Hatchery production

MISSING IMAGE

Material Information

Title:
Hatchery production
Some issues called:
Special ... hatchery report
Physical Description:
v. : ; 22-28 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
United States -- Crop Reporting Board
Publisher:
United States Crop Reporting Board
Place of Publication:
Washington, D.C
Publication Date:
Frequency:
monthly, with special reports
monthly
normalized irregular

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Poultry -- Hatcheries -- Statistics -- Periodicals -- United States   ( lcsh )
Chicks -- Statistics -- Periodicals -- United States   ( lcsh )
Genre:
federal government publication   ( marcgt )
statistics   ( marcgt )
periodical   ( marcgt )

Notes

Dates or Sequential Designation:
Began with: Jan. 1948
Dates or Sequential Designation:
Ceased with Nov. or Dec. 1969.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
oclc - 01781240
lccn - sc 78000027
issn - 0093-0121
ocm01781240
Classification:
ddc - 353
System ID:
AA00010659:00074

Related Items

Preceded by:
Hatchery report
Succeeded by:
Hatchery production, annual revisions
Succeeded by:
Eggs, chickens and turkeys

Full Text
^ / ~- ~*~' 8 ULNIV. OF FLLI7


l acy DC ""TSLDf
OEPOSITO Y




APRIL 1963
May 17, 1963
Chicks Hatched
Hatcheries in the United States produced 309,837,000 chicks during April--2 per-
cent more than in April 1962 according to the Crop Reporting Board. The number of
broiler chicks hatched was 214,879,000, an increase of 3 percent from April last year.
During the first 4 months of 1963 there were 758,106,000 broiler chicks produced--
down 1 percent from comparable months in 1962. Compared with a year earlier, the num-
ber of eggs in incubators on May 1 indicate that the hatch of broiler chicks in May
this year will be larger than in May last year and the largest of record.
There were 94,958,000 egg-type chicks hatched in April--2 percent less than in
April last year and the smallest April hatch since records began in 1955. The number
hatched during April was down 13 percent in the Mountain States, 12 percent in the
New England States, 6 percent in the Mid-Atlantic, East North Central and Pacific Coast
States and 3 percent in the West North Central States. The number hatched increased 22
percent in the South Atlantic States, 9 percent in the West South Central States, and 6per-
cent in the East South Central States. The number of egg-type chicks hatched during
the months January through April of this year was 239,192,000--down 2 percent from the
same period in 1962. Decreases from a year earlier were 16 percent in the Mountain
States, 7 percent in the New England and West North Central States, 6 percent in the
East North Central and Pacific Coast States, and 3 percent in the Mid-Atlantic States.
Increases were 22 percent in the South Atlantic States, 6 percent in the West South
Central States, and 3 percent in the East South Central States. The number of eggs in
incubators on May 1, compared with a year earlier, indicate that the egg-type hatch in
May will be about the same as in May 1962.
Poults Hatched
The number of heavy breed poults hatched during April totaled 19,233,000--down
1 percent from April 1962. The hatch of heavy white breeds at 5,747,000 was 8 per-
cent more than in April 1962. Other heavy breed poults hatched (mostly broad breasted
bronze) totaled 13,486,000, down 5 percent from April last year. Production of light
breed poults totaled 912,000 down 1 percent from April 1962.
During the months January through April of this year the hatch of turkey poults
was 47,698,000, an increase of 6 percent from these months in 1962. The cumulative
hatch of heavy white breeds was 14,827,000, an increase of 9 percent from this period
a year earlier; other heavy breeds was 29,965,000, an increase of 4 percent; and light
breeds at 2,906,000, was up 14 percent. The number of turkey eggs in incubators on
May 1, compared with May 1 last year indicates that the hatch of heavy white breeds in
May will be smaller than in May last year. The hatches of other heavy breeds and light
breeds also will be smaller. The number of heavy white breed eggs in incubators on
May 1 was down about 5 percent from May 1 last year. The number of other heavy breed
eggs was down 6 percent and the number of light breed eggs was down 3 percent.
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
Statistical Reporting Service Crop Reporting Board
Pou 1-1 (5-63) Washington, D. C.





