Hatchery production

MISSING IMAGE

Material Information

Title:
Hatchery production
Some issues called:
Special ... hatchery report
Physical Description:
v. : ; 22-28 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
United States -- Crop Reporting Board
Publisher:
United States Crop Reporting Board
Place of Publication:
Washington, D.C
Publication Date:
Frequency:
monthly, with special reports
monthly
normalized irregular

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Poultry -- Hatcheries -- Statistics -- Periodicals -- United States   ( lcsh )
Chicks -- Statistics -- Periodicals -- United States   ( lcsh )
Genre:
federal government publication   ( marcgt )
statistics   ( marcgt )
periodical   ( marcgt )

Notes

Dates or Sequential Designation:
Began with: Jan. 1948
Dates or Sequential Designation:
Ceased with Nov. or Dec. 1969.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
oclc - 01781240
lccn - sc 78000027
issn - 0093-0121
ocm01781240
Classification:
ddc - 353
System ID:
AA00010659:00011

Related Items

Preceded by:
Hatchery report
Succeeded by:
Hatchery production, annual revisions
Succeeded by:
Eggs, chickens and turkeys

Full Text

4 1 l








October 1963
U.S. DEPOSITO ir 15, 1963
Chicks Hatched

Hatcheries in the United States produced 194,165,000 chicks in October as com-
pared with 193,504,000 in October 1962 according to the Crop Reporting Board.
Broiler chicks totaled 168,849,000, fractionally lower than October last year.
During the 10-month period January through October there were 1,888,140,000 broiler
chicks hatched--up 2 percent from the comparable period in 1962. Broiler-type eggs
in incubators on November 1 were up 1 percent from November 1 last year indicating
that the broiler hatch in November 1963 may be slightly more than in November 1962.

There were 25,316,000 egg-type chicks hatched in October--3 percent more than
in October 1962. Increases were 29 percent in the East North Central States, 20
percent in the East South Central, 13 percent in the West North Central, 10 per-
cent in the West South Central, and 6 percent in the South Atlantic States. De-
creases were 32 percent in the Mountain States, 12 percent in the New England and
Mid-Atlantic States, respectively, and 7 percent in the Pacific Coast States.



Poults Hatched

Heavy breed poults hatched in October totaled 972,000--down 5 percent from
October last year. The hatch of heavy white breeds totaled 682,000--a decrease
of 23 percent from October 1962. The hatch of other heavy breeds (mostly broad-
breasted bronze)totaled 290,000--more than double October last year. Production
of light breed poults totaled 411,000--up 14 percent from October last year. Dur-
ing the period January through October, the hatch of turkey poults was 97,002,000--
an increase of 1 percent from same period in 1962. The 10 months hatch of heavy
white breeds was 31,964,000--an increase of 4 percent; other heavy breeds was
55,610,000--a decrease of 1 percent; and light breeds at 9,428,000 was up 5 percent.
The number of heavy breed eggs in incubators on November 1 was up 24 percent from
November 1 last year indicating a larger heavy type hatch in November than a year
ago. The batch of light breed poults in November 1963 will also be larger than in
November 1962 as the number of light breed eggs in incubators on November 1 was 33
percent larger than on November 1, 1962.


UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
Statistical Reporting Service Crop Reporting Board


Pou 1-1 (11-63)


Washington, D. C.





