RABBI SAMUEL BENJAMIN,
N. HERMAN SHORSTEIN,
MENDELSON PRINTING CO.
Foreword .......... ......................- ................... .......----
Theory of Jewish Center ...............----..-- .................. Dr. Julius Drachsler
The Need of A Jewish Center ....--..........-------..................... Dr. Samuel Benjamin
The Jewish Center from The Y. M. H. A. Point of View
Mr. Henry Herzenberg
Jewish Education in Jacksonville-Survey .................... Mr. Joseph Schenkerman
The Jew and Judaism in American History-address........Pres. Calvin Coolidge
Jewish Organizations in Jacksonville --------........----- --------------
Our Jews of To-morrow. --.......................-----.......... Mr. Joseph Schenkerman
JACKSONVILLE JEWISH CENTER
Harry Finkelstein, Chairman
S. D. Kramer
BUILDING FUND COMMITTEE
Mr. David Moscovitz
Mr. Jacob Lapinsky
Mr. Abe Newman
Mr. N. Paul
Mr. Max Rubin
Mr. Louis Richardson
Mr. J. H. Slott
Mr. N. Herman Shorstein
Mr. I. Silverberg
Miss Rae Siegal
Mr. Joseph Witten
RABBI SAMUEL BFNJIANiIN
I In thif- irst jIcmp1 t- prI.Juce .a Wea B..k f.:r the Jack'-nville .I IJ h ,r:
C. o mi n~in .I[d .A S...'cnir Journ l f.A.r the pri:'pI:'-o J Cou n t Ce t':r \ic
j'bia: t is cl. f'1-IJ In the tir['I 11:l ir intended -IJ aii pia utur[ o.f J I'. I-h
li. and ,.itIt'. in two neli'..; cr-ted but quick'. g-Jrc..ving Jc'. v ;h Cinmmu i i '
.'il .f rlie laLie-t arid miusr i ip- rttr. cL ti i FI'Jiia -i thu tie i-rld it
lirc ni.. hee..mc C i dC JqutirCrtJ ithit it .n -cc. nJl:nd, t: center the at.t.e n t t
[rh<1 I Ick--ol-.i ille Ic .' i-h c.*riii-'iun it-it i.n tl e r i; r pr.-.H clen- iecin] it in the
h-p li t tkni- i[ the truth it ill h.c trct ie rJ 1` lv0 : theil
A. cA.i c l sur.ir ; o- mJ e .fi the i .rii.iJual Jo' Ih i Ant:a.'i .ti s in ti.
it, and diBli-cnt cLHL'rt ere I ridC t.I-- -ceic he the f .ill:-.t inti -rmu l n .ib- ut Lt'
ir .ii- 'ill .-nd thL Crh i iiniiitt i n.Clc l. The r-1-iture pr -centic d i- n t .alt._-
tz:h -r *i pi. t'ant 't.n: The -h aJ- hc..vl- priedoinu' tc There i minuch dir:
ne: and lite lIeiht
N .11 aitt-em, i- 0i.t een r ,_,dce t t. -.'.n r ,li e ,-r t fur it l i -c b -'LL I felt
tlu it 1t hei', t'.i kn i- the truth, th.' ? h.;le [irlti, and *,.ek a remred,u if p. itH"l
,,r------ ---- rl,__:9cq w d n ,,, I ,:,r~r :ts l, Fli~ ,, tt t e v rd i
rather than offer vain compliments which can only result in creating a false sense
of safety which is of the greatest danger in the face of a crisis.
We are now at the threshold of a New Year-Rosh Hashona 5687-and in
accordance with Jewish custom we must at this season take stock of our spiritual
belongings. This Year Book represents the clearest statement possible, under
the existing chaotic conditions, of the Jacksonville Jewish community's assets
The community has for a long time failed to pay its cbli,.,ti,:ns to Jewish
education. Twenty years have passed, a generation has been raised, and the debt
has grown to tremendous proportions. It is not a matter now of finding fault
or criticizing the past but it is very important to know that a debt delayed is not
a debt paid. The Jacksonville Jewish children and the adolescents, now flower-
ing into manhood and womanhood are demanding the immediate settlement of
this pressing obligation. Through their own organizations and by their own ef-
forts they try to. show the way to their elders. A children's organization en-
tirely of its own accord presents a play and offers its little mite to the Hebrew
School, the Hebrew Junior League is the first to adopt a resolution urging the
erection of a Jewish Community Center and pledges its whole hearted support to
the movement. This is the brightest and most encouraging aspect of the situa-
tion. It is a spark which can yet be fanned into a beautiful flame which will
S drive away the shadows and cast a radiant reflection on the present and future
of the Jacksonville Jewish Community.
To be or not to be, to pay and live, or not to pay and disintegrate and be
forever lost, this is the question which faces the Jacksonville Jewish Community.
In this book the facts have been mustered, the case has been presented, the world
will now judge. May we not be found wanting. May the subsequent issues of
the Year Book show a reinvigorated Jewish community conscious of its great re-
S sponsibilities and meeting them Jewishly, nobly, and honestly.
And may God grant that the New Year bring peace, happiness, and pros-
perity to us, Israel, and all mankind.
LOUIS H. COHEN
INSURANCE OF ALL KINDS
603-608 GRAHAM BLDG.
TELEPHONE 3-1466 and 5-2509
H. Begal, 614 W. Adams
friends and patrons a
\ Sager & Family,
129 Clay St.
relatives and friends a
rosperous New Year.
May you be inscribed in the Book
of Life is the wish of
Mr. & Mrs. L. Schevitz 306 Broad St.
Mr. & Mrs. J. E. Cohen,
Extend their heartest wishes for a
year of happiness and joy to all their
relatives and friends.
Mr. & Mrs.
Mr. & Mrs.
happy and P
A Theory of the Jewish Center
Dr. Julius Drachsler
The power of ideas has built
up empires and it has ruined
them. It has enthroned rulers
and has hurled them into the
dust. It has kept peoples from
degeneration and disappearance,
and it has sapped their vital-
ity and gnawed away their life.
Ideas are the carriers of pro-
gress or they are the harbing-
ers of social death.
What is this Jewish Center
idea, and why should the Jews
of America be profoundly in-
terested in its nurture and full
realization? Is the Jewish Cen-
ter idea in America a carrier
of life and progress to the Jews
of our country?
Scattered throughout the
land there are today over three
hundred "associations" or "cen-
ters." Some are housed and
equipped properly; others eke
out a miserable existence in
ramshackle quarters. Some
have a conscious aim; others
drift delightfully along, caring
little about anything but the
satisfaction of the momentary
pleasures of their clientele. I
have been interested for a long
time in the question of the mo-
tive for the organization and
continued existence of these
agencies. What are they after?
What do they want? What do
they seek, if seek they do at
all? And, if they do seek
something, is that something
genuinely worth while?
The "Self-Defense" Theory
I have received many an-
swers to my questions. One
set of answers I should group
together under the name of
the "self-defense" theory of the
Jewish Center. There are those
who, holding this view, say:
"Try as much as we will to
mingle socially with our non-
Jewish neighbors, we don't
just feel quite at home; we
lack the atmosphere of famil-
iarity; we are ill at ease, be-
cause instinctively we feel the
barrier of ages and ages of
estrangement and misunder-
standing. We shrink from in-
timate contacts. We willmove
among our own people, and for
this let us have Jewish cen-
ters." Then there are those
who say: "Even if we want
to mingle, we are not permitt-
ed. We are excluded; we are
discriminated against through
most ingenious devices. And
yet we need sociability. We
will not be denied its enjoy-
ment. Let us have our own
centers and revel in them to
our hearts' content." Then
there is the Jew who is obsess-
ed by the specter of anti-semi-
tism. It is a horrible night-
mare to him. It oppresses
him. He sees the ghost follow-
ing him at every step. He
sees the ugly grin and feels
the cold touch of the bony
hand all the time. The whole
world has conspired to destroy
the Jew. There is no safe
place for him. "Let us build
centers," he cries; "let us bar-
ricade ourselves in them. That
is the only sure way of surviv-
ing." Such is what I venture
to call the "self-defense" theory
of the Jewish Center the views
varying from the mild uneasi-
ness of contact with the strang-
er to the neurotic dread of a
universal anti-Jewish conspir-
Does such a theory appeal
to you? I am frank to confess,
it does not to me. If one
could find no better reasons
for the organization and de-
velopment of Jewish centers
than these, the idea had better
be abandoned. Why waste en-
ergy in trying to bolster up a
notion so sterile, so negative,
THE FAMILY AND HOME
BASIC TO LIFE
But are there no other, per-
haps better reasons? I think
there are-reasons which are
intellectually compelling not on-
ly for the Jew but for the non-
Jew. You have heard it said
often that the family and the
home are among the basic so-
cial institutions of civilization.
Students of social problems a-
gree upon this point with re-
markable unanimity. Why is
this so? Because the home is
the cradle of the future of the
human race; because the child,
the potential carrier of civiliz-
ation, is nurtured there. It is
in the home the child learns his
first lessons of devotion, kindli-
ness, consideration and coopera-
tion. The fundamental social
ideals are first taught in the
home. He learns the true
meaning of tradition. Then
the youth steps out into the
world and begins to broaden
and deepen these ideals. He
struggles. He builds a home
for himself. He establishes
his own hearth. He becomes a
citizen among citizens. And
when the day's work is over,
when perhaps the hardships
and disappointments of the
world outside make him cynical
and skeptical and even embit-
tered, he returns to his home;
he seeks the warmth and the
intimacy of his family circle,
and under the glow of the
hearth-flame bitterness is thaw-
ed into generosity, scepticism
turned into a new faith in man-
kind, cynicism transmuted into
a gentleness of spirit that sur-
prises even himself. And when
the new day dawns and man
goes forth to his labor again,
he is fit to meet his fellows in
a humane, genuinely social
frame of mind.
Now suppose someone said:
The home ought to be abolish-
ed. It narrows man's mind. It
makes him self-centered. It
prevents him from being really
public-minded, from being a cit-
izen in the literal sense of the
word. What we need is a com-
mon life, a genuine living to-
gether, which can only be ac-
hieved by abolishing such "self-
centering" institutions as the
home. You would greet such a
proposal, I know, with ridicule
and with scorn. For it is the
height of absurdity to reason
that the true privacy of the
home makes against the true
spirit of community. You
would say: the better the fa-
ther, the better the citizen.
You would say: bring the home
close to the community and the
community close to the home.
THE "CULTURE" HOME
OF THE PEOPLE
Now just as individuals
have homes that humanize and
civilize them, that serve them
as places of spiritual rejuvena-
tion, so peoples, too, have such
a home. The cultural heritage
of a people-the art, literature,
religion, music-all the finer
aspects of civilization are the
spiritual "home" of a people.
It is in this "home" that a
people is humanized. It is here
where it is made more generous
and more kindly. It is to this
home that it retires periodical-
ly, so to speak, to become spir-
itually rejuvenated. Let any
culture-group sing a favorite
folk-song. See how they are
stirred to the depths. Let
them tell the story of the sac-
rifices of one of their heroes.
See how they vibrate in unison.
They are re-made in the spirit
of their culture. They become
less of the brute and more of
the human. And, if they truly
retire to dip deep into the foun-
tains of their finest culture,
they are better fitted to take
their places in the family of na-
tions and to deal justly with
their neighbors. They come
nearer to the ideal of the uni-
versal brotherhood of man.
Now suppose some said:
Let us abolish this so-called
"home" of the people, this
spiritual heritage. It makes
the people narrow, self-center-
ed, yes, jingoistic. You would
say: To wipe that out would be
to rob the people of its most
treasured riches, yes, of its
THE CENTER AS THE
might become active and intell-
igent participants in the pro-
gressive development of the
American democracy. In a
word, not because we are a-
fraid as Jews in the midst of a
non-Jewish world, but because
we want to be better men do
we need Jewish centers 'in A-
merica. A Jewish center should
not be simply a refuge from
prejudices and persecution, but
a spiritual home to keep the
truest humanity alive in us. To
foster such an idea, and to
spread it should be the aim of
every one interested in the Jew-
ish Center movement. It
should be the aim of every Jew-
ish community in this country.
I sometimes think that only
centers such as I have tried to
sketch will keep the Jewish peo-
ple alive and creative in the
Diaspora. If the Jew cannot
create innumerable "spiritual
centers", in the Diaspora one
spiritual center even though
Far afield as this may ap- it be in the land of the
pear to you from the Jewish fathers, will not suffice to
Center idea we are discussing, stay the process of decay
it yet bears directly on it. For and ultimate disappearance.
my theory of the Jewish Cen- And can you think of a greater
ter is that it should be the tragedy in history than would
"home" of the Jewish commun- be the disappearance of such a
ity in the sense in which I have strange, unique people as the
used the word. To it should Jews-a people that has clung
come the boys and the girls, on to life for so many centuries?
the young men and young wo- Surely the world would only
men to become immersed in the lose by it.
mellowed heritage of the Jew- Can you think of any reason
ish people-to withdraw, so to or set of reasons that are real-
speak, to the privacy of the Iv intellectually compelling, that
"communal home," in order to can stand the test of "reason"
be rejuvenated-to turn the ug- in the broadest and best sense
linesses and the pettinesses of of that much abused term? Dis-
the world outside into a beauty appear, because by clinging to
of mind and generosity of spir- life, the Jew helps to keep a-
it; then go forth into the larger live racial and religious antag-
community and take their places onisms in the world? That,
as men among men. On the surely, is no ethical solution;
other hand, the Center should for, how can it be ethical to
serve to interpret the best in yield merely to avoid conflict,
American life, for the benefit irrespective of the principle in-
of its clientele, so that they volved? Disappear, because
the Jew has "shot his bolt," will somehow be transferred
and has nothing more to offer and shared with others? That
to the world? That surely is a surely is a groundless view
strange reading of Jewish his- scientifically, for it is based on
tory and a bold and gloomy bad biology and worse sociolo-
prophecy. Disappear, because, gy.
by melting away into the wel- Can you think of any good
ter of peoples, its own potency reasons? I cannot.
THE JEWISH CENTER FROM THE
Y. M. H. A. POINT OF VIEW.
by Henry Herzenberg
Most cities in the Unted States ally of one large hall which, when
with a Jewish population of 500 used for one purpose, most often
families or more are the proud pos- for athletics, becomes entirely im-
sessors of buildings known as "Jew- possible, for the time being, for
ish Community Centers" in which any other activity.
young and old find the facilities To my regret I must confess
to satisfy their religious, social, cul- that Jacksonville Jewry has shown
tural, and physical needs. that Jacksonvlle Jewry has shown
an utter indifference to the needs
From the educational standpoint an utter yoindiffeen to the needs
too such buildings fill a vital need of our youth, and dt pite my fre-
in the community. The child, af- quent appeals in the Y. M. H. A.
ter completing his Hebrew or Sun- News and through the spoken word
day School training, and in the ado- that we should erect .a community
lescent stage which is the most po- center nothing was done. Now,
talent in moulding the man and thanks to the Almighty, a leader
women of to-morrow, is Jewishly has come into our city who has
permitted to drift for himself and brought the necessary inspiration to
finds no institution to interest itself invigorate our apathetic community.
in his needs. The Jewish Center Through the fervent appeal of Dr.
obviates this difficulty and solves Samuel Benjamin, esteemed rabbi of
this important problem in a most the B nai Israel Congregation, the
satisfactory manner, necessary funds have already been
The classrooms and clubrooms of raised for the purchase of a suitable
classrooms and clubrooms of lot for the Jacksonville Jewish Coin-
the Jewish Center afford the oppor- lot for the Jacksonville Jewish Co
tunity to conduct study circles in munity Center.
a pleasant environment at hours It is my sincerest hope that every
suitable even for the high school Jew both orthodox and reform will
boy and girl. The auditorium be- unite in this grand effort to save
comes a center of attraction and our youth for Judaism. Let us drop
influence through dramatic presen- the "shibolet" that divides us,
stations, oratorical contests, debates, meaninglessly into opposing groups
mock trials and at times even and factions and let us all join in
through its use as a dance hall. the effort to erect a Jewish Com-
The present Y. M. H. A. structure munity Center which will weld us
does not permit the conducting of together into a harmonious homo-
any of these activities in an orderly generous body proud of our past
and well regulated manner. For and eager to work out our future
the whole building consists practic- as beseems Americans and Jews.
