Hatchery production

MISSING IMAGE

Material Information

Title:
Hatchery production
Some issues called:
Special ... hatchery report
Physical Description:
v. : ; 22-28 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
United States -- Crop Reporting Board
Publisher:
United States Crop Reporting Board
Place of Publication:
Washington, D.C
Publication Date:
Frequency:
monthly, with special reports
monthly
normalized irregular

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Poultry -- Hatcheries -- Statistics -- Periodicals -- United States   ( lcsh )
Chicks -- Statistics -- Periodicals -- United States   ( lcsh )
Genre:
federal government publication   ( marcgt )
statistics   ( marcgt )
periodical   ( marcgt )

Notes

Dates or Sequential Designation:
Began with: Jan. 1948
Dates or Sequential Designation:
Ceased with Nov. or Dec. 1969.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
oclc - 01781240
lccn - sc 78000027
issn - 0093-0121
ocm01781240
Classification:
ddc - 353
System ID:
AA00010659:00010

Related Items

Preceded by:
Hatchery report
Succeeded by:
Hatchery production, annual revisions
Succeeded by:
Eggs, chickens and turkeys

Full Text










September 1963
0 tober 16, 1963
U.S. DEPOSITORY
Chicks Hatched

Hatcheries in the United States produced 183,699,000 chicks in September--
1 percent more than in September 1962 according to the Crop Reporting Board.
Broiler chicks totaled 159,664,000--a decrease of 1 percent. During the first
9 months of 1963 there were 1,719,291,000 broiler chicks hatched--up 2 percent
from the comparable period in 1962. Broiler-type eggs in incubators on October 1
were down 1 percent from October 1 last year indicating that the broiler hatch
in October may be slightly less than in October 1962.

There were 24,035,000 egg-type chicks hatched in September--ll percent more
than in September 1962. Increases were 33 percent in the East North Central
States, 24 percent in the Mountain, 21 percent in the mid-Atlantic, 14 percent
in the West South Central, 12 percent in the South Atlantic, 7 percent in the
West North Central, 2 percent in the East South Central, and 1 percent in the
Pacific Coast States. A decrease of 13 percent was reported in the New England
States. The number of egg-type eggs reported in incubators on October 1 was
4 percent above the number on October 1 last year indicating a larger egg-type
hatch in October than in October 1962. Egg-type chicks hatched during the months
January through September totaled 439,020,000--up 1 percent from this period in
1962.


Poults Hatched

Heavy breed poults hatched in September totaled 728,000--down 32 percent
from September last year. The hatch of heavy white breeds at 569,000 was 41 per-
cent less than in September 1962. The hatch of other heavy breeds (mostly broad
breasted bronze) totaled 159,000--an increase of 45 percent from the seasonally
small hatch of 110,000 in September last year. Production of light breed poults
totaled 468,000--up 7 percent from September last year. During the period January
through September, the hatch of turkey poults was 95,619,000--an increase of 1
percent from same period in 1962. The January-September hatch of heavy white
breeds was 31,282,000--an increase of 4 percent; other heavy breeds was 55,320,000--
a decrease of 1 percent; and light breeds at 9,017,000 was up 5 percent. The
number of heavy breed eggs in incubators on October 1 was down 21 percent from
October 1 last year indicating a smaller heavy type hatch in October than a year
ago. The number of light breed eggs in incubators on October 1 was the same as
a year ago.


UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
Statistical Reporting Service Crop Reporting Board
Pou 1-1 (10-63) Washington, D. C.





Chicks hatched by commercial hatcheries

State : Broiler-type : Egg-type
and : September : Jan. through September : September


division


Maine
N.H.
Vt.
Mass.& R.I
Conn.
N.E.
N.Y.
N.J.
Pa.
M.A.
Ohio
Ind.
Ill.
Mich.
Wis.
E.N.C.
Minn.
Iowa
Mo.
N.Dak.
S.Dak.
Nebr.
Kans.
W.N.C.
Del.
Md.
Va.
W.Va.
N.C.
S.C.
Ga.
Fla.
S.A.
Ky.
Tenn.
Ala.
Miss.
E.S.C.
Ark.
La.
Okla.
Texas
W.S.C.
Idaho
Colo.
Utah
Mount.
Wash.
Oreg.
Calif.
Pac.
48 States
Hawaii
U.S.


