregation Albert, Albuquerque, N. M. Born
December 26, 1874, at Adelnau, Posen, Germany. Son of Louis Kaplan and Minna
Margolius. Educated at Buffalo High School; Hughes High School, Cincinnati; Universi-
ty of Cincinnati (B. A., 1901), and Hebrew Union College (Rabbi, 1902). Address: 106
North 12th, Albuquerque, N. M. (10s)

This passage shows another commonly encountered discrepancy in his history was he
born on December 26 or on December 28? All consulted sources seem evenly divid-
ed on this point. December 26 is listed in the AJYB entry, but this date is also part
of the blurb that records his tenure in New Mexico to begin in 190+, which Congre-
gation Albert records contradict.

Consultations with staff at the Israel C. Carmel Archive at Congregation Albert
reveal that Jacob Kaplan was, per the synagogue's record book, employed by it from
September 1901 through January 1 907. They were also surprised to learn that he

had earned a doctoral degree from university of Denver during this period as they
thought it would have been too lengthy of journey to undertake. Alternatively, it is
possible that the congregation in those days knew of his aim though, if they weren't
off-setting the cost of it, there may have been no reason for it to be noted in their rec-
ords. (19)

but before any exploration of his time in Albuquerque is made, anothergleaning from
the AJYb blurb turns attention to his earliest years in America with the mention of
his high school education at a "buffalo High School", in New York, and of course, at
Hughes High School after he moved to Cincinnati.

It isn't known exactly where in buffalo the Kaplans lived but, the only public high
school in existence in buffaloo at the time that Jacob Kaplan would have been ready
to attend one was Central lHigh School, and that, for only one year as he left for
Ohio in 189+.

"" -i o. iN. Y.

The southwest corner of Central High School, Buffalo NY, circa 1890 ("o0



The southeast corner of Central High School, Buffalo NY, circa 1914 (11)

The building, originally a much smaller structure, had been the residence of the Gen-
eral David burt family, which sold it to Euffalo in 185 1 to establish the first public
high school at a time when the notion of "free high schools" was a very hotly debated
issue. The residence at Franklin and Court Streets was incorporated into the new
school building, with the trees apparently left to live out their days as the last reminder
of the genteel homestead it had once been. (112)


V L ^. -I ^

The high school was last expanded and renovated in 1889, when Jacob would have,
soon after, entered it. After a year at Central High spanning 1895/1 89+, Jacob
Kaplan left his first American home, and travelled from New York to Ohio, to pursue
his dream of becoming a rabbi at Hebrew Union College in Cincinnati. A final pic-
ture of Central High School is shown here before the building was demolished to
make way for the buffalo State Office building at 65 Court Street, in 1926 -the
very year that Jacob and Adele Kaplan would arrive in Miami, FL, after their trip to

In this postcard the Statler Hotel is the tallest building at back right (|) with Central
High (i) in front at its base. The low triangular building in front of the school is the
YWCA (|). All had grown up around Niagara Square with the McKinley Monument()),
erected at its center to commemorate the assassination of President McKinley at the
World's Fair at Buffalo in 1901. The broad avenue running from lower right to upper
mid-left is Niagara St. which runs parallel to the Niagara River through downtown Buf-
falo. The State Office Building (below right) was completed in 1932, and replaced Cen-
tral High School and the YWCA; a renovated Statler Hotel stands behind it. (U)

69 -

- .

Departing Buffalo, they had two options to get to Cincinnati: (1) by water across
Lake Erie and down the Lrie Canal/Miami Kiver system or, more likely, (z) they
took the train to Cleveland along the Lake Shore route, and from there, rode on the
Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago and 5t. Louis KR Line into Cincinnati.

1894 Railroad Map of Ohio '
An interactive version of this map is at:

Ohio's Canals

Lake Erie (at top) hints at Buffalo's distance from Cincinnati as it was located at the north-
east comer of the lake. Cincinnati is located at southwest corner of Ohio and is the ter-
minus of the Erie Canal/Miami River system between Toledo and the Ohio River. (115)


When 9-gr-old Jacob Kaplan arrived in Cincinnati in 1 8Y+ with his father, Louis, in
tow, neither Hughes High School nor Hebrew (Jnion College resided on the sites
they occupy today. Rather, they were located nearer to the Ohio River in an older
neighborhood named, The West End, and which had been the locus of German set-
tlement in Cincinnati since the early s0oos. Of note, most handbills and public notic-
es had to be printed in E english and German due to the large number of Germans liv-
ing in the area.

