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The story of a West Indian policeman

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Material Information

Title:
The story of a West Indian policeman or, Forty- seven years in the Jamaica constabulary
Added title page title:
West Indian policeman
Forty-seven years in the Jamaica constabulary
Physical Description:
viii, 416 p., 15 leaves of plates : ill., map, ports. ; 20 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
Thomas, Herbert T
Publisher:
Thomas?
Place of Publication:
Kingston, Jamaica
Manufacturer:
Gleaner Co.
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Police -- Biography -- Jamaica   ( lcsh )
Crime -- Jamaica   ( lcsh )
History -- Jamaica   ( lcsh )
Description and travel -- Jamaica   ( lcsh )
Herbert Theodore Thomas
Genre:
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
autobiography   ( marcgt )

Notes

Statement of Responsibility:
by Herbert T. Thomas.
Biographical:
Herbert Theodore Thomas was born 6 June 1856 in Jamaica, and died in 1930. Author of Untrodden Jamaica (1890; http://www.dloc.com/AA00020116/ ) & The story of a West Indian Policeman-47 years in the Jamaica Constabulary (1927; http://www.dloc.com/AA00010421/ ).

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
Per Internet Archive posting (http://archive.org/details/TheStoryOfAWestIndianPoliceman) this text is in the Public Domain.
Resource Identifier:
oclc - 24201661
ocm24201661
System ID:
AA00010421:00001


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Photo by Young, Falmouth
THE AUTHOR, AGED 67.







THE STORY OF


A WEST INDIAN POLICEMAN



Oa


FORTY-SEVEN YEARS
IN

THE JAMAICA CONSTABULARY


BV
HERBtERT T, THOMAS
LATE INSPECTOR IN THAT FORCED
(AUTHOR OF UNTRODDEN JAMAItA."







Printcgd b
EHm GLEANBB CO., ID.)
kINGSTON, JAMAICAI
102T.








iV






AITIN
AMERICA







CONTENTS.


Page
AUTHOR'S PREFACE .... .... ... V
CHAPTER I.-INTRODUCTORY .... .... 1
CHAPTER II.-THE COUNTRY .... .... 7
CHAPTER III.- CLIMATE AND NATURAL HISTORY 15
CHAPTER IV.-THE ProPLE .... .... 21
CHAPTER V.-THE STORY .... .... 34
CHAPTER VI -THE STORY, CONTINUED .... 45
CHAPTER VII.- ,, .... 59
CHAPTER VIII.- ,, .... 68
CHAPTER IX.- ,, ,, .... 75
CHAPTER X.- ,, ,, .... 91
CHAPTER XI.-TTIE MONTEGO BAY RIOTS .... 110
CHAPTER XII.-THIE AFTERMATH .... 128
CHAPTER XIII.-STUDIES IN PSYCHOLOGY .... 145
CHAPTER XIV.-THE STORY CONTINUED .... 169
CHAPTER XV.- ,, .... 198
CHAPTER XVI.-THE END OF THE STORY .... 224
CHAPTER XVII -THE MAROONS .... 269
CHAPTER XVIII.-THE MAROONS, CONTINUED 297
CHAPTER XIX -OB' AH .... .... 313
CHAPTER XX.-THE JAMAICA POLICEMAN .... 338
CHAPTER XXI.-THE RACE QUESTION .... 361
CHAPTER XXII.-ODDs AND ENDS .... 378
AFTERTH1OUGHTS ... .... 412










INDEX TO ILLUSTRATIONS.


THE AUTHOR, AGED 67 .... .... Frontispiece
Facing Page
ONE OF "THE GLORIOUS DEAD" .... .... 5
THE BLUE HOLE .... ..... 11
GROUP OF OFFICERS AT EXHIBITION .... 69
THE SQUARE, MONTEGO BAY .... ... 112
THE BATTERED POLICE STATION, MONTEGO BAY 112
BRIDGE OVER CREEK, AND HOUSE FIRED INTO 137
SOME OF THE LADY RIOTERS .... .... 137
WAITING AT RAILWAY STATION TO SEE RIOTERS PASS 140
GUARD PARADING FOR COURT .... .... 140
POLICE TENT IN STATION YARD .... ... 155
MARCHING TO COURT .... .... 155
THE AUTHOR AGED GO .... .... 212
COLONIAL OFFICE DELEGATION AT FALMOUTH 237
THE AUTHOR AGED 67 .... .... 249
THE HON. HUGH CLARKE, CUSTOMS OF WESTMORELAND 267
PARADE AT SUTTON STREET S.C. FOR G.O.C. TROOPS 338
GUARD AT SUTTON STREET .... .... 360
MAP OF JAMAICA .... .... End.











AUTHOR'S PREFACE.
There's a chiel' amang us takin' notes,
And, faith, he'll prent 'em.
Burns.
There was a time when I never thought of "pren-
tin," a book; although I had, unconsciously, been
"takin' notes" in a very accurate and retentive memory
for many years. In my school days I was always at
the top of my class in history, owing to the possession
of such a memory-particularly with respect to dates;
and some sixteen years ago, a young Englishman, M.A.
of Cambridge, who came to this country as a school-
master, and became very friendly with me, told me that
it was a duty which I owed to the inhabitants of this
island to write a book on my experiences in the police
force as soon as I should have retired. I pondered this
suggestion; and then it gradually dawned upon me
that to comply with it was a duty which I owed to my-
self. I accordingly began to unload my memory on
paper, and continued to do so; chronicling all subse-
quent events up to my last day in the service, and col-
lecting necessary documents.
The reader may therefore rest assured that every
statement of fact which this book contains is absolu-
tely correct in the main. There may of course be
some errors in regard to matters of unimportant de-
tail in connection with the occurrences of the remote
past; but there are no men-or precious few-now
alive to check these. When I come to review it, I
find the death list of those who were contemporary
with me very saddening. If I were to relate all
I know about the people and the government of Ja-
maica, and to make a complete record of my own offi-
cial experiences, I could fill at least two other volumes
of the same size as this one. As it is I am confident






AUTHOR'S PREFACE


that many of the facts which I have set down will come
as a startling revelation to the public of my country.
Stationed in all parts of the island for forty-seven
years as I have been, and being now on the verge of
celebrating my golden jubilee as a member of the Ja-
maica Club, I have become a walking encyclopaedia of
Jamaica family histories-even those of the few with
whom I am personally unacquainted. Having thus
selected my material, I began to write my story as soon
as I had settled down in Kingston; but with a spirit
crushed and clouded by the misfortunes attendant on
the close of my career, and further smitten by the
financial disaster recorded in the last chapter, my
literary work was produced with great mental effort,
was not spontaneous, and did not do me justice.
However, I sent the M. S. to England, where
friends of mine tried to place it with half-a-dozen dif-
ferent publishers. These all gave the same reply:
that they were unwilling to undertake publication as
a speculation, because my subject was not of sufficient
general interest, being too local in its purview. My
friend Mr. Algernon Aspinall of the W. I. Committee
advised me to try the Gleaner Company, with the view
of publishing locally. This was after the M. S. had
been over a year in England; and when it was returned
to me, having regained my normal mentality, I re-
vised, and practically re-wrote, the book, extending it
to nearly twice its original size. I decided to do so,
as will be seen, in the intimate and familiar style
which suits a small community, where everybody
knows everybody else, and in which I am probably
known, either personally or by reputation, to more
persons than any other individual man in it. In fact I
have not hesitated to bare my very soul; and I do here-
with commend my work to "The charity which thinketh
no evil."
There will doubtless be some who will say that I
have written too much about myself. To that I would
reply that it is my story, isn't it? And must I not
therefore of necessity loom large in it? And if I am







AUTHOR'S PREFACE


held to have erred in that direction, will you not make
some allowance for the garrulity which is so often at-
tendant on old age? And will you not also excuse, as
pardonable vanity of an old man, the desire to reveal to
a younger generation-of policemen especially-
"which knew not Joseph," (like the new king over
Egypt in the first chapter of Exodus), what manner of
man was in his youth the venerable ruin they now see
tottering about the streets of Kingston?
Others again may find fault with my language, as
being unnecessarily strong, or bitter. With regard to
the first, I claim to be in good company; for has not an
eminent critic declared that such a literary light as
Thomas Carlyle "thought in a passion"? At any rate
my language can, I submit, claim the merit of being
entirely devoid of all ambiguity, and that no sane per-
son can fail to understand it. As regards the bitter-
ness, I venture to think that in view of the treatment
meted out to me, and of the misfortunes which have be-
fallen me, as depicted in these pages, I should have
been either very much more than human, or less than
human, if the iron had not deeply entered my soul
even before I reached middle age. I do not think I
need do more to justify the bitterness than refer to the
separation from my near and dear ones, resulting from
that treatment, from March 1902 until to-day-with
exception of two short months in 1909: separation on
which in five cases the hand of death has already set
the seal of eternity. So much for my countrymen, by
birth and adoption!
With regard to the strangers from overseas into
whose hands this book may fall, I cherish the hope that
they will find in it sufficient to attract them apart from
my personal concerns. But I also make bold to foresee
that many of them-generous, good-natured and kind-
ly-hearted folk as I know them to be in the main-
will be induced to take a human interest in the writer
as well.
For being able to meet the financial requirements
attendant on the publication of the book, I have to


. VII






VilI AUfTOR'S PREFACI

thank various fellow officers of the police, and of other
branches of the public service, as well as friends out-
side, who obtained subscribers for me. But most of all
am I indebted to that shining example to the men of
the Jamaica Constabulary, Sergeant-Major Black, for
his unwearying and successful efforts in that direction
among the members of the force.
HERBERT T. THOMAS.
R Geffrard Place,
Kingston, Jamaica,
December, 1926,






INTRODUCTORY.


Chapter 1.
INTRODUCTORY.

This book is intended in the first instance for the
inhabitants of the Island of Jamaica and for persons
connected with, or interested in the colony; then for the
residents of other West Indian countries; and lastly
for such of the members of the great British public as
may be desirous to extend their knowledge of Great
Britain Beyond the Seas, of which this little island
forms a small, but by no means insignificant or unin-
teresting portion.
There was a time when the general public knew
nothing about Jamaica except that it was celebrated
for the excellence of its rum; but those days are, I
think, past; although no doubt the advertisement of
that product which has been so widely broadcasted by
means of the 'Planters' Punch" at Wembley will re-
vive the recollection. A good deal has been written
about the island in recent years, chiefly in the line of
articles in magazines and newspapers. Scenes from
Jamaica have also been incidentally introduced into
novels dealing with tropical life. Some of the writers
of these have been globe-trotters of the same type as
Kipling's "Paget, M.P." Others have suffered from
lack of sufficient knowledge, and from a credulity
which seems almost child-like; among these the Ameri-
cans easily taking the first place. Others again have
written under the influence of a complaint to which I
have given the name of "Tropicalitis." This is a men-






A WEST INDIAN POLICEMAN.


tal disease, brought on by the glamour of the eternal
summer, the constant sunshine, the luxuriance of the
vegetation, the flashing and murmuring streams, the
blue, blue waves breaking on the coral beaches, and the
witchery of the mellow moonlight; all of which tend
to obfuscate reasoned judgment and sense of propor-
tion. Even a writer of the calibre of J. A. Froude suc-
cumbed to this influence when he set down in his
"Bow of Ulysses" the statement that the light of the
fireflies was carried in lanterns hung at the ends of
their antennae.
Another and more recent case of this complaint
was presented by an American lady who visited the is..
land on a honeymoon trip, in a yacht bearing the ex-
traordinary name of "Speejacks." On returning home
she described Kingston, in writing a survey of her
trip for the American press, as "a city of unusual
beauty." Certainly, if Kingston may be described as
possessing any "beauty," "unusual" becomes a most
fitting term wherewith to qualify such a description.
Yet another, and still more recent case is that of
the "educated and travelled Englishman," who was
stated by a reporter in the columns of the Gleaner to
have called Kingston "the cleanest city he had ever
seen." It is difficult to imagine a case of "tropicalitis"
exhibiting more virulent symptoms than this; and no
doubt this gentleman's description of our metropolis
must have administered a severe shock to the intelli-
gent residents.
Lastly, there is the disgruntled writer who, hav-
ing from the very first moment of his landing struck
an inharmonious note, takes a savage pleasure in
heaping calumny on the country and its inhabitants;






INTRODUCTORY.


exaggerating the unpleasant aspects which undoubt-
edly do offer themselves to a sensitive observer, and re-
fusing to see any redeeming feature in anything. The
most shining exemplar of this type of writer is one
Keith-Jopp, who recently published a novel, the scene
of which is laid in Jamaica, and which has obviously
been written with a pen dipped in gall of the bitterest
quality.
I think, however, that I am on firm ground when
I claim that this book of mine is written from an en-
tirely novel, original and unique standpoint, which is
fully explained in the title; and it is scarcely neces-
cary for me to say that all the facts therein set down
are either taken from my own personal experience, or
supported by unimpeachable evidence. No doubt the
truths thus recorded will be unpalatable to some peo-
ple; but I have always had the courage of my opinions
-perhaps in too marked a degree for my own com-
fort while in the public service-and I am not likely
to show the white feather now that I have shaken off
the shackles of official life.

Most Jamaicans are, as the editor of our one daily
paper frequently reminds them, inclined to be thin-
skinned, and to resent the telling of unpleasant truths
about their country. This has come to be known
as "Knocking" Jamaica; and they object to
its being done by any one who is not a native
of the island. They suffer from a conceit which makes
it difficult for them to realise what an infinitesimal
and insignificant scrap of the great world Jamaica
is; and they lose sight of that immortal couplet of the
poet Burns:-






A WEST INDIAN POLICEMAN.


"Oh, wad some power the giftie gie us
To see ourselves as others see us."
Some negroes of the baser sort nowadays even
have the effrontery to refer to Englishmen as "foreig-
ners;" while others seem to cherish some dream of
the possibility of creating a "nation," as they put it,
out of the many heterogeneous and conflicting ele-
ments which constitute the population of their little
country.
Some even during a recent election of a member
.e the Kingston and St. Andrew Corporation carried
their impudence to the length of trying to induce the
electors not to vote for a certain candidate, because he
was an Englishman, forsooth! It is pleasing to record,
however, that the voters had sufficient good sense to
return this "foreigner" over the head of his Jamaican
rival by a substantial majority; the said "foreigner"
being a man who had spent the greater part of his
lite in the country; had married into a Jamaica fam-
ily; and had rendered yeoman service to the city of
Kingston in a public capacity.
This last symptom is a noxious weed of recent
growth; and I do not recollect its pushing its ugly head
above ground on any previous occasion. It is no doubt
a sample of the tares among the wheat which are being
sedulously sown by a certain Association, which is dealt
v.ith in a subsequent chapter. But the above is more
or less a digression; and I hasten to take up the thread
once more.
Nothing, however, in the shape of objection on
the score of nationality can possibly be levelled at me.
Not only am I a Jamaican, in the third generation, but
I have served my native country in the capacity of an











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ONE OF "THE GLORIOUS DEAD." (TALANA FARM
CEMETERY, BELGIUM).







INTRODUCTORY.


officer of police for upwards of forty-seven years-a
period which in point of time alone constitutes a record,
as far as my knowledge goes-and that with loyalty
and zeal, which may have been equalled but never sur-
.passed, and efficiency such as those who read my book
will be able to appraise for themselves.
In addition to that my humble family of Jamaicans
holds the record of the entire British West India Colo-
nies for service to and sacrifice for the Empire. I
had five sons, all of whom served in the Great War,
on land, at sea, and in the air. For the eldest of them
it was his second campaign, as he had enlisted in Eng-
land during the Boer war from Bedford school as a
trooper in Baden-Powell's South African Constabu-
lary, and served through the last fifteen months of
that campaign, earning the King's medal with five
clasps. Of the five the three eldest were killed in
action during the war in consecutive years; two in
France, and one in East Africa; while the fifth and
youngest, who had passed through the whole war in
the Air service without a scratch, perished after nearly
three years of peace in' the disaster which occurred at
Hull in 1921 to the airship R 38. Of the five two were
decorated: the second with the Distinguished Service
Cross for his part in the Suvla Bay landing at Galli-
poli; while the youngest was awarded the Distinguish-
ed Flying Cross for sinking a German submarine in
the North Sea, with all hands a few weeks before the
armistice.
In addition to my own direct descendants my only
brother's only child, my one nephew, who won the Ja-
maica Rhodes scholarship of 1913, received a com-
mission at Oxford in the Royal Field Artillery on the







A WEST INDIAN POLICEMAN.


raising of "Kitchener's Army," and served to within
two months of the Armistice, when he was invalided
home.
Such is the record of myself and my humble fam-
ily; and if on the face of that I may not regard my-
Lelf as entitled to express my opinions respecting my
native country and its inhabitants "without fear,
favour or affection," I should like to know who else
may.
In judging my work I would ask the reader to
bear in mind that, as we are all more or less the play-
things of circumstance and environment, the various
unpleasant, unique, and sometimes tragic experiences
of my life set down in these pages-as well as many
others which do not appear therein, this not being by
any means a complete autobiography-have had the
effect of gradually converting an ingenuous and con-
fiding youth, brimming over with the milk of human
kindness, into a cynic, a sceptic, a pessimist, and very
nearly a misanthrope, long before I reached the age of
seventy.
Finally, I deeply regret that so very many of the
contemporary witnesses of the events herein record-
ed; and of persons spoken of generally, have in the
natural order of things passed over to the great ma-
jority; and that I have been consequently sometimes
under the necessity of speaking unkindly of the dead.
But in my opinion de mortuis nil nisi verum is just as
good a maxim as the same one ending in bonum. If
that were not the case, then posterity has dealt very
unkindly with such persons as Nero, Judas Iscariot,
and the late Dr. Crippen, for instance.







THE COUNTRY.


Chapter II.
THE COUNTRY.

The island of Jamaica is situated in the Caribbean
Sea between 17 and 18 degrees north of the Equator,
and is third of the West Indian islands in point of
size. It is about 144 miles in length, and its width
varies from 50 to 22 miles; while its total area is 4,200
square miles. It lies sprawling on the bosom of the
waters, in shape very much like an alligator; and it
consists, roughly speaking, of a backbone of mountain
running along its entire length from east to west, with
countless subsidiary ridges branching off at every con-
ceivable angle down to the sea. Of its 4,200 square
miles of area only about 2,000-or little less than half
-lie at less than 1,000 feet above sea-level; while in
the Blue Mountain range at the eastern end of the is-
land the highest peak attains an altitude of 7,450 feet.
This entire range is clothed with profuse vegetation
ip to the very summit. There are no bleak and bar-
ren peaks standing aloft. All are clad with a mantle
of dense virgin forest, of so dark a verdure as to
lend the tint of deep azure which has earned for the
highest range the name of "Blue Mountains." In
nearly every cleft of this mass of mountain there is
running water, especially in the east and north.
Streams roar and babble over rocks, boulders, and
pebbles under the shade of forest trees; or, in the
Limestone regions, burrow their course underground,
flashing out now and then for a brief space into the







A WEST INDIAN POLICEMAN.


light of day, and uniting to form rivers which flow
into the sea on the north or south sides of the island.
Owing to the precipitous formation of their beds only
two of these rivers are navigable for any distance
from their mouths. The larger of these is the Black
River in the parish of St. Elizabeth, which is used as
a water highway to the sea for some thirty miles of
iis course. The immediate neighbourhood of this river
also affords the supreme illustration of the process
of underground percolation mentioned above, in the
existence of some 60,000 acres of morass, all the water
of which is fresh and thickly grown with reeds and
other aquatic vegetation; and, most remarkable of all,
possessing the only lake in the island. This is a body of
pure, sweet water, fed by several springs issuing from
the adjacent hills. It is one mile in length, and covers
an area of about 100 acres, partially clothed with
water-lilies, and of enormous depth. It discharges
with a steady flow on the southern side through an
adjoining morass into the sea, which is about a mile
away. So little is the existence of this lake known that
I found scores of people living in the parish, and be-
longing to the better educated classes, who had never
heard of it until I told them.
There are in various other localities ponds and
lagoons of salt or brackish water, but none of them
approach in size this inexhaustible reservoir of the
pure liquid which I have described. It is situated only
five miles from the town of Black River; but owing to
the surroundings the only purpose which it so far
serves is to furnish the water supply for the scattered
negro settlements lying in the vicinity.
The average untravelled Jamaican is fond of as-







THE COUNTRY.


serting that his island is "the most beautiful country
in the world," being quite unable to realise what a
very large order that is; and his judgment is not in-
frequently endorsed by casual visitors suffering un-
der the influence of what I have described as "Tropica-
litis."
Certainly there are gems of scenery here and
there that will bear comparison with almost any of
the beauty spots of the world. Many of these how-
ever are entirely off the beaten tracks, and are only
seen by persons with a love for exploration, such as
I used to be in the days of my youth. I have describ-
ed several of them in my little book "Untrodden Ja-
maica," published in 1891.
It is a curious thing that the indigenous vegetation
of the immediate neighbourhood of Kingston, the gate-
way of the island, is of a distinctly unlovely and repel-
lent description. The soil however is of a wonderful-
ly responsive nature, and with the aid of irrigation
can be made to grow anything, as the gardens prove;
but the native vegetation consists entirely of the
scrubby and prickly growths which one associates with
a desert country, save and except the lignum vitae
trees, with their beautiful blossoms. The very grass
scarcely conceals the bare earth. This kind of scenery
extends, roughly speaking, from the sea on the south,
eastward to the village of White Horses in St. Thomas,
and westward as far as Porus, except where the irri-
gation system has made the environment of the railway
line about Spanish Town to blossom like the rose.
The whole of the south side along the coast line
is not to be compared with the north in point of beauty,
if we except the southern slopes of the Blue Mountains






A WEST INDIAN POLICEMAN.


and the rocky gorge known as the Bog Walk, through
which the Rio Cobre has carved its way to the sea.
But beginning at the village of White Horses already
mentioned, right round the east end and along the
whole north coast to Lucea, the most westerly town,
the views are practically an unmixed delight.
Of course in a country of such a mountainous na-
ture there are great varieties of climate. It is a far
cry from the torrid zone and the malodorous mangrove
swamps of the south coast to the delicious and exhilar-
ating air of the Blue Mountains. I could take you from
foetid lagoons, across the depths of whose brown
waters the roots of the mangrove straddle like giant
spiders, to river glades where blaze scarlet clumps of
the single Amaryllis lily; to swelling pastures where
but for the arching plumes of the graceful bamboo and
an occasional giant cotton tree, you might easily
imagine yourself in a bit of English grazing country.
I could take you higher still, and show you dogroses
and blackberries growing by the wayside; red and
yellow gladiolus blooming among the coffee trees; and
hedges of scarlet geranium three feet high encircling
gardens filled with nothing but English blossoms. We
could go higher still, and feast on wild strawberries
until our teeth were on edge, and perhaps obtain a few
luscious peaches. There are coves of sparkling water
fringed with coral beaches where maidenhair fern
clothes the rocks down to the water's edge, its delicate
fronds often seared with the salt sea spray.
And there are rocky gorges where the mountain
torrent roars and flashes along a hundred feet below
the path, while the stately tree-ferns nod and whisper
overhead, amid clusters of pink and white begonias

























L-



































Photo by N. dcMontahgnac.
THE BLUE HOLE, PORTLAND.







THE COUNTRY.


and wreaths of crimson ipomoea. Then at eve, with
your day's wandering at an end, you may listen to the
gurgling chorus of the bullfrogs and the chirp of the
crickets, and watch the fireflies flit in and out among
the branches, while the land-breeze rustles the leaves of
the tall coconut palms, and the silver moon, adding to
the witchery of the tepid, languorous night, floods the
landscape and the murmuring wavelets of the sea at
your feet with a mellow light.
I once, many years ago, attempted to embody
these impressions in verse, which I now venture to in-
flict upon the reader.

A DREAM OF JAMAICA.
Island of forest dark and silver stream!
Thy stately mountains at the dawning's gleam
Tower o'er the restless wave that beats thy shore
With creamy crest, and sullen, ceaseless roar.
Clothing their peaks in cloud, they calmly gaze
Into the opal East, and wait the rays
That soon shall steal across the dimpled deep
To rouse their many-tinted world from sleep.
Lo! how on peak and ridge, in dark ravine
Leaps into life anew the forest green;
Rose-red and purple, blue and golden, glow
The mist-wreathed heights above, the plains below;
There, where the torrent's rush yon dark rocks
stem,
Hangs o'er the fall a rainbow diadem:
A dream of beauty, wrought by magic hand,
From sombre mountain peak to silver strand.

The tropic day wears on; the unpitying sun







A WEST INDIAN POLICEMAN.


O'er hill and plain a fiery course doth run;
Then, slowly sinking to his ocean bed,
Paints the whole western sky in flaming red.
Mark how the scarred and furrowed hillsides throw
Their answering signal to his parting glow.
Now gold, now orange, last a crimson bright
Kisses the dying sun a fond good-night,
And night-mists kind from out the valleys steal
The sun-seared hill and thirsting plain to heal.
The land-breeze sighs down the gorges deep
And lulls the fretful waves to tuneful sleep.

The short-lived twilight fades, night's shadows fall,
And darkness shrouds thee with a scented pall.
The sweetest incense wreathes thy slumbers soft;
Of trumpet-flower and of night-jasmine waft
Abroad the forest winds the fragrance rare,
And circle thee around with perfumed air.
The golden moon uprising pours on thee
A mellow radiance, which more tenderly
Embraces thee than ever was caressed
The maid close clinging to her lover's breast.
Look where yon creeping cactus tangles droop
From tree to tree, of wanton maids a troop
Night-blooming cereus clusters boldly bare
Their virgin charms, unblushing, to the glare
Of amorous moonbeams for their one sweet night
Of passion that shall die with morning's light.

Island of forest dark and silver stream!
I fain amid thy whispering woods would dream,
Down in their ferny hollows soft and warm,
My life away in their mysterious charm.






THE COUNTRY.


Oft have I roamed thy silent forests through,
Heard the green parrot scream, the blue-dove coo;
Oft have I listened while the solitaire
Thrilled with his plaintive note the mountain air;
Oft have I by the camp-fire's fitful light
Hearkened the solemn voices of the night.
Often have I by fern-bowered waterfall,
Lurking neath moss-clad trunks and tree-ferns tall
Thought that amid such scenes 'twere sweet to lay
Me down to rest, and end life's weary day.

It is an undeniable fact that the numbers of tour-
ists from temperate climes who visit Jamaica during
the winter months do not see the country at its best;
although of course at that season the climate is more
endurable. It is the very driest time of the year, es-
pecially during the droughts which have been so per-
sistent of late. All vegetation is more or less athirst;
and most of the deciduous trees, among them the
graceful feathery bamboo, are almost leafless. The
full glory of leaf and flower comes at a later period.
These visitors-if they arrive early enough-may see
the pale gold of the logwood blossom covering count-
less acres, at the west end of the island especially, and
smell its honeyed sweetness; but they do not see the
pink clouds of the dogwood, or inhale the fragrance
of sweetwood, ackee or guinep, and other flowering
trees. They miss the divine aroma of the coffee and
the pimento blossom; which latter is such a marked
feature of that part of the island where it grows most
profusely, that it finds a place in the chronicles re-
cording the discovery of Jamaica by Columbus in May
1494 and his landing at St. Ann's Bay. The pimento






A WEST INDIAN POLICEMAN.


grows in greater quantities in the parish of St. Ann
than anywhere else in the island, and May is the month
of its blooming. There must have been whole forests
of it growing there in 1494; and it is easy for us even
at this day to imagine how the whole atmosphere
must have been laden with the divine fragrance
which was borne seaward by the land-breeze and to
the Spanish ships lying at anchor off the coast.
Politically, the whole island is divided into four-
teen parishes, which practically correspond to the coun-
ties in England. Each has its chief town, in which
are situated the offices of the different public depart-
ments: courts, revenue, medical, police, etc., and each
has a body which carries out the functions of the local
government board for administering the internal af-
fairs of the parish. Kingston, the capital of the island,
forms a parish by itself, and contains the seat of gov-
ernment and the headquarters of all the various de-
partments of the public service. All these divisions
are fully illustrated by the map inserted in the book.





CLIMATE AND NATURAL HISTORY.


Chapter III.
CLIMATE AND NATURAL HISTORY.

There are even now-although rapidly on the de-
crease-many erroneous ideas prevailing in England
about the climate of Jamaica; ideas for which sucn
stories as "Tom Cringle's Log," "The Cruise of The
Midge" and some of Captain Marryat's novels are
chiefly responsible. These books breathe an atmos-
phere permeated by rum and yellow fever: a hectic
life of riot and debauchery, terminating in swift death
by Yellow Jack. They may have been faithful pic-
tures of Jamaica life in the latter part of the 18th
and early in the 19th centuries, but they have long
ceased to be such. I think I am correct in asserting
that the dreaded yellow fever-of which two serious
outbreaks have occurred within my own recollection
-never was indigenous to, or endemic in the island,
but was always brought here from Cuba, or Central
or South America. And now the origin of the dis-
ease has been so thoroughly ascertained, and the
science of sanitation has reached such a pitch of per-
fection, that the very name of yellow fever is never
mentioned any more.
In the year 1889 the officer who was then at the
head of the Army Medical Department, as it was
called in those days, compiled statistics dating from
1817, the first year in which available records could be
found, up to 1889. His investigations showed that
whereas the death-rate among the troops from 1817






A WEST INDIAN POLICEMAN.


to 1836 was 121.3 per thousand, in the last decade of
the period under review, namely from 1880 to 1889,
it had been reduced to 11.36 or just one-eleventh of
what it had been in the first twenty years. And this
calculation, be it remembered, includes deaths from
all causes, and has no particular reference to fevers
or any other distinctively tropical diseases. I am not
aware whether any similar statistics have been com-
piled by the military authorities since; but if they
have, I am confident that the results are still more
reassuring. I only know that whereas, within my
own experience, it was always considered imperative
that the detachment of white troops quartered in the
island should be stationed in the cantonment of New-
castle in the Blue Mountains, 4,000 feet above the
sea, they have for many years past occupied barracks
in the lowlands at Up Park Camp, just north of
Kingston; and that their sick list compares favour-
ably with that of the black soldiers of the West India
Regiment, which has its headquarters in the same
place. In certain parts of the island the climate has
a marvellously beneficial effect on persons suffering
from pulmonary complaints. I have known people
with respect to whom I should not be in the least
offended if anyone on seeing them were to cast doubt
on my assertion that they had come to Jamaica as a
last resort to avoid death by consumption.
In Kingston and the other towns along the coast
the temperature averages between 70 and 87 degrees,
and the heat is almost invariably tempered by a
breeze from the sea sooner or later in the day; while
in the mountains many of the more ancient planters'
dwellings are provided with fire-places. In such






CLIMATE AND NATURAL HISTORY.


houses I have myself found the glow of a fire made
of fragrant cedar or pimento logs very grateful in-
deed; while on the Blue Mountain Peak I have seen
the thermometer down to 40 degrees, in the screen
five feet above the level of the ground.
Jamaica may well be called the land of perpet-
ual summer. It is no exaggeration to say that on
at least three hundred and fifty out of the three hun-
dred. and sixty-five days of the year the sun rises in
a cloudless sky: that is in the lowlands at any rate.
When there is rain it usually comes later in the day,
except, perhaps during the October "seasons," and
when about December or January a wet northerr"
happens to drift down from the American continent.
There is a good story told in connection with this
peculiarity of the weather, as follows:-The overseer
of a certain sugar estate-or manager, as he is called
in all other West Indian colonies-a hard-bitten old
Scotchman, had sent out to him as an underling a
youth from the Western Highlands, whose experience
of fine mornings had necessarily been strictly limited.
The weather had been for weeks unusually dry, and
the "busha," (as the negroes invariably call the over-
seer, or manager of any property) was becoming daily
more anxious about the welfare of his young canes,
Meeting his youthful countryman on his rounds one
morning he was greeted with:
"Good morning, busha."
"Good morning, Mr. MacEacharon."
"It's a fine morning, sir."
"Ah yes, it's a fine morning all right,"
Two or three days afterwards a similar encoun-
ter took place-there having been no sign of any4






A WEST INDIAN POLICEMAN.


change in the weather-at which the asperity of the
busha's reply was very much more marked. The next
day but one they met again for the third time, and
the simple youth once more offered his salutation:
"Good morning, busha."
"Good morning Mr. MacEacharon;" (very curt-
ly indeed).
"It's a f- ."
"Aw man, tae hell wi' your fine morning; it's al-
ways a fine morning in this damn country."
Jamaica is in many other respects a singularly
blessed island; in its fertility, and its freedom from
dangerous wild animals. The only creature which
can be described as such is the alligator, (which is
really a crocodile,) and it figures in the official coat-
of-arms of the colony. There never were any venom-
ous snakes; and now there are none at all. This is
owing to their having been exterminated by the mon-
goose, which were imported from India for the pur-
pose of destroying rats on the sugar estates. They.
have destroyed a host of other creatures, though, leav-
ing most of the rats; and among them are the snakes.
With regard to the alligators it is a curious circum-
stance, of which few people are aware, and none are
able to explain, that while they abound in every river,
delta and lagoon on the south side of the island, the
north side is entirely free from them. As far as I
know, only on two occasions have specimens been seen
on the north, and on each just after a hurricane had
swept the island from the south east.
The only really dangerous wild animal is the
tick. He has no fear of man whatever; and he
abounds chiefly in the dry-that is the tourist-sea-,






CLIMATE AND NATURAL HISTORY.


son. He attaches himself without hesitation to the per-
-.on of his victim, and is too small to be hunted or des-'
troyed by means of firearms or lethal weapons of any
sort. Short skirts and rudimentary sleeves have his
entire approval.
Another peculiarity of the country is that the
numerous products of nature which now form the
cnief substance of its export trade, and furnish food
for its inhabitants, are, with scarcely any exception,
exotics. The only indigenous ones are-I think I
am correct in saying-first and foremost the pimento,
which practically does not grow in any other coun-
try; the manioc or cassava, which formed the staple.
food of the aboriginal inhabitants, the Arawak In-
dians; the fustic tree; and the fruit known at this
day as the neesberry, or naseberry; also perhaps, the
starapple. Sugar-cane, logwood, coconuts, bananas.,
cacao, oranges, annatto; ginger, even the breadfruit
and mangoes, which are now staple foods of the peo-
ple, growing in extravagant abundance all over the
island, and the very guinea-grass which carpets it
from one end to the other, affording the very best
feeding for horses and cattle: all were brought here
from other countries, chiefly from the far east.
The explanation of the name "neesberry" men-
tioned above is that the fruit strongly resembles the
medlar, which is very common in Spain, and the
Spanish name of which is "nispero," (accent on the
urst syllable). The Spaniards, seeing the fruit, and
being at once struck with its resemblance to the med-
lar, promptly called it "nispero;" and the name has
stuck in a slightly modified form. The fruit is not a
berry, and "nees" or "nase" means nothing at all.







20 A WEST INDIAN POLICEMAN.

The present name appears to me to be undoubtedly
a corruption of "nispero."
Another curious feature in the natural history of
the island is that the coconut palm grows profusely
all along the northern coast right down to the beach,
and constitutes one of the chief beauties of the scen-
ery. Along the south coast however, from White
Horses westward, it is conspicuous by its absence.
with exception of a few trees at Little Pedro Bay in
St. Elizabeth, and Bluefields and Negril in Westmore-
land. I am not aware whether there are any statistics
available on the point, but from my knowledge
the country I estimate that the average temperature
on the northside is several degrees lower than that of
the south. I have certainly found orchids growing on
the north at an elevation of six hundred feet which
on the south I had never seen at less than two thou-
sand.







THE PEOPLE.


Chapter IV.
THE PEOPLE.

The population of Jamaica was set down in the
census of 1921 at 858,118, and the numbers are no
longer officially catalogued in the Handbook, as they
used to be in former days, according to colour, but
merely divided into "males" and "females;" which
is a sign of the times.
I think it is safe to say that at least eighty per
cent. of this number are full-blooded negroes, or very
near it, who thus constitute the great bulk of the pop-
ulation; and when I speak of "the people" it is those
whom I have in mind, and chiefly the dwellers in the
country parts where my experience lies; not more
than four of my forty-seven years in the public serv-
ice having been passed in Kingston. Kingston is a
law unto itself, requiring special treatment; and I
am a firm believer in the old maxim ne sutor ultra cre-
pidam. Very little reflection will convince the intelli-
gent observer that nearly all conditions, and especial-
ly that of the relations between the races, must of
necessity be different in the capital of the island from
those obtaining in the rural districts.
There has gradually crept into the English lan-
guage a loose, improper, and slightly irritating mean-
ing attaching to the word "native." Writers of all
kinds use it in the sense that it applies only to the
dark-skinned inhabitants of tropical, or other remote
and uncivilised, or partially civilised countries. In







A WEST INDIAN POLICEMAN.


speaking of Europe or the United States they never
describe the population as "natives." Jamaica has
shared in this respect the same fate as every other
country inhabited by a coloured population. People
who write about the island forget-or they do not
know-that it does not contain any aboriginal, au-
tochthonous inhabitants. It did so when the Span-
iards possessed themselves of it, but they lost no time
in exterminating the aborigines. The present popu-
lation is entirely exotic. I myself am a "native;"
but I am certain that no writer on Jamaica would so
designate me, for fear of conveying a false impres-
sion: to such an extent has the meaning of the word
become distorted. It is now within measurable dis-
tance of being a synonym with "savage" or "heathen."
It is a matter of unfailing astonishment to visitors to
Jamaica to find that there is no race question here.
We have not yet reached the stage where black and
white inter-marry without exciting comment, but the
old hard-and-fast colour distinctions of past genera-
tions are being rapidly and steadily wiped out. It
is becoming increasingly difficult to tell where black
leaves off and white begins. Every man whose heart is
in the right place has an equal chance with his neigh-
bour, no matter what the colour of his skin may be.
Attempts have been made in latter years to stir
up race-prejudice. It was introduced into the politics
of the country at elections, by two black men, at differ-
ent times and places; and again by a coloured man, a
pseudo-champion of the negro, who had proved the in-
sincerity of his own protestations by marrying a white
woman.
And quite recently renewed efforts in this direc-







THE PEOPLE.


tion have been made by an organisation calling itself
the Universal Negro Improvement Association, with
headquarters in the United States. In the year 1919
this Association used to distribute in this island an
organ of the press printed in America and known as
"The Negro World," the avowed object of which was
to excite the hatred of black against white by inuen-
does and lying calumnies of the vilest description.
The leaders of a certain church in this island,
which consists exclusively of negroes--all honour to
them-brought the importing of this paper to the
notice of a gentleman who, himself of very dark com-
plexion, is already high up in the judicial branch of
government service, and will most assuredly rise
higher still. He in his turn called the attention of
the government to this pernicious publication, and
the matter was referred to me for confidential en-
quiry and report; with the result that the paper ceas-
ed to be distributed. The reader will thus realise that
I am speaking of that which I know.
I have not yet seen in print any indication of the
lines along which these good people propose to im-
prove the Universal Negro. Their only activities of
which I have read are childish amusements, such as
"The Crowning of the Queen of Sheba," "The Un-
veiling of a Chart," the holding of processions by
members clad in gorgeous apparel, and the conferring
by their leader of various high-sounding titles of no-
bility upon his disciples. I am afraid that they will
be obliged to ascend to a higher plane if they expect
to be taken seriously. Further, I would say that the
reputed success of one of their ladies in making a
fortune by inventing some process for taking the kink






A WEST INDIAN POLICEMAN.


out of negro hair does not point to that "pride of
race" which is one of their watchwords. No: fortun-
ately for the peace and prosperity of this little is-
land we have among our black population too strong
a leaven of sound common sense to be disturbed by
such frothy ebullitions; and the backbone of our com-
munity consists of a class of "small settlers," as they
are called, who have a stake in the country, and cor-
respond to a great extent to the English yeomanry.
They know in what direction their best interests lie;
or, to put it vulgarly, on which side their bread is
buttered. So the U.N.I.A. does not appear to make
any such headway as to create apprehension.
In speaking of the people I do not propose to
dilate upon their defects and shortcomings, with
which my calling has naturally brought me into close
and constant contact for nigh on fifty years, but to
throw the light on to the other side of the picture by
emphasizing their virtues, of which I have also had
experience.
In judging them the fact should never be lost
sight of that their ancestors of from four or five gen-
erations ago-or even less-were African savages who
could not even speak the English language, and most
of whom were actually cannibals. Cases do occasion-
ally occur which reveal depravity of such an unspeak-
able nature as to point unmistakably to a savage
racial origin; but for the most part we live in a well-
ordered community, in which life and property are as
safe as in any country in the world-and safer than
in many which claim centuries of civilisation. Again:
one should reflect on the awful lives most of them are
compelled to lead, especially in the sugar manufac-






THE PEOPLE.


during districts. Unable to read, often with no light
but that of a fire in their one-roomed hovels, and de-
void of any form of rational amusement, is it any
wonder that after a day's hard toil they turn to such
relaxation of a primitive and elemental description
as nature provides, and as have been handed down to
them by their forefathers?
When all is said and done, I maintain that their
faults are in most cases more those of the head than
of the heart; and I speak from my own experience
when I say that once their respect, esteem and confi-
dence have been won by strictly fair, impartial and
consistent dealing, they can be handled as easily as
so many children. Severity they do not mind, for they
regard leniency as a sign of weakness; but one's word
must be one's bond. They are very quick and keen
judges of human nature; and as illustrating this they
have a proverb-expressive, as most of their proverbs
are-that runs thus:-"Duppy know who fe frighten."
(A ghost knows whom he can frighten).
They are intensely loyal to the British Crown.
The bogey of a desire for annexation to the United
States, which is periodically trotted out-for politic-
al purposes no doubt-simply does not exist in real-
ity. Among the older generation the name of Queen
Victoria was always uttered with love and reverence.
I remember the old cook of a friend with whom I
was staying at the time of the Queen's death coming
into the room where I was sitting, folding her hands
over her abdomen-which is the attitude prescribed
by etiquette-bobbing me a curtsey and saying:-
"Please, Inspector, is it true I hear 'missis' Queen
dead ?" On my answering in the affirmative, she bob-







A WEST INDIAN POLICEMAN.


bed a second curtsey, then cast both her hands and
eyes heavenward, which is the gesture of despair,
and heaving a deep sigh, turned and left the room
without another word. They all used to think that
it was Queen Victoria herself who brought about the
emancipation of the slaves.
It is no idle boast to say that a white woman
could travel unprotected from one end of the island
to the other without being molested-that is as far as
the country parts are concerned. Just about the time
when the Jamaica contingent of the British West In-
dies Regiment was returning to the island, there
were symptoms of a lapse from this high standard
of conduct; but these symptoms were exhibited by a
few "lewd fellows of the baser sort" only, who had
made the discovery while abroad that there were
other white women in the world, of a totally different
sort from the "buckra ladies" to whom they were ac-
customed in their own country. I think I am safe in
saying that this was only a transient phase, which
has now definitely passed away.
I can bear testimony to the fact that derelict
white men, deserters from merchant ships, ex-con-
victs, and other waifs and strays, have constantly
wandered up and down the island from end to end,
doing practically nothing, and being supported and
cherished by the hospitality of the blacks. Those
used invariably to speak of their uninvited guests as
"de poor buckra." I remember once arousing deep
resentment among some market women in Montego
Bay by ordering the arrest of one of these vagrants
whom I had known for years as a particularly worth-
less character..







THE PEOPLE.


Many of the negro girls dress very stylishly, and
look uncommonly well in the latest European modes,
with the erect and graceful carriage which is so fre-
quent among them. The traditional coloured band-
anna headkerchief is now as a rule only to be seen
in the country'parts, and then only on working days.
It is instructive to note how quickly they respond to
the dictates of fashion. If it decrees that waists are
to be worn under the armpits, or in the umbilical re-
gion, the newest style immediately catches on. And
the condition of nudity of the neck, shoulders, and
arms which just now characterises women's dress, ir-
respective of weather conditions, seems particularly
suitable to them.
Like most half-educated people, when they have
learnt a little they imagine that they know a great
deal. Most ludicrous are the attempts of those whose
ambition lies towards converting the curious dialect
which they speak into proper English. This they
chiefly try to achieve by putting the vowels "a" and
"o" in their proper places; and as the uneducated
negro generally pronounces "o" as "ah," the effect is
often grotesque. The negroes themselves call it "clip-
ping the English." There is a story in this connection
telling of a man who thus delivered himself to his
servant: "Baai, look in de packet of my kawkee jock-
et, and bring me de bax of motch you see dere." (Boy,
look in the pocket of my khaki jacket and bring me
the box of matches you see there.) This I believe to
be more or less apocryphal; but the following I my-
self heard once in court:
Resident Magistrate: "What did you do with the
purse when he gave it to you."







A WEST INDIAN POLICEMAN.


Witness: "I put it in my fab, sir."
R.M.: "In your what?"
Witness: "In my fab, sir, in my fab;" (patting
himself on the right side of the abdomen, in the region
of the vermiform appendix).
'R.M. : "Oh, I see; in your pocket."
Witness: "Yes, sir; in my packet."
(By "fab" he meant "fob.")
They are very emotional, and inclined to be hys-
terical, especially at periods of religious excitement.
The line that divides the tear from the laugh is a
very fine one indeed; and one who understands them
can play on their feelings like a musical instrument.
A broad joke uttered in the vernacular can change an
attitude of threatening aspect into a friendly, or at
least a neutral one, in a few seconds. Consequently
they are easily led astray by unscrupulous "soap-box"
orators, as the Americans call them, and men of the
kind whom the editor of our daily paper has aptly
described as "tin-pot" politicians. These charlatans
covertly incite them to violence, but are very careful
to render themselves conspicuous by their absence
when armed police appear on the scene. Fortunately
the mobs are easily cowed by a determined show of
force. It should always be borne in mind that al-
though under normal conditions there is no racial
animosity in evidence, any riot which is not promptly
and ruthlessly suppressed at once tends to develop
into a race war: or rather, I should say, a class war;
for the people of mixed race, and even the well-to-do
negroes themselves, would in such an event fare no
better at the hands of the mob-consisting as it does
of the lowest and most dangerous elements of the






THE PEOPLE.


population-than the "buckra" who stands at the top
of the social scale.
I make these observations on the strength of the
utterances which I have myself repeatedly heard
dropped by the mob element in various parts of the
island at times of disturbance, and even of general
calamity created by natural causes.
Another curious feature in the psychology of our
people is the strange contradictions which manifest
themselves. Their greatest curse is the tendency to
petty theft, and especially to praedial larceny, or the
pilfering of the unguarded provision fields. Yet it is
a very common thing to see a basket or tray of eggs,
cakes, fruit or vegetables exposed for sale on a little
table at the entrance of a track leading to a dwelling
some distance away-and sometimes not even within
sight of the spot-without anybody near it. If you
should desire to make a purchase in passing you will
probably have to call several times before receiving a
reply. Yet in all my long experience I do not remem-
ber ever having heard of anything being stolen under
these conditions.
Again: another of their virtues is sobriety, the
sight of a drunken man being extremely rare; yet
they will run almost incredible risks and exercise the
most marvellous cunning to steal rum from the sugar
estates in crop time.
It should be stated that rum is regarded as in-
dispensable at a funeral, at the cutting down of a
cotton tree for the making of a canoe, or at a "digging
match." This last is a system of joint labour by
which they assist each other in the preparation of
their provision grounds for the planting season,






A WEST INDIAN POLICEMAN.


which falls at the same time of the year as the sugar
crop on the estates.
As a rule the negro uses a stick or a stone to
emphasize his arguments against an opponent when
words have reached their limit, very rarely resorting
to lethal weapons. But as soon as he becomes a
soldier, he habitually carries a razor in his pocket, and
uses it on very slight provocation; preferably on a
policeman. A regrettable feature in this aspect of
the conduct of the people generally is the fact that
constant intercourse with the Spanish-American
countries has resulted in bringing the revolver into
fashion; and it is being used now-a-days with a fre-
quency and recklessness that are becoming alarming.
Another revelation of their curious trait of funda-
mental honesty is to be found in what happens every
market day at every country post office in the island.:
Saturday is the great day for at least one member of
each family from the country settlements to visit the
market, be it in a town or a rural village, for the
purpose of disposing of their produce and doing the
shopping. She-for it practically always is a woman
-is also commissioned to call at the post office and
collect any letters that may have arrived addressed
to her relatives and friends. The following dialogue
then ensues between the messenger and the postmis-
tress, to whom the former is most probably a total,
stranger:-
Messenger: "Please ma'am any letter for Jane
Saunders?"
P.M.: (after a search in the pigeon-hole)-"No,
none for Jane Saunders."
Messenger: "Any for Keturah Billings?"






THE PEOPLE.


P.M.: "Yes, here are two for Keturah Billings."
Messenger: "Any for Jochabed Brown?"
P.M.: "Yes, here is one."
And so it goes on; the postmistress delivering,
perhaps a score of letters to half-a-dozen women
whom she has never seen before; and yet it is one of
the rarest things for a letter to fail of reaching its
destination. I don't pretend to say that it never hap-
pens; but when one watches the process and reflects,
it is a tribute to the honesty of the people that it
does not happen every day.
The heterogeneous character of the population is
being further steadily complicated by the immigra-
tion in increasing number of Chinese, who almost in-
variably adopt the calling of retail shopkeepers. East
Indians and Syrians we have had for many years, but
they mostly live to themselves; while the Chinese co-
habit more and more with the creole women, gener-
ally selecting those of a colour similar to their own.
As the result of this a mixed race is being created,
which will in the near future afford an interesting
study in anthropology.
I believe it is now an accepted physiological fact
that climate and environment have the effect of alter-
ing and modifying the physiognomy of races. I have
read that in certain of the Western States the white
Americans are beginning to acquire features of a dis-
tinctly Red Indian type. I am certain that some
change of the same kind has been for a long time in
progress in this country; for now the characteristic
African type of face has almost entirely disappeared
among the blacks. In my young days it used to be
yery common; but in these times one meets every day






A WEST INDIAN POLICEMAN.


scores of negroes whose features are almost entirely
Caucasian in outline.
In the second year of the Great War, when re-
cruits were called for by the Mother Country, Ja-
maica made a gallant response. The total number of
men who enlisted was upwards of 11,000. A vastly
greater number came forward; but, sad to relate,
some seventy per cent. of them had to be turned down
as physically unfit. Although employed chiefly as a
labour corps, those who came into the fighting line
acquitted themselves gallantly, notably on a certain
occasion in Palestine. There was one platoon which
consisted entirely of members of the police; and in
connection with this I cannot omit the following
story: After all the Jamaica contingent had return-
ed home and been demobilized, I was one morning
putting my men of the St. Elizabeth division through
their annual musketry course on the range at Black
River, and among them was one who had served in
the war. To him I said, "Reid, what was the last
place at which you fired a musketry course?"
"Jerusalem, Sir."
Think of it! For me that answer contained a
complete epigram. Kipling's Recessional with its
words "Lord of our far-flung battle line" came to my
mind at once. Here was this simple-minded, loyal
black policeman, doing his annual training as such
in an obscure town in an obscure little West Indian
island, who could tell me that the last place in which
he had fired his musketry course was Jerusalem. For
the remainder of that day my mind was filled with
thoughts of the might and majesty of the British Em-
pire. It fell to the lot of the various Inspectors of






THE PEOPLE.


Police to investigate and verify the claims made by
the recruits for maintenance allowances to their de-
pendents during their absence. I personally dealt
with several hundreds of these; and many of them
were curiosities indeed. Most of the men grossly
exaggerated their earnings, and misnamed their res-
pective callings; which I suppose was only a human
weakness such as might be expected all over the
world. I have however a very distinct recollection of
one claim in which the recruit had described himself
as an "electrician," although unable to sign his name.
On enquiry I discovered that his claim to this desig-
nation was based on the fact that he had been usually
employed by the Public Works Department to patrol
the roads along which the telegraph lines ran, and
trim away the branches of trees hanging over the
road which threatened to come into contact with the
wires. For ingenuity that would be hard to beat as
the definition of an electrician.






A WEST INDIAN POLICEMAN.


Chapter V.
THE STORY.

I was born in Jamaica in June 1856, but was tak-
en away from the island in 1861 at the age of five
years, and did not return to it until I was nineteen.
During this period I grew up and was educated in
England and Germany; and I think I must have im-
bibed, being then at the most impressionable age,
some of the thoroughness and attention to matters of
detail which are so characteristic of the Germans. I
certainly acquired a complete mastery of the German
language. My school in England was in the north, in
the county of Yorkshire. It was not as bad as Dick-
ens's "Dotheboy's Hall," but in some respects it used
to be a fair imitation of that celebrated institution.
When I look back on some of my experiences there I
feel convinced that if I had not been made of ex-
ceptionally robust material I should have died a
very early death. The Spartan tone of the establish-
ment may be imagined from the fact that it was re-
garded as a sign of effeminacy to wear underclothing
of any sort, in winter or summer. In this respect I,
a raw, callow fledgling from the tropics, conformed
to the unwritten rule; and I continued the custom
after I went to Germany, where the winters were
much longer and more severe.
In December 1876 I received an appointment as
Sub-Inspector in the Jamaica Constabulary Force,
and reported myself at the depot, which was then at






THE STORY.


the old military barracks in Spanish Town, the for-
mer capital of the island, on the 8th January 1877.
The force was organised in 1866 and 67 by Sir John
Peter Grant, who was appointed Governor of Jamaica
to clean up the mess which had been left behind by
the old form of government of the colony, culminat-
ing in the historic Morant Bay rebellion of 1865. It
took the place of the old police force, which was one
of the many rotten institutions abounding in Jamaica
at the time. It was constituted as an armed force,
on the general lines of the Royal Irish Constabulary;
the officers being called Inspectors and Sub-Inspec-
tors, while in the other ranks the purely military
designations of corporal, sergeant, and sergeant-major
were adopted. The Inspector General, Major J. H.
Prenderville, was an ex-officer of the then recently
disbanded 3rd West India Regiment; and there was
among the other officers a sprinkling of men from
the same corps.
We were armed with muzzle-loading rifles of the
Snider pattern; and the shooting which we had to
do might aptly be called purely theoretical, as we
had no rifle ranges. After spending three months un-
dergoing. instruction in Spanish Town, I was put
through an examination, as the result of which I was
pronounced fit to be transferred to Kingston, the capit-
al of the island, for practical duty. The Kingston
to which I came in April 1877, was a totally different
place from the Kingston of the present day. The
streets were unlighted, and most of them were in
bad condition, with pits of varying size and depth in
the gutters, usually covered with very odoriferous
green slime. I got to know some of those pits very,







A WEST INDIAN POLICEMAN.


intimately in the course of succeeding years, and when
some of them disappeared during the progress of im-
provements in the sanitary conditions, I almost felt
the sense of loss of old friends.
The thoroughfare known as Gold Street, in par-
ticular, was nothing better than a gully paved with
cobble-stones, along which no vehicle was ever known
to venture, and it appeared to serve no other purpose
than to carry down to the sea the storm waters dis-
charged from the upper portions of the town. There
was a good deal of rain in May 1877, and I have many
a time had to cross Gold Street at midnight and in
the small hours of the morning, while visiting the
beats, through rushing water that reached to my
knees.
There were no tram-cars on the streets. The
only public vehicles were the "busses;" not the lux-
urious equipages of the present day, which have in-
herited the name, but flat trays on springs, having at
each of the four corners a post supporting a flat roof,
and seating accommodation for three persons besides
the driver. This latter was, as often as not, an impu-
dent, foul-mouthed ruffian, whose personal appear-
ance and manners were quite in keeping with the
ramshackle condition of his whole turn-out.
The race course to the north of the town was
generally a wilderness of bush, standing waist-high in
some parts, with numerous foot-tracks leading across
it in different directions, which it was not safe to
traverse after dark. It was cleaned up once every
year, in preparation for the one race meeting which
used to be held for three days in the second week of
December. There were no railings or protection of







THE STORY.


any sort, and no permanent grand stand. This was
only temporarily erected a few days prior to the
races and afterwards removed; and the road past the
racecourse ran between it and the track. The police
had to keep the track by sheer physical force, with
the aid of a few temporary posts and a stout cable
at the entrance. As the direct result of this arrange-
ment I had the narrowest escape from death which I
have ever experienced, in the last race of the last day
of the 1879 meeting. Six horses, immediately after
being started, bolted with one accord and rode me
down at the entrance, pinning me down to the ground
with my own horse and three of the racehorses, with
their riders, on top of me. When I was extricated
from the mess, the crowd which had gathered to view
the corpse gasped with astonishment when I arose
and shook off the dust, practically unhurt. There
were several casualties among the bystanders
though. One curious feature about this annual race
meeting was the sudden springing up of a village in
the central portion of the racecourse: a village built
of coconut limbs and bamboos, bits of packing-cases
and kerosene tins. The population consisted of the
very dregs of Kingston and lower St. Andrew; who
amused themselves by gambling and vice and de-
bauchery of all kinds to the accompaniment of drum-
beating all night, while the races lasted. It was not
safe for the police to enter this locality at nights ex-
cept in groups. As soon as the races were over the
village disappeared as suddenly as it had sprung up.
In those times there was no ice factory in Kings-
ton. The entire supply of ice used to be imported
from the United States in fast schooners; and the







A WEST INDIAN POLICEMAN.


depot was at the foot of Duke Street, adjoining the
Royal Mail Company's wharf. The price was two-
pence a pound in Kingston as a rule, and in Spanish
Town, thirteen miles away, threepence. The negroes
from the country parts usually handled and looked
at it with curiosity not unmixed with awe and rever-
ence; and there were many stories current about wo-
men and children who had been commissioned to buy
and bring home ice on market days being unable to
account for its disappearance on returning to their
homes many miles away-with disastrous results. On
one occasion a wealthy lady residing in Spanish Town
gave a picnic on the banks of the Rio Cobre, for which
she provided a large block of ice. This she entrusted
to a servant, with strict injunctions to deposit it in a
very cool place. Fortunately for the picnic party the
hostess not long afterwards noticed that the ice had
vanished; and on making enquiry she discovered that
the servant had carefully placed it in the river itself,
as being the coolest place he could think of.
In those days the railway, which was owned by
a private company, extended no further than Old
Harbour, some twenty-five miles from Kingston, with
a branch of about four miles running up to a place
called Angel's, to the northwest of Spanish Town.
There were no telegraph stations in the country ex-
cept along the line of railway; and the postage on
letters to England and to other West India islands
was one shilling for half an ounce.
There used to be some curiously original charac-
ters about Kingston in those days. One was a man,
whose name I never learnt; but who was wont to
celebrate every event of public interest in doggerel







THE STORY.


verse, which was printed and circulated along the
streets. I have a distinct recollection of two of this.
person's effusions. On one occasion a case came on
for trial at the Kingston Circuit Court-which will
receive further mention later-of a white man at Old
Harbour Bay who was charged with murder, he hav-
ing shot dead a black man of the district, which bore"
a very bad reputation for ruffianism-and does so
to this day. The circumstances of the case were
proved at the trial to be that the white man, whose
name was Milne, fired the shot in defence of his wife,
whom the negro was at the moment attacking with an
axe, and the accused was acquitted. I remember very
distinctly two lines of the ballad in which this occur-
rence was described by the poet. They ran thus:
"He did not care one single dam,
But shot the negro down."
On another occasion the police invoked the at-
tention of his Muse, with unpleasant results to at
least one of his readers. It had occurred to the then
Inspector General to alter and improve the system
of street duty in Kingston by dividing the officers and
men into three reliefs, each of which did night duty
for fourteen consecutive nights from 9 p.m., to 5 a.m.,
then seven days day duty and then back again to the
fourteen nights. The result of the carrying out of
this brilliant idea was that the sick list was increased
by seventy-five per cent.; to say nothing of other un-
pleasant concomitants; and through the efforts of
our own medical officer (the father of the present head
of the Kingston hospital) this impossible situation
was brought to the notice of the Governor, who per-
emptorily put an end to it. But to this day I have a







40 A WEST INDIAN POLICEMAN.

vivid recollection of the dreary tramping the streets
of Kingston through the long hours of the night, hear-
ing hour after hour strike on the parish church clock
and crawling home, hollow and red-eyed, at five o'clock
in the morning. Well: our poet described the con-
ditions of this episode with a certain amount of wit,
and not altogether undeserved sarcasm, in the follow-
ing lines:
"The sleeping constables at night
They snore like the rolling waves;
Patrolling street for fourteen nights
Will send them to their graves."
It became a common practice of certain "lewd
fellows of the baser sort" to sing this quatrain to a
waltz tune which was much in vogue at that time;
and one day one of these had the effrontery to warble
it while passing the front of the station in Sutton
Street, where a certain corporal, an ex-soldier of the
3rd West India Regiment, and a good boxer, happen-
ed to be standing in the gateway. This corporal ap-
peared to take no notice of the singer; but when the
latter had passed on and turned up a quiet lane about
a hundred yards away, he followed softly behind,
overtook him in an isolated spot, and administered
with his fists such punishment as he thought the oc-
casion called for; and all so quickly and quietly that
no alarm was raised by any passer by.
There used also to wander about the streets and
lanes an elderly man of fine physique, with a full
beard and moustache-most unusual thing for a
negro-iron gray in colour, whose occupation seemed
to be the examination of the people's rubbish heaps, to
see what he could find in them. He was invariably






THE STORY.


dressed in the remains of an old battered top hat,
and a frock coat that had seen better days. In his
conversation he always expressed himself in very
choice and correct English, with a refined accent;
and as he tramped along he used frequently to sing,
in a full, resonant baritone:
"Great privilege in England
For the negro boy."
He told me that he had been taken to England
as a small boy by his employer, and had grown up
in that country; afterwards going to sea, and finally
drifting back to his native land. He was evidently
slightly off his balance, mentally, though quite harm-
less; but his intelligence was as much of a high order
as his physique was striking. Another waif and stray
who had run ashore here was a quaint little wizened
Englishman who had married a black woman of the
town. He followed the calling of a grinder of knives
and scissors; and he used to perambulate the streets
day by day, pushing along his orthodox knife-grind-
er's outfit on wheels, with the little grindstone work-
ed by a pedal, and all the necessary auxiliary tools.
He was of a taciturn and reserved disposition; but he
did excellent work. I feel sure that the housekeep-
ers of the present day would be glad to see a successor
to him.
The great event of 1877 was the inauguration of
the lighting of the streets of Kingston by means of
gas lamps, on the 10th May. After a couple of pre-
liminary rehearsals in certain circumscribed locali-
ties, the general grand illumination took place between
eight and nine p.m., on the date named. The Acting
Governor, drove down from King's House four-in-







A WEST INDIAN POLICEMAN.


hand; and on his arrival at the Parade every gas-jet
burst into flame amid the cheers of the assembled
populace. I remember that one of the horses ridden
by the Governor's escort of police orderlies became
quite unmanageable, by reason of the noise and ex-
citement, and a nasty accident to the rider was the re-
sult. What is now the Parade Gardens was then a
sandy waste which had very recently been railed in
for the purpose of being converted into a garden. On
the northern gate of this, facing Upper King Street,
a very elaborate illumination had been installed, con-
sisting of numerous tiny gas-jets forming the let-
ters V.R. surmounted by the royal crown. (It must
be remembered that this was during the reign of
Queen Victoria.) The interpretation of this device
circulated among the lower orders was that it sig-
nified "Verley and Robinson," a firm of bakers whose
business was a household word in Kingston and the
adjacent parishes at that time and for many years
afterwards. There was a dockyard and a hospital at
Port Royal in those days, and a receiving ship moor-
ed in the harbour there. It was the headquarters
of the Jamaica Division of the North American and
West Indian squadron of the British navy, which used
to pay a visit to Kingston regularly in the early part
of every year, and occasionally visit other ports as
well. There was a commodore living on shore at
Port Royal, and the mess on board the old hulk "Ur-
gent" which succeeded the "Aboukir" a receiving ship,
numbered some twelve or fourteen members. There
was a great deal more hard drinking then than there
is now; and as the majority of these numerous officers
had very little work to do, their energies, I regret to







THE STORY.


say, had a tendency to concentrate on the consump-
tion of alcohol. I used to have charge of the Port
Royal Police station, which necessitated a visit to
that place two or three times a week; and I must con-
fess to having witnessed, and indeed abetted, in
some weird and wonderful performances, in the small
hours of the morning especially, both on the "Urgent'
and other occasional ships, and at the naval club on
shore. It was a common colloquialism to speak of
ships as being "long" or "short" ones; the description
being regulated by the intervals which were respect-
ively allowed to elapse between the drinks consumed.
But be that as it may, most people in the island had
in those days some opportunity of seeing the white
ensign; whereas now-a-days there are thousands upon
thousands who have never beheld it.
That year 1877 became fraught with grim tra-
gedy before the end of the summer, for the naval and
military people at Port Royal, at Up Park Camp,
and even at Newcastle and other places on the hills;
and, saddest of all, at King's House, the residence of
the Governor, which was then occupied by Mr. E. E.
Rushworth the Colonial Secretary, who was acting as
Governor during the absence on leave of Sir Anthony
Musgrave. The cause was an outbreak of the ter-
rible yellow fever, which has been referred to in a
previous chapter. It ravaged chiefly the white garri-
son. Officers and men, women and children, old peo-
ple and young men, went down before it like corn
before the reaper. As above mentioned, the most
crtel tragedy of all took place at King's House. There
had come out from Oxford for the long vacation the
son of the wife of the Colonial Secretary by a former







44 A WEST INDIAN POLICEMAN.

marriage, a fine lad, in the first flush of manhood. He
took the fever first, and his young life was cut off. The
next victim was his half-sister, his mother's child by
his stepfather. Then, last of all, Mr. Rushworth him-
self died. Well do I remember bidding farewell to
Mrs. Rushworth on the deck of the steamer which was
to take her home, a lone and childless widow.
I recollect another visitation of yellow fever
some eleven years later; it was sad enough, but it did
not work anything like the havoc of the 1877 epi-
demic.






THE STORY.


Chapter VI.
THE STORY.-CONTINUED.