JW 2w2w w2wwv ww2 2ww wywI I
The Need of a Jevwish Community
Center in Jacksonville
by Rabbi Samuel Benjamin
According to the Talmud,
Rabbi Jochanan was surprised
to learn that there were old
Jews in Babylon. When in-
formed of this fact he exclaim-
ed, "How is this possible? Do
not the Scriptures say, "that
your days may be multiplied,
and the days of your children,
upon the land which the Lord
swore unto your fathers." In
Eretz Israel, therefore, Jews may
live long but not in the Galuth."
When, however, he was, told
that the Babylonian Jews were
in the habit of visiting the sy-
nagogue frequently going there
in the early morning and re-
turning late at night, Rabbi
Jochanan remarked, "It is this
that saves them and enables
them to live long."
It is an historic fact that a
nation uprooted from its soil
and exiled to some foreign land
soon loses its identity and mer-
ges, becomes assimilated with
the stronger powers in its new
environment. It is a wonder,
indeed, how the Jewish people
exiled from their native land,
a weak minority actively sup-
pressed' and viciously persecut-
ed everywhere, has succeeded
to this very day not only in
maintaining its existence but al-
so in developing new strength
so that numerically it is now
stronger than ever before and
spiritually holds forth great
The answer to this riddle is
the same which Rabbi Jochan-
an gave in his days to explain
the wonderfully rich and active
life of the Jews in Babylon.
From the earliest days of their
exile extending through the
dark Middle Ages and down to
our own day the Jewish people
employed the synagogue not on-
ly to perpetuate life but also to
prevent stagnation, not only to
retain their identity, but also to
give it an ever increasing value
The words of the psalmist
well describe he attitude of the
Jew to the synagogue, the cen-
ter in which his soul found de-
light and about which all his
thoughts centered. "My soul
thirsteth for God, for the liv-
My tears have been my food
day and night,
While they say unto me all
the day: "Were is Thy God?"
These things I remember and
pour out my soul within me,
How I passed on with the
throng and led them to the
house of God,
With the' voice of joy and
praise, a multitude keeping holi-
To the Jew, the synagogue
was not merely a place of wor-
ship. It was in the truest
sense a center where he found
satisfaction or all his needs.
The Synagogue was called the
"bet haknesses" which literally
translated means "house of as-
sembly". Jews assembled at
the synagogue not only to pray.
but also to while away a social
hour. It was the meeting place
where Jews gathered to delibe-
rate on the various questions
and problems which faced their
i! a~8snwn~hias~hhh~;hnzshwwww~hhisa~ sahbhsnWhh~;56ha~-hhsZassn;lsWbWW;Fj~i~
The synagogue was also
known as the "bet hamidrash"
which translated means, "house
of study". There would always
be found not only the rabbi and
scholar engrossed in the study
of the Talmud but numerous
groups of the Jewish masses,
rich and poor included, pursuing
various Jewish studies. Here is a
group that is known as the "che-
vra mikra" and is devoted to the
study of the Bible, there is an-
other studying "Ain Jacob"
which is the collection of the
Agadic portions of the Talmud,
and there are yet many others
studying the codes, ethics, and
cognate subjects of Jewish in-
terest. These Jews could truly
have said of the Jewish laws
and traditions, "they are our
life and the length of our days".
In America after the break-
ing of the roots grounded in the
older soil of Europe, the Jew
sought to transplant physically
the synagogue he had been ac-
customed to in his former ghet-
to domicile. Thus we find that
Jewish life in America organ-
ized itself as was only natural
in "landsleit" groups. And
every American Jewish com-
munity of any consequence can
boast of a German Jewish Tem-
ple, a Russian, Lithuanian, Pol-
ish and other synagogues, de-
pending on the number of Jews
in that city from any particu-
lar European locality. In the
larger American cities there are
synagogues named after the
most out of the way, insignifi-
cant, Russian or Polish villages.
Organization along these lines,
natural as it was, could not but
help divide up American Israel
into innumerable factions and
fractions often for lack of mut-
ual understanding conflicting
with one another and prevent-
ing harmonious united action.
With the coming of the
World War, however, and the
cessation of immigration on a
large scale from East European
countries a great change has
come in American Jewish com-
munities. The younger gener-
ation which has been raised in
this country lacks entirely the
background which impelled the
parents to organize religious and
other forms of organization a-
long geographic lines, and, there
fore, feel no sense of allegiance
or loyalty to the institutions
their fathers created to meet a
passing and temporary need.
The Americanized Jewish young
men and women rightly feel
that they can meet only on the
one common platform of a un-
ited American Israel striving to
realize the Jewish ideals and
to give expression to the teach-
ings of Judaism as well as they
may under present conditions.
It is this desire to adapt
Jewish life to American condit-
ions which brought about the
creation of the Jewish Center
movement. It is not a mere fad
or a passing fancy which has
caused hundreds of Jewish com-
munities in America to erect
in the last few years Jewish
Centers at an enormous cost.
It is rather an instinctive feeling
on the part of American Jewish
people that this method affords
the best means of self preser-
vation in an environment which
challenges daily the raison
d'etre of any self conscious
group. We, seeking to main-
tain a distinct identity on the
basis of being thus able to con-
tribute better to the enhance-
ment of that grand life and cul-
ture which we call Americanism,
feel that we must bring sacri-
fices to prove our worth or fall
into the ignominious category
of boasting braggarts.
A survey of Jewish life and
activity in Jacksonville reveals
a deplorable indifference to the
!!a8hia;hi -- ---~ .-~&
greatest and most vital Jewish
need, namely, the education of
the young. The results of such
a policy of indifference are al-
ready apparent. Its contin-
uance spells the death ana ab-
solute extinction of the local
It is best to know the truth,
the whole truth and endeavor
to find a remedy rather than be
deluded by false hopes and il-
lusions which close our eyes to
the dangers which face us until
it is too late. Both the syna-
gogue and temple in this city
have failed to kindle the fire of
religion, the right enthusiasm
for Jewish living in our midst.
A visit to one of these houses
of worship on the rare occas-
ions when services are held in
contrast to the traditional three
times a day services will prove
how anaemic religious life in
The Young Men's Hebrew
Association is an admitted fail-
ure. Cultural and educational
activities of Jewish content it
has none, and its facilities for
physical recreation are poor, an-
tiquated, and inadequate. The
Jewish Welfare Association
which represents the philanth-
ropic activities of Jacksonville
Jewry is so little conscious of
Jewishness that it finds no con-
tradiction in keeping its office
open on Saturday, the Jewish
Sabbath, the holiest and most
sacred institution of the Jewish
people, and its designation as
a Jewish society. This is not
said only in criticism of these
institutions, but to point out
how under the present condit-
ions the Jewish community
spends thousands of dollars an-
nually not to safeguard and pre-
serve Jewish ideals but to de-
grade the Jewish name either
through malice or ignorance.
The proposed Jewish Center
will serve as Centers do in o-
Club rooms and social rooms
will afford opportunity for the
meeting of societies and organ-
izations in a most pleasing en-
vironment creating and main-
taining a spirit of sociability
their cities to organize and cry-
stallize Jewish life in this com-
munity so that it may have
conscious direction to a well
defined aim. The Jacksonville
Jewish Center is not to be the
institution of any particular
congregation, group or society.
It is to represent the entire
Jewish community on the broad
principle of a living American
The Jacksonville Jewish Cen-
ter must be a beautiful magni-
ficent structure worthy of the
large, wealthy, and united Jew-
ish community it represents.
The Center will have facilities
for the satisfaction of the reli-
gious, social, cultural, and phy-
sical needs of all the members
of the Jewish community.
Such a Center cannot fail to
attract the young and hold their
interest in Jewish life and cul-
ture. The classrooms will be
beautiful and attractive, inspir-
ing respect in the children, both
for the school and the ideals it
represents instead of filling
them with revulsion as the pre-
sent quarters do, with a conse-
quent loss of interest and sub-
The young men and women
will have an auditorium for the
presentation of dramatics, and
the holding of lectures, debates,
concerts, and musicales. A
large and splendidly equipped
library teeming with Jewish
and other good books will form
a prominent part of the Center.
Opportunity for physical re-
creation will also be amply pro-
vided by a well equipped
gymnasium and beautiful dance
and good fellowship. Public as
well as private functions will be
celebrated in the banquet room
of the Center, and all will find
there at once a purifying fire
and a connecting link.
Such is the future which
faces the Jacksonville Jewish
community if it rises to the oc-
casion, brings the necessary
sacrifice, and realizes the ideal
of erecting a Jewish Community
A start has been made. God
grant that we may carry it to
a successful conclusion.
It's a handicap for any person or enterprise not to have an enemy. En-
emies are one of God's methods of preventing men from becoming molluscs.
An enemy is an unintentional friend. It is commonly said that God gives us
our relatives while we choose our friends. I doubt that some of our relatives
come from God. They suggest another source. I do believe, however, that
God gives us enemies and that we are selected by our friends.
A Jew is chosen to the extent that he is choice. Please bear this in mind
you Jews who pride yourselves upon being part of a people to whom you have
not only been ho help but a hindrance.
A CHOSEN PEOPLE
Some Jews are very proud to consider and call ourselves God's chosen
people. I believe that in the proper sense they are. It would, however, be
occasion for greater pride if instead of saying that God chose us we could
conscientiously say that we have chosen God.
PRETENSE AND PLEASANTNESS
I have been thinking lately that if some people would be really half as
pleasant most of the time as they pretend to be part of the time the world would
be a great deal better all of the time.
If some people would criticize themselves half as much as they criticize
others they would certainly be better than they are and probably almost as good
as those they criticize.
JEWISH EDUCATION IN
by Joseph Schenkerman
Jacksonville Jewry expended last
year for various Jewish causes and
needs local and national included,
the vast sum of one hundred thous,
and dollars. This figure is based on
an actual computation of the budgets
of the various Jewish institutions
in this city and the amounts raised
in the nation wide drives. And yet
for Jewish education the community
gave no more than $2,000. In this
insignificant amount is included the
budgets of the Sunday School, the
Yiddish school, and even private
tutoring. In most Jewish communi-
ties in America, 35 per cent of the
total expenditures are for educational
purposes. What a striking contrast
to this are conditions here! No
wonder the results are so apalling.
Only ten per cent of the Jewish
children in this city ever visit the
Hebrew School and of this number
more than half are over eleven years
old and their sole purpose is to re-
ceive a smattering of knowledge to
enable them to become Bar Mitzva
or confirmed. In general there
exists a dreadful indifference to Jew-
ish education even on the part of
those parents who already send their
children to Hebrew School, and few,
indeed, are they who seek Jewish
knowledge because they realize its
With the exception of the "Daugh-
ters of Israel" not a single organized
group ever evinced the least interest
in this painful problem. "The
Daughters of Israel" it must be men-
tioned to their credit, did make
strenuous efforts to create and main-
tain a Hebrew School and sought
to persuade parents to give their
children a Jewish training. But they
always struggled against tremendous
odds, and the very fact that it was
left to a group of women to solve
the general educational problems
proves of what little consequence the
greatest of Jewish ideals had become
to the community as a whole.
There are in Jacksonville to-day
about a thousand Jewish children of
school age and about as many more
who have grown into adolescence or
early manhood and womanhood un-
der the conditions above set forth.
Of all this number there isn't one
who can read a verse of the Bible in
the Hebrew original, and understand
its meaning. To our shame we must
admit that the vast majority do not
even know how to read the simplest
Hebrew prayers, and we have wit-
nessed the sad sight of young men
stumbling through the Kaddish over
their parent's grave by means of an
The Jacksonville youth are like
lost sheep blindly seeking the way
back to those pastures from which
the indifference of their parents and
the criminal negligence of the com-
munity has driven them. Instinct-
ively and of their own accord with-
out guidance or leadership they or-
ganized themselves into Young Ju-
daean Clubs, Hebrew Junior Leagues,
Junior Congregations, etc., but what
a sad reflection on their early train-
ing is the present content of their
A Young Judaea Club arranges a
minstrel show in which negro jokes
and cheap popular songs of the most
vulgar nature are the studied results
of weeks of practice. Another or-
ganization presents a play the moral
of which is that even the best of
Jews violate the Sabbath to earn a
few dollars or to please his dejuda-
ized American children. How far
away from the Jewish national ideal
is the minstrel show, how contrary
to fact and the true Jewish spirit
of martyrdom is that play. But
what do these children and young
men know of Jewish history, tradi-
tions, and loyalty to ideals for which
we have bled and suffered through-
out our existence?
Here is what one of this class,
Morris Diamond, delegate of the
local Young Judaea Club to the last
convention at New Orleans has to
say about his own generation and the
conditions under which it was raised
in Jacksonville, "I had the honor of
representing Jacksonville at the con-
vention. I went to this convention,
sort of in the rut, as to what Ju-
daism really meant. I was groping
in the dark and in ignorance of my
own ideals and those of my people,
a sort of life in constant dusk. But
what a beautiful awakening the con-
vention was. It renewed my faith
and imbued me with enthusiasm for
my people and their traditions."
And this is what he has to say
of Jewish conditions in New Orleans,
"The greater part of the Jewish
youth in New Orleans speaks and
understands Hebrew. It was a rev-
elation to me to hear boys and girls
of my own age speaking Hebrew
fluently and fully conversant with
Jewish life and conditions both in
the past and present."
It is interesting to learn how such
pleasing and astounding results have
been obtained in New Orleans, and,
perhaps, profit by this knowledge.
Up to a few years ago New Orleans,
had only one orthodox congregation
and three reform congregations whose
members were but slightly interested
in Judaism and Jewish education.
The organized conservative Jewish
element in New Orleans is probably
no stronger than that in Jacksonville.
But for the last seven years New
Orleans has maintained a Communal
Hebrew School under the supervision
of a renowned principal and peda-
gogue with a staff of five expert
teachers. The school bh an enroll-
ment of 200 pupils and has an
annual budget of $20,000. This
amount is raised from voluntary
membership contributions. Recently
a new Hebrew school was organized
by a conservative congregation and
it already has an enrollment of over
The writer had the opportunity to
lecture there in Hebrew before the
pupils of the school and all of them
listened attentively and many later
discussed the subject in Hebrew.
Some of the graduates of the New
Orleans Hebrew School are continu-
ing their Jewish studies in the Rab-
binical training schools in New York
and Chicago. Many of the graduates
are easily superior in knowledge to
the teachers employed in some He-
brew schools in this country and
were it not for their youth could
readily occupy such positions.
The influence of such a Hebrew
School makes itself felt in most un-
expected places. Thus, for example,
has the New Orleans Orphan Asy-
lum which has such little regard for
Jewishness that it feeds "trefa" food
to the children, found it necessary to
introduce Hebrew instruction given
by the teachers of this Communal
Hebrew School, and even Tulane Uni-
versity has established a chair for
Hebrew, thanks largely to the efforts
of the Hebrew School authorities.