Old Hughes High School (1853), with primary entrance facing north. Later, an exten-
sion was added to the front which brought the building to the edge of the sidewalk on
Fifth Street, as is shown by the next postcard -note the German postcard title at bot-
tom of this postcard (116)

This fact was well-known by Cincinnatians, but actual evidence of it exists in an an-
tique postcard view of old Hughes where the building next to it on 5t .St. was the first
German Catholic parish, Holy Trinity! Church. It had been built to accommodate the
three- quarters of Cincinnati's 12,000 Catholics that were German-speakers -most
of whom, initially lived in the West End before moving out to suburbs as the city grew.

-71 -

"Old Hghes" looking. Southwest,

These old postcards show the Hughes High School that Kaplan attended in Cincinnati.
The 1st card shows the east entrance through a small gate and just beyond the flag, as
well as, its shadowed north side facing W. 5th St. The 2nd card shows its southern side
where the gym was located in the back yard. The road sloping south and down toward
the river is old Park Street; Mound St. dead-ended into 5 St. on its north side. The
building next to it on the east side is the Holy Trinity Catholic Church. Built in 1840 to
accommodate Cincinnati's rapidly growing German-speaking population at a time
when three-quarters of Cincinnati's 12,000 Catholics were Germans, the church and
high school were demolished in 1958 and sold to accommodate construction of 1-75,
and other high-speed road connections. The next postcard shows the biology labora-
tory -which also functioned as Hughes' assembly hall. (118) (119)(120)

O MiBtgm" Mml Oymnaram rear view, Idndlml.

The German Jewish residents of the West End had built the Mound Street Tem-
ple of the K. K. Bene Israel Congregation, at 8tS and Mound Streets, and the He-
brew (Lnion College building, at 6*6 and Cutter Streets. Hughes High School ca-
tered to students too poor to afford private college prep educations and was one of
two publicly-supported college preparatory "high" schools in Cincinnati. The Cni-
versity of Cincinnati and several divinity schools in the area accepted their students
upon passing the entrance exams. lH(C's rabbinical program was a +-yr course to
become a rabbi and an 8-9r course to receive a doctoral divinity degree. IUC and
many other Cincinnati divinity schools allowed, or even required, (121) dual enrollment
of its students in high school or college so that their students would also acquire a
modem secular education.

This being the case, Jacob Kaplan finished high school at Hughes and a b5. A. at
( C but was also double enrolled at HI-C, as follows:

Academic Year HUC Hughes / University Cincinnati
1894/1895 Grade D, Hughes Sophomore Year
1895/1896 Grade C, Hughes Junior Year
1896/1897 Grade B, Hughes Senior Year
1897/1898 Grade A, UC Freshman Year
1898/1899 1st Collegiate Year UC Sophomore Year
1899/1900 2nd Collegiate Year UC Junior Year
1900/1901 Junior Year UC Senior Year
1901/1902 Senior Year


This explains why he yet had a year to go at M CIC in 1901/02. In addition to the
double enrollment, he earned part of his livelihood for teaching Sabbath School at
the Richmond St. Temple -the street on which he lived-and tutored other students
to earn the rest of his material support -possibly in German, philosophy or history-
and, upon his graduation from Hughes, enrolled at (JC to acquire a b. A. and at
MIC., to achieve ordination as a rabbi. fhew! Now that took energy, determination,
and intellect!

While it had never been a posh neighborhood, The West End where hughes stood
had long passed its heyday as a neighborhood of manicured roads and petit mansions.
As Jacob and Louis Kaplan arrived, the area had been commercialized and had al-
ready begun its gradual decline into Cincinnati's poorest neighborhood. (122)

Partially due to the influx of enslaved African refugees during the undergroundd Rail-
road period, as well as, in-migrations during and after the American Civil War, it was
also due in large part to its proximity to the transportation hubs for railway, street car,
canal and river traffic -a trend that would persist into the 1960s when the West End
and several other riverside neighborhoods would be razed to make way for the 1-75
corridor, a redevelopment of the riverside for tourism with hotels, parks and a sports
arena, and, to develop the Queensgate Industrial park to service distribution and
commerce close to the extant transportation hubs.