The judicial system of the island was in those
days different from the present one, especially where
the circuit courts, (which correspond to the English
assizes,) were concerned. Instead of a circuit court
in the chief town of each parish with exception of
St. Andrew as at present, there were only five held
throughout the whole island, and at these cases were
tried from several parishes and portions of parishes
together. The jurors were also drawn from the par-
ishes concerned; and these periodical gatherings used
to resolve themselves into very important social func-
tions, sometimes lasting for several days, to the great
advantage and gratification of the lodging-house
keepers and purveyors of necessaries of all kinds in
the towns which were fortunate enough to be the
seats of these courts.
Thus, the Kingston Court embraced St. Andrew
'and St. Catherine, as well as portions of St. Mary,
Portland and St. Thomas; and it was naturally the
largest and most important of all.
One of the occupants of the Supreme Court
bench was a very unique character, whose name was
a household word throughout the country, and whose
memory is cherished to this day by those who knew
him. A terror to evildoers in his judicial capacity,
his manners towards all other persons were a model
of delightful old-fashioned courtesy; while the polish-






A WEST INDIAN POLICEMAN.


ed flow of his speech, especially when charging a
jury, was a pleasure to listen to. His enunciation
was just slightly marred by a certain impediment or
hesitation which caused him frequently to interlard it
with what sounded like "erb-erb-erb" before passing
from one word to another. This was a very marked
feature, even in his private conversation; and it seemed
in a way so characteristic of the man.
I have a most distinct recollection of one particu-
lar Kingston Circuit Court over which he presided:
I think it was in May or June 1878. The calendar
was an immensely heavy one, including, inter alia, no
fewer than three cases of murder, and one of high-
way robbery. One of the murders was that mention-
ed in the previous chapter in connection with the
Kingston poet.
Another was one which had been committed eight
years previously in the parish of St. Mary; and the
same defendant who was now sent up for trial had
been arrested and charged at the time, but re-
leased for lack of sufficient evidence. The police of
the parish had however been most persistent and un-
tiring in their search for further evidence. This had
been found, with the result that the accused was now
sent up to take his trial before a jury. I think I am
correct in saying that the number of witnesses
brought for prosecution and defence amounted to be-
tween fifty and sixty; so that this case alone rep-
resented a very large amount of work for the court.
It was taken during the first week of the session, and
lasted two whole days, from 10 a.m., until dark. On
the first day, as the case was not yet completed, the
jurors were accommodated for the night at the pub-






THE STORY.


lic expense in a lodging-house known as "Blundell
Hall," under supervision of a police guard, of whom
I was in charge. On the second day, all the pro-
ceedings having been got through, and there being
nothing left but for the jury to consider their verdict,
they were locked up for the night in the courthouse-
again under my charge-where they were supplied
with the bare necessaries of life, but no bedding.
It was a very red-eyed and dishevelled group of
twelve men that I delivered into the hands of the Reg-
istrar of the Court on the third morning. After the
judge had taken his seat, on being called upon for the
verdict, the foreman announced that the jury could
not agree, and that there was no prospect of their
ever agreeing. It was therefore decided to postpone
the case until the following week for a fresh jury
to be empanelled. It came on in due course before a
different jury; and all the wearisome and tedious de-
tails had to be gone through afresh. As before, the
case lasted two whole days and nights, while exactly the
same treatment was accorded to the second jury as to
the first one. On the third morning the verdict was
awaited in breathless silence by a packed court; and
there was quite a sensation when the foreman announc-
ed it as "not guilty."
The judge looked at the foreman through his
spectacles with a piercing glance for a couple of sec-
onds, threw himself back in his chair, and after turn-
ing himself in the seat from one side to another, de-
livered himself thus:-"Erb-erb-erb,-Gentlemen of
the jury, that the verdict at which you have arrived is
the result of the most careful and conscientious de-
liberation on your part I have not the slightest doubt,






A WEST INDIAN POLICEMAN.


but, gentlemen, I regret to say that I do not concur in
it. (I omit the frequent "erb-erb-erb" with which the
address was interspersed.)
"That the prisoner, Grant, is the murderer of the
man Morrison has been as clearly proved as any case
ever was in a court of justice. Gentlemen, by your
act, you have let loose upon Her Majesty's liege sub-
jects in a quiet and peaceful district a rampant sav-
age with the instincts of a wild beast; and that in the
course of time he will again exercise those instincts
you can take my word for it. Gentlemen you are dis-
charged." The whole Court sat open-mouthed dur-
ing the delivery of this scathing denunciation, which
I think I have reproduced word for word. Indeed, I
have so often repeated it, from that date onwards
through upwards of forty years that it has become
indelibly engraved on a naturally accurate and reten-
tive memory. And the old gentleman's words were
prophetic too; for I afterwards learnt that the "ram-
pant savage" was some four years later tried and con-
victed on a charge of felonious wounding, and actual-
ly died in the penitentiary.
One of the great secrets of this judge's power
was the terse and drastic manner in which he was
wont to deliver sentence on habitual criminals and on
persons convicted of offences dangerous to the public
welfare; and to deal with prevaricating and dishonest
witnesses. He never talked "over their heads" or wast.
ed words in futile admonitions, as so many of his suc-
cessors have been in the habit of doing.
In the case of highway robbery mentioned above
as being on the calendar for this same court the ac-
cused had waylaid the money messenger of one of






THE STORY.


the coffee plantations in the Blue Mountains on a
lonely hill road, pulled him off his mule, stunning
him with a cudgel, and carried off the whole week's
wages of the labourers. Fortunately his assailant
was known to the messenger; a hue and cry was raised,
and the police of the district took up the scent red-
hot, with the result that the robber was captured and
all the money recovered before he had had time to
get rid of any of it. The evidence was so conclusive
that the jury returned a verdict of guilty without
leaving the box; and this is how the sentence was
pronounced:
"Prisoner at the bar, the jury have found you
guilty on the clearest possible evidence of this atro-
cious crime. Highway robbery is a thing that cannot
be tolerated in this country for a moment. Twenty
years penal servitude.
The whole court gasped; and the prisoner, a
powerfully built and intelligent looking black man
of about twenty-five, was dumb with pained astonish-
ment. But it was many a long year before the
offence of highway robbery again occurred in Ja-
maica; with one exception, which will later be des-
cribed in due course, but in which the robbers were
not Jamaicans, but Cubans.
The name of the culprit in this case was Esau
McGann, and there can be no doubt that he was an-
other "rampant savage with the instincts of a wild
beast," judging by his subsequent history, which hap-
pened to fall within my purview.
He served fifteen of his twenty years' sentence,
and was granted a pardon in 1893 by Sir Henry Blake,
who was then Governor. Immediately on his release
he bent his steps eastward from Kingston to the par-






A WEST INDIAN POLICEMAN.


ish of St. Thomas, where I was then stationed; pas-
sed through Morant Bay and strolled on up the Blue
Mountain Valley on a Saturday afternoon, "seeking
whom he might devour." It so happened that he
found a victim in the person of a nursemaid from my
own house, who had got leave for the week end to visit
her parents at a village in the same direction. On
her, a girl of about fourteen, he made a vicious and
determined assault of a criminal nature; but she was
fortunate enough to attract the attention of some
passers-by, who came to her rescue, and escorted her
to her home. McGann escaped, but by means of rous-
ing the whole parish I succeeded in effecting his ar-
rest early on the following Monday. He was duly
examined and committed for trial at the Morant
Bay Circuit Court to be held in October; the new
judicial system having come into operation some five
years previously. Being sent to Spanish Town for
safe custody in the interval, he contrived to escape
from the escort that was bringing him back to Morant
Bay for trial the day before the Circuit Court. It was
at night, in a thickly wooded part of the road; and
his escape was facilitated by bad weather and swoll-
en rivers. He seemed to have made his way thence
northwards into the parish of St. Mary, which he
knew well as a lad. By a strange coincidence, the car-
rier of the mails between Richmond and Castleton in
that parish, who travelled on foot by an unfrequented
road in the early hours of the morning, was found
dead by the roadside the next day but one after Mc-
Gann's escape, and the mail bags cut open and rifled
of their contents. McGann was seen in the neighbour-
hood on the same day, but no evidence could be pro-
cured to connect him with this crime. However he






THE STORY.


was hunted high and low throughout the country,, and
finally arrested by a very smart young constable in a
railway train near Spanish Town, sent back again for
trial at the next Morant Bay Circuit Court, and sen-
tenced to three years penal servitude.
I have heard that on his release he emigrated to
Central America and became quite a respectable mem-
ber of the community in one of those republics. I can
never think of the judge who is described in this chap-
ter without remembering his perfectly delightful old-
world courtesy and consideration towards all of us
officers of the constabulary, not excepting even a boy
like myself. It forms such a contrast to the demean-
our of other judicial functionaries of later days, some
of whom seemed to take pleasure in addressing us in
open court as if we were schoolboys or grooms. One
particularly offensive specimen of this type actually
amused himself by trying to put me in the pillory, and
turn me into ridicule, in the circuit court on one occa-
sion, in the presence of my subordinates and that of
the assembled public: and this when I was over sixty
years of age and had had forty-two years service. But
it has very often been my experience to find the means
parva in corpore parvo, as in this case.
The finest object lesson which the dear old gen-
tleman ever gave in my hearing of his knack of
hitting the nail on the head and getting rid of super-
fluous matter was during the trial of a desperate
prisoner from the penitentiary for wounding
and nearly killing a warder. The accused pleaded
not guilty, although the evidence was of the most
clear and direct nature, there being a score of wit-
nesses of the occurrence, consisting of warders and






A WEST INDIAN POLICEMAN.


other convicts. He insisted, further, on having some
five or six of the worst ruffians in the prison brought
as witnesses for the defence. The accused was not
represented by counsel; and when the first of these wit-
nesses went into the box he simply said "yes" or "no"
to leading questions put by the accused, the apparent
object being to pretend that the warder it was who had
made a savage attack on the accused instead of the
other way about. The whole proceeding was so absurd
that tJhe Crown Prosecutor declined to enter into the
farce of cross-examination. However, one very con-
scientious juryman rose in his seat and intimated that
he wished to ask the witness a question. The judge
looked at him with an expression of amazement and
disgust on his countenance, threw down his pen, leant
back in his chair, and simply said: "Erb-erb Mr. Jury-
man, really! erb-really!" On which the juryman in-
stantly sat down and never uttered a word. I have
never since seen any well-intentioned effort so sud-
denly and effectually nipped in the bud.
I remember two remarkable cases of suicide
which occurred about this period. One was that of
an Englishman who held an appointment as superin-
tendent in the Public Works Department. He had
married a Jamaica lady to whom he was deeply at-
tached, and she had died quite young. The bereave-
mient appeared to prey upon his mind very seriously,
to such an extent as to cause apprehension among his
friends. One Monday morning I, being then in charge
of the Kingston Detective Office, was summoned to his
house; and there in his bathroom we beheld a melan-
choly spectacle. (I should mention that the unfortun-






THE STORY.


ate man and his wife had been very fond of going out
together for rides on horseback in the evenings.)
There, hanging by the neck on a hemp rope, one
end of which was fastened to a beam that stretched
across the room, swung'the corpse, naked to the waist,
around which was fastened his wife's riding habit,
so tightly knotted and twisted that it was with great
difficulty that we untied it; and when we succeeded
in doing so there was a deep and livid indentation left
on the skin, On the concrete floor of the bathroom lay
a low, wooden, three-legged stool on which the de-
ceased had evidently stood while adjusting the noose
around his neck, and then kicked aside at the crucial
moment. It was immediately under his feet; and
alongside of it lay his wife's riding whip. The drop
was not higher than about eighteen inches; and the
post mortem examination revealed that death had been
caused by strangulation. There was displayed a mar-
vellous degree of grim determination on the part of
the deceased; and the whole tragic event created a
profound sensation, on account of his social position.
In the other case the victim of his own act was
one of the numerous Haytian refugees who used to
frequent Kingston about this time, seeking shelter
under the British flag during the constantly recurring
revolutions in their misgoverned country. One never
saw any of them doing any work. They spent the whole
day and part of the night walking along the streets
in the lower part of the town, or sitting in taverns and
restaurants of the humblest description talking politics
to the accompaniment of violent gesticulation; and they
were invariably clothed in black frock coats and top
hats. Occasionally one of them would make his ap.






A WEST INDIAN POLICEMAN.


pearance in a suit of spotless white for a day or two,
but that was an exception. Their prevailing colour
was very dark.
One day we received from a certain member of
this community a report that his gold watch and chain
had been stolen by one of his compatriots. On inves-
tigation the evidence seemed very clear; so a warrant
was obtained for the arrest of the alleged thief, who
was a certain General A-N--(It used to be a com-
mon saying about that time-and, I believe a perfectly
true one-that the Haytian army contained more offi-
cers than privates). Naturally a real live General
would expect his arrest on a criminal charge to be sur-
rounded by rather more pomp and circumstance than
that of an ordinary individual; so I myself proceeded
to effect it, accompanied by two detectives, and armed
with the warrant. We found the General at a very
humble lodging in East Street; a lean and cadaverous-
looking black man, with unusually large eyes, dressed
in his black frock coat. He received us with dignified
courtesy, and he understood sufficient English to
realise what our errand was. With a stately bow
he expressed his entire willingness to accompany
us, merely asking permission to retire to his bed-
room for a moment to put away some of his belong-
ings. This I, unwisely, allowed him to do alone. He
entered the adjoining room, closing the door after him,
and I could hear him moving about for a minute or
so. Then I heard a most peculiar choking sound, and
a noise as of something hard striking the floor; after
which all was still. I immediately flung the door open,
entered the room, and beheld a very ghastly sight on
the little iron cot which formed the General's bed. He






THE STORY.


had taken off his coat, collar, and necktie, rolled up
his shirt-sleeves, seized his razor and cut his throat
trom ear to ear, besides inflicting two terrible gashes
on the anterior surface of each arm just at the elbow
joint. He was stretched out on his back on the cot,
with both arms hanging over the edge of it; while the
open razor was lying on the floor in the blood which
was streaming out over both rooms.
There could not be any question of the fact that
he preferred death to dishonour. The Haytians were
not the only political refugees who sought safety in
Jamaica at that time. Cuba was in a chronic state of
rebellion against Spanish injustice and tyranny, and
there was a steady influx of Cubans into this island.
Many df their descendants are still with us, as loyal
British subjects. They brought with them a thorough
knowledge of the cultivation of tobacco and the manu-
facture of cigars and cigarettes, which now forms one
of the leading industries of the island. In the parishes
of St. Andrew, St. Catherine and Upper Clarendon
they planted large tracts of hitherto neglected land
with tobacco; and in the various cigar factories in
Kingston Spanish was practically the only language
spoken.
Two of these Cubans at least introduced into the.
country an innovation in the perpetration of crime,
within my own experience. I was stationed for a time
in the village of Linstead, thirteen miles from Spanish
Town, in the interior; a place which has since devel-
oped into a large and flourishing township and trade
centre. There were three or four sugar estates in the.
neighbourhood, which used to draw the money for the
weekly payment of their labourers from merchants in







A WEST IftIAN POLICEMAN.


the village, usually on a Friday morning. Wakefield,
which was the name of one of these sugar estates,
always sent two East Indian coolies, on foot, for their
money, the distance being only about five miles. The
road, however, led through a settlement where a num-
ber of Cuban tobacco planters resided. On a certain
Friday morning the two coolies started on their home-
ward journey at about ten o'clock, carrying a bag con-
taining just a few shillings short of 100, nearly all in
silver.
At about 11 o'clock one of the two coolies came run-
ning in hot haste to the station, and reported that while
passing through the Cuban settlement above mentioned
two men whose faces were hidden under black masks
had rushed out at them from a clump of bush, attacked
them with sticks and knocked both of them down, the.
bearer of the money bag being rendered unconscious;
that the two robbers had taken the bag and run away
with it, leaving the coolies lying on the ground. After
waiting a few minutes the stunned man had recovered
consciousness, and hastened on to report the occurrence
at the estate, while the other returned to Linstead to
alarm the police. I instantly dispatched the whole of
my small available force to the scene of the outrage
and followed them myself.
There had been a very heavy dew during the night,
which rendered the tracks made by the robbers
in the "wire" grass with which the whole district was
grown very plain indeed; and after about two hours'
search we found the bag intact in the back yard of a
house inhabited by two Cubans, and recovered every
penny of the money. We also found the masks, and the
very heavy freshly cut green sticks which the robbers






THE STORY.


Iad iised as weapons. Their boots and trousers were
soaking wet with the dew. The evidence against them
was very strong, although their faces had been con-
cealed by the masks, made of black cloth; and they
were duly committed for trial at the next Kingston
Circuit Court.
Now, at this time there was still in existence in
this island an exceedingly archaic statute known as the
Law de Medietate Linguae, the purport of which was
that in the case of any alien being arraigned for trial
before.a jury on a criminal charge such alien was en-
titled to demand that a certain proportion of the jury
should consist of aliens. I do not remember the exact
proportion, but I know that through the efforts of
counsel for the defence there were no fewer than five
Cubans on the jury which tried these two men. They
paid little or no attention to the evidence; and I saw
myself two of them fast asleep in their seats while the
case was proceeding. The result was that the jury
could not arrive at a verdict; and this being the last
case on the calendar it had to be adjourned to the next
ensuing court. Before that date the Attorney General
brought in a bill before the Legislative Council, which
met during the interval, abolishing the trial de medie-
tate linguae, on the strength of the obvious miscarriage
of justice which might have taken place in this case; so
that when the two culprits again appeared before the
court they were tried just in the same manner as if
they had been British subjects. They were found
guilty without any hesitation on the part of the jury;
and, if my recollections serves me right, they each re-
ceived a sentence of ten years penal servitude.
A good story occurs to me in connection with a







58 A WEST INDIAN .POLICEMAN.

man who kept a large shop. or. "store" as. it is .called.ini
Jamaica-in the village of Linstead. He was entirely
a self-made man, and had not enjoyed the advantage
of a good education; but he was a justice of the peace
and a person of importance in the community. He
purchased a derelict property in the district called
A- the name being that of a place in Scotland at
which exist very well preserved remains of an an-
cient Roman encampment. One day a Scotch friend
of mine, with a very keen sense of humour, asked him
whether he had found any traces of a Roman encamp-
ment yet on his recently bought property. The ans-
wer he received was this:-
"N-n-no; I haven't found any yet; but you
know I haven't half finished cleaning up the bush."
This was said quite seriously and in perfect good faith.






THE STORY.


Chapter VII.
THE STORY.-CONTINUED.

In the year 1879 I was transferred from Kingston
to be stationed in the village of Chapelton in the upper
part of the parish of Clarendon, for the purpose of
superintending the stations in that then remote and
barbarous district. The headquarters of the division
were at May Pen, on the main road between Mande-
ville and Old Harbour; and it was not until many years
later that they were transferred to the hill station of
Chapelton itself, where they are now.
The railway ceased at Old Harbour, and I had
to pursue my journey thence for some twenty-four
miles to my destination by buggy. There was no hotel
or lodging house; nor were there any quarters for an
officer; that was the way in which we used to be chuck-
ed out into the cold world in those days. I found accom-
modation of very inferior description in the house of
a brown lady whose English husband was employed as
a foreman on the railway extension works which.had
recently been begun. He used to be absent from home
five or six days a week; and although she had a baby
to play propriety, my position was obviously rather a
delicate one. In fact it soon became impossible. The
room which I occupied was of such dimensions that in
one direction I was able to touch both walls at the same
time with my outstretched arms; while in the other
there was a space of about three feet to spare. I was
ultimately rescued through the kindness of a Scotch






A WEST INDIAN POLICEMAN.


gentleman and his wife, Mr. and Mrs. Robert Craig.
He was the leading man in the community; and these
kindly people insisted on my removing my belongings
to their house and taking up my quarters in the bache-
lor's bungalow which formed part of their premises.
I may say here that Scotch people have been my best
friends all through my life.
At that time the parish of Clarendon enjoyed a
most unenviable reputation for murders and other
crimes of violence, and ruffianism generally.
It is an indisputable psychological fact that the
moral and intellectual level of the negro is to be found
at its very lowest on and about the sugar estates of the
Island; and the chief industry of Clarendon in those
days was the production of sugar. Even nowadays one
frequently meets people in the vicinity of the estates
in the sugar districts whom it is difficult to regard as
human beings. There were at the time of which I
speak two brutal murders hanging like a cloud over the
parish, the perpetrators of which had not yet been dis-
covered. The first was known as the Scully murder;
the victim having been a white lad of that name who
had been waylaid while carrying home money to the es-
tate of which his father was the manager, dragged off
his mule, done to death, and robbed. No person had
ever been arrested on suspicion of being concerned in
the foul deed; and even in my time, which was some
seven years afterwards, the police of the parish were
being blamed for neglect and incapacity in dealing
with the case. Young Scully's father was quite brok-
en-hearted over his boy's death. He never allowed his
hair to be cut again; and I met him in later years with
a luxuriant growth flowing over his shoulders, all ail.






THE STORY.


ver-grey. Nothing was ever discovered in connection
with that murder, in spite of a 200 reward offered by
government.
The other was known as the Morris Hall murder;
and it was in connection with this that I won my spurs.
It had occurred six years prior to my going to Chapel-
ton, at a place called Morris Hall, some five miles dis-
tant. A man and his wife of the name of Bailey had
been arrested at the time, but discharged for want of
evidence; and for six years a reward of 100 had been
offered by the government for the detection of the mur-
derers, without result. The deceased in this case was
a young black woman who had been staying with the
Baileys, and had accompanied them to a dance at a
neighboring house on a certain Friday night. On the
following morning her dead body was found on the
ground in front of the Baileys' house with the throat
cut.
About three weeks after my arrival at Chapelton,
I received late one night an urgent message from my
sergeant-major asking me to come to the station imme-
diately on most important business. On entering the
station I saw along with the constables a short, squat,
elderly black man, apparently in a state of great mental
perturbation. He was an African born, brought to
Jamaica as a lad, having been rescued from a slaver in
the Caribbean sea by a British cruiser on the voyage to
Cuba.
There used formerly to be in certain parts of the
island whole settlements peopled by Africans who had
found their way here in a similar manner. Their de-
scendants can now scarcely be distinguished from the
rest of the population.







A WEST INDIAN POLICEMAN.


I looked this man over very carefully, put him
through a course of preliminary' questioning, and then
asked him what he had come to tell me. Trembling
with emotion, large drops of sweat glistening on his
face, which was now the colour of very dark ashes, he
told, slowly and deliberately and without hesitation,
the following remarkable story:-
He began by saying that he knew who had killed
the young woman at Morris Hall, and had known it
Sfor six years. On my putting to him the obvious ques-
tion why he had concealed it for so long, he said that it
was because he was afraid of being sent to prison him-
self for what he had been doing on the .night of the
murder; and also because Obeah had been put upon him
to keep his mouth shut; but that his conscience would
not allow him now to keep the secret any longer, and
he was determined to make a clean breast of it, no
matter what the consequences might be. He then pro-
ceeded to state that on the Friday night when the mur-
der took place he had been engaged in stealing logwood
on the Morris Hall property: that is actually felling
the standing trees; a thing that used frequently to be
done in the wastes of jungle which covered large areas
on properties in that district, and which he had been
ih the habit of doing without detection. It was a bril-
liant moonlight night; and there was a footpath near
by where he was working leading through the log-
wood thicket from the direction of the Baileys' house
towards another one in which he knew that a dance
was being given that night. At an hour which he
guessed to be about two o'clock in the morning he heard
voices and saw figures on the footpath. Concealing
himself behind a large logwood tree he saw a man and






THE STORY.


a woman whom he knew well coming along the path
carrying something heavy between them, which he
recognized as a female human form. Waiting until
they had gone some distance ahead, he followed them
through the bush until they arrived at the house of
the Baileys, where, right before the front door, they
laid down their burden, and passed on. After wait-
ing a few minutes he went to the spot very cautiously
and found to his horror that what had been deposited
there, was the dead body of a young black woman
whose throat had been cut from ear to ear. Stuck
point downwards into the earth alongside the body
was a common black-handled table knife, stained with
blood. My informant went on to say that while view-
ing this ghastly scene he heard a rustling in the bush
at the back of the house, and saw coming towards him
the man who had been carrying the body, on which
he fled for dear life, but not before he had been recog-
nised by the man, who called out his name. He then
told me that the man was Thomas Brown, and the
woman who had been helping him to carry the corpse
was Eliza Morgan, who were at that time living toge-
ther according to the custom of the country, and were
well known to him.
On hearing this gruesome storki I subjected the
narrator to the most rigid cross-examination in every
direction I could think of, but without shaking his
evidence in the slightest degree. He knelt before me
and kissed my feet, then lifted his eyes and his hands
to heaven, swearing the most solemn oaths that what
he had said was the Whole truth, and praying that he
might be struck dead on the spot if .it was not. He
unbosomed all the details of his logwood stealing en-







A WEST INDIAN POLICEMAN.


terprises by the light of the moon, and again vowed.
that his conscience could not bear the burden any long-
cr, and that he was quite ready to face the penalties
of the law and the terrors of Obeah in preference.
Eventually he completely convinced me of the truth
of his story; and I decided that it was a case in which
the promptest action was an immediate necessity. I
found that the old man knew where Thomas Brown
and Eliza Morgan, who had parted company some few
months after the murder, were living at that moment;
and I took the drastic step of having them arrested at
once. My sergeant-major and detective-the latter a
man of giant frame, and a perfect terror to the crimin-
4~ class--were very keen about it; so I sent one of
them in one direction, and the other in another, each
accompanied by a couple of men, with orders to take
Brown and Morgan out of their beds, or wherever they
might find them, and bring them to the station. I dis-
patched them shortly before midnight, it being a fine,
dry, moonlight night; and about five o'clock in the
morning I was awakened by the report that my orders
had been carried out without a hitch. I had of course
caused the accuser to be detained at the station in the
meantime.
Owing to the length of time which had elapsed
s.nce the committal of the crime it was not an easy
task to resuscitate and piece together such evidence as
had been forthcoming at the inquest on the murder-
ed woman. It will be remembered that the Baileys
had been arrested at the time, but very soon discharg-
ed from custody. I found them to be quite decent and
respectable people; and they proved exceedingly use-
ful to me in sorting out and procuring evidence of







THE STORY.


quite a new character which was brought forth in the
light of the little African's confession. The Clerk of
Petty Sessions, who was in those days the function-
ary charged with conduct of such preliminary proceed-
ings, old Mr. Matthew Farquharson, (grandfather
of our lady tennis champion), considered the evi-
dence which I was able to offer quite sufficient to
detain the two accused; and he remanded them in
custody week.by week, while at each appearance we
were able to forge one or two additional links in the
chain of circumstantial evidence which had to be ob-
tained in support of that of the eye-witness. I may
say that the little African never deviated a hair's
breadth from the story which he told me on that first
pight. I recollect that among the very original and
unique features of the evidence adduced was the find-
ing in a grave of a blood-stained flannel shirt, identi-
fied as.having been the property of the prisoner Mor-
gan. The whole case was surrounded by a dense at-
pnosphere of Obeah. I cannot now remember all the
details; and it is possible that they might bore the
reader; so it will suffice to say that when I left Chapel-
ton at the end of November 1879 to return to King-
ston, Thomas Brown and Eliza Morgan, after having
been three months in custody, had been duly com-
mitted to take their trial at the Mandeville circuit
Court, to be held in January 1880-if I remember right-
ly-on the.charge of murder. The result was that the
jury acquitted Eliza Morgan, but brought in a verdict
of guilty against Thomas Brown, ,who in due course
met his death on the gallows. I.had at that time, as
wiji presently appear, been appointed to the temporary
command of the St. Andrew division, the Inspector ot







A WEST INDIAN POLICEMAN.


-which had gone on leave, and was consequently sta-
tioned at Halfway Tree. But on me the government
laid the responsibility of distributing the reward of
100, which, as stated above, had been offered for the
detection and conviction of the murderers. I appor-
tioned the lion's share to the little African, who had
green the moving spirit in the affair, and the bulk of
the remainder to the Baileys; having in view the facts
that they had rendered most useful and important aid,
and that they had at the very outset been arrested and
kept in custody for several days, charged with a crime
of which they were entirely innocent.
There is a sequel to this story, and it illustrates in
a very striking manner that child-like simplicity and
absence of all vindictiveness, which form such strong
redeeming features in the psychology of our people in
the rural districts. About two years after the events
above narrated I was again sent to Clarendon; but this
time in charge of the whole parish, with my head-
quarters at May Pen. On my way home one day to-
wards dusk, after a hot and tiring ride to Chapelton
and adjacent districts, I heard a woman's voice call-
ing out:-"Marning Inspector Thomas" (I may say
that the actual time of day has no connection whatever
with a salutation of this kind).
"Marning, Inspector Thomas."
I could not at first distinguish where the voice
came from, as it appeared to be above me; but when
the cry was repeated once more I glanced upwards,
and there on a hillside overhanging the road I beheld
a buxom young black woman standing at the door-
way of a neat little house, with her two hands placed
on her abdomen, one over the other-that being the






THE STORY.


attitude which etiquette prescribes for a curtsey-bob-
bing up and down, with her white teeth exposed in a
smile of delighted welcome.
I at once replied to her greeting in the vernacular,
(of which I am a master), asking her who she was and
how she came to know who I was-being at the time in
mufti.
To my utter astonishment I received the ans-
wer:-
"No me 'Liza Morgan, sah? I really glad fe see
you looking so well."
Here was a woman whom I had had locked up for
three long months, and done my best to hang, over two
years previously, and whom I had last seen in a cell at
the Chapelton station committed for trial on a charge
of murder, greeting me with expressions of genuine
pleasure at this chance encounter. There was no
hypocrisy about it; for if she had not called my atten-
tion to herself I should not have even seen her on the
hillside sheer above the road as she was. There are
many countries where a woman of other nationality
in her position would have seized the opportunity of
laying me out with a stone, as I rode past, all unsus-
pecting.







68 A WEST INDIAN POLICEMAN.




Chapter VIII.
THE STORY,-Continued.

In the year 1880, I was for ten months in command
of the police of St. Andrew during the absence on
leave of the Inspector for that parish. The most not-
able event of that year was the visit paid to the island
by two Royal Princes, namely our present King, His
Majesty George V, and his elder brother, Prince
Albert Victor, who later :became Duke of Clarence,
and died in early manhood. They arrived in the
cruiser "Bacchante," in which ship they held the rank
of midshipmen. The Governor, Sir Anthony Mus-
grave, was away on leave at the time, his place being
filled by the Lieutenant Governor, Mr. (afterwards
Sir,) Edward Newton. He entertained Their Royal
Highnesses at King's House for a week or ten days,
and I was in constant attendance there myself, being
persona grata with Mr. Newton, and having my
headquarters at Half-way Tree, within a very short
distance of King's House. On one afternoon a cricket
match took place at Up-Park Camp between the gar-
rison and the "Bacchante," at which the Princes were
present, and which of course hundreds of people
flocked to see. I remember.that the military had not
made any arrangements for keeping the ground clear,
and that this duty devolved entirely on myself. I
performed it to the best of my ability by riding round
and round as in a circus ring; but the ring grew nar-
rower and narrower, until at last there was no longer































JAMAICA EXHIBITION-1891. Photo by J. W. C. Brennan
Standing, from left to right: Inspectors Thomas, Church, James, Alexander, Wedderburn, St. Aubyn4
Sitting, from left to right: Inspectors McCrea, Ponsonby, Major L. F. Knollys, C.M.G. (Inspector Gen-
eral), McLeod, Clark.






THE STORY.


sufficient room for the players, and the match had
to be left unfinished. I ought to say that there were
no fences or barriers of any description; and in those
days "boundaries" at cricket had not yet come into
use; so that there was not even an artificial line
marked out around the field.
On two subsequent occasions did His Most Graciois
Majesty visit this island. He returned in January
1884, as a lieutenant in H.M.S. "Canada," on which
occasion a subscription ball in his honour was held
in the old King's House at Spanish Town.
Again in 1891, being then in command of H.M.S.
"Thrush," a gunboat belonging to the North Ameri-
can and West Indian squadron, which in those days
used to make an annual cruise in these waters, he
landed in royal state as Prince George of Wales to
open the Jamaica Exhibition, on the 29th January. On
that occasion, I had the honour of riding as one of
his escort, close to the off hind wheel of his carriage,
from the upper part of Duke Street to King's House.
He was entertained by Sir Henry Blake, who was then
Governor, for ten days, during which time three balls
were given, at all of which I was in attendance. An-
other notable event of 1880, but of an unpleasant
nature, was a disastrous hurricane which struck the
island from the southeast on the night of the 18th
August, passing diagonally across it to the north-
west and doing heavy damage as far as St. Ann's
Bay. There was great destruction in Kingston. Trees
were blown down along the road to Half-way Tree,
where houses were few and far between, in such num-
bers that the mule-drawn street cars, which had by
that time been established, were unable to run for
many days afterwards. I happened to have come







A WEST INDIAN POLICEMAN.


down into Kingston on the 18th, and next morning f
was obliged to find my way back to my quarters at
Half-way Tree on foot. There had not been a real
hurricane for many years previously, and most peo-
ple had forgotten what it was like. We have had
many painful reminders since then.
In the following year, 1881, I was removed to Lin-
stead, to supervise the stations in the upper part of
St. Catherine, subject to the orders of the Inspector
for the parish, who resided in Spanish Town. Some
of the districts round about were in an exceedingly
benighted condition. I have in a previous chapter
described a case of highway robbery which occurred
in that neighbourhood; but during my stay there I
had some of the quaintest experiences which have
ever fallen to my lot, of which the following is the
most amusing, in spite of the element of tragedy
involved.
One of the stations within my purview was in a
wild locality called Point Hill, which in,those days
might have been described as a bit of "Darkest
Africa." It was many miles from everywhere, and
could scarcely be reached from any direction, except
on horseback. It boasted, however, a claim to be re-
garded as civilised in the fact that it actually pos-
sessed a resident District Medical Officer. When I
came to know this gentleman, I at once realized that
he was just the kind of person whom the govern-
ment would have appointed to such a place, because
they could not possibly have sent him to any highly
civilised one. It has always been a mystery to me
how such a person could ever have obtained the neces-
sary qualifications of a medical practitioner. He
was a white man, a Canadian; and it was said that






THE STORY.


he owed the appointment to the influence of a brother
who occupied a good position in the judicial depart-
ment. He was the butt and the prey of the negroes
living about him. They only consulted him profes-
sionally for the most trivial ailments; and they used
openly to ride his horses, and plunder his provision
ground. The first time I saw him, he was walking
along the road past the station in his shirt-sleeves,
bare-footed, with a white helmet on his head, a ma-
chette in one hand and a small bundle of sugar cane
on his shoulder. I received a severe shock when the
corporal in charge of the station told me, in reply to
my question, that he was the District Medical Officer.
I subsequently discovered that whenever he had to
attend a court, or to go to Spanish Town or Linstead
for any purpose, he used to wear a rusty black frock
coat, and a top hat that matched it in appearance. He
is thus described at length for the reason that he so
fitted in with the other characters engaged in the
case I am about to narrate.
One fine day there came to me at Linstead two
wild-looking women from this Point Hill district with
a weird story of infanticide committed on three
different occasions by a man and a woman residing
in their neighbourhood. They stated that the parties
mentioned had been living together for some three
years, during which time the woman had borne three
children; and that each of these children had sudden-
ly mysteriously disappeared when a few months old.
An accident had led to discovery of the fact that
the last one had been buried at the root of a bread-
fruit tree, growing on the border of the land on
which the two women lived. As their story appeared
to be reliable, and careful enquiry failed to reveal






A WEST INDIAN POLICEMAN.


any motive on their part, the necessary investigations
were undertaken; and there, sure enough, at the root
of the breadfruit tree we unearthed the bones of
three infants of tender years, one set of which ap-
peared to have been comparatively recently interred.
The man and the woman were arrested and sent on
to Spanish Town. There was no record of any regis-
tration of birth or death of any children at all hav-
ing been made by these persons; and, as always hap-
pens in such cases, as soon as the arrest had been
effected, plenty of corroborative evidence was forth-
coming from the people living in the neighbourhood.
The bones were of course submitted to the D.M.O.
above described for examination; and I recollect to
this day how he positively swelled up with a sense
of his own importance, and the pompous verbosity
with which he described the results of his examina-
tion. The prisoners were duly committed for trial
at the Kingston Circuit Court; but under the judicial
system then in vogue the Coroner for the parish de-
cided that an inquest should be held on the bones,
he, the Coroner, having nothing to do-as he would
have under the present system-with the examina-
tion of the criminal charge against the parties im-
plicated.
The coroner appointed as his deputy a certain soli-
citor, a man of low intelligence and poor education,
who never appeared in a court, but made his living
by doing a certain amount of rudimentary chamber
practice, and acting as coroner's deputy when occa-
sion called. The place appointed for the holding of
the inquest was a small house on a property called Ayl-
mer's which was used as a courthouse once in every
two months.






THE STORY.


The jury consisted of labourers working on a
neighboring sugar estate, and the headman of the
estate was the foreman of it, he and one other being
the only two men who could read and write. Then
there was in attendance, of course, the D.M.O. who
has been described, wearing, as befitted such a solemn
-occasion, his frock coat and top hat. Such a gather-
ing for judicial purposes I have never seen, before or
since.
The man and the woman who were charged with
the murder of the children were not in attendance,
they having been already committed for trial by an-
-other authority.
The court having been duly opened, the deputy
coroner explained to the jury that they were assembl-
ed for the purpose of enquiring whether the bones
were those of certain unnamed infants, and whether
these infants had come to their death by foul means
,or otherwise.
All the evidence was heard, and then, having sum-
med it up, the deputy coroner directed the jury to
-consider their verdict, on the lines previously indicat-
,ed. After a few minutes of rather excited and in-
dignant consultation the foreman stood up and thus
-delivered the verdict: "We find the prisoner at the bar
.guilty of murder."
It was then explained to them that there was no
prisoner at the bar for them to try; but that all they
were called upon to do was to pronounce upon the
bones, their previous instructions being carefully re-
peated to them. Once more they retired in consulta-
lion; and presently the foreman delivered an amended
verdict as follows :-"We find that the bones was the
,bones of the said children, and that they came to







74 A WEST INDIAN POLICEMAN.

their death by having their birth concealed." This
*verdict, the purport of which, though crudely ex-
pressed, was quite intelligible, the deputy coroner had
to accept.
As a matter of fact, the jury at the trial of the
two accused found them guilty of the offence of conceal-
ment of birth.







THE STORY.


Chapter IX.
THE STORY,-Continued.

For some three years, between 1881 and 1884, I was
shifted about from one parish to another, holding
acting appointments in Clarendon, Hanover and Man-
chester; then returning to Kingston for Sub-Inspect-
or's duty. In July of the latter year I was sent to
Morant Bay to relieve the Inspector for St. Thomas,
wvho had obtained six months leave. Owing to certain
circumstances which were not discovered until after
his departure he was precluded from returning to
duty; and at the expiration of his leave a vacancy
was thus created which should in the ordinary course
of things, have brought about my promotion to the
rank of Inspector, I being then the senior Sub. But just
at this juncture I experienced the first taste of the ill
luck which has dogged my footsteps ever since. A
Commission which had been sent out from England
in 1883 to, report on the financial condition of the
colony had, among other things, recommended that
the number of the officers of the Constabulary should
be reduced by one at the next opportunity, so that my
promotion had to be deferred until another vacaricy
occurred. This did not happen until nearly three
years later; and when it did arrive, I had been over
ten years a Sub-Inspector.
Shortly after I took charge of St. Thomas in 1884,
a new form of government was introduced in Ja-
maica; changing it from a Crown colony pure and







A WEST INDIAN POLICEMAN.


simple, and inaugurating a partially elected Legis-
lative Council; the system which, with several amend-
ments and extensions, continues to the present day.
The introduction of this change was, for some rea-
son or the other, watched with a great deal of anxiety
on the part of the authorities. A large number of
"'confidential" instructions were issued to the police;
and, among other precautionary measures, no mem-
ber of the force was allowed to have leave, except on
medical certificate, during the week in which the elec-
tions took place. However, everything went off with-
out symptoms of disturbance of any kind; and I have
no doubt the government felt that a great crisis had
been safely passed.
The parish of St. Thomas had been in bad repute
throughout the island ever since the events of the
rebellion of 1865; and on taking up my duties there
I found still living three or four survivors of the
massacres which took place at the Morant Bay court-
house and other places in the parish during that re-
bellion. Two of them were medical men, whose lives
had been deliberately spared by the rebels on account
of their profession. They had some gruesome stories
to tell.
I remained in charge of St. Thomas from July
1884, until Novembdr of the following year; and I sub-
sequently returned to the parish on promotion in 1887,
staying until January 1894. I thus spent altogether
upwards of eight years there; and I make bold to
think that I succeeded in proving that the bad repu-
tation of the parish above referred to was quite un-
deserved. I am proud to say that I won the respect,
the esteem, and the confidence of the population in







THE STORY.


such a way that for years after I had bidden fare-
well to the parish I used to receive occasional letters
and Christmas cards from numerous persons of the
humblest classes.
While serving there I had some of the most unique
and interesting experiences of my whole career,
some of which I will here set down. I ought to say
that it had apparently been the policy of the govern-
ment for some years to make the parish a dumping
ground for officials whom they regarded as being a
little below the mark of desirability, socially or other-
wise; although I am vain enough to think that I
was not sent there for any such reasons. One of the
District Medical Officers of the parish was an Ameri-
can, a refugee from the United States who had served
in the ranks of the Confederate army during the Civil
War. It used to be understood that there was a price
on his head.
Another was a man who had arrived in the island
as an army surgeon some forty years previously;
since which date he had never left it: nor, I think,
had he ever opened a medical work. His practice,
such as it was, lay chiefly in the bush of the Blue
Mountains; and on me devolved, in later years, the
unpleasant duty of bringing about his retirement
from the service altogether.
Sugar cultivation, more or less moribund, was car-
ried on in a desultory fashion at the east end of the
pariih---wich is the east end of the island--over
the magnificent alluvial plain known as the Plantain
Garden River district; but it was being steadily oust-
ed by the banana, through the enterprise of an Ameri-
can firm.to .whom Jamaica owes a debt of gratitude
which can never be repaid.







A WEST INDIAN POLICEMAN.


I made the acquaintance of that firm in its humble
beginnings as "Baker and Co.," watched it expand
into "The Boston Fruit Company," and have lived to
see it develop into the gigantic commercial concern
which is now known as "The United Fruit Company."
I have had official and private dealings with them ir
all those stages; and I gladly bear testimony to the
benefits they have conferred on this British colony.
Americans generally, rightly or wrongly, do not en-
joy a very good reputation for their modes of dealing
with the coloured element in their own country; but
in Jamaica the manner in which the United Fruit Co.
succeed in extracting from their coloured employees
the good service that they do, forms a curious and
interesting psychological study.
In the year 1884 the government first introduced
the experiment of importing a shipload of Chinese
coolies from Hong Kong as indentured labourers on
the sugar estates, instead of the East Indians, as
had always been the practice for over forty years.
The whole business was badly managed from the out-
set; there was not even anything like an adequate
staff of interpreters; and one Chinaman was so very
like another that the immigration authorities could
not for some time sort them out for allotment to the
various estates. Some seven hundred of them landed,
and considerably more than half were sent to St.
Thomas, by coasting vessels, or "drogher," as they are
called in Jamaica. Many of them were cunning and
unscrupulous ruffians-probably ex-pirates-and on
board one of these droghers, beating up for Port
Morant, the detachment rose in rebellion, and putting
the captain in fear of his life, compelled him to put his







THE STORY.


boat about and make for Kingston. The captain, how-
ever, had the good sense to run into Yallahs Bay,
which was then on his lee, and slip ashore in his dinghy
to the police station, from which a telegram was sent
to me at Morant Bay, on receipt of which I took what
action I deemed necessary.
When these Chinese were all eventually landed and
dispatched to their various estates, chaos and con-
fusion ensued. They did not take long to find out that
all the employees on the estates were mortally afraid
of them, and could not distinguish one from another.
Taking full advantage of this, they refused to work,
although the rations prescribed by the regulations were
duly issued to them by the estates. In some cases
they actually made raids on the provision grounds of
the negroes and on the canefields.
The situation called for drastic measures, and I
applied them-as usual entirely on my own respon-
sibility-giving some of the worst characters a slight
taste of the kind of treatment that would have been
meted out to them in China, with the result that in
about three weeks, work was proceeding smoothly
on all the estates. My men entered into the spirit of
the campaign with great gusto; but we all had a
strenuous time. In some other parishes these Chinese
deserted in batches, assisted by their countrymen in
Kingston; and on one property in St. Mary matters
culminated in a riot in which one Chinaman was
killed.
But I was very proud of the fact that owing to my
drastic measures out of the three hundred and sixty
or thereabouts who had been imported into St. Thom-
as, only some eight or nine were unaccounted for up







A WEST INDIAN POLICEMAN.


to the time I left the parish, after the lapse of six-
teen months.
An interesting case of murder occurred in the year
1885 among these same Chinese on an estate called
Lysson's, about three miles from Morant Bay. One
of them had been missing from the property for some
days, and it was assumed that he had deserted; when
one morning, on a gang being turned into one of the
canefields for the purpose of cleaning it, they came
upon a corpse in a ghastly state of decomposition,
Only the skull with the hair still attached to it reveal-
ed the fact that the remains were those of a China-
man. They must have been lying there for at least
two weeks. There is no place in the tropics so fear-
fully hot, or affording such effectual concealment,
as the heart of a canefield in full growth.
The medical examination of the body revealed that
there was a fracture at the base of the skull, prob-
ably caused by a blow with some heavy, blunt instru-
ment; and leaving the rest of the carcass to be buried,
the doctor took the head away with him to be proper-
ly cleaned and examined. The clothing found at the
spot was identified by the wife of the missing China-
man. Our enquiries furnished no clue at first; which,
in view of the language difficulty, was not surprising;
but late that evening we learnt that another Chinese
labourer, named Con Fook, had disappeared from
the estate. I made a very thorough search of Com
Fook's room and the effects which he had left behind;
and what I found there prompted me at once to set
the telegraph going to Kingston and other adjacent
parishes for the arrest of Con Fook. The Immigra-
tion Department also sent a fully qualified interpre-
ter at my request, one whom they had recently






THE STORY. 81

brought all the way from Demerara; and with his
aid a good deal of evidence was obtained. It was all
purely circumstantial; but, as the event proved, it
was sufficient. Then, some ten days later, Corn Fook
himself was brought back in custody, having been
arrested through the" vigilance and intelligence of a
smart young constable stationed at Cross Roads, a
place which is an exceedingly busy thoroughfare on
the outskirts of Kingston. My theory of the case
was that Com Fook had followed the deceased into
the canefield and there dealt him a terrific blow from
behind with the head of his hoe. 'The skull, nicely
washed and disinfected, was produced by the doctor;
and there was the fracture, in the very thickest part
of it, plainly to be seen. The only difficulty was to
discover a motive for the murder; but that difficulty
disappeared under the intelligent handling of my
interpreter. He ascertained that some two weeks
previous to the finding of the body, Cor Fook and
the deceased-whose name I have forgotten-had
had a furious quarrel over the gambling table, in the
course of which deceased had called Com Fook a
"loasen pig"-as the interpreter put it, meaning a
"roasting pig"--and that Com Fook had then and
there sworn to kill the other at the earliest oppor-
tunity. A curious light is thrown on the psychology
of the Chinaman by the fact that all the Chinese who
were present at the time, and indeed, all those on the
estate, were quite well aware of this, and were not in
the least surprised when Cor Fook carried his threat
into execution.
SThe case was tried in the Circuit Court at Bath,
where all..the .ases from eastern St. Thomas and
Portland used to be sent in those days.






A WEST -INDIAN POLICEMAN.


The evidence was entirely circumstantial; and, with
exception of the overseer of the estate, the doctor, the
arresting constable and myself, all the witnesses were
Chinese, who could scarcely speak a word of English.
The jury found a verdict of guilty; and Cor Fook
was duly executed in Spanish Town, after making
full confession of his guilt. The only thing that he
could not understand was why he had been "tried so
often," as he put it, instead of only once. What he
meant was that he had been present at an inquest-
which, as stated in the previous chapter, used always
to be held in such cases at that time-and at the in-
vestigation by the committing magistrate, as well as
at the Circuit Court where he was finally dealt with.
I trust I may be pardoned for mentioning that Mr.
Justice Charles Ribton Curran, who presided at the
trial, introduced into his summing up some remarks
regarding the way in which the case had been got up
which were of a nature most gratifying to myself.
I may also say, incidentally, that the interpreter,
a man of fine presence, and highly intelligent, wound
up by marrying the widow of the murdered man, and
taking her with him on his return to Demerara.
It was in St. Thomas that I came across the most
determined and persistent law-breaker that I ever
knew. His name was Bennett; a man of gentle de-
meanour, very quiet, civil, and soft-spoken. There
exists, as an auxiliary to the regular police, a force
of rural constables, who wear no uniform, and do
no constant police work, but only don a particular
kind of distinctive badge when called upon to per-
form police duties, for which they are paid pro re
aiata. Bennett had been appointed to a post of this
description on the recommendation of his employer,






THE STORY.


who was a J.P., and a large proprietor; and in that
capacity he was one day sent to arrest a Chinese lab-
ourer on the estate on a charge of larceny. of canes,
or sugar, I forget which. The Chinaman made some
show of resistance, whereupon Bennett administered
to him with his staff-quite a formidable weapon-
such a beating that the Chinaman was ordered to hos-
pital as a patient instead of being tried for the
offence charged against him. Bennett was then put
on his trial for unlawful wounding, and sentenced by
the court to six months hard labour; which naturally
involved his dismissal from the rural police. Having
served his term, he returned to the estate, and was'
again taken on by his employer-who, by the way, in-
variably exhibited great sympathy for him through-
out his career, up to a certain point, which will be
described later. Before Bennett had been back a
month, by a remarkable coincidence, the very China-
man on whose account he had suffered the imprison-
ment was seized with a mysterious illness, necessitat-
ing his removal to the hospital; where, after lingering
in a comatose condition for upwards of three weeks,
he gave up the ghost. His illness was certified by the
D.M.O. as "opium poisoning;" but knowing, as I do,
the manner in which that hospital was run, I have
my own opinion of the case. However, as I did not
happen to be in the parish just at that juncture I had
no official connection with it. I was sent back there in
time to witness the finish of Bennett's career.

His next exploit was the stealing of a watch from
a Chinese labourer on the estate adjoining the one
on which he was employed. The watch was a fairly
valuable one; and the case being proved to the hilt,






A WEST INDIAN POLICEMAN.


a sentence of nine months hard labour was passed
on him.
Not long after he returned from prison on this
occasion an attempt was made to poison the rice
which had been cooked for eating by the same China-
man from whom Bennett had stolen the watch, and
two others who lived in the same room. We arrested
Bennett on suspicion, and presented a case sufficient-
ly clear to commit him for trial at the Circuit Court,
which as the new system had come into force,
was to be held at Morant Bay, for the St. Thomas
cases only. His employer stood bail for him, and
brought down counsel from Kingston to defend him.
This gentleman played so cleverly on the hostility to
the Chinese which was general throughout the parish,
that he succeeded in obtaining from the jury a verdict
of acquittal; which was, beyond all doubt, a gross mis-
carriage of justice. The presiding judge gave an un-
mistakable indication of his own opinion of the
verdict by remarking to the prisoner on discharging
him: "You are a very lucky man."
After this episode Bennett lay low for several
months, and nothing was heard of him. Then, one
day my detective came to me and told me that he
had received an invitation from Bennett to attend his
wedding at the Golden Grove church on a certain day
some four weeks later, the bride elect being a widow
woman of substance, keeping a shop in the Golden
Grove village, which adjoins the property on which
Bennett was employed. The detective, who was a very
fine character, said:
"You know, sir, Bennett does not belong to this.'
parish; he comes from my own district of the parish'
of St. Mary; and, as you know, I have just returned




Full Text

PAGE 2

, LATINCOLLECTION ,

PAGE 4

. -.:0..71f:#-'x.--4-r<1--7--..--=====---t..&"r-/-P?'

PAGE 5

Photoby Yottng,Falmottth THEAUTHOR,AGED67.

PAGE 6

THE STORYOFAWESTINDIANPOLICEMANFORTY-SEVENYEARSINTHEJAMAICACONSTABULARY BVltEIlBERTT.'fROMAS, -LATE INSPECTOR INTHAT FORCE. (AUTHOROF "UNTRODDENJAMAIOA."Printlld!IvTHIlGLIlANIlRCO.,IJrD.)InNGSTOl(,JAlUICAj1\12T.

PAGE 7

+\\1111 LATINAMERICA

PAGE 8

CONTENTS.AUTHOR'S Pm:FACE CIU.PfER I.-INTRODUCTORYCHAPTERn.-TUECOUNTRYCHAPTERIII.CLUIATE:KATURAL HISTORY CIIAPTIIt IV.-THE PIWPLIil CIU.PTER V.-THIIJ STORY VI-THESTORY,CONTINUEll CrrAPTKR VlI.-"" CHAPTEU VIII.-'.'" CHAPTER IX.-"" CHAPn;R X.-"" CraPTERXL-TIl&MOSTEGO BAY nIOTSCHAPTKRXIL-THItA.l!"rERMATHXIII.-STUDIKSIN PSYCBOLOGY CHAPTER XIV.-THE STORY CONTINUED....CHAI>TERXV.-" "CHAPTER XVI.-THKEND OF THESTORYCHAPTICR XVII-'!'HE MAROONSCIIAPTIm XVIII.-THE MAROONS, CONTINUEDCHAPTER XIX:':""-OBEAHCHAPTER XX.-THE JA!lIAICA POLICEMANCUAPTERXXL-THE RACllJQUE'3TIONCUAPTER XXII.-ODDSANDENDSA.FTERTHOUGHTSPagev171521 3445 596875 91110 128 145 169198224269 297313 338361378 412

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INDEXTOILLUSTRATIONS.THEAUTHOR AGED 67THEHON.HUGHCLARKE,CUSTOSOF WESTMOltI:JLAND PARADEATSUTTONSTREETS.C. G.O.C.TROOPSGUARDATSUTTONSTREET11 69112 112137 137140 140155 155 212237, 249 267338 360 FrontispiecpFacing Pago5..POLICE TENT IN STATION YARDMARCHINGTOCOURTTHEAUTHOR, AGED 67GUARDPARADINGFORCOURT THEAUTHORAGliDGO COLONIAL OFFIC&DELEGATION ATFALMOUTH ONE OF "THlt GLORIOUS DEAD"THIIBLUE HOLE GROUP OFOFFICERS AT EXHIBITIONTHESQUARE, MONTEGO BAY THE BATTERED POLICE STATION, MONTEGO BAYBRIDGEOVER CREEK,Ai-m HOUSE FIREDINTOSOME OFTHE LADY RIOTERSWAITINGAT RAILWAY STATIONTO SEE RIOTERS PASSMAl' OF JAMAICA End.

PAGE 10

AUTHOR'SPREFACE.There's a chiel' amangus takin' notes, And, faith, he'll prent 'e1ft. Burns. There was a time when I never thoughtof"prentin,"a book; although I had, unconsciously, been''takin'notes" in averyaccurateandretentive memoryformany years.Inmy school days Iwasalwaysatthetop ofmyclass in history, owing tothepossession of such amemory-particularlywithrespect todates;and some sixteen years ago, a young Englishman, M.A. of Cambridge, who came tothiscountryasa school master,andbecame very friendlywithme, told methatitwas adutywhich I owedtotheinhabitantsofthisisland to write a book on my experiences inthepolice forceassoon as I should have retired. I ponderedthissuggestion;andthenitgradually dawned upon methatto complywithitwas n dutywhich I owedtomy self. I accordingly began to unload my memory on paper, and continuedtodoso; chronicling all subse quent events up to mylastdayintheservice,andcol lecting necessary documents. Thereadermay thereforerestassuredthatevery fltatement offactwhichthisbook containsisabsolu tely correct inthemain. There mayofcourse be someerrorsinregardtomattersofunimportantde tail in c.onnectionwiththeoccurrencesoftheremotepast;buttherearenomen-orpreciousfew-nowalivetocheck these. When I come to review it, I findthedeathlist of those who were contemporary with me very saddening.IfIweretorelate all I know aboutthepeopleandthegovernment ofJa maica,andto make a complete recordofmy ownofficial experiences, I couldfillatleast twoothervolumesofthesame sizeasthisone. Asitis Iamconfident

PAGE 11

VIAUTHOR'SPREFACEthatmanyofthefacts which I havesetdown will as astartlingrevelation tothepublicofmy country. Stationedinallpartsofthe island for forty-seven yearsasI have been, and being now ontheverge of celebrating my golden jubilee as a memberoftheJamaica Club, I have become a walking encyclopaediaofJ 2.maica family histories-even thoseofthefewwithwhomIampersonally unacquainted. Havingthus selected mymaterial, I began towritemy story as soon as Ihadsettled down in Kingston;butwith aspirit crushed and clouded by the misfortunesattendantonthecloseofmycareer, andfurthersmittenbythefinancialdisasterrecorded inthelastchapter, myliteraryworkwasproducedwithgreatmental effort, wasnotspontaneous, and didnotdome justice. However,IsenttheM.S.to England, where friendsofminetriedto placeitwithhalf-a-dozen differentpublishers. These all gavethesamereply:thattheywere miwilling to undertake pUblifation as :-l. speculation, because my subject was not of sufficient general interest, being too local initspurview. My friend Mr. Algernon AspinalloftheW.I.Committee advised me totrythe Gleaner Company, withtheviewofpublishing locally. This wasaftertheM.S.hadbeen over ayearinEngland;and whenitwasreturnedto me, having regained my normal mentality, I re vised, and practically re-wrote, the book, extendingit to nearly twiceitsoriginal size. I decided todoso, will be seen, intheintimate and familiar style which suits a small community, where everybody knows everybody else, and in which Iamprobably known,eitherpersonallyorbyreputation, to more personsthananyotherindividual man in it.InfactIhavenothesitated tobaremy very soul; and Idoherewithcommend my work to"Thecharitywhich thinketh no evil." There will doubtless. be some who willsaythatI havewrittentoo much about myself. To thatI would replythatitismystory,isn'tit?And must Inotthereforeofnecessity100mlarge init?AndifIam

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AUTHOR'S PUED'ACE,VH held to haveerredinthatdirection, will you not make !'lome allowanceforthegarrulitywhichissooftenat tflndant on old age? And will younotalso excuse.aspardonable vanityofanold man,thedesiretorevealtoa youngergeneration-ofpolicemenespeciallY"which knewnotJoseph," (likethenew king overEgyptinthefirstchapterofExodus),whatmannerofman was inhisyouththevenerableruintheynow seetotteringaboutthestreetsofKingston? Others again may findfaultwithmylanguage,asheing unnecessarily strong,orbitter.Withregardtothe first, I claim to be in good company;forhasnotaneminent critic declaredthatsuch aliterarylightas Thomas Carlyle"thoughtin a passion"?Atanyratemy language can, I submit, claimthemeritof being entirely devoidofall ambiguity, andthat sane per son can fail to understand it. Asregardsthebitterness, Iventuretothinkthatin viewofthetreatmentmeted out to me, andofthe misfortunes which have be fallen me,asdepicted in these pages, I should have beeneithervery much morethanhuman,orlessthanhuman,ifthe iron hadnotdeeply entered my. soul even before I reached middle age. IdonotthinkI needdomore tojustifythebitternessthan.refertotheseparation from mynearanddearones, resulting fromthattreatment,from March 1902 until to-day-with exceptionoftwoshortmonths in 1909: separation on which in five cases the handofdeathhasalreadysetthe sealofeternity.Somuchformy countrymen. bybirthand adoption! Withregardto thestrangersfrom overseas into whose handsthisbook may fall, I cherishthehopethat theywill find initsufficient toattractthemapartfrommy personal concerns.ButI also make boldtoforeseethatmany ofthem-generous,good-natured and kind ly-hearted folk as I know them to be inthemainwill be induced totakea humaninterestinthewriter ns well.Forbeing abletomeet the financial requirementsattendantonthepublicationofthebook, I haveto

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VUIAUTHOR'SPallFAC&tJ)ank various fellow officersofthepolice, alidofdtherbranchesofthepublic service,aswellasfriends out side, who obtaihed subscribersforme.Butmost Of all 11m I indebtedtothat shining exampletothemen 01 theJamaicaConstabulary,Sergeant-MajorBlack,forhisuhWeatyingand succeSSful effortsinthatdirection among' themembersoftheforce. IIERBERT T. THOMAS R Geffrard Place, Kingston, Jamaica; December, 1926,a'M

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INTRODUCTORY.Chapter1.INTRODUCTORY. This book is intended inthefirst instancefortheinhabitants oftheIslandofJamaica andforpersons with,orinterested inthecolony;thenfortheresidents ofotherWest Indian countries; and lastly forsuchofthe membersofthegreatBritishpublicas may be desiroustoextendtheirknowledgeofGreatBritainBeyondtheSeas,ofwhichthislittle island forms a small,butbyno means insignificantoruninterestingportion. There was a time whenthegeneral public knew nothing aboutJamaicaexceptthatitwas celebratedforthe excellence ofitsrum;butthose days are, I think,past;although no doubt the advertisement ofthatproduct whichhasbeensowidely broad casted by meansofthe'Planters'Punch"atWembley will vivetherecollection. A good deal has beenwrittenabout the island in recent years, chiefly inthelineofarticles in magazines and newspapers. Scenesfrom.Jamaica have also been incidentally introduced into novels dealingwithtropical life. Some ofthewritersofthese have been globe-trotters ofthesame type as Kipling's"Paget,M.P." Others have suffered lack of sufficient knowledge,andfrom a credulity which seems almost child-like; ,among thesetheAmeri eans easilytakingthe first place. Others again havewrittenunderthe influence of a complaint to which I hnve given the name of "Tropicalitis." This is a men-

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2AWESTINDIANPOLICEMAN.taldisease,broughtonbytheglamouroftheeternalsummer,theconstantsunshine,theluxurianceofthevegetation,theflashingandmurmuringstreams, the blue, blue wavesbreakingonthecoral beaches,andthewitcheryofthemellow moonlight; allofwhichtendtoobfuscate reasonedjudgment !tnd senseofproportion.EvenawriterofthecalibreofJ.A.Froudesuc cumbedtothisinfluencewhenhesetdowninhis"BowofUlysses"thestatementthatthelightofthefireflieswascarriedinlanternshungattheendsoftheirantennae.Anotherandmore recent caseofthiscomplaintwaspresentedbyanAmerican lady who visitedtheis. land on a honeymoontrip,inayachtbearingtheextraordinary name of"Speejacks." Onreturninghome she described Kingston,inwritingasurveyofhertripfortheAmerican press,as"acityofunusualbeauty." Certainly,ifKingstonmaybe .describedaspossessing any "beauty,""unusual"becomes amostfittingtermwherewithtoqualify such a description.Yetanother,andstill morerecentcase isthatof the "educatedandtravelledEnglishman,"whowasstatedby areporterinthecolumnsoftheGleanertohave called Kingston"thecleanestcityhehadeverseen."Itisdifficulttoimagine a caseof"tropicalitis"exhibitingmorevirulentsymptomsthanthis;andnodoubtthisgentleman's descriptionofourmetropolismusthaveadministered a severe shocktotheintelligentresidents. Lastly,thereisthe disgruntled writerwho,havingfromtheveryfirst momentofhislandingstruckaninharmonious note,takesa savage pleasureinheapingcalumny onthecountryanditsinhabitants;

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INTRODUCTORY.3exaggeratingtheunpleasant aspects which undoubt edly dooffer themselvestoa sensitive observer,andreiusingtoseeanyredeeming feature in anything.Thelnostshining exemplarofthistypeofwriterisone l{eith-Jopp, who recently published a novel,thesceneofwhich is laid in Jamaica, and whichhasobviously beenwrittenwitha pen dipped in gallofthebitterest I think, however,thatIamon firm groundwhenIclaimthatthisbook of mine iswrittenfromanentirelynovel, original and unique standpoint, whichisfully explainedinthetitle;anditisscarcely neces cary forme to saythatall the factsthereinsetdown are eithertaken frommyown personal experience,orsupportedbyunimpeachable evidence. No doubtthetruthsthusrecorded will be unpalatabletosome peo pie;butI have always hadthecourageofmy opinions-perhapsintoo marked a degreeformyown com:':ort while inthepublicservice-andIamnotlikelytoshowthewhitefeathernowthatI have shaken off the shackles of official life. Most Jamaicans are, astheeditorofouronedaily paper frequently reminds them, inclinedtobethin :3kinned, and to resentthe telling of unpleasanttruthsabouttheircountry. Thishascometobe known as "Knocking"Jamaica;andthey objecttoitsbeing donebyanyonewhoisnotanativeofthe island. They suffer from a conceit which makesitdifficultforthemto realisewhataninfinitesimal and insignificant scrapofthegreatworldJamaicais;andtheylosesightofthatimmortal coupletof the poetBurns:-

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4 AWESTINDIANPOLICEMAN."Oh, wad some powerthegiftie gie us To see ourselvesasothers see us." Some negroesofthebasersortnowadays evenhavetheeffronterytorefertoEnglishmenas"foreigners;"while others seemtocherish some dreamofthepossibilityofcreating a "nation,"astheyput it, outofthemanyheterogeneousandconflicting ele ments which constitute the populationoftheirlittlecountry. Some evenduringa recent electionofa member C'!theKingston and St.AndrewCorporationcarriedtheirimpudence tothelengthoftryingtoinducetheelectorsnotto votefora certain candidate, becausehe anEnglishman, forsooth!Itis pleasingto record. however,thatthevoters had sufficient good sense t() l'eturnthis"foreigner"over the head of hisJamaican:rival by a substantialmajority;thesaid"foreigner" being a man who had /:lpent thegreaterpartofhis lite inthecountry; had married into a Jamaicafamily;and had rendered yeoman service tothecityofKingston in a public capacity. Thislastsymptom is a noxious weedofrecentgrowth;and Idonotrecollectitspushingitsugly head above ground onanyprevious occasion.Itis no doubt a sample ofthetaresamong the wheat whicharebeing sedulously sown by a certain Asaociation, which is dealtv.ithin a subsequent chapter.Butthe above ismoreorless a .digression; and I hasten totakeupthethread. once more. Nothing, however, intheshapeofobjection onthescore of nationality can possibly be levelledatme. Not only;;tm Ia Jamaican, inthethirdgeneration,butI have served my native country inthecapacity of an

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ONEOF"THEGLORIOUS DEAD." (TALANA FARM CEMETERY, BELGIIDI).

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INTRODUCTORY. {) officer of policeforupwardsof years-a period whichinpointoftime alone constitutes a record p asfaras my knowledgegoes-andthatwithloyalty cmd zeal, which may have been equalledbutneversur-.1)assed, and efficiency such as those whoreadmy book will be able toappraiseforthemselves.Inadditiontothatmy humble familyofJamaicans bolds therecord oftheentireBritishWestIndiaColoniesforservicetoandsacrificefortheEmpire. I had five sons, allof whom served intheGreat WarpoOn land,atsea, and intheair.Fortheeldestofthemitwas his second campaign, ashehadenlisted inEnglandduringtheBoerwarfrom Bedford schoolasatrooperin Baden-Powell's South African Constabu lary, and servedthroughthelastfifteen monthsofthatcampaign,earningthe King's medalwithfive clasps. Of the fivethethreeeldest were killed in duringthewarin consecutiveyears;two in France,andoneinEastAfrica;whilethefifthand :Joungest, who had passedthroughthewholewarintheAirservice without a scratch, perishedafternearlythreeyears of peace in.' thedisaster which occurredat Rull in 1921 totheairshipR 38. Ofthefive two were decorated:thesecondwiththeDistinguished Service Crossfor hi& partintheSuvlaBaylandingatGalli :poli; whiletheyoungest was awardedtheDistinguish FlyingCrossforsinking a German submarine intheNorthSea,withall hands a few weeks beforethearmistice.Inaddition to my own direct descendantsmyorilybrother'sonly child,myone nephew, who won theJa-" maica Rhodes scholarshipof1913, received a comn.issionatOxford intheRoyal Field Artillery onthe

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6 AWESTINDIANPOLICEMAN.raisingof"Kitehener's Army," and servedtowithin t.VIO monthsoftheArmistice, when he was invalided home: Such istherecord of myself and my humblefamily;andifonthefaceof that' Imaynotregardmy. fielf asentitledtoexpressmyopinions respectingmynativecountry anditsinhabitants"without favouror. affection," I should liketoknow whoelsenlay.Injudgingmy work I wouldaskthereadertobearin mindthat,asweareall moreorlesstheplaythingsofcircumstance and environment,thevariousunpleasant, unique, and sometimestragicexperiencesofmy lifesetdowninthesepages-aswellasmany c.thers whichdonotappeartherein,thisnotbeingbyanymeans a completeautobiography-havehadtheeffectofgradually convertinganingenuousandcon fiding youth, brimming overwiththemilk ofhumankmdness, into a cynic, a sceptic, a pessimist, andverynearlya misanthrope, long before I reachedtheageofseventy. Finally, I deeplyregretthatsoverymanyofthecontemporary witnessesoftheevents herein record andofpersons spokenofgenerally, have inthenaturalorder of thing'S passed over tothegreatmajority;andthatI have been consequently sometimes l,mder thenecessity of speaking unkindlyofthedead.Butinmyopinion.demortuis nil nisi verumisjust as good a maxim asthesame one ending inbonum.If that werenotthecase,thenposterity has dealt ur.l:rindly withsuch personsasNero,Judas Iscariot.and thelate Dr. Crippen,forinstance.