:


F


L


:


1 Massachusetts and Rhode Island combined to avoid disclosing individual operations.
2 To avoid disclosing individual operations West North Central total includes North and
South Dakota. 3/ South Atlantic total includes Delaware and West Virginia. V-Mountain total
includes Montana, Wyoming, New Mexico, and Arizona.
-2-


:*


1962
Thousands
4,781
1,055
2
703
1,990
8, 531
180
124
3,343
3,647
830
3,134
240
470
737
5,411
920
320
4,039


128
2/5,423
6,239
10,345
4,657
324
15,881
1,590
30,425
i1,445
70,906
335
3,430
16,957
11,191
31,913
17,288
1,437
282
8,700
27,707
267
2
120
4/414
903
819
5,035
6,757
160,709
120
160.829


Z


1963
Thousands
4,779
711
2
934
1,397
7,823
135
110
3,437
3,682
800O
2,868
68
480
800
5,016
935
200
4,047


21
160
2/5,363
5,657
11,250
4,080
330
16,289
1,281
28,488
1,247
68,622
190
3,650
17,070
11, 510
32,420
18,129
1,947
282
8, 941
29,299
327
3
97
4/436
1,418
850
4,609
6,877
159,538
126
159.664


Z


, w


Thousands
48,523
9,781
9
6,891
17,768
82,972
3,205
1,732
37,078
42,015
9,160
36,524
3,918
5,260
9,017
63,879
9,327
2,880
50,120


1,092
2,280
2/66,010
59,349
98,639
57,733
4,017
163,013
17,288
308,889
1, s938
724,866
4,115
33,910
167,081
112,306
317,412
184,629
16,432
5,819
102,405
309,285
3,399
172
1,591
4/5,566
12,050
10,553
50 579
73,182
1,685,187
1, 010
1.686.197


Z


S 1903
Thousands
49,603
8,390
40
9,733
14,714
82,480
1,710
1,503
35,575
38,788
8,890
30,132
1,448
4,210
9,059
53,739
9,743
3,415
48,264


1,017
2,245
2/64,886
61,674
110,388
50,862
3,438
170,107
15,732
305,173
13,216
730o890o
3,550
33,600
182,899
119,866
339,915
190,525
22,203
6,072
110,360
329,160
3,749
167
1,439
4/5,642
14,474
9,231
S49,009
72,714
1,718,214
1,077
1,719,291


,


19b2
Thousands
112
183
10
473
588
1,366
850
560
1,110
2,520
800
963
603
370
104
2,840
241
200
439
0
52
58
155
1,145
lSO
120
411

634
329
1,015
1,219
3/3,733
110
395
551
628
1,684
455
84
147
1,426
2,112
75
121
87
4/414
678
242
4,926
5,846
21,660
79
21.719


1963
Thousands
158
166
12
380
477
1,193
1,150
490
1,4o0
3,040
750
1,679
732
510
110
3,781
275
300
325
0
52
52
220
1,224
3/
450

457
373
1,625
1,214
3/4,163
90
275
548
809
1,722
689
57
188
1 47
2,408
49
174
110
4/513
822
213
4,885
5,920
23,964
71
24.05


Z


Z


r


I





Chicks hatched by commercial hatcheries


State Egg-type : To
and :Jan. through September: September
division : 1962 : 1963 : Average 1957-61 : 1962


tal

1963


:Jan. through
: 1962 :