Though mostly still German at the time that the Kaplans arrived, the West End had
become a vibrantly mixed neighborhood in terms of race and culture. But eventually,
prejudice -in all of its variant forms from low labor valuation to outright racism- shunt-
ed mostly African-Americans and non-European immigrants into it as many others
prospered and moved, "uphill" to the suburbs to escape the smog and creeping squal-
or of "below".

Located at 6+5 W. th .Street, this 188s street map shows old hughes as no.10 of
its Frominent buildings list. Thus would visitors know that Cincinnati was progres-
sive and had a free high school to offer new-comers. In reality, it had two: though this
wasn't shown on the map, Woodward high School was actually the older entity.



*1 P.1 Pfi, I stI f l% I .L i l l ['I3 T I ," I '
i l, i I' 1 4TIT .r' II.-, I I
t, il Sl.rel.y i * iteta 4 L'r+ twel .. .-k
Idn.. .slr.. lb4d I I f q 1i. 1.1 1-m L I..ii 1. h
i4 S44^ i p..h i1igP 1.o ) I. I .4 .. ..n .. -.. i 1
.. e.II14d I srg ro 4. I.i.1

8 10 11

Hughes High School is No. 10 on this 1889 map of Cincinnati
(same map, image zoomed-in)

L-jj I-------- .- -

1Li I

Of the landmark buildings mentioned in the map's legend, Hughes is designated no. 10.
The sites of Jewish interest are pinpointed with red dots so that it may be seen how
the neighborhood was established and in the proximity they were to each other. The
green path marks the walk between old Hughes and the first Hebrew Union College.
The street on which Jacob Kaplan lived is also in aqua, and crossed by Baymiller in
purple. Since his address was 945 Richmond St., his residence must have been just
above Baymiller and on the south side towards the river since it was an odd numbered
address like Hughes'. Reading the map from left to right, the red dots mark the follow-
ing sites: Kaplan's residence, HUC, the Mound St. Synagogue, old Hughes High School,
and the Plum St. Synagogue later known as, The Isaac M. Wise Memorial Synagogue
after Dr. Wise's passing in 1900. 1m1

The West End area of Cincinnati flourished at the base of Frice Hill, which was the
wester-most hill of several that surrounded the riverside basin where the city had de-
veloped along the Ohio River. Price Mill was an upper middle-class area of fine res-
taurants and large homes quite a contrast to the lower class neighborhoods at its
feet. Previous to modem automobile transportation, railroads served for intercity and
state travel while horse drawn and, eventually, electric trolley cars shuttled citizens
about town. The hills around the city had to be navigated with lifts drawn by horse
teams up and down their steep inclines, as in the postcard of the Medical College on
page 29. The postcard below shows the rice Hill Incline with its lift machinery,
neighborhood eatery, and beer garden.

Old postcard depicting Price Hill House with incline tracks, at right, that lifted vehicles
and people up and down the hill -note the German title at bottom (124)

Today, the lift works have been replaced by a network of elevated roadways and in-
terstates -one of which is 1-75. Renovated as a historical museum, the (lnion Train
Station, located just a short way north of the former West EJnd area, yet retains its
train yards and track, and Cincinnati government has recently begun to contemplate a
return to train travel from Cincinnati to other parts of Ohio and the (C5. All during
Jacob Kaplan's student tenure in Cincinnati, the West End area provided most of
the labor necessary to service the city's transportation infrastructure. Eventually, it
also provided the land through which the primary collection of high-speed automobile
interchanges merge and separate.


Old Hughes High school was approximately located where the blue lines cross
about 6 blocks north of the Ohio River. 125)

Following W. ,5' Street east from Greis bros and across Gest St. to the large dis-
tribution facility, what is left of old 5'h Street is now the ingress to the distribution
center. Where this driveway ends at the back edge of the property and near where I-
75 crosses it, is where Mound would have crossed 5tStreet. The school, along with
ooly Trinity Church, would have been located directly under the interstate and in-
terchanges to other high-speed roadways. While the orthodox congregation which
purchased the Richmond Avenue synagogue in 1926 survives at another location, all
of these buildings along with Jacob Kaplan's student residence succumbed to the
bulldozers when the area was redeveloped. (1a)