The Hebrew School conducts spe-
cial services for the children which
can well serve as a model for adult
congregations. The order and de-
corum is perfect. These services are
conducted entirely by the children
themselves and are inspiring in the
But New Orleans is not the excep-
tion. Almost every American Jew-
ish community of the size of Jack-
sonville has similar Hebrew educa-
tional institutions. For example, not
to go too far afield. Savannah has
a Hebrew School with four teachers
and two hunderd pupils, Miami has
three teachers and one hundred and
fifty children and so we could multi-
ply examples ad infintum. In com-
parison, then, with other communities
11 navvvvv Mnnnn/vvz
Jacksonville in the field of Hebrew
education occupies a shameful posi-
tion. The situation, however, is not
hopeless. It demands immediate at-
tention, and with sufficient effort a
remedy can be found.
"Three elements," say our sages,
"enter into the creation of a child's
life, father, mother, and God." In
moulding his life a fourth powerful
influence must be added, the teacher.
In raising a child under modern con-
ditions the responsibility is divided
between parents and teachers, the
home and the school and generally
the greatest share is borne by the
A survey of Jewish life in Jack-
sonville to-day, and judging by the
number of organized Jews in this
community belonging to one Jewish
organization or another, there are
three hundred Jewish homes totally
indifferent to everything Jewish,
having no connection whatsoever
with any Jewish activity, and pre-
sumably so far as the Jewish religion,
culture, and traditions are concerned
absolutely dead. Another large
group hovers on the border line be-
tween total indifference and some
slight reaction to things Jewish e. g.
belonging in name to some Jewish
organization but seldom if ever par-
ticipating in the activities of that or-
ganization. Only a very small minor-
ity, a handful, are fully conscious
of their responsibility as Jews and
understand the importance and value
of Jewish education. It is this group
co-operating with the rabbi and
teachers which can yet save the Jack-
sonville Jewish community from utter
degradation and extinction.
It is an undeniable fact that Jew-
ish criminals who are children of the
richest assimilationist class, as well as
those of the slums never received
the least Jewish training, never heard
of the Biblical law, "He who sheds
human blood, his own shall be spilt."
Where the cause is the same, the
effect must be likewise. What
guarantee, then, have our Jackson-
ville assimilationist rich or indifferent
middle class that their children will
be any better when they too are ex-
posed only to the temptations and
wiles of modern life without the
temperate influence of the Jewish re-
ligion and teachings.
Parents should send their children
to Hebrew school not in a perfunc-
tory manner, but with a feeling that
it is a holy duty, an absolute neces-
sity. The children will, then, catch
this spirit too, and their entire at-
titude to the school and the ideals
for which it stands will soon change
from indifference and antipathy to
love and devotion.
To achieve this aim three main
factors must be taken into considera-
tion (1) the school building and its
location, (2) the teaching staff or
faculty, (3) the system or curricu-
In determining the physical appear-
ance of the school one must take into
consideration the psychological atti-
tude of the child to the Hebrew
School. He is naturally disinclined
to go there on the general principle
that it means additional work. Fur-
thermore it encroaches upon his play
time and there is no adequate com-
Spensation in public approval even if
he succeeds in his Hebrew studies.
And when one knows that even in
the public school where attendance
is compulsory every effort is made
to make the classroom as attractive
as possible one can readily realize
how much more important and neces-
sary it is to have beautiful surround-
ings in the Hebrew School.
It is for this reason that every
Jewish community of any conse-
quence in this country has in the
last few years erected marvelously
beautiful Jewish Centers where the
educational facilities occupy the most
important place. In Jacksonville,
however, the Hebrew School is
located in the basement of an old
dilapidated structure in the slums of
the city. Little wonder, then, that
it has failed to attract the children
and that its influence in the com-
munity is practically nil.
11 i 32
Jacksonville must follow the ex-
ample of other Jewish communities
and erect at once a beautiful Jewish
Center in the finest section of the
city and furnish the classrooms and
clubrooms for the children with the
finest and most modern equipment.
This is the first step which must be
taken if we would save the coming
generation from assimilation.
Next in importance is the teacher.
In former years the custom was for
an individual who was unfit for any-
thing else to become a "melamed,"
a teacher. It is for this reason that
the very term "melamed" carries with
it a certain uncomplimentary mean-
ing. Now, however, there are spe-
cial training schools for teachers such
as the Teachers' Training School of
the Jewish Thelogical Seminary of
America and others where the stu-
dents must first have a collegiate
education. There are men and
women who devote themselves entirely
to the problems of Jewish education
and make it their life's career. In
most of the better Hebrew Schools
in America the teachers are well
paid and are by their character and
personality influential leaders in the
Jacksonville, too, must learn that
it cannot afford to appoint high
school children as the teachers in
its Hebrew School simply because
their services cost less. The faculty of
the Jacksonville Hebrew School must
be on a par with that of the best
schools of this type anywhere. And
then success is sure to follow.
The third and last important fac-
tor in the Hebrew School is the
curriculum. In the European .Che-
der the child was devoted entirely
to Hebrew studies from the age of
three to thirteen often spending more
than twelve hours a day in the Che-
der. Under such circumstances a
child perforce absorbed some Jewish
knowledge despite the faulty or abso-
lute lack of system.
In this country where the child
devotes at most an hour a day to
Hebrew studies a highly developed
system and a well defined curriculum
must be employed that not a minute
of the child's time be wasted. The
natural method known as Ivrit b' Iv-
rit has been found to be the most
practical in the American Hebrew
Schools and it is this method which
is now pursued in the Jacksonville
The curriculum is based on a six
and a half year course of study and
is intended for children entering the
school at the age of six to eight
years. A kindergarten class is con-
templated for younger children and a
special class exists for older children
entering without a previous knowl-
edge of Hebrew.
The following is a general outline
of the classes and the subjects of
study at present in vogue in many
Hebrew Schools and also instituted
in the Jacksonville Hebrew School:
Preparatory Class: One hour daily.
Subjects: Religion, Blessings,
Prayers, Holidays and Customs;
Music-National and ritual songs and
Hebrew Reading and Writing
First Class-One hour and a half
Subjects: Hebrew-Reading, writ-
ing, conversation and elementary
rules of grammar; Religion-Use of
prayer book, Bible stories; Music-Na-
tional and ritual melodies.
Third Class-One hour and a half
Sub j e c t s: Hebrew-orthography,
principals of Hebrew grammar; Five
Books of Moses, History; Music con-
Fourth Class-Two hours daily.
Hebrew-Orthography, Theory of
Hebrew Grammar, Five Books of
Moses, Selections from the Prophets,
History; Music-Reading Torah and
Fifth Class-Two hours daily.
Hebrew-Major Prophets, Gram-
mar, History, Music-Reading Torah
Sixth Class-Two hours daily.
Hebrew-Minor Prophets, Selec-
tions from modern Hebrew literature,
I a 73
I ILI 11VVVVVVVS/VVVV7S7^7<7^7S/^A?-.^V<^^
I. __ __ _
Stories of the Talmud, Selections from
the Shulchan Aruch, History.
It is to be hoped that now when
such a propitious beginning has
been made for the erection of a
Jacksonville Jewish Center under the
leadership of Dr. Samuel Benjamin
THE JEW ANE
Address By Pres
We have gathered this afternoon
to lay with appropriate ceremony
and solemnity the cornerstone of a
temple. The splendid structure
which is to rise here will be the
home of the Jewish Community Cen-
ter of Washington. It will be at
once a monument to the achieve-
ments of the past, and a help in the
expansion of these achievements into
a wider field of usefulness in the
future. About this institution will
be organized, and from it will be
radiated, the influences of those civic
works in which the genius of the
Jewish people has always found such
eloquent expression. Such an estab-
lishment, so noble in its physical
proportions, so generous in its social
purposes, is truly a part of the civic
endowment of the nation's capital.
Beyond that, its existence here at
the seat of the national government
makes it in a peculiar way a testi-
mony and an example before the en-
This year is a year of national
anniversaries, States, cities, and towns
throughout all the older part of the
country, wil be celebrating their
varied parts in the historic events
which a century and a half ago
marked the beginning of the Ameri-
can Revolution. It will be a year
of dedications and re-dedications. It
will recall the heroic events from
which emerged a great modern na-
tion consecrated to liberty, equality,
and human rights. It will remind
us, as a nation, of how a common
and with the writer making every
effort to fulfill the other require-
ments so far as it lies in his power,
the local Tewish community will rise
to the occasion and r'- their child-
ren's sake will carry the work to a
ident Calvin Coolidge
spiritual inspiration was potent to
bring and mould and weld together
into a national unity, the many and
scattered colonial communities that
had been planted along the Atlantic
seaboard. In a time when the need
of that unification, understanding
and tolerance, which are necessary
to a national spirit, is so great, it
will recall the fact that the fathers
not only confronted these same prob-
lems in forms far more difficult than
they are today, but also solved them.
Among the peoples of the 13 colo-
nies, there were few ties of acquain-
tance, of commercial or industrial in-
terest. There were great differences
in political sentiments, even within
the local communities, while there
were wide divergences among the
several colonies, in origin, in religion,
in social outlook.
If we would seek a fairly accurate
impression of conditions at the be-
ginning of the Revolution, we must
attempt a really continental view of
North America as it was in 1775.
The group of new-born common-
wealths which we commonly refer
to as "the original 13 colonies," and
which in our minds represent a con-
siderable measure of nationality al-
ready achieved, did not in fact even
know that they would be 13 in
number. No man, on the day of
Lexington, could be altogether sure
that the Revolution was more than
a New England affair. It might or
it might not draw the middle and
southern colonies into its armed ar-
g nnn~ ~w/w/uwowowwowonwmwoooonoooo~w~ II
-------------- ---------- ~.
ray of resistance. On the other
hand, the 13 might have been joined
by Canada, which was British in sov-
ereignty, but chiefly French in popu-
lation, by Florida and Louisiana,
which were both mainly Spanish. In
short, there might have been 14, or
15 or 16 original colonies participating
in the North American revolution
against Europe, or there might have
been less than a half dozen of them.
At that time, France had no terri-
tory within continental North Ameri-
ca. But this condition had existed
for only a short time since the end
of the Seven Years War. France
had by no means become reconciled
to this exclusion from a part in the
North American empire; and only a
little later, in the year 1800, under
a new treaty with Spain, resumed
the sovereignty of the Mississippi
Valley. Three years after this, bene-
fiting by the fortunes of the Na-
poleonic wars, President Jefferson
confronted, and promptly seized the
opportunity to buy Louisiana from
Napoleon. Even then, many years
were yet to pass before the last
claims of Spain should be extinguish-
ed from this continent.
I have recounted these scraps of
territorial history, because unless we
keep them in mind we shall not at
all comprehend the task of unifica-
tion, of nation building, that the
Revolutionary fathers undertook
when they not only dared the power
of Great Britain, but set themselves
against the tradition of the subor-
dination of America to Europe. As
we look back, we realize that to bind
them together. Their chief commer-
cial interests were not among them-
selves, but with the mother country
across the Atlantic. New England
was predominantly Puritan, the
southern colonies were basically cava-
lier. New York was in the main
Dutch. Pennsylvania had been
founded by the Quakers, while New
Jersey needed to go back but a short
distance to find its beginnings in a
migration from Sweden.
There were well-nigh as many di-
vergencies of religious faith as there
were of origin, politics and geogra-
phy. Yet, in the end, these religious
differences proved rather unimpor-
tant. While the early dangers in
some colonies made a unity in belief
and all else a necessity to existence,
at the bottom of the colonial charac-
ter lay a stratum of religious liber-
alism which had animated most of
the early comers. From its begin-
nings, the new continent had seemed
destined to be the home of religious
tolerance. Those who claimed the
right of individual choice for them-
selves finally had to grant it to
others. Beyond that-and this was
one of the factors which I think
weighed heaviest on the side of unity
-the Bible was the one work of
literature that was common to all of
them. The scriptures were read and
studied everywhere. There are many
testimonies that their teachings be-
came the most important intellectual
and spiritual force for unification.
I remember to have read somewhere,
I think in the writings of the his-
torian Lecky, the observation that
"Hebraic mortar cemented the found-
ations of American democracy."
Lecky had in mind this very influ-
ence of the Bible in drawing together
the feelings and sympathies of the
widely scattered communities. All
the way from New Hampshire to
Georgia, they found a common
ground of faith and reliance in the
In those days books were few, and
even those of a secular character
were largely the product of a scholar-
ship which used the scriptures as the
model and standard of social inter-
pretation. It was to this, of course,
that Lecky referred. He gauged
correctly a force too often underes-
timated and his observation was pro-
foundly wise. It suggests, in a way
which none of us can fail to under-
stand, the debt which the youn,
American nation owed to the sacred
writing that the Hebrew people gave
to the world.
This biblical influence was strik-
[I ~oowowoooww~owcL Ifwcnwww
ingly impressive in all the New Eng-
land colonies, and only less so in the
others. In the Connecticut code of
1650, the Mosaic model is adopted.
i he magistrates were authorized to
administer justice "according to the
laws here established, and, for want
of them, according to the word of
God." In the New Haven code of
1655, there were 79 topical statutes
for the Government, half of which
contained references to the Old Tes-
tament. ihe founders of the New
Haven colony, John Davenport and
Theophilus Eaton, were expert He-
brew scholars. he extent to which
they leaned upon the moral and ad-
ministrative system, laid down by the
Hebrew lawgivers, was responsible
for their conviction that the Hebrew
language and literature ought to be
made as familiar as possible to all the
people. So it was that John Daven-
port arranged that in the first public
school in New Haven the Hebrew
language should be taught. The
preachers of those days, saturated in
the religion and literature of the
Hebrew prophets, were leaders, teach-
ers, moral mentors and even political
philosophers for their flocks. A peo-
ple raised under such leadership,
given to much study and contem-
plation of the scriptures, inevitably
became more familiar with the great
figures of Hebrew history, with Josh-
ua, Samuel, Moses, Joseph, David,
Solomon, Gideon, Elisha-than they
were with the stories of their own
ancestors as recorded in the pages
of profane history.
The sturdy old divines of those
days found the Bible a chief source
of illumination for their arguments in
support of the patriot cause. They
knew the Book. They were pro-
foundly familiar with it, and emin-
ently capable in the exposition of all
its justifications for rebellion. To
them, the record of the exodus from
Egypt was indeed an inspired pre-
cedent. They knew what arguments
fully influence their people. It re-
quired no great stretch of logical
processes to demonstrate that the
children of Israel making bricks
without straw in Egypt, had their
modern counterpart in the people of
the colonies, enduring the imposition
of taxation without representation!
And the Jews themselves, of whom
a considerable number were already
scattered throughout the colonies,
were true to the teachings of their
own prophets. The Jewish faith is
predominantly the faith of Liberty.
From the beginnings of the conflict
between the colonies and the mother
country, they were overwhelmingly
on the side of the rising revolution.
You will recognize them when I
read the names of some among the
merchants who unhesitatingly signed
nonimportation resolution of 1765:
Issac Moses, Benjamin Levy, Samson
Levy, David Franks, Joseph Jacobs,
Hayman Levy, Jr., Matthias Bush,
Michael Bratz, Bernard Bratz, Issac
Franks, Moses Mordecai, Benjamin
Jacobs, Samuel Lyon and Manual
Not only did the colonial Jews
join early and enthusiastically in the
non-intercourse program, but when
the time came for raising and sus-
taining an army, they were ready to
serve wherever they could be most
useful. There is a romance in the
story of Havm Salomon, Polish Jew
financier of the Revolution. Born
in Poland, he was made prisoner by
the British forces in New York, and
when he escaped set up in business
in Philadelphia. He negotiated for
Robert Morris all the loans raised in
France and Holland, pledged his per-
sonal faith and fortune for enormous
amounts, and personally advanced large
sums to such men as James Madison,
Thomas Jefferson, Baron Steuben,
General St. Clair, and many other
patriot leaders who testified that
without his aid they could not have
carried on in the cause.
