Hatchery production

MISSING IMAGE

Material Information

Title:
Hatchery production
Some issues called:
Special ... hatchery report
Physical Description:
v. : ; 22-28 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
United States -- Crop Reporting Board
Publisher:
United States Crop Reporting Board
Place of Publication:
Washington, D.C
Publication Date:
Frequency:
monthly, with special reports
monthly
normalized irregular

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Poultry -- Hatcheries -- Statistics -- Periodicals -- United States   ( lcsh )
Chicks -- Statistics -- Periodicals -- United States   ( lcsh )
Genre:
federal government publication   ( marcgt )
statistics   ( marcgt )
periodical   ( marcgt )

Notes

Dates or Sequential Designation:
Began with: Jan. 1948
Dates or Sequential Designation:
Ceased with Nov. or Dec. 1969.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
oclc - 01781240
lccn - sc 78000027
issn - 0093-0121
ocm01781240
Classification:
ddc - 353
System ID:
AA00010659:00023

Related Items

Preceded by:
Hatchery report
Succeeded by:
Hatchery production, annual revisions
Succeeded by:
Eggs, chickens and turkeys

Full Text










NOVEMBER 1964 ...- -
S em er 6, 1964
UL.S. DEPOSITORY
Chick Production
Hatcheries produced 200,774,000 chicks during November 1964, up 1 percent from
November 1963, according to the Crop Reporting Board. Broiler chicks hatched totaled
176,096,000 -- an increase of 1 percent over November last year. During the first 11
months of 1964, there were 2,120,130,000 broiler chicks hatched, up 2 percent from the
same period in 1963. The number of broiler type eggs in incubators on December 1, was
the same as on December 1, 1963, indicating that the hatch in December this year will
be about the same as the hatch in December last year.
There were 24,678,000 egg-type chicks hatched in November, 8 percent above the
number hatched in November 1963. Increases reported were 49 percent in the West North
Central States, 15 percent in the South Central and 14 percent in the East North Central
and South Atlantic States. There was no change in the hatch from November last year in
the North Atlantic States. The States in the West reported a decrease in the egg-type
chicks hatched of 6 percent from November last year. The hatch of egg-type chicks
during the first 11 months of 1964 totaled 504,572,000, up 3 percent from comparable
period last year. Egg-type eggs in incubators on December 1 were up 14 percent from
December 1 last year indicating a larger hatch of egg-type chicks in December than
a year earlier.
Poult Production

Heavy breed poults hatched in November totaled 907,000 -- down 33 percent from
November 1963. The hatch of heavy white breeds was 618,000, down 33 percent and the
other heavy breeds hatched, at 289,000, were down 32 percent from November last year.
The hatch of light breed poults was 531,000, up 18 percent from November last year.
There were 104,377,000 turkey poults hatched during the first 11 months of 1964, 4
percent more than during this period in 1963. The cumulative hatch of heavy white
breeds totaled 40,372,000, up 21 percent; other heavy breeds totaled 52,609,000 down
7 percent; and light breeds hatched, at 11,396,000, were up 12 percent. The number
of heavy breed eggs in incubators on December 1, was down 30 percent from December 1,
1963 indicating a smaller hatch in December this year than last. The number of light
breed eggs in incubators on December 1 was up 4 percent.





UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
Statistical Reporting Service Crop Reporting Board
Pou 1-1 (12-64) Washington, D. C.




Chicks hatched by commercial hatcheries

State : Broiler-type :
and : November : Jan. through November :


division

Maine
N. H.
Vt.
Mass. & R.I. 1
Conn.
N. Y.
N. J.
Pa.
N. A.
Ohio
Ind.
Ill.
Mich.
Wis.
E. N. C.
Minn.
Iowa
Mo.
N. Dak.
S. Dak.
Nebr.
Kans.
W. N. C.
Del.
Md.
Va.
W. Va.
N. C.
S. C.
Ga.
Fla.
S. A.
Ky.
Tenn.
Ala.
Miss.
Ark.
La.
Okla.
Texas
S. C.
Idaho
Colo.
Utah
Wash.
Oreg.
Calif.
West.
48 States
Hawaii
U. S.