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THECOUNTRY.Chapter II.THECOUNTRY.7The island ofJamaicais situatedintheCaribbean Sea between 17and18 degreesnorthoftheEquator, and isthirdoftheWestIndianislandsinpointof size. Itis about 144 miles in length,anditswidthvaries from 50 to22miles; whileitstotalareais 4,200 square miles.Itliessprawlingonthebosomofthewaters, in shapeverymuch likeanalligator ;anditconsists, roughly speaking,ofa backbone of mountainrunningalongitsentirelengthfromeastto west,withc:ountless subsidiary ridgesbranchingoffatevery con ceivable angle downtothesea. Ofits4,200squaremiles ofareaonly about2,000-0rlittle lessthanhalf-lieatlessthan1,000feetabove sea-level; whileintheBlue Mountainrangeattheeasternend ofthe is. land thehighest peakattainsanaltitudeof7,450 feet. Thisentirerangeis clothedwithprofuse vegetationl.ptotheverysummit.Thereareno bleakandbarrenpeaks stapding aloft. All are cladwitha mantle of densevirginforest,ofsodarkaverdureasto'1endthetintofdeep azure whichhasearnedforthellighestrangethenameof"Blue Mountains."Innearlyeverycleftofthismassofmountainthereisrunningwater, especially intheeastandnorth.Streamsroarandbabble over rocks, boulders, and pebblesundertheshadeofforesttrees;or,inthe limestone regions,burrowtheircourse underground, flashing out nowandthenforabriefspace intothe

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8AWESTINDIANPOLICEMAN.light of day, and unitingtoformriverswhich flowmtothe sea onthenorthorsouth sidesoftheisland. Owing to the precipitous formationoftheirbeds only of these riversarenavigableforany distancefromtheirmouths. Thelargerofthese istheBlack River in the parish of St. Elizabeth, which is usedasawaterhighway totheseaforsomethirtymilesofiiscourse. The immediate neighbourhoodofthisriveralso affordsthesupreme illustration oftheprocessofunderground percolation mentioned above, intheexistenceofsome 60,000 acres of morass, allthewater (1f which is fresh and thickly grownwithreedsand <1ther aquatic vegetation; and, most remarkable of all, possessing the only lake in the island. This is a body of pure, sweet water, fedby several springs issuing fromtheadjacent hills.Itis one mile in length, and covers bn areaof about 100 acres, partially clothedwithwater-lilies, and of enormous depth.Itdischargeswitha steady flowon the southern side throughanadjoining morass intothesea, which is about a mile
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THECOUNTRY.9sertingthathisisland is"themost beautifulcountryintheworld," being quite unableto .realise whataverylargeorderthatis;andhisjudgmentisnotin frequently endorsed by casual visitorssuffering un.,.,rler theinfluence ofwhatI have describedas"Tropica jitis." Certainlytherearegemsofscenery hereandtherethatwillbearcomparisonwithalmostanyof the beauty spotsoftheworld. Many of these how (,ver areentirely offthebeaten tracks,andareonly seen by personswitha loveforexploration, suchasI used tobeinthedays of my youth. I have describ ed severalofthem in my little book"UntroddenJamaica," published in189l.Itis a curiousthingthattheindigenous vegetation uf theimmediate neighbourhood of Kingston,thegatewayoftheisland,isof a distinctly unlovelyandrepellentdescription. The soil howeverisofa wonderfullyresponsivenature,andwiththeaidofirrigation <'an be made togrowanything,asthegardensprove;butthenative vegetation consistsentirelyofthe scrubby andprickly growths which one associates with adesertcountry, save and exceptthelignum vitae trees,withtheirbeautiful blossoms. Theverygrass Bcarcely concealsthebareearth.This kindofscenery (.xtends, roughly speaking,fromthesea onthesouth, ,eastward tothevillage of White Horses in St. Thomas, .and westwardasfarasPorus, exceptwheretheirri system has madetheenvironment oftherailway }ine about Spanish Town to blossom liketherose. The wholeofthesouth side alongthecoast line isnotto be comparedwiththenorthinpointofbeauty,ifwe exceptthesouthern slopesoftheBlue Mountains

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10 AWESTINDIANPOLICEMAN.andtherocky gorge knownastheBog Walk,throughwhichtheRio Cobrehascarveditswaytothesea.ButbeginningatthevillageofWhiteHorsesalreadymentioned,rightroundtheeastendandalongthewholenorthcoast to Lucea,themost westerly town,theviewsarepracticallyanunmixed delight. Of courseina countryofsuch a mountainousnaturetherearegreatvarietiesofclimate.Itis afar cry fromthetorridzoneandthemalodorous mangrove swampsofthesouth coast tothedeliciousandexhilaratingairoftheBlue Mountains. I couldtake you fromfoetid lagoons, acrossthedepthsofwhose brownwaterstherootsofthemangrovestraddlelikegiantspiders, toriverglades where blazescarletclumps of the single Amaryllis lily; to swellingpastureswhere but forthearchingplumesofthegraceful bambooand an occasionalgiantcotton tree, youmighteasily imagine yourself in abitofEnglishgrazingcountry. I couldtakeyouhigherstill,andshow you dogrosei; andblackberries growing bythewayside;redandyellow gladiolus blooming amongthecoffeetrees;andhedgesofscarletgeraniumthreefeethighencirclinggardensfilledwithnothingbutEnglish blossoms.We('ould gohigherstill,andfeaston wildstrawberriesuntilourteethwere on edge,andperhapsobtain afewluscious peaches.Therearecovesofsparklingwaterfringedwithcoral beacheswheremaidenhairfernclothestherocks down tothewater'sedge,itsdelicate :fronds often searedwiththesaltsea spray. Andtherearerocky gorgeswherethemountaintorrentroarsandflashes along ahundred feet belowthepath, whilethestatelytree-fernsnodandwhisperoverhead, amid clustersofpinkandwhite begonias

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Photo by N. l1cMonttrylwc.1'HF)!JLVF)IJOLE/

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THECOUNTRY.11 and wreathsofcrimson ipomoea. Thenat eve, withyourday's wanderingatanend, you may listentothegurglingchorusofthebullfrogsandthechirpofthe crickets, andwatchthefireflies flitinandout among the branches, whiletheland-breezerustlestheleavesofthetall coconut palms,andthesilver moon, addingtothewitcheryofthetepid, languorous night, floodsthe iandscape andthemurmuringwaveletsoftheseaatyourfeetwitha mellow light. .I once, manyyearsago, attemptedtoembody these impressionsinverse, which I nowventureto in flict uponthereader.ADREAMOFJAMAICA.Islandofforestdarkandsilverstream!Thystately mountainsatthedawning's gleam Towero'ertherestless wavethatbeatsthyshoreWithcreamy crest,andsullen, ceaseless roar. Clothingtheirpeaks in cloud,theycalmly gazeIntotheopalEast,andwaittheraysThatsoon shall steal acrossthedimpleddeep To rousetheirmany-tinted world from sleep. Lo! how on peakandridge,indarkravine Leaps into life anewtheforestgreen;Rose-redandpurple, blueandgolden, glow The mist-wreathed heights above,theplains below; There, wherethetorrent'srushyondarkrocks stem, Hangso'erthe fall a rainbow diadem: A dream of beauty,wroughtby magic hand, Fr.om sombre mountain peak to silverstrand.The tropicdaywearson;theunpitying sun

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12 AWESTINDIANPOLICEMAN.O'erhillandplain a fiery course dothrun;Then, slowly sinkingto his ocean bed,Paintsthewholewesternskyinflaming red.MarkhowthescarredandfurrowedhillsidesthrowTheiransweringsignaltohispartingglow. Now gold, now orange,lasta crimsonbrightKissesthedying sun a fond good-night,Andnight-mistskindfromoutthevalleysstealThe sun-seared hillandthirstingplain to heal. The land-breeze sighs adownthegorges deepAndlullsthefretfulwavestotunefulsleep. The short-livedtwilightfades,night'sshadows fall, And darkness shrouds theewitha scented pall. The sweetest incensewreathesthyslumberssoft;Of trumpet-flowerandof night-jasminewaftAbroadtheforestwindsthefragrancerare,Andcircle theearoundwithperfumedair.The golden moonuprisingpours ontheeA mellow radiance, which moretenderlyEmbracestheethaneverwascaressedThemaid close clinging toherlover's breast. Lookwhereyon creeping cactus tangles droopFromtreetotree,ofwanton maids atroopNight-blooming cereus clusters boldlybareTheirvirgincharms, unblushing, totheglareOfamorous moonbeamsfortheirone sweetnightOf passionthatshall diewithmorning's light.Islandofforestdarkandsilverstream!Ifainamidthywhisperingwoods woulddream,Downintheirfernyhollowssoftandwarm,My lifeawayintheirmysteriouscharm ..

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THECOUNTRY.13Ofthave I roamedthysilentforeststhrough,Heardthegreenparrotscream,theblue-dove coo ;OfthaveI listened whilethesolitaireThrilledwithhisplaintive notethemountainair;Ofthave Ibythecamp-fire's fitfullightHearkenedthesolemn voicesofthenight.Oftenhave Ibyfern-boweredwaterfall,Lurkingneathmoss-cladtrunksandtree-fernstallThoughtthatamidsuch scenes'tweresweettolayMe downtorest,andendlife'swearyday.Itisan unden,iable factthatthenumbersoftouristsfromtemperateclimes whovisitJamaicaduringthewintermonths donotseethecountryatitsbest;althoughofcourseatthatseasontheclimate ismoreendurable.Itistheverydriesttimeoftheyear,es peciallyduringthedroughtswhich have been soper sistent oflate. All vegetation is moreorlessathirst; and mostofthedeciduous trees, amongthemthe graceful featherybamboo,arealmost leafless.Thefullgloryofleafandflower comesatalaterperiod. Thesevisitors-iftheyarriveearlyenough-mayseethepale goldofthelogwood blossom covering count l<.>ss acres,atthewestend of theisland especially,and itshoneyed sweetness;buttheydonotseethepinkcloudsofthedogwood,orinhalethefragranceofsweetwood, ackeeorguinep,andotherflowering 1rees. Theymissthedivinearomaofthecoffeeandthepimento blossom; whichlatteris such amarkedfeatureofthatpartoftheislandwhereitgrowsmost profusely,thatitfinds a placeinthechroniclesrecordingthediscoveryofJamaicabyColumbusinMay 1494andhislandingatSt.Ann'sBay.Thepimento

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14 AWESTINDIANPOLICEMAN.growsingreaterquantitiesintheparishofSt.Annthananywhere elseintheisland,andMayisthemonthofitsblooming. Theremusthave been wholeforestsofitgrowingtherein 1494;anditis easyforus evenatthisdayto imagine howthewholeatmospheremusthave been ladenwiththedivinefragrancewhich was borne seaward bytheland-breezeandtotheSpanish ships lyingatanchor offthecoast. Politically,thewhole island is divided intofourteen parishes, which practically correspond tothecoun tIes in England.Eachhasitschief town,inwhicharesituatedtheofficesofthe publicdepart ments: courts, revenue, medical, police, etc.,andeachhasa body whichcarriesoutthefunctionsofthelocalgovernmentboardforadministeringtheinternalaf tail'S oftheparish. Kingston,thecapitaloftheisland,formsaparishby itself,andcontainstheseatofgovernmentandtheheadquartersofallthevarious departmentsofthepublic service. All these divisions l:i.re fully illustratedbythemapinsertedinthebook.

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CLIMATEAND NATURAL HISTORY.15ChapterIII.CLIMATEANDNATURALHISTORY.Thereareevennow-althoughrapidlyonthedecrease-manyerroneousideasprevailinginEngland about theclimateofJamaica;ideasforwhichSUChstoriesas"TomCringle'sLog,""TheCruiseofTheMidge"andsomeofCaptainMarryat'snovelsarechiefly responsible.Thesebooksbreatheanatmospherepermeatedbyrumandyellowfever:a hectic lifeofriotanddebauchery,terminatinginswiftdeathbyYellowJack.Theymayhave beenfaithfulpicturesofJamaicalifeinthelatterpartofthe18thandearlyinthe19thcenturies,buttheyhavelongceased to be such. IthinkIamcorrectinassertingthatthedreaded yellowfever-ofwhich two seriousoutbreakshaveoccurredwithinmyown recollection-neverwasindigenousto,orendemicintheisland,butwasalwaysbroughtherefromCuba,orCentralorSouthAmerica.Andnowtheoriginofthedis ase hasbeen sothoroughlyascertained,andthescienceofsanitationhasreachedsuchapitchofperfection,thattheverynameofyellowfeverisnevermentionedanymore.Intheyear1889theofficer whowasthenattheheadoftheArmyMedicalDepartment,asitwascalled in those days, compiledstatisticsdatingfrom1817.thefirstyearinwhichavailablerecordscould befound,upto1889.Hisinvestigationsshowedthatwhereasthedeath-rateamongthetroopsfrom1817

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16 AWESTINDIAN POLICEMAN.to1836was121.3perthousand,inthelastdecadeoftheperiodunderreview, namelyfrom1880to1889,ithadbeen reducedto11.36orjustone-eleventhofwhatithadbeen inthefirsttwentyyears.Andthiscalculation, beitremembered,includesdeathsfromallcauses,andhasnoparticularreferencetofeversoranyotherdistinctivelytropicaldiseases. Iamnotawarewhetheranysimilarstatisticshave been com piled bythemilitaryauthoritiessince;butiftheyhave, Iamconfidentthattheresultsarestillmore reassuring. I only knowthatwhereas, withinmyown experience,itwasalwaysconsideredimperativethatthedetachmentofwhitetroopsquarteredintheislandshould be stationed inthecantonmentofNewcastleintheBlue Mountains, 4,000 feet abovethesea,theyhaveformanyyearspastoccupiedbarracksinthelowlandsatUpParkCamp,justnorthofKingston;andthattheirsicklistcomparesfavourablywiththatoftheblack soldiersoftheWestIndiaRegiment, whichhasitsheadquartersinthesame place.Incertainpartsoftheislandtheclimatehasa marvellously beneficial effect on persons suffering from pulmonary complaints. I have known people with respectto whom I shouldnotbe intheleastoffendedifanyone on seeingthemweretocastdoubtonmyassertionthattheyhadcometoJamaicaasalastresortto avoiddeathby consumption.InKingstonandtheothertownsalongthecoastthetemperatureaverages between70and87degrees,andtheheatisalmostinvariably tempered by a breeze fromthesea soonerorlaterintheday;whileinthemountainsmanyofthemoreancientplanters'dwellingsareprovidedwithfire-places.Insuch

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CLIMATEANDNATURAL HISTORY.17housesI havemyselffoundtheglowofa firemade ()f fragrantcedarorpimento logsverygratefulindeed;while ontheBlueMountainPeakI haveseenthethermometerdown to 40 degrees, inthescreen live feetabovetheleveloftheground.Jamaicamaywell becanedthelandofperpetualsummer.Itis no exaggerationtosaythatonatleastthreehundredandfiftyoutofthethreehundred.andsixty-fivedaysoftheyearthesunrisesina cloudlesssky:thatisinthelowlandsatanyrate.Whenthereisrainitusuallycomeslaterintheday, -except, duringtheOctober "seasons,"andwhenaboutDecemberorJanuaryawet"norther"happenstodriftdownfromtheAmerican continent.Thereis a goodstorytoldin connectionwiththisp.eculiarityoftheweather,asfollows:-Theoverseer()fa certainsugarestate-ormanager,asheis calledinallotherWestIndiancolonies-ahard-bittenoldScotchman,hadsentouttohimasanunderlingayouthfromtheWestern Highlands, whose experience ()f fine morningshadnecessarily beenstrictlylimited.Theweatherhadbeenforweeksunusuallydry,andthe"busha,"(asthenegroes invariablycalltheover ..seer, ormanagerofanyproperty)wasbecomingdailymore anxious aboutthewelfareofhis young canes. Meeting his youthful countryman on his roundsonemorninghewasgreetedwith:"Good morning, busha." "Good morning, Mr. MacEacharon.""It'sa fine morning, sir.""Ah yes, it'sa finemorning all1.'ight:' Twoorthreedaysafterwardsasimilarencountertook place-..there havingbeen no signof

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18 .A WESTINDIAN POLICEMAN.changeintheweather-atwhichtheasperityofthebusha'sreplywasverymuch more marked.Thenextdaybutonetheymetagainforthethirdtime,andthesimpleyouthonce more offered hissalutation:"Good morning, busha." "GoodmorningMr.MacEacharon;"(verycurtlyindeed)."It'saf--." "Aw man,taehell wi' your fine morning;it's al-: waysa finemorninginthisdamncountry."Jamaicais inmanyotherrespects asingularlyblessedisland;initsfertility,and its freedomfromdangerouswild animals.Theonlycreaturewhichcanbe describedassuch isthealligator,(which is reallya crocodile,)anditfigures intheofficial coatof-armsofthecolony.Therenever wereanyvenom ous snakes; and nowtherearenoneatall. Thisisowingtotheirhaving beenexterminatedbythemon goose, which wereimportedfromIndiaforthepurposeofdestroying rats on thesugarestates. They. nave destroyed a hostofother creatures, though, leav-.ingmostoftherats;and among themarethe snakes.Withregardtothealligatorsitis a curious circum stance.ofwhich few peopleareaware,andnoneareabletoexplain,thatwhiletheyabound in every river,deltaandlagoon onthesouth sideoftheisland,the'northaideisentirely free from them. AsfarasIknow, only on two occasions have specimens been seenonthenorth,andon eachjustafterahurricanehadswepttheisland fromthesouth east.Theoillyreally'dangerous wild animal isthetick.Hehasnofearofmanwhatever; and heaboundschiefly inthedry-thatis thetouriat-sea-' .,.I

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CLIMATE AND NATURALHIsroRY. 19 wn. Heattacheshimself wi+..hout hesitationtotheper:.onofhisvictim,andistoosmantobehuntedordes-"troyedbymeansoffirearmsorlethalweaponsofany.sort.Shortskirtsandrudimentarysleeveshavehisentireapproval.Anotherpeculiarityofthecountryisthatthe.numerousproductsofnaturewhichnowformthe enief substanceofitsexporttrade,andfurnishfoodforitsinhabitants,are,withscarcelyanyexception,. exotics.Theonly indigenous onesare-IthinkIamcorrectinsaying-firstandforemostthepimento, which practicallydoesnotgrowinanyothercountry;themaniocorcassava, whichformedthestaple.foodoftheaboriginalinhabitants,theArawakIndians;thefustictree;andthefruitknownatthis day astheneesberry,ornaseberry;also perhaps,thestarapple.Sugar-cane,logwood, coconuts,bananas.: cacao, oranges,annatto; ginger, eventhebreadfruitandmangoes, whicharenow staple foodsofthepeo ple,growinginextravagantabundanceallovertheisland,andtheveryguinea-grass whichcarpetsitfromoneendtotheother,affordingtheverybestfeedingforhorsesandcattle:allwerebroughtherefromothercountries, chieflyfromthefareast.Theexplanationofthename"neesberry"mentioned aboveisthat'thefruitstronglyresemblesthemedlar,whichisverycommoninSpain,andtheSpanishnameofwhichis"nispero,"(accentonthe11rst syllable).TheSpaniards,seeingthefruit,andbeingatoncestruckwithitsresemblancetothemed ial', promptlycalledit"nispero;"andthenamehasstuckinaslightlymodifiedform.Thefruit is notaberry,and"nees"or"nase"meansnothingatall.

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AWESTINDIAN POLICEMAN.Thepresentnameappearstometobeundoubtedly a corruptionof"nispero." Anothercuriousfeatureinthenaturalhistoryoftheisland isthatthecoconutpalmgrowsprofuselyallalongthenortherncoastrightdowntothebeach,andconstitutes oneofthechief beautiesofthe scenery.Alongthesouthcoast however,fromWhiteHorseswestward,itis conspicuous byitsabsence.withexceptionofa fewtreesatLittlePedroBayinSt.Elizabeth,andBluefieldsandNegri! in Westmore land. Iamnotawarewhether there areanystatistics available on the point,butfrom my knowledgethecountryIestimatethattheaveragetemperatureon the northside is several degrees' lowerthanthatofthesouth. I havecertainlyfound orchids growingonthenorthatanelevationofsixhundredfeetwhich on thesouthIhadnever seenatlessthantwothousand.

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THEPEOPLE.ChapterIV.THEPEOPLE.21ThepopulationofJamaicawassetdown inthecensusof1921at858,118,andthenumbersareno longer officially cataloguedintheHandbook,astheyusedtobeinformerdays,accordingtocolour,butmerelydividedinto"males"and"females;"whichis asignofthetimes. Ithinkitissafetosaythatatleasteightypercent.ofthisnumberarefull-blooded negroes,orverynearit,whothusconstitutethegreatbulkofthepopulation;and'when Ispeakof"thepeople"itisthosewhom I have in mind,andchieflythedwellers inthecountrypartswheremy experience lies;notmorethanfourofmyforty-sevenyearsinthepublic serv icehavingbeenpassedin Kingston.Kingstonis alawunto itself,requiringspecialtreatment;andIama firm believer intheold maximne sutor ultra cre pidam.Verylittle reflection will convincetheintelligentobserverthatnearlyallconditions,andespecial ly thatoftherelations betweentheraces,mustofnecessity be differentinthecapital oftheislandfromthose obtaining intheruraldistricts.TherehasgraduallycreptintotheEnglishlanguagea loose,improper,andslightlyirritatingmeaningattachingtotheword"native."Writersofallkinds use itinthesensethatitappliesonlytothedark-skinnedinhabitantsoftropical,orotherremoteanduncivilised,orpartiallycivilised countries.In

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22 AWESTINDIANPOLICEMAN.speakingofEuropeortheUnitedStatestheyneverdescribethepopulationas Jamaicahassharedinthisrespectthesamefate everyothercountryinhabitedby,a colouredpopulation.Peoplewhowriteabouttheislandforget-ortheydonotknow-thatitdoesnotcontainanyaboriginal,autochthonousinhabitants.Itdid so whentheSpan inrds possessed themselvesofit,buttheylost notimeinexterminatingtheaborigines.Thepresentpopulationisentirelyexotic. Imyselfama"native;"butIamcertainthatnowriteronJamaicawould sodesignateme,forfearofconveying afalseimpression:tosuchanextenthasthemeaningofthe word become distorted.Itis nowwithinmeasurable distanceofbeing asynonymwith"savage"or"heathen."Itis amatterofunfailingastonishmenttovisitorstoJamaicatofindthatthereisnoracequestionhere.Wehavenotyetreachedthestagewhereblackandwhiteinter-marrywithout'exciting comment,buttheoldhard-and-fastcolourdistinctionsofpastgenerationsarebeingrapidlyandsteadily,wipedout.Itisbecomingincreasinglydifficulttotellwhereblackleaves offandwhitebegins.Everymanwhoseheartisintherightplacehasanequalchancewithhisneigh bour, nomatterwhatthecolourofhisskinmaybe.Attemptshave beenmadeinlatteryearstostirup race-prejudice.It was introduced'intothepoliticsofthecountryatelections,bytwoblack men,atdifferenttimesandplaces;andagainbya colouredman,8pseudo-championofthenegro, whohadprovedtheinsincerityofhisownprotestationsbymarryingawhitewoman.Andquiterecentlyrenewedeffortsin this dirac-

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THE PEoPLE.23 tionhavebeenmadebyanorganisationcallingitselfthe Universal Negro Improvemen.j AssociatioR, withheadquartersintheUnitedStates.Intheyear1919 this Associationusedto dLqf;ributt> inthisislandan organ ofthepressprintedinAmericaandknown as "The Negro World,"theavowedobjectofwhich wasto excitethehatredofblackagainstwhitebyinuendoesandlyingcalumniesof vilestdescription.Theleadersofacertainchurchinthisisland,whichconsistsexclusivelyofnegroes--allhonourtothem-broughttheimportingofthispaperto the noticeofagentlemanwho,himselfofverydarkcomplexion,isalreadyhighupinthejudicialbranchofgovernmentservice,andwillmostassuredlyrise higher still.Heinhisturncalledtheattentionofthegovernmenttothisperniciouspublication,andthematterwasreferredtomeforconfidentialenquiryandreport;withtheresultthatthepaperceasedtobedistributed.ThereaderwillthusrealisethatIamspeakingofthatwhichIknow.IhavenotyetseeninprintanyindicationofthelinesalongwhichthesegoodpeopleproposetoimprovetheUniversalNegro.TheironlyactivitiesofwhichIhavereadarechildishamusements,suchas 'The CrowningoftheQueenofSheba,""TheUnveilingofaChart,"theholdingof procesSionsby memberscladingorgeousapparel,andtheconferringbytheirleaderofvarious high-sounding titlesof no bilityuponhisdisciples.Iamafraidthattheywillbeobligedtoascendtoahigherplaneiftheyexpecttobetakenseriously.Further,Iwouldsaythatthereputedsuccessofoneoftheirladiesin making afortunebyinventingsomeprocessfor taking the kink

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24AWESTINDIANPOLICEMAN. outOfnegro hairdoesnotpointtothat"prideof race" .which is oneoftheirwatchwords.No:fortunatelyforthepeaceandprosperityofthislittleislandwe have amongourblackpopulationtoostrong a leavenofsound common sense to be disturbedbysuchfrothyebullitions; andthebackboneofour com munity consistsofa class of "small settlers,"asthey are called, who have a stakeinthecountry,andcorrespondtoagreatextenttotheEnglishyeomanry.Theyknowinwhatdirectiontheirbest interestslie;or,toputitvulgarly, on which sidetheirbreadisbuttered.SotheD.N.LA. doesnotappeartomakeanysuch headwayastocreateapprehension.Inspeakingofthe people I donotproposetodilate upontheirdefectsandshortcomings,withwhichmycallinghasnaturallybroughtme into closeandconstant contact for nigh on fifty years,buttothrowthelighton totheothersideofthepictureby t'mphasizing theirvirtues,ofwhich I have also had. experience.Injudgingthemthefactshould never belostsightofthattheirancestorsoffromfourorfive gen erationsago-orevenless-wereAfricansavages who couldnoteven speaktheEnglishlanguage,andmostofwhom wereactuallycannibals. Cases do occasionallyoccur which revealdepravityofsuchanunspeakablenatureastopointunmistakably to a savageracialorigin;butforthe mostpartwe live in a well. ordered community, in which life and propertyareassafeasinanycountryintheworld-andsaferthaninmanywhich claim centuriesofcivilisation.Again:one shoufd reflect ontheawfullives most ofthemar& eompelled to lead, especially inthe sugarmanufac-

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THE PEoPLE.25 turingdistricts.Unabletoread,oftenwithnolightbutthatofatireintheirone-roomed hovels,andde voidofanyformofrationalamusement,isitanywonderthatafteraday'shardtoiltheyturntosuchrelaxationofaprimitiveandelemental descriptionasnatureprovides,andashavebeenhandeddowntothembytheirforefathers?Whenallissaidanddone, Imaintainthattheirfaultsareinmostcasesmorethoseoftheheadthanoftheheart;andIspeakfrommyown experiencewhenIsaythatoncetheirrespect,esteemandconfi dencehavebeenwonbystrictlyfair,impartialandconsistentdealing,theycanbehandledaseasilyassomanychildren.Severitytheydonotmind,forthey Tegard leniency asasignof weakness; butone'swordmustbeone's bond.Theyareveryquickandkeenjudgesofhumannature;andasillustratingthistheyhavea proverb--expressive, asmostoftheirproverbsare-thatrunsthus:-"Duppyknow who fe frighten."(Aghostknows whomhecanfrighten).TheyareintenselyloyaltotheBritishCrown.ThebogeyofadesireforannexationtotheUnitedStates, whichisperiodicallytrottedout-forpoliticalpurposesnodoubt-simplydoesnotexistinreality.AmongtheoldergenerationthenameofQueen Victoriawasalwaysutteredwithloveandreverence. Iremembertheold cookofafriendwithwhom IwasstayingatthetimeoftheQueen'sdeathcomingintotheroomwhereIwassitting,foldingherhandsoverherabdomen-whichistheattitudeprescribedbyetiquette-bobbingmeacurtseyandsaying:"Please.Inspector,isittrueIhear'missis' Queendead ?" Onmyansweringintheaffirmative. she bob-

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26 AWESTINDIANPOLICEMAN.bed a second curtsey,thencastbothherhandsandeyes heavenward, which isthegestureofdespair,andheaving a deep sigh,turnedandlefttheroomwithoutanother word. Theyallusedtothinkthatitwas Queen Victoriaherselfwhobroughtabouttheemancipationoftheslaves.Itis no idle boasttosaythata white woman could travelunprotectedfromone endoftheislandto the other without beingmolested-thatis asfar asthe countrypartsareconcerned.Justaboutthetime whentheJamaicacontingentoftheBritishWestIndies Regiment wasreturningtotheisland,thereweresymptomsofalapsefromthishighstandardofconduct;butthesesymptomswere exhibited by a few "lewd fellowsofthebasersort"only, whohadmadethediscovery whileabroadthattherewereotherwhite women intheworld,ofatotallydifferentsortfromthe"buckraladies"towhomtheywere ac customed intheirown country. IthinkI am safein fJaying thatthiswas only atransientphase, whichhasnow definitely passed away. I canbeartestimonytothefactthatderelictwhite men,desertersfrommerchantships, ex-con victs,andotherwaifsandstrays,haveconstantlywanderedupanddowntheislandfromendtoend, doing' practicallynothing,andbeingsupportedandcherished bythehospitalityoftheblacks. Those used invariably to speakoftheiruninvited guestsas"depoorbuckra." I remember oncearousingdeep resentment among somemarketwomeninMontegoBaybyorderingthearrestofoneofthesevagrantswhom Ihadknownforyearsas aparticularlyworthlesscharacter..

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THEPEOPLE.27Manyof tnenegro girls dress verystylishly,andlook uncommonly wellinthelatestEuropeanmodes,withthe 'erect andgracefulcarriagewhichissofrequentamongthem.Thetraditionalcolouredbandannaheadkerchief is nowasaruleonlytobe seeninthecountry'parts,andthenonlyonwOrking days.Itisinstructivetonotehow quicklythey respond tothedictatesoffashion.Ifitdecreesthatwaistsaretobewornunderthearmpits,orintheumbilicalre gion, theneweststyleimmediatelycatcheson.Andtheconditionofnudityoftheneck, shoulders,andarmswhichjustnowcharacteriseswomen's dress,irrespectiveofweatherconditions, seemsparticularlysuitableto them. Like most half-educated people, whentheyhavelearntalittletheyimaginethattheyknow agreatdeal. Most ludicrousaretheattemptsofthose whoseambitionliestowardsconvertingthecuriousdialectwhichtheyspeakintoproperEnglish.Thistheychieflytryto achieve byputtingthevowels"a"and '0" intheirproperplaces;andastheuneducatednegrogenerally pronounces"0"as"ah,"theeffectisoftengrotesque.Thenegroes themselvescallit"clip ping theEnglish."Thereis astoryinthisconnectiontellingofamanwhothusdeliveredhimselftohis:servant: "Baai, lookinde packetofmy kawkee jock -et, andbringmedebaxofmotchyou see dere." (Boy, look inthepocketofmykhakijacketandbringmetheboxofmatchesyou seethere.)ThisI believetobemoreorlessapocryphal;butthefollowing Imy 'Self heardonceincourt:Resident Magistrate:"Whatdid youdowiththepursewhen he gaveitto you."

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28 AWESTINDIANPOLICEMAN.Witness:"Iputitinmyfab,sir."R.M.:"Inyourwhat?"Witness:"Inmyfab,sir,inmyfab;"(pattinghimselfontherightsideoftheabdomen,intheregion vf thevermiformappendix). R.M.: "Oh, Isee;inyourpocket."Witness:"Yes,sir;inmypacket."(By"fab"hemeant"fob.")Theyareveryemotional,andinclinedtobehysterical,especiallyatperiodsofreligious excitement.Thelinethatdividesthetearfromthelaughis averyfine oneindeed;andone whounderstandsthemcanplayontheirfeelings like amusicalinstrument.Abroadjokeutteredinthevernacularcanchangeanattitudeofthreateningaspectintoafriendly,oratleastaneutralone, in a few seconds.Consequentlytheyareeasilyledastraybyunscrupulous"soap-box"orators,astheAmericans call them,andmenofthekind whomtheeditorofourdailypaperhasaptlydescribedas"tin-pot"politicians. Thesecharlatanscovertly incitethemto violence,butareverycarefultorenderthemselvesconspicuousbytheirabsencewhenarmedpoliceappearonthescene.Fortunatelythemobsareeasilycowedbyadeterminedshowofforce.Itshouldalwaysbe borne inmindthatallhoughundernormal conditionsthereis noracialanimosityinevidence,anyriotwhich isnotpromptlyandruthlesslysuppressedatoncetendstodevelopintoaracewar:orrather,Ishouldsay, aclasswar;forthepeopleofmixed race,andeventhewell-to-do negroes themselves, would insuchaneventfarenobetteratthehandsofthemob-consistingasit does ofthelowestandmost.dangerouselementsofthe

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THEPEOPLE. 19 population-thanthe"buckra"whostandsatthetop ()f thesocial scale. Imakethese observations onthestrengthoftheutteranceswhich I havemyselfrepeatedlyhearddroppedbythemobelementinvariouspartsofthe i::;land attimes of disturbance,andevenofgeneralcalamitycreatedbynaturalcauses.Anothercuriousfeatureinthepsychologyofourpeopleisthestrangecontradictionswhichmanifestthemselves.Theirgreatestcurseisthetendencytopettytheft,andespeciallytopraediallarceny,orthepilferingoftheunguardedprovision fields.Yetitis a verycommonthingtosee abasketortrayofeggs, cakes,fruitorvegetables exposedforsale on alittletableattheentranceofatrackleadingtoa dwelling some distanceaway-andsometimesnotevenwithinsightofthespot-withoutanybodynearit.Ifyou should desire' tomake a purchaseinpassing you will probably have to call several times before receiving areply.Yetinallmylongexperience I do riot remembereverhavingheardofanythingbeingstolenunderthese conditions.Again:anotheroftheirvirtuesis sobriety,thesightofadrunkenmanbeingextremelyrare;yettheywillrunalmostincrediblerisksandexercisethemostmarvellouscunningtostealrumfromthesugarestatesincroptime.Itshouldbestatedthatrumisregardedasin dispensableatafuneral,atthecuttingdowriofacottontreeforthemakingofa canoe,orata"diggingmatch."Thislastis asystemofjointlabourby whichtheyassisteachotherinthepreparation of theirprovisiongroundsfortheplantingseason,

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3Q AWEST INPIl\.N POLICEMAN.whichfallsatthesametimeoftheyearasthesugarcropontheestates.As arulethenegrouses astickorastonetoemphasize hisargumentsagainstanopponentwhenwordshavereachedtheirlimit,veryrarelyresortingtolethalweapons.Butassoonashebecomes a soldier, he habituallycarriesarazorinhispocket,and 1,lses itonveryslightprovocation;preferablyon a policeman. Aregrettablefeatureinthisaspectoftheconductofthepeoplegenerallyisthefactthatconstant intercoursewiththeSpanish-Americancountrieshasresultedinbringingtherevolverintofashion;anditis being used now-a-dayswithafrequencyandrecklessnessthatarebecomingalarming. A.nother revelationoftheircurioustraitoffundamentalhonestyis to be found inwhathappensevery dayateverycountrypostofficeintheisland.:Saturday.isthegreatdayforatleast 000 member of. familyfromthecountrysettlementstovisitthemarket, beitina townoraruralvillage,forthepurposeofdisposingoftheirproduceanddoingtheshopping.She-foritpracticallyalwaysis awoman-isalso commissionedtocallatthepostofficeandcollectanylettersthatmayhavearrivedaddressedtoherrelativesandfriends.Thefollowingdialoguethenensues betweenthemessengerandthepostmistress,to whomtheformerismostprobablyatotal,stranger:-Messenger:"Pleasema'am any letterforJaneSaunders?"P.M.:(aftera search inthepigeon-hole)-"No,.noneforJaneSaunders."Messenger:"AnyforKeturahBillings?',

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THEPEOPLE 31. P.M.:"Yes,herearetwoforKeturahBillings."Messenger:"AnyforJochabed Brown 1"P.M.:"Yes,hereisone."Andsoitgoeson;thepostmistress deliveringperhapsa scoreofletterstohalf-a-dozen women whom shehasneverseenbefore;andyetitis oneoftherarestthingsforalettertofailofreachingitsdestination. Idon'tpretend tosaythatitneverhap-pens;butwhen onewatches the processandreflects,itis atributetothehonestyofthepeoplethatitdoesnothappenevery day.Theheterogeneouscharacterofthepopulationis beingfurthersteadilycomplicatedbytheimmigra-'tioninincreasingnumberofChinese, whoalmostin-'variablyadoptthecallingofretailshopkeepers.East:IndiansandSyrianswehavehadformanyyears,buttheymostlylivetothemselves;whiletheChinese co-habitmoreandmorewiththecreole women, generaallyselectingthoseofacoloursimilartotheir own ..Astheresultofthisa mixedraceis beingcreated,which willinthe near futureaffordaninterestingstudyinanthropology.I believeitis nowanaccepted physiologicalfactthatclimateandenvironmenthavetheeffectofalter-.ingandmodifyingthephysiognomyofraces. I have.readthatincertainoftheWesternStatesthewhiteAmericansarebeginning to acquirefeaturesofa distinctlyRedIndiantype. Iamcertainthatsome changeofthesame kindhasbeenfora longtimeinprogressinthiscountry;fornowthecharacteristic.Africantypeoffacehasalmostentirelydisappearedamongtheblacks.Inmyyoungdaysitused to be ,:ery common;. Qut in these times one meets every day.

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32A WEST INDIAN POLICEMAN.scoresofnegroes whosefeaturesarealmostentirelyCaucasian in outline.Inthe secondyearofthe Great War, whenrecruitswere calledforbytheMother Country,Ja maica madeagallantresponse.Thetotalnumberofmen who enlisted was upwards of 11,000. Avastlygreaternumbercameforward;but,sadtorelate,s.omeseventypercent.ofthemhadtobeturneddownasphysically unfit.Althoughemployed chieflyasa corps, those who cameintothefighting line acquitted themselvesgallantly,notably on acertainoccasioninPalestine.Therewas oneplatoonwhich consistedentirelyofmembersofthepolice;andin connectionwiththisI cannot omitthefollowingstory:AfteralltheJamaicacontingenthadreturned homeandbeen demobilized, I was onemorningputtingmy menoftheSt.Elizabethdivisionthrough tlIeir annual musketry course ontherangeatBlack River,andamongthemwas one whohadservedinthewar. To him I said, "Reid,whatwasthelast place at which you fired amusketrycourse?" "J erusalem,Sir."Thinkofit!Formethatanswercontained a complete epigram. Kipling's Recessional withitswords"Lordofourfar-flungbattleline" cametomymindatonce.Herewasthissimple-minded, loyal black policeman, doing hisannualtrainingassuchinanobscure town inanobscurelittleWestIndianisland, who couldtellmethatthelastplace in which he had fired hismusketrycourse was Jerusalem.Fortheremainderofthatdaymymindwas filledwiththoughtsofthemightandmajestyoftheBritishEm pire. ItfelltothelotofthevariousInspectorsof

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THEPEOPLE.33Policetoinvestigateandverifytheclaimsmade by therecruitsformaintenanceallowancestotheir de pendentsduringtheirabsence.Ipersonallydealtwithseveralhundredsof thesE-; andmanyofthemwerecuriositiesindeed.Mostofthemengrosslyexaggeratedtheirearnings,andmisnamedtheirrespectivecallings;whichIsupposewasonlyahumanweaknesssuchasmightbeexpectedallovertheworld.Ihavehoweveraverydistinctrecollectionofoneclaiminwhichtherecruithaddescribedhimselfasan"electrician,"althoughunabletosignhisname.OnenquiryIdiscoveredthathisclaimtothisdesignationwasbasedonthefactthathehadbeenusuallyemployedbythePublicWorksDepartmenttopatrol 'the roadsalongwhichthetelegraphlinesran,and 'trim awaythebranchesoftreeshangingoverthe Toad whichthreatenedtocomeintocontactwiththe !Wires. Foringenuitythatwouldbehardtobeat ,as thedefinitionofanelectrician.

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34 AWESTINDIANPOLICEMAN. C1uJ,pter V.THESTORY. I wasborninJamaicainJune1856,butwastakenawayfromtheislandin1861attheageoffive years,anddidnotreturntoituntilIwasnineteen.Duringthisperiod IgrewupandwaseducatedinEnglandandGermany;andIthinkImusthave im bibed, beingthenatthemostimpressionable age, someofthethoroughnessandattentiontomattersofdetail whichareso characteristicoftheGermans. Icertainlyacquired a completemasteryoftheGermanlanguage. My school inEnglandwasinthenorth,inthecounty of Yorkshire.ItwasnotasbadasDick ens's "Dotheboy's Hall,"butinsome respectsitusedtobe afairimitationofthatcelebrated institution. When I look back on some of my experiencesthereI feel convincedthatifIhadnotbeenmadeofex ceptionallyrobustmaterial I should have died a very earlydeath. TheSpartantoneoftheestablishmentmaybe imaginedfromthefactthatitwasregardedasa signofeffeminacytowearunderclothingofanysort,inwinterorsummer.InthisrespectI, n raw,callow fledgling fromthetropics, conformedtotheunwrittenrule;andI continuedthecustomafterIwenttoGermany, wherethewintersweremuch longerandmore severe.InDecember 1876 I receivedanappointmentasSub-InspectorintheJamaicaConstabulary Force,andreportedmyselfatthedepot, whichwasthenat

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THESTORY. the oldmilitarybarracksinSpanishTown,thefor mer capitaloftheisland, onthe8thJanuary1877. The force was organisedin1866and67bySirJohnPeterGrant.whowasappointedGovernorofJamaica cleanupthemesswhichhadbeenleftbehindbytheoldformofgovernmentofthecolony,culminatinginthehistoricMorantBayrebellionof1865.Ittooktheplaceoftheold police force,whichwasone ()f themanyrotteninstitutionsaboundinginJamaica at thetime.Itwasconstitutedasanarmedforce, ()n thegenerallinesoftheRoyalIrishConstabulary;theofficers beingcalledInspectorsandSub-Inspectors,whileintheotherranksthepurelymilitarydesignationsofcorporal, sergeant,andsergeant-majorwereadopted.TheInspectorGeneral,MajorJ.H.Prenderville,wasanex-officerofthethenrecentlydisbanded3rdWestIndiaRegiment;andtherewas among theotherofficers asprinklingofmenfromthesamecorps.Wewerearmedwithmuzzle-loading riflesoftheSniderpattern;andtheshootingwhichwehadtodomightaptlybecalledpurelytheoretical,aswehadno rifleranges.Afterspendingthreemonthsun dergoing. instructioninSpanishTown, Iwasput!throughanexamination,astheresultofwhichIwaspronounced fittobetransferredtoKingston,thecapit !al oftheisland,forpracticalduty.TheKingston ito which IcameinApril1877,wasatotally different1place fromtheKingstonofthepresentday.Thestreetswereunlighted,andmostofthemwereinbadcondition,withpitsofvaryingsizeanddepthinthegutters,usuallycoveredwithveryodoriferous slime. Igottoknowsomeofthosepits

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86 AWESTINDIAN POLICEMAN. intimately inthecourseofsucceeding years, andwhensome of themdisappearedduringtheprogressofimprovementsinthesanitaryconditions, Ialmostfeltthesenseoflossofold friends.ThethoroughfareknownasGoldStreet,inparticular, was nothingbetterthana gully pavedwithcobble-stones.alongwhich no vehiclewasever knowntoventure,anditappeared to serve nootherpurposethantocarry down totheseathestormwatersdischargedfromtheupperportionsofthetown.Therewasa good dealofraininMay 1877,andI havemanyatimehadtocross GoldStreetatmidnightandinthesmallhoursofthemorning, while visitingthebeats,throughrushingwaterthatreached tomyknees.Therewere notram-carsonthestreets.Theonlypublic vehicles werethe"busses;"nottheluxurious equipages ofthepresent day, which haveinheritedthename,butflattraysonsprings,havingateach ofthefourcorners a postsupportinga flat roof.andseatingaccommodationforthreepersons besidesthedriver. Thislatterwas,asoftenasnot,animpudent,foul-mouthed ruffian, whosepersonalappearanceandmanners were quite in keepingwiththeramshackleconditionofhis wholeturn-out.The race course tothenorthofthetownwasgenerallya wildernessofbush,standingwaist-high in someparts,withnumerous foot-tracks leadingacrossitindifferent directions, whichitwasnotsafetotraverseafterdark.Itwas cleaned up once every year, inpreparationfortheone race meeting which usedtobe heldforthreedaysinthesecond weekofDecember. There were no railingsorprotectionof

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THESTORY.37anysort,andnopermanentgrandstand.Thiswasonlytemporarilyerected afewdayspriortotheracesandafterwardsremoved;andtheroadpastthelacecourseranbetweenitandthetrack.Thepolice had tokeepthetrackbysheerphysical force,withtheaidofafewtemporarypostsandastoutcableattheentrance.Asthedirect result ofthisarrangementIhadthenarrowestescapefromdeathwhichI haveeverexperienced,inthelastraceofthelastdayofthe1879 meeting.Sixhorses,immediatelyafterbeingstarted,boltedwithoneaccordandrodemedownattheentrance,pinningmedowntothegroundwithmyownhorseandthreeoftheracehorses.withtheirriders,ontopofme.WhenIwasextricatedfromthemess,thecrowdwhichhadgatheredtoviewthecorpsegaspedwithastonishmentwhenIaroseandshook offthedust,practicallyunhurt.Therewereseveralcasualtiesamongthebystandersthough.Onecuriousfeatureaboutthisannualracemeetingwasthesuddenspringingupofavillageinthecentralportionoftheracecourse:avillagebuiltofcoconutlimbsandbamboos,bitsofpacking-casesandkerosenetins.ThepopulationconsistedoftheverydregsofKingstonandlowerSt.Andrew;whoamusedthemselvesbygamblingandviceandde'baucheryofallkindstotheaccompanimentofdrum beating allnight,whiletheraceslasted.Itwasnotsafeforthepolicetoenterthislocalityatnightsexceptingroups.'Assoonastheraceswereoverthevillagedisappearedassuddenlyasithadsprungup.InthosetimestherewasnoicefactoryinKingston.Theentiresupplyofice used tobeimportedfromtheUnitedStatesinfastschooners;and the

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38 AWESTINDIANPOLICEMAN.depotwasatthefoot of Duke Street, adjoiningtheRoyalMailCompany'swharf.Thepricewas pence apoundinKingstonasa rule,andinSpanishTown,thirteenmiles away, threepence.Thenegroes from thecountrypartsusuallyhandledandlookedatitwithcuriositynotunmixedwithaweandreverence;andthereweremanystoriescurrentaboutwomenandchildrenwhohadbeen commissionedtobuyandbringhome ice onmarketdaysbeingunabletoaccountforitsdisappearanceonreturningtotheirhomesmanymilesaway-withdisastrousresults.Ononeoccasion awealthyladyresidinginSpanishTowngavea picnic onthebanksoftheRio Cobre,forwhichsheprovided alargeblockofice.Thissheentrustedtoaservant,withstrictinjunctionstodeposititin averycool place.Fortunatelyforthepicnicpartythehostessnotlongafterwardsnoticedthattheicehadvanished;andonmakingenquiryshediscoveredthattheservanthadcarefullyplaceditintheriveritself,asbeingthecoolest place he couldthinkof.Inthose daystherailway, which wasownedbyaprivatecompany, extended nofurtherthanOldHarbour,some twenty-five milesfromKingston,withabranchofaboutfourmilesrunningupto aplacecalled Angel's, tothenorthwestofSpanish Town.Therewere notelegraphstationsinthecountryexceptalongthelineofrailway;andthepostage onletterstoEnglandandtootherWestIndiaislandswasone shillingforhalfanounce. There used to be some curiously original charactersaboutKingstoninthose days. Onewasa man, whosenameI learnt;butwhowaswontto celebrate every eventofpublicinterestin doggerel

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THESTORY.39verse,whichwasprintedandcirculatedalongthestreets.Ihaveadistinctrecollectionoftwoofthis.person'seffusions. On one occasion a case cameonfortrialattheKingstonCircuitCourt-whichwillreceivefurthermentionlater---ofawhitemanatOldHarbourBaywhowaschargedwithmurder,hehavingshotdead a blackmanofthedistrict,whichbore averybadreputationforruffianism-anddoessotothisday.Thecircumstancesofthecasewereprovedatthetrialtobethatthewhiteman,whosenamewasMilne, firedtheshotindefenceofhiswife,whomthenegrowasatthemomentattackingwithanaxe,andtheaccusedwasacquitted.Irememberverydistinctlytwolinesoftheballadinwhichthisoccurrencewasdescribed bythepoet.Theyranthus:"Hedidnotcareonesingledam,Butshotthenegrodown." Onanotheroccasionthepolice invokedthe at tentionofhisMuse,withunpleasantresultstoatleastoneofhisreaders.IthadoccurredtothethenInspectorGeneraltoalterandimprovethesystem of streetdutyinKingstonbydividingtheofficersand.menintothreereliefs,eachofwhichdidnightdutyforfourteenconsecutivenightsfrom9 p.m.,to5 a.m., then sevendaysdaydutyandthenbackagaintothefourteennights.Theresultofthecarryingoutof!thisbrilliantideawasthatthesicklistwasincreasedbyseventy-fivepercent.;tosaynothingofotherun'pleasantconcomitants;andthroughtheeffortsof(lUI'own medical officer(thefatherofthepresentheadoftheKingstonhospital)thisimpossiblesituationwasbroughttothenoticeoftheGovernor, whoperemptorilyputan end toit.ButtothisdayIhave a

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40 AWESTINDIANPOLICEMAN.vivid recollectionofthedrearytrampingthestreetsofKingstonthroughthelonghoursofthenight,hearinghourafterhourstrikeontheparishchurchclockandcrawlinghome, hollowandred-eyed,atfive o'clockInthemorning.Well:ourpoet describedthecon ditionsofthisepisodewithacertainamountofwit,"andnotaltogether sarcasm,inthefollowinglines:"ThesleepingconstablesatnightTheysnoreliketherollingwaves;PatrollingstreetforfourteennightsWill sendthemtotheirgraves."Itbecame acommonpracticeofcertain"lewdfellowsofthebasersort"tosingthisquatraintoawaltztunewhichwasmuchinvogueatthattime;andonedayoneofthesehadtheeffronterytowarbleitwhilepassingthefrontofthestationinSuttonStreet,whereacertaincorporal,anex-soldierofthe3rdWestIndiaRegiment,anda good boxer,happenedtobestandinginthegateway.Thiscorporalappearedtotakenonoticeofthesinger;butwhenthelatterhadpassedonandturnedup aquietlaneabout a hundredyardsaway,hefollowed softly behind, overtookhiminanisolated spot,andadministeredwithhisfistssuchpunishmentashethoughttheoccasioncalledfor;andallsoquicklyandquietlythatnoalarmwasraisedbyanypasserby.Thereusedalsotowanderaboutthestreetsandlanesanelderlymanoffine physique,witha fullbeardandmoustache-mostunusualthingforanegro-irongrayincolour,whoseoceupationseemedtobetheexaminationofthepeople'srubbishheaps,toseewhathecouldfindinthem.Hewasinvariably

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THESTORY.41dressedintheremainsofanoldbatteredtophat,andafrockcoatthathadseenbetterdays.InhisconversationhealwaysexpressedhimselfinverychoiceandcorrectEnglish,witha refinedaccent;andashetrampedalongheusedfrequently to sing,ina full,resonantbaritone:"GreatprivilegeinEnglandForthenegroboy."HetoldmethathehadbeentakentoEngland as asmallboy by hisemployer,andhadgrownupinthatcountry;afterwardsgoingtosea,andiinallydriftingbacktohisnativeland.Hewasevidentlyslightlyoff his balance,mentally,thoughquiteharmless;buthisintelligencewasasmuchofahighorderashis physiquewasstriking.AnotherwaifandstraywhohadrunashoreherewasaquaintlittlewizenedEnglishmanwhohadmarriedablackwomanofthetown.Hefollowedthecallingofa grin'derofknivesandscissors;andheusedtoperambulatethestreetsdayby day,pushingalonghisorthodoxknife-grinder'soutfit on wheels,withthelittlegrindstonework ed by apedal,andallthenecessaryauxiliarytools.Hewasofataciturnandreserveddisposition;buthedidexcellentwork. I feelsurethatthehousekeepersofthepresentdaywouldbegladtosee asuccessortohim.Thegreateventof1877wastheinaugurationofthelightingofthestreetsofKingstonbymeansofgaslamps, onthe10thMay.Aftera coupleofpreliminaryrehearsalsincertaincircumscribedlocali ties,thegeneralgrandillumination took place between (;ight andnine p.m., onthedatenamed.TheActingGovernor, drove downfromKing'sHousefour-in-

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42 AWESTINDIANPOLICEMAN. hand; andonhisarrivalattheParadeeverygas-jetburstintoflameamidthecheersoftheassembled populace. I !"emember thatoneofthehorsesriddenbytheGovernor'sescortofpoliceorderliesbecamequiteunmanageable.byreasonofthenoiseandex citement,andanastyaccidenttotheriderwastheresult.WhatisnowtheParadeGardenawasthen a sandywastewhichhadveryrecentlybeenrailedinforthepurposeofbeing convertedintoagarden.Onthenortherngateofthis,facingUpperKingStreet, .a veryelaborate illuminationhadbeen installed, con 8isting ofnumeroustinygas-jetsformingthelettersV.R. surmounted bytheroyal crown.(ItmustberememberedthatthiswasduringthereignofQueen Victoria.)Theinterpretationofthisdevice circulated amongthelowerorderswasthatitsig nified"VerleyandRobinson," a firmofbakerswhose businesswasa householdwordinKingstonandtheadjacentparishesatthattimeandformanyyearsafterwards.TherewasadockyardandahospitalatPortRoyal in those days,anda receiving ship moor ed intheharbourthere.ItwastheheadquartersoftheJamaicaDivisionoftheNorthAmericanandWestIndiansquadronoftheBritishnavy, which used topaya visit toKingstonregularlyintheearlypartofevery year,andoccasionallyvisitotherportsaswell.Therewasa commodore living onshoreatPortRoyal,andthemess onboardtheoldhulk"Urgent"which succeededthe"Aboukir"a receiving numberedsome twelveorfourteenmembers.Therewasagreatdealmoreharddrinkingthenthanthere l!'l now;andasthemajorityofthese numerous officershadverylittleworktodo,theirenergies, Iregret t<>

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THESTORY.43say,hadatendencytoconcentrateontheconsumptionofalcohol. I usedtohavechargeofthePortRoyal Police station, which necessitated avisittothatplace twoorthreetimes a week;andImustcon fess to having witnessed,andindeed abetted,insome weirdandwonderfulperformances,inthesmallhoursofthemorningespecially,bothonthe"Urgent'andotheroccasional ships, and atthenavalclubon shore.Itwas a common colloquialism to speakofshipsasbeing "long"or"short"ones;thedescription beingregulatedbytheintervalswhich wererespectively allowed to elapse the consumed.Butbethatasitmay,mostpeople intheislandhadinthose days someopportunityofseeingthewhiteensign; whereas now-a-daystherearethousandsuponthousandswho have never beheld it.Thatyear1877 becamefraughtwithgrimtragedy beforetheendofthesummer,forthenavaland:military peopleatPortRoyal,atUpParkCamp,andevenatNewcastleandotherplaces onthehills;and,saddestofall,atKing'sHouse,theresidenceoftheGovernor, whichwasthenoccupied byMr.E.E.RushworththeColonialSecretary,whowasactingasGovernorduringtheabsence on leaveofSirAnthonyMusgrave.Thecausewasanoutbreakoftheterrible yellow fever, whichhasbeenreferredtoina previouschapter.Itravagedchieflythewhitegarrison. Officersandmen, womenandchildren, old peopleandyoungmen,wentdown beforeitlikecornbeforethereaper.Asabove mentioned,themost crqel tragedyofalltookplaceatKing'sHouse.TherehadcomeoutfromOxfordforthelongvacationthe 80n ofthewifeoftheColonialSecretaryby aformer

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.44 AWESTINDIANPOLICEMAN.marriage,a finelad,inthefirstflushofmanhood.Hetookthefeverfirst,andhis young life wascutoff.Thenextvictimwashishalf-sister,hismother'schild byhisstepfather.Then,lastofall,Mr.Rushworthhimselfdied. Well do IrememberbiddingfarewelltoMrs.Rushworthonthedeckofthesteamerwhichwastotakeherhome, a loneandchildless widow. I recollectanothervisitationofyellowfeversome elevenyearslater;itwassadenough,butitdidnotworkanythinglikethehavocofthe1877 epi demic.

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THESTORY.Chapter VI.THESTORY.-CONTINUED.45The judicialsystemoftheislandwasinthosedaysdifferentfromthepresentone, especially wherethecircuit courts, (which correspond totheEnglishassizes,) were concerned.Insteadofacircuitcourtinthechief townofeach.parishwithexceptionofSt. Andrewasatpresent.therewereonlyfiveheldthroughoutthewhole island,andatthesecases weretriedfrom severalparishesandportionsofparishestQgether. Thejurorswere alsodrawnfromtheparishes concerned;andtheseperiodicalgatheringsusedtoresolve themselves intoveryimportantsocial func tions, sometimeslastingforseveral days,tothegreatadvantageandgratificationofthelodging-house keepersandpurveyorsofnecessariesofallkindsinthe towns which werefortunateenoughtobetheseatsofthese courts. Thus,theKingstonCourtembraced St.Andrew:and St. aswellasportionsofSt. Mary, Portland and St. Thomas; anditwasnaturallythelargestandmostimportantofall. OneoftheoccupantsoftheSupremeCourtbench was a very uniquecharacter,whosenamewasa household wordthroughoutthecountry,andwhose memory is cherishedto day by those who knew him. Aterrortoevildoers in hisjudicialcapacity,hismannerstowardsallotherpersons were a modelofdelightfulold-fashionedcourtesy;whilethepolish-

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46 AWEST POLICEMAN.ed flowofhisspeech, especiallywhenchargingajury,wasapleasuretolistento.Hisenunciationwasjustslightlymarredbyacertainimpedimentorhesitation which causedhimfrequentlytointerlarditwithwhatsounded like"erb-erb-erb"beforepassingfrom 'on! wordtoanother.Thiswasaverymarkedfeature,eveninhisprivateconversation;anditseemed in awaysocharacteristicoftheman. ,Ihaveamostdistinctrecollectionofoneparticu lar KingstonCircuitCourtover whichhepresided:IthinkitwasinMayorJune1878.Thecalendarwasanimmensely heavy one, including,interalia,nofewerthanthreecasesofmurder,andoneofhighwayrobbery. OneofthemurderswasthatmentionedinthepreviouschapterinconnectionwiththeKingstonpoet.Anotherwasone whichhadbeencommittedeightyearspreviouslyintheparishofSt.Mary;andthesamedefendantwhowasnowsentupfortrialhadbeenarrestedandchargedatthetime,butreleasedforlackofsufficient evidence.Thepoliceoftheparishhadhowever beenmostpersistentanduntiringintheirsearchforfurtherevidence.Thishadb.eenfound,withtheresultthattheaccusedwasnow sent up totakehistrialbefore ajury.IthinkIamcorrectinsayingthatthenumberofwitnessesbroughtforprosecutionanddefenceamountedtobetweenfiftyandsixty;sothatthiscasealonerepresentedaverylargeamountofworkforthecourt.Itwastakenduringthefirstweekofthesession,andlastedtwo whole days,from10a.m.,untildark.On the firstday,asthecasewasnotyetcompleted,thejurorswereaccommodatedforthenightatthepub-

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THESTORY.47lic expense in a lodging-house knownas"BlundellHall,"undersupervisionofa policeguard,ofwhomiwas in charge. Onthesecond allthe pro ceedings having beengotthrough,andtherebeingnothingleft but forthejurytoconsidertheirverdict,theywere lockedupforthenightinthecourthouseagainundermycharge-wheretheywere suppliedwiththebarenecessariesoflife,butno bedding.Itwas averyred-eyed and dishevelled groupoftwelve menthatI delivered intothehandsoftheReg istrar ofthe Court on thethirdmorning.Afterthejudgehadtakenhis seat, on being called uponfortheverdict,theforemanannouncedthatthejurycouldnotagree,andthattherewasnoprospectoftheir ever agreeing.Itwasthereforedecidedtopostponethecase untilthefollowing weekforafreshjurytobe empanelled.Itcame onindue course before a jury;andall the wearisome and tedious details hadtobe gonethroughafresh.Asbefore,thecase lasted two whole days and nights, while exactlythesametreatmentwasaccordedtothesecond jury astothefirst one. Onthethirdmorningtheverdictwasawaitedin breathless silenceby a packedcourt;andtherewas quite a sensation when the foreman announc ed itas"notguilty." Thejudgelookedattheforemanthroughhisspectacleswitha piercing glancefora coupleofsec onds,threwhimselfback in his chair,andafterturninghimselfintheseatfromone sidetoanother,de liveredhimselfthus:-"Erb-erb-erb,-Gentlemen ofthejury,thattheverdictatwhich you havearrivedistheresultofthemostcarefulandconscientious de liberation onyourpartI havenottheslightestdoubt,

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48 AWESTINDIANPOLICEMAN.but, gentlemen, IregrettosaythatI donotconcurinit.(Iomitthefrequent"erb-erb-erb"withwhichtheaddresswasinterspersed.)"Thattheprisoner,Grant,isthemurdererofthe_manMorrisonhasbeenasclearlyprovedasanycaseeverwasinacourtofjustice. Gentlemen,byyour act, youhaveletloose uponHerMajesty'sliegesubjects in aquietandpeacefuldistrictarampant sav"': agewiththeinstinctsofawildbeast;andthatinthecourseoftime willagainexercisethoseinstinctsyoucantakemywordforit.Gentlemenyouaredischarged."ThewholeCourtsatopen-mouthedduringthedeliveryofthisscathingdenunciation,whichIthinkIhavereproducedwordforword.Indeed,Ihavesooftenrepeatedit,fromthatdateonwardsthroughupwardsoffortyyearsthatithasbecome indeliblyengravedon anaturallyaccurateandretentivememory.Andtheoldgentleman'swordswere'prophetictoo;forIafterwardslearntthatthe"ram-'pantsavage"wassomefouryearslatertriedandconvictedon a chargeoffeloniouswounding,andactuallydiedinthepenitentiary.Oneofthegreatsecretsofthisjudge'spower was theterseanddrasticmannerinwhichhewaswonttodeliversentenceonhabitualcriminalsandonpersonsconvictedofoffencesdangeroustothepublicwelfare;andtodealwithprevaricatinganddishonest witnesses. Henevertalked"overtheirheads"orwastedwordsinfutileadmonitions,assomanyofhissuccessorshavebeeninthehabitofdoing.Inthecaseofhighwayrobberymentionedabove as beingonthecalendarforthissamecourttheaccusedhadwaylaidthemoneymessengerofoneof

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THESTORY.49thecoffeeplantationsintheBlueMountains. on alonelyhill road,pulledhim off his mule,stunninghim with a cudgel,andcarried offthewhole week's wagesofthelabourers.Fortunatelyhis .assailant known to the messenger; a hue andcrywas raised,andthepoliceofthedistricttookupthescentredhot, withtheresultthattherobberwascapturedandallthemoney recovered beforehehadhadtimetogetridofanyofit.Theevidence was so conclusivethatthejuryreturneda verdictofguiltywithoutleavingthebox;andthisis howthesentencewaspronounced:"Prisoneratthebar,thejuryhave found youguiltyontheclearestpossible evidenceofthisatrocious crime. Highway robbery is athingthatcannotbetoleratedinthiscountryfora moment.Twentyyearspenal servitude.Thewholecourtgasped;andtheprisoner, apowerfullybuiltandintelligentlooking blackmanofabout twenty-five, was dumbwithpained astonish ment. But jt was many a longyearbeforetheoffenceofhighway robberyagainoccurred inJamaica;with one exception, which willlaterbe des cribed in due butin whichtherobberswerenotJamaicans,butCubans.The of theculpritinthiscase was McGa,nI:l,and therecan be no doubtthathe was an other "rampl;J.nt savagewiththeinstinctsofawlld beast," judging .byhis subsequent history, whlch happened .totall within my pl,lrview. ae fifteenofhistwentyyears' sentence,and was grantedapardonin 1893 bySirHenry Blake. who wasthenGovernor.Immediatelyon hisreleasehebenthis ,stepseastwardfroni Kingstontothepar..

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50 AWESTINDIAN POLICEMAN.ish'ofSt. Thomas;where Iwasthen stationed;passed, throughMorantBayandstrolled on uptheBlueMountainValleyonaSaturdayaft'ernoon" "seeking whomhemightdevour."Itsohappenedthathefounda victim inthepersonofanursemaidfrommyown house, whohadgotleavefortheweekendtovisitherparentsata villageinthesame direction. On her, agirlof,aboutfourteen,hemade'a viciousanddeterminedassaultofacriminalnature;butshe was fortunateenough toattracttheatten'tion,ofsome passers-by, who cametoherrescue,andescortedhertoher. home. McGann escaped,butbymeansofrous the parishI 'succeeded in effecting ar rest early,onthefollowing Monday.He was dulyexaminedandcommittedfor' trial attheMorantBayCircuitCourttobeheldinOctober;thenewjudicialsystemhavingcomeinto operation some five years previously. Being sent toSpanishTownfor safecustody intheinterval,hecontrived'toescapefromtheescortthat was bringinghimback toMorant Bay fortrial theday beforetheCircuit, Court.It wasat night,ina thickly wooded part oftheroad;andhis escape was facilitatedbybadweatherandswoll en rivers.Heseemed to have, made hiswaythencenorthwards,intothe parish' ofSt. Ma"ry, whichheknewwellasa lad. By astrangecoincidence,thecarrierofthemails between RichmondandCastletoninthatparish,who travelled on footbyanunfrequented load intheearlyhoursofthemorning,wasfound deadbytheroadsidethe'nextdaybutone afterMc Gann's escape,andthemail bagscutopenandrifledoftheircontents. McGannwasseenintheneighbour hood onthe same, day,butno evidence could bepro cured to connecthimwiththiscrime. Howeverhe

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THESTORY.51 was hunted high and low throughout the' country,andtinallyarrestedbya verysmartyoung constableina.l'ailwaytrainnearSpanish Town,sentback again trialatthenextMorant Bay Circuit Court,andsen t('nced tothreeyears penal servitude.Ihave heardthaton his release he emigratedtoCentral America and became quite a respectable mem berofthecommunity in one of those republics.Ican never think of the judge who is described inthischapterwithout remembering his perfectly delightful old '\orld courtesy and consideration towards all pf usofficersofthe constabulary,notexcepting even a boy like myself.Itforms such acontrasttothedemean our of other judicial functionariesoflaterdays, someofwhom seemed to .take pleasure in addressing usinopen court asifwe were schoolboysorgrooms. One particularly offensive specimen ofthistypeactually himself bytryingtoputme inthepillory,and furn me into ridicule, inthecircuit court on one occa sion, in the presenceofmy subordinates andthat of the assembled public: andthiswhenI was oversixtyyearsofageandhadhad forty-twoyearsservice.ButIthasveryoften been my experience to find the mens 'jJarvaincorporeparvo,as inthiscase. The finest object lesson whichthedearold gen tleman ever gaveinmyhearingofhis knackofhittingthe nailon the head and gettingridofsuper fluous matterwas'duringthetrialofa desperate prisoner fromthepenitentiaryforwounding and nearly killing a warder. The accused pleaded not guilty, althoughtheevidencewasofthemostclear and direct nature,therebeing a scoreof nessesoftheoccurrence, consistingofwardersand

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52 AWESTINDIAN POLICEMAN.other "C<>nvicts.He insisted,further,onhavingsome fiveor six:of the worst:ruffians intheprisonbrought as witnesses for thedefence. The accusedwasnotl"epresentedbycounsel;andwhenthefirstofthesewitnesseswentintothebox he simply said"yes"or "no" to questions put bytheaccused,theapparentobject being to pretendthatthewarderitwaswhohad made a savageattackontheaccused insteadoftheotherway about. The whole proceedingwassoabsurdthat tJ1e CrownProsecutordeclined toenterintothefarceofcross-examination. However, oneverycon scientiousjurymanroseinhisseatandintimatedthathe wislted to askthewitness a question. Thejudgelooked at himwithanexpressionofamazementanddisguston his countenance,threwdown his pen, leant backinhis chair,andsimplysaid:"Erb-erbMr.Jury man, really!erb.really:!"On whichthejurymanin stoantlysat down andneveruttereda word. I haveneversince seenanywell-intentioned effort so sud denlyandeffectually nippedinthebud. I remember two remarkable casesofsuicide which occurredaboutthisperiod. Onewasthat ofan Englishman who heldanappointmentassuperin tendent inthePublic Works Department.HehadmarriedaJamaica lady to whom hewas deeply at tached, andshehad died quite young. The bereave appeared to .prey upon his mind very seriously,tosuch an extentastocause apprehension amonghisfriends. One MondaymorningI, being thenin chargE}ofthe Kingston Detective Office,wassummoned to his house;aHd there in hisbathroom we-beheld a melan 4:'holy spectacle. {I should mention unfortun-

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THESTORY. 53 ate man and his wife had been very fond of goingouttogetherforridesonhorseback in the evenings.) There, hanging by the neckona hemp rope, one end of which was fastened to a beamthatstretched across the room, swung-the corpse, naked to the waist. around which was fastened his wife's riding habit, tightly knotted and twistedthatitwas withgreatdifficultythatwe untiedit;and we succeeded in doingsothere was a deep and livid indentationlefton the skin,Onthe concrete floor of the bathroonlay a low, wooden, three-legged stool on which the de ceased had evidently stood while adjusting the noose around his neck, and then kicked asideatthecrucial moment.Itwas immediately under his feet;andalongside ofitlay his wife's riding whip, The drop was not higher than about eighteen inches; andthe l\Ost mortem examination revealedthatdeath had been caused by strangulation. There was displayed a mar vellous degree of grim determinationonthepartofthe deceased; and the whole tragic event created a profound sensation,onaccount of his social position. In the other case the victim of his own actwasone of the numerous Haytian refugees who usedto frequent Kingston about this time, seeking shelter under the British flag during the constantly recurring revolutions in their misgoverned country.Onenevel." f;aw any of them doing any work. They spent the whole day andpartof the night walking along the streets inthelowerpartof the town, or sitting in taverns and 'restaurants of the humblest description talking politics to the accompaniment of violent gesticulation; and theyWereinvariably clothed in black frock coats andtophats. Occasionally one of them would make his ap,..