A considerable number of Jews
became officers in the continental
forces. The records show at least
four Jews who served as Lieutenant
Colonels, three as Majors and cer-
tainly six, probably more, as Cap-
roO7OII<7OWyS7^7^II^9S7? V^ OWIV79
tains. Major Benjamin Nones has is not a charity to minister to the
been referred to as the Jewish Lafay- body, but rather to the soul. The
ette. He came from France in 1777, 14,000 Jews who live in this Capital
enlisted in the Continentals as a vol- City have passed, under the favoring
unteer private, served on the staffs auspices of American institutions, be-
of both Washington and Layfayette, yond the need for any other benevo-
and later was attached to the com- lence. They are planting here a
mand of Baron De Kalb, in which home for community service; fixing a
were a number of Tews. When De center from which shall go forth
Kalb was fatally wounded in the the radiations of united effort for
thickest of the fighting at the Battle advancement in culture, in education,
of Camden, the three officers who in social opportunity. Here will be
were at hand to bear him from the the seat of organized influence for
field were Major Nones, Captain De the preservation and dissemination
La Miotta, and Captain Jacob De of all that is best and most useful,
Leon, all of them Jews. It is inter- of all that is leading and enlighten-
esting .to know that at the time of ing, in the culture and philosophy of
the Revolution there was a larger this "peculiar people" who have so
Jewish element in the southern colo- greatly given to the advancement of
nies than would have been found humanity.
there at most later periods; and these Our country has done much for
Jews of the Carolinas and Georgia the Jews who have come here to
were ardent supporters of the Revo- accept its citizenship and assume their
lution. One corns of infantry raised share of its responsibilities in the
in Charleston, South Carolina, was world. But I think the greatest
composed preponderantly of Jews, thing it has done for them has been
and they gave a splendid account of to receive them and treat them pre-
themselves in the fighting in that cisely as it has received and treated
section. all others who have come to it. If
It is easy to understand why a our experiment in free institutions
people with the historic background has proved anything, it is that the
of the Jews, should thus overwhelm- greatest privilege that can be con-
ingly and unhestitatingly have allied ferred upon people in the mass, is
themselves with the cause of free- to free them from the demoralizing
dom. From earliest colonial times, influence enjoyed by the few. This
America has been a new land of is proved by the experience here, not
t h1 l 1- A I r 1, C 11 C llt
porpm se ovt s ong pe-rscu e race. a one 0 L e Jews, u o a e
The Jewish community of the other racial and national elements
United States is not only the second that have entered into the making of
most numerous in the world, but in this Nation. We have found that
respect if its old world origins it is when men and women are left free
probably the most cosmopolitan. But to find the places for which they
whatever their origin as a people, are best fitted, some few of them
they have always come to us, eager will indeed attain less exalted stations
to adapt themselves to our institu- than under a regime of privilege;
tions, to thrive under the influence but the vast multitude will rise to a
of liberty, to take their full part as higher level, to wider horizons, to
citizens in building and sustaining worthier attainments.
the nation, and to bear their part To go forward on the same broad-
in its defense; in order to make a ning lines that have marked the
contribution to the national life, fully national development thus far, must
worthy of the traditions they had in- be our aim. It is an easy thing to
herited. say, but not so simple to do. There
The institution for which we are are bogs and morasses, blind roads
today dedicating this splendid home, and bad detours. No philosophy of
Omwg^ w oo-------------I
history has ever succeeded in charting
accurately days of the future. No
science of social engineering has been
able to build wide and easy roads by
which to bring up the van of human
progress in sure and easy marches.
'ihe race is always pioneering. It
always has been and always must be.
It dare not tire of unending effort
and repeated disappointments. It
must not in any moment of weariness
Least of all can we indulge the satis-
factions of complacency, imagining
that the sum of useful progress has
been attained. The community or
the civilization that ceases to pro-
gress, begins that hour to recede.
The work of spiritual unification
is not completed. Factional, section-
al, social and political lines of con-
flict yet persist. Despite all experi-
ence, society continues to engender
the hatreds and jealousies whereof
are born domestic strife and interna-
tional conflicts. But education and
enlightenment are breaking their
force. Reason is emerging. Every
inheritance of the Jewish people,
every teaching of their secular his-
tory and religious experience, draws
them powerfully to the side of chari-
ty, liberty and progress. They have
always been arrayed on this side, and
we may be sure they will not desert
it. Made up of so many diverse
elements, our country must cling to
those fundamentals that have been
tried and proved as buttresses of na-
It must be our untiring effort, to
maintain, to improve, and, so far as
may be humanly possible, to perfect
those institutions which have proved
capable of guaranteeing our unity,
and strengthening us in advancing
the estate of the common man. This
edifice which you are rearing here,
is a fine example for other com-
munities. It speaks a purpose to up-
hold an ancient and noble philosophy
of life and living, and yet to assure
that such philosophy shall always be
adapted to the requirements of
changing times, increasing knowledge
and developing institutions. It is a
guarantee that you will keep step
This capacity for adaptation in de-
tail, without sacrifice of essentials,
has been one of the special lessons
which the marvelous history of the
Jewish people has taught. It is a
lesson which our country, and every
country based on the principle of
popular government, must learn and
apply, generation by generation, year
by year, yes, even day by day. You
are raising here a testimonial to the
capacity of the Jewish people to do
this. In the advancing years, as
those who come and go shall gaze
upon this civic and social landmark,
may it be a constant reminder of the
inspiring service that has been ren-
dered to civilization by men and
women of the Jewish faith. May
they recall the long array of those
who have been eminent in state-
craft, in science, in literature, in art,
in the professions, in business, in fi-
nance, in philanthropy and in the
spiritual life of the world. May
they pause long enough to contemplate
that the patriots who laid the found-
ation of this Republic drew their
faith from the Bible. May they give
due credit to the people among whom
the Holy Scriptures came into being.
And as they ponder the assertion
that "Hebraic mortar cemented the
foundations of American democracy,"
they cannot escape the conclusion
that if American democracy is to re-
main the greatest hope of humaniLy,
it must continue abundantly in the
faith of the Bible.
There was a time when certain women who smoked and drank liquor
privately were considered immoral. Some women who do these things publicly
today are considered "smart". And this is called progress! There are some of
us who prefer to be called old fogies. Alexander Lyons
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Jewish Organizations in Jackson-ille
CONGREGATION B'NAI ISRAEL
More than a quarter of a century has elapsed since the Congregation B'nai
Israel came into existence.Its history tells the story of the everlasting struggle on
the part of the Jew to remain loyal to his religion and traditions despite the
tempting smiles of fortune or the frowns of misfortune. There were only five
orthodox Jewish families in Jacksonville when the sentiment for the creation of
an orthodox Jewish Congregation began to crystallize and take on a definite
These five families although lacking by a half the necessary number for the
traditional minyan yet held their own services on the High Holidays in the
Masonic Temple which was then located at the corner of Broad and West For-
sythe Street. A reform congregation was already then in existence, but the sense
of loyalty to traditional Judaism was too strong in the hearts of these orthodox
Jews to permit them to assimilate with their financially and numerically stronger
Their zeal and loyalty to their holy convictions was rewarded, for in a short
time their number grew so that in the year 1901 they already counted forty
members and proceeded to realize their ideal by legally incorporating the first
orthodox Hebrew Congregation in Jacksonville.
The following is an exact copy of the charter:
To the Honorable R. M. Call, Judge of the Circuit Court of the Fourth Judicial
Circuit of Florida, in and for Duval County, Florida:
We, the undersigned, citizens of Duval County, Florida, desiring to form a
religious society and to become incorporated under the laws of the State of
Florida, herewith present to your Honor the following proposed Charter, duly
subscribed by the intended corporators, and pray that said proposed charter may
The name of the corporation shall be "The Hebrew Orthodox Congregation-
Bney Israel" and the place where said corporation is to be located shall be in
the City of Jacksonville, Duval County, Florida.
(2) The general nature of the object of the corporation is to hold and
conduct religious services according to the Hebrew form of worship; to erect
and maintain a synagogue and to have said corporation hold the title to any and
all real estate or personalty said corporation may acquire in any manner whatso-
ever and to provide for the compensation of a Rabbi or such other person as said
congregation or corporation may elect; and provide the manner in which all
matters and things pertaining to said corporation shall be governed and con-
(3) The qualification of the members of said congregation shall be good
moral standing and Hebrew or Jewish nationality, and the manner of their ad-
mission shall be by vote of the members present at any meeting called for that
express purpose, and the candidate applying for admission must receive a
S majority vote of the members present at such mri..ti!e, when he shall be ad-.
mitted to membership.
(4) The term for which this corporation is to exist shall be ninety-nine
(5) The names and residences of the subscribers hereto are Max Frank,
Samuel Controvitz, E. H. Pilton, Morris Wexler, A. Hirsch, Alex Ossinsky and
Louis Rosenstein; all of said subscribers are residents of Jacksonville, Florida.
(6) The affairs of the corporation are to be managed by a President, Vice-
President, Secretary, Treasurer and three Trustees, and the title to all property,
Real or personal, shall vest in the trustees, and all of said officers shall- be elected
by the congregation, and all officers shall be elected on the first day of January
of each and every year, unless otherwise changed at any time by the by-laws.
(7) The officers who are to manage the affairs of said corporation and
in whom the title to all property, real and personal, shall vest, until the first
election under the charter, shall be Max Frank, President; Samuel Controvitz,
Vice President; Louis Rosenstein, Secretary; Alex Ossinsky, Treasurer; and E.
H. Pilton, Morris Wexler and A. Hirsch, Trustees.
(8) The By-Laws of the corporation are to be made, altered or rescinded
by the President, Vice-President and Secretary.
(9) The highest amount of indebtedness or liability to which the corpora-
tion can at any time subject itself, shall not be greater than two-thirds of the
value of the property held by said corporation, whatever that value may be.
MAX FRANK, Jacksonville, Florida.
S. CONTROVITZ, Jacksonville, Fla.
E. H. PILTON, Jacksonville, Fla.
A. HIRSCH, Jacksonville, Fla.
M. WEXLER, Jacksonville, Fla.
ALEX OSSINSKY, Jacksonville, Fla.
L. ROSENSTEIN, Jacksonville, Fla.
STATE OF FLORIDA
Before me, the subscriber, personally came L. Rosenstein, who first being
duly sworn, says that he is one of the subscribers to the foregoing proposed char-
ter and subscribed his name thereto, and that it is intended in good faith to carry
out the purposes and objects set forth therein.
Sworn to and subscribed before me this 2nd day of November, 1901, at
C. SETON FLEMING,
Notary Public, State of Florida at Large.
I certify that on the 6th day of December, 1901, I recorded the foregoing
instrument in the Public Records of Duval County, Florida.
P. D. CASSIDEY.
Clerk Circuit Court.
This matter coming on to be heard upon this 5th day of December, and it
appearing to the Court that due and legal advertisement has been made pursuant
to statute, and it further appearing that the object of the corporation is such as
contemplated by the statue. Now therefore, it is ordered, adjudged and de-
creed that the enclosed charter proposed be and the same is hereby approved.
Done and ordered this Decembr 5, 1901. R. M. CALL, Judge.
In 1907 the membership of the B'nai Israel Congregation had increased to
seventy five, and the congregation felt strong enough to begin the erection of a
suitable edifice to house its religious ard educational activities. For true to the
principles of their faith they laid stress not only on public worship but
also on the education of their young. Provision was, therefore, made in the
new building for a Hebrew School with three classrooms and a larger room for
assembly purposes. The upper floor serves as the synagogue proper with a
gallery reserved for the ladies.
A large lot in what was then the fashionable residential section on the cor-
ner of Jefferson and Duval Street was selected as the site. The remarkable
courage and faith of those devoted Sons of Israel can be gauged by the fact that
____________________________s zszWWWWWWSTwwW W W W~ g'~
they had only fifty dollars when the purchase of the lot was made. Nothing
daunted, however they proceeded and succeeded in erecting the present synagogue
at a cost of $25,000. Grateful acknowledgement is made for the help extended by
Gentile friends in this community and out of town Jews, notably the Weinkle
Brothers of Savannah (Mr. M. J. Weinkle is still an active member of the con-
gregation) who donated a carload of lumber.
A tablet inscribed with golden letters in a prominent position in the syna-
gogue gives the names of the Building Committee as follows:
Isaac Davis, President; Harry Glickstein, Vice-President.
Elias H. Pilton, Chairman; Judah Joel,
Max Frank, Vice-Chairman; Louis Winkler,
Frank Bandel, Treasurer; Morris Wexler,
Lionel D. Joel, Secretary; Abraham Hirsch,
David Davis, Alex Ossinsky.
As spiritual leader of the congregation was appointed Rev. Benjamin
CONG RE TAION 'NA.[ ISRAEL
S.tTer H e ,.. 11 J, -,:t aI~L >..1"j,_,r 'nd r,..dcr i- ihc sr, iiit'-_, uc .ind -" ,hi >t i,
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I -. -. ---...-..i-- -~----~v
rhe niCcc-:.-iar, fin ariciil, h.:! tc. Re S i kr ti:. en.blc himrr, t i 't up in hu lr .:-I f ur
the sale.I f rn'1i..it: jld 1J .-. r k: -,her pr.r-Ju>c
SF the t_,dlJuci I IJ t l'c chilJren the c. rC i L' tt-.. cnl ed r..C i- hcr-., ri'o .it bl
a Cc rtitin i M r R,:,icnbe'r:e ..hl JJ d .d .iic w.'r, 2 ,-,J --. rk .nJ L ft .r, fiv'.':rAbit
impr-t.liin .A r-_,nm -tl'ri ... N- ::r- '11 Sil.. r-tcii nJ n iM r Rc:mr.kIA
N it unlitl I d'1' d t JliJ cJ Ih rt]. m in feo l tr, 'ir -, crii JjI'i t[i CIrI.iC a rc aibbi
Dir S l. : Srcri .- tI: : ll:d t:, fill the B n.11 i 1-r: rp-iliit He inrr.:d cJ C -
FrlJ., i' h ic'. .nJ iJ l ". -c in: '- led* : ICi, l e ur..: h .- 1 ;L : .J.: J h'. : I
I R .iNb C H P'r--,; in i', l .I ..h. ri,-m .in.J ".' ich the ..,n_, ic. tOi_ n t rr ,tr .
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iI t.tim.:. c f ti ,' L it] t D ,urhtr o:f Itr :cl. Rabhl-i Airt-hur G i-i:lcr ,as :l,-ctJd Ir-i.maii'- i
S -, f-upcr'.iie th.- H eb.rI S i", I but hI: .:.. Jir..:..-J 1 t1h rt C .L tII : t i n':- : of
I th.' ,eiC L rc I.rI,:.L in D r GAil-.- r r..]e l d cI.-,C.i:'p l t i t ,c l ,i o:Li' LL- I.o-r : iL'
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mm n ,ii i- raddLJite ,f th J:' .,. ;l TheC,, I, -.: i S.m .inAr : ,-I-i A p"rica He !-i:ld- thr : "
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frfm Ne''' Yorlr LUil.ii'-i',: ir irnd ttcl,. upJO':rn ILlIadu.aiti- fr tr:ii the Seminm u
Dr Bcni.irin -'\i- cAlled t., tltc pulpit of the A-ii-ic Enr'; (C.'ln.r2 .2i .i. (_'..._
I r' J In -.n I ',c r he r,:- r,',.rni -,d th t cL-:nr ..i 2 I r[Ill I ril l .I il ii r tIIur .i-ri kn'-, ".T A
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C'IL ,cImid. fr.:,nm I'h.ich ihe r 'e,..'I,:J 1, -., r1 PJ.,:l I _n.. in Jun,1 I 2: In P.Il'. '
ti:c,. D)r Berm.ln.i n pl Ic,'..J .t pio'nmnc'ir r .-'] i [n he *:I., o:.,n,,u ,c :rnd pjllt[! 'i[
lilf ,: f the c untr'. HE -- te .pr, d::j-:r t If th. A n icr.: n Li t' i II:.i In i
Pal.-:- ie i -.', pr-lid-lnl t I Alntric l ic .III .-:ril! B ink. rrinil-i r :, f itIe A.d rlitr :r
ti' c C'1 n1. nl l tt I ;.:c 'o I tlh i,, .. I'Ih C mi niv :.i l lii inJd Tel A.-. i,, Imd i mc. ih-,: r
of the M unicral C..uincil ..1 Tel A-i',..