--... .----.~~~~~~~~~~~ -- -- ... -. .. --,.- ...... ....... -. .. ...----
Price ..HUC-JIR
i Kaplan .. New ,. lty
Hill S. tu U,.*, d Hughes Center
residence Huhes UC |

A zoom-able version of this map is available but must be searched as
"Cincinnati Map 1900" at this website: http://memorv.loc.iov 1'27

Opened in 1853 -twenty-nine years after Thomas Hughes had made his bequest-
by Kaplan's day, the city had grown up around this area and the high school was now
in the middle of the bustle of horse carriages, street cars and the occasional early au-
tomobile. The building was the first Hughes High School building even though it
was not the first meeting place for Hughes' students. Founded in 18+7 from a be-
quest of the small estate of Thomas Hughes, a downtown cobbler by trade who had
lived most of his life at his cobbler's cottage with his pet pony, dog and chickens (which
reportedly, each had names!), it is the oldest gift made to Cincinnati for the establish-
ment of a free public high school education for the underprivileged. (128) ven so, it
wasn't the first high school building to be built as Woodward had been built in 18 1.

A .' ...j

On W. 5th Street from the City Center, looking toward the West End and Price Hill, ca.1905 (129)

in those days, a child had to come from at least a fairly middle class family in order to
be enrolled in college prep schools that were not free, even if they weren't always ter-
ribly expensive. This was what had been the basis of Kaplan's suit for Cincinnati
domicile when his father could no longer support him and he had no intent to return to

American localities were gradually coming into compliance with laws mandating the
progressive push to offer citizens a free, basic education. There was much resistance
from citizens at opposite ends of the economic spectrum to the notion of education
freely provided and paid for by taxes, and the change in perspective struggled for al-


most half a century to be accepted across the country. ELnterprising persons like Ja-
cob Kaplan, found ways to further their educations at higher levels by excelling aca-
demically, and by finding opportunities that would provide it on scholarship, or by a
work-study arrangement of stipends, such as the one he had from MUC to teach
Sabbath Classes at the Richmond Street Temple.

Fer the court testimony cited earlier, Jacob said that he had long thought about going
into the ministry, and that he had already explored and set his sights on living in Cin-
cinnati as it was the primary Reform Jewish community in the UC5; as well, Hebrew
Union College was the only Jewish theological seminary in America at that time. He
also knew that, if he could graduate from a Cincinnati high school intending to go into
the ministry, he would be able to attend UC and MUC for free, even though he yet
had to labor to earn enough to meet all of his maintenance and shelter needs.

Hughes High School, along with Woodward, operated independently until the
1850s when their trust funds were merged with the City's educational funding re-
sources. In doing so, however, the City still had to honor as many of the trust funds'
stipulations as was practical such as, making sure that those unable to afford to pay
for high school and college would be covered by the endowments if their scholarship
merited it. 1130) Cincinnati, and many other cities around the country, had focused on
providing a grade school level education for students of mixed gender, though one
segregated by race. In fact, the old Hughes school that Kaplan attended subse-
quently became an "all black" elementary school when the new Hughes was built
across from UC on Clifton Avenue. (,1)

Thus, Hughes and Woodward were the only Cincinnati schools to provide for a sec-
ondary level education in preparation for college, seminary or industrial schools with
programs above basic mechanical arts. While hebrew Union College was motivated
to provide a seminarian education free to attendees in order to further the cause of
Reform Judaism in America, the University of Cincinnati was perpetually bound by
the will of Charles McMicken's estate. Today, as a Cincinnati high school geared to
a rigorous college prep "majors" curriculum, it remains -both really and symbolically by
virtue of its physical location at 2 15 Clifton Avenue-strongly connected to CIC
and jiUC. The current building underwent major renovations in 200 -almost 100

~ 79 -

years after its move from the West End. When it first opened in 1 10, the builders
boasted "five acres of space" inside -including, 2 lunchrooms and 2 gyms. (132)

Hitghe HMih School, Ohio

New Hughes High School at 2515 Clifton Avenue -just south of the University of
Cincinnati and Hebrew Union College-Jewish Institute of Religion (3)

In the absence of being able to review all of his school records and the cache of pa-
pers at American Jewish Archives, documenting the urban environments he encoun-
tered and the personalities which influenced him as a young man provide a clearer pic-
ture of whom Jacob Kaplan was and who he became. The events which may have
shaped him, which neighborhoods he may have had exposure to, and how all of this
may have influenced his thinking later in life, as well as, provided fodder for the activism
he embraced in working for civil rights in Arizona and Florida, in assisting Russian
Jewish refugees to settle in the C5, and in taking to the street pulpit when neces-
sary to try to persuade the powerful to let refugee boats carrying Jews from Europe
land at U(S ports during World War II, is useful.