: 1963
Thousands
: 5,059
: 823
: i1
: 774
: 1,603
: 125
: 163
S 3,699
: 12,27

: 2,533
S 75
: 490
: 731
: 4,299
S 1,022
240
4,457


0
155


:


:


:


Af Af I


:


2/ 5,874 2/ 3,472 2/ 76,034 2/ 57,561 824 1,230
6,412 7,441 75,492 87,567 7 .
11,220 10,803 136,336 130,041 3 33
4,875 4,537 60,691 59,663 366 403
283 425 4,033 4,390 3/ 3
16,355 16,906 203,365 210,323 376 345
1,364 1,147 18,426 15,352 440 395
30,604 31,329 366,231 376,385 1,507 1,585
1,626 1,116 16,798 16,070 1,176 1,654
72,739 73,704 881, 372 899,791 3/ 3,912 3/ 4,449

3,230 3,594 40,810 42,331 205 220
17,993 20,655 219,005 240,277 918 1,047
13,943 11,752 147,o81 141,076 871 891
21,081 24,351 234,679 273,349 583 926
2,679 2,226 27,193 28,395 152 140

12,110 11,912 131,637 137,3 2 166,404
4/71,826 4/ 75,ob 4/ 811,101 4 872,008 4 4,24o 4/ 4892
374 369 4,465 4,750 82 41
11 0 221 239 70 83
130 110 1,681 1,670 36 52
1,367 1,458 17,322 18,224 801 801
862 801 11,091 11,586 132 160
5,087 5,258 58,918 56,351 4,848 4,534
5/ 7,850 5/ 8,014 5 001 5/ 93,45 5/ 6,120 51 5,759
174,822 175,989 2,067.314 2,118,84 22,842 24,591


126


174.951


lo7


17.,09b


l,34o
2,068.662


1,36
2.120.130


110u
22,952


- 2 -


7 Massachusetts and Rhode Island combined to avoid disclosing individual operations.
2/ To avoid disclosing individual operations West North Central total includes North and
South Dakota. V/ South Atlantic total includes Delaware, Maryland and West Virginia. 4/ South
Central total includes Kentucky and Oklahoma. V/ West total includes Montana, Wyoming,
New Mexico, Arizona and Nevada.


107


,b
24.678


1964
Thousands
5,472
705
0
618
1,110
25
120
4,072
12,122
500
1,789
90
410
800

700
110
2,659


2


1903
Thousands
59,878
10,228
43
10,814
17,670
1,920
1,814
43,411
142,778
8,150
34,578
1,584
5,220
9,496
59,o28
11,851
3,895
56,407
2/
2/
1,205
2,210


1964
Thousands
63,9741
8,947
1
7,377
17,451
940
1,581
42,856
143,127
6,650
30,885
1,177
5,000


10,388
2,153
41,698

23
1,6 3
1,234


Egg-type
November
1963 j
Thousands TI
97
173
16
504
422
1,370
330
1, 198
4,110
1,190
1,167
600
490
189
3,636
273
130
179
11
120
57
54


19b4
iousands
252
130
4
586
344
1,380
285
1,121
4,102
1,300
1,463
696
500
200
4,159
558
160
210
0
70
96
136




Chicks hatched by commercial hatcheries


Sta
and
div

Maine
N. H.
Vt.
Mass.
Conn.
N. Y.
N. J.
Pa.
N. A.
Ohio
Ind.
111.
Mich.
Wis.
E. N.
Minn.
Iowa
Mo.
N. Dak
S. Dak
Nebr.
Kans.
W. N.
Del.
Md.
Va.
W. Va.
N. C.
S. C.
Ga.
Fla.
S. A.
Ky.
Tenn.
Ala.
Miss.
Ark.
la.
Okla.
Texas
S. C.
Idaho
Colo.
Utah
Wash.
Oreg.
Calif.
West.
48 St
Hawaii
U. S.


c. :



:



:



:
.at:


I Tota 1
November
N


te : Egg-type
: Jan. through Nov.
ision : 1963 : 1964
Thou. Thou.
3,587 37976
3,028 2,361
385 248
& R.I. : 8,785 8,385
8,370 7,016
17,300 18,725
: 10,040 8,390
: 29,873 27111
: 81,367 76,212
24,510 25,100
24,017 27,148
22,083 22,240
11,280 13,550
7,798 8,335
C. 89,688 96,373
24,974 24,732
35,615 34,394
15,447 15,553
: 2,350 1,910
: 10,275 10,265
12,517 12,103
6,625 7,171