ULil I re-turn firoli. P.ltcillc., Di B nri.in-m-ri unJd rti-lll. ,i tl' rcql.c.t :f
the .i'r, ..:in S':. .,. ,,, C ,: !rcr F .in J t..ur .f th.,:- S.:,uth- ..1 hch Ill .-f th : I
u B'' rt.iln A lni .II CIC I I l ru F 1i J *l l.. r:-r i l'u b .:ri l-.:c d l he i t[;.:tr -i -
tht: B i i I-r i -' C ._,r. r.: ui.i. n t h, rl, .:i -,, : in r,'srL", nr e t,,' his .' .:_ i..
In ht, h -!i .rr ime thli I Rabl i .-.I B:li.- i 1n h Is. b7'en h-.crc the CIi: tri -' l,-,'n h.
m .dde trimen-,' id:u-i; trit,:- t f-r arJ Id t bi-ud..cr Ili; in.re,'.scd fri-ill .1 h. irc .$ 1111
anir.jin.a t1 'I ",i"i 0 T- he mn -bher.hip- luh s lra.'e d', r,. chJ "', :,rid i- C.o.'l :t.ntl
gr.: n- The H -hbre,'- Sch. h i -.c.:r i c ipletcl r i.:'r, i- :.: A n .,ihl: prim n
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cipal has been engaged and over 125 pupils are already registered.
Wholly at the instance of Rabbi Benjamin the congregation has launched
a movement for the erection of a Jewish Center in Jacksonville. A site has been
selected at the North West corner of Silver and Third Street facing the park,
and the first payment for this has been made from subscriptions entirely from
members of the B'nai Israel Congregation.
The officers and trustees of the congregation are David Moscovitz, Presi-
dent; M. Bucholtz, Vice-President; Judah Joel, Treasurer; Hyem Kramer, Secre-
tary; P. Newman, Max Rubin, and M. Feldman, Trustees.
The Board of Education consists of Mr. Joseph Witten, Chairman; J. H.
Slott, Secretary; Mr. Jacob Lapinsky, Rev. Benjamin Safer, Max Rubin, and
The Cemetery Committee consists of Mr. David Davis, Chairman and
Messrs. Max Rubin, E. H. Pilton, Louis Bucholtz and Neal Finkelstein. Mr
Henry Herzenberg is "Gabai" of the Chevra Kadisha, and the other members
are Rev. B. Safer, S. Cantor, D. Rippa, Harry Klein, S. Ghelerter and Rev. M.
JACKSONVILLE HEBREW SCHOOL.
The Jacksonville Hebrew School was founded simultaneously with the
B'nai Israel Congregation but has undergone many changes and developments
since that time. At first it was in the form of the typical European "Cheder"
with the "shochet" or cantor acting as the teacher. In 1922 the Daughters of
Israel assumed the responsibility for maintaining the Talmud Torah and with
extraordinary zeal and painstaking care succeeded in introducing a modern
system and methods.
With the coming of Rabbi Samuel Benjamin to Jacksonville the Talmud
Torah was completely reorganized. Mr. Joseph Schenkerman, an able and ex-
perienced pedagogue, was engaged as principal. He introduced the curriculum
adopted by the best Hebrew Schools in the country, and arranged classes to
enable every child desiring a Jewish training to find a proper place.
At present the school has the following classes: (1) A Preparatory Class,
(2) First Class for Beginners, (3) Second Class for Advanced Pupils, (4) Bar
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Since the school was reorganized in May 1926 there have registered 125
pupils. The school has continued its sessions throughout the summer and it
may here be noted that it is probably the only school in the country which did
not close, even for a brief vacation during the summer months. It is expected
that when the school season begins in the fall more than 200 children will
register. In that event more teachers will be engaged and classes so arranged
that each child will receive adequate individual attention.
The Hebrew School is now located in the vestry rooms of the B'nai Israel
Congregation. A beautiful and spacious bus brings the children living at a dis-
tance from the school to their classes. Every child is thus enabled to visit the
Hebrew School no matter in what part of the city he resides.
Preparations are being made for an Educational Propaganda Week directly
before the fall registration which will bring home to every parent the need of
giving his child a Jewish training. During the festival of "Sucot" a public cele-
bration will be given by the pupils of the Hebrew School and the progress so far
made clearly shown.
Dr. Samuel Benjamin is supervisor of the school; Mr. Joseph Schenkerman
principal; Miss Pearl Becker, teacher. The Board of Education consists of Mr.
Joseph Witten, Chairman; Mr. J. H. Slott, Secretary; Rev. B. Safer, Rev. M.
Becker, J. Lapinsky, Louis Richardson, Dr. J. T. Wilensky, Mr. M. J. Weinkle
and Harry Finkelstein.
Under the auspices of the Hebrew School in conjunction with the Hebrew
Junior League evening classes for adults have been organized. These classes
meet every Tuesday night at 8:30 o'clock. There are classes in Hebrew Con-
versation, reading and writing; Modern Hebrew Literature, Bible, Jewish History
and Teachers' Training.
The following pupils of the Hebrew School are deserving of special mention
for the progress and proficiency shown in their studies:
Irving Kantor, Philip Selber, Florence Cohen, Rachel Cohen, Samuel Cohen,
Bessie Cohen, Aaron Rosenberg, Joseph Mizrachi, Fannie Feinblum, Rose Mos-
covitz, Samuel Bork, Louis Becker, Ralph Meyerson and Irving Klepper.
JEWISH GIRLS' CLUB
The Jewish Girl's Club is a junior organization which was organized Feb-
ruary 22, 1924. All Jewish girls between 13 and 15 years of age are eligible
to membership. The club now has 13 members. The officers are Helen Peltz,
President; Clara Morganstern, Secretary; and Pearl Kass, Treasurer.
It is well worth noting that this young club presented an allegorical play at
the Y. M. H. A. and contributed the proceeds, fifty dollars, to the Jacksonville
GIRL SCOUTS OF AMERICA
Violet Troop 4, Girl Scouts of America, was organized by Miss Marcella
Richardson, June 6, 1926 with children attending the B'nai Israel Sunday School.
Any girl eleven years of age and older is eligible for membership. The officers
and leaders of the troop are: Captain, Miss Marcella Richardson; Lieutenant,
Miss Sophie Grossman; Patrol Leader, Magnolia Patrol, Jeanette Blattner; Patrol
Leader, Red Rose Patrol, Helen Peltz; Corporal Leader, Red Rose Patrol, Edith
Moscovitz; Scribe, Rachel Cohen; Treasurer, Rosylin Magezes Sponsors, Daught-
ers of Israel and Hebrew Junior League.
JACKSONVILLE CAMP, ORDER SONS OF ZION
The Jacksonville Camp of the Order Sons of Zion was organized in 1910 by
the late H. Goldman and Mr. M. J. Weinkle. It now has a membership of
thirty. It is a Zionist organization differing from the Zionist district only in
that its members receive insurance benefits similar to those of other fraternal
The Jacksonville Camp has aided Palestine funds on numerous occasions
and owns stock in the Judaea Industrial Co., an organization purporting to aid
Palestine industries on a business basis.
The officers are Dr. J. T. Wilensky, President; Mr. Moses Feldman, Vice-
President; Mr. M. J. Weinkle, Treasurer; and H. J. Slott, Secretary. The
camp meets on the second and fourth Sunday of the month at the Y. M. H. A.
HEBREW JUNIOR LEAGUE
The Hebrew Junior League is the young people's auxiliary of the B'nai
Israel Congregation.The idea of organizing the League was conceived by Mr.
Abe Newman and with the assistance of a few friends he succeeded in bringing
this organization into being February 18, 1926.
The Hebrew Junior League filled a long felt need among the Jewish youth
of this city. There was no organization to interest itself in the spiritual and
cultural needs of the Jewish young men and women, and the few clubs with
social and pleasure programs satisfied the wants of only a small group.
The program of the Hebrew Junior League included social activities but
laid the greatest emphasis on spiritual and cultural work. The response was
enthusiastic and instantaneous. Over 100 young men and women became af-
filiated with the League. At the first general meeting the following officers
were elected: Mr. Harry Gendzier, President; Miss Rebecca Newman, Vice,
President; Miss Rae Siegel, Secretary; Mr. Joseph Becker, Treasurer; and Mrs.
Joseph Becker, Sergeant-at-arms. The following were appointed Chairmen of
Committees: Mr. Joseph Becker, Literary Committee; Miss Rae Siegel, Social
Committee; and Mr. Philip Bork, Religious Committee.
The Hebrew Junior League initiated its religious activities by arranging
Friday night services at the synagogue of the B'nai Israel Congregation. These
services were conducted by a choir organized and trained by members of the
League, and the sermons were delivered by various members of the organization.
It was largely through these activities of the League that the B'nai Israel Con-
gregation realized the great need of a spiritual leader, and it was by the direct
and urgent appeal of Mr. Harry Gendzier, president of the League that Dr.
Samuel Benjamin, our esteemed rabbi, was induced to accept the position.
The Hebrew Junior League was the first to respond to the call of Dr.
Benjamin to erect a Jewish Center in Jacksonville, and unanimously adopted a
resolution pledging its support to this movement and urging all Jewish organi-
zations to co-operate with it. Study circles in Hebrew, Yiddish, Bible and
Jewish History have been organized under the auspices of the League and are
well attended by its members. Mr. Abe Newman and Mr. Harry Gendzier,
both active members of the League won a debate with Tampa. "The Burden,"
a play of Jewish interest, was presented by the League at the Y. M. H. A.
A special election meeting was held on August 10th, 1926 to elect a presi-
dent to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of Mr. Harry Gendzier, who
for business reasons removed to Tampa. Mr. N. Herman Shorstein was elected
by acclamation. A loving cup was presented by the League to the r. tirii.' presi-
The Hebrew Junior League under the leadership of Mr. Shorstein has ar-
ranged a program of many and varied activities for the coming season and
expects to live up to its reputation as the strongest and most influential Jewisn
youth organization in Jacksonville.
JACKSONVILLE ZIONIST DISTRICT
The Jacksonville Zionist District was organized in 1919 under the leader-
ship of Dr. Salo Stein. It now counts 60 members. The present officers are
Dr. Samuel Benjamin, president; Mrs. Max Rubin, vice-president; Mr. Moses
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Feldman, treasurer, and Mr. Philip Bork, secretary; Messrs. Max Rubin
Abraham Newman, Louis Richardson, Henry Herzenberg, Louis H. Cohen and
Hyem Kramer, directors.
It is affiliated with the Zicnist Organization of America with headquarters
at New York. The local organization has been active in Keren Hayesod work
and in the raising of funds for other Jewish National purposes.
In 1920 a large Interdenominational Zionist demonstration was held at
the armory. This was preceded by a parade in which all the Jewish organiza-
tions in the city participated.
JOLLY EIGHT CLUB
The Jolly Eight Club was organized June 30, 1925. It has twelve members
and engages in social and charity work. The officers are Mrs. Gertrude B.
WVitten, president; Anna H. Goldstein, secretary; Fannie Stone, treasurer; and
Etta Joel, news reporter.
HEBREW SHELTERING AND AID SOCIETY
The Hebrew Sheltering and Aid Society was organized in January
1922. It now counts 140 members and its object is to give shelter and food
to needy itinerants. It also extends help to deserving poor in the community.
The organization meets the last Tuesday in every month at the Y. M. H.
A. The present officers are Mrs. L. Schevitz, president and Miss Reba Wilen-
sky, secretary. The society was founded by Mrs. Musha Lasky & Mrs. M. Stein
The Jacksonville Workmen's Circle was organized in May 1910. It
has a membership of 72. It is a fraternal organization and members receive
help in case of sickness and their families support in case of death. Its object
is to aid the working class both materially and spiritually.
The organization maintains a school in which Yiddish is the language of
instruction. It has an annual budget of $4,750. The organization meets on
the 1st and 3rd Sunday of the month at its headquarters on Duval Street. It
is Branch 441 of the National Arbeiter Ring with headquarters at New York,
whose object it is to spread socialism among the Jewish masses.
TROOP 14 BOY SCOUTS OF AMERICA
Troop 14 Boy Scouts of America was organized by a number of Jewish
boys on February 1st, 1919. It now counts 28 members. The object of the
organization is to interest Jewish boys in the Scout movement, and thus to mold
them into good citizens loyal to their country and devoted to the ideals of their
The organization meets every Tuesday night at the B'nai Israel Congrega-
tion vestry rooms. Mr. Alfred R. Stein is the Scoutmaster; Mr. Louis Moed,
assistant scoutmaster; and Mr. Joseph Wilensky, scout patrol master.
The Troop has many achievements to its credit, among them the basketball
championship for two years, and the presidential streamer for largest increase in
membership. It is interested in aiding all charities and responds to every call for
PUSHALOTER RELIEF SOCIETY
The Pushaloter Relief Society was organized in 1911 by the late Mike
Schemer and H. Goldman. It now has 36 members. The present president is
Sam Smith. The object of the Society is to help needy Jews from Pushalot both
in the old country and here. Only Jews born in Pushalot or descended from
them are eligible to membership.
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CONGEGATION AHAVAT CHESED
The Congregation Ahavat Chesed was chartered in 1882. It now has a
membership, including juniors and contributors of 200. The requirements for
membership are to be a member of the Jewish faith and of good moral character.
Regular business meetings of the Congregation are held the second Monday of
each month. Services are held at the Temple Friday nights and Saturday Morn-
ings as well as on all Jewish holidays. The congregation is affiliated with the
Union of American Hebrew Congregations, and employs the reform ritual.
The Congregation Ahavat Chesed owns a beautiful and imposing house of
worship at the corner of Laura and Ashley Street, a prominent and desirable
location, in the very heart of the city. Of the ten original charter members
none are living to-day.
The Temple was originally located at the corner of Laura and Union Street,
but this building was destroyed by fire in the general conflagration of 1900.
The present structure was erected in 1911. Mr. Issac Peiser is the present
Former presidents of the Congregation include Judge M. A. Dzialynski at
one time Mayor of Jacksonville; A. K. Lion, I. L. Moses, and Simon Benjamin.
Several of the members of the Congregation have distinguished themselves in
public life. Included among these are Charles Benedict who was chairman of
the Board of County Commissioners, Leopold Furchgott and Sig. Hess who were
members of the Board of Bond Trustees of the City of Jacksonville, M. H.
Slager and Randolph Grunthal who were members of the City Council, and M.
H. Pollak who was a member of the School Board.
The spiritual leaders of the congregation include Dr. Rabbina, Dr. Witten'
S berg, Dr. Pizer Jacobs, and the present incumbent of the Temple pulpit Dr.
Israel H. Kaplan.
JEWISH WELFARE ASSOCIATION
The Jewish Welfare Association was organized in 1917. It is one of the
28 agencies of the Jacksonville Community Chest, and every Jew who contributes
to the Community Chest becomes automatically a member of this organization.
The object of the association is the promotion of charity and welfare work
among the sick and needy Jews in this community. It may also receive con,
tributions, donations, and bequests for all forms of relief work.
The Executive Board meets on the first Monday of each month. The
office of the organization is at 411 West Forsyth Street. Mrs. M. Leon Stern
is Executive Secretary. The other officers are Mr. David Davis, president;
Julius Hirschberg, vice president; and Mr. Neal Finkelstein, treasurer.