Rabbi Kaplan lived during a time of great change when the world moved from oil-based
lighting to electrified light, from horse carriages to street cars, automobiles, and air-
planes, and from an older world of theatrical battlefields into one of mechanized terror
and the ultimate pogrom: the power of the atomic weapons. Across all of this, Jacob
Kaplan moved from one frontier to the next and relied upon his faith in Judaism as the
spark of God's mind that he should use in dialogue with his fellow humans to continu-
ally work to repair the world's injustices and its shortcomings, as well as use it to en-
courage tolerance and good will among them, their nations and their religions.


5o, in saying farewell to young Mr. Kaplan in buffalo and Cincinnati as he began to
acquire his education, this account, at last, turns to New Mexico and his postgraduate
era to discover something of his life there from, approximately 19 02, to January 1 907.
To repeat the I 90+/ 1905 AJYB entry:
Kaplan, Jacob H. Rabbi (since 1904) of Congregation Albert, Albuquerque, N. M. Born
December 26, 1874, at Adelnau, Posen, Germany. Son of Louis Kaplan and Minna
Margolius. Educated at Buffalo High School; Hughes High School, Cincinnati; Universi-
ty of Cincinnati (B. A., 1901), and Hebrew Union College (Rabbi, 1902). Address: 106
North 12th, Albuquerque, N. M. (34)

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Rabbi Kaplan's first address in Albuquerque: 106 NW 12" Avenue. Congregation Al-
bert Synagogue was located at 7th & Gold Streets as the red star indicates (135)

From Kaplan's 1st home, and northwest along Central Avenue, lags "Old Town"
beyondd NW corner of map). This is where Central Avenue loops south to cross
the Rio Grande. That area of town has been called "Old Town" since the city cen-
ter shifted east in the I 880s to meet the advent of rail service and the commerce it
supported around what was at the time, the eastern reaches of Central Avenue -but
known in those days as Railroad Avenue. 1' Central Avenue itself had garnered a

lengthy pre-historic existence as the Spanish adopted Native American routes of
travel around the continental interior that were subsequently incorporated into the
Fall; -"

travel around the continental interior that -were subsequcntl,9 incorporated into thc

S81 -

Fabric of interstate travel within the (Cnited States, -such as Interstates 40 and 25,
and the infamous, LCS Route 66- as well as, into the history of the growth of the na-


The northern part of this trade route existed in the US as the Santa fe Trail, and
it was viewed as running from St. Louis, Missouri to Santa Fe in the northern Mexi-
can state of Nuevo Mexico. It had been regularly used by (1S citizens since the
1 820s to conduct trade with plains and Rocky Mountain Indian nations, as well as,
with the Spanish -all the way down to Mexico City.

Mexico's name for the southern part of the trade route that connected Mexico Citq
with Santa Fe was E Camino Real de sierra Adentro ("The Royal Road of the
Interior Land"). Between Bernalillo and EI faso, Los fanchos deAlburquerque-
a community which had been named in honor of the viceroy of Nueva Espana from
1 65 to 1 660, Don Francisco Fernmndez de la Cueva 9 Enriquez de Cabrera (Al-
burcuerque was one of his family names), and which consisted of 1 8 Spanish families-
had flourished since 1706 as one of the many caravan stops along the trail. 137)

In the 1 840s, the A5 and Mexico warred to settle differences of territorial claims
over what would become the rest of the southwestern (CSA as well as, add Califor-
nia to it, to complete the nation's dream of a coast-to-coast country. Thus, the LS
Army utilized the Santa Fe Trail to invade and defeat Mexico. By the s88os, the
Santa Fe Trail had prospered Albuquerque and had channeled a large number of
German Jews its way, and who became highly integrated into Albuquerque develop-
ment, commerce, Farming, law, real estate and politics. (138)


Looking slightly northeast, the red balloon marks the approximate address of the site
of Jacob Kaplan's first Albuquerque home at W. Central Avenue, W. Kent Avenue and
12t Street N.W.: Central is on the far right, Kent approaches in the middle and merges
with Central as it continues west, and 12th crosses them running north-south though,
it's run south is interrupted by a large triangular block of businesses and a public mid-
dle school; it picks-up again south of this in the Huning Castle and Tingley Park areas
near the Rio Grande. From the intersection in the photo above, 12th heads north,
passes 1-40, and eventually ends at Delmar Avenue NW, just beyond Griegos Avenue in
the Los Griegos neighborhood area.