107,803 10,12d 2/ 6a72
Y3 373
A891 ,911 5,320
31/ 3/ 3/
9,247 9,709 12,633
6,371 5,556 1,888
21,988 25,159 26,936
16,834 19,224 2,496
3/63629 3/68 288 3/ 64 137

6,575 5,380 3,457
8,935 11,896 13,178
9,393 11,531 9,508
10,218 13,450 13,411
1,740 2,156 1,771

23,196 22,187 9,864
4/67, 13 4/73,893 4/ 52 571
1,539 1,063 311
2,054 1,518 153
1,405 1,244 189
10,649 11,222 1,685
3,097 3,134 1,066
59,456 62,030 9,145
0/80,937 5/82,690 5/ 12,715
490,537 503,544 162,016
1,009 1,028 185


491,546 504,572


162,201


Massachusetts and Rhode Island combined to avoid
To avoid disclosing individual operations West
South Dakota.


november


:Average 1958-
Thou.

1,140
20
1,373
2,898
1,250
1,035
4,754
17,171
1,572
4,762
905
797
1,213
9,250O
736
458
4,471


106
374


South Atlantic total includes Delaware, Maryland and West Virginia.
South Central includes Kentucky and Oklahoma.
West total includes Montana, Wyoming, New Mexico, Arizona and Nevada.


- 3 -


Jan. through
b2 : 1963 : 64 : 1963 :
Thou. -Rhou. Thou. T
,156 5,724 -3764
996 835 13,256
17 4 428
1,278 1,204 19,599
2,025 1,454 26,040
1,495 1,405 19,220
493 405 11,854
4,897 5,193 73,284
16,357 16,224 227,145 -
1,650 1,800 32,660
3,700 3,252 58,595
675 786 23,667
980 910 16,500
920 1,000 17,294
7,925 7,748 148,716
1,295 1,258 36,825
370 270 39,510
4,636 2,869 71,854

2/ 2/ 2/
57 97 13,722
209 138 8,835
g/ 6,698 2/ 4,702 9 37 2/8
3/ 3. 3
5,241 4,940 67,582
3 3/ 2/
16,731 17,251 212,612
1,804 1,542 24,797
32,111 32,914 388,219
2,802 2,770 33,632
3/ 76 651 3/ 78;153 3/945,001 3/

3,435 3,814 47,385
18,911 21,702 227,940 ;
14,814 12,643 156,474
21,664 25,277 244,897 2
2,831 2,366 28,933

13,376 13,316 154,833
4/ 76,066 4/ 79,980 48 214 4/
456 410 6,004
81 83 2,275
166 162 3,086
2,168 2,259 27,971
994 961 14,188
9,935 9,792 118,374
5/ 13,970 5/ 13,773 5/174,938 5/
197,667 200,580 2,557,851 2,
236 194 2,357
197,903 200,774 2,560,208 2,1
disclosing individual operations.
North Central total includes North and


ahou.
7,950
11,308
249
15,762
24,467
19,665
9,971
69,967
19,339
31,750
58,033
23,417
18,550
17,805
149,555
35,120
36,547
57,251


13,737
8,405
163,689


66574
3/
?20,032
20,908
401,544
35,294
96;079

47,711
252,173
152,607
286,799
30,551
y
L59,553
?45,901
5,813
1,757
2,914
29,446
14,720
118,381
175,795
622,356
2,344
624,702




Baby chicks and turkey poults: Average prices paid to commercial hatcheries, November 1, 1964

State Baby chicks, per 100 : Turkey poults, each
and Broiler : Egg-type pullets : Heavy breeds : Light
division : breeds : Pure : Incross breeds White Other breeds
: straight run : breeds : (hybrids)
Dol. Dol. Dol. Ct. Ct. Ct.