Chicks hatched by commercial hatcheries
State :Broiler-type : Egg-type
and : April : Jan. through April: April


division


Maine
N.H.
Vt.
Mass.& R.I. 1/
Conn.
N.E.
N.Y.
N.J.
Pa.
M.A.
Ohio
Ind.
Ill.
Mich.
Wis.
E.N.C.
Minn.
Iowa
MO.
N.Dak.
S.Dak.
Nebr.
Kans.
W.N.C.
Del.
Ma.
Va.
W.Va.
N.C.
S.C.
Ga.
Fla.
S.A.
Ky.
Tenm.
Ala.
Miss.
E.S.C.
Ark.
La.
Okla.
Texas
W.S.C.
Idaho
Colo.
Utah
Mount.
Wash.
Oreg.
Calif.
Pac.
48 States
Hawaii
U. S.


:


:


:


1/ Massachusetts and Rhode Island combined to avoid disclosing individual operations.
2 To avoid disclosing individual operations West North Central total includes North and
South Dakota. 3/ South Atlantic total includes Delaware and West Virginia. 4/ Muntain total
includes Montana, Wyoming, New Mexico, and Arizona.
2 -


I


1962
Thousands
5,328
1,131
0
859
2,273
9,591
3d5
266
4,308
4,959
1,140
4, 641
611
640
1,136
8,168
1,067
450
6,251
2/
f/
279
325
2/8 501
6,d74
11,114
7,598
494
19,822
2,181
37,761
2,059
87,903
665
4,210
20,388
14,188
39,451
22,884
2,128
910
13,735
39,657
395
50
191
4/ 707
1,568
1,489
6,162
9,219
208,156
113
208,269


1963 :
Thousands
5,776
1,028
4
1,087
1,903
9,800
230
187
4,433
4,850
1,345
3,719
300
490
1,095
6,949
1,200
485
6,423
2/
2/
259
300
2/8,776
7,547
12,720
6,713
446
20,790
1,940
38,640
1,717
90,513
455
4,150
23,312
14,422
42,339
23,743
2,871
946
1.4,503
42,063
465
53
178
4/ 726
1,622
1,140
5,985
8,747
214,763
116
214,879


Z


1902
Thousands
20,894
4,495
0
3,085
8,380
36,854
1,495
850
16,774
19,119
4,060
17,791
1,980
2,370
4,390
30,591
3,937
1,390
24,464
2/

614
1,158
2/31,753
27,072
42,834
27,406
1,902
72,275
7,775
140,727
7,993
327,984
1,975
14,910
73,295
50,388
140,568
82,435
7,953
3,402
46,105
139,895
1,604
113
690
4/ 2,628
5,562
5,214
23,205
33,981
763,373
415
763,788


1963
Thousands
21,558
4,047
13
4,020
6,739
36,377
795
683
16,359
17,837
3,745
12,703
793
1,920
3,995
23,156
4,187
1,675
22,994
2/

581
860
2/30,437
28,088
47,511
22,491
1,377
74,005
6,912
135,369
6,214
321,967
1,955
14,100
79,970
51,667
147,692
82,211
9,840
3,356
49,277
144,684
1,640
100
675
4/2,566
5,895
4,013
23,035
32,913
757,659
447
758,106


1962
Thousands
421
433
67
1,536
1,258
3,715
2,260
1,830
5,063
9,153
5,040
4,671
5,488
1,960
2,468
19,627
8,477
13,230
4,560
789
3,610
4,809
2,339
37,814
3/
251
1,194
3/
1,398
960
2,040
1,602
3/7,582
570
1,255
1,045
682
3,552
908-
382
832
3,186
5,30j
361
428
238
/1,570
1,209
469
6,583
8,261
96,582
114
96,696


1963
Thousands
505
294
72
1,365
1,026
3,262
2,350
1,580
4,665
8,595
4, 486
4,512
5,400
1,700
2,380
18,478
8,000
12,900
4,283
950
3,630
4,644
2,200
36,607
3/
405
1,073
3/
1,627
1,023
2,761
2,216
3/9,261
510
1,180
1,011
1,079
3,780
1,223
306
900
3,341
5,770
276
377
239
4/1,360
1,302
478
5,969
7,749
94,862
96
94,958