Note the older frame homes that flank the adobe building -a former ROUTE 66 motel,
perhaps? Turn-of-the-century Albuquerque cityscape photos show it to have been
peppered with 1, 2 and 3 -storied domestic dwellings such as the Four-Square at left
and the Craftsman brick and frame bungalow home at the end of the lot. The home
(or boarding house?) in which Rabbi Kaplan first lived in Albuquerque, probably looked
more like them than the Pueblo Revival building now there. The half-moon drive at
this end of the AKAL Security offices seems to give nod to the automobile era more
than to that of horse-drawn carriages. Kaplan's address at 106, would have placed his
abode right on the corner, and it was likely serviced by the driveway entry at bottom
right of the picture -see how the driveways don't really match the parking lot? They
must have been adapted from buildings long gone from the site. (139)

~8 5 -

The 2-story four-square at left and behind the AKAL offices is also similar to the
house in the far background of trees in the photograph below of Congregation Al-
bert 59nagogue on the northwest comer of 7th Street NW and Gold Avenue NW.
Four-squares were popular all across the (United states from 1895-19Y0 due to
their adaptability to small urban lots, as well as, for the ease with which they could be
shipped and assembled from kits such as were available from ears Roebuck and
other similar mail-order businesses. Even the synagogue seems to have incorporated
some of these attributes in its basic square design blended with Gothic, Romanesque
and neo-Classical features. From 1 z' Street NW, Rabbi Kaplan would have
walked east, down Railroad Avenue (i.e., Central) to 7th Street NW, turned south,
and walked a block to Gold Avenue. As he neared the synagogue in the morning, he
would have seen the view offered in this photograph:

A mid-moring photograph of Congregation Albert Synagogue soon after its comple-
tion circa 1900. The photographer is looking northwest from 7I Street NW which runs
to the right and north toward Railroad Avenue (i.e., Central), and Gold Ave NW which
runs away to the left (i.e., west). Eventually, Congregation Albert outgrew this facility
and moved to its present location at 3800 Louisiana Blvd. N.E. Today, this area of
town is undergoing a good bit of revitalization, but the neighborhood of homes in the
background yet remains. (140)

Coal, Lead, Silver and Gold Avenues connected the Iuning Castle Districtjust
north of Tingleg beach on the Rio Grande, with the downtown area that had cen-
tered about the railway station and The Alvarado Hotel on front/First Street
NW. These "New Albuquerque" streets run parallel to, but south of, Central Ave-
nue which divides north from south in the city.


Northeast of where Kaplan's first residence was located and situated along Lomas
blvd. NW, is the city's current downtown area As automobiles gained ascendency,
the city center depended less on proximity to railroad yards and more on accommoda-
tions for automobile transport and parking. While Route 66 was popular with motor-
ists from the 1 93Os through the 1 o60s, the 1970s energy crunch led to abandonment
of energy-inefficient buildings in this part of town. While many of these were revital-
ized as nostalgic tourist and small business concerns during the 1 80s and ir 9s,
when 1-40 was built it bypassed the tum-of-century eastern city center and moved
northward to provide high-speed auto access to the Lomas business corridor just as
the railroad builders had done a century earlier in bypassing Old Town. (41)

5o, if Rabbi Kaplan had business to attend to "downtown", upon leaving the syna-
gogue he would have seen the vista below as he walked east toward the end of Gold
Avenue with the Alvarado Hotel at its end.

Albuquerque, 1905 Gold Avenue looking to the Southeast
The Alvarado Hotel is in the distance at the end of the street (142)
Railroad Avenue was one block to the north of Gold and it ended in front of the depot.