Maine : /10.0 32.0 --- --- ---
N.H. 11.5 34.0 41.0 --- --- ---
Vt. 13.0 33.0 --- --- --- ---
Mass. 12.0 34.0 42.0 --- --- ---
R.I. 12.0 32.0 --- --- --- ---
Conn. 1/11.0 30.0 42.0 66 ---.-
N.E. 10.4 32.6 41.9 --- -
N.Y. : 10.5 37-5 48.0 --- -- --.
N.J. 12.5 35.0 45.0 ---
Pa. : 1/11.5 35.5 0o.o --- 1/80 1/60
M.A. 11.5 36.5 49.5 --- --- -
Ohio 11.5 37.0 52.0 -
Ind. 11.0 33.0 52.0 --- 1/45
Ill. 13.0 43.0 54.0 --- ---
Mich. 13.0 34.5 51.0 --- 62 48
Wis. : ll. 40.5 55.0 --- ---
E.N.C. 11.4 36.2 52.2 --- -- 46.6
Minn. : 12.0 42.0 53.0 52 --- 41
Iowa 13.0 39.0 51.5 -- 40
Mo. : / 8.6 29.0 52.0 65 65 45
S.Dak. --- 35.0 50.0 --- -
Nebr. 17.0 36.0 51.0 --- ---
Kans. : --- 36.o 53.0 ---.----
W.N.C. 9.4 39.3 52.2
Del. Y10.4 --- --- --- --
Md. : 10.6 40.0
Va. / : 10.0 41.0 52.0 -. -- 45
W.Va. : 1/10.5 --- --- --- -
N.C. : 9.4 30.0 46.0 60 61 ---
S.C. : 8.2 32.0 --- 70 70 ---
Ga. : 9.7 33.0 48.0 -
Fla. : 1/10.0 40.0 43.0 55 65 45
S.A. 9.8 36.5 47.9 65.3 --- 45.0
Ky. 9.5 40.0 .0 --- --- -
Tenn. 9.6 31.0 40.0 --- --- ---
Ala. : 8.7 34.5 41.0 65 65 45
Miss. : 1/ 8.5 30.o0 4.o 0- --- ---
E.S.C. 8.7 32.9 44.3 --- --- ---
Ark. : I9.0 --- -- 60 60 45
La. y 8.7 35.0 --- --- -
Okla. : 10.0 26.5 46.o --- ---
Texas : / 9.1 31.5 55.0 --- --- ---
W.S.C. 9.0 31.2 50.8 -
Mont. : 19.0 37.0 46.0 -.. -.
Idaho : 12.5 36.0 --- --- 50
Colo. 14.0 40.0 51.0 --- ---
Ariz. --- 36.5 41.5 ---
Utah 12.5 34 434.0 45.0 ---.--
Mount. 12.5 36.8 47.4 ---
Wash. : 12.5 32.5 34.0o
Oreg. : 12.5 34.0 39.0
Calif. : 11.5 34.0 40.0
Hawaii : 23.3 45.o 0-.--- ----
Pac. : 12.7 34.8 39.6---
U.S. 9.7 35.1 46.2 53.9 60.9 44.3
I/ As of the 15th of the month.




Chicks hatched by commercial hatcheries United States


By months : Cumulative
Month : 1963 : 964 : Ch from: 1963 1964 Change from
: : last year : last year


Broiler-type:
January
February
March
April
May
June
July
August
September
October
November
December

Egg-type
January
February
March
April
May
June
July
August
September
October
November
December

Total chicks:
January
February
March
April
May
June
July
August
September
October
November
December


: Thou.


175,751
169,730
200,872
214,392
225,164
207,635
194,266
177,975
159,262
168,664
174,951
185,488


31,273
41,987
71,727
95,425
81,572
41,603
29,171
25,265
24,957
25,614
22,952
23,234


207,024
211,717
272,599
309,817
306,736
249,238
223,437
203,240
184,219
194,278
197,903
208,722


Thou.


Percent


180,275
183,571
211,291
211,262
220,212
208,498
200,239
187,081
166,664
174,941
176,096


Thou.


175,751
345,481
546,353
760,745
985,909
1,193,544
1,387,810
1,565,785
1,725,047
1,893,711
2,068,662
2,254,150


31,568
41,674
74,047
92,249
78,250
47,029
31,640
26,430
28,720
28,287
24,678


31,273
73,260
144,987
240,412
321,984
363,587
392,758
418,023
442,980
468,594
491,546
514,780


211,843
225,245
285,338
303,511
298,462
255,527
231,879
213,511
195,384
203,228
200,774


207,024
418,741
691,340
1,001,157
1,307,893
1,557,131
1,780,568
1,983,808
2,168,027
2,362,305
2,560,208
2,768,930


Thou.