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-54 AWESTINDIAN POLICEMAN.pearance in asuitof spotless whitefora dayortwo,butthatwasanexception. Their prevailing colou.l'";Vas very dark. One day we received from a certain memberofthiscommunity areportthathis gold watch and chainhad been stolenbyoneofhis compatriots. On tigation the evidence seemedveryclear;soawarrantwas obtained. forthearrestof the alleged thief, who was a certain GeneralA-N-(Itusedtobe a com mon saying aboutthattime-and,Ibelieve a perfectlytrueone-thattheHaytianarmycontained more cersthanprivates).Naturally a real live General would expect hisarreston a criminal chargetobe rounded byrathermore pomp and cireumstancethanthatofanordinaryindividual;soImyself proceededtoeffect it, accompanied by two detectives,andarmedwiththewarrant.We foundtheGeneralataveryhumble lodging inEastStreet;a lean and looking black man,withunusually large eyes, dressedinhis black frock coat. He received uswithdignified courtesy, andheunderstood sufficient Englishtol'ealisewhatourerrandwas.Witha stately. bowheexpressed his entire willingness to accompanyIlS,merely asking permission toretiretohis I'oomfora moment toputawaysomeofhis ings. This I, unwisely, allowedhimtodoalone.Heentered the adjoining room, closing the doorafterhim,. Icouldhearhim moving aboutfora minuteorso. ThenIhearda most peculiar choking sound,anda noise 8,S of somethinghardstrikingthe floor;afterwhich all was still.Iimmediately flungthedoor open, Enteredtheroom, and beheld a very ghastlysighton tile little iron cot which formedtheGeneral's bed .. He

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THESTORY.l1adtaken off his coat, collar, and necktie, rolled Up' his 'shirt-sleeves, seized his razOl' and cuthis throat.tromearto ear, besides inflicting twoterriblegashes. onthe anterior surface of each armjustattheelbow Joint.He'was stretchedouton his back onthecot,. with both arms hanging over the edge ofit;whilethe opim razorwaslying onthefloorintheblood which streaming out over both rooms.Therecould !lot beanyquestion of thefactthathepreferreddeath to dishonour.' TheHaytianswerenottheonly political refugees who sought safety' in Jamaica at that time. Cuba was in it chronicstateofrebellionagainstSpanish injusticeandtyranny,andtherewas a steady influx of Cubans intothisisland. Many df. theirdescendantsarestillwithus,asloyalBritishsubjects. They broughtwiththem a thorough knowledge of the cultivation of tobaccoandthemanufactureof cigarsandcigarettes, which now forms oneoftheleading industriesoftheisland.Intheparishes 01 St. Andrew, St. Catherineand'UpperClarendontheyplantedlargetractsofhitherto'neglected land with tobacco; and inthevariouscigarfactoriesinKingston Spanish was practicallytheonly language spoken. Two of these Cubansatleast introduced into the.countryaninnovation inthe perpetration of crime, within my own experience. I was stationedforatimeinthevillage of Linstead,thirteenmiles fromSpanish'fown, intheinterior;a place whichhassince. devel-. oped into a largeandflourishing townshipandtradecentre. There werethreeorfoursugarestatesinthe. neighbourhood, which used todrawthemoneyforthe weekly payment oftheirlabourers. merchantsin

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56 AWEST INDIAN POLICEMAN.the village, usuallyoliaFridaymorning. Wakefield, which was the mimeofoile of these sugar estates, always sent two EastIndian coolies, on foot,fortheirmoney, the distance being only aboutfivemiles. The road, however, led through a settlement where a num ber of Cuban tobacco planters resided.Ona certainFridaymorning the two coolies started ontheirhomewardjourneyatabout ten o'clock, carrying a bag con..;tailiing justa few shillingsshortof, nearly allin fiilver. Atabout11o'clock one of the two coolies camerunning in hot haste tothestation, and reportedthatwhile passing through the Cuban settlement above mentioned 'twomeil whose faces were hidden under black masks had rushed outatthem from a clump of bush, attacked them with sticks and knocked both of them down, the. bearerofthe money bag being rendered unconscious;thatthe two robbers had taken the bag andrunaway with it, leaving coolies lying on the ground.After waiting a few minutesthestunned man had recovered cons-ciousiless, and hastened on to report the occurrence at the estate, While theother returned to Linstead tc?alarm the police. I instantly dispatched the whole of my small available force tothescene oftheoutrage and followed them myself. There had been a very heavy dew during the night, which rendered the tracks made by the robbers in the Hwire" grass with which the whole districtwasgrown very plain indeed; andafterabout two hours' search we found the bag intact in the backyardofa house inhabited by two Cubans, and recovered every penny of the money. We also found the masks, andthe yery heavy freshly cut green sticks whichtherobbers

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THESTORY.57 hadused as weapons. Their boots and trousers were soaking wet withthedew. The evidence against them waS very strong, although their faceshadbeen con by the masks, madeofblack cloth; and they were duly committed fortrial'atthenext Kingston Circuit Court. Now, atthis time there was still in existence inthisisland an exceedingly archaic statute known asthe Law deMedietate Linguae, thepurportof which was thatin the case of any alien being arraignedfortrialbefore.ajuryon a criminal charge such alien was en -t.itled to demand thata certain proportion ofthejuryshould consistofaliens. Idonot remembertheexact proportion,butI knowthatthrough the effortsof counsel for the defence there were no fewerthanfiveCubans on thejurywhich tried these two men. They paid littleorno attention totheevidence; and I saw myself two of themfastasleep intheirseats whilethecase was proceeding. The result wasthatthejurycould not arriveata verdict; and this being thelastcase on the calendarithad to be adjournedtothe next ensuing court. Beforethatdate the Attorney General brought in a bill before the Legislative Council, whichmetduring the interval, abolishingthetrialdemedie tate linguae,on the strength of the obvious miscarriageofjustice which might have taken place inthiscase; sothatwhen the two culprits again appeared before the court they were triedjustin the same mannerasiftheyhad been British subjects. Theywerefound guilty without any hesitation on thepartofthejury;and,ifmy recollections serves me right, they each re ceived a sentence of ten years penal servitude. A good story occurs to me in connectionwitha

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58 AWESTINDIAN,POLICEMAN.manwho kept alarge shop.or "store"as,itiscalled.in thevillageofLinstead. Hewas entirely a self-made man,andhadnotenjoyed thaao.vantage ofa good education;but he wasa justiceofthe pea,cesnda personofimportanceinthecommunity. He purchased a derelictpropertyinthedistrict calledA--thename beingthatof a placeinScotlandatwhich 'existverywell'preserved remains' of anan cient Roman encampment. One daya Scotchfriendofmine,witha very keen senseofhumour, asked him hehadfoundanytraces' of a Roman encamp ment yeton,-his recently bought property. 'Theans,:, werhereceivedwasthis:--.'"N-n-no;Ihaven'tfoundanyyet;but you know Ihaven'thalffinished cleaning upthe,bush." 'This was said quite ser,iously and perfectgood faith.

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THE ..STOltY. ChapterVll.THESTORY.-CONTINUED.Intheyear1879I wastransferredfrom Kingstontobe stationed inthevillage of Chapelton intheupperpartoftheparishof Clarendon,forthepurposeofsuperintending.thestations inthatthenremoteand l?arbarous district. The headquarters ofthedivision 'wereatMay Pen, onthemain road between Mande villeandOldHarbour;anditwas not until manyye.ars. laterthatthey weretransferredtothehill stationofChapelton itself, wheretheyarenow. TherailwayceasedatOld Harbour, and Ihadtopursuemyjourneythenceforsometwenty-fourmilestomy destination by buggy. 'I'herewasno hotelorlodging house;norwerethereanyquartersfor officer;thatwasthewayinwhich we used to be chuck,,:, ed out intothecold world in those days. I found accom-: modationofveryinferiordescription inthehouseofa brown lady whose English husbandwasemployedasa foreman ontherailway extension workswhich.hadrecently been begun. He used to beabsentfrom home fiveorsix days a week;andalthough shehada baby to play propriety, my positionwasobviouslyrathera delicate one.Infactitsoon became impossible.Theroom which I occupied was of such dimensionsthatinone direction I was able to touch both wallsatthesame timewithmyoutstretchedarms;whileintheothertherewasa spaceofaboutthreefeettospare. Iwasultimately rescuedthroughthekindnessofa Scotch

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60 AWEST INDIAN POLICEMAN.gentleman and his, wife, Mr. and Mrs. Robert Craig. He was the leading man in the community; and these kindly people insisted on my removing my belongings to their house arid taking up my quarters in the bache Jor's bu;ngalow which formedpartoftheirpremises.Imay say herethatScotch people have been my best :::riends all through my life.Atthattime the parish of Clarendon enjoyed a most unenviable reputationformurders and other crimes of violence, and ruffianism generally.Itis an indisputable psychological factthat moral and intellectual level of the negro is to be foundatits very lowestonand about the sugar estates of the Island; and the chief industry of Clarendon in those days was the production of sugar. Even nowadays one frequently meets people in the vicinity of the estates in the sugar districts whomitis difficult to regardashuman beings. There wereatthe time of whichI speak two brutal murders hanging like a cloud over the parish,theperpetrators of which had notyetbeen dis covered. The first was known as the Scully murder; the victim having been a white lad ofthatname who bad been waylaidwhile carrying home money to the estateof which his father was the manager, dragged off his mule, done to death, and robbed.Noperson had ever been arrestedonsuspicion of being concerned in the foul deed; and even in my time, which was some seven years afterwards, the police of the parish were beiilg blamedforneglect and incapacity in dealing with the case. Young Scully's father was quite brok en-hearted over his boy's death. He never allowed hishairto be cut again; andI met'him in later years with Ii' luxuriant growth flowi:hg over his shoulders, allail-

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THESTORY.61 ver-grey. Nothing was ever diacovered in connection withthatmurder, in spite of a reward offered by govern,ment. The otherwasknownastheM{)rrisHallmurder;andit was inconnection with this thatIwon my spurs.Ithad occurred six years prior to my goingtoChapel ata place called Morris Hall,some-fivemiles dis tant.A a,nd his wife of the name of Bailey hadb.eenarrestedatthe time,butdischarged f9r wantof evidence; and foriiix years a reward of had offered the government for the detection of the mur derers, without result. The deceased in this case Ii young black woman who had been staying with the Baileys, and' had accompanied them to a danceat neighbouring houseona certain Friday night.Onthe following morning her dead body was foundon the ground -in front oftheBaileys' house with the .throat cut. About three weeks after myarrivalatChapelton,I received late one night an urgent message from my sergeant-major askingmetocometo the station imme rliately on.mostimportant business.Onenteringthestation I saw along with the constables a short, squat, elderly black man, apparently in a state of great mental nertur.b4lti<>:D. He wasanAfrican born, broughttoJamaicaas ,a lad, having been rescued from a slaver in the Caribbean sea by a British cruiser onthevoyage to Cuba. There formerly to be in certainpartsoftheisland whole -s.ettlements peopled by Africans who had:f.oUndtheir way here in a similar manner. Their can now scarcely be distinguished fromthe of .the population.

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62 AWEST IN'DIAN' POLICEMAN.I lookedthisman over very carefully, puthim througha course of" preliminaryquestioning,andthen asked himwhathehadcome to tell me. Tremblingwithemotion, large dropsofsweat glistening on his face, which was nowthecolour ofverydarkashes, he told, slowly and deliberately and without hesitation, the following remarkablestory:-. He began by sayingthatheknew whohadkilled tp.e young womanatMorris Hall, and had knownit.for.six years.On my puttingto himtheobvious ques whyhe had concealeditforsolong, he saidthatit was because he wasafraidof beingsenttoprison him salf forwhathehad been doing on the .nightofthe murder;nud also because Obeah had beenputupon him to ]{eephis mouthshut;butthathis conscience would Dot allowhimnow to keepthesecret any longer, and he was determined to make a cleanbreastof it, nomatterwhattheconsequencesmightbe. Hethenpro ceeded tostatethatontheFridaynightwhenthemur der took placehehad been engagedin stealing logwood on theMorris Hallproperty:thatis actually fellingthestandingtrees;athingthatused frequently to be done in the wastes of jungle which covered largeareason properties inthatdistrict, and which hehadbeen ihthe habitof doing without detection.Itwas a bril liant moonlightnight;andtherewasa footpathnearby where hewasworking leadingthroughthelog wood thicket from the directionoftheBaileys' house towards another. oneinwhichheknewthat a dance was being giventhatnight.Atanhour which he guessed to be about two o'clock in the morning heheardvoices and saw figures onthefootpath. Concealing himself behind a large logwoodtreehe saw amanand

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-THESTORY......63 a woman whom: he ,knew' wellcoining-along the path 'carrying something heavy between them; which he as 'a' female human form. Waitinguntiltheyhad gone some distanceaheao,he followedthemthroughthe bush until they arrived at'thehouseoftheBaileys, where,rightbeforethefrontdoor,theylaid downtheirburden, and passed on.Afterwait ing a few minutes hewent to the spot very cautiously and found to hishorrorthatwhathad been deposited there, wasthedead body ofa young black woman whosethroathadbeen cut fromearto ear. Stuck point downwards intotheearthalongsidethebody a common black-handled table knife, stainedwithblood. Myinformantwentonto saythatwhile view Ingthisghastly scene he heard arustling in thebush at; theback ofthehouse, and saw coming towardshim the man who had beencarryingthe'body, on which hefledfordearlife;butnot before hehadbeen recog nised by the man, 'who calledouthis name. lie thentold me thattheman was Thomas Brown,andthewoman who had been helpinghimto carry the corpse ,vas Eliza Morgan, whowereatthattime living toge to the custom ofthecountry,'and were well known to him. Onhearingthisstory 'I subjected thenarratorto the most rigid cross-examinationin every <1irection 1 couldthinkof,butwithoutshaking'hisevidence I'n theslightest degree: Heknelt before meand kiss.ed my feet,thenlifted his eyesandhishands'toheaven, swearingthemost solemn oathsthatwhathehad said wasthe whole truth,andprayingthathemightbestruckdeadon'thespotif.itwasnot.Heunbosomed all the detailsof his logwood stealingen-

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64 AWESTINDIANPOLICEMAN. bythelightofthemoon,andagain vowed,thathisconscience could not the burdenanylong er, that wasquite to;face th.e ofthelaw andtheterrorsofObeah in preference. Eventua.lly he completely convinced meofthe truth ofhisstory;andI decidedthatitwas a casein which t.hepromptest action was an' immedi.ate necessity. I foundthattheold man Jtnew where Thomas and:l4organ, who hadpartedcompany some few monthsafterthemurder, were livingat thatmoment; I took the drastic stepof them arrested at and c;letective-thelatter a manofgiantframe,anda perfectterrortothe c;rimiJl class-wereverykeen aboutit;soIsentoneofthem in one direction, andtheotherinanother, each by a coupleofmen, with orders to take'S,rown and Morgan outoftheirbeds,orwherever theyI;night find them,andbringthem tothestation. I i8 patched themshortly befor.e midnight,itbeing a dry, mooniightnight; andaboutftve o'clock inthemorning I was awakened by thereportthat IllY order alJ,ad beencarriedout without:a hitch. I had of course cSused the accuser to be detainedatthe station iIi meantime. Owing tothe if>ngth of time which had elapsed smce thecommittalofthecrimeitwas notan easyto resuscitate and piece together :such evidence as had been forthcomingattheinquest onthemurder woman. Itwill ,ber.emember.edthattheBaileys been arrested at the butverysoon discharg,. edf.rom custodY1 I found them to be quite decentand andthey.proved exceedingly use :tulto me in sorting ou
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THESTORY.65quite a new character which was broughtforthinthe light ofthelittle African's confession. The Clerk of PettySessions, who was in those daysthe function';" ary,chargedwithconductofsuch preliminary p:roceed ings,oidMr. Matthew Farquharson, (grandfatherof ourlady tennis champion), consideredtheevi dence which Iwas.able to offer quite sufficientto detain the two accused; and he remandedthemincustody week.-by week, whileateach appearance we were able to forge oneortwo additional links inthechain of circumstantial evidence whichhadtobe ob tained in support ofthatof the eye-witness. I may say thatthe little African never deviated ahair's thestory which he told me on that first pight. I recollectthatamong theveryoriginaland uhique featuresofthe evidence adducedwasthefind !11.g ina graveofa blood-stained flannelshirt,identi fied as .having been the property oftheprisoner Mor gan. The whQle case was surroundedbya denseat of Obeah. I cannot now remember allthedetails; anditis possiblethattheymightbore the.reader; soitwill suffice tosaythatwhen IleftChapel tonattheendofNovember 1879 toreturntoKing ston, Thomas Brown and Eliza Morgan,afterhavi:ng beenthreemonths in custody, had beenduly,com mitted.totaketheir trial atthe Mandeville Circuit Court, to be held inJanuary1880-ifI rememberright the, charge of murder. The result wasthat the jury ac,quittedEliza';Morgan, butbrQught in a of guilty againstThomas Brown,,whoin due met his death on thegallows.I.had at that time, asw,i,Ii,presentlyappeB,J;', appointedtothe commandofthest. Andrew division,theInspector of

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:66 AWESTINDIAN POLICEMAN.whichhadgone on leave,andwasconsequentlystationedatHalfwayTree.Buton methegovernment theresponsibilityofdistributingtherewardof which,asstatedabove,hadbeen offeredforthedetectionandconvictionofthemurderers.Iapportionedthelion'ssharetothelittleAfrican,whohad reen themovingspiritintheaffair,andthebulkoftheremaindertotheBaileys;havingin viewthefactsthattheyhadrenderedmostusefulandimportant andthattheyhadattheveryoutsetbeenarrestedandkeptin custodyforseveral days, chargedwitha crimeofwhichtheywereentirelyinnocent.Thereis a sequeltothisstory,anditillustratesinaverystrikingmannerthatchild-like simplicityand !1bsence ofall vindictiveness, whichformsuchstrongredeemingfeaturesinthepsychologyofourpeopleintheruraldistricts.Abouttwoyearsaftertheevents above narratedIwasagainsentto Clarendon;butthistimeinchargeofthewholeparish,withmyheadquartersatMay Pen. Onmywayhome onedaytowardsdusk,afterahotandtiringridetoChapeltonandadjacentdistricts, Iheardawoman'svoice callingout:-"MarningInspectorThomas"(Imaysaythattheactualtimeofdayhasno connectionwhateverwithasalutationofthiskind)."Marning,InspectorThomas." I couldnotatfirstdistinguishwherethevoice came from,asitappearedtobeaboveme;butwhenthecry was repeatedonce more I glanced upwards, andthereon a hillside overhanging theroadI beheld a buxom young black womanstandingatthedoor way ofaneatlittlehouse,withhertwohandsplaced ()n herabdomen, one overtheother-thatbeing the

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THESTORY.attitudewhich etiquette prescribesforacurtsey-bobbing up and -iown, withherwhite exposedina smileofdelighted welcome.ratonce replied tohergreetinginthevernacular.(ofwhichram amaster),askingherwho shewasandhow she came to know whorwas-being at thetimeinmufti.Tomyutterastonishment I receivedtheanawer:uNo me 'Liza Morgan,sah?I really gladfesee lookingsowell." Here was a woman whom I hadhad lockedupfor three long months, and done my best to hang, overtwo previou'sly, and whomrhadlastseenina cellattheChapelton station committedfortrialon acharge of murder,greetingmewithexpressionsofgenuine pleasureatthischance encounter. Therewasnohypocrisy aboutit;forifshe hadnotcalledmyattention to herself I shouldnothave even seenheronthe.hillside sheer abovetheroadasshe was. Therearemanycountries where a womanofother nationalityinherposition would have seizedtheopportunityof !2ying me outwitha stone,asI rode past, allunsus.pecting.

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68 AWESTINDIANPOLICEMAN. 'Chapter VIII.THESTORY,-Gontinued. In the'year1880,i:wasfortenmonthsincommandofthepoliceofSt.Andrewduringtheabsence ori.leave ofthe Inspector forthatparish.Themostnotableeventofthatyearwasthevisitpaidto theiSland by tWoRoyal Princes,namelyourpresentKing,His V,and his elderbrother,Prince Albert Victor, wholater:becameDukeofClarence, and diedinearlymanhood.Theyarrivedinthe cruiser "Bacchante," in which shiptheyheldtherankof niidshipmen. TheGovernor,SirAnthony Mus;. grave,wasawayon leaveatthetime,hisplacebeing fiiiea. bytheLieutenant Governor, Mr.(afterwards Sir,)Edward Newton.HeentertainedTheirRoyal Highnesses atKing's "House .for a weekortendays,and I wasinconstantattendancetheremyself, being persona grata withMr. Newton,andhavingmyheadquartersatHalf-wayTree,withinaveryshortdistanceofKing'sHouse. On oneafternoonacricketmatchtook placeatUp-ParkCamp betweenthegarrisonandthe"Bacchante,"atwhichthePrinceswerepresent,andwhichofcoursehundredsofpeople flockedtosee. I remember...thatthemilitaryhadnotmadeanyarrangementsforkeepingthegroundclear,andthatthisdutydevolvedentirelyon myself. Iperformedittothebestofmyabilitybyridingroundandrounoasin acircusring;buttheringgrewnarrowerandnarrower,untilatlasttherewasnolonger

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JAMAlCA EXHIBITIO-191.Photo by J.W.a.B1'ennanStanding, from lefttoright:InpectorThoma,Clmrch,Jame.,Alexander, Wedderbunl, St. Aubyn Sitting, from lefttoright:In per-tor McCrea,Pononby, Major L.F.Knolly,.M.G.(InpectorGeneral),McLeod, Clark.

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THESTORY.69sufficient roomfortheplayers,andthematch had tobeleftunfinished. Ioughttosaythattherewerenofencesorbarriersofanydescription;andinthose days "boundaries"atcrickethad not yetcomeintouse;sothattherewasnot evenanartificial Ilne markedoutaround the field.Ontwo subsequent occasions didHisMost Gracious Majestyvisitthisisland. He returnedinJanuary 1884,asalieutenantinH.M.S. "Canada," onwhich9ccasion a subscriptionballin hishonourwasheldintheold KiIlg's House at Spanish Town. Again in 1891, being then in commandofH.M.S."Thrush,"a gunboat belonging totheNorthAmeri-'can and West Indian squadron, whichinthosedaysusedtomakeanannualcruise inthesewaters,helandedinroyalstateasPrinceGeorgeofWalestoopentheJamaicaExhibition, onthe29thJanuary.Onthatoccasion, Ihadthehonourofridingasoneofhis escort, close totheoff hind wheel of hiscarriage,fromtheupperpartofDukeStreettoKing's House.HewasentertainedbySirHenryBlake, who wasthenGovernor,fortendays,duringwhich timethreeballswere given,atallofwhich Iwasinattendance.Anothernotable eventof1880,butofanunpleasantnature,was adisastroushurricanewhichstrucktheislandfromthesoutheastonthenightofthe18thAugust,passingdiagonallyacross'ittothenorthwestanddoing heavydamageasfarasSt.Ann'sBay.Therewasgreatdestruction in Kingston.Treeswereblown downalongtheroadtoHalf-way Tree, where houses were fewandfarbetween, in suchnumbersthatthemule-drawnstreetcars, whichhad by 'thattimebeen established, were unableto run for'many daysafterwards.Ihappenedtohave coine

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'10 AWEST'INDIANPOLICEMAN. down intoKingston onthe18th,andnextmorningrwasobligedtofindmywayback;to :tlly quartersatHalf-wayTreeon foot. Therehadnotbeen arealhurricaneformanyyearspreviously,andmostpeoplehadforgottenwhatitwaslike. Wehavehadmanypainfulreminderssince then. .Inthefollowing year, 1881, I was removed toLin stead, tosupervisethestationsintheupperpartofSt.Catherine,subjecttotheordersoftheInspector for theparish,who residedinSpanishTown. Someofthedistrictsroundaboutwereinanexceedingly J>enighted condition. Ihaveina previouschapterdescribed a case ofhighwayrobbery whichoccurredinthatneighbourhood;butduringmystaythererhadsomeofthequaintestexperiences whichhaveeverfallentomylot,ofwhichthefollowing isthemostamusing,inspiteoftheelementoftragedyinvolved. One of the stations withinmypurview wasin awild locality calledPointHill, whichin,thosedaysmighthave been describedasabitof"DarkestAfrica."Itwasmanyniiles from everywhere,andcould scarcely be reachedfromanydirection, exceptonhorseback.Itboasted, however, aclaimtobe gardedascivilised inthefactthatitactuallypos sessed aresidentDistrictMedical Officer. When I came to knowthisgentleman, Iatonce realisedthathewasjustthekindofperson whomthegovernmentwould haveappointedtosuch a place, becausetheycouldnotpossibly havesenthimtoanyhighly dvilised one.Ithasalways been a mystery to mehowsuch a person could ever have obtainedthe neces,:" saryqualificationsofa medical practitioner. He wasa white man, a Canadian;anditwassaidthat

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THESTORY.71heowedtheappointmenttotheinfluenceofabrotherwho occupied a good position inthejudicial ment.Hewasthebuttandthepreyofthe negroes. livingabouthim.Theyonlyconsultedhimprofessionallyforthemost'trivialailments;andtheyusedopenlytoridehishorses,andplunderhisprovisionground.ThefirsttimeIsawhim,hewaswalkingalongtheroadpastthestationin.hisshirt-sleeves, bare-footed,withawhitehelmeton his head, a machettein onehandandasmallbundleofsugar cane,on his shoulder. I received a severe shock when the corporalinchargeofthestationtoldme, inreplytomyquestion,thathe wastheDistrictMedical Officer. Isubsequentlydiscoveredthatwheneverhehad to attenda court,ortogo toSpanishTownorLinsteadforahypurpose, he used toweararustyblack frock coat,anda tophatthatmatcheditin appearance.Heisthusdescribedatlengthforthereasonthathe so fitted inwiththeothercharactersengagedinthecase Iamabouttonarrate.One fine daytherecame to meatLinsteadtwoWild-looking womenfromthisPointHilldistrictwitha weirdstoryofinfanticidecommittedonthreedifferentoccasions by amananda womanresidingintheirneighbourhood. Theystatedthatthepartiesmentionedhadbeen livingtogetherfor some threeyears,duringwhichtimethewomanhadbornethreechildren;andthateachofthesechildrenhad lymysteriouslydisappearedwhen a fewmonthsold.Anaccidenthadled to discoveryofthefactthatthelastonehadbeen buriedattherootofabreadfruittree,growingontheborderofthelandon whichthetwo women lived. Astheirstoryappearedtobe reliable,andcarefulenquiryfailedtoreveal

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72 AWESTINDIANPOLICEMAN.anymotive ontheirpart,thenecessaryinvestigationswereundertaken;andthere,sureenough,attherootofthebreadfruittreeweunearthedthebonesofthreeinfantsoftenderyears,,onesetofwhichappearedtohave beencomparativelyrecentlyinterred.ThemanandthewomanwerearrestedandsentontoSpanishTown.Therewasnorecordofanyregis.trationofbirthordeathofanychildrenatallhavingbeenmadebythesepersons;and,asalwayshappensinsuch cases,assoonasthearresthadbeen effected,plentyofcorroborativeevidencewasforthcomingfromthepeople livingintheneighbourhood. The boneswereofcoursesubmittedtotheD.M.O. above describedforexamination;andI recollectto.thisdayhowhepositively swelledupwitha senseofhisownimportance,andthepompousverbositywithwhichhedescribedtheresultsofhisexamination.TheprisonersweredulycommittedfortrialattheKingstonCircuitCourt;butunderthejudicialsystemtheninvoguetheCoronerforthe parish de cided thataninquest should be held onthebones, he,theCoroner,havingnothingtodo-ashewouldhaveunderthepresentsystem-withtheexaminationofthecriminalchargeagainstthepartiesimplicated.The coroner appointedashisdeputy acertainsolicitor,amanoflow intelligenceandpooreducation,whoneverappearedinacourt,butmadehislivingbydoing acertainamountofrudimentarychamberpractice,andactingascoroner'sdeputywhenoccasioncalled.Theplaceappointedfortheholdingoftheinquestwasa small house on apropertycalledAyl.mer'swhichwasusedasa courthouse once ineverytwomonths.

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THESTORY.73 Thejuryconsistedoflabourers working on aneighbouringsugarestate,andtheheadmanoftheestatewastheforemanofit, heandoneotherbeing the onlytwo men who couldreadandwrite.Thentherewasinattendance,ofcourse,theD.M.O. whohasbeen described, wearing,asbefitted such a solemn occasion, his frockcoatandtophat.SuchagatheringforjudicialpurposesI have never seen, beforeorsince.Themanandthewoman who were chargedwiththemurderofthechildrenwerenotinattendance,theyhaving beenalreadycommittedfortrialbyan-otherauthority.The court having been duly opened,thedeputy -coroner explained tothejurythattheywere assembl edforthepurposeofenquiring whether theboneswerethoseofcertainunnamed infants, andwhethertheseinfantshadcometotheir death by foul means-orotherwise. Alltheevidence was heard, and then, hr.ving sum meditup,thedeputycoroner directedthejurytoconsidertheirverdict, onthelines previouslyindicatoed.Aftera fewminutesofratherexcitedandin dignantconsultationtheforemanstoodupandthusdeliveredtheverdict:"We findtheprisoneratthebar.guiltyofmurder."Itwas then explained to themthattherewasnoprisoneratthebarforthemtotry;butthatalltheywere called upon to dowastopronounceuponthebones,theirpreviousinstructionsbeingcarefully re peatedto them. Once moretheyretiredin consulta ,tion; and presently the foreman deliveredan amended vordict as follows :-"WEI find that-thebones the ofthe said children, and thatthey cameto

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74 AWEST INDIANPOLICEMAN.theirdeathbyhavingtheirbirth concealed."This verdict,thepurportofwhich,thoughcrudelyex"pressed,wasquite intelligible,thedeputy coronerhadtoaccept. As amatteroffact,thejuryatthetrialofthetwo accused found them guiltyoftheoffenceofconcealmentofbirth.

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THESTORY.ChapterIX.THESTORY,-Continued.75Forsomethreeyears, between 1881and1884, Iwasshiftedaboutfromoneparishtoanother,holdingactingappointmentsinClarendon, HanoverandManchester;thenreturningtoKingstonforSub-Inspector'sduty.InJulyofthelatteryearIwassent to MorantBayto relievetheInspectorforSt. Thomas, hadobtained six months leave. Owing tocertain.circumstanceswhich werenotdiscovereduntilafterhisdeparturehewasprecludedfromreturningtoduty;andattheexpirationofhis leave a vacancy .wasthuscreatedwhichshouldintheordinarycourseofthings, havebroughtaboutmypromotion tothe rank ofInspector, I being thenthesenior Sub.ButjustatthisjunctureI experiencedthefirsttasteoftheillluckwhichhasdoggedmyfootstepsever since. A Commission whichhadbeensentoutfromEnglandin1883 to,reportonthefinancial conditionofthecolonyhad,'amongotherthings. recommendedthatthenumberoftheofficersoftheConstabularyshouldbe reduced by oneatthenextopportunity,sothatmypromotionhadto bedeferreduntilanothervacancy occurred. This didnothappenuntilnearlythreeyearslater;andwhenitdid arrive, Ihadbeen overtenyearsa Sub-Inspector.ShortlyafterI took chargeofSt. Thomasin 1884. a newformofgovernmentwasIntroduced in maica;changingitfroma Crown colonypure nnd

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76AWESTINDIANPOLICEMAN.simple,andinauguratingapartiallyelected Legis lative Council;thesystem which,withseveral amendmentsandextensions, continues co thepresentday. The introductionofthischange was,forsomereasonortheother, watchedwithagreatdealofanxietyonthepartoftheauthorities.Alargenumberof'''confidential'' instructions were issued tothepolice;and,amongotherprecautionarymeasures, no memberoftheforcewasallowedtohave leave, except on medical duringtheweekinwhichtheelec took place. However,everythingwentoff with out symptoms of disturbanceofanykind;and I havenodoubtthegovernmentfeltthatagreatcrisishadbeensafelypassed. Theparish of St. Thomashadbeen in bad reputethroughouttheislandever sincetheeventsoftherebellonof1865;andontakingupmydutiesthereIfound still livingthreeorfoursurvivors ofthemassacreswhich took placeattheMorantBaycourtllOuse andotherplaces intheparishduringthatre bellion. Twoofthem were medical men, whose lives llad been deliberately spared bytherebels on accountoftheirprofession. Theyhadsome gruesome storie3totell. I remained in charge of St. ThomasfromJuly1884,untilNovember ofthefollowingyear;andI su b sequently returned totheparishon promotion in 1887, stayinguntilJanuary1894.Ithusspentaltogetherupwardsofeightyearsthere;andImakeboldtothinkthatI succeededinprovingthatthebadreputation.oftheparishabovereferredtowasquite un cieserved. IamproudtosaythatI wontherespect,theesteem,andtheconfidenceofthepopulationin

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THESTORY.77such awaythatforyearsafter I hadbiddenfarewelltotheparishIusedtoreceive occasional lettel'sand Christmascardsfromnumerouspersonsofthehumblestclasses. While servingthereIhad some of themost unique and interesting experiencesofmywhole someofwhichIwillhere set down.Ioughttosay that ithadapparentlybeenthepolicyofthegovernmentforsomeyearstomakethe parish adumpinggroundforofficials whomtheyregardedasbeing alittlebelowthemarkofdesirability, sociallyorotherwise; althoughIam vain enough tothink that 1wasnotsentthereforanysuch reasons. OneoftheDistrictIV[edicalOfficers oftheparishwas an Ameri can, a refugee from the United States who had served in theranksoftheConfederatearmyduringthe Civil War.It used to be understoodthattherewas a price on his head. Another was a man who hadarrivedin the island as anarmysurgeon somefortyyearspreviously; since whichdatehehadneverleftit:nor,Ithink,hadhe ever opened a. medical work. His practice such asitwas, lay chiefly inthebush ofthe Blue Mountains;andon me devolved, inlateryears,theunpleasant d.uty ofbringingabouthisretirementfromtheservice altogether. cultivation, moreorless moribund, was car: rie.d onih.a desultory attheeastendof the is the east endofthe islalJ.d.:.-ovel;"the' alluvialplainknownasthe PlantaiI). Riverdistrict; but itwas bf.ling.steaqily ed,by the enterpriseofan Amedcan,to:-yVhom Ja,maica owes a debtofgratitude which can never be repaid. .

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78AWESTINDIANPOLICEMAN.Imadetheacquaintanceofthatfirminitshumblebeginningsas"BakerandCo.,"watcheditexpandinto"TheBostonFruitCompany,"andhavelivedtoseeitdevelopintothegiganticcommercialconcernwhichisnowknownas"TheUnitedFruitCompany."Ihavehadofficialandprivatedealingswiththemirallthosestages;andI gla-dlybeartestimonytothebenefitstheyhaveconferredonthisBritishcolony.Americansgenerally,rightlyorwrongly,donotenjoyaverygoodreputationfortheirmodesofdealingwiththecolouredelementintheirowncountry;but in JamaicathemannerinwhichtheUnitedFruitCo.succeedinextractingfromtheircolouredemployees.the good servicethattheydo,formsa curious andinterestingpsychologicalstudy.Intheyear1884thegovernmentfirstintroduced the experimentofimportingashiploadofChinesecooliesfromHongKongasindenturedlabourersonthesugarestates,insteadoftheEastIndians,ashadalwaysbeenthepracticeforoverfortyyears.Thewholebusinesswasbadlymanagedfromtheoutset;therewasnotevenanythinglikeanadequate ofinterpreters;andoneChinamanwassoverylikeanotherthattheimmigrationauthoritiescouldnotforsometimesortthemoutforallotmenttothevariousestates.Somesevenhundredofthemlanded, and considerablymorethanhalfweresenttoSt.Thomas,bycoastingvessels,or "droghertl" astheyarecalledinJamaica.Manyofthemwerecunningandunscrupulousruffians-probablyex-pirates-andonboardoneofthesedroghers,beatingupforPortMorant,thedetachmentroseinrebellion,andputtingthecaptaininfearofhislife, compelledhimtoputhis

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THESTORY.79 boat about and makeforKingston.Thecaptain, how ever,hadthegood sense torunintoYallahs Bay, which was then on his lee,andslip ashoreinhis dinghytothepolice station,fromwhich a telegramwassentto meatMorant Bay, on receipt of which I tookwhat I deemed necessary. When these Chinese were all eventually landedanddispatchedtotheirvarious estates, chaos andcon fusion ensued. They didnottakelong to findoutthatalltheemployees ontheestatesweremortallyafraidofthem,andcouldnotdistinguish onefromanother.Takingfull advantageofthis, they refusedtowork, 111though therationsprescribedbytheregulationsweredulyissuedtothembytheestates.Insome casestheyactuallymaderaids on theprovisiongroundsofthenegroes and onthecanefields. The situation calledfordrasticmeasures,andI applied them-asusualentirelyonmyown responsibility-givingsomeoftheworstcharactersaslighttasteofthekindoftreatmentthatwould have be'enmetedouttotheminChina,withtheresultthatin about threeweeks,workwasproceedingsmoothly on. alltheestates. Mymenenteredintothespiritofthecampaignwithgreatgusto;butweallhada girenuous time.Insomeotherparishes these Chinesedesertedinbatches, assisted bytheircountrymeninKingston;andon onepropertyinSt.Marymattersculminatedinariotinwhich oneChinamanwaskilled.ButIwasvery proud ofthefactthatowingtomydrasticmeasuresoutofthethreehundredandsixty or thereaboutswhohadbeenimportedintoSt.Thom as, only someeightorninewereunaccountedforup

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80 AWESTINDIANPOLICEMAN.tothetimeIlefttheparish,afterthelapseofsixteenmonths. Aninterestingcaseofmurderoccurred inthe year 1885among these same Chinese onanestatecalled Lysson's,aboutthreemilesfromMorantBay. Oneofthemhad been missingfromthepropertyforsome days,anditwasassumedthathehaddeserted;whenone morning, on agangbeingturnedinto oneofthecanefieldsforthepurposeofcleaningit,theycameupon a corpse in aghastly state of Onlytheskullwiththehairstill attachedtoitreveal edthefactthattheremainswere thoseofa Chinaman.Theymusthave been lyingthereforatleasttwoweeks.Thereis no place inthetropicssofearfullyhot,oraffordingsucheffectual concealment,astheheartofa canefield infullgrowth.The medical examinationofthebody revealedthattherewas afractureatthebaseoftheskull, probablycaused by a blowwithsome heavy,bluntinstrument;andleavingtherestofthecarcass to be buried,thedoctor tookthe heJtd awaywithhim to beproperlycleanedandexamined.Theclothingfoundatthespotwasidentified bythewifeofthemissing China man. Our enquiriesfurnishedno clueatfirst; which,inviewofthelanguagedifficulty,wasnotsurprising;butlatethatevening we learntthatanotherChineselabourer, nqmed Com Fook,haddisappearedfromtheestate. ImadeaverythoroughsearchofComFook'sroomandtheeffects whichhehadleftbehind;andwhatI foundtherepromptedmeatonce tosetthetelegraphgoing to KingstonandotheradjacentparishesforthearrestofCom Fook.TheImmigrationDepartment also sentafullyqualifiedinterpre ter atmy request,ortewhom theyhadrecently

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THESTORY.81broughtallthewayfromDemerara;andwith his aida good dealofevidencewasobtained.Itwasallpurelycircumstantial;but,astheevent proved,itwassufficient. Then, sometendayslater,ComFookhimselfwasbroughtbackincustody,havingbeenarrestedthrough the vigilanceandintelligenceofasmartyoung stationedatCross Roads, aplacewhich isanexceedinglybusythoroughfareontheoutskirtsofKingston. MytheoryofthecasewasthatCom Fookhadfollowedthedeceasedinto the canefieldandtheredealthima terrific blowfrombehindwiththeheadofhishoe. 'The skull, nicely washedanddisinfected,wasproducedbythedoctor;andthere'wasthefracture,intheverythickestpartofit,plainlytobe seen.Theonlydifficultywastodiscover a motiveforthemurder;butthatdifficultydisappearedundertheintelligenthandlingofmyinterpreter.He ascertainedthatsome two weeks previoustothefindingofthebody, ComFookandthedeceased-whosenameIhaveforgotten-hadhadafuriousquarreloverthegamblingtable, in the courseofwhich deceasedhadcalled ComFooka"loasenpig"-astheinterpreterputit, meaning a"roastingpig"-andthatComFookhadthenandtheresworntokilltheotherattheearliestoppor tunity.A curiouslightisthrownonthepsychology:oftheChinamanbythefactthatalltheChinese who .. werepresentatthetime,andindeed,all 1lhose ontheestate,werequitewellawareofthis,andwere not in ., theleastsurprisedwhen ComFookcarriedhisthreatintoexecution .. The case was.triedintheCircuit Courtat wherea.ll.,the. cases fromeasternSt.Thomasand Portlandusedtobesentinthosedays.

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82 AWESTINDIANPOLICEMAN.The evidence was entirelycircumstantial;and,with xception oftheoverseeroftheestate,thedoctor,thearrestingconstableandmyself, allthewitnesseswereChinese, who couldscarcelyspeakawordofEnglish.Thejuryfoundaverdictofguilty;andComFookwasdulyexecuted in Spanish. Town,aftermakingfullconfessionofhisguilt.Theonlythingthathecouldnotunderstandwaswhyhehadbeen"triedsooften,"asheputit,insteadofonly on'ce.Whathemeantwasthathehadbeenpresentataninquestwhich,asstatedintheprevious chapter, usedalwaystobe held insuchcasesatthattime-andattheinvestigation bythecommittingmagistrate,aswellasattheCircuitCourtwherehewasfinallydealt with. ItrustImaybepardonedformentioningthatMr.JusticeCharlesRibtonCurran,who presidedatthetrial,introducedinto hissummingupsomeremarksregardingthewayin whichthecasehadbeengotupwhich wereofanaturemostgratifyingtomyself. I may also say, incidentally,thatthe interpreter, amanoffine presence,andhighlyintelligent,woundupbymarryingthewidowofthemurderedman,andtakingherwithhimon hisreturnto Demerara.Itwas in St. ThomasthatI came acrossthemostdeterminedandpersistent law-brooker thatIeverknew. His namewasBennett;amanofgentlede meanour,veryquiet, civil,andsoft-spoken.Thereexists,asanauxiliarytotheregularpolice, aforceofruralconstables, whowearnouniform,anddonoconstantpolice work,butonlydon aparticularkindofdistinctive badgewhencalledupontoperformpolice duties,forwhichtheyarepaidpro r6'Il(!,ta. Bennetthadbeen appointed to apostofthisdescriptionontherecommendationofhis employer.

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THESTORY.83whowasaJ.P.,andalargeproprietor;andinthatcapacityhewasonedaysenttoarresta Chineselabourerontheestateon achargeoflarceny.ofcanes, or sugar,Iforgetwhich.TheChinamanmadesomeshowofresistance,whereuponBennettadministeredtohimwithhisstaff-quiteaformidableweaponsucha beatingthattheChinaman was orderedtohospitalasapatientinsteadofbeingtriedfortheoffencechargedagainsthim.Bennettwasthenputon histrialforunlawful wounding,andsentencedbythecourttosixmonthshardlabour;whichnaturallyinvolved his dismissalfromtheruralpolice.Havingservedhisterm,hereturnedtotheestate,andwas'againtakenon by hisemployer-who,bytheway, invariablyexhibitedgreatsympathyforhimthrough out hiscareer,uptoacertainpoint, which will be describedlater.BeforeBennetthadbeenbackamonth,by aremarkablecoincidence,theveryChinamanon whoseaccounthehadsufferedtheimprisonmentwasseizedwithamysteriousillness,necessitatinghis removaltothehospital;where,afterlingeringina comatose conditionforupwardsofthreeweeks,hegaveuptheghost.Hisillnesswascertified bythen.M.a.as"opium poisoning;"butknowing,asI do,themannerinwhichthathospitalwasrun,Ihavemyown opinionofthecase. However,asI didnothappentobeintheparishjustatthatjunctureIhadno official connectionwithit. I wassentbacktherein time towitnessthefinishofBennett'scareer.Hisnextexploit wasthestealingofawatchfrom a Chineselabourerontheestateadjoiningtheoneonwhichhewasemployed.Thewatchwasafairly one;andthecase beingprovedtothe hilt,

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84AWESTINDIAN POLICEMAN"a sentenceofninemonthshardlabourwaspassedonhim. Not longafterhereturnedfromprison onthisoccasionanattemptwasmadetopoisonthericewhichhadbeen cookedforeatingbythesameChinamanfromwhomBennetthadstolenthewatch,andtwootherswho livedinthesameroom. WearrestedBennetton suspicion,andpresenteda case sufficientlycleartocommit himfortrialattheCircuitCourt, whichasthenew systemhadcome into wastobeheldatMorantBay,fortheSt.Thomas cases only.Hisemployerstood bailforhim,andbroughtdown counselfromKingstontodefend him.Thisgentleman played so cleverly onthehostilitytotheChinese which was generalthroughoutthe thathe succeeded inobtainingfromthejuryaverdictofacquittal; which was, beyond all doubt, a gross mis. carriageofjustice.Thepresidingjudgegaveanunmistakableindicationofhis own opinionoftheverdictbyremarkingtotheprisonerondischarginghim:"Youareaveryluckyman."AfterthisepisodeBennettlaylowforseveral.months,andnothingwasheardofhim. Then, onedaymydetective cametomeandtoldmethathehadreceivedaninvitationfromBennetttoattendhis.weddingattheGolden Grovechurchon acertainday. tiOme fourweeks later,thebrideelect being a widow womanofsubstance, keeping a shopintheGolden Grove village, which adjoinsthepropertyon whichBennettwas employed. The detective, who was averyfine character,said:"You know, sir,Bennettdoesnot belong to this.' parish;he comesfrommyown di'strict oftheparish'ofSt.Mary;and,asyou know, I havejustreturned

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THESTORY.85fromleave there,andI knowBennetthasa wife alive. Isawheronly a week ago."Atthesametimehe showed metheinvitation whichhehadreceivedtoBennett'swedding.BythenextpostIwrotetheincumbentoftheGolden Grove church,informinghimofthefacts,andwarninghimagainstallowinghimselfto beentrappedinto aidingandabettingthecrimeofbigamy. IwastheninformedthattheclergymanhadsentforBennett, who, on being confrontedwithmylette.r, didnotattempttodenythathis wifewasstillalive.Thedetective, who waskeepingtrackofthe case, reported to methatBennetthadwrittenacirculartoalltheinvitedgueststotheeffectthattheweddiIighadbeen unavoidably' p'ost poned,butthatitwouldcertainlytakeplacewithin 'a few weeks, on adateofwhichtheywould be noti fied in due course. About a week later, I wasreturninginmy buggy.from Kingston, where Ihadbeen spending a coupleofdays,toMorantBay, whenatasharpturnintheroad,abouttwo miles out, between sixandseveninthe morning ImetBennettridinga good-looking theappearanceofwhichwasnotunfamiliartome.ItcertainlywasnotthesortofanimalthatBennettoranymanofhis class would own.Themangaveme afnrtiveglanceoutofthecornerofhis eyeandrodeontowardsKingston;andon followinghimwithmyeyesitstruckmethatthehorsehadevidently beenriddenfarandfast.Thespotwasaboutforty .. two milesfromBennett's home;butitdidnotoccurtomeatthe momentthatthenearestwaytohisdistrictofSt.Marywould bethroughKingston. OnarrivingatMorantBayI found atelegramawaitingme from'the sergeant atGolden Gro:ve

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86 AWESTINDIANPOLICEMAN.stationreportingthatabigbayhorsewasmIssmgfromtheestateofBennett'semployerthatmorning,.andthatBennetthadbeenmetduringthepreviousnightridingitalongtheroad;alsothatawarranthadbeen issuedforhisarrest.KingstonandSt.Marywereatoncedulywarnedbywire;andonthefollowingdayIreceived atelegramfromSt.MarycallingforthearrestofBennettonthechargeofattemptingtoadministerpoisontohis wife.ThisinformationwasatoncepassedontothepolicestationsinBennett'sdistrictofSt.Thomas;andonthethirdmorningaftermyencounterwithhimontheKingstonroad, oneofmymenstationedatBathwhile goingforanearlymorningplungeintherivernearthestationcaught him sneaking alongthebankthroughunfrequentedtracks,on foot, onhiswayhomeward.Weafterwardslearntthatthehorsewasfoundcrawlingalongtheroadsomewhere inthevicinityofSpanishTown,andtakentothepound,whereitdied.Bennettwas in due course examinedandcommittedfortrial:attheMorantBayCircuitCourtforhorsestealing,andatthePortMariaCourtforattemptingtopoison his wife.Thesamejudgepresidedatbothcourts,which wereheldwithina weekofeachother,.andheinflicted sentencesofseventeenyearspenal servitude altogether: fourteen forthelatteroffence,.andthreefortheformer.ItishardlynecessarytosaythatbystealingthehorseBennetthadtrespassedjustalittletoofarontheindulgenceofhis employer,anddidnotreceiveanyassistancefromhim onthisoccasion.Duringmystayin St. Thomas, I engagedina vigorouscampaignagainsttheObeahsuperstition,

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THESTORY.87withgreatsuccessasfarastheindividual prosecutionswent, one case inparticularbeingofamostuniqueandremarkablenature;but,sadtorelate,itis becoming everydaymoreevidentthattheeffectofconvictionsundertheObeahLawisofanexceedingly evanescentnature;andthatthisfoulsuperstitionisstrengtheningitsholdonthecountry.However,myexperiences inthisdirection will bedealtwithandthewholesubjectdiscussedinthechapterdevoted to. it.Intheyear1888, alawwaspassedwiththeviewofprotectingthechildrenofthepeasantryfromthemutilationoftheirarmsandhandswhichusedveryfrequentlytooccurtothemwhileassistingintheworkingofthesmall woodensugarmillsthattheyuseforgrindingcanesforthemanufactureofthecoarse,dark,andverysweetsugarwhichtheycommonly use. These millsareoperated byhorsesor mules whichtramproundandround in' a circle.'revolvingtherollersbymeansofcogs,thewholethingbeing constructedofwood.Themanglingofahandoranarmused tobeaverycommon accidentamongthechildrenofaformergeneration.throughbeingcrushedbytherollers.Thisnewlawprescribedthatcertainprotectiveappliancesshouldbe placed onthesemills whenevertheywerebeingworked;alsothatno oneshouldworkhis millatallwithoutitshavingbeen inspected by amemberofthepolice forceandcertified bytheInspectorofPoliceasbeing constructed accordingtolaw.Thethen Inspector GeneralofPolice,MajorL.F.Knollys,C.M.G.-amanwho isstillrememberedwithaffection by thoseofhissubordinateswho knewhim-intimatedtomethathewould begreatlypleasediftheofficers couldmakeitpossibletodotheinspec-

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:88 AWESTINDIANPOLICEMAN.tionofthesemillsthemselves;andthesuggestion .appealedverystronglytomynaturalproclivitiesfOt"explorationandadventure.Iundertookthework .con amore,much totheastonishmntofmyown men, .and ofthepopulationgenerally,especiallyoftheruralpolice, whoseduty It wastoguidemetotheremotemountainfastnesseswherethesemillswereoftenlocated;andaltogetherI inspectedinthecourse of fourorfive months,upwardsoffourhundredofthem.Irangedfromthesea-coastupto3,000feetabove sea-level,inthehigherregionsoftheBlue Mountains,generallyamid. exquisitelybeautifulscenery,andoftenwithmagnificent viewslyingatmyfeet;drinkinginthecoolmountainbreezesandlisteningtotheeternalmurmurofrushingstreams.InseveralplaceswhereImadeasuddenappearanceIcameupongroupsofstarknakedblackpicaninnieswhofledscreamingwithterroratthesightofme;butatevery mill Ifoundpleasant,peacefulandcon.tentedpeople, who received mewiththegreatestpolitenessandrespect,andinvariablyofferedmesuchhospitalityastheycould afford. Many adayI have gonewithoutanyrefreshmentfromearlymorninguntilduskotherthanthefruit;.canejuice,and"sugar-and-water"provided-withoutpaymentofanykindbeitunderstood-bythesekindlyfolk.Beingapastmasterofthevernacular,itwasveryrarelythatI didnotleavethegroupswhichusedtogatheratthemillsonmyapproachroaringwithlaughteratsomejokeqroppedbymesuitabletotheoccasion.Itwas.inthe ofthesedutiesthat [ gainedthe knoV,Vledge ofthe:parishand .established thepleasant.relations;with

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THESTORY.89thepeopletowhichallusionhasbeenmadeinthe',earlypartofthischapter.I ownedatthetimeanexceedinglycleverand !Sagacious horse, whooftenusedtocarrymesafely -over places wheremyruralpolicemen wereafraidtoridetheirmules.Anditwasaremarkablething :that alwayswhennegotiatingaparticularlynastybit,hewaswonttoamusehimselfbybitingoffgreatmouthfulsoftheluscious guineagrassgrowingalong ,-the sidesofthenarrowandprecipitoustracks.I was forcedtotheconclusionthatitwasa pieceof,deliberate"swank"onhispart.Hebecame quite a .celebrated characterintheparish.On one occasion, jn ordertoconvince some scoffingfriendswhotried 'to belittle his performances, I rodehimupthebrick steps leading tothefrontdoorupstairsoftheMorantBaycourthouseanddown again. Andthiswasafterhehadcarriedme some thirty-odd miles onthesame day.Itwas whileinSt. Thomas alsothat,overcomebythelureofourgrandandbeautifulmountains, Iundertooktheseriesofexplorationswhichare,describedandrecorded in asmallvolume entitled,'''UntroddenJamaica,"which I publishedin1891. These includedthecrossingoftheJohnCrow .Mountain rangeatthenorth-eastcorneroftheisland, where nohumanfoothadpreviouslystepped,inanexpedition which took ninedaystotraversea distanceoffifteen milesasthecrow flies. On alltheseexplorationsIwasaccompanied by abandofblackmenofSt. Thomas, consisting chieflyofruralpolice;andIcanneverspeakintoohighpraiseof "their loyalty, ,devotion,andcheerful enduranceof llardship. Ineverheardagrumbleorawryword

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90 AWESTINDIAN POLICEMAN. passamongthem.TheywereNature'sgentlemen.all;andsomeofthemwereamongthosewho use
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THESTORY.ChapterX.THESTORY,-Continued.91.Iwastransferredin totheparishof Tre-: lawny;which,aspreviously mentioned,wasso namedafteraformerGovernoroftheisland, a Cornishman;the chief town beingappropriatelycalled Falmouth.Itusedinthebygone days to be averyimportantcentreofthesugarindustry,andthetownofFalmouthborethetracesofdepartedsplendour.Practicallyallthehouseswerebuiltofsolidhewnlimestone; while the courthouse was,andstill is,thefinest building of thekindintheisland.Unfortunatelyithasrecently beenguttedby fire.Aninterestingfeatureinthe eco nomichistoryoftheparishisthataftercanesugarhadbeen killed by competitionwithbounty-fed German beet,andceased topayitsway, most. oftheestates were able tosurviveandcarryonbyreasonofthepeculiar flavouroftheirrum,whichwasingreatdemand in Germany:a clear caseofpoetic justice. A German firm in Kingston u3ed to have intheirregularemploy 3 coupleofTeutonic "rum-smellers,"astheywerecall ed, whose businessitwas totestthespiritmanufactured on the-vtrious estatesandpurchasethecrop accordingto flavour;notinfrequentlyatanadvanceoffourorfive timesthepriceof the ordinaryrumdistilledinotherpartsoftheisland: Idonotknow enoughofthesubjectto pronounceanauthoritativeopinion;butit: used to be heldthatthepeculiar flavouroftheTrelawny rum 'was due to some qualityinherentinthesoil. But.

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AWESTINDIANPOLICEMAN.Ido knowthatittook averystrongstomachtoswallowitinitsunmodified condition.Ialso knowthatonone .estate atleastinadistantparisha distillerfromTrelawnywasimported,andtheentireTrelawnyprocess was adoptedwiththeviewofproducingTrelawnyrum;andthattheonlyresultachievedwasentirelytoruintheflavourofthatwhichhadalways previously beenmanufacturedonthatparticularproperty,andconsideredtobeverygoodforcommonrum.The peculiartangabouttheTrelawnyspiritcauseditto be commonly called"Germanrum";andImaysayfrompersonal knowledgeoftheTeutonic rum-smellers mentionedabovethatiftheyhad conuned theiractivities to smellingonlytheremighthavebeenmoreofthem.aliveatthetimeoftheoutbreakofthegreatwar;oneoftheeffectsofwhichwasthe deathof the"GermanI'um"trade.Ispentfouryearsandahalfverypleas .a.ntly inTrelawny;havingnoveryseriousorimportant .criminal casestodealwith-rum-smugglingbeingtheprincipaloffence-andenjoyingmanyvariedkindsofdiversionformyleisure time.Idid agreatdealofboating-bothsailingand .rowing-in theharbourandforsomethreemilesup the lowestreachoftheoeautifulMarthaBraeriver; land myboys becoming very expert sailors.. (TJli';training wasdestinedtostandthetwoeldestingood .steadinlateryears.)Ihadalso excellent cricket, golf,'andtennis;'andbesides outdqor sportsI .was abletogive'fullplaytomyartisticand literary tastes.I gave concertsandtheatricalsinthefineoldtown hall, whichwerealways'wellattended;and even -organised a smalltroupe.ofcntertainerswithwhom! travE:lled asfarasBrown's Town iIi St.Ann;one memM'

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THESTORY. 93 berofmy troupe beingthepresentCustosofTrelawny Out oftheproceedsofthese entertainments Iwas able tocomplete the purchaseofa pianoforthecourthouse,. which wasundermy care, andthekey of which Ikeptuntil Ilefttheparish. Thus life passedverypleasant..' lyatmyquartersintheold militarycompound, w:ith thesea onthreesides, andmysub-officers andmenhoused in the bigbarrackssome fifty yards away.ButeventhereIhadoneofthemanyextraordinaryandunique adventures which,asthereaders ofthisbook will be bound to admit, have followed me allthroughlife.Itwas' as follows:-Sometimein1898 a man namedP-wastransferredto my divisionfromKing ston.Hehad been a detective,butreverted to ordinarydutyin consequenceofsome transgression commit. ted by him. I didnotlikethis;foritis usually the' first irretrievable step onthedownwardpathinthecareerof a detective.Butontheman'sarrivalI found' him to be a tall, fine-looking, well-set up young fellow,.oflight brown complexion, well spoken, intelligent,andvery mannerly. I took a likingtohimatonceandso'did my wife, as wellasmy childrenwithwhom he was constantly playing when off duty. He also foundgreat'favour intheeyesofmyIrishsergeant-major, being always cheerful, civil and willing. Allwentwell until' thenightofthe31st December, whenthe major, who was in charge of a patrolinthetowri' square, which is about a furlong fromthebarracks,i, noticedthatsomething waswrongwithhimand edhim back tobarracksbetween 8 and 9 p.m.ItwasIaverybrightmoonlight ,night; andas I myselfwaswending-mywaytowardsthesquarethroughthe' sertedstreets-thewhole population being concentrated

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AWESTINDIAN POLICEMAN.inthesquare-Isuddenly came uponP.walkingata furious pace,takingimmense strides,anddragginghisfeetalongtheground behind him.Hewasgoinginthedirection ofthebarracks, and he passed me like a flash.1called to him,buthe took no notice;.soIwenton intothetown to enquireofthesergeant-major, who inform.edmethatP. appeared to himtohave been drinking. I told him of my encounterwithP.,andsaidthatwehadbetterleave him alonefor the presentto sleepitoff. I .remained in and aboutthetown until nearly aquartertotwelve,andthenwentbacktowardsthebarracks,thestreetsbeing quite deserted, whilethewatch-night serviceswerein full swinginallthechurches. When I within fiftyyardsofthebarrackgate,thelarge wings of which werebarredandlocked ontheinside, I sawthesmall wicketinone ofthemopen,andaman-comeout whom I did not recognise, until hearrivedwithin a fewyardsof me. IthensawthatitwasP. and calling himbyname I asked him whE'rE' he .g"cinri to. Withoututteringa word heleapttowardsme like a wildI')east, stooped downandclasped both his .arms round my knees,attemptingtothrowme onmy. j)ack. I was in those days 185 Ibs.ofboneand and I ;'ountereJ bystrikingupwards with my kl1ee, taking him rightunderthechin. That staggered him, but didnotunloosehishold,andhevery hadme down. I managed howevertobring
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THESTORY.95mystickwithboth hands across his windpipe.Indoing"thatI bruised my knuckles onthegravelinsuch cruel fashionthatIcarrythescars tothisday.Atlasthe got to his feet again, and his windthenbeganto give
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96 AWESTINDIANPOLICEMAN.TobestrictlyaccurateI should thatitbegan in: 1898andlasteduntil1899.Themantold us la'ter thatheneverhadanyideathathewasfighting me.Hesaid thatallthetimehethoughtitwasthesameGibson who is mentioned above,andwhom,forsomereasonorother, he dislikedverymuch. Gibsonwasamanofverylightcomplexion.OfcoursethisadventuremadeitveryclearthatP.wasoneofthoseunfortunateswh() shouldnevertouch liquorinanycircumstances. OnthefollowingmorningIwenttothecellabout'7 o'clock,hadP.released,andproceededtoinspecthim.Hepresentedapitifulspectacle,withhisface,head and neck allbruisedandbloody;hisuniformtornanddirty;hiseyes bloodshotandone badly blackened,andhistongueliterallyhangingoutofhismouth. Consideringthematterfartoo serious a onefordepartmentaldiscipline, I determinedto take criminal proceed ings againstP.onmyown responsibility. Itherefore'orderedthesergeant-majortolethimhaveabathandputon plain clothes,tobe marched ,beforetheClerkof Courts atthelatter'shouse-NewYear'sDaybeinga. publicholiday-sothatI couldprefera criminalchargeagainsthim,theresultofwhichwould have entailedhisimmediate dismissalfromtheforce.ButI found thatIhadreckonedwithouttheviewsofmywife;'mychildren,andmysergeant-major.These allformeda deputation whichwaitedon mewithsuchexceedingly'urgentrepresentationsinfavourofthedelinquent,thatIwaspersuadedto abandon.myintention. Ithencom. promisedbycountermandingmyordersabout allowing ;P.toberestoredtoa p:tesentable condition,and director.:; ingaparade .ofallthenieniIi barrackstofalUn.at8 o'clock. WhenthiswasreadyIhadP.marchedfromthe

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THESTORY.97 cell, inthesame deplorable condition, byanescortofa. corporalandone man,andhalted facingtheparade,twentypaces away. I then. related tothemenwhathadhappenedduringtheprevious night, pointedoutthe: miserable condition, physicalandmental, to which P.hadbeen reduced;andwound up by telling him that,. moved bytheentreatiesofthesergeant-major, backed.bythoseofmywifeandchildren, Ihaddecided toletthemauling which Ihadgiven himandthedisgraceofthusappearingbefore his comrades onthatparadebesufficient punishmentforhis offence.Withthe tears. runningdown his cheeks he thankedme;I dismissedtheparade;andnothingmorewaseverheardofthe.matter.I left Trelawny about six weeks later,andnever sawP.againuntilthe6thApril, 1902. He was onthatday,broughtover fromFalmouthby Sub-InspectOl Tooleasoneofa reinforcement ontheoccasionof.the Montego Bay riots,anaccountofwhichappearsin a. laterchapter;andI wasthenverypleased to see a full. corporal'sstripeson his sleeve. Iregrethowever to relate that hewasultimately dismissedfromtheforceas"anincorrigibledrunkard'"-tousethewordsoftheorder.ButIthinkImaysafelyassertthatnootherofficer of theJamaicaConstabularyhas ever undergone suchanextraordinaryexperience as isnarratedabove. I have made mention inthischapteroftheopportunitieswhich I enjoyed whileinTrelawnyforindulgingmyliteraryandartistictastes.Itmayinterestmyreadersofa younger generation tolearnthatin1897theDirectorsoftheInstituteof J.amaica organisedanArtsandCraftsCompetitioninhonouroftheDiamondJubileeofHerGracious Majesty Queen Victoria,in

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98 AWESTINDIANPOLICEMAN.which I won the first prizeformusical andalsoforsinging(tenor).To me alsowasawardedthe"first prize for a poem onJamaicasuitabletotheocca sion. Isentin two poems, both of which wereprintedintheJournalof the Institute. One I have already inflicted <>n myreadersinChapterII;andI herewith cravetheirindulgence totender.fortheirperusal-and,I hope, delectation-theone which gainedthefirst prize. JAMAICA.Throughthe dim anddistantages,ina silence deep and dark, Happy, artless childofNature,roamedthywoodstheArawak;Rose alongthycoral beaches fromtheirsands sowhiteandwarmMerrysho.utofIndian maiden, while aroundherdusky formCurledand clung the crystalwater,claspingitin fond embrace. Doomed was laughter, doomedwasfreedom, doomed was allthygentlerace-Doomed onthatblack day when, seaward, gleaming white theSpaniard'ssail .And hisdarkhulls' sombre shadow speedinghitheronthegale 'Tore asidetheveilthathid thee, gentledaughteroftheWest, .AndthedarkandgrimCastilian clutched thee tohiscruel breast.