Thou. Thou. Thou. Thou. Thou. Thou. Thou.
Maine 3,251 3,135 -7T36 -~783 -937 51,774 52,738
N.H. 2,694 2,708 1,141 1,238 877 12,475 11,098
Vt. 387 374 16 12 14 396 414
Mass.&R.I./: 8,128 7,163 1,386 1,176 1,314 15,019 16,896
Conn. 7,267 6,999 2,904 2,578 1,874 25,035 21,713
N.E. 21,727 20,379 9,883 9,897 9,016 104,699 102,859
N.Y. 13,050 14,190 1,257 1,030 1,285 16,255 15,900
N.J. 10,985 9,265 1,242 684 600 12,717 10,768
Pa. 25,520 26,154 4,545 4,453 4,837 62,598 61,729
M.A. 49,555 49,609 7,043 6,167 6,722 91,570 88,397
Ohio 21,600 21,376 1,608 1,630 1,550 30,760 30,266
Ind. : 22,430 23,088 4,914 4,097 4,547 58,954 53,220
Ill. : 21,102 19,936 1,063 843 800 25,020 21,384
Mich. : 9,360 9,910 798 840 990 14,620 14,120
Wis. 7,842 7,664 1,192 841 910 16,859 16,723
E.N.C. 82,334 81,974 9,574 8,251 8,797 146,213 135,713
Minn. : 25,883 24,327 470 1,161 1,210 35,210 34,070
Iowa : 36,390 35,350 436 520 500 39,270 38,765
Mo. 15,934 14,101 4,711 4,478 4,372 66,054 62,365

S.Dak. : 10,313 9,967 2
Nebr. : 13,483 12,935 151 73 14,575 13,952
Kans. : 6,710 6,910 276 283 380 8,990 9,155
W.N.C. 110,787 106,224 2/6,075 2/6,568 2/6,587 2/176,797 2/171,110
Del. 3: / 3 3/ 3 /
Md. 1,376 1,594 8,208 10,465 11,291 100,015 111,982
Va. 5,953 5,627 5,402 5,068 4,530 63,686 56,489
W.Va. 3/ 33/ 3/ 3/ 3/ 3/
N.C. 7,833 8,572 10,976 16,515 16,746 170,86 178,679
S.C. 4,957 5,498 1,653 1,919 1,654 22,245 21,230
Ga. : 14,363 18,924 24,297 31,440 30,113 323,252 324,097
Fla. : 11,795 15,253 2,233 2,664 2,461 27,733 28,769
S.A. : 46,893 3/55949 3/58, 15 3/74,639 3/72,785 3/771,759 3/78683
Ky. 2,820 3,089 1,021 445 280 6,935 6,639
Tenn. 6,345 6,185 3,247 3,825 3,925 40,255 39,785
Ala. : 6,088 6,767 11,099 17,508 17,618 173,169 189,666
Miss. 6,209 7,611 7,797 11,819 12,319 118,515 127,477
E.S.C. : 21,462 23,652 23,165 33,597 34,142 338,874 363,567
Ark. 5,666 8,707 10,986 17,743 18,818 190,295 199,232
La. 1,587 1,522 1,498 1,521 2,004 18,019 23,725
Okla. : 3,486 3,472 462 429 470 9,305 9,544
Texas 18,648 19,161 8,588 10,126 10,415 121,053 129,521
W.S.C. 29,387 32,862 21,534 29,819 31,707 338,672 362,022
Idaho : 435 1,357 251 342 376 4,834 5,106
Colo. 1,957 1,956 142 123 177 2,129 2,123
Utah 1,567 1,325 182 207 207 3,158 2,764
Mount. 4/7,720 4/6,965 4/752 4/828 4/949 4/13,286 4/12,607
Wash. 8,926 8,742 1,613 1,581 2,240 20,976 23,216
Oreg. 2,894 2,806 1,062 i,061 1,063 13,447 12,037
Calif. : 52,004 49,039 8,309 9,961 9,494 102,583 98,048
Pac. 63,824 60,587 10,983 12,603 12,797 137,006 133,301
48 States :433,689 438,201 147,424 182,369 183,502 2,118,876 2,156,415
Hawaii : 895 819 185 199 197 1,905 1,896
U.S. 434,584 439,020 147,609 182,568 183,699 2,120,781 2,158,311
1 Massachusetts and Rhode Island combined to avoid disclosing individual operations.
2 To avoid disclosing individual operations West North Central total includes North and
South Dakota. 3/ South Atlantic total includes Delaware and West Virginia. 4/ Mountain total
includes Montana, Wyoming, New Mexico, and Arizona.


-3-


September
1963





Baby chicks and turkey poults: Average prices paid to commercial hatcheries, September 1, 1963

State Baby chicks, per 100 : Turkey poults, each
and Broiler : Egg-type pullets Heavy breeds LIght
division breeds : Pure : Incross breeds : White : Other : reeds
dvson straight run: breeds : (hybrids)hite her reed
Dol. Dol. Dol. Ct. Ct. Ct.