180,275
363,846
575,137
786,399
1,0o6,611
1,215,109
1,415,348
1,602,429
1,769,093
1,944,034
2,120,130


31,568
73,242
147,289
239,538
317,788
364,817
396,457
422,887
451,607
479,894
504,572


211,843
437,088
722,426
1,025,937
1,324,399
1,579,926
1,811,805
2,025,316
2,220,700
2,423,928
2,624,702


Thou. Percent


+ 4,524
+18,365
+28,784
+25,654
+20,702
+21,565
+27,538
+36,644
+44,046
+50,323
+51,468


+ 295
- 18
+ 2,302
- 874
- 4,196
+ 1,230
+ 3,699
+ 4,864
+ 8,627
+11,300
+13,026


+ 1
0
+ 2
0
- 1
0
+ 1
+ 1
+ 2
+ 2
+ 3


+ 4,819
+18,347
+3l,086
+24,780
+16,506
+22,795
+31,237
+41,508
+52,673
+61,623
+64,494


-5-




Chicken eggs in incubators December 1, 1964


Geographic Percent change from November 1, 1963
divisions : Broiler-type : Egg-type : Total eggs

North Atlantic 1 + 8 + 1
East North Central 33 + 13 11
West North Central 39 + 21 29
South Atlantic + 2 + 2 + 2
South Central : + 3 + 46 + 5
West : + 2 + 8 + 4
48 States : 0 + 14 + 2

United States i/ 0 + 14 + 2

1/ Includes Hawaii.

Poults hatched and turkey eggs in incubators

White : Other : Total : Light
Geographic :heavy breeds I/:heavy breeds 1/:heavy breeds 1/: breeds 1/
divisions : 1963 1964 1963 : 1964 : 1963 1964 : 1963 1964

Thou. Thou.. Thou. Thou. Thou. Thou. Thou. Thou.
Poults hatched
during November

North Atlantic 8 9 3 0 11 9 11 0
East North Central 247 140 5 4 252 144 75 74
West North Central 448 271 0 0 448 271 209 154
South Atlantic 154 74 164 99 318 173 125 202
South Central 15 18 83 93 98 111 0 14
West 52 106 167 93 219 199 31 87

United States 924 618 422 289 1,346 907 451 531


Turkey eggs in
incubators
December 1

North Atlantic 19 12 3 0 22 12 24 0
East North Central 341 166 12 10 353 176 178 144
West North Central 872 658 38 45 910 703 280 288
South Atlantic 290 199 276 127 566 326 278 361
South Central 71 154 86 56 157 210 47 7
West 342 279 379 199 721 478 67 113

United States 1,935 1,468 794 437 2,729 1,905 874 913


See footnotes on page 8.


- 6 -





Poults hatched by commercial hatcheries United States


: By months : Cumulative
Month : 1963 : 1964 :CT e from: 1 1964 Cth11. from
1 96 : last year : 1 last year
: Thou. Thou. Pct. Thou. Thou. Thou. Pct.
Heavy white
breeds 1/
January : 1,514 1,859 + 23 1,514 1,859 + 345 + 23
February : 2,617 3,054 + 17 4,131 4,913 + 782 + 19
March : 4,952 6,576 + 33 9,083 11,489 +2,40o6 + 26
April : 5,891 7,805 + 32 14,974 19,294 +4,320 + 29
May 6,369 7,871 + 24 21,343 27,165 +5,822 + 27
June : 5,471 6,858 + 25 26,814 34,023 +7,209 + 27
July : 2,981 3,444 + 16 29,795 37,467 +7,672 + 26
August : 1,380 1,268 8 31,175 38,735 +7,560 + 24
September : 553 513 7 31,728 39,248 +7,520 + 24
October 659 506 23 32,387 39,754 +7,367 + 23
November 924 618 33 33,311 40,372 +7,061 21
December : 1,305 34,616