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THESTORY.99 Once l.Il0re shadows closearoundthee-shadowsstainedwithblood and tears-.Darkerveilthatliftsorlightsnot Jligh ontwice ahundredyears;Tillagainonthebrightbosomofthyblue, gem-studded seaFloatsa sailandflaunts a bannerbearingwestwarddown to thee.{Floating saH andflauntingbannerfilltheSpaniard'sheartwithdread,Forhe thebitterstoryofArmada'sburialred.]England'sLion rendsthedarkness, drivesthegrimCastilian forth,Andheflees-whoshallwithstandthem,hardychildrenoftheNorth?Morethantwice a hundredyears have passed intothegraveofTime Sincethatday whenBritain's warriors firstthymountainslopes did climb:Yearsofwarfare,yearsof suffering, yearsofdarknessdunanddim,Years,-somefew-of peace andplenty,yearsofperil.sternandgrim.Yetbehindthedarkness gleaming, slowly, surely ingthrough, Dawnedtheheaven-bornlightofFreedom, changedthytintstorosierhue. RosethemightysunofProgress, !'lmiling ontheewithhis ray, And fromoutthecloudsofdarknessguidedtheetorealmsofDay.

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.100 .AWESTINDIANPOLICEMAN.Now thoustand'stwithhead uplifted, while above serenely wavesThatproud flag beneath whose shadow men no longer may be slaves,Joiningall thosevastdominions on whose boundstheresets nosunTo acclaimtheirEmpire'sruler-herwhose woman'shearthas won Allthelove of allhersubjects, bindingthemwithchainsunseen-Truestwoman, wife and mpther; sixtyyearsmostmighty Queen!Upward!Onward! bethymotto-upward,ontowardstheLight, Marching in the marchofProgress,strivinginthecause ofRight;Tillthysons shall prove themworthyofthecharmwhichNature'shand Strewssolavishlyaroundthyforests, streams,andcoralstrand. .InFebruary1899 I bid aregretfulfarewelltoTrelawny, on beingtransferredto St. Mary, where 1 found a very differentstateof affairs.Itmight best be described as a condition of lawlessness. The banana "trade was advancing and increasingbyleaps and bounds, bringing initstrainalltheevilsinherentto a "get-rich-quick"industry;especiallyin

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THESTORY.101:acommunitysolacking in moral stamina as ours is.PortMaria and Annotto Bay,thechief shipping ports, swarmedwithruffians and criminals from everyparish of theisland, who were abletoearn,bycarryingbananasforthreedays, sufficient to keeptheminidlenessfortheremainingfourof the week,andtoallowthemto indulge intheirfavourite amusementof gamb ling and debauchery of various kinds.Theloadingofthefruitsteamers generally took placeatnights;sothose who knowthecountry and the people will have no difficulty in forming mental picturesofthescenesthatused to occur. All work was paidbyresults;andonbananadays the lives and limbs of decent people usingtheroads wereatthe mercy oftheruffianly drivers who used to racewiththeircartsanddraysup and downthehilly andnarrowroadsoftheparishbyday andbynight,hurryingtogetas muchfruittothewharvesastimewould allow. Iregretto havetosaythatsomeofthe peopleoftheproprietorclass usedtowinkatthedelinquenciesinthisdirectionoftheir -drivers."here was a conditionofgeneral contemptoflawandorder. Almost theveryfirst man whom I prosecuted was amagistrateofthe parish. He was convictedandfined the maximum amount prescribedby the law; ar.d thislaidthefoundationofabetter'stateofthings, al thoughitearnedformetheundying animosityofthegentleman in question and his very largearrayoffol lowersandfamily connections. Again Ihadto apply those drasticmeasures-allonmyown responsibility-whichI have never known tofail;withtheresult that in lessthanayearI had succeeded in effecting amostmarked improvement. I was threatened so openlywithpersonal violence, the stories of which were taken

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AWESTINDIANPOLICEMAN.byservants to"mywife,thatshe and someofmy friends advised me tocarrya revolver when travellingatnight;which I declined todo.The climax was reachedata certain race meeting held on the coursejustout sidePortMaria (enclosed in a zinc fence)atwhichithadbeen decided bytheroughsthatI wr..s tohave a severebeating-ifnot worse. Manyofthemactual lyboughtsticks for the purpose;but these were simplytakenawayfrom themattheentrancegatebymy men. andpiled up. They made quite a respectable heap. I obtained a reinforcementofthirtypicked menfromKingstonfortheoccasion. A demonstrationwithstones wasstartedabout dusk,afterthelastracehadbeenrun;and when I thoughtithadgonefarenough I carried thewarinto the enemy's countrywitha baton charge of about fifty men,withcomplete success. Sometenofthe roughs jumped intotheriverwhich flows alongsidetheroadjustoutsidethecourse, and es capedbyswimming; while we laid out a scoreofothers" alongtheroad and inthegutters.One could have heard a pin drop inthestreetsofPortMariathatnight;andthelesson was never forgotten.Anentirely novel conditionofthings was also created in theparishof St. Marythroughthesystema ticraidingof certain properties bythenegroes.It hap pened on several occasionsthaton going his rounds, es pecially on Monday mornings, aproprietororoverseer would find his boundary fence removed, and his. log wood being actuallycutdown and chippedbyagangofmen who, when spoken to, claimed the landasbe longing to some of them. This was a very seriousandunprecedentedstateof things, requiringstrongtreatment; 1:10, afterconsultationwiththeInspector Gen-

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THESTORY.103eralofPoliceandtheCustosoftheparish,Dr.(afterwardsSirJohn)Pringle, I obtained afreehand,andproceeded to dealwiththesituationaftermy ownfashion. Thefactwasthat some oftheproperties belongingto absentee ownershadbeen entirely neglected for.manyyears,thusaffordingthenegroes opportunities.ofsquattingon them. Whenitwas foundthatthe Marylands consistedofthefinestbananasoil,perhaps,intheisland,theownersofthese places, and'. theirrepresentatives, began totakea renewed interest.inthem;hencethetrouble arose.Itshould be explainedthatowing tothephysical conditionsoftheparish Eugar hadgoneoutin St.Marymore quicklythanany-whereelse in the island,andtherecamenothingto fill'its'place untilthebananaindustryspranginto being;' sothatland whichhadlong beenregardedasuseless. suddenly becameveryvaluable.Italsotranspired,when wetracedthisland-grabbingmovement toitssource,thatthepeople were being eggedon.byanunderling intheRecordOfficeatSpanishTown, whohaddiscovered amongthearchives some ratherloosely worded old wills,madeinthedays of slavery, bequeathingcertainportions of someofthesepropertiestotheslavesofthetestators. These claims were thoroughly exploited bycertainnot over-scrupu lous legal practitioners, who issued actionsagainsttheproprietorsafterIhadsquashedtheirattemptsto obtainpossessionviet ann is..butevery case resultedinjudgmentforthedefendants. Iwasfortunateto haveinthiscampaigntheveryablesupportandassistanceofMr.C.Halman Beard, who hadbe'enappointed Resi dentMagistrateforSt.Maryveryshortlypriortomy llrrival intheparish,andwhosegraspofthelawbear-

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AWESTINDIANPOLICEMAN.ingon the situation was, and still remains, unrivalled. As is well known, hewasafterwardselevated tothe.Supreme Court bench.Innearlyallthecases, appeals were taken tothe'SupremeCourt;butthedecisions ofourResident Magistratewere invariably upheld. Eventually wegotholdofthemovingspiritintheconspiracy,andhistrialand putanend totheagitation.Inlessthantwoyearspeaceandquietnesswascompletely establishedinSt. Mary,andtherehasnotbeenanyrecrudescence ofthemovement since.Thechief proprietorsoftheparish gave meverysatisfactoryandsubstantial expres oftheirappreciation ofmyservices. My healthhadsuffered somewhatduringthecampaignin St. Mary, and I was strongly advised totakea holiday; whichwasnotsurprising, seeingthatIhadservednearlytwenty-fouryearswithnofurtherre .laxationthananoccasional month's leave, about onceinthreeyears. AccordinglyinMay 1901IwenttoEnglandonce more,andultimately remainedawayfromtheisland untiltheend of March 1902. While intheoldcountryI lectured onJamaicaat various places,undertheauspices ofSirAlfred Jones, K.C.M.G., headofthefirm of Elder Dempster&Co., who in 1901inauguratedafortnightlyservice of steam -rs plying between BristolandKingstonforthepurpose of establishing atradeinbananas. Incidentally there werespecial facilities afforded to passengers whodidnot belong tothewealthy class,bymeans of which agreatnumberofpersonsinJamaicawere enabledto take atrip"home"-asweall calldearold England, exceptperhapssomeofthepeople described in chap ter III.Inlikemannertouristswereattractedtothe

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THESTORY. island;whichhassincethatdate becomeverymuchbetterknown in Englandthanithadpreviously been. Having provided myselfwitha collectionoflimelightviews, and curiositiesofvarious kinds, I deliveredlectures on two occasionsattheImperialInstitute,andonceattheSociety of Arts, besidesata coupleofotherplacesinLondon, and also in Bedford.AtoneofmyImperialInstitutelectures the chairwastakenbyField-MarshalSirHenryWylie Norman,underwhom I had served while he was GovernorofJamaica,andattheSo'ciety ofArtsbyMr.W.F.Lawrence, M.P.forone of the divisionsofLiverpool, andproprietorofFairfield and Roundhill estates in the vicinityofMon tego Bay. There were on these occasions several other peoplepresentdeeply interested in Jamaica, someofwhom Ihadknown informeryears. Among them, ImightmentionSirE.N. Walker, formerly ColonialSecretaryoftheisland, ColonelW.G.Dawkins, alargeland-holder in Clarendon,andMrs.HenrySewellofTrelawny,withherdaughters. These people all gavemea mostgratifyingreception, and someofthemshow ed, me much attention and hospitality.IfI should live to the ageoffive hundred years, I shall neverforgetthebeauty oftheday on which I landedatAvon mouth,afterupwardsoftwentyyearsabsencefromdearold England, the15thof May 1901. Alongwitha coupleofkindredspiritsIgotupatfouro'clockinthemorning to see the sun rise overtheNorthDevon hills,andwatch his light gradually stealing overthelovely shoresoftheBristol Channeloutofa perfect ly cloudless sky. Andwhata revelation wastherailwayjourneyacrossthe"GardenofEngland"toLon.

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106AWESTINDIANPOLICEMAN.don,withthewhole countryside one massof whiteandpinkandyellow!Frommorningtillnightnota cloud passedoverthesky. IwasexceptionallyfortunateinrespectoftheweatherduringthewholeofmystayinEngland.EveninScotland,duringa periodoftendaysinAugustwhich Ispentthere, only one showerofrainfell. TheFifeshirepeople all said such asummerhadnotbeen seenformanyyears. Before finallytakingleaveoftheparishofSt.Mary,Icannothelp tellingofanotherextraordinaryexperienceofa personalnaturethatbefell me there.Itisone which, alongwithothers, has oftentemptedmetoendorsethatcelebrated sententiousutteranceofthebeadle inOliverTwist:-"Thelaw is aass."Asallmyreadersofthebetterclassknow-irrespectiveofcolour-thereisinthisisland atypeofmanofmixed blood who seems to combine in his person allthevicesandtheobjectionable qualitiesofboththeracesfromwhichhe is descended; his most salientcharacteristics being a fondnessforalcohol,andaninsolent demeanourtowardsall such personsashethinkswillsubmitto it. TomygreatregretI was forced to allow amanjustofthistypetoenter portalsofmyquartersatPortMariatodosome upholsteringwork-thatbeing histrade-whichwas amatterofurgentneces sity,and therebeing no one else inthe capableofdoing it. His principal facialadornmentwas a mous-'tacneofalmostHungariandimensions, whichalwayssmeltofrum-andnotverygoodrumeither.Heworked in oneofmyoutroomsfora fewdays;andeverydaymywife used to complain to me intheeveningsof his insolent manner.Atlast, onthemorning

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THESTORY.1 Orr. ofthe1stAugust1899,-aMondayanda public day-whileI wassittingreadingontheverandah, my' wife came to mewithtearsofindignationinhereyes u andtold methatshe could notstandthemananylong H. I accompaniedhertotheroom where hewaswork...ingandmadehertell meinhispresencewhathehaddone.OnhearingitI ordered the gentlemantoleavemypremises instantly. This, beingjustdrunkenough.tobe impertinent, he point-blank refused todo;which.filled mewithanunholy joy,forIthenimmediately became entitledtoeject him,withoutusinggreater'forcethanwasnecessary,asthelaw prescribes. Dis. patching one ofmylittle boys tothepolice stationnextdoor tobringtwo of my men overatonce, I proceeded to tacklethejob myself;andgraspingthe upholsterer firmly bythescruff oftheneckandthatportion ofhistrouserson which he always sat, I conductedhimoutofdoors and half-way acrossthebackyard,whenhesuddenlyturnedpartlyround, seizedthecollar of a new flanneljacketwhich Iwaswearing, and rippeditoff my back,tearingitintwo. Beingthenlegally authorised to repelanassaultby force, I dashedhimviolently totheground,askinghimatthesame timeifhe wantedanymore. His replytothiswas to bawloutseveral timesatthetopofhis voice "Good God!myleg isfractured."Justthenmytwo menarrived;andasmyfriendwasapparentlyunable tostandup, I madethemlifthim carefully, one on each side,andde posit him onthesidewalkofthestreetoutside my back gate.Ittranspiredafterwardsthatthesmall bone of hisleft leg-,-the fibula,runningfromtheknee to ankle -wasbrokennearthetop.Hisfriends removed him.tothe hospital,andhe remained there about six

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-:-).08 AWESTINDIANPOLICEMAN.'Inthemeantime, as soon as the CourtsOfficeopened ,on thefollowing day,Iobtained one summonsagainst .him forassaulton myself, andanotherfora similar committed, as I came to learn, on oneofmylit .tIe boys twoorthreedays previously. As soonashe.leftthehospital these summonses were served on him .Hewastriedand convicted on both charges, and fined .in sums amounting,withcosts, toupwardsof. As .. hecouldnotpayhe was actually removedtoSpanish Town,andconfined in the district prisontherefora .. few days, when his friends raised enoughtopay his.fine,andhe was released. Theordinaryman would,takeitforgrantedthatthematterwould have ended there. Nothing ofthesort!Hisfriends-andI be .. 1ieverelatives-wereconnections of the man whom I have mentioned inanearlierpartofthis chapterasthe.J.P.whom I had occasion to prosecute; and one mem.berofthe family was a solicitor. Throughtheiragency .this man was enabled, in spite of alltheforegoing, to sue me six monthsafterwardsintheSupreme Courtinformapauperisfor damages.Thatis to say, hegot his processandtheservices of a solicitor, and of .counsel to conduct his case,atthe expenseofthetax payersofJamaica-orfornothingasfarashewas concerned, anyhow. The case wastriedatthePort MariaCircuit Court in March 1900bya specialjury. They returned,afterfive minutes deliberation, a unanimous verdict inmyfavour;andMr.JusticeNorthcote, who preside'd, gavejudgmentfor me,with .costs. The expensesofmy defence amountedto, ,of which I have never seen a penny tothisday. Yes: on .-aecond thoughts I agreewithBumble. One incident in connection withthiscasethrows

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THE STORY. afloodoflightonwhata sink of iniquityPortMaria.wasinthose days,andwhata man's job IhadtotacklewhenI took charge oftheplace. One ofthekings or thecommunity was a man morallyofjustthesame typeasmy upholsterer, only he was well off: a gambler .. drunkard,bully,andloose character generally. Ihadhada couple of encounterswithhim,inthecourse or which he hadlearntthetrueapphcationofthe proverb quoted in Chapt,erIIIofthisbook:"Duppyknow who fefrighten;"butonthisoccasionhe becamesojubilantovertheprospect oftakinghisre-venge bywhathe regardedasthecertaintyofmylosing thecase,thathe assembled a band of musicinthe lowerpartof the courthouseforthepurposeofplayingatriumphalmarch.Ondeliveryoftheadverse verdictr theyall slunk homewiththeir tails betweentheirlegs :.. sadderbutwiser men.

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AWESTINDIANPOLICEMAN.ChapterXI.THEMONTEGO BAY RIOTS.Itwaswitha heavyheartthatI embarkedat .-Avonmouth inMarch 1902formyreturnto Jamaica. _Although physicallysetupandrefreshed, I was sore .,ofheartatleaving behind mywifeandall mychildren;withexceptionofmy eldest son whohadbeenserving.hiscountryintheBoerwar since January1901,and whom Ihadnotseenatallduringmy stay. I shouldhavebeen still more depressedifa flashofprophetic vision had given me somewarningofwhatwas instoreforme;andIhavehere toasktheindulgenceofmyreadersforintroducingcertaindetails, of a personalnature,butnecessary to.acompleteunderstandingof:thesituation. Iwasto someextentcheered by afaintrayofhope whichhadbeen shed on mebythePatronageSecretary.attheColonialOffice.He informed methatmyname bad been notedforpromotion toanothercolony,andwould be considered ontheoccurrenceofa suitable vacancy. Hefurtheradvised me inthemeantimetowrite,usinghis name, to the Inspector GeneralofPoliceandapplyforthedual appointment tothecommandofthecombined parishes ot St.Jamesand Han,over, which was justabout to be vacated bytheremoval toanotherWestIndianislandofthemanwhohadbeen lJOldingitfora coupleofyears;asthatwould give me .:at onceanacceptable increaseofemolument. I imme "diately acted on his kindly advice;butastherewas

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THE MONTEG<: BAYRIOTS.111no time fora'reply to reach home beforetheexpiration()fmy leave, I waskeptin suspense until myarrivalinJamaica;when I was notified, even beforelandingfromthesteamer,thatmy requesthadbeengranted.Earlyinthefollowing week, as I stillhadafewdaysleave torun,Iwentfirst to St. Marytocollectmybelongings, andthento Montego Baytotake()ver my new command. I foundthatmyheadquarterswerenot to be in Montego Bay, which wasthelarger and moreimportanttownofthetwo parishes,butinthelittle fishing village (comparatively speaking)ofLucea;andthissimply because the government a housetherefor the residenceoftheInspector, where as in MontE)go Baytherewere no quarters. The distancebetween the two townsistwenty-five miles. Ihada deputy in the shapeofan Irish sergeant-majorinMontego Bay,anex-RoyalIrishConstabulary man.Itstruck me ontakingoverthattheofficer whom Iwasrelieving was in a desperatehurrytogetaway, althoughthe steamer by whichhewas to leavetheislandwas not due to sail until the following week;butI did notatthe time suspect the reason for his anxiety.lIewas a man ofvastphysical proportions;andifhistactand his courage had been cast on the same linesashisbodily bulk he would have been the ideal police offi -eel'. Ittranspiredafterwards that he must have known .some trouble was brewing,butnohintofitwaseveraJreathed to me. Cae has now been deadforsome :years.) I proceeded to Lucea on the following dayto settle myself and get mythings unpacked;andonSaturdaythe5thApril, thedayaftermy arrival,at 11.30 p.m., on my way home from the houseofmyoIdfriend Dr. "Bill" Farquharson,theDistrict

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112AWESTINDIANPOLICEMAN.Medical Officer,whereI had been dining, I receivedthefollowing telegramfromtheIrishsergeant-majorinMontegoBay:-"Riothere, send helpatonce." Iknewthattherewere only sometenmen all told availablefordutyin MontegoBay;Ihadnot yet gotmyowntravellinggearin order,asneithermyhorsesnormybuggyhadarrived;and, motorcarsnot havingyetbeenintroduced,therewas no possibility ofhiringa convey anceathalf-past eleven on aSaturdaynight.FortunatelyI foundthatmy sergeant-major,Thompson-ablackman-possesseda two-wheeled vehicle known as a"ParryCart,"not much biggerthana andaveryfastlittle mare, which wasturnedoutin a gTasspiece adjoiningthestation. His boy was alsoathand;andin about half-an-hourtheconveyance was ready.Packingsome clothing into a smalltincase,andtakingtwoofourcarbineswithbayonetsandtwentyroundsofball cartridge,thesergeant-majorandIsetout onourtwenty-five mile drive to Monteg()Bayinthepitchy darknessofa particularly black night. KnowingthatbytheLucea road we should come totheMontegoBaypolice station beforeenteringthetown proper,theuppermost thought in mymindwaswhatwe should find onarrivingthere, andwhattodowiththehorseandtrapifitshould become necessaryto go into actionatonce.Itwas about four o'clockonSunday morningthe6thwhen wearrivedat the station;andeverythingwasperfectly quiet. Nota.soul was moving about inthestreet, thoughtheground waslitteredwithbricks,largestones, bottles, and! conch shells, while every pane of glass inthestationwindows was broken. The building,anold prison, wasa verystrongone, builtofstone,andsurrounded.by a

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--------.PhotobyH.E.UptonTHE BATTERED POLICE STATIO ,MONTEGOBAY.Photoby H.' E. Upton THESQ ARE,MO TEGO BAY.

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THE MONTEGC BAYRIOTS. 11Shighstone wall,withalargepavedcourtyardinside. Ongainingadmission I foundtheIrishsergeant-majorandallthemen, nine in number, safe inside. Ilearntthatthecauseoftherowhadbeenthearrestbya young constableofa notoriously rowdycharacterfordisorderly conduct aQout eight o'clock onthepreviousevening,andtheconstable had beensetupon by agangofroughs, who rescuedtheprisoner,andthenproceed ed toattackthepoliceguardroomwhichwasinthe courthouse,aboutquarterofa milefromthestation.Thesergeant-majorhadmanaged to keepthecrowdatbaywitha loaded revolverfora time,butwasevent ually compelled tobeataretreattothestationwith the threeorfourmen who werein the guardroom,not be forehehad fired ashotwhich wounded oneoftheattackingparty.Theremainderofthemen, whohadbeenscatteredhereandthereinthetown, alsosought inthestation.Themob,afterinvadingtheevacuatedguardroomandwreckingeverythinginIt, marf'hed on tothestation, where, unable to effect anentrance, they smashedeverywindowthata missile could reach.TheIrish scrgeant-major withhis wifeandtwo childrenhadquartersintheupperstoryofthemain building facing the street. Thesetheyhadto vacate asrapidlyaspos sible, withthelossofa good dealoftheircrockery and glasswarebroken bythebricksandstonesthat came throughthewindows.Onmy arrival I foundthefamilyhoused inmyoffice,which was attheback,in the interiorpartofthebuilding.Afterreceivingthesergearit-major'sreportI made mywaythroughthenow desertedstreetstothetele graph office;andcommunicatedwith-the Inspector

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114 AWESTINDIAN POLICEMAN. -General inKingston, who informed meinreplythat.hewas coming downatonce by specialtrainwitha .strong reinforcement. Thesergeant-majorhadtele graphed himduringtheprevious night,andhadalso called upon Sub-Inspector Toole, who wasthenincom mand oftheTrelawny division,atFalmouth,twentytwomiles away totheeast,forassistance. There was nothing more todoforthemomentbutreturntothestation andwaitfordaylight; which I did, snatching half-an-hour's sleep in a hammock slung between two beamsofa store-room. As soonaspossibleafterdaybreak Itransferredthelittle luggage Ihadbroughttothenearestavailable lodging-house, which was abouthalfa mile away,attheotherendofthetown;sentbackmyHanoversergeant-majortoLucea; andstartedoutto inspect.Theguardroominthebasementofthecourthousewas a complete wreck,thefloorstrewnwithbricksandstones, every piece offurnituredemolished,andallthebooks destroyed.Earlyintheday Sub-Inspector Toolearrivedfrom Falmouthwithapartyofabouttenmen. He joined meatthelodgings, while his menwere sent tothestation,andkeptthere;because intheexistingstateof affairs I did not consideritadvisable ,to allowanyofthem to be seen aboutthestreets.The <,nly police protection whichthetownhadduringthatSundayconsisted of Toole and myself;buteverythingwasveryquiet. Wekepton wonderingwhatwasdelayingthearrivalof the Inspector General'withhisparty,until welearntthatareporthadgone abroad and hadbeen telegraphed to Kingston bythestati)nmasteratMontegoBaythattherioters intendedtodamagetherailway line soastopreventthe passage

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THE MONTEGC'BAYRIOTS.115ofthespecialtrain.Inconsequence ofthisthe h'ain wasproceeding very cautiously, andthelinewasconstantlybeing inspected ahead of it.Atlast, about 4 p.m. wehadwarningoftheapproach ofthetrain,and IwentwithToole to meetit at therailwaystation, which is a coupleofhun-dredyardsalongtheroadtoLucea beyondthepolice sta tion. We found therea crowd ofatleast fifteen hun dred persons assembled, alargeproportion ofthem quite well dressed,buteyeing Tooleina distinctly hos tile manner, whiletowardsmyselftheydidnotappear upfriendly. The reasonforthisturnedouttobethat many of them took himfortheIrishsergeant-major, Phillips, whowasthechief objectoftheiraversion,andwhose bloodtheywere determined to have. The two men bore some resemblance to each other.Presentlythetraindrewup,anddischargedtheInspector General of Police, Inspector Clark of Spanish Town, a coupleofsergeant-majors,and between sixty and seventyrankandfile, all completely armed,andprovidedwithball cartridge. Astheywere marchedaway to thepolicestationthemobsetupanironical cheer,andIheardmorethanonemanremark:-"Cho!thatisnothalfenoughfor usto-night." This gave meaninkling ofwhatwascorning;anditwas subsequently provedthattheriotofthepreviousnighthad been aprematureandaccidental ebullition,andthattherealoutbreakhadbeen organisedfortheSundaynight,assoonastheevening service inthe ch\1rches should have corne toanend. A fewmagistratesofthe townhadmet the InspectorGeneralatthe railway station;andnaturallyonhis

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116 AWESTINDIANPOLICEMAN.arrivalI fell back into second place. These gentlemen took chargeofhim, showedhimabout,anddisplayedtheirown ignoranceofthereal state ofaffairs bypersuadinghimthattheriotofthepreviousnighthadnoserious import,butwasmerely disorderly conduct onthepartofsome roughs,andthatnothingfurtherwaslikely totakeplaceinthatdirection.Inaccordancewithwhathe was told by these magistrates,andwith-Ioutinformingmeofhis intentions,orconsulting meinanyway, he madethefollowing dispositions:-He be: stowedthefourofficersatthelodging-house which I have mentioned above, while allthemen werequarteredinthepolice station,nearlyhalfa mile away,attheotherendofthetown.Forthebeats inthetown-normally patrolledby one maneach-heorderedtheIrish orto tell offfourmen to each,carryingonly batonsandhandcuffs. Then,assoon as wehaddined, hesentToole, who wasthejuniorofficer, tothepolice station tostayinchargethere;while he, myself-thenextto him inseniority-andClark, remainedthuscutofffromtherestofourforce,toawaitde velopments.Eveningservice wasthenstill going oninthechurches,andeverythingseemed quiet. About half-an-hourafterToole'sdeparture ominousroarbegan to filltheair,accompaniedbythesoundofa bugleora cornetinthedirectionofthesquareinthecentreof]thetownwherethecourthouseis;andpresentlytheInspector General's orderly cameinfromthe street in aratherexcited conditionandr,eportedthathehearda terrific rowinthedirection named. TheInspectorGeneralthenordered metogoand investi gate, toreturnandreportto him if possible;ifnot,to go on tothestationandawaitfurther,orders there.It

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THEMONTEGOBAYRIOTS.117wasa pitchdarknight, andtherewere no lampsinthestreets;theonly light beingthatwhich issuedfromthewindows oftheadj oining houses. On emergingintothesquare about twohundredyardsawayfromthelodging, I founditvery dark,andempty, saveforhalf. a-dozen men armedwithheavysticks;butIhearda tremendousuproarofvoices comingtowardsme down one ofthesidestreetsleading into the square,theshrillblastof police whistles, and a sound of a cornet playing .thetuneof"OnwardChristian Soldiers."Iwentuptothe men andaskedthemwhatwasthemeaningofit.Receiving very insolentandthreateningreplies,andseeingthattoreturntothelodgings would betorunintothearmsofthecrowd,IhurriedonasfastasIcould walk to the station, arriving' thereabout a hundredyardsahead oftheyelling mob, which consisted ofatleast two thousand persons. The soundstheyemitted were exactlythesameasthose describedinStanley's"DarkestAfrica,"which bookIhadbeenreadingin Englandnottwo months before,asac companyinganattackmade on his partybytheLakeTanganyikasavages.ThatcircumstanceimpresseJitselfon my mindinthe most distinct manner.Onbeing admitted tothestationIfound Toolehadsome fifty men paraded intheyard,andwasthenen gaged in serving out ballcartridgeto them.Here ported to methatnearly allthemen whohadbeen posted on the beatshad been driven in,everyonemoreorless seriously wounded; while some were still miss ing. Allthiswhilethemobwasyelling outsidethe sta tion;police whistles were blowingthealarmcall some where' out inthetown, and two levolver shotswere fired.

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118 AWESTINDIANPOLICEMAN.The mobhadhalted infrontofthestationandwerethrowingoverthewall stones, bricks, conch shells,andbottles filledwithsand andwithwater,someofwhich missiles did considerable damage inourranks.Afterindulginginthispastimeforsome five minutes, they sweptfurtheralongtheroadtowardstherailwaystation,andIthenmadepreparationsagainsttheirreturnto renewtheattack.Findingthatsomeofthe menhadbeguntofixtheirbayonets I immediately or dered them to desist,andshowed.themhow to usethebuttendofthecarbine.Presentlythehowling mobretraceditssteps,andonce more haltedinfrontofthestation to renewthebombardment.BythistimeIhadunlockedthebiggatewhichwasused to allow vehicles toentertheyard, and I suddenly flungitopen, takingthemob completely bysurpriseandchargingrightintotheheartofitwiththebuttsofthecarbines. Thestreetwas immediatelystrewnwiththewounded,andthecrowd temporarily dispersed. Wehadgothome intotheveryheartofthemob.Fromamongthenooksandcorners ofthenumerous small housesandyardsin neighbourhood, however, a galling fire of mis siles was keptup;forwhich we, a solid massofmenindarkuniformsagainstthebackgroundofthestation wall, formedaneasytarget,whileourassailants wereundercover;soIverysoon again soughttheprotection o! the station toawaitthe orders oftheInspector Gen eral,asI had been directed. I then discoveredthatToolehadbeencarriedin unconscious fromtheblowofa brickonhis temple, andthatsometwentymen wereupstairsinthebarrackroom, many ofthemseriouslyinjured.Toolelayinsensible until daylightnextmorn ing. The district medical officerhadmadehiswayin-

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THE MONTEGG BAYRIOTS.119tothestation,andwasattendingtothewounded; whilethecaptainofasteamerintheharbourhadmanagedtogeta blockofice to us.Presentlymyattentionwasattractedbya loudhammeringonthegateofthestation,andthevoiceoftheInspector General callingoutto Toole tomarchoutthearmedparty;notknowingwhathadbecomeofme. Openingthegatemyself, I foundhimin awhiteuniformjacketandhelmet stainedwithblood, onearmhanginghelplessathis side,andapparentlymuchexhaustedandoutofbreath. He told methathehadbarely escapedwithhis life; did not knowwhathadbecomeofClark,butthoughtthathemusthave been killed;andordered me totakeoutthearmedparty,clearthestreetsandthesquare,andfireifIthoughtitnecessary, for he had been given tounderstandthatitwastheintentionofthemob toburndownthechief businesspartofthetown inthevicinityofthecourthouse. Icarriedout my orders,marchingallthemen whO' wereable tostandup intheranksalongthemainstreetintothesquare,withfixed bayonets. Thestreetwas sostrewnwithmissilesofvariouskinds-whichwere alsorainedupon us aswemarchedalong-thatmen weretrippingandfalling everythreeor four yards,andwe didnot dare to leaveanyofthem ontheroad,ortheywould most assuredlyhaveperishedatthehandsofthemob.Onreachingthesquare I founditfilledwithahordeofyelling savages; whilethedischargeof missiles still continuedasvigorouslyasever. Seeing no prospectofotherwiseputting an endtothedisturbance, and asournumberswere being steadily depletedbycasualties-Imyself being the onlyofficel'

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.: :120AWESTINDIAN,POLICEMAN. 'notyetdisabled-Igavetheorderforindependent firing. Some twenty-five shots were fired altogether, .andtheeffectwasmagical. There was no blankcart .l-idge, andno firing overtheheadsoftherioterstothe.manifestdangerofinnocent peopleinthehousessurroundingthesquare.Atfirst someofthemob gave -outthatwe wereusingblankcartridge;butwhenthe, bullets began to fly, and one ruffianwentdownwitha ballthroughhisheart-hewasafterwardspickedup, ,,-ith a stone in eachhand-theyrealisedwhatwashappening;andinthreeminutesthesquare was clear,while terrified silence prevailed. Nowwhathadhappened totheInspector Generalwasthis:-Havingcuthimself offfromall communicationwithhis command, knowingthata disturban'cewas .afoot, andhavingsentmeouttoascertainthenatureof it,withoutwaitingforanyfurtherinformation, hehad donned themost conspicuous dress which he could pos sibly select, namely a whitetunicandhelmet,lita dgar, andgoneoutforanevening stroll intothenquare, which wasthebaseoftherioters,justasifnothingunusualwastaking place. HetookwithhimlnspectorClark, whowasalso smoking a cigar,and"wearinga helmet,butwhosetunicwas blue. On reach .ingthesquare he was accosted by acertain"gentleman"ofthetown who pointedouttohima lad lyingintheroadway,andinformedhimthatthisladhadbeenbrutallybeatenbythepoliceandperhapsfatallyinjured;would he lookathim?Atthistimethesquarewasfilledwiththeremnantsofthemob which Ihadjustcharged outsidethepolice station. AstheInspec-,torGeneralandClark, in compliancewiththisrequest,

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THEMONTEGOBAYRIOTS.121 fltooped down overtherecumbent figure ofthelad,theywereviolently assaultedfrombehindwithsticksandotherinplements.FortunatelyfortheInspector Generalhis helmet remainedonhis head,orhewouldnever havegot up alive. .He was a man of powerful physique,andthusable to knock down a couple ofhis assailants with his fists and escape byrunningtothepolicestation,aswe have seen, althoughterriblybatteredand bruised. Clark's helmet was knocked off,andhereceived a blow onthebase ofthe skull which laidhim out apparentlydead,andputhimoutof actionfortherestofthenight. His lifewassaved by a coupleofyoung fellows belonging tothePublic WorksDepartment, who persuadedtheriotersthathewasalreadya dead man. I practicallyspentthewholeremainderofthenightinmarchinganarmed patrol aboutthebusi nessquartersof thetown;andduringone of these ex cursions,atabout one o'clock inthemorning,Clarkwashanded over to me by his rescuers in apartlyde lirious condition, which lasted until daylight. About two hourslaterI rescuedsergeant-majorCrawfordofTrelawnyfrom a housenearthestation in whichhehadbeen sheltered by some decent people. Hewasso badlyhurtthathewasonly kept alive by hypodermic injections ofstrychnine;and he was ultimately in- valided outoftheservice as the result of hisinjuries.The samefateovertook some eightornineothermen who were wounded onthatnight of the6thApril, 1902. Out offourofficers and some seventyofotherranksengaged,thepolice suffered casualties amountingtoupwardsof fiftypercent.oftheirnumbers;whiletwooftherioterswere killed,andsome twenty-fourwerewounded. The wounded were nearly alltreatedbya

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122 AWESTINDIANPOLICEMAN.well-known obeahmanatRoehamptoninSt.James; I neverheardofanyfatalresults. Ihadthesatisfaction about ayearafterwardsof obtaining a con victionformanslaughteragainstthissame man.Heoperatedona MontegoBayChinamanforaneurismofthefemoralarteryby cupping,andcaused himtobleedtodeath. The riots which I havethusdescribed were abigthingforJamaica:thebiggestthathasever happenedsofarintheannalsoftheJamaica Constabulary; Force;anditwas a notable event,assettingatrestalltheuncertaintywhich Ihadpreviously oftenheardex pressedinvariousquartersastowhetherourmen would provetruetotheirsaltiftheyshould everbecalled upon to usetheirweaponsagainsttheirownkithandkin. Iamproud to havehadthe honour ofthus"blooding" theJamaicaConstabulary, especiallyinsuchtryingcircumstances as I have described. They -proved theirloyalty tothehiltOnthenightofthe6thApril, 1902; and they have done so repeatedly since then. The troublethatIhadwasnotto lead them on, but to keepthemin,handwhentheriothadproperlystarted;andifIhadhadthemisfortune to beputoutofaction,asallthe .other officers were, Iamafraidtherewould have been a bloody massacreinMontegoBaythatnight.TheInspector General of Policepaidverydearlyintheendforhis rashness. HehadtogotoEnglandon six months leave inorderto recuperatefromhisinjuries;andin lessthantwoyearsafterhisreturnto the island, he died quite suddenly one day while out on atourofinspection in a countryparish.Nothingwill ever persuade methathisdeathwasnot

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THEMONTEGOBAYRIOTS. 123= directly traceable to thoseinjuries.Atabletto his, memorystandsintheHalf-wayTreeparishchurch.Inconnectionwiththisepisode I cannot help mentioning one ofthemanyremarkablecoincidences which.haveoccurredduringmylife.Intheclosing para-graphsofthelecture onJamaicawhich,asismentionedintheprevious chapter, I heldattheSocietyofArts,..withMr.W.F.Lawrence M.P.,inthechair, I gave a.. 'short sketchoftheorganisationoftheJamaicaCon stabulary,andtoldmyaudiencethatIhadsometimeshearddoubts expressedastotheirloyalty. I saidthatalthoughthenecessityforusingtheirarmshadnotyetarisen sincetheformationoftheforce,ifit ever: shoulddoso, I hopedthatI would bepresenton the occasion,andIwasquitepreparedtostandorfallbytheloyaltyofourmen. Exactly two monthsafterwardstheoccasion did arise. Iwaspresent,andactually gave, theveryfirst commandtofire; whilethemen amply justifiedtheconfidence inthemwhich I had expressed inthatLondon lecture room. Mr. Lawrence himselfarrivedintheisland aboutthreeweekslater,on avisitto his estatesnearMontego Bay. Of course hehadheardby cableofthedisturbance before leavmgEngland.Hecame to see meatmy lodgings, and,shakingmewarmlybythehand, he said:-"WellI am: delighted to see you safeandsound. You have been makinghistorysincelast we met. As soonasIlearntoftheriotsI rememberedwhatyouhadsaid aboutyourmeninthatlectureatwhich I presided;andI seethatyourconfidence inthemwasquitejustified."Soitun doubtedly was.AsI saidinmyevidence beforethe'CommissionofEnquirywhichwasshortly afterwards ussembled to investigatethewholematter:-"No body-

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-.:124 AWESTINDIANPOLICEMAN. o()f men could have behavedbetter."I spoke nothing _-more thanthe truth. Thebarrackroomupstairswas .like a shambles, with Dr. George ThompsontheD.M.O., (since deceased), working in his shirt-sleeves like a .demon amongthe wounded men;butatevery periodi eal callto"fallin"forpatrolduringthatawfulnight.,every man who couldstandon his legsat'alllimped ,intothe ranks to follow me. Ofthesub-officersand menpresentonly a small proportionoftheolder ones knew me personally,asup tothatperiod allmyservice .had beenattheotherendoftheisland;butall knew byreputation;andeveryone,down totherecruitsfrom.the depot whohadbeenbroughtalong, followed ".my lead withthatloyaltyanddevotion which Iam .'proud tosayIhavealways found among those ofthe.rankandfileoftheforce whom I have commanded,l'ightuptothelastday of my forty-sevenyearsser -vice. There were several curious little episodes during -1:hatnight'swork,ofwhich Ithinkthefollowingwas ihe most peculiar. Those who know MontegoBaywill rememberthatabout. ahundredyardsbeyondthepolice station, opposite toTrinityChapel,BarnettRoadtakes.asuddenturntotheright, debouching into St.JamesStreet, crossingtheCreek by a stone bridge.' As al ready stated,thenightwas pitchdark;andevery timethepatrol crossedthatbridge we were assaulted, commgand going, by a hail of missiles consistingofconch shells, stones, bottles filledwithsandorwater,chunks -..of wood, andotherthings. A coupleofmy men were knocked out every time wesetfoot on thisbridge;andon one occasion somethingverymassive-Ithinkit .:rnusf have been a conchshell-whizzedpastmyear,

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THE MONTEGO BAYRIOTS.just missingI:rte, and laidouta young constable was standing next to me. We had to carry him, uncon eciqus, into barracks. Onarriving.withina .few yards ofthebig gate, Ithenhalted the men,andbackedthem up as closely as possible against" the wallofthestation. a loaded carbine from myofficeclerk-who now the bailiff of the Manchester Resident Magistrate's. Court, havingretiredfrom the forcewiththerank of sergeant-major-Iadvanced cautiously intothemiddle'of the streetsoas to get as muchofa viewofthebridge as the darkness would allow. Observing onthecrown, of the bridge some dim object moving aboutthat was faintlyvisible amid the' surrounding gloom I"drew a bead" onitand fired.Whatbecameofthebullet I cannotsay;buttherewas one terrificyell;.and we.' afterwards. passed and repassedthatspot unmolested for the remainderofthe night.Itlatertranspiredthat.ourassailants inthis locality had beenthescumof the cr:minal population from Bay"andother' eJums, whohadbeen hidingunder the bridgeinthe bed (If the Creek. IdonotthinkI can closethisnarrativeofthe,eventsofthatmemorablenightwithout paying atributetothe conductofMrs. Phillips,thewifeofmy'Irishsergeant-major. Arather,frail and delicatelittle'woman,themotheroftwo tow-headed babies, shehadbeen driven out ofherquarters" as we have seen, on the, Saturdaynightbythesmashing ofher windows andthe destructionofmuchofherproperty,andtaken refuge intheroomsatthe back, intheinnerpart of myoffice,which were not exposed tothestreet. Imay'saythatthe outerofficehad also been wrecked. When goingupstairsto lookforToole,afterthecharge-

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"1.26 AWESTINDIANPOLICEMAN. -with thebuttendofthecarbine which is described I foundherbending over him,wettinghis head -with ice,andforthemoment heedlessofthecriesofherbabiesintheadjoining room. Looking upatme, 'pale,butcalm, she said:-"OhInspectordoyouthink --We areinanyreal danger,aren'tyou goingtoshoot?" I :replied :-."Don'tyou worry, Mrs. Phillips; we havejust"beengivingthebrutesatasteofthebuttendof carbine,westill have thebayonetand the bulletinreserve; you have nothingtobeafraidof." She con --tinued toministertoToole's needs; sheafterwards :nursed theInspector andmanyofthewound ,cd sub-officers. She made coffee and toastforus,and-workedthewhole live-long night, besides attendingto -the babiesintheintervals. I myself,afterdressing inmyquartersatLucea onthemorning ofSaturdaythe5thnevergotinto a bed,orhadmyclothes off un --til Tuesdaythe8thApril. Such isthestoryoftheMontegoBayriotsofthe April 1902,andthe"blooding"oftheJamaica Con ;stabulary; now,withthatapathyand ignorancewithrespecttothehistoryoftheirowncountryso char .acteristic ofJamaicans, all consigned to oblivion, save 'by those who were living within thedangerzone onthatmemorable night. Many of these told me inthecourse -of thesucceeding dayswhata comfortithad beentothemduringthosedarkhours tohearthetramp,tramp, -of myarmedpatrol along the streets, andmyvoice orders. Of coursethewhole affair created a tremendous -Excitement throughouttheisland; and the usual lies .and exaggerations foundtheirway intoprint.The (]-lewner naturallysenta specialreportertothescene;

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THEMONTEGOBAYRIOTS.127but,asisalwaysthecaseata crisisofthiskind,theviewsoftheemissariesofthepressareinvariably coloured and biassed by the kindofpeoplewithwhomiheyarecompelled to associate; which,itisscarcely necessary to remark,arenotthecompanionsofanIn ofPolicewithanydueregardtohis socialenvironment:especially inthecaseofsuchaniconoclasticindividual as myself. Thusithappenedthatinthe earlier reportstransmittedtoKingstonmynamewasnevermentionedatall, except in some wildtalkabouttheInspector General and myself being placed onourtrialformurder!The onlyothermention madeofmewasin the columnsoftheNewCentury,apaperrunbythe man who then represented St.JamesintheLegislative Council, congratulatingthecommunity ontheappointmentofsuchanexperienced officerasmy.self to command the policeofSt. James. Thispara graph was quoted in theGleaner.Later, whentheCom mission of Enquiry sat, and things had beguntoappear m theirtrueperspective, my evidence was describedinGleanerheadlines as a "Thrilling Story."Forthedetailsof allthisplease seethenextchapter.Butsuch istheshortmemoryofthiscommunity, and its indifference totheachievementsofits"sonsofthesoil"-touse a favoQrite. catchphrase-unlessthey .happen. to have money,thatformany years past,andupto the present moment, I have been meeting people :fIufficiently old and sufficiently educated to knowbetter,who ask me:-"Wereyou ever in MontegoBay?"Sic transit gloria mundi.

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128AWESTINDIANPOLICEMAN.ChapterXII.THEAFTERMATH. Onthepsychological side Iamwhatoneof my. authors,Mr.EdwardClodd, calls a"mentalpeptic,"thatis to say entirely devoid ofsupersti-.tionin any shapeorform, and having absolutely.nofaithinastrology, fortune-telling, divination,orkin. dredarts.Butthefollowing circumstancehasalwaysforcibly impressed measaremarkableinstanceofthe"longarmofcoincidence,"andgiven myunbeliefaratherseverejolt. Qnmy voyagetoEnglandin May 1901, whichismentionedina previouschapter,a youngladyfellowpassengerwho claimed to beanexpertfortune-teller-withcards, beitunderstood-ataseanceheld on deck oneafternoonwarnedmeto"bewareofabigdarkmanwitha black beard."Thatforms a veryaccuratedescriptionofthepersonage who, whileinauthorityover me here,aftersubjectingme toindignitiesandpettypersecutionsofvarious kinds,.woundup.byultimatelywreckingmycareer,inthepublic service,aswill appear laterinthese pages.Hebegantoshowtheclovenhoofinthecourseoftheevents which1amabout to relate as formingthe,aftermathof MontegoBayriots;and,hadI been, ofa lesstrustfuland 'nature,Ishouldhavethenpreparedmyselfagainsthis final achievementtowardsme.I consideritnothingmoreor less thanjusticetomyselftoenlighten a puzzledand

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THE AFTERMATH.129:.f. .l",:;nystified public tothereasonwhy anoffice:r.oftl:\e JamaicaConstabulary, having such longand tomy credit,bearingthe and sessingthequalifications which I do, pro-:-moted totherankofDeputyInspectorGeneral;and. justiceI propose nowtodo myself, I beg againto apologise and expressmyregret ,to.the_ readerforintroducing certain referencesto myJ?rivate affairs;butsome knowledgeoftheseis pensable to a full understandingofthe situation which! now begantodevelopastheresultoftheriots.Itis scarcely necessaryformetosaythatlhayecarefullypreservedthroughalltheseyears copi!'!s ofsuchdocumentaryevidence necessarytosupport my assertionsasI havehadaccessto;andthattheoriginalsofthemrepose inthearchivesofthecolony; :where arealsotobefoundthose which I havenothadtheopportunityofseeing,butofwhichthepur":'porthasbeen conveyedtome.ltis amatterofcommon knowledge, among those whoareold enoughtoremember,thattheislandwasatthisperiodruledbytwo Governors;SirA. W.L.Hemming, amostamiablecharacter,andatruegentlemanin every senseoftheword, beingtheGovernordejure; while his Colonial Secretary,(then)Mr. Olivier, wastheGovernordefacto. .Atthetimeoftheriotstheformerwasabsentona visittoGeneralLeonardWood in Cuba, sothat the latterheldundisputedsway.Heactedwithcharac:'teristicenergy;losing no time inhimself visiting Montego Bay,andorderingtheCommodoreatPortRoyaltosend down acruisertoourassistance. He himselfarrivedbyspecialtrainon Monday 7th April;andH.M.S. "Tribune" droppedanchor fnthe

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130 AWESTINDIANPOLICEMAN.harbourintheeveningofthe same day,toberelievedlaterbythe"Pallas."Mr. Schooles,theAttorneyGeneral,and,I think, oneortwootherhighofficialsaccompaniedhim;andameetingofthePrivyCouncilwasheldatthehouseofMr. MaxwellHall,thentheResidentMagistrateforSt.James.AllduringthistimetheInspector GeneralandInspectorsClarkandToole werelyingdisabledinmyoffice,thusconvertedintoatemporaryhospital;while Iwascarryingon,subjecttotheordersofMr.Wright,whowascapableatanyrateofissuing them. AcompanyoftheWestIndiaRegimentalsoarrivedbythetrain,withacaptainandtwosubalterns;butastheirpresencehadthenbecomequiteunnecessary,theydidnotremainmorethanfortyeighthours.On Wednesdaythe9th,ifIrememberaright,thewounded weredispatchedbytraintoSpanishTownandKingston, Mr. Olivier leavingbythesameopportunity.Hisdeparturewasattendedbymyselfandthenavalandmilitaryofficers;andheaddresseda'fewremarkstothese,inthecourseofwhichhedesignated meas"therepresentativeofthegovernment."SoitcameaboutthatIhadnavalandmilitarycaptainsandlieutenantsforashortperiodsalutingme,andsaying"Sir."JustatthatjunctureIreachedthehighestpinnacleofdignitytowhich Ieverattained;andasMr. Olivierhadbeenpleasedtoexpresstomeverballythefullest appreCiation ofmybehaviourthroughoutthewhole episode, onthewarmrecommendationofMr. Wright, I was lulledintothebeliefthatmycourse wouldhereafterbeplainsailing: a beliefthatwasspeedily to beshatteredtopieces.Areinforcementofpolicearrivedacoupleof

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THEAFTERMATH. 131 dayslatertoreplacethewoundedmenandthosewhomitwas necessarytosend backtotheirrespective divisions.Thisconsistedofaboutahundredmen, comprising alargenumberofadvancedrecruitsfromthedepot,aswellasseasonedandtrainedsub officersandconstablesfrom St.CatherineandClarendon.Theywere commandedbySubInspectorField,alongwithwhom cametheEuropeansergeant-major fromthedepot;andtheybroughtwiththemtents.andotherequipmentforthepurposeofcampingoutinthecourtyard,astherewasnotsufficient roomfortheminthebarrackbuildings. Iwasorderedtomake specialarrangementsformessingthematthepublic expense;andImaysayatoncethatduringthewhole periodoffourweeksthatthosemen remainedwithme,I neverhadonewordofcomplaintfromthepublicagainstanyofthem;whiletherewerenotmorethanhalf-a-dozeninstancesofminor breachesofdiscipline; andthisinspiteoftheirbeing confined.tobarracksafternine o'clock every night.Theirconductwasexemplary,andathingfortheforcetobeproudof. Among thosewhowerewithmeatthisperiodwasCorporalMinto, who roselatertotherankofsergeant-major,andhasnowretiredonhispension.Heis well knowninKingston. To fillupthemen'ssparetime,ofwhich th.ey hadagreatdeal, .andtokeepthemoutofmischief, I usedfrequently to takethemoutforroutemarches tp.rough thestreetsofMontegoBayandintothecountry;visiting a coupleofvillages which hiLd abadreputation,andstrikingsuchterrorintotheirinhabitantsthatone could seethecoldsweatrunning down theirfaces. As men alongwiththeircar-

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132 AWESTINDIANPOLICEMAN.binesattheslope, bayonets fixed.andmytwobuglerssoundingmarchesattheheadofthem, a deep,lasting,andmost wholesome impressionwasproducedon populaceofMontegoBayandthevicinity.Therewasacompletemetamorphosis.Owing to policeinefficiencyandlaxity of longyearsstanding-itwasputtingthescrewoninthisdirectionthatreallybrqughtabouttheriots-ithadbecomethemostrowdyanddisorderlytown in theisland;whiletheroughelement,asafterwardstranspired,hadreceivedmostdangerousencouragementfrompeopleofabetterclass.Oneofthese, agentleman-sincedeceasedwhoenjoyed great popularityamongthem,andwhoactuallyhelda commissionofthepeace, gave astrongstimulustolawlessness bypracticallypubliclydecliningtopayhistaxesunderthenewValuationLawwhichcame into forcethatveryyear.Inshort,thingswererottentothecoreinnearlyevery respect. It maybe mentioned here, asanillustration,thatone Gf theveryfirst official personsthatI wasinstrumentalingettingridofwastheClerkoftheCourts,theCrownProsecutorifyouplease;againstwhom Imademadeoutsucha casethathewasgiventhechoice betweenretiringon his pensionandbeing dis missed.Afterthecleaning up whichtheplace got onthenightofthe6thApril,andsubsequently, Mon.:. tegoBaybecame easilythemostorderlytown intheisland.Fora longtimeafterwardsthestreets were practicallydesertedafterdark;andby nine o'clocktheywereassilent as thegrave. Afactorwhich contributedverylargely tothiswasthesearchlightofthe"Pallas."Lyingrightonthebeach totheeastoftheharbour was a foulslumknown as"Meagre Bay,"inhabitedbythevery dreg-a ofthe

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THEAFTERMATH.andnotoriousassuchfromone endoftheisland,tothe other.The ".Pallas" lay rightoppositetothisplace; andatmysuggestion,nightafternight,fromabout7.30to10,thesearchlight was thrownonitand.played slowly toand,fro, With anoccasionalspasmodic flashtowardsthehillsinthebackgroundofthetown.Theeffectofthiswastodeplete Meagre Bayalmostentirelyofitspopulation:someofthem .actually removedthehousesinwhichtheydwelttoplaceswheretheycould hidefromthedeadlyglareofthelight.The"Pallas"remainedwithmeforthreeweeks,andthenleft,tomy.greatregret.Ihadpassed manyhoursofpleasant relaxation on boardofher, and formed friendshipswitha coupleofherofficers whichlastedforyearsafterwards.Butbythistime we had finished roundinguptherioters,andherpresencewasno longernecessary;sotoourrnutualregretwe bade eachotherfarewell. The first step which Mr. Olivier tookafterhisreturntoheadquarterswastoappointa Commissiontoenquireintoallthecircumstancesconnectedwiththeriots.ThisconsistedoftheChiefJustice,SirFielding Clarke,aschairman, Colonel Egerton,thenOfficer CommandingtheForces,andtheHon.C.B. Vickers;atthattime memberoftheLegislative Coun cil for Westmoreland; while Mr.JasperCargill, whoafterwardsdiedprematurelywhile aJudgeoftheSupremeCourt,wassecretary.NolawofficeroftheCrownwassentdowntoadviseandassistmeinpresentingourcase before theCommission; and I was never instructedto regard Mr.Cargill inthatcapacity.As far asI wasaware. hewassimplythesecretaryandnothingmore;but

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134AWESTINDIAN POLICEMAN.ofcoursehedid givemethebenefitofhisadviceandassistancethroughoutthewhole of theproceedings.'WhenthetimearrivedfortheCommissionto, assemble,practicallytheonlypersons inthecourthousewerethepolice apd thewitnesses whom we hadsummonedtogive evidence. Imayremarkinpassingthatduringthiswhole period,uptothetimethatalltheriotershadbeen committed for trial,itwasorderedthatno constableshouldbesentoutondutyunless hewasarmed.ConsequentlythemembersoftheCommissionwerereceivedwiththecustomary"present arms" ontheirarrivalatthecourthouse;and'ontakingtheirseatstheysawnomorethan,perhaps, a dozen peopleintheroom besidesthepolice. Therewasnot eventheusual crowdofidlersatthe doororin the square outside,attractedby curiosity. Thetruthisthatthepreparationsfor,andthedirectorindirectparticipationin,theriotshadinvolved such a verylargeproportionofthekindofpeoplewhoalwaysputinanappearanceon'suchoccasions,astoprecludethepossibility ofanymanhavingaclearconsciencewith regard totheenquiry;sothey. all g.ave ita wide berth. 'Asthedayspassed, howev:er, a few moredroppedin,andsomeofthemcameforwardoftheirownfreewill to give evidence,nearly'alwaysinfavourofthepolice. Sorpe ofthemwere decent black people whohadliterally saved thelives of constables on thenightofthe6thApril;conspicuous amongthembeing a fine oldmannamed Stephenson, a tailor, who gave evidenceinourfavour inthemost fearlessandindependent manner, both thenandsub sequently beforethecriminal court, where his testi'monyprovedmost valuable.[Iafterwardsknew a

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THEAFTERMATH. lSS: sonofhis, adispenserinthepublic service, who wasa chipoftheold block.]The'onlyreallyhostile wit nesswas-followingtheexampleofhisofficial chiefr theClerkofCourtsmentionedabove-amemberofthe etaff oftheR.M.Court;buthewasveryeasily disposedof. Anotherofthecitizensofthetown, a promine,nt politician, whohadappeared, quite unsolicited, for thepurposeofwhitewashingthepolice,puthis footiritoit very badlywhenI,obtainingleaveoftheComInis eion totreathimas So hostile witness,andshowing goodcausefor so doing, forced 'himtoadmitthathe was theauthorofcertainletterswhich had,appeared at intervalsinthelocal newspaper,abusingandvilifyinginthemost scurrilousmannertheIrishsergeant-major,Phillips;whomthepreviousInspectorhadalwaysleft.todohisdirtyworkwhile he himself tookshelterat:hisruralretreatinLucea.Thepaperin question,ofwhich I producedthe'filesoffiveyearsprevious,wascalledThe NewCeflt.(ry,. anditseditorandproprietorwasacharacterwhohadatonetimebeen celebratedasthechampionoflawlessnessandhostility tothe police, inrespectofwhichtherewere several convictions recordedagainsthiminthecourts. Thefactthatthismanhadbeen elected torepresenttheparishofSt.JamesintheLegislative Council describes more eloquentlythan an..'t wordsofmine can possiblydothemoral Rnd social con ditionofMontego Bay. However I willrefrainfrom saying allthatI could say abouthim, in viewof the factthatwhen in 1909SirSydney Olivier gavethe coupdegracetomy career, as ,;\,rillhereafterbe seen, ,hewastheonlymanin the Legislative Counciltoutter

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J:36 AWESTINDIAN .. POLICEMAN. :a wordonmybehalf. Ihadtreatedhim throughp!It "the whole ofmytimeinMontegoBaywithcontumely :and scorn such as he never experienced before or, after wards; buthehadthemanliIiess toforgetitall,to de nouncetheGovernor's actiontowardsme,andto do his best' towardsobtainingformethepreferment -;which heconsidered to bemydueasa police officer.He at the timethat he' had no usefor me asa -man. Helived to bethe"father"oftheLegislative COUncil, anddied someyearsagoatanadvanced age'.Peace be' to his ashes !Iamgladthatabout' ayear before hisdeathIhadtheopportunityofshaking him bythehandandpersonally thanking: himforhis championship ofmy cause. I mentionhimnow be iIi theirreportontheriotstheCommission foundthatamongthe' causes which led tothemwasthefrequent appearance inthecolumnsofhis paper ofletters -derogatory' to thepolice generally,andtoSergeant PlIillips inparticular,suchasI have mentioned above in connectionwiththeunsolicitedwitness;whose role, bytheway, wasthereverseofthatofBalaam.He tobless,butwentawaycursing,withhistail between hislegs. Space willnotpermitme to record allthefindings theCommission.Theirreportduly appeared in a "'GazetteExtraordinary"whichmustbe on filewhere :such documentsareusually kept. Sufficeittosaythatthepolicewerecompletely justifiedoftheiraction, ex':'.cept inoneparticularinwhich I myselfwasdirectlyandimmediatelythechief person concerned;and which I now mention to prove mybonafides.I have described inthepreviouschapterhow we were per Mistently attackedbyunseen assailants while crossing

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PhotobyH.E.UptonBRIDGE OVER CREEK AND HOSE FIRED INTO(MarkedX).PhotobyH.E.UptonSOMEOFTHE LADY RIOTERS.

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THEAFTERMATH. 137 thebridge overthecreek,andthe. numerous which we sufferedthere;alsothat ifwaspitchdarkWell; indespairatfiridingoutwhere our assailants concealed, itseemedat that timethat the misslies -tvere coming fromacertainhouseoftwo storeysin theimmediate neighbourhood of the bridge. 1 there.fore orderedtwo 1!1en to fire intothat house,and I my:Selfsawtoit they aimed high, soas'to prevent .any injuryto persons inside whomightbe 'Two bulletspenetratedthe upperwindows ofthe striking apartitionhighup, smashing apicturehangingon it;and passed outthroughthe roof. No le inthestreets,formy men were beginning to "see red." Idonotlike torepeatwhatu'sed frequently to be said by mypersonal friends,andmanyothers, ofwhatwould have beentheprobablefateoftheoffi .cer whom Ihadjustrelieved, if hehadbeen present. During allthetimethattheCommissionwas ;sitting therounding upoftheriotersproceeded apace. ()nmyrepresentingtothegovernmentthatthewholf;matter was too big ataskfortheClerk of Courts toundertake,(evenifhehadbeen a thoroughly competentand loyal offceroftheCrown,) I had no difficultyinobtaining permission to employ outside legalaid;.and I accordingly placedthewhole prosecution inthe .able hands of Messrs. BrownandHarveyClark,

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138 AWESTINDIAN POLICEMAN.aolicitors,of MOlltego Bay;theformerofwhomstillcarrieson a lucrative practice inthattown, while the latternowoccupiesthepostofCrown Solicitor.Therewere,itwill be remembered, tworiots:thefirst accidentaloutbreakonthenightofSaturday the 5thApril, which hadbroughtme,asdescribed, from LuceatoMontego Bay,andthesecondtheorganised 0ne ofthe6th. Numbersoftheroughs whowereidentifiedhadtakenpartinboth;andallinoneor the other.Astheevidence proceededtodevelopitselfandwitnesses cameinfreelyaftera few days, chiefly the.local knowledgeandinfluenceof Brown, who was interestedasa citizenandproprietoraswell as professionally-warrantswere issued.againstsixty-eight of them. They were allarrestedwithinsometendays,manybeingbroughtfrom the. countryparts;andtheywerethenclassifiedinto groups. varyingin numbersfromfourorfive toeightorten,. the witnesses being divided according tothegroupsorindividuals whomtheywereabletoidentify:somebeingcharged a& forthe5thApril, someasfor the 6th,andsomeforboth dates.Itwas very cleverly done; andthismethodofassortmentproved to be a great convenience. I donotrecollect howmanywerecommittedfortrialattheCircuit Court to be heldinJune, but,tomake a longstoryshort, no fewerthanfifty-threewerefound guilty bythejuries;whichisa very large proportion. Among these werethemenwhohadwoundedtheInspector GeneralandInspectorClark, they being chargedwiththose specific offencesinaddition toriot;andtheyreceived sentences of fifteen and twelve years respectively.Theothershadfrom ldx monthstotwoyearshardlabour dealtout to, them;

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THEAFTERMATH. 13t notthatthose senteIices were considered sufficienttomeet their deserts,butowing tothe' legal technicality that theRiot Actnothaving been read, theiroffence had to betreatedasa misdemeanour, and notasafelony,aswould otherwise have ,beenthecase. Two years thus becamethemaximum penalty. Thefactthatnot a 'Justiceofthe Peaceputinanappearanceinsupportof the policethatnightwas commented oninvery strong termsbyMr. Justice Lumb, who presid edatthetrials.Notoneofthegentlemen whohadtriedto persuadetheInspector General on the. after.,.. noonofthe6thApril,asalreadynarrated,thatallthetrouble was over, was seen by usduringthatnight. There isanidea prevailing among the publicthatbeforethepolice-orthemilitary eitherforthat I!lat;. ter-mayfire on a mob,theRiot'Act must beread..Letthisnarrativedisposeofthatfallacy once andforall. AlltheeffectthatthereadingoftheRiotActproduces is to convert a misdemeanour, punishable 'with a maximum sentenceoftwo years, into a felony,incurringasmuch as fourteen years penal servitude .Inall the proceedings beforetheCommission,andattheCircuit Court,thepropriety of my givingthe 'order to fire on the mob was never once called ill ques tion, or, il?-deed, even alluded to.rtwas in direct consequenceoftheoccurrences which I have describedthatthe InspectorsofPolice wereafterwardsappointed magistratesfortheirre parishes. I myself hold commissions for no fewer thanfive.'Acurious complication in connection with these trials very nearly occurred; which, haditdone so, would have necessitated nearly all the cases being tried over again. Mr.'JusticeLumb, who was

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AWESTINDIANPOLICEMAN.invery bad health .atthetime, hav,ing disposed of .all but three cases,' succumbed to his illness, andhad tobe relievedbyMr. Justice Vickers,'who presidedat thetrial oftheremainderandduly 'delivered sentehce.ButMr. Lumbhaddeferred passi:Q.g sentence onthethirtyorforty before him,it being his iiitentionto deal with themalltogetheratthecloseoftnetrials. Itwas a legal impossibilityforanyother judge topass sentence on them. However, in a few days Mr. Lumb recovered sufficientlytoreturntoMontego Bay once more,andtotakehisseatonthe bench; hovering between life and death, and a ghastly. object to behold. He wasjustable to gasp outthevar i
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PhotobyH.E.Upton WAITING AT RAILWAY STATIOTOSEE RIOTERS PASS.PhotobyH.E.UptonG ARD PARADING FOR COURT.

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14idurihgthe whole in the same exemplary mannerwhich, I have described above. Also,itshould be statedthat thegentleman whoatthattime:filledthe posto( Attorney, General,TheHon.Henry PipOn Schooles, himself came down totheCircuit Court, and personally prosecuted every oneoftheriotcases.Heshowed methegreatestkindness;andoften spoke to me, and of me in addressingthejuries, intermswhich causedtheblushofmodesty to mantle my weather beaten cheek. Of courseitbecame necessaryforMr. Oliviertomake a fullreportoftheoccurrences to theSecretaryof State forthe Colonies, the Right Hon. Joseph Chamberlain; andthishe did in a dispatch dated 10th April 1902,thefollowingextractfrom which wassentto me for my information:-'"Iamsatisfied, and I have little doubtthatyou will also be satisfied,thatthe handling and the behaviourofthepolice on Sundaynightwas most admirable,andin all respects reflectsthehighest credit upon all mem bersofthe force concerned. The Officers, Inspector General Wright, Inspector Clark, Sub-Inspector Toole. nnd sergeant-majorCrawford (sic) have suffered specialinjuries;butIdonot considerthatanyoneofficerorman could be namedforparticularcreditabovetheothers. (This statement is open to question. inthelight of the account given inthepreviouschapterofthemannerin which the respectiveinjurieswere received. The only "officers" who wereinjuredin actual fightwith'the mob were Sub-Inspector Toole and sergeant-major Crawford.)Youwillnothow ever fail to note the courage a'Y1ld ability displayedby Inspector Thomas when all the other officers were dis-

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142 AWESTINDIAN .POLICEMAN. obledaMsuckgreat. respOnsibilityhad devolved on h.im,and the discipline and steadfastnessof hismen." SeeingthatIwastheofficer responsibleforthe"handling"ofthepolicefromthebeginningoftheriottotheend, Iverynaturallyregardedthistestimonytomy successasmost gratifying,andwaS correspond ingly proudofit. Rewards now begantobe distributed all round. Several sub-officersandmenhadto be dischargedfrom.theforce on accountofphysical disability occasionedbyinjuriesreceivedintheriots-Idonot remember theexactnumber-'while many others,aftermoreor less prolongedtreatmentin hospital, were able to :re sume duty. These all received compensation commensuratewiththeirrespective injuries.Theofficers were rewarded as follows:-TheIn epector General received a sum equivalenttothreemonths'payandwasmade a C.M.G.aswell; while ('1ark andToole eachhadtwo months'paypresentedtothem. I,thesubjectoftheencomiums from Mr. Olivier whicharequoted above,wasrewardedwithnothing.ItistruethatIhadnotbeen seriously injured-althoughI had several minorhurtstoshowbutI did expectthatwhentheKing's Police Medalwasinstituted,notverylongafterwards,I should have beenthefirst recipientofthatdecoration. .Iamcontenttoleaveittothereadersofthisbook tosaywhetherornotthatexpectationwasanunreasonable one.ButitwasnotuntilAugust1923,upwardsoftwenty-oneyearslater,thatthismedal was affixed tomybreastbySirLeslieProbynata specialparadeheldatthe depot forthepurpose; andforthisverymuch belated act ofjusticeI have' tothankthemembersofthe

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THEAFTERMATH. 143 Colonial Office delegation which cametothisisland in December 1921, Messrs.Wood-nowLordIrwin,Vice TOY ofIndia-Wiseman,andOrmsby-Gore,thelatterespecially.'1was told offtoactas"guide, philosopher and friend"to these gentlemen intheirtourof the westernparishes of the island,andI tooktheopportu. .nityoftelling Mr. Ormsby-Gore aboutthe riots, and .showing him the battlefield. I travelledfourdays intheircompany,duringwhichthey"discovered" me.Mr.Ormsby-Gore on 'hisreturnhome made enquiries .at theColonialOfficeabout my record; andtheresultwasthattheawardto meoftheKing's Police MedalappearedamongtheNewYearHonoursof1923, being the sole honour conferred in Jamaica.Inconnectionwiththese moneyawardsI willnarratethefollowing story, leavingthereadertodrawhis own conclus-ions:-. Mr. Schooles, theAttorneyGeneral, whoseattitudetowards methroughoutthisepisode I have des cribed above, (he died in December 1913asSir Henry Schooles, Chief JusticeofGibraltar,) came againtoMontego Bay tothenextfollowing Circuit Court, in October 1902.Aftergreetingme in his usualwarmandfriendly manner,headdressed methus:-"Bythe way, Thomas, have you gotyourmoneyfor the riotsyet?""Moneyfortheriots?I have neverheard of such a thing, and I am not expecting any." Afterlookingatmeveryhardfora coupleof he replied:-"Doy'oureally meantosaythatyouhavenotreceived any moneyforthe riots, the same as theother' officers?"