Chicks hatched by commercial hatcheries

State Broiler-type Egg-type
and :October Jan. through October : October


division : o196 : 963 1962 : 163 : 12 : 1963
:Thousands Thousands Thousands Thousands Thousands Thousands
Maine : 5,430 5,248 53,953 54,851 121 189
N. H. 970 749 10,751 9,139 195 178
Vt. 2 --- 11 40 20 12
Mass.& R.I./: 814 856 7,705 10,589 509 496
Conn. 1,966 1,533 19,734 16,247 615 404
N. E. 9,182 8,386 92,154 90,866 1,460 1,279
N. Y. : 180 150 3,385 1,860 1,290 1,300
N. 141 145 1,873 1,648 625 410
Pa. 3,882 3,361 40,960 38,936 1,285 1,095
M. A. 4,203 3,656 46,218 42,444 3,200 2,805
Ohio 670 750 9,830 9,640 780 1,300
Ind. 3,211 2,830 39,735 32,962 1,023 1,063
Ill. : 192 48 4,110 1,496 607 742
Mich. 470 490 5,730 4,700 390 500
Wis. 803 830 9,820 9,889 163 225
E.N.C. 5346 4,948 69,225 58687 2,963 3,830
Minn. 1,015 1i,81 10,342 10,824 332 415
Iowa : 260 240 3,140 3, 655 170 150
Mo. 4,187 3,955 54,307 52,219 213 225
N. Dak. 2 2 2/ 2/ 0 0
S. Dak. : 2 80 75
Nebr. 2 1,116 1,029 28 58
Kans. : 148 180 2,428 2,425 139 160
W.N.C. : 2/ 5,634 2/ 5,468 2/ 71,644 2/ 70,354 962 1,3
Del. 6,591 5,776 65,940 67,450 / /
Md. 11,052 11,698 109,691 22,086 118 37
Va. 4,841 4,382 62,574 55,244 436 492
W. Va. 290 286 4,307 3,724 3
N. C. 15,957 16,431 178,970 186,538 5 7
s. C. 1,667 1,359 18,955 17,091 433 394
Ga. 30,547 30,454 339,436 335,627 1,442 1,557
Fla. : 1,742 1,477 17,680 14,993 1,205 1,452
S. A. 72,687 71,863 797,553 802,753 3/ 4,325 3/ 4,600
Ky. 380 235 4,495 3,785 100 205
Tenn. 3,720 3,600 37,630 37,200 385 240
Ala. 16,960 17,836 184,041 200,735 603 743
Miss. 11,372 13,099 123,678 132,965 665 919
E.S.C. 32,432 34,770 349,844 374,685 1,753 2,107
Ark. : 18,963 19,450 203,592 209,975 798 88
La. 1,930 2,197 18,362 24,400 89 201
Okla. 349 352 6,168 6,424 120 240
Texas 10,705 9,822 113,110 120,182 1,765 1,933
W.S.C. 31,947 31,821 341,232 360,981 2,772 3,062
Idaho 251 348 3,650 4,097 92 71
Colo. 3 1 175 168 92 78
Utah 75 102 1,666 1,541 40 31
Mount. 4/ 362 4 477 4/ 5,928 4/ 6,119 4/ 410 4/ 27
Wash. 947 1,443 12,997 15,917 781 1,010
Oreg. 803 906 11,356 10,137 151 142
Calif. 5,268 4,966 55,847 53,975 5,701 5,039
Pae. 7,018 7,315 80,200 80,029 6,633 6,191
48 States 168,811 168,704 1,853,998 1,886,918 24,478 25,236
Hawaii 116 145 1,126 1,222 99 80
U. S. 168,927 168,849 1,855,124 1,888,140 24,577 25,316
1 Massachusetts and Rhode Island combined to avoid disclosing individual operations.
2 To avoid disclosing individual operations West North Central total includes North and South
Dakota. 3/ South Atlantic total includes Delaware and West Virginia. 4/ Mountain total includes
Montana, Wyoming, New Mexico, and Arizona.

2 -


m" A A f A f.. .


.. .. f


AfA






Chicks hatched by commercial hatcheries

State Egg-type :Total
and :Jan. through October: October :Jan. through October


division


1962
Thou.


1963.
Thou.
w


Average 1957-61
Thou.


1962
TIou.


1963 :
Thou.


1962 :193
Thou. Thou.