For the year 1926 the Jewish Welfare Association received $7,000 from
the Community Chest of which amount the following sums were sent to out of
Hebrew Orphan Home. Atlanta ................................$1,500
Denver Jewish Consumptive Relief ...... -..... ......- 240
Denver National Consumptive Hospital ..-......-...-..--. 240
Denver Ex-Patients Sanitarium ..-................--........- 120
National Farm School. Doyelston, Pa. ........ -- ..-..- 60
Locally the following table shows the extent of the association's activities:
Total number of cases -.....................................-....-278
Employment Secured for ...................... ........-...... 36
M eals given to ........ ....----.....--....... .............. ....40
Lodgings given to ...- ....-.......... ..--- .....- .... .268
Rent paid for .........--- ...........------- ------------ 10
Visits paid to ....................................-----------------627
Number sent to St. Luke's Hospital ....................-........... 2
Number sent to Florida State Colony ............................----- 4
Transportation secured for --................. .............---------10
Transportation paid for ........-- .......-- ....- ........ .......... 13
In addition the organization sends cheerful letters to Jewish immates at prisons
and prison camps; also magazines, cigarettes, candy, clothing, toilet articles etc.
The Jewish Welfare Association of Jacksonville is a member of the National
Conference of Jewish Social Service.
THE TEMPLE SISTERHOOD
The Temple Sisterhood of Congregation Ahavat Chesed was organized in
1916 by Mrs. Simon Benjamin and Mrs. I. Kaplan. The organization now has
an approximate membership of 200. Every Jewish woman is eligible for mem-
bership. There is a special class, however, for young women known as Junior
members. The Sisterhood meets the first Tuesday of every month.
The chief aim of the Sisterhood is to give financial aid to the Temple and
to help make it a center for religious, social, educational and philanthropic ac-
tivities. It stands for the highest Jewish ideals and seeks to translate them
into modern life.
The Sisterhood has cleared the Temple from debt and engages in philan-
thropic activities. It is partly responsible for the maintenance and upkeep of
the Temple Sunday School.
The officers are Mrs. A. Wachtel, president; Mrs. L. Berlack, vice president;
Mrs. L. Grunthal, second vice president; Mrs. J. Glickstein, recording secretary;
Mrs. J. Benjamin, corresponding secretary, and Mrs. A. Rothschild, treasurer.
Additional members of the Executive Board are Mrs. I. Kaplan, Mrs. J. Corbett,
Mrs. V. Strasburger, Mrs. S. Benjamin, past presidents, Mrs. N. Max, Mrs. H.
Gerbert. Mrs. N. Finkelstein, Mrs. P. Nathan, Mrs. Ed. Barwald and Miss Rae
The Sisterhood is a constituent member of the Georgia-Florida State Fed-
eration of Temple Sisterhoods and The National Federation of Temple Sister-
The Jacksonville Chapter was organized October 8, 1925 at the home of
Mrs. Solon Klepper. The organizers were Mrs. Neal Finkelstein, Mrs. Harry
Gerbert, Mrs. Jacob Weiss, Mrs. Louis Bucholtz, Mrs. Sam Halpern and Mrs.
Solon Klepper. Mrs. Neal Finkelstein was elected president and Mrs. Solon
Klepper, secretary. At a later meeting the following additional officers were
chosen, Mrs. Maurice Witten, vice president; Mrs. David Davis, second vice
president and Mrs. Samuel Bono, treasurer.
The following were appointed by Mrs. Neal Finkelstein, chairman of com-
mittees: Ways and Means, Mrs. Harry Gerbert; Membership, Mrs. Sam Davis;
Sewing Circle, Mrs. Maurice Witten; Milk Fund, Mrs. Lazar Klepper; Bazar,
Mrs. Louis Bucholtz, Social, Mrs. M. R. Cohen; Press, Mrs. Herbert Meyerson;
and Mrs. Harry Gendzier, corresponding secretary.
Two dances, a rummage sale, and a linen shower are the outstanding
achievements of the organization during last year. A sum of $1,229.36 was
forwarded to the National Office at New York. The sum is distributed as
$674.00 was sent to the medical unit.
25.00 was sent for administration work.
71.61 was sent for the milk fund.
35.00 was sent for the penny luncheons.
35.00 was sent for child welfare work.
188.75 was sent for membership dues.
200.00 was given for the United Jewish Drive.
Mrs. Neal Finkelstein was elected a delegate and attended the Hadassah
and Zionist convention at Buffalo June 2, 1926.
DAUGHTERS OF ISRAEL
The Daughters of Israel were organized in April 1922 as the ladies auxiliary
of the B'nai Israel Congregation. The organization proved a great success from
the very beginning for its appeal was based on the great ideal of Jewish
The Daughters of Israel in addition to fulfilling all the duties usually in-
cumbent upon a Sisterhood such as aiding the congregation financially and caring
for various social and philanthropic activities took full responsibility for the main-
tenance of a Hebrew School in Jacksonville. They engaged Rabbi Arthur Ginz-
ler as the head of the educational activities and thus provided spiritual leadership
for the congregation as a whole.
Mrs. Harry Finkelstein was the first president and it was her splendid
leadership which was largely responsible for the zeal and enthusiasm of the mem-
bers. At the end of her term Mrs. Samuel Aronowitz was elected president
and continued the good work.
Upon the resignation of Mrs. Samuel Aronowitz due to her leaving town
Mrs. Max Rubin was unanimously elected president. With the indomitable zeal
for which this outstanding Jacksonville Jewish commual leader is noted she in-
spired the organization to maintain the Hebrew and Sunday School despite all
obstacles and difficulties. During her term over $4,000 were expended by the
Daughters of Israel on behalf of Jewish education. It was largely due too, to
Mrs. Rubin's broadness of vision and her all embracing love of things Jewish
which led the Daughters of Israel to become affiliated with a national organiza-
tion, The Women's League of the United Synagogue of America with head-
quarters at 531 West 123rd Street, New York City.
On April 20, 1926 new elections were held and the following officers and
members of the Executive Board were chosen: Mrs Harry Finkelstein, president;
Mrs. Louis Bucholtz, vice president; Mrs. Max Rubin, second vice president;
Mrs. M. Sagar, treasurer; Mrs. C. Kass, corresponding and financial secretary;
chairmen of committees: Mrs. Max Rubin, religious; Mrs. J. Goldstein, mem-
bership; Mrs. J. T. Wilensky, House; Mrs. L. D. Joel, Entertainment; Miss
Ethel Joel, Social Service; Mrs. David Davis, Cooperation with other organiza-
tions; Mrs. Samuel Bono, Flowers; Mrs. M. Hirsch, Sunday School; Mrs. M.
Witten, Synagogue Service; Mrs. M. Chavin, By-laws; and Mrs. L. Moscovitz,
Publicity, and Mesdames Neal Finkelstein, M. Sablow, Lazar Klepper, Sam Buch-
oltz, S. Davis, H. Stillman, Jennie Goldstein, Henry Herzenberg, A. Hoffenberg,
Max Ehrlich, P. Newman, Moses Feldman, I. Kramer, A. Nabin and Miss Reba
In the few weeks since these elections took place the Daughters of Israel
already made several creditable achievements including a successful dance, a Sha-
buot celebration which was very well attended, and a picnic for the Sunday
The organization has pledged its support to the Jewish Center movement
and much can be expected from its efforts when activities are resumed in the
JOE MIZRAHI SOPHIE ROPHIE IRVING KLEPPER
Joe Mizrahi, seven year old
son of a Sphardic Jew to whom
Hebrew served once as the
mother tongue. Little Joe would
like to talk Hebrew too, and he
tries his best. Teacher says He-
brew as an Oriental language is
just wonderfully in harmony with
Joe's handsome, typical Oriental
She's a sweet little girl but
not a pupil of the kindergarten.
For we are not lucky enough to
have one as yet, but she is a
regular pupil at the school in
one of the higher classes. Her
father, Mr. Rophie, a Sephardic
Jew, doesn't consider her too
young to attend Hebrew School
even though Sophie is only ive.
In his country, among the Sep,
hardic Jews, children start ie-
brew at the age of three and
Sophie is true to the traditions
of her father and never misses
Only one more year and he
will be "Bar Mitzvah." Irving
has been attending a certain
Sunday School since early child-
hood, but to become Bar Mitz-
vah, his father, Mr. Klepper,
a 'maskil" realizes that a Sun-
day School education is not
enough for a Jewish child. Irv,
ing hopes that in a year's time
with hard work and with a will-
ing heart he will make up for
what time he has lost so far.
Usually a boy becomes Bar
Mitzva when thirteen years of
age. There are some ex-
ceptions. Their Bar Mitzva is
a year earlier. Jacob Wein-
stein is one of these exceptions.
He is an orphan. But by
his diligence and devotion to
his Hebrew School studies he
will know more at twelve
than most boys do at thirteen.
Teacher calls her "Shoshan-
oh" she thought at tthe beginn-
ing that Hebrew was very hard.
3ut after a few weeks of learning,
and not missing a day, trying
her best and succeeding now.
Rose says, "How wonderful and
interesting Ilebrew is."
Six year old, son of the pre,
sident of the Congregation has
his own reason for liking Che,
der: "When I will become Bar
Mitzvah", says Norman, "I
want to deliver a speech in He-
brew and understand the pray-
ers." And little Norman knows
that to be able to deliver a
speech in the Hebrew language
and to understand the prayers
and all the nice stories of that
big book called "The Bible" he
has to start right now, and not
two months before Bar Mitzvah.
OUR JEWS OF TO-MORROW
(Thoughts of the Present with a View to The Future)
By Joseph Schenkerman, Principal B'nai Israel Hebrew School
"From the mouths of babes and sucklings hast Thou founded Thy Strength."
A ship on a storm tossed sea in danger of foundering
and sinking is crowded with passengers who must seek
safety in the lifeboats. To everyone life is dear. No one
wants to find a premature end in a watery grave. And
yet the wonder and magic of it all. The cry is raised
"Children First" and the strongest men yield that the
weakest children might be saved.
True this is possible only with civilized, cultured, in-
telligent people. With the barbarians it is different.
Just as in hoary antiquity they to-day sacrifice their
children on the slightest whim or pretext. In spite of
this fact there is probably much of the instinctive in
the manly self sacrifice of the adult on behalf of the
child but it is more than that. It is the conscious feeling
that the child is entitled to a chance in life and that in
having that chance may rise to heights not yet attained by
his predecessors which often prompts the self sacrifice of
the individual for the welfare of the race.
It is to the honor and glory of the Jewish people
that it recognized this principle even in the days of
earliest antiquity. The Bible denounces in most vehement
terms those who offer their children as a sacrifice to Molech
the dread fire God, and both the Bible and rabbinic
literature abound in tender references to the care and
upbringing of the children. No wonder that the Jew
Rain or shine!! she's always
there. That's Judith, daughter
of Dr. J. T. Wilensky. Dr
Wilensky considers the study of
Hebrew as great a mitzvah as
observing the Sabbath, to which
he devotedly adheres. Little
Judith is as interested in her
Hebrew work as her older sis,
ters are in community work.
Six year old Nathan Goldstein
is very good in his Hebrew
Studies; that is why the teacher
overlooks his invented excuses for
failing to write his homework
sometimes. At times the teacher
even enjoys to listen to these in-
teresting stories which include
helping mother wash dishes, go-
ing to the g.. cery foi her and
similar mother-saving devices.
Teacher calls him "Yitzchok"
never absent, never late. One
day poor Irving became ill. Irv-
ing could not rest easy until
mother notified the teacher the
reason for his absence. 01
course, the teacher was not
pleased. He wants Irving to be
well always, to come to cheder,
and continue being champion of
Fannic Fineblum, ten years
old, sixth grade public school,
just started going to Hebrew
School. Poor Fannie as a be-
ginner, was forced into a class
with smaller children. Fannie
wasn't pleased to have the tiny
tots for her classmates, so she
sacrificed some of her play time
for home work. Working dili-
gently, she succeeded and is now
in a higher class.
living in a Jewish environment was willing to sacrifice
his last bite of bread in order that his children might
receive a good Jewish training.
But what about the American Jew? After the break-
ing of the roots grounded in the older soil of Europe
and under the influence of a general levelling, loosening
and recasting the character and spirit of the Jew has
changed in a single lifetime. But as you look into the
eyes of the children who go to Hebrew School you feel
that mystic power which assures you that all is not lost,
and that the very generation which we said shall be as a
spoil, and lost to us because of our neglect, may yet pro-
duce great Jewish leaders and thinkers.
Of mighty England it is said that the sun never
sets on the British flag. With even greater force and
truth may it be asserted that the Jewish books of learn,
ing are never closed. Every minute of the twenty-four
hours there is some place in the world where the scatter-
ed and dispersed children of Israel are welding the
strong chain which keeps them united in one harmonious
whole by drawing upon the same source of strength and
inspiration, the Jewish Bible and Jewish tradition. In old
fashioned "cheder" or modern Hebrew School we are
raising our army, our reserve force, which shall fight
our battle, a holy war, a war not of blood and conquest
but for self preservation and maintenance of ideals.
"Not by power, nor yet by might, but by my spirit,"
saith the Lord. And as we look at these children's faces.
the pupils of our Talmud Torah, we are filled with
pride and hope, and our lips tremble in prayer in which
all of you must join, "Go forth with this your might and
prove a salvation unto Israel."
What should a pupil do when
he hasn't anyone to assist him
in his home work?
Philip Selber solved this prob-
lem in his own way. An hour
-cfore the class assembles you'll
find Philip already in the class-
room 'r-nrinr, his le-sons. Of
course, the teachers and the rabbi
are al:o there and Selber knows
that they are always ready to
help a diligent pupil no mat'
ter how busy wilh o:her duties.
Arrived only recently from
Baltimore. Her mother sees no
reason why Jacksonville should
not be just as good a place in
which to study Hebrew. Bessie
in the same spirit is progressing
nicely in the J!.L. .11, He-
M.IE LIBERS Srrnd L.'lt i.. Ruh! S ( .Ch r .:. he R..trlih:to. i :L.