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144 AWESTINDIANPOLICEMAN.I again :t:eplied in 'the negative, more emphaticallythanbefore; whereupon hesaid:-"Well,it'sa damned shEme. Iamgoingtotell yousomethingnow which youmaymakeuseof Ifyou like;onlydon't give me away. The other day Mr. Chamberlain's final despatch onthesubjectof the riotswasreceived; amongotherthingshe approvedofthemoneyrewardsto the officersandsoforth;andonthispoint he saidthathe saw no reasonwhyIn spoctor Thomas,inconsiderationoftheparthehadplayedintheaffair, should not receive a pecuniaryrewardonthesame scaleastheotherofficers, althoughhehadnotreceivedanyinjury.Butdoyou really mean tosaythatyouhaven'treceivedanything?""Nota penny," saidI."Well," he then repeated,"it'sa damned shame."Atthistimecertaineventshadoccurredinconnectionwiththeriots whichmay,throw some light onthefactthatIwasneverpermittedto roceive arewardofanysort, exceptthepaperone above quoted. These I will now proceed tonarrate;buttheyrequire a separatechapter.

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STUDIES INPSYCHOLOGY. Chapter XIII.STUDIES IN PSYCHOLOGY. 145 Aftertheriots were over, whentheaccusedpersons had all been committedfortrialandsentawaytoSpanish Townforsafe-keeping,andconditionshadonce more become normal, evidence began to trickleinwhich showed conclusivelythatcertain persons much higher up inthesocial scale had beentheinstigatorsofthedisturbance.Itwas appallingtome to learn hownumbersoftheroughsofthetownhadactually beenputthroughasortofdrill bycertainyoung"gentlemen;"how open demonstrationsof hos tility toandcontemptofthepolicehadtakenplaceinthebroadlightofday;andmanyotherthings, which accountedfortheevidentanxietyevincedbytheoffi ('er whom I relieved toquitMontegoBay;butnotone word of which appeared to have been reported to headquarters,orinanywaysuppressed,bythisweakling. I decidedthat,as amatterof common justice, prosecution should be undertaken, if, Possible,againstthesegentry; and infurtheranceofmy investigations Isenttotheprisonsthreeofmy most intelligent men, to takestatementsfromtheconvicts. Thesestatementscorroborated in overy particulartheevidence which I hadgatheredoutside;andrevealedotherthingsinaddition. Of course I reported toheadquarterseverydetailofthe proceedings which Iwasnow engaged upon; and no one ever intimatedto methatitwasnotthedesire of thegovernment totakeany further

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146 AWESTINDIANPOLICEMAN. steps. withregardtotheriots. There wasnovoice whichevercried"halt;"andInaturallyassumedthatmyactionwasapprovedof. ImaysaythattheInspectorGeneral,Mr.Wright,wasatthisjunctureabsentinEnglandonsixmonthsleave,inconsequenceoftheinjurieswhichhehadre-,ceived;andhislocum tenens,theDeputyInspectorGeneral,happenedtobeoneofthosevery"popular"police officersforwhom Icherishcontempt.Heisnow dead.Atanyrate,whenIhadallmystatementscomplete, I laidthembeforeMr.C.M.Calder,thentheResidentMagistrateforWestmorelandandHanover,ofwhichlatterparishI stillhadchargealthoughmyheadquartershadbeentransferredtoMontegoBay,wheretheyshouldalwayshavebeen. I didthissoasto keep myintentionsassecretaspossible;andIaskedMr. Calder,toactinhiscapacityasanex-officiomagistrateforthewhole island,andissuewarrantsforthearrestofthepersonswhom I laidinformationagainst.OnperusalofthestatementsMr. Calder decidedthattherewassufficient evidencetojustifytheissueofthewarrants,andhesignedthedocuments accordingly. These IthensentoffbyexpresstoMontegoBaytoSergeant-majorO'Sullivan, whohadsometimepreviously replaced Phillips. I myselfreturnedtoMontegoBayonthesamedayaboutdusk;andI foundthatO'Sullivanhadex ecutedthewarrantsimmediatelyonreceiptofthem,andhadtwoofthreeaccusedsafeinthelockupatthatmoment.Mystrokehadfallenonthepopulation like a boltfromtheblue;andasO'SullivanandIpatrolledtheusually noisysquareinfrontofthecourthouse betweeneightandnine that night,you couldhave

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STUDIESINPSYCHOLOGY.147hearda pin drop. The few peoplethatwereaboutwereconversing in awe-struck whispers.Thethreepersonsforwhom Ihadobtainedthewarrantswere:first, acertainsolicitorofthetown, amanofverydarkcomplexion; second,anotheryoungman,oflightershade, in mercantile employ;andthird,a white youth, sonofa ScotchPresbyterianMinister, \Nho wasa clerk to Messrs.J.E.KerrandCo.Thislastnamedwasa notoriousrowdy;andused tohuntalwaysincoupleswithNo.1.Hehadgotwindofwhatwason foot,andwas shipped off totheU.S.A.byoneof Kerr andCo's steamers, whencehenever re turnedto Jamaica, asfarasIamaware.Ofhim. moreanon;butIthinkitis onlyanactofjusticenowt.ostatethattheexperiences whichNo.1then undeI' wentappeared to producetheeffectofcompletelytransforming him.Hesteadied down tothepracticeofhisprofession,ofwhich he isanexceedingly able expo nent,andhasa correspondinglylargeclientele,.while, sofarfrombearingmeanyillwill,hehas ever since,duringmanysubsequentyearsofintercourse,rightup totheverylastcourtwhich I ever attended, been oneofmymost enthusiastic champions;and never lostanopportunityofextolling,inpublicandinprivate,myvirtuesasa police officer.Inshort, Iamverypleased to count him to-day amongmybestfriends,andto wish continued success tohiminhisprofessional career. Whentheescapeofthewhiteyouth became known,thegovernment communicatedbycablewiththepoliceauthoritiesofNewYork;andonhisarrivaltherehewasarrestedanddetained, pendingtheresultoftheproceedingsagainsthis two accomplices hel'e.

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148AWESTINDIANPOLICEMAN.Whenthelatterweredischarged,aswillbeshownlater,hewasalso releasedbytheNew York police.Asalreadystated,heneverreturnedtotheisland;but, I believe, didverywellintheU.S.;sothat iIi hiscase, too,myactionwasa blessingindisguise. Thesame 3pplies also,Ithink, toNo.2,who is still among us,makinganhonest livelihood. Now,IamquitecertainthatofallthetenGov. ernorswhomIhaveserved under,anyotherthanthegentleman whose idiosyncrasiesIamnow discussingwouldatonce have recognisedthenecessityofsendingdown oneofthelawofficersof the Crowntoconduct suchanimportantprosecution; especiallyasallthenumerousfriendsandsupportersoftheaccusedwerenow openlyupinarmsagainstme, headed bythehonourablememberfortheparish, who is describedintheprevious chapter.ButMr. Olivier,thedefactoGovernor,thoughtotherwise. Onmyapplying for legal assistanceIwasinstructedto employ"alocal solicitoratthecheapest possible rate." Thosewerethe exad; words,inthehandwritingofMr. Olivier himself, whose originalminutewasforwardedformyinformation.InaturallyofferedthecasetoMr. Phillpotts Brown, whohadso ably conductedtheriotprosecu as relatedinthepreviouschapter;buthede clined it,ashe told me,forsentimental reasons,the solicitor in questionhavingbeenhisown articled clerk. Ithenretainedthegentleman who is now the Hon.G.S.Ewen,CustosandM.L.C.oftheparishofTrelawny.and wag thenpractisinghis professioninthetownof Falmouth.The convict witnesseshavingbeen broughtdownfromKingston andSpanish 'fown, we dulypre-

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STUDIESINPSYCHOLOGY.149'sentedourcasebeforetheResident Magistrate.This.gentleman hadenteredthelegal professionverylate in life;andhismostoutstandingcharacteristic.wascertainlynotstrength.Iamquitecertainthatduringallmy experiencetherehasneverbeenbroughta policeprosecution which was hedged round bygreaterdifficulties.TheothersidegotupalargesubscriptiontobringdownforthedefencethelateMr. A. L.P.Lake,-whowasoneoftheveryablest lawyersofhisday;andhesimplyhypnotised-IcannotfindanyothertermforIt-mostofthewitnessesfortheprosecution,andthe R.M. aswell.Itis a fundamental maximoflawthattheevidence-ofaccomplices inthecommissionofcrimemustbe corroborated bythatofoutside personsnotin. any wayimplicated, directlyorindirectly;andhereinlayourchief difficulty,asnearlyeverymanofthetwoorthreethousand whohadbeen inthestreetsandthesquare onthenightofthe6thApril,andnearenoughtodescribetheoccurrences,hadbeenoutfor mischief,and wastryingtosave his own skin. I shouldhavementionedthata stickofdynamite,with de tonatorandcharredfuseattached,hadbeen foundin the 'policeguardroomatthecourthouse.Thatwasnottheworkofthebrainofanysuch scumastheconvicted rioters.Itdistinctly pointed to intelligenceand malig nityofahigherorder.Anotherofourdifficulties layinthefactthattheClerkofCourts was actuallyassistingthedefence by handingto Mr. LaketheverybriefswhichhadbeenusedbytheAttorneyGeneralattheriottrialsin June.to help him inhiscross-examinationofour witneeses. It was thisoutrageous indiscretionwhichledto the

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150 AWESTINDIANPOLICEMAN.compulsoryretirementofthatofficial-whohadthenbeenthirtyyearsinMontegoBay-fromtheservice,astoldintheprevious chapter. Mr.EwenreporteditbytelegramtotheColonial Secretary,andIbylettertotheActingInspectorGeneral.Thatcircumstance Will give some indicationoftherottenstateof"NobleSt.James"atthatperiod.Itishardlynecessary tosaythateverydaywhilethecase lastedthecourt wascrammedtosuffo cation. We produced,amongotherwitnesses,theveryboy, who,as previously described,hadbeen persuadedbyoneoftheaccusedto lie down onthegroundontheapproachofMr.WrightandInspectorClark,andpretendtobeunconscious. We found him milesawayintheinterioroftheparish.Herelated how,assoonasthegentlemen stooped over him,"thecrowd begantobeatthem;"andhowhehimself received a fewoftheblows; also howhehadafterwardsbeentaken,bythesamemanwhohadpersuadedhimtolie downandactasa decoy,tothenear-bysurgeryofDr. Mc Catty,formedicaltreatmentofinjuriesinflictedbythepolice, unprovoked;andhowthedoctorhad"drivenhimaway"becausetherewasnothingthematterwithhim. This accusedpartywasduly iden tifiedbyInspectorClarkastheone whohaddrawntheattentionofMr.Wrightandhimself totheboylyingonthegroUlid. I willnotnowsaywhichofthethreeitwas.Inthelatterpartofhis evidencetheboy was corroboratedbyDr.McCatty himself;butMr. Lakedidnot have much difficultyinhypnotisingthe R.M. intotheviewthatthefirstpartofhisevidence wastainted bythefactthatinthusactingasa de-

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STUDIESINPSYCHOLOGY.151coyatthe behest oftheaccused hehadbecomeanaccomplice. And soitwentonforsomethreedays,asfarasmy memory serves me. I rememberthattwoorthreeofourwhite witnesses, givingtheiraccounts of certainpreparationswhichtheaccused were alleged to have madepriortotheriots, succumbedto Mr. Lake's spell,andmade pitiful exhibitionsofthem selvesundercross-examination. One ofthemtold meafterwardsthatLake had hypnotised him. At anyrate-tomake a longstoryshort-theR.M. came to the conclusionthattherehadnotbeen a suffi cientlystrongprimafaciecase madeoutforhimtosend before ajury,andhedischargedtheaccused; tothegreatdisgustanddisappointmentofthemostre spectable element oftheresidentsofMontego Bay. Before leavingthetown, Mr. Lake, whohadlong been a personalfriend of mine, cametoseemeatmylodgings,anddiscussed the situation with me. He said:-"Oldman, Iamverysorrytohavehadtoappearagainstyou;butI would have been a fool toreo fusethefee theysentme;andnowthatit'sover I don't mind telling youthatI havemyown opinion about the case.Butas'an old friend, IthinkIoughtto let you know how some of these people detest you." He then mentioned somethreeorfournames, beginningwiththatofthehonourable memberfor parish,andcontinued:"Theyareall too mortallyafraidof you totryonanythingopenly,buttheywilldoanythingtheycan behindyourback to make troubleforyou." My reply was:-"1thankyouverymuch,Lake;butyou can te'll them from methatiftheycould only

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152 AWESTINDIAN POLICEMAN. justbegin toformsomefaintideaofhowutterlyIdespise them,theywouldbesickatthestomach.""That'sallright,old chap,butbe onyour guard.' ImmediatelyaftertheconclusionoftheriottrialstheInspector Generalhadgone on leavetoEnglandfor'a few months,inorderfully to recoverfromtheeffects oftheinjurieswhich hehadreceived.He'returnedto the islandinNovember 1902,andveryshortlyafterwardspaid me avisitof inspection. One fine morning,aswe wereridingoff to adistantout-sta tioninthehills, he suddenly said to me:-"Thomas,Olivierhasgothis knife into you." (He had a wayofblurtingoutthingslikethat.)Amazed beyond expres eion, I replied:-"Whatonearthfor7""Oh! about those prosecutionsafterIleft,andthose people youarrested.Itwasall very welltorunin that lotthatweretriedattheCircuit Court,butyou shouldh;t have troubled-" (mentioningthenameofthesolicitor whohadbeenarrested).''Well,'' saidI,"Iamverysorry,butitseemsanextraordinarythingthathedidn'tpreventmefrom arresting thepeople,ashe knew all aboutitbefore hand.Ithoughtitveryunfairthattherabble should suffer, and the peopleofahigherclass who eggedthemon go 8Cotfree; andthereisnota spark ofmoral doubtinanybody's mindthatIgotholdoftherightmen; andthat thereare plenty more besides." "Yes; Idaresay tlult's allrightenough,butmarkmywords,Olivier will never forgive you."Thoseare as nearly as possibletheexact wordsthatpassed betweenus, noted downbymethesameday onourreturnhorne. The Inspector General proved atrueprophet.

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STUDIESINPSYCHOLOGY.153 'Olivier had got his "knife" into me; and hekeptitthereduringtheentireperiodofhis connectionwithJamaica until his final departure inFebruary1913. The final home-thrust ofthe"knife"into my vitals was given between 1908 and 1909, and therefore belongstoalaterperiod ofthisveracious history ;butI propose to forestallthatportionofthenarrativesoastoget-the IllustriousFabianand my relationswithhim off -the 'stageasquicklyaspossible. As has been stated above, I had onlyreturnedfrom eleven months leave in Englandtheweek beforetheriots, and taken over the commandofthe St.James.and Hanover divisions two days previously. Ihadbeen :appointed to this dual command on the personal recom mendation of Mr.C.AlexanderHarris,PatronageSecretary totheColonialOffice,to relievetheofficer who had helditfor nearlythreeyears previously,andwho was beingtransferredtoanothercolony. Onthestrengthoftheappointment andtheincreased emolu mentsattachingto it, I hadleftmy wife behindinEngland along with five ofoursixchildren-oneofwhom was agirl-my elc;Iest son beingatthetime atrooperin South African Constabu lary, fighting in the Boerwar;andshehadsettled herself in Bedfordforeducational purposes. The cir 'cumstanceS which now comenextinorderofnarra-tion will show how the effectofthefirst blow dealt me was to leave my familystrandedin England, and myself strandedouthere,neitherbeing abletogettotheother;and barely able to live from hand to mouth, my princely salary and allowances amountingto ayear net, all told.Atthe end oftheirreporttheRiotCommission'

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154 AWESTINDIANPOLICEMAN.made certain recommendationswithregardtoweapons, ammunition, and othersmatterswhich I donotnow recollect,thecarryingout of which would have entailedtheexpenditure of a certain amountofmoney; so nothing was ever done about them.Buttheyalso madeanotherrecommendation,theeffectofwhich wastodeprive meofall the extraemolument whichthedual appointment had brought me, and on thestrengthofwhich Ihadmadethedomesticarrangements described above; namelythatthereshouldbeaseparateofficer in Montego Bay. I have previously pointedoutthatthereasontheofficer in charge ofthetwo parishes was made to live inthefishing villageofLucea wasthattherewere governmentquartersthere, whileinMontego Baytherewerenone: a penny wise pound foolish policy, astheevent proved. Asthisrecommendation didnotinvolveanyex pense, but, onthecontrary, afforded an opportunityforthefirstthrustofthe"knife"mentionedbytheIn spector Generalbycompletely crippling me 'ly, very little time was lost incarryingitinto effect. Consequently, early in 1903 I was ordered to handovertheparishofHanovertoa Sub-Inspector, andthus to remainin commandofSt. James only.Fromthedateatwhichmy had beentransferredtoMontego Bay, immediatelyafterthe riots, I had beeninreceiptofafairlyliberal house allowance, which,asI livedinlodgings, stillfurtherincreasedmyemolu ments; andI hopedthatthisallowanceatanyratewould be continued,assome compensationforwhatI stoodtolose bythe new arrangement.ButIhad rookoned without my host, forthegovernment imme diatelybought a house, which I was directedtooccupy

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PhotobyH.E. Upton POLICE TENTIN STATION YARD. Photo by H.E. UptonMARCHING TOCOURT.

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STUDIESINPSYCHOLOGY.155asmyquarters.Theydidnoteven providethehouse withthefurnituretowhich allInspectorsofPolice areentitled;andI was thereforecompelledtoborrowa fewarticlesfromsympathisingfriends,andactuallytopurchaseothers. Ithinkthatmypowersof re sistancemusthavebeentemporarilyparalysedbYtheshockwhichI received;forIhaveoftenreflected 6ince thatI could quiteproperlyandjustlyhavere fused toenterintooccupationofthathouseuntilthenecessaryfurniturehadbeen provided.Thusafurtherthrustofthe"knife"intomyvitalshadbeen ef fected.Itwillthereforebe seenthatnotonly did Inotreceiveanyrewardwhateverformyservicesintheriots,butthatIwasactuallydeprivedofallthatwhich had previously beengrantedto me,andsaddledwithadditional financial difficultiesintothebargain.Thegovernmentwerefullyawareofallmydomesticresponsibilities;andmyconductatthetimeoftheriotshad elicitedfromthemtheencomiumswhichI have '.JUoted inthepreviouschapter;yet thei deliberatelystrandedmyfamilyinEnglandandmyselfinJamaica, sothatIneversawanyofmypeopleforseven longyears:andthisallundertheguiseoftheneces sityforcarryingoutthatrecommendationbytheRiot Commission which is mentioned above.Themostcon vincingproofofthefactthatthiswasnotsuch a vital necessityasrepresentedisthatI myself,atalatertime,administeredthepoliceaffairsoftheparishofHanoverinconj unctionwithWestmorelandforperiodsamountingintheaggregatetonearlyfive years.AmongthemanyhardshipswhichInowwasmade tosufferatthehandsofagratefulgovernment

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156 AWESTINDIANPOLICEMAN.was the necessityforhelping to keepthewolf from the door byselling my buggyandharness; and thusbeing compelled, until longafterIhadreachedtheage of fifty, todoall my travelling in St. James,andlaterinthetwolargeparishes of St. ElizabethandWestmore land, on horseback,inall weathers.Thatis where Mr. Olivierleftthe"knife"sticking into me when he departedfromtheislandin19'03.As will be seen in thefollowing pages,hehadnotfor gotteniteven then,butgaveitthe finaf pushhome,tothehiltfiveyearslater, on hisreturntothis colonY' asSirSydney Olivier, Governor, bothdejureanddefacto.Hewas sent out, as is well known, to retrievethe,frightfulsituation created bythe Ki:p.gston earth quake ofthe14thJanuary1907, in consequen'ceofthefactthatSirJamesAlexander Swettenham,whowas Governoratthatjuncture,hadthoughtit expe':'dient toretire.I, beingthenstationedinSt. Elizabeth,whitherIhadgone inJuly1904, sawhimagainforthe firsttimeataruralagriculturalshow, which he had come to open, onthe1stJanuary1908.'AfterI had received himwitha salutefrommyguardofhonour, he walked,upto me in full viewoftheassembled pub Hc,shook me. warmlybythehand,andsaid: "}lowdpyoudo Mr. Thomas? I amverypleased to seeyouagain."InJuneofthesameyearhegavemeanex a'ctlysirnihlr cordialgreetingonthegroundsofwhat is now knownasMunro College,attheathletic sports. Yetbeforetheyearwasouthehadirretrievably ruin ed mycareerinthe'public service. Ihave never been able to fathom 'themo'tives underlyinghispersistent and consistent mishandlingofso humble and insigni-

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STUDIES IN PSYCHOLOGY.151ficant apersonasmyself. I havealreadygiven afairsampleofit,butworseisyetto come. Icanonlyattributeittoanintuitiveantipathyconceivedby at theveryoutsetofouracquaintance, whichlaterde veloped--on theprincipleofvires acquiriteundo-int()notmerelya dislike,buta perfectlyrabidhatredofme.I could notpossiblytrespasssofaronthepatience of myreadersasto enumerr;.te theinstancesofslight, indignity,andpettypersecution which I suffered athishandsduringtheperiodofhisstayhereasGover nor.Itformsacuriouspsychological phenomenon;and itmusthavebeenofapurelypersonalnature,be cause hewasalwaysreadytogive mecreditformeri torious servicesperformed.I have given one instancealready;andotherswillpresentlyappearinthisnarra Towardstheendof1908theofficer whowasthenDeputyInspector G$neral, andalsoincommandoftheKingston police, announced his intentionofretiring Qn pension.Asthenextinseniorityto him,withthirtyoneyearsservicetomycredit, Iregardedmypro motion tothevacancyasacertainty;a view inwhichrwassupportedbythethenInspectorGeneral, Ker shaw, who discussedthematterwithmeata visitofinspection tomydivisionofSt. Elizabeth.Thisgentlemanrequiresmorethana passingmentioninconsequenceofthepartwhich he playedinsub r.equent events.Hiscallingwasoriginallythatofa Jandsurveyor,havingno connectionwiththeColonial Servicewhatever.He held a commission in theCounty CorkArtilleryMilitia, which entitled him to amilitarydesignation;arrivinginJamaicaasa Major,andbeingafterwardspromoted totherankofLieutenant-

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158 AWESTINDIANPOLICEMAN.Colonel. He enteredbya side door intp the public ser vice, as recorded intheColonialOfficeListof1913,attheageof thirty-two, when he accompanied some Governor toBritishHonduras asPrivateSecretary and A.D.C. A vacancyarisingin commandofthe policeofthatlittle colony, this Governor gothimap pointed toitin1886.Itis statedofhimintheplace above quotedthathe' "commanded a columnofcavalryatQueen Victoria's Diamond Jubilee review"in1897.History sayethnothow a Captain of CorkMilitia-andArtillei'yatthat-cameto be commanding a "column cavalry;" but itmaybethaton suchanoccasionasthatof The Diamond Jubilee, whenBritain'sforces were gathered together fromtheendsoftheearth,itwas highlyirregularcavalry. He had earned both Jubi lee and Coronation medals; andtheribbonsofthese he wore on his tunic when, travelling about the country,thuscausingthepublic, unversed in such mat ters,toregardhimwithawe ,and reverenceasa war'" worn veteran,notknowing that these decorationshadbeen conferred in piping times of peace.Thatfactwill afford some index to his mentality; andfurtherinsightwill be obtained bythe follow4J.g story ab,outhim:' Atoneofhis ofmy St. Elizabeth divi sion I told himthestoryrecorded aboveof my treatmentaftertheriots, dwelling particularly onthehardshipof'being obliged,atmy 'age, to .do allmytravel-' ling oP'hors'eback.'(Ithapperled'tobejust'thena'very:season)'."Thiswas'reply which I, recei:Vefrom' him:bYway'Of!must''verypleasa#tcaiiteripgalortiintheearlyit''was'lidt ;said irbnlcally,'efther,butin faith. Now; I hadeight'thenearsfbt

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STUDIESIN PSXCHOLOGY. 159 which was fourteen,andthefurthestthirtymiles away. Of courseitmustalways have been"earlymorning,"andfine weather,andeasy"cantering"formyhorseandmyself, alldayeverytimethatI visited these stations.'Idonotthinkthatanycomment is necessary.Iambound to say, however,thathealways ex hibited averyfriendlyattitudetowards' me untilhe , II"I ... t'I ..'\ r'I' l '(!" ,t II' : ." if1 'I' .''..... .''1'".1 .1r lie'wastlien.'ten'yeariniy'JuhiQr _.."." .,r .... : (..,,'" -rvr:;'ir :/ :. {. j' r' ",".: ,. J"I', fightmg stock; sonof numerous. other relativesinthe naVy-aria'army;'andduring all' the:of:011;0dose'(and Tconstant''intercourse'l had alwayS'>Ihim.to" be; the';soui 'of 'honour.-He, ,had' then;:beeiFfo'r :Jsome; yearsJin:ehaI'geofthe' :parish : of,'where) his: 'name,is :still' heldhF affectioila;te'

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160 AWESTINDIAN. POlJICEMAN. remembrance. On seeing me heatonce told me hehad been ordered to come to Kingstonfora confiden.,.. tialinterviewwiththe Inspector General, and thatthis: had taken place that.very morniIl:g; Tbe object of it was toask' hiIPwhetherhe was willing to accept post of Deputy Inspector General. He demur:r:ed to it 3nd, trueand loyal friendthathe was, mentionedmynameas being theman entitled to it.Kershaw him not toworry about me,butsimplyto saywhetherbe was willipgornot.'He .raised several other objec ... tionstotheproposal; as he reaiIyhad no ever to' betransferredto KiIigston;' among whichwas' thatunpleasantness .would be caused attpe ColonialOfficebecause'he (Kershaw) knew' ve'ryVveli'thai:Thomas' wasnotthe, mall' to allow 'himself' to be. paSs.,.ed-over without appealing to the S'ecrebiryof Again' heWaStold.not toworry' about' me ... Eventual,.. ly he had askedforsome time. to considertheproposa}:; and uitimately, much against his wili, he accepted it. This revelation' my friend McCrea made.,of coui:seunder mysol,emn pledge ofsecrecy, which. heknew he couid reiy on ;andthisis the first time tlJ.at ithas' seen the 'lightofdayinwriting. :N'atu,rally I could not'tiakeul'le of it'in my appeal tothe ofState; bu,tit, accounted to meatoncefortheevident'embarrassment which the gallant colonel had exhibit ... .ed during' his with my tru0 up totheday ofhi8andprematuredeath iriMaY' 1913. ., >, ; '.,-. As a,matter ofcQur.seI ,appealed to the Secretary ofState a!,!soQn appointment wasconfirm"" ed;but, smarting as. I wa,.su,nder an intolerable sense:Qfinju,stice,QPpressiQP,.aggravated byutter help,.'

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STUDIESINPSYCHOLOGY.161lessness, besides beinginindifferent healthat.thetime, I allowedmyfeelings to overcome my discretion; and I used language in describingtheconduct oftheGoyernor andtheInspectorGeneral-especially"thelatter-whichwasheld to verge on insubordination, andthusgaveanopeningforwhatfollowed next. The replytothis fell on me like a bomb-shellatBlack River onthemorningofthe22ndFebruary. 1909, intheguiseofa communication fromtheIns pector General whichranthus:-""Iamdirected bytheGovernorto you that" youareinterdicted from duty, and placed on leave of" absencewithfull payforsuchtermas canbe granted you undertheregulations, which afurthercommunicationwill be senttoyou; andthat, by direc tion of the Secretary ofState, youarerequired to proceedtoEngland forthwith andrejoinyourfamilyand report yourarrival at the Colonial Office." The italicsare mine; and in explanation ofthepassage I should mate thatinmymemorial I had dwelt on the situation into which mydom"esticaffairs hadbeen"plunged by my' .treatmentat -the hands of the government in 1903, as described above; and mentioned thefactthat I had not seen any memberofmy familyforseven years in consequence. .Itwillnotrequire much imaginationonthepartofthereader to realisetheutterconfusion into whichthis order threwme. There was I, strug-: gling along; with a wife, and five children being edu in England, (my eldest boy being stillin Africa,) barely"ableto exist from hand to mouth, and withoutanymarginwhateverforunforeseen contin gencies, suddenly arderedto"proceedtoEngland forthwith." The news spread through Black Riverand

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IG2 AWESTINDIANPOLICEMAN. placesinthe-parishlike wildfire, _crea con sternation: amongmyfriendsandmysub-officersandmen.Thelatter,atthe-instigationofmyfaithfulanddevotedsergeant-major,GeorgePalmer,atonce rl;tis ed,largelybytelegram,asubstantialsubscriptionforme,theproceedsofwhichtheypresentedtomeinthebarrack-room, somewithtearsintheireyes.Friends cameto therescuebypurchasingmysaddleryand0therarticlesofpersonalproperty,andtenderingsmall joans which I neednotrepayuntiltheday of judgment;andIwasthusable to provideforimmediatepressingnecessities,andtoreportmyselfinKingstontwodays receiptofmyorders.Arrivedthere,Iinterview ed theColonialSecletary, to representthatIwaswithoutthemeansofpayingmypassagetoEngland;whereupon he advancedmethesumrequired.Fortunatelyforme also,mytriedandtrustyfriend,SirJohnPringle,happened to be intown;andhe ma,de me apresentofa chequelargeenoughto-remove all causeforimmediate Iwasthusabletosail Thursday25thFebruary1909,andso to enjoythirteendaysofcomfortandmuch neededrestandquiet. IarrivedinEnglandonthe10thMarch, 1909.Therehadbeen asnowstormtwodaysbefore,andthesnow _wasstillmeltinginthe,streetsof_BristolwhenI 'landed. Ihadonlythesameclothing-both upper and u,nder which I waswearinginJamaica,andnotevenaneffi cientovercoat;butofcourse such a trifleasthatdidnotdisturbtheequanimityof'anyofthosewhowereresponsiblefororderingmeto "proceedforthwithtoEngland"inthewinter-time.I took up myresidenceatSouthsea,where mywife wasatthetime;reportedmyarrivalbyletter to

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STUDIESINPSYCHOLOGY.163 the Colonial Office;andthensatdowninapainfulstateofsuspense toawait my summons to London. This arrived in about a fortnight,andon adaytowards the endofMarch, I duly presented myselfatDowningStreet. There I wasverypleasantly received b:}T one of theUnderSecretaries, a robust, genialandkindly gentleman, rubicundofcountenance,and'altogetherreminiscentoftheconventionalrepresentations of JohnBull. He evidently foundthetaskwhichhadbeenlaidupon himverydistasteful;andhe dischargeditwith a kindnessandconsiderationtowardsmeforwhichI (;zn never cease to begrateful.Therewaspresentatour interview oneoftheprincipal clerks, a little rnan.ofr,0tund aspc.d, wearingapairoflarge gold-rimmed spectacles.Hehadbefore him a massofcorrespon dence from which he occasionally interposed aremarkwiththeobjectofreminding his chiefofsome .:normitY,on mypartwhichthelatterappeared tohaveoverlooked.In other. words,hewas doing his bestto"pushthefire,"asthephrasegoes iIi Jamaica.ButI'wasparticularly pleased to notethatevery suchattemptonthepartofthisunderlingwas brushed aside by his chief; until, in short,theyounggentleman, realisingthathe was being snubbed,presently relapsed into silence. Throughoutthewhole interviewthe personality ofthechief figure,andtheluxurious appointmentsoftheroom,withthecheerful fire inthegrate,-incontrastto my own miserable plight, physicalandmentnl very forcibly to my mindanothermost pressive negro proverb,namely:-"Rock-stone aribba battamnebber knowsunhot." Which being interpre-

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164 AWEST POLICEMAN.tedmeansthata stoneatthebottomofariverhasnoopportunityoffeeling t:'le heatofthesun.Itwas noW explained to methatSirSydney Olivierhadgivenashis reasonsfornotappointingmetothe.postofDeputyInspector Generalthefactthathedidnotconsider me "possessedofsufficienttactanddiscretion tobeplacedincommandofthepoliceofKingston"-whichtheappointmentwouldinvolve-. and thatIwas"infinancial difficulties." .The first is suchaneasywayforanymanwho desirestodamn prospectsofa subordinate whomhedislikes,isn'tjt?No evidence is necessary. The Governor'sipsedixitis sufficient;andthevictimofhisjudgmentis en tirelyhelpless.WithregardtothispointI shalllatergive ample proofoftheopinionofmy"tactanddiscretion" heldbytheinhabitantsofSt. Elizabeth,whereIwasstationedatthetime,andwhere Ispentaltogethertwelveyearsofmylife;butI now defyanymanwho knows thecircumstances, includingthenoble Lord Olivier himself, to challenge my assertionthatthemanwhowasthussentto Kingst0n over my head on accountofhissuperior"tactanddiscretion,"washimselfpersonally directlythecauseofthe"street-car"riotsofFebruary1912,byinsistinguponthearrestoftW(}menofstandinginthecityofKingstonforrefusingtopaywhattheyregaruedasanunlawful demandby'theconductorofa sfreet car..So much sothatapublic meeting was heldinKingston denouncing himasa menace tothepeaceofthecommunity,anda resolution passed calling uponthegovernmentforhisimmediateremoval fromthe metrE>polis. The second allegationitis difficulttotakeser-

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STUDIESINPSYCHOLOGY.165iously.Itis reallytheponderous descriptionofjokewhich one would expectfromsuch aquarter.AsIhaveexplainedinfull detail inthepreviouschapterhow,andby whom,my"financial difficulties"were.created,itremindedmeofthefollowing American story:.....,.. A youthofsome fifteenyearshavingbeen con victed by ajuryinaWesternstateofmurderinghisfatherandmotherwithanaxe,wasaskedbythejudgeifhe hadanythingtosaywhysentence shouldnotbepassed on him.Inreplytheculpritaskedthecourttodeal IEmientIy withhim, becausehewas"only apoororphan."Iftheintelligentreadercomparesthetwosituations carefully, he will findthatananalogous principleofhumour underliesthemboth.Apartfromthat,it would appearto suggest itself spontaneouslytotheunbiassed mindthatthemost obviouswaytorelievethefinancialemparrassmentsofa police officer whoata sUpreme crisishadso conducted himselfasto callforththeunqualified approvaloftheGovernor-videOlivier'sdispatch abouttheriotsquotedabove-would be to increase his emoluments by promotion when opportunityoffered.Iftherewereanyotherreasonsthanthese twofordenying memypromotion,thenall I cansayisthattheywere carefully concealedfromme. My interviewer then proceeded toinformmethatI had couched my communications totheGovernmentinwordsofacharactervergingoninsubordination; andthat, asa conditionofbeingpermittedtoreturntoduty, I shouldwithdrawandapologiseformylanguage. The alternativewasbeingturnedadriftonthecold

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AWESTINDIANPOLICEMAN.world. I respectfully pointedouttohimthatthisjudgmentcouldjustaseasilyhavebeen passed uponmeinJamaica,where,atanyrate,I shouldnotruntherisk ofstarving,insteadofvastly incre-asing my"financial difficulties"bycompelling me totakea voyage toEnglandatmyown expense.Hedidnotattempttoarguethematterwithme,butmerelysaidthathewascarryingoutorderswhich hehadreceived. I alsourgeduponhimtheconsiderationthatthecommunicationsto which exceptionwastakenhadbeenwrittenbyme while sufferingfromill-health, and, indeed,dur ing sick leave. Of course I agreed atonce to put mywithdrawalandapology inwriting;theonlyalternativebeing dismissalandstarvation.He.furthergaveproofofhissympathywithmebydirectingthatI r.hould anadvance on accountofmysalarytomeetcurrentexpenses,myapplicationforwhichhadllreviously b,?en peremptorilyrefusedbyHisLordshipthe(then) Earl ofCrewe,SecretaryofState.Withall due deferenceandrespecttothehighauthoritiesconcerned. Ihavealwaysmaintained,andI stillmaintain,thattheprocedure adoptedagainstme,asdescribed above,wasentirely ultra vires,and therefore illegal. Ihaveneverbeen abletofind anythingintheColonial Office Regulationsauthorisingsuchprocedure;andtheopinion which I hold is en dorsedbylegal fri2nds ofmineofveryhighstandingindeed.Thetotal sum which Iwasforced toborrowfromthegovernmentfortheexpensescontingentonmycompulsorytripamounted to .;andthatwasinduecoursedeductedfrommysalaryonmyreturntoduty.I have applied tothreesuccessiveSecretariesofStateforarefundofthismoney,butinvain;and I

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STUDIESINPSYCHOLOGY.167.am nowdebarredbytheStatuteofLimitationsfromseeking redress-if I haveany-inacourtof law.Thisisthentheconditiontowhich I found my self reducedattheageoffifty-three,andafterupwardsofthirty-twoyearsofservice suchas r have described: Allprospectsofpromotion completely cutoff; saddled with adebtof in addition to' the"financial difficulties" which were allegedasa reasonfornotpromotingme;myprivateaffairsthrownintoirretrievableconfusion; and,further,forever separa: tedfrommywifeandfamily. Ineversawanyof.themagain. Mywifediednearly twelve> years ['iter we hadparted.Fourofmyfivegallantboys laid downtheiryoung livesforEngland;whilethesolesurvivorhas beenforfourteenyarspastseparatedfrommebyhalfthecircumferenceoftheglobe,servinghisKingandcountryinan Indianregiment. So also ismyonlydaughter,thewifeofanotherofficeroftheIndianarmy;while Ihavefivegrandchildrenwhom Ihaveneveryetseen. Of courseasfarasmyfurthercareerintheservicewasconcerned,itwasa caseofonce unfit, always unfit;andas each successive vacancy inthepost of DeputyInspectorGeneral occurred, Iunderwentaprocessof-automaticelimination. The firstmanto be passedovermyheadwas,asI have already shown,ten years myjuniorintheservice.Thenexttohimwastwelve,thenextfifteen,andthenextagaintwentyyearsjuniortome;untilatlastI came downtosalutingtwoIrishmen-oneholdingthesubstantiveappointment,andtheotheracting fa!, himwhile on leave-whohadbothservedundermeassergeant-majors,oneofthemin twoparishes.

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168AWESTINDIANPOLICEMAN.I should be guiltyofbaseingratitudeif1.failedtoplace on record here my appreciationofthede meanourtowardsmeofthese two meninouralteredcircumstances. They have proved themselvestobethetruegentlemen whichNaturemade them,by in variablypreservingtowardsmethesameattitudeofrespectanddeference whichtheyused to exhibit be fore our respective positions had been reversed. They have never addressed me,eitherorallyorinwriting,withouta"handle"tomyname;andwhenthenewsofmysuccessive bereavementsduringthewar,andafterwards, reached Jamaica,theirlettersandtelegramsofeondolence were alwaysthefirstthatI received.

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THESTORY.ChapterXIV.THESTORY.-CONTINUED.169Thereis intheGermanlanguageamostsignificantword whichhasnoexactequivalentinEnglish.Itexpresses a feeling whichIusedalwaystoregardasbeingpeculiartoGermanmentality.Thatwordis Schadenfreude. The literal Englishtranslationofit is "Harm-joy," a word which doesnotexistinourlanguage;thenearestapproachtoitbeing"malice"or"malignity;"butSchadenfreude expresses agreatdeal more. Apersonwhoindulgesinthisemotion is a Schadenfreudiger (plural Schadenfreudige) meaning one whotakesadelightininflictinginjurythekindofpersonwhowouldnothesitatetoskinorroast alive anyone whom heparticularlydisliked; atypicallyTeutoniccharacteristic.Afternarratingthefurtherexperiences whichInowfoundtobeinstoreformeIamcontenttoleaveittothereadersofthisbooktosaywhethertheycanthinkofanyEnglishpersonswho deservetheappellationofSchadenfreudige. As previously stated,Ihadcher ishedthehopethathavingsocompletelywreckedmycareeronceandforall,HisExcellencySirSydneyOlivier, K.C.M.G.,andLieutenant-Colonel A. E. Ker 'shawofthe Cork" ArtilleryMilitia wouldhavebeen content to allow me toreturnto my beloved St. Eliza beth,theretodomydutyin my usualfaithfulmanner,andendmydaysintheserviceinpeace,andobscurity, .at least.ButI soon foundthatIhadreckonedwith.

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170 AWESTINDIANPOLICEMAN.outmyhost,andthatthesetwopotentateswerenotyetsatisfiedwiththeirhandiwork. IarrivedinKingstonthreedaysbeforemyfiftythirdbirth,day,the3rdofJune1909;andthefirstmanwhocameonboardthesteamertogreetmewasMcCrea:He'gavemecertain'informationwhich:(orthwithplungedmebackagainintotheblackestdepthsofdespair.Incidentally,withhischaracteristicgenerosity,hedivedintohispocketandtookouta,coupleofbanknoteswhichhepressedintomyhandsaying:"Thereoldchap;thisistotakeyououtofpawn."SeeingthatIhadatthatmomentexactlyfourshillings in mypossession, Iverybadlywanted"takingoutofpawn."WhileMcCreawastalkingtomeanorderlyappearedwithaletterfromtheInspectorGeneralcontainingnewsforwhichmyfriendhadpreparedme. I found thatsofarfromreturningtoBlack River, IwasorderedtoproceedatonceandtakechargeoftheparishofWestmoreland.Theobjectofthiswas,,nodoubt,todeprivemeofthehouseallowanceof which 1drewinSt.Elizabeth,therebeingnoquartersthere;'andwhich,asIwasabletoliveinlodgings,amountedtoaproportionateincreaseinmy There were quarters ill' Savanna-Ia-Mar, in a'disgracefullyruinouscondition:of which moreanon. Idulyproceeded to Savanna-Ia..:Marincompliancewithmyorders,andtookcharge.'Theinhabitantsofthatsalubrious place, whom I shall duly dealwithlater,appearedtolookatmeratheraskance,andtohold themselves aloof,althoughmanyofthemwereoldacquaintancesofmine. : I soon discoveredthatthisattitudewasduetothefollowingfurther hos"" tiledemonstration on thepartof the InspectorGen-

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THESTORY.171eral.Acoupleofdayspriortomyreturnhehadissuedforcirculationthroughouttheforce a generalorderannouncingtheproceedings to which Ihadbeen subjected,andthefactthatIhadbeen allowedtoresumedutyontheconditionofhavingwithdrawnandapologisedforthetermswhich Ihadused inmymemorialstotheSecretaryofStaterespectingtheInspectorGeneral.Thisordershouldhave readonparadeatevery policestationintheisland;but,asfarasI couldgather,alltheofficers showedtheirsympathywithme by neglectingtodo so,andnotevensendingouttheordertotheirsub-stations. However, Mr.Kershaw-orsomeone in hisofficecausedtheorderto be communicated tothe"Gleaner,"inflagrant breachoftheregulations, by whichpaperitwasdulyprintedandcirculatedthroughout.the whole island,asaparticularlyspicybitofnews,ofcourse .. SirSydney Olivier went awayon leavetheverydayaftermyreturn;andthegovernment devolvedupontheColonialSecretary.Asthisgentlemanwasacountrymanofmyown,andhadknown me ever since Ijoinedthepolice force, Iagainfondlyhopedforsomeameliorationfromhimofmytrulyparlouscondition;buthehadevidently receivedfromhissuperiorinstructions not torelaxthepressureinanyway.ThefirstthingIheardfromhimwasthatthe whichlowedthegovern meritwastobe re coveredfrommysalaryat the rateof a month. Ihadalreadylost3/4amonthbythehouse allow ance, sothatnowitwasproposedtoincreasemy"financial difficulties"tothetuneof3/4a month. 1at once turnedtomydearfriend,SirJohnPringle --.-alwaysa greatpowerwiththegovernment-and

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172 AWESTINDIANPOLICEMAN.byhisinterventionthemonthlyinstalmentsoftheloanwerereducedto. SothereIwasagain;con demned tocarryonmywork, on horseback,inaghast ly place, among a hostile population;toliveinaruin;tobepubliclyhumiliatedinthegeneralordersoftheConstabularyForceandthecolumnsofanewspaper; and finally,tohavemyemolumentsreducedby3/4 a month,ontopofallthathadgone before.WhenI lookbackonthatblackperiodofmylife, IalwayswonderhowImanagedtosurvive it. IthinkmystrengthlayintheforceswithwhichNatureen dowed meatbirth: .an ironconstitution, splendidhealth,inexhaustiblevitality,bulldogtenacityofpurpose,trueBritishinabilitytoacceptdefeat,andarelentlessdetermination,whichthepassageoftimedoesnotaffect,toget.evenwithanypersonwhomayhave inflicted on megratuitousinjury,oraccordedtomecowardlyandtreacheroustreatment.InconnectionwithmyexperiencesjustatthisjunctureImusttellthefollowingstory,which is too goodtobelost:-InhuntingthepagesoftheColonial Office Regulationsforsomerulejustifyingthetreatmentwhichhadbeenmetedouttome, IfoundonewhichIhadnotexpected;andthatwasthatIwasentitledtodraw,aspartofmyfullpayforthreemonths,thehouseallowanceof3/4 a monthabove mentioned, as noportionofithadbeen usedbytheofficerwhohadbeenmylocum tenensduringthatperiod.TheInspectorforManchesterhadtakenchargeduringmyabsence;andthethreemonthswereMarch,April and May;Marchbeingthelastmonthofthefinancialyear1908-9. Iimmediatelydrewattentiontothisregulationandaskedthatthesumof10/-thus

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THESTORY.173duetomeshouldbepaid.Thereplywhich I receivedwastotheeffectthatImightdraw6/8forthemonthsofAprilandMay,butwithrespecttoMarchthemoneyhad"lapsed"andwas"no longer avail.:. able." OnreceiptofthisreplyI exclaimed, like CromwellatthebattleofDunbar:-"TheLordhathdeliveredhimintomyhand!"Idrewmy6/8,andlaidlowuntilthereturnofSirSydneyOlivier in September. Then,notwishingtoappealtohimdirectlyagainstsomethingdonebyhisrepresentativeduringhisabsence, Iputmy complaintintheformofamemorialtotheSecretaryofState,askingthatitbeforwardedintheusualway.Inthismem orial Iwrotetothefollowing effect, accompanyingitwith copiesofthecorrespondence:-1saidthatthedecisionwithregardtothe3/4forMarchmightquite seriQusly,andwithoutanysuspicionofflip pancy,hedescribedasa"NewWaytoPayOldDebts";forthereasonthatthenaturallogical con clusiontowhichtheargumentledwasthatthegovernment,inordertoavoidallitsliabilities, need do nothing morethandeferpaymentof them untilthecloseofthefinancialyear;andtheninformitsvariouscreditorsthattheycouldnotbepaid,asthemoneyhad"lapsed"andwas"nolongeravailable."OnsendingupthismemorialIimmediatelyreceivedauthorityfromHisExcellencytodrawtheoutstand.ing 3/4,togetherwithaminutesaying:"1 donotsuppose Mr.Thomasnow desiresthathismemorialshallgoforwardtotheSecretaryofState:'TowhichIreplied:"Thankyou,sir;I donot."Itis possiblethntamongmyl'eadersmaybe found sometodoubtthetruthofthisstory,TosuchI wouldsayfirst:-"Ifitwel'enottrue,how could I

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174 AWESTINDIANPOLICEMAN.daretosetitdownhere?"Second:"CouldIpossibly-orcouldanybody-haveinventedsuch astory?"And,thirdly,Iwouldstatethatthewholeofthecorrespondenceinvolvedmustlieintheplacewheresuchdocumentsarekept.IremainedinWestmorelanduntilJune1913,whenClark,theInspector for St.Elizabeth,(twelveyearsmyjunior),waspromotedovermyheadtobeDeputy, onthesuddenandprematuredeathofMcCrea.IatonceappliedtobesentbacktoSt.Elizabeth;and,SirSydneyOlivierhavingthentaken his finaldeparturefromtheislandinJanuaryofthatyear,Mr.Kershawwasgraciouslypleasedtoaccedeto my request,andrecommendedthatIshouldbetransferredthither.DuringthefouryearsthatIstayedinWestmorelandSirSydneyOlivierneverlostanopportunityofslightingme,orannoyingmeaboutsomething;butIreallycannottrespassonthereader'spatiencewithfurtherdetailsofthesepettypersecutions.ChiefamongthemwastheEpisodeoftheRuinousHouse,wbichkeptmeontherackforupwardsofa twelvemonth.ThentherewerethoseofTheQuerulousandMendaciousNegroDruggist;andtheEmptySardineTinsinthebushoutsidethewallsofthepolicestationatSavanna-la-Mar;allthedetailsofwhichwouldgreatlysurprisemyreaders-if,indeed,anyofthemshouldpossessanycapacity for further.surpriseafterwhattheyhavealreadylearntofmyexperiencesatHisExcellency'shands.ThefirsttimeIcamefacetofacewithhimaftermydebaclewasto Wards theend of theyearattheinaugurationoftheCentralSugarFactoryatFrome,thepropertyofthegentlemanwhowasthenCustosofWestmoreland.By

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THESTORY.175hisrequestIwaspresenttoreceivetheGovernorwithasmallguardofhonour;butafteracknowledgingmysaluteHisExcellencydidnotthenwalkupandshakemewarmlybythehand,asonthetwooccasions describedinthepreviousyear,saying:-"Howdo youdoMr.Thomas;Iamverygladtoseeyouagain." AtthiscelebrationthewholeattendantceremonywassothoroughlytypicalofWestmorelandmentalitythatIcannotresistthetemptationtodescribeit;anymorethanIcanomittobeartestimonytotheluxuriousnatureoftheluncheonwhichfollowedit.IfWestmorelanddideverythingelse onthesamelinesof excellEmce asitattainsintheprovidingofsuchentertainments,thenitwouldindeedstandon apinnacleunapproachedbyanyotherparishwithwhichIamacquainted. '. JustaboutthistimetheChurchTemperanceCampaignwasbeingvigorouslyprosecutedinEnglandandallovertheworld;and,aseverychildknows,themanufactureofsugarandrumgohandinhand;andthelatteris amostusefuladjunctoftheformer, being,infact,inseparablefromit.ButtheseorthodoxChristians,notcontentwiththeterrestrialgloryconferredontheirundertakingbythepresenceofHisExcellencytheGovernor,conceivedittobetheirdutytoinvoketheDivinefavouraswell.ThustherewaspresentedtomyastonishedgazetheextraordinaryspectacleofanArchdeaconoftheAnglicanchurch,infullcanonicals,invokingtheblessingoftheDeityonarumfactory;whilethemachinerywaschristenedbythebreakingofabottle ofchampag:ne againstit.Afurtherillustrationofthisp.eculiarpsycho-

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176 AWESTINDIANPOLICEMAN.logicalfeaturewasafforded onthedayofKingEdward'sfuneral, in May,1910.ForthatoccasiontheCustos convenedanassemblyofthemagistratesandnotablesoftheparishtoattenda serviceintheSavanna-la-MarParishChurchat11a.m. Theywereall togatheratthecourthouse,andgo thence in solemn processiontothechurch;headedbymyselfandall my availablemeninfulldressuniform,and under arms.Thecourthouseandthechurchareexactly oppositetoeach other,separatedbythe widtll ofthemainstreet;thereforeallthatwasnecessarywasto cross thestreet.ButI found, onarrivingtotakemypartintheproceedings,thatnosuchsimpleceremonialwascontemplatedatall:theymust"procesh,"asArtemusWardputsit. Ialsofound that therehadbeen provided a band to lend eclat totheoccasion.Thisbandconsistedoffourmeninrusty'blackcoatsandantediluvian topandbowler hats. Theinstrumentswere two fiddles, aclarinet,anda wooden-soundingdrum;andoneofthefiddlers was blind,aswasalsothedrummer.Therouteoftheprocessionwastobe by way oftwoshortstreetsroundthebackofthecourthouse,then,againintothemainstreet,andacrossitintothechurch.Thebandledtheproces sion. BehinditImarchedattheheadofmymen,tothestrainsofwhatwasallegedtobethe"DeadMarch inSaul;"while behind us cametheArchdea con,thentheCustosandthemagistrates.Everyfewstepsoneoftheblindmenwouldstagger,ortrip,anditthenbecamenecessaryfortheplayer 'next to him to suspend operationsandgrasphimbythearmtopreventhimfromfalling;the ofwhichonthealready yreird strainsofthemusicmayeasily

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THESTORY.177be imagined. Ihaveneverinmylife,beforeorsince,takenpartinproceedingsofsogrotesqueanature.The most memorablE'event duriIlg myfouryears'stayinthatparishwasthehurricanewhichoccurredinNovember1912.Itbehavedinthemosterraticmanner,breakingallthehithertorecognizedrulesbywhichproperlyconductedhurricanesareregulated, according tothemeteorologists.Inthefirstplaceitcameontwoweeksafterthehurricaneseason had been officially closed.Itbegan onFridaythe15thNovember,andblewfromthesamequarterforseventy-twohours,exhaustingitselffinal1y on Mon daythe18th.Itthen visFtd MontegoBayandLueea,withthesame effectsasithadachievedinWestmoreland;andtheverdictofthescientificmenwasthattherewere two hurricanes travelli1iJ.g indifferentdirectionswhichjoinedforcesoverthewest ern endoftheisland.Incidentallyitmaybe men tionedthatSavanna-la-Marhadnotbeendirectlystruckbyahurricanesincetheonewhichdestroyedtheoldtowninthelastdecadeofthe'eighteenthcentury.ThisismentionedinLadyNugent's Journal. Whenthisvisitation occurred Iwason sick leave,ontherecommendationofthedistrictmedical officer; beingcompletelyrundown, chieflybythecourseofmentalworrywhichIhavealready attem,pted todes cribe,withmalariasuper-added. I obtainedtwenty-eightdaysleave;butI didnotgofarfromSavanna-la-Mar,havingarrangedto spepd myholidaywithafriendatapleasantplace'abouttwentymilesaway,justontheborderbetweenWestmorelandandSt.Elizabeth.Ihadatthattimea newsergeant-major,arrivedonlythreeweekspreviously, whowouldbeinchargeduripgmyabsence;

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178 AWESTINDIANPOLICEMAN.whilethestrengthofmyheadquartersdetachment,owingtosicknessandothercauses,hadbeen reducedtoabaretenme"n.Ithereforegavethesergeant-majorstrictinstructionstocommunicatewithmebypostthreetimes a week,andletme know howthingswere going on, sothatImightbeawareofthearisingofanyemergency;andIleftthetown onthe6thNovember.Forthefirstweekallwentwell,andIgotmyreportsfromtheserge'ant-majorwithregularity. 'rhen, onthe15ththehurricanebegan,withrisingwindandapersistentdrizzlingrainfromthesoutheast,increasingin intensity,and,reachingitsclimaxduringthenightofSundaythe17thandtheearlyhoursofMonday morning, when Iwasdrivenbytheelementsoutofmybedroomina wingofthehouseatFonthill,andforced totakeshelter inthemainbuilding.Fromthathousethereis a fine viewseaward, extendingrightdownthecoasttoSavanna-laMar;andasthecurtainofraingraduallythinneditbecame easyforme to see.thatbadlyaswehadbeendamagedinWesternSt. Elizabeth,theconditionsinWestmorelandweremuchworse. As I soonascertained"thecoastroadleadingfromSavanna-la-MartoBlackRiverhadbeen washedawayatBluefields, sothatnoletterscouldreachourpostoffice; whileallthetelegraphlineshadbeen blown down. Conse quently,forfive days we werecutoff from communi cationwiththeouterworld;andIawaitedin re:;:.tless anxietynewsofthefateofSavanna-la-Mar. None cameuntiltheforenoonofWednesdaythe20th, when aruralpolicemanarrivedon footwithaletterfromthesergeant-major,havingbeen compelledtoleave

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THESTORY.179hishorsemanymiles away, owingtothedestructionoftheroad.Thecontentsofthesergeant-major'sletterwereofsuchanalarmingnatureasatoncetoconvincemethatitwasmyplaindutyto foregotheremainderofmysick leave,andproceedtoSavanna-la-Marasspeedilyaspossible,to save the IthereforegotmyhosttodrivemeintoBlackRiver, nine milesdistant;andonarrivingthereIfoundthattheinteriorroad,whichwouldtakemebya circuitousrouteoverthemountains, viaNewmarket,DarlistonandWhithorn,hadbeenclearedsufficientlytoadmitofthepassageofvehicles.TheInspectorforst.Elizabeth wasatthattime myjunior;so I calledonhimforasmanyofhismenashecouldspare,witharmsandaccoutrements,commandeeredthreemotorcars,andstartedonThursdaymorningthe21stforSavanna-la-Mar.FromWhithorn,wheretheroadjoinsthatleadingtoMontegoBay,anextensive viewwasobtainedofthedesolation whichhadbeenwroughtovertheplainsofWestmoreland.Thewholecountrylookedasifithadbeensweptbya fire; andthere was notagreenthingtobe seenexceptgrassandtheleavesofthesugarcaneslyingprostrateontheground.Theruinsofsugarworksandbuildingsofevery description were visibleinalldirections;andtheroaddownonthe level hadbeen convertedintoastream,fortunatelynottoo deeptopreventthepassageofmotorcars. I have beenthroughseveralhurricanes,butneverhaveI witnessedsucha sceneofdevastationasI gazed onfromWhithornpolicestationonthatmorning. Ihaltedtherefor half:-an-hour togatherwhatinformationIcouldfTommysergeant;andwhiletalkingto him Isaw

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180 AWESTINDIANPOLICEMAN.whatsurelymustbe auniqueillustrationoftheterrifyingeffect whichthehurricanehadproduced on wildcreatures.A little"mango"humming-bird,oneofthosewithtwolongtailfeathers,cameflyingpast,andstoppedtoperchonthefrontedgeofthesergeant'scap,remainingthereforseveralseconds, :while hewasstandinginfrontofme,notmorethan a yardaway.Afterhearingthesergeant'sreportIsawtheimmediatenecessityofastrongreinforcement,andIwroteouta concisetelegramtotheInspectorGeneralaccordingly.Asalltelegraph lines intheparishweredown, Ientrustedthistooneofmymenwhohada good horse,withinstructionstoridealongtheMontegoBayroad, and,ifnecessary, .. intoMontegoBayitself,andtosendthetelegramfromtheveryfirststationfromwhichcommunicationwithKingston cquld behad.Mytelegramaskedfor theimmediatedispatchofatleastthirtymen,with a sergeant-majorincharge.IandmypartythenproceededonourjourneytoSavanna-la-Mar,eight further;butveryslowlyandcautiouslyonaccountofthewaterthatwasstill streaming alongtheroad,arrivingthereatabout11 a.m.Atthispointadescriptionoftheplacebecomesnecessary.Itiseasilythemost ghastly parishtowninthewholeisland.Itis.builtinthemiddleofa mangroveswamp,that"formstheboundaryofmostofthebackyardsofthepremisesinitslowerpart,whichisreallybelowsealevel.Duringtheveryheavyrains,whichoccurtherewithgreatfrequency,theextraordinaryspectacleiswitnessedofthewaterintheguttersflowingupthestreet,awayfromthe beach,insteadofdischargingitselfintothe sea. (Ihadbeentoldofthis,butrefused"tobelieveituntilI

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THESTORY.181sawitwithmyown eyes.)Itistraversedfromnorthtosouthbythelongeststreet in Jamaica,astraightstretchofone mile,andofgenerous. breadth.TheinhabitantsareveryproudofGreatGeorgeStreetwhich isitsname-failingto seethatitsfineproportionsservetoaccentuatethe. insignificantandoftensqualidaspectofthebuildings liningiton bothsides;which,witha few exceptions,areallofwood,anddonotappearevertohave been touchedwithpaintfromthetimetheywerefirst erected.(Iam ingnowoftheappearanceoftheplaceuptothetimeofthehurricane. One good effect whichthatcatastropheproduced wasanimprovementinthegen.eralstyleofarchitecture.)Thepolicestationwhich waslaterdestroyedby fire,aswill induecourse benarrated-wasadisgracetotheparishandthegovernment;andduringtheseasonofunusuallyhigh tides which precededthehurricane,standingasitdid in a backstreet,itwasimpossibletoreachitdryshodfromcertaindirections.Atthatseasoneveryoneofthetwoorthreebackstreetswasmoreorless flooded bytherisingofthewaterinthemangrove swampformingtheenvironsofthetown.These'streets were also wonttobeornamentedwithcrabholes made bythemyriadsofland-crabs residinginthevicinity;andnotinfrequentlyofsuchwidth :-md depth as to create adangerforanimalsusingtheroads.OnarrivingatSavanna-la-Marwithmylittletrainofmotorcarsfilledwitharmedconstables, 1 re ceived aperfectovationfromthegroupsof people gathered aboutGreatGeorgeStreetandthevicinityofthepolice station. I found mysergeant-majorandthefew men in variousstagesofexhaustion; wet. dirty,unshaved,.andred-eyedforwantofsleep.I

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182AWESTINDIANPOLICEMAN.found somesixtyodd homeless refugees inthe stationp who had been g-iven shelterthere;thetowninruins;thewaterpolicestationdown intheoldfortbythebeachturnedupsidedown-thepolicemenbarelyes caping withtheirlives; .and two shipsthathadbeen lying intheharbour wrecked onthereefs.Everyshopandstorehadbeen unroofed and partiallydestroyed;withmostofthegoods intheopenair,exposed totheelements;and,naturally,being lootedatnightsbythelowerordersofthepopulace. I also foundtherespectableportionofthepopulation, white, colouredandblack, in astateofgreatanxiety, both byreasonofthelootingandofthethreatsofthemobelement;towhichlatterIhavemadeallusioninChapterIV,asbeingusualonsuchoccasions. Thegovernmentbonded warehousehadbeen wrecked,andthereweretwohundredpuncheonsofrumlyingintheopen.ThewindhadforcedtheseaupGreatGeorgeStreetwithinhalf-waytoitsnorthernend;andmostofthepeoplefromthelowerpartofthetownhadmadetheirescapeupthestreetincanoes.Thefuryofthewind,asIascertainedformyself a coupleofdayslaterbyseeingand tastingp haddriventhesaltsprayfromtheseaasfarasfifteen milesinland;thetreeswere coveredwithit.Ifoundthatthoughmysmallforceofregularpolicehadofnecessity proved quite insufficientfortheexi genciesofthecase,mysergeant-major,Frederick Mills; hadrisentotheoccasion,andbehavedrightgallantly.AmongotherthingshehadinducedtheClerkofCourtstoconvene ameetingofsuchmagistratesaswereavailable,andswearin anumberofspecialconstables,includingseveral policepensioners who were on the spot. These were doingdutyinthe

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THESTORY.183.streetswhenIarrived,thusgivingthehungryandexhaustedregularsanopportunityformuchneeded rest andrefreshment.AboutanhouraftermyownarrivalalargemotorcardroveinfromMontegoBaywithsix additional police. I was notified,hadbeendispatchedbythedirectordersoftheGovernor himself, who,withtheenergyhealwaysdisplayedonsuchoccasions,hadpersonallyvisited MontegoBay,-which,asabovestated,hadalso beenstruckbythestorm-andintendedcoming ontoSavanna-la-Marthatevening.Withtheaidofthese, inadditionto the, menwhom IhadbroughtfromSt. Elizabeth, I was. soon able to -straightenoutmattersa little, bypostingarmedguardsovertherumlyingintheruinsofthebonded warehouse,andatotherimportantplaces. Iwaswaitedon by adeputationofmerchantsandshop-keepers, whomadestrongrepresent Rtions to me aboutthelootingthatwas going on.ThatmatterI tookintomyownhands.Themoonwasnearthefullatthetime,andthenightswereparticularlybrilliant;so I allowedmyselftobe seenwalkingslowly downthemiddleofGreatGeorgeStreet,andinto every nookandcorneroftheruins,withadouble-barrelledshotgunonmyshoulder,fromabout10.30 p.m.untilthesmallhoursofthemorning. I didthatfortwonights;andIwasonthethirddayassuredbytheprincipalmerchantsoftheplacethatlootinghadceased entirely. So oncemoreIhadbe comealmostasgreatapopularheroasIhadbeenatthetimeoftheMontegoBayriots;butthesepeopleofSavanna-la-Marforgotallabout this episodewhentheyattheendof1923 aidedandabettedthepresentCustosofthe inhoundingmeoutofit;aswillappearin a subsequentchapter.