Maine 3,372 3,324 4,718 5,551 5, 37 57,325 38,175
N.H. : 2,889 2,886 1,129 1,165 927 13,640 12,025
Vt. 407 386 20 22 12 418 426
Mass. & R.I.j/: 8,637 7,659 1,464 1,323 1,352 16,342 18,248
Conn. 7,882 7,403 3,024 2,581 1,937 27,616 23,650
N.E. : 23,187 21,658 10,355 10,642 9,665 115,341 112,524
N.Y. 14,340 15,490 1,186 1,470 1,450 17,725 17,350
N.J. : 11,610 9,675 1,206 766 555 13,483 11,323
Pa. : 26,805 27,249 4,256 5,167 4,456 67,765 66,185
M.A. : 52,755 52,414 6,648 7,403 6,461 9,973 94,85'
Ohio 22,380 22,676 1,468 1,450 2,050 32,210 32,316
Ind. 23,453 24,151 4,837 4,234 3,893 63,188 57,113
Ill. : 21,709 20,678 1,016 799 790 25,819 22,174
Mich. 9,750 10,410 859 860 990 15,480 15,110
Wis. : 8,005 7,889 1,071 966 1,055 17,825 17,778
E.N.C. 85,297 85,804 9,252 8,309 8,77b 15,522 144,491
Minn. : 26,215 24,742 511 1,347 i,496 36,557 35,566
Iowa : 36,560 35,500 428 430 390 39,700 39,155
Mo. 16,147 14,326 4,411 4,400 4,180 70,454 66,545
NH.Dak. 2,074 2,634/ /
S.Dak. : 10,393 10,042
Nebr. : 13,511 12,993 14 52 70 14,27 14,022
Kans. 6,849 7,070 264 287 340 9,277 9,495
W.N.C. : 111,749 107,307 2/ 5,774 2/ 6,596 2/ 6,551 2/ 183,393 2/177,661
Del. 7 7 }
Mi. : 1,494 1,631 8,035 11,170 11,735 111,185 123,717
Va. 6,389 6,119 5,167 5,277 4,874 68,963 61,363
W.Va. V 1 2 10 28VIt
N.C. 8,518 9,239 11,066 16,& 17,098 187,8 195,777
SC. : 5,390 5,892 1,793 2,100 1,753 24,345 22,983
a. : 15,805 20,481 24,897 31,989 32,011 355,241 356,108
Fla. : 13,000 16,705 2,294 2,97 2,929 30,680 31,698
S.A. :3/ 51,218 3/ 60,59 3/ 58,921 3/ 77,012 3/ 76,463 3/ 848771 3/863,302
ly. : 2,920 3,294 906 480 440 7,415 7,079
Tenn. 6,730 6,425 3,248 4,105 3,840 44,360 43,625
Ala. : 6,691 7,510 11,422 17,563 18,579 190,732 208,245
Miss. 6,874 8,530 7,894 12,037 14,018 130,552 141, 495
E.S.C. 23,215 25,759 23,470 34,185 36,877 373,059 400,44
Ark. 6,464 9,395 10,939 19,761 20,138 210,056 219,370
La. : 1,676 1,723 1,577 2,019 2,398 20,038 26,123
Okla. 3,606 3,712 422 469 592 9,774 10,136
Texas 20,413 21,094 9,178 12,470 11,755 133,523 141,276
W.S.C. 32,159 35,924 22,116 34,719 34,883 373,391 396,905
Idaho 1,527 1,428 251 343 419 5,177 5,525
Colo. 2,049 2,034 155 95 79 2,224 2,202
Utah 1,607 1,356 156 115 133 3,273 2,897
Mount. :4/ 8,130 4/ 7,244 4/ 722 4/ 772 4/ 756 4/14,05 4/ 13,36
Wash. 9,707 9,752 1,621 1,728 2,453 22,704 25,669
Oreg. 3,045 2,948 932 954 1,048 14,401 13,085
Calif. : 57.705 54,078 8,561 10,969 10,005 113,552 108,053
Pac. 70,457 66,778 11,115 13,651 13,506 150,657 146,807
48 States 458,167 463,437 148,371 193,289 193,940 2,312,165 2,350,355
Hawaii 994 899 170 215 225 2,120 2,121
U.S. 459,161 464,336 148,542 193,504 194165 2,314,285 2,352,476
SMassachusetts an ode and nd combined to avoid disclosing individual operations.
/ To avoid disclosing individual operations West North Central total includes North and
South Dakota. V/ South Atlantic total includes Delaware and West Virginia. 4/ Mountain total
includes Montana, Wyoming, New Mexico, and Arizona.
3-


___ ___ ... m ..


:


:


I







Baby chicks and turkey poults: Average prices paid to commercial hatcheries, October 1, 1963


State
and
division


: Broiler
: breeds
:straight rur
Dol.