----





Chicks hatched by commercial hatcheries

State Egg-type T o t a 1
and Jan. through Apr. :April : Jan. through Apr.
division 1962 : 1963 : Average 1957-61: 1962 : 1963 : 1962 : 1963
:Thousands Thousands Thousands Thousands Thousands Thousands Thousands
Maine 1,566 1,730 5,627 5,749 6,283 22,460 23,288
N.H. 1,496 1,253 1,933 1,564 1,322 5,991 5,300
Vt. 210 196 94 67 76 210 209
Mass.& R.I. 1/s 4,827 4,183 3,351 2,395 2,452 7,912 8,203
Conn. 3,998 3,922 4,745 3,531 2,929 12,378 10,661
N.E. 12,097 11,284 15,749 13,306 13,062 48,951 47,661
N.Y. 6,590 6,840 3,243 2,645 2,580 8,085 7,635
N.J. 6,700 5,630 3,894 2,096 1,767 7,550 6,313
Pa. 14,401 14,496 10,346 9,371 9,098 31,175 30,855
M.A. 27,691 26,966 17,483 14,112 13,445 46,810 44,803
Ohio 12,120 11,286 7,446 6,180 5,831 16,180 15,031
Ind. : 11,762 11,316 12,414 9,312 8,231 29,553 24,019
Ill. : 12,551 11,496 8,840 6,099 5,700 14,531 12,289
Mich. : 5,450 5,450 3,104 2,600 2,190 7,820 7,370
Wis. 4,966 4,690 5,273 3,604 3,475 9,356 8,685
E.N.C. 46,849 44,238 37,077 27,795 25,427 77,440 67,394
Minn. 15,805 14,260 13,421 9,544 9,200 19,742 18,447
Iowa : 21,670 20,290 18,384 13,680 13,385 23,060 21,965
Mo. : 9,206 8,270 12,779 10,811 10,706 33,670 31,264
N.Dak. 1,128 1,284 2/ 2/ 2/ 2/ 2/
S.Dak. 6,160 5,870 2/ /
Nebr. 9,234 8,532 5,985 5,085 4,902 9,848 9,113
Kans. 4,795 4,465 3,925 2,664 2,500 5,953 5,325
W.N.C. : 67,998 62,971 2/60,397 2/46,315 2/45,383 2/99,751 2/93,400
Del. : 3/ 3/ 3 3/ 3/ 3/ 3/
M. 722 947 9,946 11,365 13,120 43,55- 48,452
Va. 3,135 3,223 8,666 8,792 7,786 30,541 25,714
W.Va. 3/ 3/ 3/ 3/ 3/ 3/ 3/
N.C. 4,579 5,250 14,857 21,220 22,417 76,854 79,255
S.C. 3,061 3,127 2,460 3,141 2,963 10,836 10,039
Ga. 6,794 9,562 32,435 39,801 41,401 147,521 144,931
Fla. : 5,335 6,963 2,950 3,661 3,933 13,328 13,177
S.A. 3/24,033 3/29,386 3/79,395 3/95,485 3/99,774 3/352,017 3/351,353
Ky. 1,550 1,594 2,349 1,235 965 3,525 3,549
Tenn. 3,800 3,780 5,002 5,465 5,330 18,710 17,880
Ala. : 3,356 3,422 15,136 21,433 24,323 76,651 83,392
Miss. 3,027 3,330 10,150 14,870 15,501 53,415 54,997
E.S.C. 11,733 12,126 32,637 43,003 46,119 152,301 159,818
Ark. 2,565 4,486 14,769 23,792 24,966 85,000 86,697
a. : 912 915 2,202 2,510 3,177 8,865 10,755
Okla. 2,298 2,239 2,022 1,742 1,846 5,700 5,595
Texas 11,402 10,642 13,997 16,921 17,844 57,507 59,919
W.S.C. 17,177 18,282 32,989 44,965 47,833 157,072 162,966
Idaho : 21 843 825 756 741 2,525 2,483
Colo. 1,237 1,076 688 478 430 1,350 1,176
Utah 1,071 907 581 429 417 1,761 1,582
Mount. : 4/ 4,950 4 4,177 4/ 2,899 4/2,277 4/2,0 6 4/ 7,578 4/6,743
Wash. 4,525 4,392 2,624 2,777 2,924 10,087 10,287
Oreg. 1,558 1,535 2,184 1,958 1,618 6,772 5,548
Calif. : 25,004 23,446 10,516 12,745 11,954 48,209 46,481
Pac. 31,0 7 29,373 15,325 17, 80 16,496 65,065 62,316
48 States 243,615 238,803 293,951 304,738 309,625 1,006,98 996,462
Hawaii : 427 389 183 227 212 842 836
U. S. 244,042 239,192 294,134 304,965 309,837 1,007,830 997,298
I/ Massachusetts and Rhode Island combined to avoid disclosing individual operations. 2/ To
avoid disclosing individual operations West North Central total includes North and South
Dakota. 3/ South Atlantic total includes Delaware and West Virginia. 4/ Mountain total includes
bMntana, Wyoming, New Mexico, and Arizona.
3 -