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184 AWESTINDIANPOLICEMAN.OnthefollowingSundaythethirtymenIhadrequisitionedfromKingstonarrived,.withtwosergeants,SmartandMedley,underthecommandofSergeant-majorBlackThelast-namedisstillwithus,andis a well known figure inthemetropolis. MyfriendMcCreasentmethepickoftheKingstondivi sion,asI knewhewould;andhediditinspiteoftheoppositionofourgallantcolonel, who didnotwanttosend meanyatall,andworriedmeincessantlytosendthembackduringthethreeweekstheystayedwithme. I have never been able to understand whySirSydneyOlivier didnotordertheInspectorGeneralhimselfto atthisjuncture.The.latterknewthatIhadastrangesergeant-major,andonlyabouttenmen availableforduty.HeknewthatI was011sic.kleave.Helearnt fro;m myreports,andfromthepress,oftheawfulnatureofthecatastrophewhichhadoverwhelmedSavanna-la-Mar,Mon tegoBayandLucea;adisasteratthesceneofwhichthe considered his own presence necessary.YetMr.Kershawneverputinanappearanceatthatpartoftheislandatallforsevenmonthsafterwards,untilJune1913,afterIhadleftWestmoreland.One wouldhavethoughtthatthemotiveofsheercuriosityalonewould havebroughthimtothescene.Butallhedidwastositin his office in Kingstonnaggingandworryingmeaboutsending backthemen,andthetremendousunauthorisedexpenditurewhich Ihadincurredingrapplingwiththeemergency.Notonlydidthebillsformotorcarhireplungehiminto astateofpanic,butheeven queriedanextrachargeoften whichthepolicestationscavengerhadmade,inconsiderationof the factthatthelatrineswerebeing used by somesixtyrefugeesandthirty

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THESTORY.185menfromKingston,inadditiontothenormalpopulationofthepremises.Intheend every singleitem of expenditurewhich Ihadincurredwaspaid byorderoftheGovernor, whohadvisitedthescene him self; butthereadermayeasily imaginetheeffect which thesefurtherannoyances produced on me inmy already enfeebledstateofhealth.Ofcourseduringthiscritical period, inadditiontoattendingtomydutiesduringtheday,. I wasoutatnights, sometimestilljustbefore daybreak,inhalingthefoulodoursofmangroveswamp,rottingseaweed,andotheroffen sive matter,untilmycondition beca.me suchthatour'medical officerforbademydoinganymorenightduty.IthenhadtoleavethatworkentirelytoSergeantMajorBlackwithhistwosergeants,assisted bymyownsergeant-major.The.entireKingstondetachmentbehavedduringthethreeweekstheystayedwithmeinanexemplarymanner,amidcircumstancesof great hardshipanddiscomfort, which couldnotpossiblybe avoided. Isawtoitthattheyweregenerouslyfed,atanyrate.Now,itwill be rememberedthatSirSydneyOlivierhadvisited MontegoBayforthepurposeofinspectingtheconditionsthere;hadintimatedhis intentionofproceedingtoSavanna-la-Mar;andhadorderedareinforcementofsix policetobesenttoWestmoreland.AtaboutmidnightonThursday,21st Novem ber,thedayofmyreturntothetown, adistrictconstableturnedupasI wasstrollingalongGreatGeorgeStreetwithmygunonmyshoulder,andhandedme aletterthathadbeen tohimbytheGovernoratWhithornstation;which,asstated ab.ove, layon hisroad.Thisruralconstablealso

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186 AWESTINDIANPOLICEMAN. informedmethatHisExcellencyhadleftthestationforFontabelle,theresidenceofthegentleman wh(} wasthenCustosoftheparish,lyingina different direction.Thisistheletter:-Whithorn,21November, 1912.6.30p.m.DearSir:IamdirectedbytheGovernortosaythathavinginviewthefactthat,asheunderstands,you havereturnedtoSav-la-Marandhaveassumedchargeofthesituationthere-alsothatyou have communicatedwhatyou consider nec-essarytotheInspectorGeneralHewill proceeddirectfromheretoFontabelleforthenight.HisExcellency proposes tOo visit Sav-Ia-Mar beforebreakfasttomorrow.Iam, Sir,Yoursfaithfully,G.PEACOCKE,Captain,.Private Secretary. ToInspectorThomas, Sav-la-Mar.Itwill benotedthatinhis opinionthefactthatIhad"assumed chargeofthesituation"rendereditunnecessaryforhimtocontinue hisjourneyto Savanna-la-Mar.Hewasquitesatisfied.Hedulymadehisappearanceonthenextday,andremainedintheparishastheguestoftheCustosforsomedaysafterwards.Thatwasthelastoccasion onwhich 1

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THESTORY.187gazed on his countenance.DuringDecember Imadeanapplicationtohimtocancelthatportionofmyunexpiredsick leave, which owingtomysenseofdutyIhadvoluntarilysurrendered,inordertoobviatethepossibilityofitscountingagainstmeincaseoffutureleave being required.TothisapplicationI receivedthefollowingreply:-ColonialSecretary'sOffice,Jamaica,6thJanuary,1913.Sir:Iamdirected bytheGovernortoacknow ledgethereceiptofyourminuteNo. 1653/12datedthe'30thultimoandtoinformyouthatunderthecircumstancesstatedHisExcellency cancels twelvedaysoutofthetwenty-eightdaysvacation leavegrantedtoInspectorHerbertT.Thomasasfromthe6thNovember,last.2.Iamto saythatMr. Thomas acted creditablyinreturningtodutywhenhedid,andthatHisExcellencyhaspleasureinrecognizingthepublicspiritofhisactionandtruststhathishealthhasnot sufferedfromthecurtailmentofhis leave. I have, etc., (Sgd.)P.C.CORK, ColonialSecretary.TheInspectorGeneralofPolice, Kingston. Ipresumethatashehadkilledmeandburiedmycarcassfouryearsearlier,hethoughtitagrace-

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188 AWESTINDIANPOLICEMAN.fulandbecoming act,ontheeveofhisdeparturefromthecolony,tolaythesetwowreathsonmygrave;trustingnodoubttherebytolullmytroubledspirittoeternalrest. Before his final exitfromthese shores a publicdinnerwas given tohim;andthepost-prandial ora tors belaudedhimwithadulationsofulsomeastotouchtheborder-lineofnausea. He repliedinkind;butIthinkthataftertheexcitementattendantonhisfarewell had died down,hemusthavehadto realisethetruthofthoseimmortalwordswhich Shakespeareputsintothemouth ofMarkAnthony:-"Theevilthatmendolivesafterthem."He has hadaneye onthisislandever sinceheleftit;andtherestillexists asmallcliqueofhisfavouriteswhohavemademorethanone abortiveattempttogethimbackhere;butitmusthavein.terestedhimverydeeply toreadcertaintributestohismemorywhichappearedinthe"Gleaner"atintervalsafterhisdeparture,ofwhichthefollowingaresamples,takenfrompapersofFebruary,May,June,AugustandDecember, 1913.Thefirst,commentingontheafterdinneroratoryabove described,readsasfollows:-"WeagreethattheCivil ServiceofJamaica,asa whole, isascompetentandefficientasthatofanyotherCrown Colony.Butwecannothelpthinkingthat,in one respect,ithasdegeneratedappreciablyduringthepastfiveorsix years.TheheadsofDepartmentsseem to ustohavelostallpowerofinitiative. WecanrememberthetimewhenheadsofDepartments,intheirownrespective spheres, exercisedalmostparamountinftu-

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THESTORY.189ence--appreciatedtheirresponsibilitiesandwerenotafraidtoact"offtheirownbats,"when oc casion offered.Butsuch astateofthingsdoesnotexist to-:day. WhathashappenedrecentlyinJamaica,when HisExcellencywasawayfromthecolony-andSirSydneyOlivier has'been absentinEnglandmorefrequentlythananyofhispredecessors?Arewewronginsayingthat,during.suchperiods,theresponsible officials havesimply"markedtime"-haveinitiatednothinghaveassumedtheresponsibilityfornothing?We donotthinkthatanyintelligentobserverofpassingevents willsaywearewrong.Itwasnotso in bygoneyearswhenSirNealePorterwasColo nialSecretary,SirHenryH. Hocking,AttorneyGeneral, Mr. V; G.BellDirectorofPublic Works, Mr.MaglashanAuditorGeneral, Dr. MosseSuperintendingMedical Officer.Whythechange?Itis easily explained.SirSydneyOlivierhasdominatedeverything,andmadehimselfrespon sibleforalltheminutiaeofadministrativeandlegislativ.e work. Eventhe Councilhasceased to bethepower inthelandwhichitformerlywas-ithasbecomelittlemorethantheregisteringmachineoftheGovernor'spersonaldecisions.Thishasnottendedtoimprove,ortomakewisdomparamountin,themanag'ementofthe. colony's affairs.Andwe hopethat,whenournextGovernor arrives,the"statusquoante"will berestorediforourchief otlicialsareas com pent asthose who "vent beforethemtodischargetheir responsible dutiesin an equallyin dependent and responsible fashion."

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190AWESTINDIANPOLICEMAN.Thenextis aclippingfromtheLondon"Standard," whichwascopiedintothe"Gleaner.""STRONG WORDS. ACircularRecentlysentOutbySirSydneyOlivier.-Languageis Resented.-Letterto County CouncilsRegardingSmall Holdings.The"LondonStandard"publishesthefollowing':-'"TheBoardofAgriculturehasjustissued acirculartocountycouncils.concerningtheequipmentofsmall This circular, which is signed bySirSydneyOlivier,thenewPermanentSecretaryoftheBoard,is resented.Itis declaredthatitisrarethattherepresentativesofthepeople onourlocal bodiesareaddressedinsuchanautocratictone by a Governmentofficial.Itisurgedthatitmightbe con ceivablethatthetoneadoptedinthecircularwould provesuitabletothenativesofJamaica,whereSirSydneyOlivier was Governor;butaddressedasitis toEnglishmen-menofallclasses, whoareelectedtotheircouncils ontheprincipleof"oneman,one vote,"andwhoperformwithoutpaymentmuchvaluablepublicservice-itisregardedasimproper,ifnotoffensive.Therewould seem to be a new"atmosphere"attheBoardofAgriculture.Inthecircularin questionSirSydneyOlivierstatesthat'manyoftheschemesofequipmentthathavebeenplacedbefore theBoardofAgriculturehaveafforded no evidenceofadeterminedattempt'todowhatis really requisite,or'anadequate appreciation'ofthe'equipmentre

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THESTORY.'191quiredforsmall holdings.' Again, he saysthatthecounty councils have 'often proceeded' ontheassumption.thattheirplansfortheequipmentofsmall holdings 'would be approvedofas a matterofcourse,'andheinformsthecouncilsthattheboard"stronglydeprecatethispractice;'while headdsthatinfuturetheboard'intendtoscrutinise closely'anyproposalsforequipmentthatmaycomebeforethem. Moreoverhesaystheboard'willnothesitatetowithholdtheirapproval'ofproposalswhichtheydonotregardwithsatisfaction.Theseandotherexpressionsareconsideredprettystraightand'tall,'rememberingthepeople to whomtheyareaddressedandthepaidCivilServantby whomthey are written.Thereareotherstatementsofanequallystiff character." Below followsthe"Gleaner's"exceedinglypertinenteditorial comment on thearticle inthe"Standard":-"OFFICIALINDISCRETIONS.-SirSydney Olivierhas"puthisfootinit"verybadlythistime-andnomistakeaboutit.Somethingofthesortwassuretohappensoonerorlater;andperhapsitis wellforhimthatithashappened soonerratherthanlater.Theamazingindiscretionofwhichhewasguiltywhenheattendedandtookpartin a conference onNationalExpenditureina London hotelfullyafortnightago-a'non-political' conference'whichhappened to be attended by nonebutextremeRadicalsandSocialists-isrecognized by everybody excepthimself.Andthetactlessnessandfollyhe

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192 A WEST INDIANPOLICEMAN.displayedinopenlyandsweepinglydenouncingthepolicyofHisMajesty'sGovernment(whileholdingaresponsibleofficeunderthatGovernment)hasobviouslyastonishedalikehispoliticalfriendsandfoesinEngland-thoughwedonotsupposethatanybodyinJamaica,whohashadtheopportunityofwatchinghiscareeroftenyearshere,bothasColonialSecretaryandasGovernor,willbe intheleastdegreesurprisedathisconduct.WhenhefilledthepositionofColonialSecretaryhe didnotthinkitunbecomingorundignifiedtowriteletterstothenewspapersonallsortsofsubjects,andeventoengage(notalwaysinthebestoftempersorwiththe'besttaste)inprolongedcontroversieswiththeeditors;andunfortunatelyforhimselfhedidnotinvariablyemergefromthoseencounterswithflying colours.DuringtheperiodofGovernorshiphewasequallyindiscreet,thoughheshiftedthearenaofimpassioneddiscussionfromthePresstotheLegislativeCouncil.Ofhisunseemlypassagesatarmswiththeelectedmembers,especiallytowardsthecloseofhisregime,itisunnecessaryforustosayanything.Indeed,theyarebestforgotten.Curiouslyenough,hedidnotallowtheheadsofDepartmentsthesamelatitudethathehadclaimedfor"himselfastheheadofaDepartment:thoughhisexamplenaturallywasinfectious."The folloyving isofgreatinterestasbearinguponthedisasterofthehurricanedescribedinthischap ter:"HomelessPeopleinWestmoreland.-CanHisExcellencytheActingGovernorseriously

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THESTORY.193contendthatthepromisesmadeby Sir"SydneyOlivierafterthedisasterofNovemberlast-andmadesolemnly,deliberatelyandrepeatedlyhave"beenhonestlyandhonourablyfulfilled?Arenotthepromisesofa Governorbindingon a Government?Ifnot,thenpublic confidenceintheGovernmentcanneitherbe accorded ontheonehand,norexpected ontheother. DidnotSirSydneyOlivier declare,forexample,thattheGovernment wouldassistthepoorpeople whose houseshadbeen demolishedorbadlydamaged,togettheirdwellingsrestored?Thatfactcanscarcelybe disputed.Henotonlymadethestatementofficially,butheputitinwriting.Whathasbeen done to give effect tothepromise?Aretherenothundredsofhomeless people intheparishto-day-fullythreemonthsafterthecatastrophe-whohavenotreceived ashillingtoassisttheminrestoringtheirshatteredbuildings?TheActingGovernorhasrecentlypaidavisittotheparish,andmusthaveseenforhimselfthewide-spreaddestitutionandmiserythatprevail.ButwhatdidhesaytotheManchesterdelegation?He saidthattherewere able-bodied meninWestmorelandwhohaddonenothingtowardshelpingthemselves-towardsputtingback the housesthatweredamaged-andwho were ap..; parentlywaitingfortheGovernment to do everythingforthem.Wasthatquite afairthingtosay?Doesitsquarewithwhattheex-Governor saidwhen lie commendedthespiritofself-helpexhibited by somanyofthehurricanesufferers'-whenhespokewithprideandgratificationoftheeffortsputforthby alargenumber'ofthe

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194 AWESTINDIANPOLICEMAN.distressedpeopletorepairtheirhouseswithoutwaitingforfinancialassistancefromtheGovernment?IsitinaccordwithwhatSirSydneymusthavewrittentotheSecretaryofStatefortheColonies, seeingthatMr.Harcourtstated in adespatchwhichwaspublishedinthisweek's official"Gazette,"thathedesiredtoexpresshis"appreciationofthespiritofself-reliancedisplayedbythecommunityasa whole inthefaceofthis ? This:ii; nofancifultale. -It comesfromvarioussourcesandfrommenwhoareincapableofbearingfalsewitness.Andeverydayaddstothemiseries-wemightalmostsay,thehorrors-ofthesituation.Neverwasadisasterinthiscolony sobadlyhandled.Andunfortunatelyitwasbungledandmismanaged,fromtheveryfirst.SirSydneyOliviermadea messofanumberofthingsinJamaica; alold hewouldhavemadea messofmanymorethingshadhealwaysbeenpermittedtotakehisown way.Buthenevermadequitesobada messofanythingashedidofthesituationcreatedbythecycloneof18thNovemberatthewestend,ofthecolony."Thenext showsthatIwasnottheonlymanwhoseadvancementwasblocked bythisautocrat.However,thegentlemanwhosenameismentioned,morefortunatethanI,cameintohisownagain,forhenow occupiesthepostofAssistantColonialSecretary."Buttherearesomemen whose placescannotbe filled soeasilyorsuccessfullyasothers,eveninthehum-drumwalksofofficial life.Andwe'areinclinedtothinkthattheGovernmentwill

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THESTORY. 195find itextremely difficult tosecureacompetentsuccessortoMr.Doorlyatanyprice-andabsolutelyimpossibletofillthevacancysatisfactorilyifthemiserablyinadequatesalarywhichSirSydneyOlivier insisted onpayingtheretiringProtectorofImmigrantsispersistedin.Wedonotknowwhetherwemaynot be doingMr.Doorlya dis-serviceinreferringtothelackofprinciplewhichoftencharacterizedtheex-Governor'sattitudetowardspublic officials. We sincerelyhope not.Butintheinterests of justice,commonhonestyandadministrativeefficiency,wefeelitourdutytosaythatSirSydney Olivier showedunduepreferencetosomemenandundueindifferenceorantagonismtoothers-thathesometimespromotedmenofmediocreabilitytopositionsofresponsibilityandhighemolument,whilsthekeptbackmuchmoretalented,tactful,industrious,dependablemen, whohadeitherneglectedto court hisfavourorhadthecouragetodifferinopinionfromhim. WeknownothingofthepersonalrelationsthatsubsistedbetweenthelateGovernorandtheretiringProtectorofImmigrants.Butwehaveno hesita-:tioninsayingthatMr. Doorly is oneofseveralcapableofficials whose abilities werenotrecog-' nizedandwhose serviceswerenotadequatelyremuneratedduringtherecent regime."Thelastwhich IshallquotehasreferencetooneoftheabortiveattemptstobringSirSydneyOlivier .backtoJamaicawhich wereorganizedbythosewhohadcourtedhisfavour.The date is fiveyearslater:'Gleaner"of15thFebruary,1918.

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196AWESTINDIANPOLICEMAN.'TheOlivierMoveinent.-YesterdayafternoonwasheldthemeetingspeciallysummonedbyMr.WilliamMorrisonforthepurposeofconstitutingacommitteethatshouldfurtherthemovementtohaveSirSydneyOlivierappointedasGovernorofJamaicaontheretirementofHis SirWilliam Manning."***"Mr. Morrisonsaidyesterdaythatsomeofthemovement'sopponentsheldthatSirSydneyOlivierwasintellectuallyarrogant,butthathedidnotagreewiththisverdict. Wedo:wedonotmerelythink,weknowthatSirSydneyOli vier isintellectuallyarrogant.Everythingthathedid, saidorwrotewasinstinctwithintellect uaJ arrogance.Butwefranklyconfessthatwearenotafraidofthis,forwe are alwa.yspreparedtomeetarrogancewitharrogance,andatnotimeare we ourselvesparticularlydisposedtoassumeahumble mien;" AndthusI bidadieutothegentlemanwhohassincerisen toheightsnodoubtundreamtofbyhimatthetimewhenhewasengaged intramplingmeandmineintothemire. Yet,inthisageofself-assertivedemocracythepotentialitiesofsuchadvancementmustalwayshave beenpresenttothemindofsoeminentatheoreticalSocialist.Thismakesallthemoreinexplicable hispersistenteffortstoextirpate,root.andbranch, such a humbleandunimportant being asmyself;whose onlyrecommendationwasthatofhavingbeenformanyyearsa loyal; zealousandefficientservantofthecolonyofJamaica,andofhisowngovernment. However, Imakeboldtothinkthat

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THESTORY. 197, I will now have convincedmyreadersoftheremarkablepropheticvision possessed bytheyoung-ladywhoonthatvoyagetoEnglandin1901warnedmeto"bewareofa big,darkman,withablackbeard."

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198AWESTINDIANPOLICEMAN. Chapter XV.THESTORY,-Continued.Itnow becomesnecessaryforthestorytoturnbacktoJuly1904, onthe4thofwhich monthI.leftMontegoBaytotakechargeoftheparishofSt.Elizabeth,withheadquartersatBlackRiver.Thisopenedupalittleriftinthecloudoffinancial.darknesswhichhadsettledonmyhorizon,asalreadydescribed; fl?r, therebeing noquartersin St. Elizabeth, Ihadin lieuanallowanceof a year,andthiswasequivalent to a corresponding increase inmyemolu ments, being all alone as I was,andthusable to livein lodgings.Thatparishofbroadacres,thehomeofgood horsesand"cattleuponathousandhills,"theinhabitantsofwhichspeakofitaffectionatelyas"oldSt.Bess,"wasalsotheheadquartersoftheFarquharsons-assuredlythebestknownandmostwidely distributedwhitefamilyinJamaica.TheheadofthehousewasthenCustosoftheparish,andIhad for yearsbeen onmostfriendlytermswithseveralmembersofit. So Ihadaverypleasantreceptionfromtherulingfamily;whileinaveryshorttimethelowerclasseshadalltakenmetotheirhearts.TherewasalwaystomesomethingverylovableaboutthepeopleofSt. Elizabeth.Informerdaysthegirlsoftheparishused to beinverygreatdemandasdomesticservants,inKingstonandallovertheisland,owingtotheircivility,theircleanliness,andalsounquestionablytheveryexcellenttrainingwhichtheythem-

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THESTORY.199 oratanyratetheirparents,hadreceivedatthe hands oftheGermanMoravian missionaries who used to bescatteredinconsiderablenumbersthroughouttheparish.Theirstandardofgood looks isalsoabovetheaverage.Therewasscarcelyanyseriouscrime;andIwasable byconstanttravellingaboutremotedistricts,attendingevery court,andtreating every personofwhateverclass,withthatcast-ironimpartialityandstraightforwardnesson which Ipridemyself,completelytowintheirrespect,theirconfidence,and,I donothesitatetoadd,theiraffec tion.Amongtheupperclasses IhadthegoodfortunetogainthesincereregardandfriendshipofMr.C.G.Farquharson,previously unknowntome, abrotheroftheCustos, who livedandcarriedon businessinBl,ack River.Hewastrulyone in athousand;'andourrelationserelongbecame likethosebetweenfatherandson. His deathinEnglandinJuly1909 flhortlyafter myreturnfromthecompulsorytripwhich is described iIithepreviouschapter,filledmewitha senseofirreparableloss.The
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200 AWESTINDIANPOLICEMAN.flashingwhiteteethinfaceswreathedwithsmiles,:and tobegreetedthus:"Lookfewe(our)Inspectorcomebackagain.""Howyou do mas'sa, Ireallygladfesee youagain;"andsimilarcriesofwelcome onallsides.TheveryfirstSaturdaythatIspentthere,whilewalkingdownthestreet,ImetoldFatherBennettofMountainside,ablackgentlemanwhowasalandedproprietorandbreederofracehorses.Assoonashesawmehestoppedhislittletwo-wheeledtrap,.jumpedout,andcametowardmewithout-stretchedhand,saying"Well,Ipraiseandbless GodthatIseeyouwalkinginthestreetsofBlackRiveragain1"WhatacontrasttothescowlingpeopleIhadleftjust over theWestmorelandborder!Itwaslikecominghomeagain.St.Elizabeth,besidesbeingcelebratedforhorses,cattle, mules andlogwood,alsoboastswhatIthinkI may safelydescribeasthelargestsupplyoffreshwatertobefoundinanyparishoftheisland;althoughthisis sounevenlydistributedthattherearecertaindistrictswhichperiodicallysufferfromdroughtofaperfectlyparalysingnature.AsIhavealreadystated in, ChapterII,itpossessestheonly'lakeintheisland,overahundredacresinarea,andofunfathomabledepth.ThenithasthebeautifulBlackRiver,navigableforaboutthirtymilesofitscourse,andfedbynumeroustributaries..Itisformedbytheconfluenceoftwostreams,onerisinginthehillsbeyondSiloahintheeast,andtheotherat Gros.mondinthewest.TheseuniteabovethevillageofLacovia,atwhichplacethelovely Y.S.riverjoinsthem.Theeastern branch containsther9mantic"Maggotty"Falls.(Icanneverunderstandwhytheauthoritiesdonotsubstitutefor,thisodious appella.,

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THESTORY.201tiononeworthyoftheexquisitebeautyofthefallsthemselves,insteadofpreservingthepresentone, which,surely,isonlysuggestiveofputrescence.)Be sides allthisriversystemtherearesome 60,000acresoffreshwaterswamp,withahardlimestone bottom, withaluxuriantgrowthof.reeds,rushes,waterliliesandlargeshadetrees,andstuddedwithislands inhabited byanamphibious population. These liveonfish whichcoststhemnothing;andalsoonthetolltheytakeofthelogwood-whichisconstantlybeing C<1nveyed byboatinverylargequantitiesfromthepropertiesintheinteriordowntothetown -of BlackRiver.Theingenuitywhichtheydisplayincommittingthesedepredations-oftenincollusionwiththeboatmen-issometimesathingtowonderat.Altogetherthispiscatorialpopulationmaybesaidtorepresentthelowesttypeofthehumanracetobefoundinthewholeparish.Nowandthenthealli.gatorstaketollofthemalso.The.redeemingfeatureaboutthemistheusetheymakeofthe vaRt abundanceof raw materialwithwhichNaturehas -provided themintheshapeoftheaquaticgrowthsabove described.Fromthesetheymakethoseverybandyreceptaclesofvaryingsizesknownas"bankra"baskets.Theymanufacturelargemats,whichcanbeusedeitherascarpetsorbedding.Theyconstructhatsofthestyle knownas"wha-fe-do"(What-to-do),-coarsebutserviceable head--covering;alsodish-matsandmanyotherusefularticles.Ninetimesoutoften,whenyousee amanvendinganyof those whichIhavenamedinthestreetsofKingston,ifyouask'himwherehecomesfromhewillsay"St.Elizabeth."Theycarrythemallovertheisland;andIoccasion ;ally meetinKingstonsome whoknowmequitewell.

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202 AWESTINDIANPOLICEMAN.Also, you willoftensee amandrivingalongtheroada donkeywithalargecageonitsback,madeof wooel andbark,containingpoultry.Ifyouaskhimwherehecomesfromthechancesarethathewillalsosay"St.Elizabeth."Aninterestingethnologicalfeatureis.presentedbythepopulationofthesouth-easternportionof parishknownasthe"Savannahs,"whichruns,roughlyspeaking,fromGreatPedroBay,aboutfifteen milesfromBlackRiver, overthesoutherlyendoftheSantaCruzMountainsandontoAlligatorPondontheborderofManchester.Throughoutthe ofthisregionablackfaceused to betheexception;thoughitis becomingmorecommonoflateyears.Itissaid-Iknownotwithwhatdegreeoftruth-thattheinhabitantsarethedescendantsoftheoldbuccaneers,withArawakbloodintermingled;andcertainlythephysicalcharacteristicsofthepeople colourtothat t)1eory. One finds a well-to-do classofsmallsettlersalloverthisdistrict,themenandwomenoffine physique,many of thelatterextremelypretty;andalargeproportionofveryfair-practicallywhite-complexion,withrosycheeks, blue or browneyes,andchestnuthair.Theylive in clean looking whitewashed houses, builtofthelimestoneofwhichthewholedistrictconsists,andastrikingfeatureofwhicharetherocky"Kopjies,"exactlylikethepicturesone seesofSouthAfrica.Thereis.one village,namedBallard'sValley, which, viewed' from thedistance, looksjustlike abitofoldEngland'pickedup and droppedthere.Thewholecountryside is clothedwithluxuriant guinea-gra,ss, onwhichtheyrearsplendid horsesandmules,anddonkeysnottobematchedthroughout the island.Theirwater

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THESTORY.203supplyis derivedfromwells, someofwhicharealleged todatebacktothedaysoftheSpaniards.Thesepeoplemakeverylargecanoesfromthegiantcottontreesuptosixorseventonsburden,andtheysailthemwithgreatskill allthewayupto Kingston sometimes,alongtherockyandprecipitouscoastextending from OldHarbourBaytothesouth-easternextremityoftheSantaCruzMountains.Truthcompels one, however,tosaythattheyareasaruleexceedinglyignorant,anduncouthintheirmanners.Thechief amusementsofthemenarehorse-racing,andtheconsumptionoflargequantitiesofrum,withtheinevitableconcomitantsoffightinganddisorderlyconduct;whilethoseofthegentlersex donotdifferinanymarkeddegreefromthediversionsoftheirdarker-skinnedsisters.DuringthewarI oncewentthroughthatdistrictwitharecruitingparty,alongwithanofficerofthelocal forcesanda doctor, accompanied bythedrumsandfifesoftheKingstonInfantryMilitia. Wetravelled infourmotorcars;andourprogresscreatedsuchapanicthatpracticallytheentireadultmalepopulationfledtothewoods.Theladies however, stoodtheirground,andfaced usrightwomanfullyifImaycoin afittingword;butofcourse wewerenotouttoraiseacorpsofAmazons. Wegotnorecruits.IntheSantaCruzMountains, whichrisetoanelevationof2,000 feet, St.Elizabethpossesses a climateunrivalledthroughouttheislandforitsequabletemperatureandhygienic benefittopersonssufferingfrom,orthreatenedwith,pulmonarydisease.Thechiefinconvenienceof-residencethereistheentireabsenceofanysupplyofwater,withexception

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204 AWESTINDIANPOLICEMAN. <>f thatwhichfallsfromtheskies.Thisnecessitatesthecarefulstorageofitintanks;andinseasonsofprolongeddrought,suchasnowoccurwithincreasingfrequency,lifeinthatmountainregionisfarfrombeinga picnic.In'ChapterIIIhavedrawnattention,tothe curi: ... <>us factthatalltherivers,saltpondsandlagoonsonthesouthsideoftheislandcontainnumerousalligators-or,properlyspeaking,crocodiles-whileonthenorththerearenone.Thesesaurianswere com monintheBlackRiver;andtwoorthreeusedoftentobe seenswimmingabouttheharbour.Sometimestheyinvadedthebackyardsofthehousesliningthebeach,andtookawayducksanddogs. OntwooccasionsIshotonewithacarbinefromthemainroad along theseawall,quiteneartothecourthouse;closeenoughforthemenwhowerefollowingmetopickthemupfromtheircanoesandbringthemashorebeforetheyhadtimetosink.Thesetwowere, however, <>nly youthfulspecimens;butI oncehadamostun usual adventurewithanadultofthespeciesinthemainstreetofthetownofBlack River,inthiswise:At2 o'clockinthemorningofEasterSunday,1907, Iwasawakenedbyaconstableknockingatthewindow <>f mybedroom.Inreplytomyquestionhetoldmethathehadbeen on dutyinthestreetwhenalargealligatorhad made itsappearancefromthesea, cominginbyanalley-wayleadingunderMr.Buckland'shousetothebeach,apparentlyinpursuitofadogwhichbelongedtoa Chineseshopkeeperlivingontheothersideofthestreet;thatsomeboatmen,seeing it,hadclosedthedoorbywhichithadentered,thuscuttingoffitsretreat;hadlassoeditwitha strong hemprope,tiedithandandfoot,andsenthimtobegmeto

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THESTORY. 205comeandshootit. Iatonce flewoutofbedanddrewon some clothing,instructingthemantohurryroundtothepolicestation,getafewcartridgesfrom the. sergeant-major,andmeetmeatthespotwhere the captivealligatorwas,withhis carbine. Ithenwentout myselfintothenight;andIcanneverforgettheindescribable beautyofit.Itis alargeorderIknow:butI have never seensuchbrilliantmoonlight.Theskywassimplyablazewithit;andsuchstarsasitsbrightnessallowedtobe seen glowed like. pointsofargentfire intheabsolutelycloudlessazurecanopyabove.Andoverlandandseahungabreathless hush, brokenonlybythegentlelappingofwave lets onthebeach.Thebeautyofthenightwasso overwhelmingandentrancingthatIalmostforgottheobjectofmymission. One couldhavepickedupapinonthestreet.Icanenvisagethatnightnow. However,sternlytearingmyselfawayfromthewitcheryofit, I soonreachedtheplacewherethecaptive alligatorwaslying;andthere,asis usualonsuchnights, whenmanyblackpeopleofthe lower ordersnever seemtogotobedatall, Isawasmallcrowdassembled, who gave me awarmwelcome. Ifoundthealligatorto be aformidablelookingbeastninefeetsix incheslongasweafterwardsascertained-andtheboatmenhadcertainlysecuredhimin nouncertainmanneronthepiazzaofMr. Buckland's shop.Theonlypartofhisbodythatcould movewastheextremityofhistail;andwiththatdangerousweaponhewasthrashingthepavementfromsidetoside.UptothattimeIhadalwaysregardedthealligatorasadumbanimal;butthisonecertainlywasnot.Heprotestedinverystrongalligatorlanguage

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206 AWESTINDIANPOLICEMAN.againstthetreatmenttowhichhewasbeingsubjected.Myconstablehavingarrivedwiththecarbine and ammunition,Imadethemen.seizetheropeanddragthebeastalongthestreetwestwarduntilwecametotheopenbeach,wherethehousescease.ArrivedthereIputonebullet,holdingthecarbinevertically,throughhisspinalvertebraejustbehindthehead,andanotherthroughhisbrainbywayoftheeyes.Thosegavehimhisquietus;buttheseanimalsarenotoriously hard tokill,theonlyvulnerablespotsbeingtheeye,whichformsaveryminutetarget,andthecomparativelysoftskinofthebellywheretheforelegsjointhebody;throughthistheshotmayreachtheheart.Buttheyareverycold-bloodedcreatures,andmuscularactioncontinuesfora considerabletimeafterlifeispracticallyextinct.IonceshotonealmostinthestreetsofMorantBayon aSundayafternooninasmallcreekflowingacrosstheroad.Onthatoccasion Ihadalargeaudience,butnotanyassistancefromthem.IputsixMartiniHenrybulletsintohim;andwhenheappearedtohave receivedhiscoup de graceIjumpedintothewater,seizedhimbythetail,anddraggedhimasfaroutonthebankasI could.AssoonasIdidthat,half-a-dozenofthebolderspiritscametomyaid;wepulledhimashore,turnedhimoveronhisback,andmeasuredhislengthandgirth,afterwardsplacinghimagainbellydownwards.Nosoonerhadwedonesothanheappearedtorecover,andstartedforthewater.Butonthatoccasion Ihadwithme, besidesthecarbine,mygun,bothbarrelsloadedwithNo.4shot.Placingthemuzzlewithinaninchofhis eye Ipulledbothtriggersatonce;andthatfinishedhim.Butthestampedeamongthespectatorswhen

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THESTORY.207hebegantomaketracksforthe wafer wasverydiverting.IhadtheBlackRiversaurianskinnedashelay<>nthebeach,andafterwardsthejohncrows'andthesharkshadthetimeoftheirlives.Sharkscomeinthereveryneartotheshore:infactatonetimeitusedtobe saidofBlackRiverthata fight inthestreetsbetween asharkandanalligatorwasa commonsight.Foulcalumny!Ihadthatskinverynicelytanned;andIultimatelysoldittothecaptain()f aNorwegianlogwoodbarque..OnmyreturntoSt.Elizabethin1913 Ifoundthatthevarioustrialswhich IhadenduredinWestmorelandforfouryears,superaddedtothemalarialadenatmosphereofSavanna-la-Mar,werethreateningtounderminemy.hithertovigorous constitution.Withoutbeinglaidup, Isimplybegantowasteaway,losingweight,andsufferingfrompainfulandunpleasantcutaneouseruptions.Atlastmyfriend,Dr. .Tames Calder, toldmethatifI valuedmylife Imustgetawayfromtheislandatanycost, even onlyfora. sea voyageifI couldnotafford, owing tothetreatmentIhadreceivedatthehandsofthegovernment,togo toEnglandandstaytherefora change.AgainI receivedthe help ofmysympatheticSt.Elizabethfriends;andthroughthekindnessoftheAtlanticFruitCompany, whomadespecialratesforme, Iwas enabled totakeatriptoRotterdamandback, inthesteamerSibiria, which wasatthattime engagedincarryingbananasforthecompanytothatwellknownDutchport.ItravelledbytraintoPortAntonioandembarkedthereonthe24th May, 1914. The Sibiria wasaGermanship,andallherofficersand crew wereofthatnationality,withexceptionofagangof

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208 AWESTINDIANPOLICEMAN.maicanegro firemen.Shewasa slow oldtub;butas .I wasoutforthesea voyageonlyI didnotmindthat;andbeingatsea never bores me,asIamastrangerto sea-sickness.Therewere a fewotherpassengersfromJamaica;butthecaptain,thepurser,"andotherofficersmadeagreatdealofmeassoonastheydiscoveredmyfamiliaritywiththeirlanguage.Onthereturnvoyage Ihadtheshipalltomyself;andthese goodTeutonsredoubledtheirattentionstome. The chief officer, who,strangelyenough,boretheominousnameofPaulKruger,wasaverygood fellow,morelikeanEnglishmaninphysicalappearanceandmannerthananyofhis messmates.HetoldmethathehadtwoauntsmarriedtoEnglishengineers in Newcastle-on-Tyne,andknewthattownwell.ThecaptainwasatypicalPrussian;averytallman,standingaboutsixfeetthree,ofdarkcom plexion,witha long blackbeardfallinghalf-waydown his chest,andamostferocious moustache.Hewasasnicetomeasheknewhow;butitusedtoamusemetohearhimdescribethedegenerate con dition into which,healleged,theBritishmercantilemarinehadfallen.Itso chancedthatuntilweenteredtheEnglishchannelwe encounteredonlytwotrampsflyingtheredensign. AlltheothershipswesawcarriedtheGermanorAmericanflag.Accordingtothiscaptaintherewere scarcelyanyBritishshipsleft;andthosethattherewerehadGermancaptains."Thedaysarenowpast,"hedeclaimed in hismostsonorous German,"whenEnglandruledtheseas."Herestrained.himselfconsiderablythough,andrelapsedinto"rather reflective mood when,justoffPortsmouth,weraninto asquadronofbattleshipsandcruisers,

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THESTORY.209grimmonstersall, engagedinmanoeuvres,andsawtheflashesofsomeoftheirgunssofarawayonthe.horizonthatno soundwasaudible.Itwasabeautiful,thoughslightlymistyday;theChannelwas smoothasa mill-pond;andthesightwasone to sendBritishbloodcoursingthroughtheveinswithafasterflow.Thedayhappenedtobemyfifty-eighthbirthday;andIfearntlaterthatmyownyoungestboyhadbeen onboardoneofthoseveryshipsatwhich I gazed withsuchprideandpleasure.Thiswasofcoursejusttwo months less two days beforeEnglanddeclaredwaronGermany;andIhaveoftenwondered sincewhetherthehaughtyPrussianknewwhatwascom ing.Atanyrate,onhisnextvoyage toJamaicahereceived arudereminderofthefactthatoldEnglandstillruledthewaves;forhehadtofleefordearlifeintotheharbourofN orfolk,Virginia-thenearestneutralport-inordertoavoidcaptureby aBritishcruiser.Thissoupsethimthathewascompelledtotakerefugeinahospital;where, I was informed,hespentsome weeks before recovering hisnormalcondition.ThevoyageupChannelwasmostinteresting;oldEnglandontheporthand,justbeginningtoclotheherselfwiththefullgloryofsummer,andthe"statelyhomesofEngland"peeping outfromtheirbeautifulenvironmentofancienttreesandgardens.Imustconfesstohavinggazed onitwitheyes moist ened bygriefatmyinabilitytosetfoot on those sacredshores. WearrivedatRotterdamonthenightofthe7thJune;andonthefollowingdayIquittedtheship,asshewasgoing downrivertocoal,andtookupmyquartersattheVictoria hotel. Ihadstayedinthat

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210 AWESTINDIAN POLICEMAN.samehotelforty-threeyearspreviously,foronenight,whileonmyway "from EnglandtoschoolinGermany,attheageoffifteen. LeavingRotterdamonthe10thJune,wearrived in Kingston,aftera calmanduneventful voyage, on which I wastheonly passenger, onthe30th;andIatoncereturnedtoresumemydutiesinSt.Elizabeth,almostrejuvenated.Ioughttosay that mylineswerenowcastinmuch morepleasantplaces,owingtothefactthatIhadbeenableagainto acquirethemeansoftravellingin a wheeled vehicle,throughhavinghadcharge,forsixmonthseachinthreeconsecutive years,ofHanoverinconjunctionwithWestmoreland.Naturallythemostabsorbing event of1914wastheoutbreakoftheGreatWar,whichoccurredjustamonthaftermyreturntoBlackRiver.InthisI was more deeply interestedthananyothermaninJamaica;asallofmyfive sons were thenservingintheforcesoftheEmpire:twobeingintheRoyalGarrisonArtillery,oneintheRoyal MarineLightInfantry,oneinanIndianregiment,andtheyoungestamidshipmanonboardH.M.S.ColossusoftheFirstBattleSquadron.Thelastnamedwasearlyin1915transferredtotheRoyalNavalAirService,inwhichheremaineduntiltheformationoftheRoyalAirForce.Hethenelected to.jointhatcorps,andservedwithituntiltheendofthewar,withoutascratch;only,afternearlythree years ofpeace,toperishinAugust1921,inthe terwhich overtookAirshipR38atHull.Threeofhiselderbrothershadfallenonthefieldofbattle; and thenamesoftwoofthemareengravenonthechapel

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THESTORY.211walloftheJamaicaCollege, and thecenotaphatWolmer'sSchool, respectively.But,ashehadsunkaGermansubmarineintheNorthSeawithallhands-"forwhichhereceivedtheDistinguishedFlyingCross-I"didnotowetheGermansanythingwhentheArmistice came.Ourdebthadbeenpaidwithusuriousinterest.Thisyoungestone,myBenjamin,wasdes eribed byMajorScott-themanwho took R34toAmericaandbackin1920-toa"DailyMail"reporter.as"thefinestairshipofficerintheBritishservice."InhislasttermatDartmouthCollegehehadbeen .awardedtheKing'sMedalanddirk.Navalofficerswillknowwhatthatsignifies. As amatterofcourse I offeredmyservicesto the Governoratonce,stressing tlie pointthatevenif I'Yere thoughttoo oldforthefiring line,myknowledgeoftheGermanlanguagewouldrenderme usefulin someothercapacity;butmyofferwasnever .accepted. IwaslaterinformedbyLieutenantOttley. :Our StaffOfficer,thatGeneralBlackden,thencommandingthetroops,hadwishedtoplacemeinchargeofthecamp which was formedfortheinternment()fGermanprisonersatUpParkCamp;andMajor" Peel, R.M.L.I.,. (who belongedtothesamecorpsasmysecond son,andknewhimwell), told methathe.asNavalIntelligenceOfficer,hadaskedpermissiontoemploymeinhisdepartment.Hesaidthathewouldhave sent meeithertoCentralAmericaorSanFran -cisco; atwhichlatterplace,asthosefamiliarwiththehistoryofthewarwill remember, averypowerful conspiract againsttheBritishgovernmentwasun arthed, organized chieflybyEastIndians, Germans .andIrishmen.ButIwasneverpermittedtodoany-

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212 AWESTINDIAN POLICEMAN.thingoutside .ofmylocal police duties. Someoftheyounger officers oftheforcewereallowedtogotothefront;andthiscreatedashortageby which Iultimatelybenefited,fromamaterialpointofview..Onepleasantrecollection which Icherishofthosedaysisthatofalittlefunctionwhich tookplaceintheBlackRivercourthouse on my 60thbirthday,the6thJune,1916.IthappenedtobethedayoftheResidentMagistrate'sCourt,presided over byHisHonourMr. W.P.Clark, whoinvariablyaccordedmehisvaluablesupportandassistanceinthedischarg'eofmyduties.Shortlybeforethehourfortheluncheon intervaloperationswere suspended,andMr.Clarkin a cordial speech pronounced a sincere eulogium on me,. accompanied by atouchingreferencetomysons,andthedeathoftheeldest-hebeing sofartheonlyonekilled-andconcluded by wishingmemany happy returns,withaheartyhandshake.TheClerkofCourtsandthesolicitorspresentfollowedinsimilarstrain;andaftermyreplyweadjourneddownstairstotheofficeoftheClerkofCourts,whereIfoundthatsomethoughtfulfriendhadprovided abottleofchampagnewherewithtodrinkmyhealth.Very soonafterEngland'sdeclarationofwarIcameintocontactwithitthroughabatchofGermanswhohadshippedasseamen on a Norwegianbarquecoming from Santos in Brazil, in ballast, to load log woodatBlackRiver.Ithadbeenverydifficultfortheunfortunatecaptainto get acrewinSantos, owingtodiseaseanddesertion;andithadnottakenhim long tofindoutthatnotoneofthesemen was asailor.WhattheyreallywantedwastogettoaBritishport, so thattheymightbearrestedandinterned,and thus

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Photoby Olem'y andElliottTHE AUTHOR, AGED 60.

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THESTORY.213escapethehorrorsofwar.Theydeliberately took a boat,andlandedon oneofthewharvesatBlackRiversoonaftertheshipdroppedanchorattheballastground. Ihadbeenwarned of theirapproach; and whentheyarrived,afterputtinga few questions to.them-inGerman,muchtotheirastonishment-I arrested thelot, sevenaltogether,sendingthemontoKingston byescortonthenextdaybutone.The chief manamongthemhadbeen a non-commissioned officerina Saxon rifle regiment,anda commercial clerk in Brazil.Hewasverynice-looking,hadcharmingmanners,andspokeEnglishperfectly; also,hewasverycontentwiththefatethathadbefallenhim. lle wroteme twoorthreetimesfromtheinternmentcamp;butlaterhemusthave beensenttoHalifax along withtheotherprisoners,andI neverheardfromhimagainduringthewar.But,tomygreatsurprise,sometimein1923 I receivedfromhim a letterdatedatMunich,inBavaria,askingme to sendhimanofficial certificate totheeffectthathehadbeenarrestedandinternedinJamaicawhiletryingtomake hiswayhome toGermanyinordertorejoinhisregiment!.Intheletterwasenclosed someGer-.manpapermoney,thevalueofwhich I neverascertained-ifithadany;thereforeI cannot Say whetheritwasintendedasa bribeforme,ormerelytopaypostageformyreply. So IsimplywrotetotheeffectthathehadbeenarrestedandinternedonlandinginJamaicafrom a foreign vessel flyingtheflag of aneutralcountry,andpostedittohim,withhis Germanmoneyenclosed,attheexpenseoftheJamaicataxpayer.Thewhole episode affordsanotherluminousillustrationofGermanmentality.I haveforgottentostatethathesaid,inthemostnaivemanner,

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214 AWESTINDIAN POLICEMAN thathedesiredtohavemycertificateforthepurposeofobtainingsomeadditionalcompensationmoneyfromthegovernmentofhiscountry.Intheyear1919,attheageof63, Iwasplacedinchargeofthepoliceof Manchester, asIhavealready.stated,inadditiontoSt.Elizabeth;andfromthatdateonwards,uptoverynearlytheendofmyservice, Iwasincommandoftwo divisionsata time. I took overManchesterjustatthetimewhentheJamaicawarcontingentwasreturningtotheisland,battalionbybattalion,tobe demobilized.Therehadbeen a gooddealofunpleasantness-insomecases amountingtomutiny-whilethesetroopswere quar teredinidlenessatTarantoinItaly,awaiting trans::' portation;andsomepersonorpersonshadscaredourgovernmentintothebeliefthatassoonasallthemenoftheJamaicacontingentreturnedhomeadeliberatelyplannedandorganisedrebellionwouldbreakout,throughtheiragency. .The effectofthiswastheissuingofspecialorderstothepolicedirectingthatcertainprecautionarymeasuresbetaken.Lateron,whilethefirstbatchwasactually oil the;water; someotherscaremongergainedtheear.oftheauthoritieswithfurtherandmoredetailed informa;. tion,actually giving thenamesandaddressesoftheringleadersofthethreatenedrising. Imustpauseheretoremarkon,andcallattentionto,theparadoxthatalthoughHisExcellencySirSydneyOlivierhadleftitonrecordthatI was unfitforfurtheradvancementinthepublicservice, sincethatgentleman'sdeparturefromthecolonY,the gov;. ernmenthasseveraltimesdonemethehonourofaskingformyopinion,andthebenefitofmyknowledgeand experiellce, onimportantmattersaffecting

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THESTORY. 215thepublicwelfarefallingwithinmypurview. Ihavealready quotedinChapterIVthecaseofThe Negro World; a second will be found inthechapter dealing withtheMaroons; whilethematternowunderdiscussionformsathirdexampleoftheestimationinwhich Iwasheld.Thereareothers. .This case was deemedtobeofsuchimportance, an'dofsostrictlyconfidential anature,thatthedocuments involved 'werenotevenentrustedtothepostoffice,butplaced.inthehandsofa constable to be deliveredtome per-sonallyatBalaclavarailwaystation,onmywaytoMandeville totakechargeofManchesterinMay 1919. I tookthepaperswithme;studiedandponderedthemforseveralhours;thenwroteaminutereviewing theprobabilitiffi ofthewhole situation, everywordof which was completely: verified by subsequent: events. This reply I,ofcourse, also forwardedto the InspectorGeneralby special messenger. Imayforestallthenarrativeattliispointby describingtheaction which Iafterwardstookwithregardtothemanwhosenamehadbeen mentionedastheheadofthewhole allegedrevolutionarymovement. Hewasatthetime residentinManchester; so,hearingofhis-being in Mandeville one day,(Ihada look-outkeptforhim,) Isentmysergeant-majoranddetectivetoinvite himtomyoffice. OnarrivalI found himtobe a good-looking black man,offine, physique, well edu cated,andhighlyintelligent. I gave him a chair,andthenproceeded to interview him tete-a-.tete foraboutquarterofanhourinanimpressivemanner.Ithink.mylastwordstohim werethatIshouldbeverysorrytosee amanofhiscalibredanglingattheend of arope;but'thatsuchwasthefateundoubtedlyawaitinghimifhalfwhatwehadheardabouthim,

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'216 AWESTINDIAN POLICEMAN.wastrue.Heleftmyofficeinaproperlysubduedandhumblespirit;andI needhardlysaythatthewholestoryoftheprojected rising proved tobea bogey,exactlyasIhadpredictedinmyreport.Thefirstdetachmentofreturningsoldiersarrived on adayinMay, 1919,priortomytakingchargeofManchester;andBalaclavarailwaystationwasthepointatwhichallthose belongingtointeriorSt.Elizabeth, Manchester,andUpperTrelawnywereto be paid offanddisbanded.Inpursuance ofmyconfidentialinstructionsI tooktheprecautionofmovingeverymanwho could possibly besparedfromtheotherstationsintheparish-includingBlackRiver-uptoBalaclavastationduring the previousnightandthesmallhoursofthemorning;while Imyselfspentthenightthere. Wehadorganized a receptionforthemen,ofwhich Mr.F.C.Tomlinson; then member of theLegislative CouncilforSt. Eliza beth, Mr.F.B. Bowen,theveteranClerkoftheParochial Board,myselfanda' coupleofothergentlemenformed the committee.Thegood peopleofBalaclavahad'all subscribedtoprovide lunch,softdrinks,andcigarettes, etc.(Imaysaythattheydidthesameon each subsequent occasion,untilI cametotheirhelpwithsubscriptionswhich I raisedforthemin'BlackRiverandotherpartsoftheparish.)Thecourthouse,atwhichthereceptionwastotakeplace,wasdecoratedwithflagsandflowers; arid we awaited,notwithout acertainamountofanxiety,thedenouementofthisentirely unprecedented eventinthe his toryofJamaica.'ThedaybeingSaturdaytoo,therewas a verylargecrowdofcountrypeopleattendingthemarket,which is averyimportantone;andthiswasanadditionalfactorinouruneasiness.Atlength,

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THESTORY.217 about noon,thewhistleoftheapproachingspecialtrainwasheard;anditpresentlysteamed in,swarmingwith khaki-clad mentothenumberoffouror :five hundred.Althoughthepolice station, which lies :at theotherendofthevillagefromtherailway,wasfullofconstablespreparedforanyemergencyand.allstandingby,theonly membersoftheforce whomthesoldierssawweremyselfandmytwosergeants...Assoonasthetrainstopped, Iwenton board,makingmywayfromcarriagetocarriage, ostensibly enquiringfortheofficers,butreallyonthealerttoascertainthefeeling prevailingamongthemen.Itdidnottakeme longtoconvincemyselfthattherewas nothingintheirheartsbutjoyandpleasureatbeing ,once moreathome. Most of the St. Elizabeth men knew me, as also did ofthose belongingtoWestmoreland, who were to go onasfarasMontpelier station. I found severalacquaintances too arpong theofficers. The St.Elizabeth,TrelawnyandManchester mendetrained as rapidlyaspossible,andwemarchedthem,tothenumberofabout two hundred, tothecourthouse. where they fell towithgreatgusto onthe ments.As soonastheinnermanhadbeen satisfied, and MyLadyNicotine assumedhersway,thetwogentlemennamedabove gaveshortspeeches welcomingthemen back totheirnativeland;andthesewerefollowed by an addressfrommyself. I found that Ienjoyedgreatprestigeamongthemonaccountofmy sons' deathsinthewar, whichtheyknewallabout.Infact, I discoveredthat five ofthemhadactuallybeen engaged in servingammunitiontotheheavybatteryofartillerywhich my.third'sonhadcommanded;(meofthem, indeed, havingformerlybeenmyown.

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AWESTINDIANPOLICEMAN.groom.Theytoldmethatheandhisgunners had giventhemaroyaltime,and they hadbeen very .sorrytoleave hispartoftheline. Sotheafternoonpassed verypleasantly,ifrather.hilariously;untilbyfive o'clock wehaddispatchedtotheirrespective destinations, by meansofafleetofmotorcarsandothervehicles,allthosewhosehomes'laywithinourdistrict,withouta singleuntowardincident. Imadeaveryfullreport of thewhole episode, tothegreatpleasureandsatisfactionoftheHon.J.H. W.Park,thenDirectorofPublicWorks, whohadchargeof-thedemobilization. The resultwasthatI received orders toproceed-nomatterwhere I was,orwhatIwasdoing,eitherin St.ElizabethorManchester-toBalaclavaimmediately on being notified by wire,andreceive eachbatchofrc-turningsoldiers.ThisI never failedtodo, some':' timesatgreatpersonalinconvenience. On one occa sion, whenthetransportarrivedin Kingston five days. before shewasexpected, I, beingatMandeville,justhadtimetofly downtoWilliamsfieldrailwaystationin my buggy, driving furiously, and catchthe special! trainthereat8 a.m., travellingwiththementoBala. clava.Havingdispatchedthemall, Ihadtokickmyheels in Balaclava untilthearrivalofthe t;rain turningfromMontegoBaythatnight. Ieventually.reachedmyquartersinMandevilleat.3o'clock the' following morning. Oneofthedays on which a de-tachmentwasduetoarrivewasthe3rdJune,theKing'sbirthday,anda public holiday, on whichpracticallyalltheshops would be closed.Theverygreatinconvenience-and..possiblydanger-which thiS: would entailwasso obvioustomethatonarrivingat Bal;:l.clava thedaybefore, I took uponmyself to,

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THESTORY.219go round to alltheshopkeepersandtellthemthatwhile Ihadno power to givethempermissiontoopen on a public holiday,ifanyofthemshouldchoose to do so I wouldnotprosecutethem.ThatwasthekindofthingIwasneverafraidtodo onmyownresponsibility.Allthe shops openedup;themenstrolled 2bout thevillage makingtheirpurchasesand {:njoy. ingthemselvesgenerally;andno questions wereeveraskedaboutit.Ifanyhadbeen, I feelcertainthatIshouldhave been exonerated,andallowedtoleavethecourtwithoutastainonmycharacter.Itis nowonderthatthose"contingents"astheycallthemselves,of"oldSt.Bess" usedto spea.k ofmeastheir"father."(Someofthemoccasionally comearoundme eveninKingstonatthisday.) They used tobringtheirtroublesofall kinds to me,andaskmyadviceandassistance. I didallmannerofthingsforthem. Oneladonreturninghome 'found, tohisgreatgrief,thathismother-whomusthave been averyloose,character-hadleftherhouse in company' With aman,astrangertothedistrict,andgonenooneknewwhither.Hesoughtmyassistance;andbymeansofpainstakingandpersistentenquiryI at lengthsucceededinlocatingherandthemanintheBlue MountainValleyintheparishofSt. Thomas. Hewentthere,andinsisted onbringingher home again;whilethroughmysergeantatSantaCruz hesentmethismessage:-"GiveInspector Thomasmyeternalgratitude."Inanothercase Iwasinstrumentalin foranalmostdestitutewidow woman a sum ofmoneyamountingtoupwards of whichhadbeen re mittedtoherinrespectofherson,butcouldnotbe'delivered owingtoher name---a Scotch one---having

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220 AWESTINDIAN POLICEMAN.been misspelt.Ithadbeencorrupted-assomanynamesare-andwrittenphonetically,owing to,per-.haps,-pardonableignoranceonthepartofclerksinthePaymaster'sofficeandthelocal postmistress.Theoldladywasbroughttomeonedayinaremotemountaindistrictbytwoorthreeneighbourswhohadactuallyprovidedherwithclothesfortheoccasion. IwrotetheArmyPayOfficerforthepapers;andonreceiptofthem,withthatlinguisticintuitionwhichI possess, I solvedtheprobleminfiveminutes;con vincedthePaymasteroftheoldlady'sidentity;andpromptlyreceived abigchequetohandtohe.r.Hergratitudewassomethingtouchingtowitness;itwasmorethananamplerewardforanytroubleIhadtakeninthematter.FromfirsttolastthedemobilizationoftheSt.Elizabeth detachmentoftheJamaicawarcontingentwasachieved'withoutanydifficultyor unpleasant ness.ShortlyaftertheArmisticeourgallantColonel, whosetermasInspectorGeneralhadbeenundulyprolongedonaccountofthewar,finallyretiredfromthecommandoftheforce;andhisplacewastakenin1919byMr. W.E.Clark.IhavementionedthisgentlemaninconnectionwiththeMontegoBayriots,andagaininmyaccountoftheWestmorelandhurricane,referringtohimashavingbeenpromotedovermyheadwhiletwelveyearsjuniortome.HehadnotoccupiedthepostofDeputyInspectorGeneralverylongbeforebeingpromotedto'commandthepoliceofthelittleislandofBarbados;whencehewassenttoBritishGuiana;andfinallybacktoJa.maica,hisnativeland.asInspectorGeneral,in1919, allthroughsome mysterious influence.Itwill bemy

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THESTORY.221painfuldutyinthenextchapterto describe how badlyhetoo, like somanyotherpeoplewithwhom Ihavecome into contact,wentback on meattheveryend of. .mycareer. IhadhopedtoendmydaysintheserviceamongmydearSt.Elizabethpeople;butafterspendingoversevenyearswiththemonmysecondsojournintheparish-makingatotaloftwelve wasengineeredoutofitin1921.throughthewilesofanother"snake inthegrass."This person,havingbe haved towards mewiththeduplicity which,asIafterwardslearnt,waswell knowntobe hisleadingcharacteristic, Iwrotehim aletterexpressingmyopinionofhis conduct,andalsothehopethatsome day Imight have theopportunityofgettingevenwithhim.TheGovernoratthatjuncturewasSirLeslie Probyn.ThispersonmadecomplainttoHisExcellencythatIhadthreatenedto kill him,andthelatterjudgeditaproperprecautiontoobviatethepossibilityofmycommittingsuch a meritoriousactasthatwould have been by removing mefromSt. Elizabeth. Accordinglythefiatwentforththatasfromthe10thJanuary'1921 I was to be placed in chargeofthetwo parishesofWestmorelandandHanovercombined. Iwasverysorrytoleave"oldSt.Bess;"butI couldnotclosemyeyestothefactthatmynewcommandhad the effectofincreasingmyemolumentsbyaboutfiftypercent.,thusrenderingitpossibleforme tomakesomefurtherprovisionformyoIdage;I beingthennearlysixty-five, which istheperiodofcompulsoryretire':' mentfromtheservice.!twasatthistimethatI realisedtheextenttowhich Ihadsucceededinwinning the affectionsoftheinhabitantsoftheparish.Whenthenewsofmy

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222 AWESTINDIAN POLICEMAN.impendingdeparturewasannounced, addressesoffarewellcamepouringin,fromBlackRiver,andfromtheinnermostrecessesofthecountryinevery direction. The signatoriesofthese were not,withthreeorfourindividual exceptions, personsofmyown social class.Theyweresmallsettlers, school.,. butchers, bakers,artisansofevery kind, shop-keepers, commercial clerks,headmenonproperties, tailors, shoemakers,andevenwharflabourers. Mostofthese were published intheGleanersofDe cember 1920,andJanuary1921.Therewere elevenofthemall told. Anditwasnotalwaystheaddress es alonethatreached me, either.Thentherewasa public farewellatthelastcourtIattendedatMalvern intheSantaCruz Moun tains,atwhichtheCustos,theHon. A. E.Harrison,the Resident Magistrate, andtheone solicitor pre sent, made valedictory speeches, eulogising me in amannerwhichbroughttheblushofmodestytomycheek. Followingthat,twooftheMandeville solicitorspractisingregularly in theSaintElizabeth courts, whohadnotbeenpresentontheoccasion, wrote ajointlettertothe"Gleaner"in whichtheyex pressedtheirregretfortheirabsence,andformyre. moval;praisingme,amongotherthings,asthemost tactful police officertheyhadeverknown. (Reader,. please notetheitalics.) Thus IwentupoutofSt.Elizabethin a blazeofglory, like arocket;butcame down likethestick in Westmorelandthreeyearslater.The closing scenes will be described inthenextchapter, which is entitledThe En,dofthe Story.I havethusdevoted more spacetomy sojourninSt.Elizabeththantothatinanyotherparish:first, because I speI1t moreofmylifetherethaninany

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THESTORY.223oOtherplace;and,second, becauseofmydesiretosubmit,aspromisedinChapterXUI;asstrongproofas.possibleofthewantof "tact anddiscretion"bywhichHisExcellencySirSydneyOlivieradjudgedmetobe unfit tocommandthepoliceofKingston. Myreaders "\\Till now be abletoformtheirownjudgmentonthatpoint;andIcanonlyexpressthehopethatI have not. boredthemtoo much.IntheintroductQrychapterofthisbook I haveregrettedthefactthattherearenow so few witnesses livingofmanyoftheeventsnarrated.But as far as myworkinSt.Elizabethis concerned,and yp.y relationswiththeinhabitantsofthatparish,Imay,.I think, safely rely onthetestimonyoftheHon.A.E.Harrison,Custos,andoftheHon. P. W.Sangster,whonowrepresentsitintheLegislative Council.Thelatterhimselfinperson presented me publiclyat Mountainside withoneoftheaddresses whicharedescribed above.

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224 AWESTINDIAN POLICEMAN. Chapter XVI.THEENDOFTHESTORY.InJanuary,1921, I oncemoreassumedcommandoftheWestmorelanddivisionofPolice. CombiIiedwithitwastheparishofHanover,ofwhich Ihadpreviouslyhadchargenofewerthanseven times, commencingasa Sub-Inspector in 1883.LittledidI thi'hk thenthatIwasdoomedtoundergothehumiliationofterminatinga serviceofclose onhalfacenturyinthesmallestandleastimportantparishintheisland,throughmalice,injusticeandtyranny,aggravatedby perfidyandcowardice, inhighplaces;thatistosayby being deprivedofthecommandofWestmoreland,andrelegatedtothatoflittleHanover alone,aswill presently appear. I havealreadygiven in a previouschapter some descriptionofSavanna-la-Mar;butIthinkafewmore touchesarenecessary to completethepicture..aswellassomefurtherstoriesillustrativeofWestmorelandpsychology, beforedetailing thevarious eventsincidenttomysecondsojourninthatparish.Thepolicestation,whosedestructionby fire willinduecourse be described, was sosituatedandconstructedasnotonlytounderminethephysicalconstitution,butto destroythemoraleofanymancondemnedtolive in it.Itwasbounded on twosidesbythemangroveswampwhichhasalreadybeendes-.cribed;whilethewallsurroundingitwasnotcalcu lated topresentthe leastobstacletoanyhealthy

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THEEND O:FTH:E STORY.225 adultdesirousofleavingorenteringitotherwisethanbythegate.Thedailyaverageofthe.sicklist used tobefarinexcessofthatofanyotherpolicestationintheisland.Thepowersthatbe oncemadeanattemptatscreeningitwithwiregauze;but t};le onlyeffectthatproducedwastointensifythealreadyintolerableheat;whileintwelvemonthsthepoisonousnatureoftheatmospherehadso affectedthe gauze-whichwasofiron-thatone couldbreakitoffandcrumbleituplike a biscuitwiththenakedhand.GreatGeorge Street,theprideofthe hesides beingthehottestspot in Jamaica,inwhichnoteven acatcould findshelterintheday-time,isbynight wrappedina darkness which can be felt. whenthereis no moon. Noattempttolightithad ever beenmade;andthisfact, combinedwiththeproximityofthemangroveswampintowhich th" businesspartofthetownfadesawayon two sides causesthisthoroughfareto afford unparalleled faci litiesforthe.concealmentofcriminals,andforobliterationofthetracesofcrime.Thishasamostimportantbearingonthesubject ofthefires which willlaterbe discussed.Itshouldalso be notedthatthismileofstreethadtobeguardedbyonlytwo men.Theprogressiveandenlightenedspiritofthecommunitythroughoutthelapseofover acenturyand a halfis forciblyillustratedbythefactthatitnever oQccurred toanyoneuntil1923toplanttreesalongthisstreet, aridthusconvertitintoashadyavenue,thedelightofwhich would amplyoffsetthenaturaldisadvantagesunderwhichthetownlabours. Asimilarattitudeismanifestedtowardsthe Manning's Fr.ee SchoolJ founded f\t the beginning

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226 AWESTINDIAN POLICEMAN. of theeighteenthcenturybytheonly publk.spirited manwhomtheparishhaseverproduced-withoneexceptioninrecentyears.Althoughit has alwaysbeenthehomeofsugarnabobs,thereneverhasbeensuchathingasanendowedscholarship,or any otherbenefit,asfarasI know,conferredonthisimport :mt educationalinstitutionbyanywealthyinhabitantoftheparish.IthastothankthewisdomofthatshininglightamongJamaicaGovernors,SirAnthonyMusgrave,forbeinginahealthycondition to-day.Savanna-la-Maristheonly.townintheisland where thepracticeofremovinghousesfromonespot to another,withallitsattendantbarbarity,stillprevails.Thatmeansthetransportationofwooden dwellings,entire,consistingofoneortwo rooms, alongthestreetsofthetown,andtheroadsadjoiningit.Itis donebymenwhomakearegularbusi-nessofit,011lowtruckswithverystrongwheels,ontowhichthehousesareraisedwithjacks.Thisoperationisinvariablyperformedon amoonlightnight,anditistheunfailingsignalforthe.assemblingofagangofanythingfromfiftytothreehundredofthelowestrabbleofthetowntoattendit.Astheresultthenightismadehideousandsleep impossiblefordecentpeoplewithintheradiusofhalfamile at least, untilpastmidnight,bysinging,. bawling, andprofaneandindecentlanguage,withsometimesa fightthrownin.TheownerofthehousetoberemovedalwayscomestotheInspectorofPolice :J.nnounce hisintentionandaskpermission .. I couldonlypretendtograntit,asIhadnopowertorefuseit,therebeingnospecific sectionoftheTownsandCommunitiesAct,orofanyotherlaw,bearingon thisparticularpoint.Theonlywayinwhichwe

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THEENDOFTHESTORY.227.couldgetatthemwasbyprosecutingthemforob. structingthethoroughfare,when,asoccasionally usedtohappen,theremovalfromsomecauseortheotherwasnotcompletedduringthenight,andthehousewasleftstandinginthestreetorroad,thusrenderingitimpassableforvehicles.Thereis a Citizens' Associationinthetown, whichregardsitselfasaveryenlightenedandpro.. gressiveinstitution,butIhaveneverheardofitsapproachingthegovernmentwitha viewtotheenactmentoflegislationfortheabolition ofthisbarbarous relicofthedaysofslavery;althoughitis vociferousenoughwithregardtomattersfarless essentialtothecommon decenciesofa civilized commun ity. OnmorethanonenighthaveIgoneoutatorpastmidnight, whenthedisgraceful disturbance whichIhavedescribedhadreachedapointatwhichit nolongertolerable,andsingle-handedputastoptothedisgustingorgybysheerforceofmypersonalprestige.Icarriedadeadlybludgeoninmyhandanda loaded revolverinmypocket;andthere was one occasionin1923whenthenecessityformyresortingtotheuseofoneorbothofthese weaponshunginthebalanceforseveral tenseminutes;butmy ascendancy prevailed,andtheresistanceof ,t:p.e ruffianly crowd expended itself in blood-curdlingthreatsofwhatwould happen to me"thenexttime."AmongminordistinctionsSavanna-Ia-Mar en,. joysthatofhavingmoreliescontributedtothecol ... umnsofthedailypressthananyotherplacethatI know of.Andnowfora coupleoffurtherstudies. in psychology:-Thereis awe:llknownsugar canedShrewsbury,aboutseven milesfrom Savannat la-Mar,theattorneyandoverseerof .which; forrmany-

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'228AWESTINDIAN POLICEMAN.yearshasbeen agentlemanwho isthebrother-iIilawofthepresentCustosoftheparish.Hehassince become theowneroftheproperty.Heis,ofcourse, a Justice of thePeace. Ihadknown himandbeen on veryfriendlytermswithhimforyearsbefore IwasfirstsenttoWestmoreland in 1909; so I receivedrathera shock onmyfirst visittothisestateatsee ing alargesignboard over theentrancetotheworks bearing in whiteletterson a blackgroundthisin scription :-"NOPOLICE ALLOWEDINHERE."Inaturallyaskedthegentlemanforsomeexplanationofthisunseemly exhibition;andhe informed methatthedetachmentofpoliceatWhithorn,the station,abouttwo miles away, were such arottenlotthathe wouldnothaveanyofthemon hispropertyatall. I alsogatheredthatmypredecessorhadnotbeen persona gratawIth him. Very shortlyafterwardsoneofmymenatWhithornstation, beingoutontheveryimportantdutyofservingjurynoticesfor tl}.e approachingCircuitCourtwaspassingthroughtheestatewhen hesawin a canefieldad joining the road an employe ofthepropertywho was oneofthejurors. He thereuponveryrightlyenteredthecanefield and servedthejurynoticeonthepartyto whom itwasaddressed. As soonasthe'overseer wasinformedofthis, he issued proceedingsagainsttheconstablefortrespass!!I employed a 'solicitO'rtodefendthecase,andatthehearingtheResident Magistratenotonly dismissedthe charge. butalsoawardedtheconstable's costsagainstthe complainant. ThelatterappealedtotheSupreme Court againstthisdecision; and thetreatmentwhich his appeal received there,atthehandsofMr. Justice Beard,was thatitwas sent flyingoutofthe Court.