Maine : 1/10.5
N.H. 12.0
Vt. : ---
Mass. 12.0
R.I. 12.0
Conn. 1/11.0
N.E. :10.9
N.Y. 11.5
N.J. :13.0
Pa. : 1/12.5
M.A. 12.5
Ohio 13.0
Ind. :11.5
Ill. : /13.5
Mich. /13.5
Wis. 11.5
E.N.C. 12.0
Minn. :11.5
Iowa 10.0
Mo. :/ 9.0
Nebr. 16.5
Kans. : 10.0
W.N.C. 9.6
Del. : 1/11.2
Md. 1/10.7
Va. / : 10.0
W.Va. : 1/10.5
N.C. :/ 9.6
S.C. 1/ 10.0
Ga. : / 9.7
Fla. 1/11.0
S.A. : 10.0
Ky. : 9.5
Tenn. 9.7
Ala. : 1/ 9.0
Miss. /8.5
E.S.C. 8.9
Ark. : 1 9.O
La. /10.0
Okla. 12.0
Texas : 1/ 9.4
W.S.C. 9.2
Mont. : 12.5
Idaho : 12.5
Colo. 16.5
Ariz. ---
Utah 12.0
Mount. 12.5
Wash. I/ 12.5
Oreg. 1/ 13.0
Calif. 1 12.0
Hawaii 23.4
Pac. :13.0
U.S. 9.9

I/ As of the 15th of the


Baby chicks, per 100
: Egg-type pullets
: Pure : Incross breeds
: breeds : (hybrids)
Dol. Dol.

32.0 ---
34.0 40.0
32.0 ---
35.0 42.0
32.5 ---
32.0 42.0
33.3 41.6
36.5 52.0
35.5 45.5
36.0 49.5
36.2 49.0
39.0 55.0
32.0 50.0
41.0 53.0
38.0 52.5
32.O 53.0
t .9 52.5
42.0 53.5
40.0 52.5
25.0 54.0
34.0 50.0
36.0 51.0
35.9 53.1

39.0 54.0
40.0 53.0

33.0 48.0
36.0 ---
32.0 48.0
35.0 46.0
34.6 49.6
36.0 45.0
30.0 42.0
35.5 42.0
3.o o45.0
34.6 43.6
36.0 47.o
35.5 ---
31.5 51.0
31.5 52.0
33.7 50.8
38.0 46.0
37.0 ---
35.0 54.0
39.0 41.5
37.0 50.0
37.1 46.2
40.0 40.0
35.0 41.0
31.5 39.5
47.0 ---
33.8 39.6
35.1 47.8


month.


-4-


: Turkey poults, each
Heavy breeds :
: White Other
Ct. Ct.











1/70 1/85
---- ---.








--- 65
52 ---
--o ---
















70 ---

65 60
65 ---



65.5 ---





62 ---



1/60 1/59
--- ---






























61.1 ---









65 60


52.4 60.2
--- ---
1/50 ---
--- ---
--- ---
--- ---
--- ---
--- ---
--- ---
To ---
--- ---

65 ---
--- ---
--- ---

--- ---
--- ---
--- ---
--- ---
--- ---
62 ---
--- ---
--- ---



--- ---
--- --
--- ---


--- --
--- ---


--- --
52.4 60.2


Light
breeds

Ct.













50
50

50

50.0
1742
L/41
Lo45


42.2


44




45
44.5



















40



44.3





Chicks hatched by commercial hatcheries United States 1/

: Ey months : Cumulative
Month : Change from: :Change from
S1962 1963 : last year : 1962 963 : last year


: Thou. Thou. Percent


Thou. Thou. Thou.


Broiler-type
January
February
March
April
May
June
July
A .i i- :;
September
October
November
December

Egg-type
January
February
March
April
May
June
July
August
September
October
November
December

Total chicks
January
February
March
April
May
June
July
August
September
October
November
December


177,386
168,973
209,160
208,269
210,002
192,476
185,702
173,400
160,829
168,927
170,725
171,427


28,339
40,304
78,703
96,696
83,567
38,920
24,437
21,879
21,739
24,577
21,795
21,017


205,725
209,277
287,863
304,965
293,569
231,396
210,139
195,279
182,568
193,504
192,520
192,444


174,990
168,431
199,806
214,879
224,197
205,756
194,262
177,306
159,664
168,849


- 1

- 4
+ 3
+ 7
+ 7
+ 5
+ 2
- 1


31,302
41,731
71,201
94,958
80,844
41,788
28,451
24,710
24,035
25,316


206,292
210,162
271,007
309,837
305,041
247,544
222,713
202,016
183,699
194,165


- 6
+ 2
+ 4
+ 7
+ 6
+ 3
+ 1


1/ Includes Hawaii.