Maine 1/ 10.5 32.0 --- ---
N.H. : 12.0 34.0 40.0 -
Vt. : --- 32.0 --
Mass. 12.0 35.0 42.0 ---
R.I. : 12.0 32.5 --- ---
Conn. :/ 11.0 32.0 42.0 --- --- --
N.E. 10.9 33.1 41.5 -- -- -
N.Y. : 11.5 35.5 52.0 -
N.J. 13.0 35.5 46.0 --- -
Pa. :1/ 12.5 36.5 48.5 1/ 70
M.A. : 12.5 36.0 4.3 --- -
Ohio 12.0 3.0 56.0 69 --- 50
Ind. 11.5 32.5 48.5 66 --- 50
Ill. : 1/ 13.5 41.5 54.0 -- -
Mich. _/ 13.5 37.5 52.0 --- 50
Wis. 11.5 39.0 53.0 53 ---
E.N.C. 11.8 36.3 51.6 53.9 50.0
Minn. 11.5 40.5 53.0 I/ 49 --- 42
Iowa : 10.5 40.0 52.0 --- 40
MO. : / 9.0 28.5 53.0 45
Nebr. 16.5 34.0 49.5 -
Kans. : 10.0 34.0 53.0 ----
W.N.C. : 9.6 35.8 52.6 --- --- 42.
Del. : .0 --- --- --- --- ---
Mi. : / 10.9 39.0 55.0 --- --- ---
Va. / : 10.0 40.0 53.0 70 --- 43
W.Va. 10.5 --- --- --- -
N.C. 9.6 32.5 48.0 65 60 ---
S.c. i/ 9.5 36.0 --- 65 ---
Ga. : / 9.9 32.0 48.0 70 --- 40
Fla. : / 11.5 38.0 45.0 --- --- 45
S.A. 10.1 35.6 49.3 67.8 --- 43.2
Ky. : 9.5 36.0 49.0 --- --- ---
Tenn. 9.1 30.0 42.0 --- --
Ala. : / 8.8 36.0 42.0 -
Miss. : 1/ 8.7 30.0 45.0 ---- ---
E.S.C. 8.8 32.2 45.4 ---
Ark. : 8.85 36.0 47.0 --- --
La. : 9.8 36.0 --- --- --- ---
Okla. 11.0 34.0 51.0 --- ---
Texas : 1/ 9.3 34.0 54.0 / 60 / 59 ---
W.S.C. : 9.0 35.0 52.9 --- ------
Mont. : --- 38.0 4.0 --- ---
Idaho : 12.5 37.5 --- -- --- 50
Colo. : 16.5 35.0 54.0 --- --- ---
Ariz. --- 38.0 43.5 --- --
Utah : 12.0 36.0 50.0-----
Mount. 12.4 37.0 46.5 -- -- -
Wash. 12.5 40.0 40.0 -- -- ---
Oreg. : 12.5 35.0 41.0 --- ---
Calif. : 12.5 32.0 39.5 --- 60 --
Hawaii : 23.6 47.1 --- --- ---
Pac. 13.3 34.1 39.6 --- --- ---
U.S. : 10.0 35.0 47.6 50.7 59.9 44.4


I/ As of the 15th of the month.


-4-




Chicks hatched by commercial hatcheries United States 1/

:By months Cumulative
Month : 1 1963 :Change from: 1962 1963 : Change from
-: : last year : : last year


Broiler-type
January
February
March
April
May
June
July
August
September
October
November
December

Egg-type
January
February
March
April
May
June
July
August
September
October
November
December

Total chicks
January
February
March
April
May
June
July
August
September
October
November
December


: Thou.

:177,386
:168,973
:209,160
:208,269
:210,002
:192,476
:185,702
:173,400
:160,829
:168,927
:170,725
:171,427


: 28,339
: 40,304
S78,703
: 96,696
: 83,567
: 38,920
: 24,437
: 21,879
: 21,739
:24,577
: 21,795
: 21,017


:205,725
:209,277
:287,863
:304,965
:293,569
:231,396
:210,139
:195,279
:182,568
:193,504
:192,520
:192,444


Thou. Percent


- 1

- 4
+ 3
+ 7
+ 7
+ 5
+ 2
- 1


174,990
168,431
199,806
214,879
224,197
205,756
194,262
177,306
159,664


31,302
41,731
71,201
94,958
80,844
41,788
28,451
24,710
24,035


206,292
210,162
271,007
309,837
305,041
247,544
222,713
202,016
183,699


-- 0
- 6
+ 2
+ 4
+ 7
+ 6
+ 3
+ 1


Thou.