Baby chicks and turkey poults: Average prices paid to commercial hatcheries, April 1, 1963


State
and
division


Maine
N.H.
Vt.
Mass.
R.I.
Conn.
N.E.
N.Y.
N.J.
Pa.
M.A.
Ohio
Ind.
Ill.
Mich.
Wis.
E.N.C.
Minn.
Iowa
Mo.
N.Dak.
S.Dak.
Nebr.
Kans.
W.N.C.
Del.
Ma .
Va./ :
W.Va.
N.C.
S.c. /
Ga.
Fla.
S.A.
Ky.
Tenn.
Ala.
Miss.
E.S.C.
Ark.
La.
Okla.
Texas
W.S.C.
Mont.
Idaho
Colo.
Ariz.
Utah
Mount.
Wash. /:
Oreg. /:
Calif .y:
Hawaii
Pac.
U.S.
Y As of


Turkey poults, each
Heavy breed Li.h
: -Light
White Other breeds
Ct. Ct. Ct.


Broiler
breeds
straight
Dol.

1/ 12.5
12.5
13.5
12.5
12.5
/ 12.0


12.4 33.1 41.7 77.3 90.0 ---
12.0 38.0 53.0 80 86 ---
14.0 35.5 47.5 85 90 ---
1/ 13.0 37.0 48.5 1/ 70 1/ 80 1/ 55
13.0 37.0 4-.7 .753 82.1 ---
12.0 37.0 56.0 66 64 50
12.5 36.5 53.0 66 67 ---
/ 15.0 38.0 52.0 70 70 58
S13.5 36.5 52.0 65 65 50
12.5 39.0 53.0 52 64--
12.6 37.4 52.9 61.4 65.7 50.2
11.5 41.0 55.0 1/ 54 1/60 / 42
10.5 38.0 56.0 1/ 62 V/ 65 I/ 41
1/ 9.4 26.0 55.0 i/ 66 1/ 66 / 45
17.5 36.0 49.5 65 65 ---
17.5 36.0 51.0 51 65 ---
17.0 35.5 51.0 65 66 ---
11.0 35.0 54.0 65 65 ---
10.1 36.7 54.2 57.5 63.2 42.3
1/ 11.6 --- --- --- --- ---
l/ 11.6 40.0 55.0 --- --- ---
11.0 41.0 56.0 68 65 42
1/ 11.5 --- --- --- --- ---
/ 10.3 34.0 55.0 65 59 ---
10.5 35.0 --- 70 65 ---
1/ 10.1 31.5 55.0 63 64 ---
l/ 11.0 39.0 47.0 --- 65 45
10.6 35.7 54.9 66.8 61.1 42.5
10.5 36.0 52.0 --- --- ---
11.0 33.0 44.o --- ---
1/ 9.7 36.0 42.0 -- 70 55
I/ 10.0 34.0 46.0 --- 65 --
9.9 34.5 46.3 --- 67. --
I~ 9.5 37.0 46.0 65 60 50
y 11.5 37.5 --- ---
12.0 31.5 51.0 60 63 45
1/ 10.0 32.0 49.5 1/ 57 1/ 60 ---
9.9 33.2 48.9 5B.7 60.5 47.9


20.0
13.5
16.0
18.0
12.5
13.9
13.0
13.0
13.0
23.3
13.6
10.6
the 15th c


40.5 4.o0
41.o 56.0
38.0 53.0
44.0 47.5
35.5 46.0
39.3 49.8
39.5 40.0
37.0 41.0
33.0 45.0
49.6 ---
34.9 44.0
36.1 51.8
of the month. 4 -


65
64
60

64.3

52
52

52.0
59.7


65
6o
60
60

61.0

58
52

53.1
60.5


i--
i--


48



-T-


~


Baby chicks, per 100
: _Egg-type pullets
: Pure :Incross breeds:
-un : breeds : (hybrids)
Dol. Dol.