L :,ru-, Harr.' FaI'. Pr. ''iri, L.. it: H :ir. Kr r,r.r. S t i .. Ar :. B per.n,_ .. ml r ,-
Sc .:d Li_ t .. Riylit H wrr, L.: t. Bill E.J.:lcn:n lM ke F..r. Hiar R....::r.blrr
., r,- 1iri a cl ._n.: ierrn:r r. Tr', S r r. '.\'i[r r. B.Arr. ... *h[re .n H .,:r ':h.:in, cr
L..,ui: B,,n. -Ir.iel S:lcr Pcrr., e i.lr. Li.:.u M. .ed
T T ENTRY OYIDD CLUB
The Twv.crit OJJ Club v".. ir oc.int:J n jin nuar 1924 b" lMe:-r S-muel
\'itten and Beni irt n Sche en r It i- : :c Il club .ind it- .hli.-r in t ..:' t 'i
eoi:.d tfl!.:l.'. :hip amng its mcrnimer The club ino.'. h.s ri enmlcber MNfembc.r
-hip F- open to n n .to uii r IS '..'ire mnt :iag
Nlectrin s are helJ iclder. Sund. The :tficers lare -H.irr.: Fadi.
president: Sam Cherry. :ir.rear.r : IMricl Schemer, ircasurcr, rid M H'.cm
Kramer. -erecant'.at armi The :r irmni:ati:n hj; succeeded in crieting a
senfe to unityv amoni .ii :'me of the le.. -h '..oung men in J.ac:ks.:nvillc, and
I h. m.ateriallly, helped u ou ijcu i:h r r-li organi:ationsl
It has Ociffic ll. endio'rsed the mi..ement f'. r the erec -n :f a le..ish
'' Communlr. Center in Lickl:,onille ,,nd ha- pledged t this movement its full
hearted sJpport and c.. iper.trn
= .' ,. '..:-
Y. M.. H. A.
HENRY HERZENBERG H.ARRY KATZ '
Executive Secretary N H .A P, -i..,, i ,1 H A
Active Communit \\ '. I :
About twenty-five ,.ear' U,:, a eeicrIl v'lft.re, t,'_ pr:mulau' mn.:.l
group of Jewish your.; n mi:' t:. d cduc.in-Lnl p'ricipl, ir j
gether in Jacksonville itr the pur il-.:r and sy-.'tcri p, l J-
pose of organizing a YO:u iiI L M!.:-r '. l_.-Im nLt, n.o t.:. 'Lt.a.it-lhi a m.t
Hebrew Association. At thi- mcer ino i-oe .r the frt-: Jidcus;iii i _,t
ing a constitution and -1Et ot b,. .t' 'i. tundinicn,.ail rin.cil O 'I
were proposed and ado:ptcd and h-J, d... .-rdjin inJ pri.'.id tii!-
plans formulated for thi rai:n.-; ot C(',riiirtur! .-rn f.-r thc Y\',un-i Mn'r :
funds sufficient to erect a building Hbr,'. Ar-_ci.tiion -.Af i., ckso-.'i]ll .; ,
and home so that the prinrciphl- andJ FI-.nda
purposes of the organirzation mn,!ht be There '..crc tlei only a coinip.iar
realized. In a comp:ir,tit.el-v -'l h rt .itiV.'c!'.: tfc. Jc.l' ..iish y un mein inl the
time sufficient funds v erc raleJd ind Cic:, and the Y NM H build hinm '
soon the building was co-niplered It .and t faclitic' 'er .Jctd4u.ittc f..r
stands to-day at 712 \\'c:t Dui:l it: purp'--c
Street in the same cordit.lin ; ,..-hen T... Jd, the Preaml lc t, tle C ...
first constructed, with n: alter,.mirn *.tutiii .- the N M H A i n
and no additional im-lr. oi'. cnmrii ir-: pri.iplcs.i, ain-i .id pull r ii t'.
The building occuple- plot of n..t changed.- niir l-i trlc building,
ground approximating -'.11 i tc-.: Th. pr:'pulatitn itf I-'e ii i'.i.un, mn -r
and consists of an (ftic:. a rni-illll Ir th C:t, h-:is d..ublcd ir,-'l n-i in'
meeting room, an auciit.:rturn, a bil ri..- i .' c 1r i:.c th-" ..r; 2 ni -.iE n .i-t
ccny and showers and I:cl:crs iin the ih- Y NI H A. tli p-Lrceiit builJ
basement. The audit. riu.ln, i- u-:cJ nd it facLliic- .ir i fair
for the presentation i.t p.i, ;. n! r ... ii decqujatc The Y' NM H A
nasium work, readings. mor.iical c.n his ro.-n It members t inliii
certs, dances, basket b.ll and rth.-i appr:xmiely three hundred ar. in
miscellaneous purposes At th tture i Irecril. n:cd of a 1-1 nd [i'ic.ecr .indJ
of the erection of the building thc better bi.ldne ,and ihon:' An Jdi
purposes of the organi-.mti LIn -_'t trriumrl for plays, mectinre, ci:ncerts,
forth in the Preamble .'-cre as fol. dancing, etc., a gymnas'um, si'.'.im
lows: ming pcol. reading ro'onm, meeting
"We, the Jewish people of thi' rooms and office, sho:.'.ers and lock.
community, in order to promote the ers are needed.
NC- I h r i. S r t Arm .. B.rd fTru
l,. .. ..d it ]n.- e cr .d l r .d .f [h B :i d .
n ii Inm it, l:r the ]'j-; t a o *.:jr Three t n'. di,. C :.,,,it
r I.:r-. .Ire.iden, \' I Ares Pr ident The m erIh .* dhe
it u'' ..I.ll
S dent. Recc.,rdii Secr rr Finincial ..reanlct ..n I- di. ided inr t i
SNccreciri, and Tr: I'y er Audiu.ri cl.S e- : uniic r' SAr r.o a e B lcinher
cert.mm, ,rcc t tcc it-l-ct,. It-ar,.- and ,.r-C,.-rt,-- rt in
S o-- : .
those between the ages of fifteen and them in the principles of wholesome
eighteen, and Senior Service Mem- and clean athletics, intellectual edu-
bers, comprising all members over cation and advancement, and a deep
the age of eighteen years. seated religiously moral tr.,inirn.i that
It is the aim and purpose of the when they grow to be young men
Y. M. H. A. among other things to they will take their places in the
instill into the hearts and minds of world as good American Jews and
world as good American Jews and
our- Jewish routh the principles of
pure and unadulterated manhood. good American Citizens with credit
It is the aim and purpose of the or- and honor to themselves and glory
ganization to so broaden and instruct and pride to us.
Jewish Organizations in Florida
JACKSONVILLE (Jewish Population 4000)
For detailed list of organizations see article Jewish Organizations in Jacksonville.
DAYTONA (Jewish Population 700)
Congregation B' nai Israel-officers:- Harry Pepper, president T. S. Ravitch, rabbi
Conservative congregation. Services: Sabbaths, Holy Days and festivals. Traditional
prayer book used. English sermons. Hebrew School-sessions daily, one teacher, 50
pupils. Auxiliary societies-Sisterhood and Young People's League. B'nai Brith
Lodge-Recently organized by T. S. Ravitch.
FORT LAUDERDALE (Jewish Population 400)
There is one conservative congregation in the city. Mr. M. Lehrman, 126 Andrews
Street is the president. A new synagogue is being planned.
FORT MEYERS (Jewish Population 40)
No definite information has been received about this little community.
GAINESVILLE (Jewish Population 75)
Congregation B'nai Israel-A. Greenberg, president; Orthodox congregation.
Services on Sabbaths, Holy Days and festivals, orthodox Hebrew prayer book used.
No spiritual leader.
The University of Florida is located in this city. It has two Jewish fraternities
with a total membership of 75. During the college season some of the students
teach in the Sunday School of the B'nai Israel Congregation. There is no spiritual
leader in the town.
The congregation owns a cemetery.
HOLLYWOOD (Jewish Population 400)
The Jewish community in this city is very young but has grown large in the last
two years. The erection of a synagogue is now being planned. An active worker in
the Jewish community is Mrs. Ruth Rivkin, Morse Building. Mr. A. Tonkin is
president of the congregation.
KEY WEST (Jewish Population 125)
There is one orthodox congregation. Mr. Joseph Pearlman is the president. The
congregation owns its own building. The community maintains a "shoch.t. "
MIAMI (Jewish Population 3500)
With the tremendous growth of the population generally the Jewish community
too has increased remarkably. The Beth David Congregation is the oldest lewish in-
stitution in the city. It is a conservative congregation, and is located at 139 N. W.
3rd Ave. The president is Mr. N. J. Magid, 412 Calumet Building. The rabbi is
Murray A. Alstat, a graduate of the Jewish Theological Seminary of America. Services
are held daily. The orthodox prayer book is used. Sermons are in English. The
congregation maintains a Hebrew School with a hunderd and fifty pupils and three teachers.
A reform Temple has recently been organized. The Temple is contemplating
the erection of a beautiful building. Rabbi Kaplan, a graduate of the Hebrew Union
College, has been elected spiritual leader.
Miami has a strong Zionist District which succeeded in raising many thousarids
of dollars for the Keren Havesod last year. It also has a B'nai Brith Lodge and
several fraternal and social clubs and societies.
OCALA (Jewish Population 50)
There is one conservative congregation in the city. Mr. M. Israelson is the
president. The congregation owns a cemetery.
OKEECHOBEE (Jewish Population 100)
There is a conservative congregation in the city. Services are held on Sabbaths,
Holy Days and festivals. The traditional orthodox prayer book is used.
ORLANDO (Jewish Population 800)
The Congregation Ovev Sholon has just completed a beautiful new synagogue at
a cost of $50,000. It is a conservative congregation. Mr. A. Raffield is president
Mr. Alan Roth, 135 S. Orange St., was the chairman of the Building Fund Com-
mittee. The congregation maintains a shochet. For the United Palestine Appeal last
year Orlando contributed $12,000.
In the ceremony of laying cornerstone for the new synagogue there participated
representatives from all the religious denominations in the city, the mayor, and Dr.
Samuel Benjamin of Jacksonville.
PALATKA (Jewish Population 100)
No organized Jewish community services are held only on High Holy Days.
Orthodox ritual followed.
PENSACOLA (Jewish Population 650)
Temple Beth El located on E. Chase Street is the oldest Jewish congregation in
the city. Rabbi B. Cohen is the spiritual leader. The services are in English. The
congregation maintains a Sunday School with an enrollment of about 100 pupils.
There is an orthodox congregation, B'nai Israel also located on East Chase St.
The congregation maintains a shochet. The services are in Hebrew.
SANFORD (Jewish Population 125)
The city has a conservative congregation called Beth Israel Mr. M. Kronen is the
secretary. The orthodox prayer book is used. The services are in Hebrew and are
held on Holy Days and festivals.
SARASOTA (Jewish Population 300)
There is a conservative congregation. Mr. Ralph Saltzman is the president. It
is planned to build a new synagogue in the near future.
SEBRING (Jewish Population 200)
The community has an orthodox congregation. A new synagogue has recently
oeen erected. Mr. M. Cahn is the president.
ST. PETERSBURG (Jewish Population 600)
This city has a conservative Jewish congregation. Mr. S. G. Shapiro is president.
The erection of a synagogue is being contemplated. Among the active members of the
Jewish community are:- Mr. Seirkese, 800 Central Ave. Mr. H. S. Siegel, 719
Central Ave., and Mr. M. Katz, 842 Central Ave.
St. AUGUSTINE (Jewish Population 300)
The First Congregation B'nai Israel of St. Augustine, Florida was organized by
a handful of Jewish people in the year 1909; the following being charter members:
M. Friedman, J. Tarlinsky, Max Eff, Issac Eff, W. A. Pinkoson, S. A. Snyder, N.
Gamse, D. Mehlman, J. A. Lew and Jacob Ross.
Divine services were at first held in an upstairs room on the corner of Bridge
and Washington Streets, with Jake Tarlinsky as first president of the Congregation.
In April 1923, the present pretty synagogue, an imposing structure of brick, was
erected on South Cordova Street, and dedicated as an orthodox conservative place
of worship, M. Friedman and Isaac Eff being president and vice president, respectively,
at that time. L. Weiner was the first Shochet and Hebrew teacher employed by the
In September 1925, the congregation engaged Rabbi Arthur Ginzler as the first
Rabbi of this, the oldest community of America.
A modern Talmud Torah and Sunday School is maintained by the congregation
under the supervision of the Rabbi, About thirtyfive children receive, at present,
daily instruction in Hebrew, religion and the cognate subjects pertaining to Judaism,
Services are being held every Friday evening and Saturday morning, and on all
Festivals and specially appointed religious occasions. A sermon delivered by the Rabbi
in the vernacular is a regular feature at most of these services. Weekly classes for
adults to study the Bible, Tewish History and current events have been instituted.
These classes stimulate considerable interest and are well frequented:
Boy Scouts Troop number 4 was organized by Rabbi Ginzler in February 1926.
The Troop consists of twelve Jewish boys, with Rabbi Ginzler as Scout Master, and
Isadore (Ducky) Glickstein as Assistant Scout Master.
The Hebrew Ladies Aid Society was organized in October 1923, Mrs. J. Tarlinsky
being the first president and Mrs. J. Gross, vice-president. The organization is a
staunch supporter of the congregation and cooperates with the latter in every way
possible. At the present date, Mrs. S. A. Snyder is president and Mrs. M. Kravitz,
The Hebrew Social Club, an organization of young men and women, was organized
in September of the year 1922. The aim and object of this club is primarily to
cultivate friendship and sociability amongst each other, and also to participate in all
such local and general Jewish activities that tend to promote the cause of Judaism.
An interesting feature of the Jewish community at St. Augustine is the local
Jewish cemetery which when acquired by the congregation was found to contain
a single tombstone, the epitaph of which read in Hebrew: Here rests Gershom
benYosef who was killed by the Indians. The stone bears the date 5601 and is ac-
cordingly eighty-five years old and proves that there were Jews in St. Augustine that
many years ago.
The present officers are:- T. M. Schneider, president; M. R. Glickstein vice- presi-
dent; I. Feigenbaum,, treasurer; W. A. Pinkoson, financial secretary; and Harry Eff,
recording secretary. The trustees are Messrs. I. Eff, S. A. Snyder, and Harry Ross.
The officers of the Talmud Torah are Mr. T. M. Schneider, president; Mrs. S.
A. Snyder, treasurer, Mr. J. Gross, and Mrs. R. Gamse.
TAMPA (Jewish Population 3000)
Tampa is one of the largest cities in Florida and has a large and active Jewish
community. The Tampa Jewish Center, formerly Y. M. H. A. is the largest Jewish
institution in the city. It has an annual budget of $18,000. Mr. Jacob Geoffrey is
the Executive Secretary.
There are four Jewish congregations in the city. Mr. R. Rosenthal, 1009 Twenty-
fifth Avenue is presidnet of the orthodox congregation. Rabbi A. Burger, 311 E.
Palm is the spiritual leader of the conservative congregation, and Rabbi L. E. Brafman
of the reform Temple. The Sephardic Jews maintain a synagogue of their own and
one of their number acts as the rabbi.
WEST PALM BEACH (Jewish Population 500)
In recent years the Jewish population in this city has markedly increased. There
are three congregations in the community. Congregation Beth El is the conservative
congregation. Rabbi A. H. Fedder is the spiritual leader. This organization owns a
building which is used for worship and other communal activities.
There is an orthodox congregation which holds services in Hebrew on Sabbaths,
Holy Days and festivals. Temple Israel is the name of the reform congregation.
L N0CES eTMION SHO i LOUIS
Phone 31393 INSURANC
LADIES SMART TOGGERY
A NEW SHOP 603, 608
that wishes you a Happy New Year Telephone 3
May the New Year see the erection of a Jewish C
and the establishment of the Jewish national home in Er
JACKSONVILLE SENIOR AND JUn
YOUNG JUDAEA CLUBS.
"THE BETTER KIND OF PRINTING"
Commerical and Job Printing
E OF ALL KINDS
1-1466 and 5-0509
enter in Jacksonville
756 W. Adams Street
lII 1 a
A HAPPY NEW YEAR
May the New Tear bring Happiness and Joy to all our Relatives and Friends,
a Jewish Center to the Jacksonville Jewish Community, and
Peace and Prosperity for all Israel.
Mr. & Mrs. Max Atlas, 615 W. Bay St.
Mr. & Mrs. Joseph Abish, 15 Broad St.
Mr & Mrs. B. Baker, 9 Jefferson St.
Mr. B. Baker, 9 Jefferson St.
Mr. & Mrs. R. Baker, 9 Jefferson St.
M. & Mrs. Joe Becker, 633 W. Bay St.
Mr. Albert L. Berkowitz, Hotel Albert
Mr. Joe Blattner, 1752 Pearl St.
Mr. & Mrs. Samuel Bono, 2034 Pearl St.
M. & Mrs. Philip Bork, 39 W. 4th. St.
Mr. & Mrs. H. Bloom, 216 Broad St.
Mr. & Mrs. M. Bono, 415 W. Bay St.
Mr. & Mrs. Eliezer Bloom, 216 Broad St.
Mr. & Mrs. B. Blattner, 1752 Pearl St.
Mr. & Mrs. Marx Baker, 535 W. Bay St.
Mr. & Mrs. S. Bergman, 622 Dellwood
Mr. & Mrs. B. Berkowitz, 48 W. Forsyth
Mr & Mrs Beno Becker, 516 Main St.