177,386
346,359
555,519
763,788
973,790
1,166,266
1,351,968
1,525,368
1,686,197
1,855,124
2,025,849
2,197,276


28,339
68,643
147,346
244,042
327,609
366,529
390,966
412,845
434,584
459,161
480,956
501,973


205,725
415,002
702,865
1,007,830
1,301,399
1,532,795
1,742,934
1,938,213
2,120,781
2,314,285
2,506,805
2,699,249


Thou. Thou. Percent


174,990
343,421
543,227
758,106
982,303
1,188,059
1,382,321
1,559,627
1,719,291


31,302
73,033
144,234
239,192
320,036
361,824
390,275
414,985
439,020


206,292
416,454
687,461
997,298
1,302,339
1,549,883
1,772,596
1,974,612
2,158,311


1/ Includes Hawaii.


- 5 -


- 2,396
- 2,938
-12,292
- 5,682
+ 8,513
+21,793
+30,353
+34,259
+33,094


2,963
4,390
3,112
4,850
7,573
4,705
691
2,140
4,436


+ 567
+ 1,452
-15,404
-10,532
+ 940
+17,088
+29,662
+36,399
+37,530


- 2
- 1

+ 1
+ 2
+ 2
+ 2





Chicken eggs in incubators October 1, 1963


Geographic Percent change from October 1, 1962
divisions Broiler-type Egg-type Total eggs

New England 7 + 10 5
Middle Atlantic 10 8 9
East North Central 10 + 8 4
West North Central 2 + 45 + 5
South Atlantic 3 + 6 3
East South Central + 6 + 16 + 7
West South Central 2 + 12 6
Mountain : +30 9 + 9
Pacific : + 4 8 2
48 States : 1 + 4 1

United States / 1 + 4 1

i1 Includes Hawaii.

Poults hatched and turkey eggs in incubators

White : Other : Total : Light
Geographic :heavy breeds 1/:heavy breeds 1/: heavy breeds 1/: breeds 1/
divisions 1962: 1963: 1962 1963 1962 1963 1962: 1963

:Thou. Thou. Thou. Thou. Thou. Thou. Thou. Thou.
Poults hatched
during September

New England : 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Middle Atlantic 1 2 1 0 2 2 1 0
East North Central 141 106 5 0 146 106 102 86
West North Central 692 429 0 0 692 429 237 244
South Atlantic 25 16 45 58 70 74 78 95
South Central 12 16 49 18 61 34 0 0
West 97 0 10 83 107 83 19 43

United States 968 569 110 159 1,078 728 437 468


Turkey eggs in
incubators
October 1

New England 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Middle Atlantic 0 8 0 3 0 11 0 0
East North Central 231 211 8 8 239 219 80 99
West :l.it:1 Central 925 671 0 0 925 671 267 260
South Atlantic 203 64 182 183 385 247 120 150
South Central 18 26 47 58 65 84 0 0
West 152 39 28 138 180 177 48 6

United States :1,529 1,019 265 390 1,794 1,409 515 515

See footnote page 8.
6 -




Poults hatched by commercial hatcheries United States


:By months Cumulative
Month 1962 1963 :Change from: 1962 1963 : Change from
16: .: last year : : last year
Thou. Thou. Pet. Thou. Thou. Thou. Pet.
Heavy white
breeds 1
January : 2,012 1,508 25 2,012 1,508 504 25
February 2,091 2,594 + 24 4,103 4,102 1 ---
March : 4,109 4,978 + 21 8,212 9,080 + 868 + 11
April 5,329 5,747 + 8 13,541 14,827 +1,286 + 9
May : 6,324 6,196 2 19,865 21,023 +1,158 + 6
June 4,721 5,314 + 13 24,586 26,337 +1,751 + 7
July : 2,874 2,975 + 4 27,460 29,312 +1,852 + 7
August : 1,547 1,401 9 29,007 30,713 +1,706 + 6
September 968 569 41 29,975 31,282 +1,307 + 4
October 882 30,857
November 864 31,721
December 1,046 32,767