32.0 ---
33.0 40.0
32.0 ---
34.5 42.0
32.5 ---
32.0 42.0


---


80

80

75


__


90

90




Chicks hatched by commercial hatcheries United States i/


By months


Month


Broiler-type
January
February
March
April
May
June
July
August
September
October
November
December

Egg-type
January
February
March
April
May
June
July
August
September
October
November
December

Total chicks
January
February
March
April
May
June
July
August
September
October
November
December


1962
Thou.

177,386
168,973
209,160
208,269
210,002
192,476
185,702
173,400
160,829
168,927
170,725
171,427


28,339
40,304
78,703
96,696
83,567
38,920
24,437
21,879
21,739
24,577
21,795
21,017


205,725
209,277
287,863
304,965
293,569
231,396
210,139
195,279
182,568
193,504
192,520
192,444


1963
Thou.

174,990
168,431
199,806
214,879


31,302
41,731
71,201
94,958


206,292
210,162
271,007
309,837


Cumulative


:Change from: 1962
: last year :
Percent Thou.

1 177,386
--- 346,359
4 555,519
+ 3 763,788
973,790
1,166,266
1,351,968
1,525,368
1,686,197
1,855,124
2,025,849
2,197,276


28,339
68,643
147,346
244,042
327,609
366,529
390,966
412,845
434,584
459,161
480,956
501,973


- 6
+ 2


205,725
415,002
702,865
1,007,830
1,301,399
1,532,795
1,742,934
1,938,213
2,120,781
2,314,285
2,506,805
2,699,249


1963
Thou.

174,990
343,421
543,227
758,106


31,302
73,033
144,234
239,192


206,292
416,454
687,461
997,298


S Change from
: last year
Thou. Percent

- 2,396 1
- 2,938 1
-12,292 2
- 5,682 1


2,963
4,390
3,112
4,850


+ 567
+ 1,452
-15,404
-10,532


I/ Includes Hawaii.


-5 -




Chicken eggs in incubators May 1, 1963


Geographic Percent change from May 1, 1962
divisions Broiler-type : Egg-type : Total eggs

New England + 3 + 3 + 3
Middle Atlantic 12 6 8
East North Central :- 16 + 5 2
West North Central + 8 4 2
South Atlantic + 6 + 11 + 7
East South Central + 17 + 45 + 19
West South Central +, 10 + 24 + 12
Mountain 1 + 4 + 2
Pacific 1 12 6
48 States :+ 7 + 1 + 6
United States 1/ + 7 + 1 + 6
I/ Includes Hawaii.

Poults hatched and turkey eggs in incubators

: White : Other : Total : Light
Geographic :heavy breeds 1/:heavy breeds 1/:heavy breeds 1/: breeds 1/
divisions 1962 : 1963 : 1962 : 1963 : 1962 : 1963 : 1962 : 1963

:Thou. Thou. Thou. Thou. Thou. Thou. Thou. Thou.
Poults hatched
during April

New England :130 142 23 8 153 150 4 2
Middle Atlantic : 92 73 221 205 313 278 22 5
East North Central :1,072 1,374 1,383 1,302 2,455 2,676 142 117
West North Central :2,206 2,121 5,066 4,775 7,272 6,896 278 311
South Atlantic :441 616 597 663 1,038 1,279 343 370
South Central :455 543 2,107 1,974 2,562 2,517 43 79
West : 933 878 4,729 4,559 5,662 5,437 93 28
United States .5,329 5,747 14,126 13,486 19,455 19,233 925 912


Turkey eggs in -:
incubators
May 1

New England : 438 358 38 21 476 379 15 2
Middle Atlantic :384 210 597 580 981 790 65 48
East North Central :2,426 2,711 2,567 2,306 4,993 5,017 423 321
West North Central :4,050 3,778 7,936 7,640 11,986 11,418 627 592
South Atlantic :1,059 1,164 1,372 1,335 2,431 2,499 855 978
South Central : 691 810 3,372 2,741 4,063 3,551 99 131
West :1,599 1,532 7,412 7,208 9,011 8,740 129 84
United States 10,647 10,563 23,294 21,831 33,941 32,394 2,213 2,156

See footnote page 8.