- 5 -


Percent


- 2,396
- 2,938
-12,292
- 5,682
+ 8,513
+21,793
-30,353
+34,259
-33,094
+33,016


177,386
346,359
555,519
763,788
973,790
1,166,266
1,351,968
1,525,368
1,686,197
1,855,124
2,025,849
2,197,276


28,339
68,643
147,346
244,042
327,609
366,529
390,966
412,845
434,584
459,161
480,956
501,973


205,725
415,002
702,865
1,007,830
1,301,399
1,532,795
1,742,934
1,938,213
2,120,781
2,314,285
2,506,805
2,699,249


+ 2,963
+4,390
- 3,112
-4,850
-7,573
- 4,705
691
+ 2,140
- 4,436
+ 5,175


174,990
343,421
543,227
758,106
982,303
1,188,059
1,382,321
1,559,627
1,719,291
1,888,140


31,302
73,033
144,234
239,192
320,036
361,824
390,275
414,985
439,020
464,336


206,292
416,454
-7,461
997,298
1,302,339
1,549,883
1,772,596
1,974,612
2,158,311
2,352,476


+ 567
+ 1,452
-15,4o4
-10,532
+ 940
+17,088
+29,662
+36,399
+37,530
+38,191


-2
- 1

+ 1
+ 2
S2
+ 2
+ 2





Chicken eggs in incubators November 1, 1962


Geographic : Percent change from November 1, 1963
divisions Broiler-type Egg-type : T'tal eggs

New England 2 18 5
Middle Atlantic :- 18 21 1
East North Central 21 -21 6
West North Central 6 6 6
South Atlantic 3 1 3
East South Central 9 i- 9
West South Central -- 6 1 8 -+ 7
Mountain 69 8 -32
Pacific -- 5- 2- 4
48 States -- 1 6 -- 1

United States 1/ 1 6 1

1/ Includes Hawaii.

Poults hatched and turkey eggs in incubators

White : Other : Total :Light
Geographic :heavy breeds 1/ :heavy breeds 1/ :heavy breeds 1/: breeds 1/
divisions 1962 1963 : 1962 : 1963 : 1962 : 1963 :1962 ; 1963

Thou. Thou. Thou. Thou. Thou. Thou. Thou. Thou.
Poults hatched
during October

New England 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Middle Atlantic 0 2 0 4 0 6 0 3
East North Central 140 159 4 4 144 163 47 63
West North Central 555 435 0 0 555 435 203 218
South Atlantic 79 39 80 118 159 157 80 105
South Central 11 25 31 50 42 75 0 0
West : 97 22 21 114 118 136 32 22

United States 882 682 136 290 1,018 972 362 411


Turkey eggs in
incubators
!T:i *eii: r 1

New England 0 9 0 0 0 9 0 0
Middle Atlantic 0 5 2 0 2 5 2 10
East North Central 316 378 10 9 326 387 87 127
West :.:rth i Central 686 706 0 0 686 706 188 273
South Atlantic 228 233 200 256 428 489 188 199
South Central 18 22 48 117 66 139 0 0
West 117 72 9 222 126 294 12 26

United States :1,365 1,425 269 604 1,634 2,029 477 635

See footnote ;.e 8.





Poults hatched by commercial hatcheries United States


SBy months :Cumulative
Month :Change from: 1963 :Change from
: 2 1963 last year : : last year
: Thou. Thou. Pet. Thou. Thou. Th,',u. Pet.
Heavy white


breeds 1/
January
February
March
April
May
June
July
August
September
October
November
December


Other heavy
breeds 1/
January
February
March
April
May
June
July
August
September
October
November
December

Total all
heavy breeds 1
January
February
March
April
May
June
July
August
September
October
November
December