Other heavy
breeds 1/
January 1,169 1,210 + 4 1,169 1,210 + 41 + 4
February 3,491 4,402 + 26 4,660 5,612 + 952 + 20
March 9,957 10,867 + 9 14,617 16,479 +1,862 + 13
April :14,126 13,486 5 28,743 29,965 +1,222 + 4
May :14,455 13,245 8 43,198 43,210 + 12 ---
June : 8,995 8,649 4 52,193 51,859 334 1
July 3,143 3,013 4 55,336 54,872 464 1
August : 353 289 18 55,689 55,161 528 1
September 110 159 + 45 55,799 55,320 479 1
October : 136 55,935
November : 168 56,103
December : 406 56,509

Total all
heavy breeds 1/:
January : 3,181 2,718 15 3,181 2,718 463 15
February : 5,582 6,996 + 25 8,763 9,714 + 951 + 11
March : 14,066 15,845 + 13 22,829 25,559 +2,730 + 12
April :19,455 19,233 1 42,284 44,792 +2,508 + 6
May :20,779 19,441 6 63,063 64,233 +1,170 + 2
June 13,716 13,963 + 2 76,779 78,196 +1,417 + 2
July 6,017 5,988 --- 82,796 84,184 +1,388 + 2
August 1,900 1,690 11 84,696 85,874 +1,178 + 1
September : 1,078 728 32 85,774 86,602 + 828 + 1
October : 1,018 86,792
November : 1,032 87,824
December : 1,452 89,276


See footnote page 8.


-7-




UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POSTAGE AND FEES PAID


STATISTICAL REPORTING SERVICE
WASHINGTON, D. C. 20250


OFFICIAL BUSINESS


U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

3 1262 08905 2558


Fred R. Tarver. Jr.
Univ. of Florida
11-27-57 Dept. of Poultry Husb.
ML-Ha Gainesville, Fla.


Poults hatched by counemcial hatcheries United States
SBy months .Cumulative
CMonth : fr, : '* Change from
: lt ye r 192 : 1'3 last year
: Thou. Tho.u ct Thou. Thou Thou. Pet.
Light breeds 1/:
January 35 605 -- '.9 357 605 + 243 + 69
February : 52 645 23 881 1,250 369 + 42
March : 744 -- 1,626 1,994 + 3 6 + 23
April 92 912 1 2,551 2,906 + 355 + 14
ay : 1,495 1.527 :- 2 4,046 4,433 + 387 + 10
June 1,5 1,502 5 5.62 5,935 + 307 + 5
July : 1,505 1,56:1 + 4 7,133 7,503 + 370 + 5
AufKstt 1.55 1,046. 1 8,1883 ,549 -+ 361 + 4
September 4 4,8. + ,625 9,017 + 392 + 5
Cctober : 362 8,'97
H november 2 2. 9,232
December 49',: 9,778

Total all
breeds 1/
January 3,53 3,323 3,538 3,323 215 6
February 6 1:. 7,641 + 25 9,644 10,964 +1.320 + 14
:arc, .14,311 1o, 589 + 12 24,455 27,553 3,0983 + 13
April 20,30 20,145 1 44,35 47,698 +2, ':.3 + 6
May .22,274 20,910 6 67,109 '68,66 +1.557 + 2
June 15,293 15,465 + 1 82,407 84,131 +1,724 + 2
July 7,522 7,556 -- 9,929 91,07 +1,758 + 2
August :2,955 2,736 7 92,884 94, 23 +1,539 + 2
September : 1,515 1,196 21 94,399 95,19 +1,220 + 1
October :1,30' 95,779
IkHvember : 1,2 97.10
December : 1,93 99,054

1i Heavy white breeds include heavy 'Iite-feathered breeds, such as Broad white,
whitee Holland, Empire unite, Lancaster, and crosses with light uhite breeds. All
other hea'-y breeds ,re reported under "other". Light breeds include Beltsville,
Jersey Buff, Royal Pali and build turl-eys.


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