Other heavy
breeds I/
January : 1,209 1,339 + 11 1,209 1,339 + 130 + 11
February : 4,457 4,201 6 5,666 5,540 126 2
March : 11,007 10,781 2 16,673 16,321 352 2
April : 13,648 12,182 11 30,321 28,503 -1,818 6
May : 13,362 11,946 11 43,683 40,449 -3,234 7
June : 8,635 8,117 6 52,318 48,566 -3,752 7
July : 3,005 2,984 1 55,323 51,550 -3,773 7
August 297 409 + 38 55,620 51,959 -3,661 7
September : 160 170 + 6 55,780 52,129 -3,651 7
October : 291 191 34 56,071 52,320 -3,751 7
November : 422 289 32 56,493 52,609 -3,884 7
December : 559 57,052

Total all
heavy breeds/ :
January : 2,723 3,198 + 17 2,723 3,198 + 475 + 17
February : 7,074 7,255 + 3 9,797 10,453 + 656 + 7
March : 15,959 17,357 + 9 25,756 27,810 +2,054 + 8
April : 19,539 19,987 + 2 45,295 47,797 +2,502 + 6
May : 19,731 19,817 0 65,026 67,614 +2,588 + 4
June : 14,106 14,975 + 6 79,132 82,589 -3,457 + 4
July : 5,986 6,428 + 7 85,118 89,017 +3,899 + 5
August : 1,677 1,677 0 86,795 90,694 +3,899 + 4
September : 713 683 4 87,508 91,377 +3,869 + 4
October : 950 697 27 88,458 92,074 -:-3,616 + 4
November : 1,346 907 33 89,804 92,981 +3,177 4
December 1,864 91,668


See footnote on page 8.


- 7 -




UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
STATISTICAL REPORTING SERVICE
WASHINGTON, D. C. 20250

OFFICIAL BUSINESS


POSTAGE AND FEES PAID
U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

3 1262 08904 3136


Fred R. Tarver. Jr.
Univ. of Florida
11-27-57 Dept. of Poultry uasb.
ML-Ha Gainesville, Fla.


Poults hatched by commercial hatcheries United States
: By months : Cumulative
Month 1963 1964 :Change from: 1963 1964 : Change from
: : last year : : last year
: Thou. Thou. Pet. Thou. Thou. Thou. Pet.
Light breeds l/:
January 565 627 + 11 565 627 + 62 + 11
February 643 789 + 23 1,208 1,416 + 208 + 17
March 787 950 + 21 1,995 2,366 + 371 + 19
April : 914 1,196 + 31 2,909 3,562 + 653 + 22
May 1,590 1,617 + 2 4,499 ,5,179 + 680 + 15
June : 1,513 1,570 + 4 6,012 6,749 + 737 + 12
July : 1,668 1,609 4 7,680 8,358 + 678 + 9
August : 1,069 1,186 + 11 8,749 9,544 + 795 + 9
September 539 648 + 20 9,288 10,192 + 904 + 10
October : 451 673 + 49 9,739 10,865 + 1,126 + 12
November : 451 531 + 18 10,190 11,396 + 1,206 + 12
December : 580 10,770

Total all
breeds I/
January : 3,288 3,825 + 16 3,288 3,825 + 537 + 16
February : 7,717 8,044 + 4 11,005 11,869 + 864 + 8
March : 16,746 18,307 + 9 27,751 30,176 + 2,425 + 9
April : 20,453 21,183 + 4 48,204 51,359 + 3,155 + 7
May : 21,321 21,434 + 1 69,525 72,793 + 3,268 + 5
June : 15,619 16,545 + 6 85,144 89,338 + 4,194 + 5
July : 7,654 8,037 + 5 92,798 97,375 + 4,577 + 5
August : 2,746 2,863 + 4 95,544 100,238 + 4,694 + 5
September : 1,252 1,331 + 6 96,796 101,569 + 4,773 + 5
October : 1,401 1,370 2 98,197 102,939 + 4,742 + 5
November : 1,797 1,438 20 99,994 104,377 + 4,383 + 4
December 2,444 102,438

I/ Heavy white breeds include heavy white-feathered breeds, such as Broad white,
white holland, Empire white, Lancaster, and crosses with light white breeds. All
other heavy breeds are reported under "other". Light breeds include Beltsville,
Jersey Buff, Royal Palm and wild turkeys.
0 -