2,012
2,091
4,109
5,329
6,324
4,721
2,874
1,547
968
882
864
1,046



1,169
3,491
9,957
14,126
14,455
8,995
3,143
353
110
136
168
406



3,181
5,582
14,066
19,455
20,779
13,716
6,017
1,900
1,078
1,018
1,032
1,452


1,508
2,594
4,978
5,747
6,196
5,314
2,975
1,401
569
682


1,210
4,402
10,867
13,486
13,245
8,649
3,013
289
159
290





2,718
6,996
15,845
19,233
19,441
13,963
5,988
1,690
728
972


+ 4
+ 26
+ 9
- 5
- 8
- 4
- 4
- 18
+ 45
+113





- 15
+ 25
+ 13
- 1
6
+ 2

- 11
- 32
- 5


2,012
4,103
8,212
13,541
19,865
24,586
27,460
29,007
29,975
30,857
31,721
32,767



1,169
4,660
14,617
28,743
43,198
52,193
55,336
55,689
55,799
55,935
56,103
56,509



3,181
8,763
22,829
42,284
63,063
76,779
82,796
84,696
85,774
86,792
87,824
89,276


1,508
4,102
9,080
14,827
21,023
26,337
29,312
30,713
31,282
31,964


1,210
5,612
16,479
29,965
43,210
51,859
54,872
55,161
55,320
55,610





2,718
9,714
25,559
44,792
64,233
78,196
84,184
85,874
86,602
87,574


- 5o4
- i1
+ 868
+1,286
+1,158
+1,751
+1,852
+1,706
+1,307
+1,107


- 25

+ 11
+ 9
+ 6
+ 7
+ 7
+ 6
+ 4
+ 4


+ 41
+ 952
+1,862
+1,222
+ 12
- 334
- 464
- 528
- 479
- 325





- 463
+ 951
+2,730
+2,508
+1,170
+1,417
+1,388
+1,178
+ 828
+ 782


See footnote page 8.


-7-





UNITED STATES r'FE.FThiiEl'T OF AGRICULTURE
STATISTICAL REPORTING SERVICE
WASHINGTON, D. C. 20250

OFFICIAL BUSINESS


POSTAGE AND FEES PAID
U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

3 1262 08905 2707


Fred R. Tarver, Jr.
Univ. of Florida
11-27-57 Dept. of Poultry Husb.
ML-Ha Gainesville, Fla.


Poults hatched by commercial hatcheries United States
: By months : Cumulative
Month : 196 163 :Change from: 1962 1963 Change from
____ : last year : last year
Thou. Thou. Pet. Thou. Thou. Thou. Pct.
Light breeds 1/:
January 357 605 + 69 357 605 + 248 + 69
February 524 645 + 23 881 1,250 + 369 + 42
March 745 744 --- 1,626 1,994 + 368 + 23
April : 925 912 1 2,551 2,906 + 355 + 14
May : 1,495 1,527 + 2 4,046 4,433 + 387 + 10
June :1,582 1,502 5 5,628 5,935 + 307 + 5
July :1,505 1,568 + 4 7,133 7,503 + 370 + 5
August 1,055 1,046 1 8,188 8,549 + 361 + 4
September : 437 468 + 7 8,625 9,017 + 392 + 5
October : 362 411 + 14 8,987 9,428 + 441 + 5
November : 295 9,282
December : 496 9,778

Total all
breeds 1/
January 3,538 3,323 6 3,538 3,323 215 6
February :6,106 7,641 + 25 9,644 10,964 +1,320 + 14
March : 14,811 16,589 + 12 24,455 27,553 +3,098 + 13
April : 20,380 20,145 1 44,835 47,698 +2,863 + 6
May : 22,274 20,968 6 67,109 68,666 +1,557 + 2
June : 15,298 15,465 + 1 82,407 84,131 +1,724 + 2
July :7,522 7,556 --- 89,929 91,687 +1,758 + 2
August :2,955 2,736 7 92,884 94,423 +1,539 + 2
September : 1,515 1,196 21 94,399 95,619 +1,220 + 1
October :1,380 1,383 --- 95,779 97,002 +1,223 + 1
November :1,327 97,106
December : 1,948 99,054

1/ Heavy white breeds include heavy white-feathered breeds, such as Broad white,
white Holland, Eijiire white, Lancaster, and crosses with light white breeds. All
other heavy breeds are reported under "other". Light breeds include Beltsville,
Jersey Buff, Royal Palm and wild turkeys.


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