Mr. L. Blair, 11 Broad St.
Mr. & Mrs. S. Blattner, 226 W. 11th St.
Mr. & Mrs. D. Blattner, 806 Julia St.,
Mrs. A. Biscow, 828 Davis St.
Mr. & Mrs. M. Bucholtz, 1813 Perry
Mr. & Mrs. L Bucholtz, 1751 Boulevard
Mr. & Mrs. M. Becker, 728 W. Duval
Mr. & Mrs. M. Baiter, 2028 Silver St.
Mr. & Mrs. Israel Baker, 29 W. 4th St.
Mr. & Mrs D. Broomberg, 306 Davis St.
Mr. & Mrs. C. Brouse, 303 Broad St.
Mr. & Mrs. L. Bloom, 216 Broad St.
Mr. & Mrs. L. Berman, 1443 Laura St.
Mr. & Mrs. L. H. Cohen, 753 Edgewood
Mr. & Mrs. J. Cohen, 746 W. Monroe
Mr. & Mrs. S. Carlton 112 W. 20th St.
Mr. Nathan Cohen, 420 W. Bay St.
Mr. & Mrs. Davis, 530 Margaret St.
Dayan Bros., 48 W. Adams St.
D. A. B. CLUB
Eva Greenstein Juliette Greenfield
Helen Sloat Molly Schemer
Eva Berman Goldie Puldey
Mr. & Mrs. J. Diamond, 315 W. Bay St.
Mr. L. Domb, 27 W. Forsyth St.
Mr. & Mrs. S. Davis, 911 W. Bay St.
Mr. & Mrs. I. Davidson, 347 Riverside
Mr. A. Davidoff, 333 W. F6rsvth St.
Mr. & Mrs. I. Dvoskin, 807 Davis St.
Mr. & Mrs. M. Ehrlich, 1839 Silver St.
Mr. & Mrs. A. Edelman, 419 W. Bay St.
Harry Falis, 753 W. Duval St.
Morris Feinblatt, 135 W. Bay St.
Mr. & Mrs. M. Feldman, 1601 Post St.
Mr. & Mrs G. Finkelstein, 717W.Adams
French Slipper Shop, 215 Laura St.
Mr. & Mrs. M. Feldman, St. Petersburg
Mr. & Mrs. A. Fagan, 114 Broad St.
Mr. & Mrs. J. Fleet, 1833 Boulevard
Mr. & Mrs. M. Falis, 753 W. Duval St.
Mr. & Mrs. A. Feinburg, 2018 Hill St.
Mr. & Mrs. H. Feinblum, 130 Broad St.
Mr. & Mrs I Fendrick, 427 Broad St.
Mr. & Mrs M. Frank, 223 Lackawanna
Mr. & Mrs. H. Feldman, 1811 Perry
Mr. & Mrs. M. Foor, 700 Giffen Ave.
Mr. & Mrs. S. A. Friedman Northern Ht.
Mr. & Mrs. N. Finkelstein, 139 W.Ashley
Mr. & Mrs. H. Finkelstein, 633 W. Bay
Mrs. E. Friedman & Family, 202 Broad
Mr. & Mrs. M. Goldstein,
Mr. & Mrs. Harry Gendzier, 302 Main
Ruth Giller, 416 E. 2nd St.
Mr. & Mrs. J. Goldstein, 1931 Pearl St.
Mr Joseph Giller, Capitol Clothing Co.
Mr. & Mrs S. Galinsky, 719 W. Adams
Mr. E& Mrs. M. Ghelerter, 242 Schofield
Mrs. G. Goldstein, 744% W. Duval St.
Mr. & Mrs. S. S. Goffin, 1426 Laura St.
Mr. & Mrs. G. Greenfield, 857 W. 28th
Mr. & Mrs. H. Gerbert, 1447 Laura St.
Mr. & Mrs. S. H. Goldberg,
1611 Lackawanna Ave.
Mr. & Mrs. S. J. Grossman, 417 W. Bay St.
Mr. & Mrs. H. Greenberg, 824 W. Adams
Rudy Grunthal, Main and State Sts.
Mr. & Mrs J. Goldman, 506 Davis St.
Mr. & Mrs. F. Grossman, 7 Florida Ave.
Mr. & Mrs. E. Herzberg, 441 E. 2nd St.
Mr. & Mrs. D. Herzenberg, 102 E. 3rd
Mr. & Mrs. H. Herzenberg, 102 E. 3rd
Mrs. D. Horovitz & Family
Mr. & Mrs. S. Halpern, 3075 Oak St.
Mr. & Mrs. S. Haber, 761 W. Duval St.
Mr. & Mrs. M. R. Hirschberg,
A HAPPY NEW YEAR
May the New Year bring Happiness and Joy to all our Relatives and Friends,
a Jewish Center to the Jacksonville Jewish Community, and
Peace and Prosperity for all Israel.
Mr. & Mrs. J. Hirschberg, 1417 Boulevard Mr. & Mrs. Morris Moscovitz & Daughter
Mr. E. Hammerman e Family, 220 Broad St.
609 W. Adams St.
Maurice Hammerman, 224 Schofield St. Mr. &E Mrs. L. Moscovitz, 1747 Pearl St.
Mr. H. Herscovitz, 1463 Post St. Mr. & Mrs. M. Marco, 435 W. Bay St.
Mr. & Mrs. M. Hirsch, 2141 Oak St. Mr. & Mrs. J. Moscovitz, 401 W. Bay St.
Mr. B. Hirsch, 303W. Bay St. Mr. & Mrs. D. Moscovitz & Son,
Mr. & Mrs. M. Herscovitz, 625 W. Bay 1828 Pearl St.
Mr. & Mrs. J. Haimovitz, 910 Davis St. Mr. & Mrs. O. Margol, 761 W. Duval
Independent Drug Co., 205 W. Bay St. Mr. & Mrs. I. Morganstern, 329 Broad St.
Mr. & Mrs. H. H. Joel, 339 W. 8th St. Mr. & Mrs. B. Moscovitz, 404 Broad St.
Jolly Eight Club Mr. & Mrs. S. Mizrahi, 34 W. Adams St.
Mr. F& Mrs. L. S. Joel, Post Office Bldg. Mr. & Mrs. V. R. Marcovitz, 1824 Pearl
Mr. & Mrs. L. D. Joel, Casino Theatre Mr. & Mrs.M. Meyerson, 313 Jefferson St.
Mr. & Mrs. L. J. Joel, 935 W. Bay St. Mr. & Mrs. A. Markoff, 716 May St.
Mr. Judah Joel, 1951 Perry St. Mr. M. Moslan, 144 Broad St.
Mr. & Mrs. I Kramer, 10 Blanche St. Mr. &E Mrs. I Moscovitz, 900 W. Adams
Mr. C. J. Krantz & Family, 500 Forrest St. Mr. & Mrs. D. Mehlman, 515 W. Bay
Mr. & Mrs. H. Katz, 2205 College St. Mr. & Mrs. D. L. Markowitz 1020 W. Bay
Mr. & Mrs. L. Klepper, 2229 Oak St. Mr. Mrs.R. R. Miller, 2008 Perry Ave.
Mr. & Mrs. H. Kline, 1010 Taleeyrand Mr. H. Nachman, 404Main St.
Mr. & Mrs. A. D.,Kramer, 129 E. 7th St. National Kosher Mkt. & Delicatessen
Hyem Kramer, 806 Davis St. Wishing our customers a Happy and
Mr. & Mrs. M. Kramer, 1399 Enterprise Properous New Year.)
Mr. & Mrs. S. D. Kramer & Son, Mr.. & Mrs. J. B. Nelson, 801 E. Beaver
1911 Pearl St. Mr. & Mrs. A. Noel, 732 Lafayette
Mr. & Mrs. Solon Klepper,
Capitol Clothing Co.
Mr. E6 Mrs. Sam Klepper,
Capitol Clothing Co.
Mr. & Mrs. M. Klepper
Mr. &6 Mrs. M. Kress, 245 W. 6th St.
Mr. & Mrs. J. L. Klein, 8 Blanche Ave.
Mr. & Mrs M. C. Kass, 426 W. Bay St.
Mr. E6 Mrs. A. Lipshitz, 664 W. Monroe
Mr. E6 Mrs. C. Liebowitz, 403 W. Bay St.
Mr. & Mrs. J. Lapinsky, 408 W. Forsyth
Mr. & Mrs. M. Lazarus, 214 Broad St.
Mr. & Mrs. P. Lovitz, 1702 Lackawanna
L. V. A. Club (We join with you in
wishing all a Happy New Year)
Mr. &E Mrs. I. Lieberman, 324 Broad St.
Mr. & Mrs. W. Lazarus, 1271 W. Union
Mr. & Mrs. J. Liebowitz, 149 Broad St.
Mr. & Mrs. Louis Levy, 309% W. Forsyth
Mr. & Mrs. G. Lessing, 430 E. 1st St.
Mr. & Mrs. D. A. Leon, St. James Bldg.
Mr. & Mrs. L. Mendelson 1735 Laura St.
Mr. & Mrs. P Newman, 1305 W. Adams
Mr. Abe Newman, 1305 W. Adams
Mr. &E Mrs. A. Nabin, 801 E Beaver
Mr. & Mrs. Ossinsky, 1320 Main
Mr. E6 Mrs. Louis Paul, 312 Rosselle
Mr. & Mrs. N. Paul, 1934 Pearl St.
Isaac Peiser & Daughter, 2142 Pearl St.
E. H. Pilton, 1945 Laura St.
Max Pincus, 807 Julia St.
J. Proctor, 1331 Florida Ave.
Mr. 6& Mrs. L. Panken, 302 Main St.
Mr. & Mrs. H. Peltz, 502 Davis St.
Mr. &1 Mrs. P. Puldey, 1516 Market St.
Mr. & Mrs. J. Portney, 300 W. Bay St.
Mr. D. Pascal, 717 W. Adams St.
Mr. 6& Mrs. F. Polisher, 520 Broad St.
Mr. E6 Mrs. M. Rose, 1753 Market St.
Mr: L. Richardson (Wishing our friends,
relatives and patronizers a Happy and
Prosperous New Year.)
Pop Richardson & Son
Louis Rosen, 204 Broad St.
A HAPPY NEW YEAR
May the New Year bring Happiness and Joy to all our Relatives and Friends,
a Jewish Center to the Jacksonville Jewish Community, and
Peace and Prosperity for all Israel.
Mr. & Mrs. J. Rosenberg, 335 W. 8th
Mr. & Mrs Sam Rosenblott & Family,
550 Clara Terrace
Mr. & Mrs. Max Rothstein & Family,
1652 Laura St.
Mr. & Mrs Max Rubin, 1663 Post St.
Mr.. Mrs. H. Rosenvaig, 245 W. 6th St.
Mr. & Mrs. M. Rubinstein, 523 W. Bay
Mr. & Mrs. A. Rophie, 815 Davis St.
Mr. & Mrs. Wm. Rosner,
Green Cove Springs, Fla.
Mr. & Mrs. Wm. Rosenberg,
52 W. Forsyth St.
Mr. & Mrs. A. Rosenberg, 719 Main St.
Mr. & Mrs. G. Reider, 915 W. Bay St.
Mr. & Mrs. M. Rappaport, 311 W. 6th
Mr. &Mrs. Wm. Rosenblum, 2043 Pearl
Mr. S. Rosenblum, 136 W. 19th St.
Mr. & Mrs. H. Rabinowitz,
1901 Lackawanna Ave
Mr. & Mrs. H. W. Rubinstein,
Mr. & Mrs. Mark G. Sabel,
Mr. & Mrs. Michael Sabel
Mr. & Mrs. H. Segal, 419 W. Bay St.
Mr. & Mrs. S. Schwartz, 1005 W. Bay St.
Mr. & Mrs. H. Sachs, 2035 Perry
Mr. & Mrs. David Saffer & Family,
408 Broad St.
Mr. & Mrs. T. M. Schneider,
St. Augustine, Fla.
Minna Schwartz, 1430 Myra St.
Mr. A. E. Selber, 143 Broad St.
Mr. & Mrs. S. Selber, 1747 Ionia St.
Mr. & Mrs. B. Setzer & Daughter,
5th and Silver Sts.
Mr. & Mrs. J. Shortstein, 38 E. 7th St.
Mr. & Mrs. D. Singer, 414 W. 6th St.
Mr. & Mrs. L. Silverberg, 108 Broad St.
Mr. & Mrs J. H. Slott 1516 Ionia St.
Mr. & Mrs. Sam Smith, 2148 Pearl St.
Mrs. Leon Stern
Mr. & Mrs. J. Y. Sutker, 222 Main St.
Mr. & Mrs. Thomas Sutker, 9 Laura St.
Mr.& Mrs. H. Schulman, 715 W. Adams
Mr. & Mrs. S. Stone, 1821 Boulevard
Mr. & Mrs. N. Shorstein, St. Augustine
Mr. N. Herman Shorstein, 38 E. 7th St.
Mr. & Mrs. J. Sloat, 845 Dellwood Ave.
Mr. & Mrs Jules Sachs, 601 W. Bay St.
Mr. & Mrs. C. Schevitz, 1329 Main St.
Mrs. E. Schemer & Famliy
Mr. & Mrs. H. Stillman,
1701 Lackawanna Ave.
Mr. & Mrs. W. B. Siegal, 241 W. 8th
Mr. & Mrs. M. S. Schas, 1842 Post St.
Mr. & Mrs. J. Safer, 149 W. 4th St.
Mr. & Mrs. Alex Srour, 128 Broad St.
Mr. & Mrs C. Stern, 308 .Broad St.
Mr. &Mrs J. L. Spiegler, 205 Broad St.
Mr & Mrs. H. Safer, 720 Broad St.
Mr. H. Salzberg, 1523 Liberty St.
Mr. & Mrs. A. Sager, 129 Clay St.
Mr. & Mrs. D. Saffer, 408 Broad St.
Mr. & Mrs. M. Safer, 2258 Laura St.
Mr. & Mrs. M. Sempson, 529 W. Bay
Mr. & Mrs. L. Schemer, 814 Main St.
Mr. & Mrs. J. Spevack, 1643 Walnut St.
Mr. & Mrs D. Snider, 22 Broad St.
Mr. & Mrs. F. Soferenko, 526 S. Myrtle
Mr. & Mrs. M. Shapiro, 220% Main St.
Mr. D. L. Torn, 1855 Laura, St.
Dr. & Mrs. D. B. Torn,
33 Buckman Bldg.
Mr. & Mrs. I. Titlebaum, 809 May St.
Mr. & Mrs. M. J. Weinkle, 1321 Laura
Mr. I. Weinstein, 1105 W. Bay St.
Dr. & Mrs. J. T. Wilensky,
744 W. Monroe St.
Mr. & Mrs. J. Witten, 1803 Ionia St.
Mr. & Mrs. Jos. Witten, 125 W. 3rd St.
Mr. & Mrs. S. Worman, 151 E. 8th St.
Mr. & Mrs. B. Weingast, 427 W. Bay
Mr. & Mrs. Louis Weiss 127 E. 8th St.
Mr. & Mrs. A. Wolf, 1137 E. 11th St.
Mr. & Mrs. A. L. Wohl, 914 Davis St.
Mr. & Mrs. I. Witten, 828 Davis, St.
Mr. & Mrs. J. Weintraub, 822 E. Church
Mr. & Mrs. M. Witten, 320 Jefferson St.
Mr. & Mrs. A. Weiss, 510 W. Adams St.
Mr & Mrs. B. Witten, 2029 Perry
Mr. & Mrs. M. Weiss, 221 Broad St.
Mrs. Stella Walter, St. James Bldg.
S. Zinman, 615 W. Bay St.
"SERVICE THA T