Dividing east from west, the railways servicing Albuquerque were located on Front
Street (i.e., 1st Street NW), in a complex containing the historic Alvarado Hotel
built by f5red Harvey of The larvey Girls fame, ('43"and the railroad depot designed

by architect Charles Whittlesey. Whittlesey, who was contracted by railroad mag-
nates and the (A5 government to build depots, telegraph offices, and post offices all
over the American southwest, built a home in 1 90 just east of Albuquerque near
the nascent (Jniversity of New Mexico. His home at 201 Highland Park Circle 5E
eventually became The Albuquerque Press Club -an organization that embodied
one of Rabbi Kaplan's developing passions: editorial opinionjournalism.

Charles Frederick Whittlesey family Home, circa 1903
It's now a private club owned by, and known as, The Albuquerque Press Club ('4)

5adly in Albuquerque, this would lead to his premature resignation from Congrega-
tion Albert; but later on in Miami FL he would use it to great effect in pieces written
regarding the fate of Russian Jews under 5talin and to press for their resettlement in
the (A5 during the 19 5s, 40s and 50s. Earlier, he would use editorials to challenge
UJ5 citizens to aid Jews fleeing Hitler in the 1 950s and 40s, and later, to take up the
cause of African-American civil rights issues in the 1 940s, 50s and 60s -all with much
greater success and influence than his initial effort in Albuquerque in late 19o6 and
early 1907.

The train depot would have been Rabbi Kaplan's initial sight of Albuquerque and, he
may have stayed at The Alvarado for a couple of days after his arrival and while he
was assisted by Congregation Albert members to find lodging and get "settled-in".
No mention of a rabbi's quarters was found during this research but, CA's records
indicate that fizer W. Jacobs, a former classmate of Kaplan's at (IC and HUC was


still its rabbi until April 1902 and, if CA's chronology emerges as the more accurate,
he may have hosted Kaplan if Jacob had indeed arrived there in September 1901.

Regardless of the accommodations and arrival dates, this is what he may have seen as
his train approached the station:

Ladies near the entrance to The Alvarado Hotel, ca.1902-1903 (145)

. .^:/,.

A Gentleman -perhaps waiting for a train to Santa Fe, Denver,
or other parts north, ca.1902-1903 (146)


: -

j_L ~- :
rz .. ~ ; .:



Native Americans selling food and wares just outside the hotel entrance (147)

."P r4ST

Turning to leave for his new home at 12th Street NW, he may have looked back upon a
vista similar to this painting. Current sources say that the mountains depicted here --
The Sandias-- actually rise a bit further to the south of the perspective given in the
painting. The Alvarado is on the right and the Depot is on the left. (48)

Walking up Railroad Avenue, to his right he would have encountered several of Al-

buguergue's early Jewish settlers' businesses -one of which, was the 5piegelbcrg

brothers' CGeneral Merchandise store, and to whose owners he would soon be minis-


- 59 -

M'n .,

Spiegelberg Brothers General Merchandise Store on Front/1n St. circa 1899. (149)

Levi Spiegelberg and his wife, Elizabeth (150A-150B)

The sons of Levi Spiegelberg (left to right):
Albert J., William J., Sidney, Charles, Eugene E. and James E. (151)

While some of the next photos and postcard were made slightly later than when Rabbi
Kaplan was in Albuquerque, they show sights familiar to him, as well as, demonstrate
the prosperity of another Congregation Albert family: the Rosenwalds. Their dry
goods store on the north side of Railroad Avenue would have been a regular sight of
Rabbi Kaplan's as he walked by it on the way to and from downtown, or the train de-

Lmmanuel Rosenwald had begun a shipping and freighter business in the early` 1 80s
in Eavaria, Germany. (Upon moving to the United states, the senior Rosenwald ac-
quired supply contracts with the government to provision the U5 Army outposts in
the southwest Territories. In the 1860s, his brother Joseph partnered with him, as
well as son, Cecilio, to establish storefronts in the busiest western C-.5. trading cities
of the day: 5anta Fe, 5an Miguel, Albuquerque, Las Vegas and San Francisco. (152)

-{ U V IY' .- U

I ^BKlit~itBt^^^^^

The original Rosenwald Brothers' Dry Goods Store
on Railroad Avenue and 3rd Street NW, ca.1897 11"

b5y 1900, the family had branched into banking and real estate. Around 1 905, they
built a large real estate office building and land bank, with a ground floor storefront,
across the street and one block up from the original storefront at 3' 5t. NW and


Railroad Avenue. built at the corer of 4+t Street NW and Central Avenue, it sur-
vived a fire in 19z2 and the building is still in use today.