- 6 -




Poults hatched by commercial hatcheries United States


:By months Cumulative
Month 1962 1963 :Change from: 1962 1963 Change from
S: last year : last year
Thou. Thou. Pet. Thou. Thou. Thou. Pet.
Heavy white
breeds 1/
January :2,012 1,508 25 2,012 1,508 504 25
February :2,091 2,594 + 24 4,103 4,102 1 --
March : 4,109 4,978 + 21 8,212 9,080 + 868 11
April : 5,329 5,747 + 8 13,541 14,827 +1,286 9
May : 6,324 19,865
June : 4,721 24,586
July : 2,874 27,460
August : 1,547 29,007
September : 968 29,975
October : 882 30,857
November : 864 31,721
December : 1,046 32,767

Other heavy
breeds i/
January : 1,169 1,210 + 4 1,169 1,210 + 41 + 4
February : 3,491 4,402 + 26 4,660 5,612 + 952 + 20
March : 9,957 10,867 + 9 14,617 16,479 +1,862 13
April :14,126 13,486 5 28,743 29,965 +1,222 4
May :14,455 43,198
June : 8,995 52,193
July : 3,143 55,336
August : 353 55,689
September 110 55,799
October 136 55,935
November : 168 56,103
December 406 56,509

Total all
heavy breeds 1/:
January :3,181 2,718 15 3,181 2,718 463 15
February :5,582 6,996 + 25 8,763 9,714 + 951 + 11
March :14,066 15,845 + 13 22,829 25,559 +2,730 12
April :19,455 19,233 1 42,284 44,792 +2,508 6
May :20,779 63,063
June :13,716 76,779
July : 6,017 82,796
August : 1,900 84,696
September : 1,078 85,774
October : 1,018 86,792
November : 1,032 87,824
December : 1,452 89,276


See footnotes page 8.


-7-





NTTiP qrAmTrP TWh nDAmADr NT'I' OF AGRICULTURE
STATISTICAL REPORTING SERVICE
WASHINGTON 25, D. C.

OFFICIAL BUSINESS


POSTAGE AND FEES PAID
U.S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

3II 1262 0890525III33IIIIII
3 1262 08905 2533


Fred R. Tarver. Jr.
Univ. of Florida
11-27-57 Dept. of Poultry Busb.
IL-Ha Gainesville, Fla.


- united .?.tates


SL- lMonthit : 1_ulati':e, _
Month 'Tir': Q It:i:.1962 : : Chani;, from
: : : lj t ,-,r : : : l.ast yeal-
Thou. Thi'-i, p-t, Tl-:,.i.. T'I'h Th,:u.. Pct.
Light breeds 1/:
January 357 '-'-'. + ":' l + 24: -
February : 524 ,4-. + 23 1 1. 25 '' 42
March 745 74 -- lI. :: l.. '94 3 23
April 925 ',l 1 '.. 2,9 + -+ 14
May :1,495 4,
June : 1,582 ,'
July :1,505 T.-
August :1,055 :.,
September : 437 ':2
October 362
November : 295
December 496

Total all
breeds 1/
January :3,538 -:. :. .3 1 -
February :6,106 -,4 2c ,-' 1i ,9,4 -.1.32' 14
March :14,811 1",, 1 4 i. 27,,3 -. 13
April :20,380 _'' 4. 1 ..: 47,9 -, 6
May :22,274' .7'
June :15,298 47
July : 7,522
August : 2,955 9
September : 1,515 :'
October : 1,380 '.
November : 1,327 '.1, 6
December : 1,948 .'
1/ Heavy white breeds include heavy white-feathered breeds, such as Broad white,
white Holland, Empire white, Lancaster, and crosses with light white breeds.
All other heavy breeds are reported under 'other". Light breeds include Belts-
ville, Jersey Buff, Royal Palm and wild turkeys.
8 -


Poults ha:.:-,-... b .,:.mier-.'i l h::t.i: -ri.s