Looking east, with The Rosenwald Building (on right) at the corner of 4h Street NW and Central Avenue,
ca.1910 (14) If you follow the streetcar line down a block to the next hanging street light, the original
store can almost be seen on the northeast (far left) comer and just before the large rose-brick building

A Rosenwald Family Picnic ca.1917 in Mora Valley, New Mexico (1ss)

-91 ~

Above, the 4th Street corner and Rosenwald Building (on right) in 2008(156)

r n

Looking the other way toward 7th Street NW in early 2011 -- its traffic light is the last one
visible and it is Green. One block to the left from that corner, on Gold Avenue, is where
Congregation Albert built its synagogue. Five blocks beyond 7th on Central Avenue (i.e.,
this road) is where Rabbi Kaplan lived on the north side at 106 Twelfth St. (17)


Rabbi Kaplan's second address in Albuquerque that the AJYb volume for
1905/1906 associated with his membership in the Jewish publication Societq was:

Kaplan, Rabbi Jacob H., 514 W. Coal Av., Albuquerque N.M. (158)

Looking south at the same address today
Looking south at the same address today

These apartments might not have been the same structure in which Rabbi Kaplan lived
although, homes of this type are known to date from the 1900s-1910s. Commonly,
plaster stucco over wood lath with wood or terrazzo floors -perhaps in the southwest,
of adobe brick, or concrete- apartments of this style have been hot commodities to
renovate in recent years. Just down the street near 610 W. Coal Avenue, an older 2-
story frame structure sits amid apartments similar to those at 514; and, a smaller
home of similar wood-frame style sits across the street from it. These older homes are
more likely the remnants of the period when Rabbi Kaplan lived here --when the
neighborhood consisted of more single-family dwellings or boarding houses, than
apartment buildings that catered to an increasingly transient America made possible
by the automobile.

Two Folk Victorian style homes still on Coal Avenue that date from the 1880s-1910s (160)
Note the 1940s Territorial Pueblo style apartments next to the small house (161)
The fuscia faux balconies are wrought iron with a hybrid SW Native American Sun motif

'i oma* *s -.r ac. T.**e r t J *il
Albuquerque c. reon r 0 .,a '"""e e
Parien rp E I' A,
a S r ".A,. i E I' Sycamore i U r ol Ne.
.. f .p a .mn |hi|E A Musco Cu1i5ules
g HriHI,~l NE, ..
r', kw ."* 5. .. Sil w nr Hill
.o* D" 1:;., '
r-,I E' H CW HE

i, S P1ytEnan

.^ e 4 4 .1 A,.o v. .
-EE LiO''.a BE. i

Bheas .r o E Broa "eay CErs ilef w E o Me 7h
ME c CZIg 6 E e

o DI i. BBEo li PSh
noths i en a SliE l as A tag Al e. E
aA BE i SM l.

Gold. Jogging southeast onto 6 and then southwest to Coal, Rabbi Kaplan's 2 Albu-
querque home was where the balloon rests. Rabbi Kaplan and his sister Millie lived

north side by Central Avenue -the primary east-west traffic artery through Albuquer-
quThe purple routewas only the map a fbove locates C. Albert into the soupper left corners on 7the &
CG. Albertingtains a burial section t o this day. (16)

Given irque homniversit where Cincinnati classmates assessment and his incster Mllination to slihoved
arsjusip, it is no surprise to learn that Hunie ngad enrolled at whihe was boniversited of ever in
C. Albert maintains a burial section to this day.162>

Colorado, to pursue a doctorate. Though none the Ulniversity of Cincinnati, nor
(Iniversity of Denver publications consulted, indicate his area of study other than
having pursued "the Classical course", Reverend Kaplan's dissertation title was:


A best guess, then, is that his doctorate was either in Philosophy or Psychology, pos-
sibly both, or even in Religion since it was already beginning to incorporate psycholog-
ical perspectives into its curriculum. linearthing exactly the majors offered during his
time at (IC is general, at best, and most records consulted just state that he received
a b. A. from (IC in 1901. however, here is some of what has been discovered in the
course of researching his academic life:

- 9 -

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