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THEENDOFTHESTORY.229 dismissedwiththescornandignominy whichitde f:erved, andthecostsoftheappeal added tothoseoriginallygranted.Ofcourse Ihadreported to thegovernmenteverydetailofthiscaseandobtain ed theirsanctionforallthestepstakenindefence of theconstable,Theoffensive notice howeverremain ed initsplace overthegateoftheworks;butin steadofperemptorilyorderingthisJusticeofthePeace whohadplaceditthereinstantlyto removeitonpainofbeing deprivedofhis commission,SirSydneyOlivier,withthattenderregardforthefeel ingsofthegeneralpublic whichunderlaysomanyofhis actions,senttheInspectorGeneraltocoaxthegentlemanintotakingitdown.ThelatteryieldedtotheColonel's blandishments,andthesign disappeared. I shouldhavedearlyliked to see arealhe-man-touseanexpressiveAmericanism-likeSirJamesAlexanderSwettenhamdealwiththesituation.Incon nectionwiththesecircumstancesIcannotrefrainfrompayingtributetothememoryofthesolicitorwho conductedthewhole caseagainstthepolice.HewasabrotherofthepresentCustos,andalso a bro ther-in-Iawoftheheroofthis i;ltory; butinstrikingcontrasttohisrelativeshewasoneoftheheartsofgold which Ihavecomeacrosshereandthereinmy ca:r:eer. Manyatimedidhehelpthislamedog over astileattheblackestperiodofthedog'slife;andhissuddenandprematuredeathin 1919 caused me, I think, amoreacutepangthananyoneelse outsideofhis. ownimmediatefamilycircle.WhilethecasewasstillpendingIaskedhimonedayhowhecould havethecheek to go onwithit. Thiswashisreply:-"MydearThomas,myprofessionismylivelihood;andifI have abrother-in-lawwho is fool enough to-

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230 AWESTINDIAN POLICEMAN.insistonmyprosecutinganutterlyimpossible case against myadvice,andwillingtopaymewhateverI choosetoaskhimfordoing so, Ishouldbeasbiga foolasheistorefuse,shouldn'tI?"Imaysaythatthecentralfigureofthisstorytookhismedicinewithaverygood grace,andhedidnotpermittheincidenttointerruptourfriendlyrelationsintheslightestdegree. Ifrequentlyenjoyedhishospitalityduringmystayintheparish,bothatthatperiodand again whenIreturnedtoitin 1921-,-up tothelastthreemonthsof1923. Indeed,heusedfrequentlytoembarrassmebyprotestingtome,andtootherpersonsinmyhearing,thatIwasfarandawaythefinest police officerintheisland.Howsuddenlyandcompletelyhestrippedoffthismaskattheendof1923 will bedulydescribed in alaterportionofthischapter.Iaminclinedtoattributethischangeoffronttothefailureofa secondattackonthepolice whichhede liveredaboutthemiddleof1923.Hethendeliberatelychargedasergeantandacorporalofminewithactingasrecruitingagentsonbehalfoftwomen, whosenameshegave,incollectinglabourersforsugarestatesin Cuba, TheInspectorGeneralrequest ed theClerkofCourts, Mr. W.O.Reid,toholdaswornenquiryintothisveryseriouscomplaint,andthegentlemanwasdulynotifiedofthedateandthellOur,andinvited toappearbefore it,withhiswit.nesses.Althoughtheproceedingsweredelayedforanhourinthehopethathewouldattendthem, he failed toputin his appearance,andthechargeagainstmymenwasdismissed.Thetwopartieswhohadbeennamedasprincipalsintherecruitingcampaignwerepresent,however,andtheybothdeclaredonoaththattheallegationwasentirelyfalse,and

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THEENDOFTHESTORY.231devoidofanyfoundationwhatsoever.Thisgentlemanmusthoweverhavefoundconsolationforthesetwofailuresinthesuccessoftheattackwhich he,inconjunctionwithhisaugustbrother-in-law,theCustos,.madeonmeshortlyafterwards.Butthemostamazingstoryofall I havekeptforthe last. Hereitis:-Inthelatterpartoftheyear1911, acertainblackmanresidentinSavanna-la-Mar, who was,amongotherthings,anelected memberofthe Parochial Board, committedanindiscretion which laid him opentoprosecutionatthehandsofthegentleman who hag since become Custosoftheparish. This resultedinhis being placed in custodyofthepolicelateon aSaturdaynight, beforeanyreportofthecircumstanceshadbeen. made to me. Hewasthensentover tomyquartersabout twelve o'clock,withtheviewofbeinglocked upfortheremainderofthenight. This I de clined to do,sayingthatthepartyinquestionwasamanofsubstance,notlikely to abscond,andthathecould quiteaseffectively be proceededagainstbysummons. I mentionthisforthereasonthatthismanhadaveryshorttimepreviouslymadeacomplaintagainstmetoSirSydneyOlivier whichhadabsolutelynofoundationinfact.Ihadcompletelyrefutedit"byfirstintent,"asthedoctorssay;butHis Excel lency,withthatmercifulconsiderationforthefeel ingsofpersons outsideofthepublic service,whichI haveindicatedabove,hadrefrainedfromtellingthemanthatIhadprovedhimtobe aperverterofthetruth;butinstead,permittedhimtocontinuethecorrespondenceinanabusivestrain,andtoextendthescopeofitby declaring,amongothermalignantfalsehoods,thatIwas"amemberoftheClarke

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232AWESTINDIAN POLICEMAN.clique,"andthatthereforethetruthwasnotinme; and no fair dealingcould be expectedofme, etc., etc.TheGovernorreferredeveryoneoftheselibellousepistlestome"forexplanation,"and'witheach"explanation"Ifurtherconvictedthewriterofgrossand flagrant untruthfulness.Butitwillnotsurprisethose whohave readinpreviouschaptersofthepolicyoftheIllustriousFabiantowards. metolearnthatalthoughthisfutilecorrespondencewaspermittedto dragonforsomethreemonths, he neveratanytimedidmethecommonjusticeoftellingmethatIhadcompletelyvindicated myself.(Idonotknowwhathesaidtomyaccuser,although1wasentitledtobeinformedofthatalso.) Therefore,myrefusingtolockupthismanforthenight,andorderinghiminsteadto be releasedfromcustody, cameasamostpleasantsurpriseto him.Nodoubthecouldnotescapethereflectionofhowhewould havedealtwithmehadthepositions been reversed.Forsomeyearsafterwardsheappearedtoevince a feelingof grati tudetowardsme;andathistrialhiscounselmadeastrongandmuchapplaudedpointofmymagnanimity on thisoccasion. I have howeverhadrecentevi denceofthefactthathisgratitudehasproved quiteasevanescentanemotionwithhimasitiswiththemajorityofhis race.OntheMonday following hisarrestproceedingswereinitiatedagainstthismanwhich1 regardedatthetime-andstillregard-asofanunnecessarily severeandvindictivenature,undera law which precludedtheinfliction ofanypecuniary penaltyaspunishmentforhisoffence. A simple summonsfortrespasswould have servedthepurpose equally well,andwould have avertedthe

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THEENDOFTHESTORY. 233-unsavoury scandaland sensation, aggravatedbya good dealofracialanimosity, which now resulted.It would. alsohavepreventedthevictimfromposingasamartyr.However,theprosecutorelected to proceed inthemannerabovedesignated;andintheend accusedwasconvictedandsentencedtosevendaysimprisonmentwithhardlabourintheSavanna-la-Marlockup.Anappeal totheSupremeCourtfailed,andheduly servedhissentenceofimprisonment. Now,byreasonofthisconviction,theheroofthisstorybecameautomaticallydisqualifiedfor.boldinghisseatasanelectedmemberofthe Paro. chialBoard.AnintimationtothateffectwasaccordinglyconveyedtohimatthenextensuingmeetingoftheBoardafterhisrelease;sohe dulymadehisexitfromthatbody.Butwithinaveryshorttimeafter,the'electionforarepresentativeof' theparishintheLegislativeCouncilwasheld,at 'which hecameforwardasa candidate,andtriumphed overhisoneopponent-awhitemanoflow cali bre, sincedeceased-byanoverwhelmingmajority.Havingbeendulysworninasamemberoftheisland'sLegislativeAssembly,hewalkedintothenextmeetingoftheParochialBoard, saying,ineffect :----.. "HereIamagaingentlemen,arrivedtotakemyseat as anex-officiomemberofyourbody."WhereupontheParochialBoardpromptly elect.., edhimchairman!Byvirtueofhisofficehebecame also oneoftheTrusteesofManning'sFreeSchool,inwhosehandsliestheeducationofthebetterclass.youthoftheparishofWestmoreland.Itisthusdemonstratedthat,accordingtotheprofoundwisdomoftheLaw,whilea sentence ofimprisonmentwithhardlabourinflicted by a crimin..,..

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234 AWESTINDIAN POLICEMAN .al courtdisqualifies amanforanelectedseatattheParochialBoardofhisparish,itdoesnotincapacitatehimfrombecoming amemberoftheSu ])reme Councilofthe Lf.'gislature ofthewholeisland;-andthathisplaceinthelatterentitleshimtore:sumeintheformerthepositionfromwhichhehasjust been automatically ejectedbysuch sentence. If thatdoesnotrepresenttheverylastwordinab-surdanomalies,thenIshouldliketoknowwhere -that istobe found. Marvelloustorelate,thiswhole episodeformed too nauseous amouthfulevenforSirSydney -Dlivier's digestion;andheactually demonstrated .his distasteforitby discontinuingthecustom whichhadbeenintroducedsomeyearspreviously-Iforget-bywhichGovernor-ofgiving adinneratKing'sHousetothemembers .oftheLegislative Council on -the firstdayofeach session: (one sessionperannum "Used to suffice in thosedays).Itwas droppedthat year, andremainedinabeyanceforupwardsoftenyears.Ithasbeenonlyquiterecentlyresuscitated.Thereis averystrikingdifference betweenthe-negroesinhabitingthemountainregionsofWest-morelandandthosedwellinginthesugarcanedis-trictsofthelowlands. Ihavealreadyelsewhereinthisbook commented onthedegradedaspectofthe type thatprevailsinneighbourhoodswheresugarisking;andthisis, I think,nowheremorestrongly -marked thaninWestmoreland.Astrangerdesirous-ofstudyingthisanthropologicalphenomenonmay-easily do sobyattendinganyopen air function-es-pecially anagriculturalshow-intheNewmarket,Darliston,andBetheltown districtsandafterwards ;being presentatasimilargatheringinthevicinityof

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THEENDOFTHESTORY.235GrangeHill,atwhichthedenizensofsuchplacesasBelleisle, Fullersfield,BuckfootBush,andotherhomesofsugarestatelabourareassembled.Intheformerhe will see nonebutclean-skinned, well-dressed, -decent, civilandquietly cheerful people, moving .about inanorderlyanddecorousmannerwhichitis apleasuretowitness,andwoulddocreditto any peasantryintheworld.Inthelatterhewill besurrounded by a mobofTroglodytes,uncouthandbois terous,andhearindecent languageandprofanityyelledoutallaroundhim;whileasthedaydeclinestoitscloseandtherumbeginstoassertitselfitwill be wiseforhimtotakehisdeparturefromthescene-especiallyifhis skinshouldchancetobe conspicuouslyfair.Theillicit trafficinrumwhich iscarriedoninthisdistrict-notalwayswithouttheconnivanceofpersons inauthorityonthevariousestates-isa very flourishingindustry;and,asmightbe expected, Obeah isalsorampant.During1921,thefirstyearofmy second sojournin Westmoreland,nothingverynotable occurredinthedirectionofcrime. BesidesthetwotownsofSavanna-la-MarandLucea,twenty-twomilesapart,Ihadchargeoftenout-stationsaltogether, six inWestmorelandandfourinHanover.Thelatter,thesmallestparishintheisland, issingularlyfree from crimeofa seriousnature;although inhab ited chiefly by asmallsettlerpopulationofparticularlyroughanduncouthmannersdespitethematerialprosperityenjoyedbymostofthembyreasonoftheiryams, whicharecelebratedthroughouttheisland. Ihaveknown nofewerthanfourconsecutiveCircuitCourtspasswithouta single case listedfortrialatanyoneofthem, covering a periodofayear

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236 AWESTINDIANPOLICEMAN.andfourmonths.Thesceneryoftheparishisexquisitely beautiful.FromthehillssurroundingLuceaandGreenIslandviewscanbe obtainedalongthewindingroadssuchasarenottobe surpassedintheisland,asone drivesalongundertheshade of themangotreesaboundingeverywhere.Clumpsofforestalternatewithcultivatedlandamongthecrumpledhills;thebrightgreenofguineagrass,andthe darker tint 0" bananafields relievethesombregloss of theyam-vines, twined on sticksinserriedranksandlookingexactlylike ahopplantationinthemothercountryora vineyard ontheRhine,withwhitehousesdottedabouthereandthere;whileawaytothehorizonsparkleandflashthefoamcrestedwavesoftheazureCaribbean.Fromcertainpointsinthesehillsthetownof Luceacanbe seennestlingontheshoresofitsdelightfullittlelandlockedharbourawaydown below;andalwaysgivingtheimpressionofbeing viewedthroughthewrongendofa telescope.Thedrivealongthecoastbe tween MontegoBayandLuceaandrighton towithinfourmilesofGreenIslandis asheerdelight;withthe bh,Ie seaon onehandbreakingover honeycomb rocksorsplashingonthepalm-shadedbeachesoffairy-like coves,nearlyeveryoneofwhichhasastreamflowing into it. Myworknaturallyentailedagreatdealoftravelling,buttheroads,althoughveryhilly,were good; whilethequartersatLucea,withthesea onthreesides, afforded averypleasantchangefromtheheatandthemalariousatmosphereofSavannala-Mar.Forme the mostimportanteventofthatyear1921,wastheordertelegraphedto me bytheInspectorGeneralduringtheweek beforeChristmasto

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Photo Ly Young,Falmouthr. -. HOll. n. worUIY.HOll.E. L. Wood. In.pector Thomas. H n.r.rm hy-Gore.)Jr. A.L. Delgado.HOll.G.S. Ewell.InspectorBere OLO"XJA T.0 Flo'TCEnET,EGA'rTONAj' F ,Hi'roUTH, lJECEMBER 1921.

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THEENDOFTHESTORY.237proceedtoMandevilleandtherejointhepartyof'Colonial Officedelegatesforthepurposeofaccompanyingthemontheirtourthroughthewesternparishes.Themembersofthepartywere'theHon.E.F.L. Wood, M.P.,(nowLordIrwin,ViceroyofIn,dia),theHon.W.G.A. M.P.,andMr. R. A.WisemanoftheColonial Office.AccompanyingthemwasalsotheHon. R.Nosworthy,thenActing'ColonialSecretary.We visitedBlackRiver,Savanna-la-Mar,MontegoBay,FalmouthandSt.Ann'sBay,windingupatMoneague hotel ontheSundaybeforeChristmas.Myjourneyoffourdaysinthe company ofthesegentlemenwasanunmixedpleasure;andIhavealreadyrelatedhowthroughth.ekindlyinteresttakenbythemin me,particularlybyMr. Ormsby..:Gore, Iatlonglastreceivedtheaward {)f theKing'sPolice Medal,upwardsoftwenty-one :,rears afterIhadhonestlyearnedit. OnSundaythe12thFebruary1922,thereoccurredthemostdiretragedyofmywholecareerin the policeforce;butbeforedescribingitImustoffer somepreliminaryremarks.Myreadersshould know that,owingtothepossessionof a: peculiarknacko,fhandlingmen, Ihadearnedattheheadquarterofficethesoubriquetof"Kill_or-Cure;" which meanstosay that whentheconductofsomememberoftheKingston divisionofpolice became suchastorenderhisretentionthereundesirable,althoughshowingsomecapacityforbetterthings,hewasusually tome-sometimesafterhavingbeenreducedinrank-Ihavingthereputationofbeingabletoreformhim,if there wasanygoodinhimatall;and,ifnot,ofgivinghimaveryshortshriftindeed. Menofthistypewerefr.equentlysenttomeinWestmoreland

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238 AWESTINDIAN POLICEMAN.andHanover,amongthemanundulylargeproPOrtionofex-membersoftheJamaicaWarContingent;who,if they hadnotserved inthepolice previous to thewar,hadreceived the worsttrainingpossible for' a policeman's life.Oftheseitmaybe saidthat,likethelittlegirlinthenurseryrhyme, "whohada little'curlrightinthemiddleofherforehead,"whentheyweregoodtheywere"very,verygood,"butwhentheywerebadtheywere"horrid."Amongthosethussenttome were,assubsequentevents disclosed,. one homicidal maniac,andonewhattheAmericans.calla "fire-bug"(Andnotonlydid Ifrequently ceive menofthisdescription,butthe worst dullardsamongtherecruitsatthedepot seemed to bespecially selectedforserviceinmy divisions.) Theformerofthese men, namedBarrett,wasmy bugler.Hewasa"light-skinned"blackmanofsturdybuild,andhis face gavetheindicationsof a badtemper;buthe was always cleanandsmartinappearance;andhadthegiftofputtingmorepathosandartisticexpressionintothecallsthananyothermanthatIhaveeverheardblow them. Iratherliked him.Therehadbeen somefrictionbetweenhimselfandmysergeant-major,Hamilton,asalsowith a corporalnamedSamuels,justaboutthistime,inconsequenceofwhich Ihadputhiminorders for transfertoanout-stationasfromMondaythe13thFebruary.OnthisfatefulSunday,afteraverystrenuous weekinWestmoreland,I drove over toLuceaatthehottesttimeofanunusuallyhotday;andwasenjoyingsome much-needed sleepinthelateafternoonwhenIwasrudelyawakenedbyreceiptof a telegramfrommysergeant-majorinformingmethat.Barretthadarmedhimselfwithhis. and

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THEENDOFTHESTORY. bayonet,'andrunamok, shootingCorporalSamuels,andfiringindiscriminatelyatpersonsoutside the: stationwall;alsothathehadsetfiretothestation,.whichwasthenburning,"andwaspreventinganypersonfromapproachingitbythethreatoftheload ed carbine. Iimmediatelydispatchedamantoprocure a motorcartotakeme backtoSavanna-la-Mar,.telegraphingthesergeant-majoratthesametime t() procureagunsomewhereandshootBarrett;butallwasoverlongbeforethattelegramreacheditsdestination. Delayed bytroublewiththemotorcar-asusuallyhappensatsuchacrisis-itwas8o'clock be foreIarrivedattheSavanna-la-Marstation.ThereI foundtheruinsstillsmouldering;theupperstoreybuiltofwood, completely destroyed, whilethestonewallsofthelowerwerestillstanding.Therewas a considerablecrowdofpeoplegatheredabouttheopenspacesoutsidethestation-itwasabrilliantmoonlightnight-andtheygreetedmewitheverysignofrespectfulsympathy.Ithenbegantogatherfromthesergeant-majorthedetailsofthedisaster,whichwereasfollows:-Theday being Sunday,nearlyanthemenwhowerenotrequiredfordutywereonleave,scatteredaboutthetownandoneortwoofthemgoneouttothecountry;whilethefewremaininginbarrackswereallin amoreorlesssomnolentcondition.Barrettappearedtobepackinguphisthingsinpreparationforhistransfertotheout 8tation, onthefollowingmorning;butwhathewasreally doingwasmakingreadyforthedestructionofthestation. Onestupidloutofa recruit, latelyfromthedepot, whowaslying on his bedinthebarrackroom closetoBarrett,actuallysawthelatterdoingthingswhichinanypersonofaverage intelligence

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AWESTINDIAN POLICEMAN.musthave aroused suspicionofsome evilintent;butthisdullardsimplylooked on and saidnothingtoanyone. Corporal Samuels, whowasinchargeofthetownguardfortheday,waslying down onhisbedinthesub-officers' room,withthedoorshut,takinga rest,preparatorytopostingthereliefat-6p.m.Barretttook down his carbine,bayonetandbandolier fromtherack, and insertedintheloops ofthelattertenroundsofballcartridge,whichitafterwardstranspiredhehadbroughtwithhimfromthewarandkeptconcealedatthebottomofhis regulationbox. Among hisotherpreparationshehadplacedpilesof waste paper-oldPolice Gazettesandreturnsobtainedfrommyofficeadjoiningthebarrack-room-invarious placesandsaturated .them withkerosene oil.Hethenfixedhisbayonet, loadedhiscarbine,wenttothedooroftheroominwhichCorporalSamuelswaslyingandfiredthreeshotsthroughit,withoutopening it.Thecorporal'sbedwasquite close by. On this,theimbecile whohadwitnessedallthesepreliminariesfledforhislife,jumpingoverthebackverandahSOmefifteenfeetdownintotheyard,andoverthewallintosafety.Thenoiseofthefiring awokethetwoorthreeothermen who were slumberingintheroom;andon seeing settingfiretothematerialwhichhehadprepared,andrealisinghisattitudegenerally,with that slownessofcomprehension which issuchamarkedcharacteristicof their race,they also fledfordear life down.thebroad'stone steps inthefront of thebuilding.Truthherecompels metoconfess-andI inay asweil do soatonce,withkeen regret-that themanrierinwhichthe whole ofthisfrightful emergency wasdealtwithdidnot reflect credit on.

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THEENDOFTHESTORY.241anybody concerned,withonesolitaryexception. Cor poral Samuels, sorely woundedashewasbythebul lets, whichhadshatteredhisrightleg; managedtoopen a windowinhis room, descendtothegroundby a rain-waterpipe,andcrawl across thebackyardandoverthewall into some sugar-canesthatweregrowingontheedgeoftheswamp.Hewasafterwardsfoundthere,andremovedtothe hospital;. wherehedied onWednesdaythe15th,aftertheDistrictMedical Officerhadmadeanineffectualattempttosave his life byamputatingtheshatteredlegjustbelowthehip.Barretthadsethisfireatthebackpartof,thebuilding, soastohinder,no doubt,anypersonfromenteringthestationonthatside,andalso topreventaccesstothefire enginesandalltheotherappliancesofthefirebrigade, whichIhadallowed tobekeptunderthebackverandah.Hethentookuphisstation on achairatthetopofthefrontstepswithhiscarbineandfixedbayonetinhishands,andthebandolier over his shoulder containingthesevenremainingroundsofammunition,threateningdeathtoanyonethatapproachedthepremises.Wheneverhethoughthesawa constable,eitherinuniformorplainclothes,anywherenearthestation,hefired a shot,butfortunatelyhedidnotsucceedinhittinganyone,althoughtherewere somenarrowescapes. Onemanhadabulletthroughhis sleeve,just above thewrist.Allthistimetherewere half-a-dozenprisoners inthecellsdownstairswho wereinimminentdangerofbeingroastedalive,andtheirvoices were heardutteringyellsofterror;soBarrett a,IJowed'a well-knownhabitualcriminal named Monteith toenterthestation,carryinganaxe,withwhichhebat-.

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242 AWESTINDIANPOLICEMAN. tered inthedoorsofthecellsandthusreleasedtheunfortunatecreatures.Theyweretooscaredtorun away, andtheywereultimatelysecuredbyconstableslurkinginthevicinity.Havingusedupall his ammunitioninthisindiscriminatefiring,withtheexceptionofoneround,anddrivenbytheheatofthefire,Barrettnow descendedfromhisperchat,the topofthestepsintotheyard,remarking:-"1haveoneroundleft,andthatisforHamilton"meaningthesergeant-major.Onhearingthis, acorporalnamedJohnson,whowasinhidingbehindtherearwallofthestation, on leave in plain clothes, j'umped overthewall,ranupandseizedBarrettfrombehind.Withthehelpofacoupleofotherconstablesandsome civilianshewasoverpowered d.isarmed, andhandcuffed.Fortunatelythemen on street dutyhadtheirhandcuffswiththem,asalltheothershadbeendestroyedbythefire.BythetimeIarrivedinSavanna-la-Marhehadbeenre moved tothelock-upatWhithornstation8milesaway,whereIvisitedhimatabout10 p.m.Hetalkedtomeina silly,incoherentmanner,b_uthewas quite respectful.Thechargeagainsthimatthis stage wasshootingCorporalSamuels,withintentto kill; butafterthelatterhaddiedatabout10p.m. on the15th,IwentagaintoWhithornthesamenight .a-ild re-arrestedhimonthechargeofmurder.TheInspectorGeneralhadarrivedonthesceneduringWednesday,andonThursdaymorningweburiedp'oor Samuels,withthe1.G.andtheCustosattend ing thefuneral.A -tombstonehassince beenerected,tohismemory'intheSavanna-la-Marcemeteryby meansof subscriptionsfromhiscomradesandmy s-elf. Ihaveneverbeforeorsinceheardof .a c'aseof

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THEENDOFTHESTORY.243one constablemurderinganother;sointhisinstancealsohasmyexperience beenasuniqueasitistragic.Theconditionsresultingfromthiscatastrophewhich I nowhadtofacewereasfollows:-Severalofthemen, especiallythesingle ones, whohadbeen on leaveinplainclothes ontheSundayhadlost e\;erything theypossessed, exceptwhattheystood up in. Themarriedmenwerebetteroff,asmostoftheireffectswerekeptatthehomesoftheirrespective wives,asfarasuniformandotherclothingwent.Buteveryarticleofequipmenthadbeen destroyedbythefire,withexceptionofBarrett'scarbine, bayonet,bandolierandbelt.Aboutthreethousandroundsofballcartridgehadexploded.Everyoneofthemen's iron bed-cots, allthebedding,allthemen'sboxeswiththeircontents,allbooksandrecords ofeverydescription, the governmentstandardweightsandmeasures,theappliancesofthefirebrigade:inshort,every singlethingcontainedwith in thewallsofthebuildinghadbeen,ifnotutterly and completelydestroyed,rendered unfit forfur_ther use. My ,own swordandbelt which Ihadhadfoi'forty-fiveyearssharedthecommon fate; astheywerehanginginmyoffice. Luckily Ihadalwayskepttheservice revolver in my house. The men whohadbeenoutonstreetdutyatthetimeofthefire, savedtheuniformontheirbacks,withtheirhandcuffs,beltsandbatons.Fortheremainderofthenightthe prisoners whohadbeen rescuedfromthecellswere tlh,ut upinone ofthesmall roomsofthecourthouseunderaguardofmen whohadto lie on benchesuntilthefollowing morning, whentheprisonerswere despatchedtotheLittleLondonstation.Whenwehadmyiron chest forced openbyablacksmith-ithadof

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244 AWESTINDIAN POLICEMAN.coursefallenthroughontothegroundfloor-wefoundthebanknotes crumbling to ashesatthetouch, and allthesilverandnickel coins melted into a shape lesslumpofmetal.Fortunatelythesumofmoneywasnotalargeone,buttherewassome difficultyinfixing it, owing tothedestructionofthecashbook. Tuesday,thenextdaybutoneafterthiscalamity,wasthedateoftheweeklycriminalcourt,andwewerefacedwithtwoimmediateandpressingdifficulties: onethatalldocumentsin conneCtion withthecasesfortrialwhichhadbeen inourkeeping,aswellasallstolenpropertytobe producedhadceasedtoexist;andtheotherthatonly some' twoorthreeofthemen who would have toattendthecourthadanyuniformoraccoutrementsto wear. However,itsohappenedthattheannualsupplyofnew clC'thingand equipmentwasjusttheninprocessofbeingissuedfromthestoresin Kingston,andtheHanover Divisionhadreceiveditsquotaduringtheprevious week; whiletheWestmoreland issuehadfortunatelynotyetarrived, otherwiseitwouldallhave perished,aseverythingelse did. So on MondaymorningIhiredtwomotorcars,andtakingmyoffice clerk,Corporal Sa:p.ford, withme, Iwentover to Lucea, command eeredfromthatdivisionallthatwasimmediatelynecessaryinthelineofclothing, equipment, booksandstationery,aswellassome carbines, bayonets,.anda fewhundredroundsofball cartridge,andreturnedtoSavanna-la-Marearlyintheeveningwith,thetwocarsladenwiththefruitsofmyexpedition.AstheresultIwasabletomeettheResident Magistrateathis court on Tuesday 'morningwiththerequisitenumberofmen,allproperlydressedandaccoutred,justasifnothinghadhappened.TheIn-

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THEENDOFTHESTORY.245spectorGeneral, Mr.W.E. Clark,arrivedon Wed nesday,asstatedabove,andwhen IreportedtohimwhatIhaddonetomeetthe heactuallyasked mewhyIhadnotsenta requisitiontohimfirst! I didnotreplytothequestion,butsimply looked him betweentheeyes, hard, more in sorrowthanin anger,forthreesecondsormore. He didnotpursuethesubjectanyfurther,butbegantotalkofothermatters;anditwas never mentioned again. I shouldherepaya hightributetotheloyaltyofCorporalSanford,mentioned above,andtheremarkablycapableandefficient service which he rendered,bothonthisoccasionandafteranothersubsequent disasterby fire, which will be described in due course. I hope to see the sergeant-major's crown on his sleee before I die.Duringthethreeorfourdays followingthefire we' wereallowedtouse a coupleofroomsinthecourthouse as atemporarybarracksand office;but. on thearrivalofthe Inspector Generalanarrangement was made torenta disused shop situated inthelowerpartofthetown.ThecaseagainstBarrettcouldnotbegotreadyin timefortheFebruaryCircuit Court, soitwasfixedfortheensuing one inJune.Whilethemanwas in confinement intheSpanish Town DistrictPrison he waskeptunderobservation,andvisitedandinterviewed by Dr.HuntleyPeck,theprisonsurgeon,'andDr.D.J.Williams,atthattimetheheadoftheLunatic Asylum.Theyboth cametotheconclusionthatBarrettwasthevictimofarareformofmental disease knownas demen:tia praecox, and incapableofunderstandingtheproceedingsathistrial.Therefore, when hewasarraigned,ajurywasempanelled

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246 A,'WEST INDIAN POLICEMAN.to try thequestionof his sanity;andtheirverdictbeinginaccordancewiththeevidenceofthetwomedical men above mentioned,thecourtdirectedthatheshouldbedetainedincustody during thepleasureofHisExcellencytheGovernor.HewasaccordinglyremovedtotheAsylum,andhasbeenthereever since.Thebuildingtowhichwewerenowrelegatedwasasmalloneoftwo storeys,builtofconcrete,witha zinc roof,andfrontingdirectlyonGreat George Street,withouteventheshelterofa piazza.Atthebackwasajungleofweeds, withempty tins, barrels,andotherderelict :,utensils ofvariouskinds,andfadingawayintothe .Inud attheedgeof the mangrove swamp.Therewere,ofcourse,no lock-'Ups,orsanitary anyotherconvenien ces. The dimensionsofthisbuildingwereaboutfortyfeet by forty;'andas'thedemandsofinyoffice filleduptheentireupperstory,aboutsixteenhundredsquarefeetwasall the spaceavailableforhousingtwenty-five men(assumingthedetachmenttobe al ways, a.tfull strength),and.ministeringtotheneedsofthepublichavingbusiness.atthestation. There werenojalousie'windowsforventilation,butonlyhingedglassones,norwasthereanyverandah; so thatthesewindows,aswell as thedoors,hadtobeleftopendayandnight, when itwasfine,inordertoadmitair,thusdeprivingthemenofall privacy,andclosedwheneveritrained,thusrenderingtheatmospherequiteinsupportable.Beddingwaspro:..videdbydegreesbymeansofcanvasstretchers made inthePenitentiary,on whichasnianyofthemenasthe room would'holdhadtolieatnightpackedlike sardines ina tin.Itwasimpossibletoaccommodatemorethanthreeorfourmenbesidesthoseontown

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THE END OFTHESTORY.247guardduty;and,asanaturalresult,theotherswalkedinandoutatnightjustastheypleasedtoandfromhousesinthetown.Thesick list, whichhadbeen bad enoughattheold station,asalreadystated,mounted up by leapsandbounds,untilit was nothingunusualforfortypercent.ofthementobe unfit for duty.Theeffect onthedisciplineofthedetachmentproducedby these conditions Imaysafelyleave in telligentreaderstoimagineforthemselves."The trict MediCal Officerrepeatedlymadestrongrepresentationsoftheinsanitaryconditions, which IdulyforwardedtotheInspector General;andIhave every reason to believethattheyreachedthatuprightadministrator,andwise, far-seeing states man,SirLeslieProbyn,whowasGovernoratthetime;butnothingwhatever was done.ThepoliceofSavanna-la-Mar were compelledtoliveandworkundertheconditions I have depictedfromFebruary1922untilNovember 1923,whenthisplaceinitsturnwas cons"umed by fire,andweweredriven into otherex-shop; which,althoughmore commodioustwas inotherrespectseven less desirablethantheonejustdescribed.Theownerdidnotneglecthisopportunityofextorting-"anexorbitantrent froltJ" thegoverillnent. Ioughtheretosay,inrespectof"myreferencetotheeffectofthese conditions"on-the.disciplineofthemen,thattheInspectorGeneral"himselftoldme,inthecourseoftheevents which" will nextbe described,thathehadsaid to theHon .. "ourableHughClarke, Custosofthe parish, that -tlte conditionsweresuchas"would underminethedisciplineofthefinestregimentintheBritish whereuponthatsapientandaugustpotentate-hadrepliedthathefailedto see why.thatshould have"

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248 AWESTINDIAN POLICEMAN.hadanyeffect onthediscipline. I willnotinsulttheintelligenceofmyreadersby commenting onthissagepronouncement. Inrpy humbleopiniontheonly term bywhichthetreatmentofthegovernment towardsmyselfandmymenatthisperiodmayadequatelybe described isthatof"outrage."Theconditionsdetailed above were thoseinwhich wefoundourselves whentheeraoffires began, which willpresentlycomeunderdiscussion.Duringtheyear1923themost remarkable eventinthecriminalrecordoftheparishwasthemurderintheBetheltown district,ofamarriedwomanbyherhusband;who had, strangetosay, inducedtwoothermentoassisthiminaccomplishingthedeed.Theyluredthewomanintothehouseofoneofthemby night, overpowered her, andthendrownedherina deeppondnearby. I donotatthismomentrecollecta mor(l brutalcrimeinallmylong experience.ThecasewasveryintelligentlyhandledbySergeantSutherlandofBetheltown station, aided bytheprocuring of mostimportantevidencefroma prisonerinthelockupatWhithorn stationbySergeantCampbell;andawarmtributewaspaidbythejudgeatthetrialtotheconductofthese two men.Therewerenoeye-witnesses; but thecircumstantialevidencewasof so convincing anaturethatthejuryfoundallthethreeguiltywithinsixtysecondsaftercomple tionofthejudge'ssummingup;witha recommenda tion to mercy on behalf oftheyoungest, whowas EttIe morethana boy.Theothertwo wereindue .course executed.Thatcasewasthelastofitskind with which Ihadtodo inmycareer.WhenthenewswaspromulgatedofmyhavingbeenawardedtheKing's Police Medalin1923,it

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Photo7:y Young,Falmo1tth THE AU'l'HOU, AGED67.

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THEENDOFTHESTORY.249proved a sourceofgreatgratification totheCitizens' .Association, which 1 mentioned above.They wrote me aletterofwarmcongratulation, and pas. sed a resolutionaskingSirLeslieProbyntocomedown.toSavanna-la-Marforthepurposeofthere !publicly presentingmewiththisdecoration. His Excellency, onreceiptoftheletterconveying this repliedregrettinghis inabilityto. takethejourneyatthatjuncture,andstatingthat be hadaskedtheCustostoactashisdeputyinthematter.Mr.Clarkepersonallyexpressedtomehiswillingnesstoundertakethepresentation;butsaid :at thesametimethathethoughtitshould more fittinglyandbecominglytakeplace in Kingston,asmylongservicewasthepropertyofthewhole island, :and notoftheparishofWestmoreland alone.InthisIentirelyagreedwithhim.(Thereader'isre quested tobearthisin mind, in viewofwhatis cominglater.)IntheendtheInspectorGeneralarrangeda spe eialparade atthedepotonthe23rd August,forthepresentationoftheKing's Police Medaltome,and also anumberofwarmedalstovariousothermembersoftheforce wh
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250 A'WESTINDIAN POLICEMAN....-tion,inreplytowhichIsentthemaphotograph of myself just asIhadappearedontheparade-a"copyoftheoneformingthefrontispieceofthisbook. In. returntheywroteto thank me,andtoassureme that thispicturewouldbepreservedamongtheir archiveS. asacherishedpossession.Thiswasatthe beginning ofSeptember;.butwhenabouttwomonthslaterthe'Custos and hisbrother-in-lawentered llpon their campaign ofholl.nding meoutofWestmoreland,notonenoteofdisapprovalwas bythis Associa-, tion-:-not even,asIhadexpected,bya certainpromin;' entclericalmemberofit, amanwithwhom' Ihadbeen ontermsofcloseintimacyforoverten year's'; longbeforehemigratedto Savanna:-la-Mar. Such thedominationexercisedbythe .;HonourableHugh Clarkeoverthefreeandindependentdenizensofthatcentreofcivilization. Ihaveina previo1;lspage 'quotedhisreplyto.theInspectorGeneralinrespectofthedetrimentaleffect onthedisciplineofmy men wroughtbythe" conditionsto which theyhadbeen subjected since theburning down ofthestation; "but Ithinkitshouldbe alsostated that inthefaceofthese the,process"ofsendingtome dere:. licts fromKingstonanddullardsfromthedepot was stillcontinuedbyMr. W.E.Clark.Theresult was thatduring1923 J wassurroundedbyagreater ,pro:. portionofknavesandfoolswearing the uniformoftheJamaicaConstabularythan'atanypreviousperiod'ofmylife. Indeed, assubsequent developments vealed,threeorfour.ofthemweremorethan justknaves: theywerescoundrelsofa dangerous type. Such wasmyplightwhentheeraoftheincendiaryfires be;' gan,inNovemberofthatyear. Before placing onthestagethe"lastsceneofallthatendsthisstrange,:

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THEENDOFTHESTORY 251.eventfulhistory,"Ithinkitmeetandpropertoraisethecurtainby describingthetwo figures which dominateit;namelytheHonourableHughClarke,Custos'ofWestmoreland,andMr. W.E.Clark,thenInspectorGeneralofPolice.Thefirst-namedhadlong been theautocratand uncrownedking of Westmoreland ingeneraland of Savanna-Ia-Marinparticular,be foreSirLeslieProbyngave himthefinalcachetby'appointinghim Custosin1920.(Iwaspresentathisswearing-inandsignedtheRollasoneofthemagistratesoftheparish.)Heisthepresidentofa Build ing Society, founded byhisfather, holdsthe majorityofthepopulationinitsgrip;andtheofficesofthissocietyaresituated ontheground floor ofhispalatialresidenceatHendon.Theresits his trustysecretary,asa kindofwatchdog, informationeachdayabout everythingthathap pens inthetown,andnearlyeverythingthathappens intheparish;allofwhichtricklesthrough to hisaugustmaster.(Ipurposelyrefrainfromusing the word "filters,"asthatimplies a certain processofpurification.)Thedoininationwhichthese two people havethusestablished over -theresidents of Savanna-Ia-Marisabundantlydemonstratedbyth'efactthatduringtheepoch which Iamaboutto des cribe several anonymouslettersbearingupon the subjectofthefires,andaddressed to personsin town by post, -orfoundinthestreet,were takfln by the recipientsandthefinders,notatoncetome, asthey should have been,buttothewatchdog,or th "Mass'Hugh"himself.(This is the term of endearmentby which the'latteris generally known.) ; Oneofthemindeedwaspassedontothelocal correspondentoftheGleanerandsentupby him

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252 AWESTINDIAN POLICEMAN.forpublication, before I eversawit.Hereitis,just .as itappeared inprint:-"Mrs.--"This istowarnyouofone comingwithina fewdays'time,notChineythistime,Syriansandothers. "Show thistoInspector'ofPolice tolethimputonasmuchguardashelikes,heis 46yearsold intheservice we will show him heandhis men is nouse;wecan'thelpit,mustbe donefor a change."Theletter,notsigned,butboretheappearanceofwell formedhandwritingdisguised." Ihadno cause whatevertocomplainofMr. 'Clarke's conducttowardsme,eitherduringmyfirst :soj ournin Westmoreland,from1909to1913, when:-hewasnottheCustos,orduringmysecond-when_-hewas-fromJanuary1921 uptotheendofNo -vember 1923.Heappeared alwaysveryfriendlyandhospitable;entertainingme in his house,andatpub lic functions eulogising meandmyboys,andmaking:most sympathetic referencestotheiruntimely deaths.Forinstance, at theunveiling oftheWarMemorialTableterectedinManning's School, I was,byhis request,theprincipal Butin Decemberhesuddenlyandcompletely changed hisattitudetoone -of rabid animosity towardsme;andnever rested untilhe had bullied and frightenedtheweak Inspector General into driving meoutofWestmoreland. I will .leaveittomyreaderstodecide,afterhearingthe :whole story,whetherin doingthishe cameoutinto "the open like a man, or stabbedme'intheback.Themotives whichactuatedhimstillremaina :mysterytome .I hadnever doneorattemptedtodo,

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THEENDOFTHESTORY.253harmtohimoranyone connectedwithhim .. The cir cumstances in which I lived wereexactlyastheyhadbeen ever sincemyfirstarrivalintheparishover fourteenyearspreviously;andIhadnever done anythingmorethanattendtomyjob,paymyway,andmindmyown business. So muchfor Hi!;l HonourtheCustos-bywayofintroduction.(Itseems superflu-. oustoaddthathe is a very devoutandorthodox pro fessorofChristianity.)Withrespectt()Mr.W.E. Clark,theInspectorGeneral, I havealreadygiven someinformationinsundrypreviouschapters.I haverelatedhowafterbeing promotedtotherankofDeputyInspectorGeneralover my head,althoughtwelveyearsmyjunior,he was elevated tothatof Inspector GeneralofPolice, firstofBarbados,nextofBritishGuiana,andfinallyofJamaica,his nativeland-allthroughsome mys terious influence,thesecretofwhich nomanhasyetbeen abletofathom. I will now adduce,outofhis own mouth, evidenceofthevalue which hesetonmy fJervices. Inthe annual reportontheworkingofhis departmentfortheyear1920-21, published intheGazette,hewroteofme in theseterms would seem alsobutrightthatI should acknowledgethepublic-spiritednessandremarkablevigourofInspectorThomas. His long experienceandabilityarewellknown;whilstbydevotiontodutyin acceptingresponsibilityfortwo parishesformonthsatatimehehasbeenanimmeasurablehelpundertheexistingshortageofofficers." Inrepiytoa questionaddressedtohimbythe Governmentin1921,notlongafterIhadattainedthe age of65,astowhethertherewasanyspecial reasonformynotbeing called upontoretirefrom

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254 '-A WESTINDIAN POLICEMAN. t1:le service,hewroteasfollows :_"1 begtoreportthatalthoughhehasattainedtheageof65years he stillcontinuestoperformhis dutieswiththe vigourand ability characteristicofhis service.HeisatpresentinchargeoftheparishesofWestmore andHanover, due to theshortageofofficers, .and his losstotheDepartmentatthepresenttimewould be most seriousandinconvenient." Again in1923herecommendedmyretentionin serviceforayearlonger, although Iwasthenwithinlessthanthreemonthsofmy67thbirthday; thisextension wasgrantedbyHis Excellency the Governor. These introductions being finished, we will now proceedwiththefires. There were two destructive fires inthetownof Savanna-la-Mar, both undoubtedly of incendiary origin,inNovember,1923.Inthatrespect Savanna-la-Mar was no worseoffthananyother town oftheisland; forduring the period extending from Occtober1922tothe 26th May1925there raged a regular epidemic of such fires alloverthe country,'1923beingtheworstyear. 1':pe total numberofthem was one hundred and seventy five; and the costtotheinsurance companies was "9, Therewere also twenty-six abortiveattempts.My figuresareunassailable,fortheyhave been sup pliedtome bymyfriendHerbertBurke,thewell knownsecretaryoftheJamaicaCo-operativeIn Sl,1rance Company. 1 ,havealreadydescribedthecon dltions ofSavanna-la-Maras"affordingunparallelled facilitiesfortheconcealment of criminalsandobliterationof thetracesof-crime ;".so after thefirst fire Idraftedin astrongforceofdistrictconstablesfromall over the parish, and th'ese did special patrolnight after superyised by sub-officers detachedfromother

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THEENDOFTHESTORY.255 c.uties as well as by Sergeant-Major Hamiltonandmy .self. I suggestedtotheCustosmypatrollingthe. t9wn witha shot-gun, as. Iused todojustafterthe llurricane, buthe asked menottodothatashe did wishthefire-bugstobefrightenedbuttobe olice whom-Ihave alluded to above.Thatdetroyedthebuilding which wehadbeen occupying -ever sincetheburningdownofthestationinFebruary,1922,anddrove us intoanotherplace;inwhich there was certainly more space,butstill less possibility ()f privacyforanyone-notevenformyselfwhen d,oing myoffice work.On.thisoccasion however we were able to save allthegovernment property. The v,igilanceofmypatrols infour atarsonbeing nippedinthebud,andrendered abor tive. Ithinkit will be admittedthatfourin one month -out oftwenty-six in twoyearsanda.halffor the, whole island, is nota bad. percentageforoneparish. these,Ihadtwo men committedfortrial at theCircuitCourt of. February,1924oncharges of arson. The first one wasarrestedon a Friday nightWhileIwasawayat Lucea; andon coming over about9.a.m.thefollowing dayIfound the Custosatthetemporarystationcongratulating the sergeant-majorand the men on theircapture.ThismanwasacquittedattheCircuitCourtthroughthemostshameless perjury' onthepartofa woman whichIever witnessed rhe other ; whowasoneofmy own men,wasconvict i.-ed 'and sentencedtotenyearspenalservitude.He. ......

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256 AWESTINDIAN POLICEMAN. ,vas theex-soldier whom 1 have describedasa "1iPe: bug;"and his. conviction was the only obtQ,inedin the whole islatnd out of the175incendiary fires ported. So that, worthless and incompeten.t aswewere pronouncedtobe by the Custos, his and a fawning and servile Parochial Board, our success in; respectofprevention and detectionof the crimeof arson was a performance unrivalled by the: policeof any other parishinthe island. .AttheDecembermeetingofthe BoardaresolutionwasproposedbyMr. S.E.Morris,brother-in-IawoftheCustos, whohas already figuredlargelyinthesepages, secondedbytheCustoshimself,andcarriedunanimously, calling upontheGovernor"toapproveofanexchangeoftheentirestaffofthePolice officersandmenstationedinSavanna-Ia on accountoftheirinabilitytocopewiththemenaceofthefires. Mr. Morris,intheexuberanceofhisvenom,wasallfortelegraphingtheresolutiontotheColonialSecretarythereand then;but hisaugust:brother-in-lawseemedtorelenttowardsus sofaras to rulethataletterwouldservethepurposeaswell.Thesedetails1ascertainedbyenquiry,after seejng thereportsentto t:Q,e "Gleanerbythelocalcorrespondent;butthat riotthefirstintimationoftheresolutionwhich1hadreceived. Ohdear,no!This1hadfromHisHonourtheCustoshimself;andherehe gaveme aofhisingenuous and straightforwardnatureinthiswise:-Onthe very .dayofthismeetingoftheBoard,betweenfourandfive o'clockintheafternoon,whiledrivinghomefrom niy inmy motor car,(Iowned onefor the last, twelve monthsofmyservice,)inpassingthecourthouse,I saw Mr. Clarkestandingatthegate;and'

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THEENDOFTHESTORY. 257; pulleduptospeaktohim.Hesaidthathe waswait-:: ingfor nis own car,butasithadnotarrivedwould I.give him alifthome,asIshouldbepassinghisdoor? lie got in,andwhile driving upthestreethe "Wehavejustpassed a resolutionattheBoardask ing theGovernor to remove allthe.police stationedinSavanna-la-Mar,butthatdoesn'taffect you,()fcourse."Judgethen, of my astonishment when Ireadtwo dayslaterthewordingoftheresolutionwhichappeared inthe Gleaner, asquoted above! Now, asI have shownbythestatisticsalreadygiven,the re.., solutionitselfwasbased onentirelyfalsepremises;.andevenifthathadnotbeenthecasethepurport of itwasinherentlysillyandimpracticable,inthatit :!emanded thatallthemembers ofthepolice of thetown, who, however incompetenttheymightbe,atanyrateknewtheplaceandthepeople,shouldberemoved,andtheirplaces. of course, filled by a numberof totalstrangers.This affordsanotherinstanceoftheweirdnatureofthelocal psychology.Thereso lution was beyondall doubt conceived insuch thatitsabsurditywasobscured.OntheeveningofSundaythe16th December, shortly before 8 o'clock, I wasstartledbythearrivalatmyquartersofInspectorO'Hanlonfrom accompaniedbySergeant(now Sergeant-Major) Gayle oftheDetectiveOffice.Theformerbore aletter from: the Inspector-General saying thathehadbeen sentto. me.ihadnotapplied.foranyassistance;. bilt. I divinedatoncethatMr. W.E.Clark hadbeE!llbadjy: scaredby readipgof.the actiontakenby.the nodoubtbyothermeansbehind .as:well; wlio.c'antell? I :G;ayle-who "'_ "_ _._... "....... .... : ....... J

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258 AWESTINDIAN POLICEMAN.viceintheforceundermeinMontegoBaytwenty years before.Aftergivingthemsomelightrefreshment,I tookO'HanlonovertoHendontoreporttotheCustos;andIthereunderwentatthe handS ofthatgentlemanthedeepesthumiliationthatIhaveever been compelledtoendure.Themostcharitableexplanationtobe givenofhisconductisthathewassocompletely unnervedbythefire menace,andexcited bydetestationofme,asto bethrownentirelyoffhismentalbalance.HereceivedO'Hanlonandmyselfintheentrance hallofhis house,andoffered us seats. No sooner had O'Hanlon toldhimthathehadjustdriven in hiscarthatdayallthewayfromKingstonandbroughtDetectiveSergeantGaylewithhim,thanthe CUBtos asked:-"Ishereliable ?"Justthinkofit!TheDetective InspectorfromKingstontravelsallthe130 miles to Savanna-la-Mar by road,bringingwithhimasergeantwhomhenaturallyregardsasthemost competentandtrustworthymemberofhis staff,' tobemetwithanenquiryastowhetherthis.sergeantwas"reliable"!Ithinkthataloneindicateswhatastateofmindthegentlemanhadarrivedat.I cannot,forwantofspace,enterintoallthedetails.Icanonlysay that foronehourbytheclockthishighfunctionary,chiefmagistrateandsocialleader of theparish,tookadvantageofhis positionand of thefactthathe WaS inhisownprivatehouse,tositdown, and, in thepresenceofhis own boy, to de nounce meandallmydoings,andendeavourto de monstrate my incompetence, to a youthful fellow 'officerof theforce, thirty-sevenyearsmyjuniorin theS'ei'vice,'and youngerthanmyowntwoeldest boys wOlild.have beenhadtheythenbeen still alive. Heacfl.1al11sO'filr forgothimself a.s to insinuate thatinfQr-

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THEENDOFTHESTORY.259mationwasbeingconveyedto and fromamannamedKing,theninthelockupchargedwitharson,throughme, on accountofKing'smotherbeingmycook;therebybetrayinghisown ignoranceofthefactthatKing's solicitorhadaccesstohisclientinthelockup wheneverhechose;andthatno merriberofthepolice was allowedwithinearshotwhiletheywereinconsult ation.Ofcoursetherumourswhich hehadheardabouttheprobable witnesses for King'sdefence, etc., h;:td reachedhimthroughhis watchdogasabove des uibed. Thisisthewayinwhichthis"gentleman"whowasscarcelybornwhen I joinedtheConstabulary }'orce, andwhohaddonenothing in hislifeexceptamassthewealththatplacedhiminthepositionthusto lor!! itoverme, behavedtowardsmeinhishouse. Towardsme:witha recordofforty-sevenyearsofsuchservicetothepublicasI have described in thesepages;me:withfourgallantsons sacrificedintheprimeoftheiryoung manhoodforEngland;me:agrandfather:fivetimes over! I forgot tosaythatonceinhisexcitementhewentsofarastostamphisfootatme.AndwhenIhadhadenoughofit,andgotuptogo,atabout9.30 heactuallyproposedtoshakehandswithme!Hesoentirelyforgottherudimentaryobligationsofhospitalitythat,althoughhe was toldthatO'Hanlonhaddrivenhimselfinalittletwo-seatercarallthewayfromKingstonoverstrangeroads,andacouple 'Of hoursinthedarknessofnight,henevereven offer oed him a glassofwater!Leaving Hendon, I took O'HanlontotheRen -ville hotel,wherehewasaccommodatedduringhisthreeweeks'stayinSavanna-la-Mar.Heconfessedto me thatthesituationappearedtohim

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260 AWESTINDIAN POLICEMAN.afterthisebullition onthepartoftheCustos;andasked metotelegraph totheInspector General arequestthatheshould cometoSavalma-Ia-Marwithallpossible haste.ThisI did onthefollowing,morning. O'HanlonandIthenarrangedtodonightdutyon nights.Atmidnight on Tuesdaythe18th, being offforthe night, I was rousedfromsleepbythereportthatconstable Percival James,the"firebug"already mentioned,hadbeen taken red-handedintheactofattemptingtosetfiretothebuildingsofKirkhamandCo.,not75 fromtheplace we werethenoccupyingasa station. This place,thesec ond into which we had been drivenbyfire, was sosituatedandconstructedthattherewasnothingtopreventanymanfromwalking intooroutofitathisownsweetwill, bydayorbynight. And, liketheotherone,itwas supposed to serve as a policebarrack!Ifthisconstablehadsucceeded in his fellattempt, a clean sweep would have been madeofthelowerpartof'thetown,rightdowntothebeach,comparedtowhichtheotherfires would have beenmerechild's play. I have now long been convincedthatthismanwastheauthorofallthefires whichhadpreviously been set;aswellasthewriteroftheanonymousletterprintedabove.Hewas asmallman, a good deal belowthe standard heightoftheforce;buthad beentaken'on simply 'in 'consideration of hav-' ing bornea good character intheB.W.I.R:Not being bigenough for Kingston; he hagMenme. Onthefollowing day, Wednesday, 'the Inspector GeneraltU,rnep. up;butbefore his, a:rrival thereoc curredanotherincident, which tlirowsiri,tostill,lijgh, errelief o,f. the Hon.HughCla'rkewhich he holds,' ,"'.

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THEENDOFTHESTORY.261 I giveitintheformofacuttingfromtheGleanerjustasitwas reportedbythelocalcorrespondent: "Inspector Generalin Sav-la,..Mar,Sav-l,a-Mar, Dec.19.-(2.25p.m.)-InspectorGeneral Clark,headofthePoliceForceoftheisland,hasarrivedhere.Therewasasmalldemonstrationthismorningwhichwasquickly suppressed.Ithaditsoriginina sectionofthecommunity whichwasexpressingitspleasureatthearrestofthepolice man,andwhichparadedthestreetswithdrums, The principal demonstratorwasarrestedbutpromptlybailed.Thereis agreatfeelingofreliefonallsidesandmuchsympathyis expressedforInspectorThomaswhohasalwaysbeen amostzealous police officer."Thereportis absolutelycorrectasfarasitgoes,butIt requires more detail. Of coursethenewsofthearrestofJamesspreadlike wild-fireassoonasdaylightcame,althoughwehadmanagedtokeepitsecretduringthenight; anq atanearlyhourofthemorning the habitual criminalMonteith-thesame one who had rescuedtheprisonersfromBarrett'sholocaust inFebruary1922-gothold ofthreestreeturchins, with drumsandfifesandsetthemmarchingaboutthe st.reets, beatingthe drum&-himself havingoneand playingthefifes, inorderto expresstheirdelight. This constituted a breach of one section oftheTowns and Communities Act. Beingwarnedbymysergeantmajorto desist,theyrepairedtotheresidence ofHisHonourtheCustos,andpresentlyreturnedtotell the sergeant-majorthattheCustoshadgiventhem. permissiontoplay,asitwasChristmasweek.Upon

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262AWESTINDIANPOLICEMAN.theircommencingtheperformanceafresh,thesergeant-majorarrestedthelot,andlockedthemup,pendingmyarrivalatthestation.Ataboutnineo'clock, whileO'HanlonandI were ipspecting thespotatwhichJameshadattemptedtolightthefireonthepreviousnight,a constable cametomewitha messagesayingthattheCustos desiredtoseemeatthe station. AccompaniedbyO'HanlonI immediatelywentthere,andtomyastonishmentfoundHisHonourapparentlyattheheadofahostiledemon stration. He wasstandingatthestation door,inridinggear,palewithrage;whilegatheredinthestreetoutside,andwatchinghimwithgreatinterest,wasacrowdoftherabbleofthetown, consisting chieflyofraggedboysandgirls.O'HanlonandIbothsalutedhimmost punctiliouslyinpropermilitarystyle,andsaid"good morning,sir,"aswell,buthetooknottheslightestnoticeof that.He' atoncebarkedoutatme:"I'vecometobailthosementhatyoursergeant-majorlockedupthismorning.""Certainly,sir,"I said,andthenorderedthehabitualcriminalandthethreeurchinsto bebroughtout.Afterthenecessary formalities ll
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THEENDOFTHESTORY.263 SlC'ry whichappearedintheGleanertwo days asfollows:-"ANINCIDENTEXPLAINED.""OnthemorningWednesday (sic) following the.arrestofthepoliceman Percival James,certainelementsofthetown gotoutadrumandstartedto promenadeGreatGeorge Street. The police looked uponitasa demonstrationofrejoicingatthefactthatoneoftheirnumber h;;td been ed asanalleged fire bug,andstoppedthecelebra tion. The Custos was appealed to onthescorethatthedrumplayingandgeneral manifestationofdelightwerenota demonstrationagainstthepolicebuttheannualharbingersoftheChristmasseason.Sohegave permission tocarryon.Undoubtedlythepolice wererattledatwhathadhappenedthenightbefore,andagaintheybannedthedrumplaying.Buttheyhad now been madeawareofthetrueaspectofthematter,anditis understoodthattheincident willbeclosed."(Theitalicsaremine.)ItwouldappearfromthisthattheCustosarro to himselfthepower to "give permission tocarryon"a breachoftheTownsandCommunities Act.Thefollowing also appeared inthesame com munication:-"One fact, however,mustbe noted here,foritis a fact. The policeareleaving no stoneunturnedto prove tothehiltthechargethattheylaidagainstoneoftheirnumber-ConstablePercivalJames,ex-contingentman-whom they claimwascaughtred-handedtryingtosetfire toKirkham'sbuilding Thefirerecordis:two destructive fires and four

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264 AWEST-INDIANPOLICEMAN.attempts, the latter being all discovered by the police andputout beforeanydamage was done. Two alleged incendiaries have been arrestedbythe police."(Theitalicsareagainmine.)Itwillthusbe seenthatmystatementswithregardtotheeffectsofthevigilanceoftheworthless and incompetentpolice officerandmenofSavannaia-Mar-inspiteofallthedisadvantagesabove des cribed-are completely borneoutbytheindepend ent testimonyofthelocalnewspapercorrespondent.{Hewasamanwithwhom Ihadneverhadanyintercourse.)ButtofinishwiththeCustosandhispro teges oftheamateurdrumandfifeband:hisattitudetowardsthepolice is wellillustratedbythefactthathethreatenedSergeant-MajorHamiltonwithanaction Dn behalfofthese vagabondsforfalse imprisonment.Furtherluridlightisthrownonitbythefollowing .letterwhichheaddressedtome:"Hendon,Savanna-la-Mar,2ndJanuary,1924. H. T. Thomas, Esq.,InspectorofPolice,Savanna-la-Mar,Sir,re Monteith, Edwin Williams,etaleWouldyou be goodenoughtoletmeknowwhenthecaseagainstthesemenwill betriedasI desire toproduceevidence ontheirbehalf.I am, Sir,YourobedientservantHUGHCLARKE."(Theoriginalletterisinmypossession.) .BythetimethatthisletterreachedmeIhad

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THEENDOFTHESTORY.265learntthatmyremovalfromWestmorelandhadbeen -decided upon; so,wearyandsickatheart,Imadea -compromisewiththeChiefMagistrate;Iundertaking to withdrawtheprosecutionagainstthese men,andhegiving me awrittenguaranteenotto issue a civil .action againstthepolice ontheirbehalf. The Inspector General arrived,asalready stated, ()nthe19thDecember,andheremaineduntilthe '22nd. Duringthattime, he in companywithO'Han lon, held, I believe,manyconferenceswiththeCus tos,atthehouseofthelatter-fromwhich I was,of 'Course, excluded.Heappearedtopreservethrough 'Out a genialandfriendlyattitudetowardsme,butIcould seethattwothingsofwhichhetoldmehad:struck deadlyfearinto his boldheart;one beingthattheCustoshadthreatenedto"calla publicmeeting"forthepurposeofhavingme expelledfromtheparish,andtheotherthattheyoung gentle..manwhoatthattime,representedWestmorelandintheLegislativeCouncil-anotheralleged"friend"ofmine--hadlenthiscountenancetothemovement,and joined inthehue-and-cryagainstme.[Atthenextelectionhewasoustedfromhisposition by a black man.] HoweverduringhisstayMr. W.E.Clark avail d himselfofmyhospitalitybytakinglunchinmyhouse ontwooccasions. Ontheseconddayhesatdown inmydrawing-roomafterlunchanddictatedt(lO'Hanlon areportaddressed totheColonial retary,describingthesituationandgivingtheresultofhis ownpersonalenquiryintothecircum stances.Inthisletterhenotonlyexoneratedmefromall blame,butvindicated me inthemostthoroughmanner.Hedweltupontheadverseconditionsunder

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266 AWESTINDIANPOLICEMAN.whichthepoliceofSavanna-la-Marhadbeen con.;. demnedtoliveandworkever since the destructionofthestationinFebruary1922; and,ifmy memory serves mearight,repeatedtheverywordswhich Ihavequotedhimaboveashaving used totheCustos.AtanyratehesaidthatIhaddoneallthatwas hu manlypossibleundermosttryingcircumstances.Inshort,I couldnothavepennedamorecompletelyfavourablejudgmentmyself.Hetookthedraftin orcThr to haveittyped bymyofficeclerk,andwhenthathadbeen done hecarriedtheletterawaywithhimonhisdeparturefromWestmoreland.Whether that document ever reacheditsdestinationornotI am,ofcourse, unable tosay;butifitdid,thenthefactrequires a good dealofexplanationthat,inspiteOfit,hemusthave recommended totheGovernor-foritwouldnotbe doneotherwise-mybeing de.,. privedofthecommandofWestmoreland,andrele gated tothatofHanoveralone,asfromthe15thJanuary1924. Besidesthelossofemolument Iwasthuscondemned to finishmyrecordserviceintheJamaicaConstabularyForce in thesmallestandleastimportantparishofthewholeisland:aservicewhichhadbegunatatimewhen nomanthenintheforce,withexceptionoftheInspectorGeneral himselfand,perhaps,fiftyothers,hadyetbeenborn;fortheefficiencyofwhich Ihadbeen eulogised bythisgentlemanhimself-twelveyearsmyjuniorinitinthetermswhich Ihavequoted intheearlierpartofthischapter;andinwhich Ihadbeenretained,on his own recommendation,untilIhadexceededbythreeyearstheageofcompulsoryretirement.IdulyhandedovertheWestmorelanddivisiontotheofficersentto relievemeonthe15thJanuary1924,

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THEHONOURABLE HUGH CLARKE,CUS'l.'OSOF

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THEENDOFTHESTORY. 267 andslunkofftohidemydiminishedheadinLucea. Irealisedthenexactlywhatawell-breddogwhichhasbeenunjustlywhippedmustfeellike. .(IhavetakenthelibertyofembellishingthepagesofthisbookwithaportraitoftheHonourableHughClarke,inthehopethatitmaybeusefulinassistingintelligentreaders,withsome knowledge ofphysiognomy,toanunderstanding.IregretthatIhavenotbeenabletoprocureoneofhisbrother-inlaw.) IoughttosayherethatafterthearrestoftheincendiarypolicemantherewerenomorealarmsoffireinSavanna-la-MaruptothetimeIleft, on the15thJanuary1924,whichconfirmsmybelief aboveexpressed.IenduredmyignominyinHanoveruntilthe endofFebruary,whenIobtainedthreemonths'leavepriortoretiringfromtheservice. Ifinallydidsoasfromthe1stJune,1924,forty-sevenyearsandfivemonths, allbutseven days,fromthedateofmyenteringit.ThegloomintowhichIhadbeenplungedwasslightlyliftedbythewarmthofthefarewellwhichwasaccordedtomeatLucea.'Mytrustysergeant-major,C.C.Williams,andtheothersub officersandmen,presentedmewitha souvenir,accompaniedbyanaddress;andatthelastcourtwhich attended,onthelastTuesdayinFebruary,valedictoryspeechesweredeliveredbytheResidentMagistrate,theClerkofCourts,andthelawyers pres ent;by noneinmoresincereandcordialtermsthanbytheMontegoBaysolicitorwhomIhavedescribedinChapterXIII.ThereweretwohousesinWestmorelandwhereIwasalwayssureofawarmandsincerewelcome,andthetruesthospitality:oneofaEwen,atClifton,andtheothor that ofaFarquharson,at Re treat.AtthelatterIspentmyverylastnightin

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'268 AWESTINDIANPOLICEMAN.Westmoreland,travellingthitherfromLuceaonthe29thFebruary;andonthefollowingmorningI finally shookfrommyfeetthedustofthatparish,mystayinwhichhadbeenfraughtwithnothingbutdisaster.Ihadentered.itoriginallyin1909underadarkcloud,andIleftitunderonestilldarkerin1924. My fate, now I com.e tothinkofit,wasnothingmorethanthecommonlotofsomanystrongmenhavingweaklingsinauthorityover them.SirMichael O'Dwyer, whowasoneofthese,putsitverygraphicallyinhis ilook, "IndiaAsIKnewIt,"thus:-"ThrowntotheWolves."

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THEMAROONS.ChapterXVII.THEMAROONS. 2691 ThegreatbulkofJamaicansneitherknow nor care anythingaboutthehistory,andeventhe graphy,oftheircountry:butIdonotthinkthereis.,anysubjecton whichmorewidespreadandprofoundignoranceprevailsamongthemthantheonewhichformstheheadingofthischapter.This ignorance is reflected, ina-greaterdegree,indescriptionsoftheisland given by casualwriters.Thefavouriteterm used. isthattheMaroonsare"arace which has neverbeenconquered;"andthisimpliesthattheyareofdiffer-entanddistinctbloodfromtherestoftheinhabitantsoftheisland.Thisphraseistobefoundinalmostevery bookandmagazineornewspaperarticlethathas ever been publishedaboutJamaica,particularlywheretheauthorhasbeen oneoftheAmericanwriters, whosecredulityhasbeenalluded to inthefirstchapter.Ithasalwaysbeenregardedasthecorrectthingtoencirclethename"Maroon"withahaloofromance;andthishalo, I,notwithoutacertainamountofregret,consideritmydutyto dissipatebygivingthetrueoutlineoftheirhistory.Allthefactsareaccessible toanypersonwho willtakethetroubletoreadDallas's"Maroons"and.otherworkson the: subject, whichare to befoundinthelibraryoftheInstituteofJamaica. When theSpaniards settledintheislandon'its 9.iscqy.ery byColumbus on'the 3rdMay,1.494.

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270 AWESTINDIANPOLICEMAN. they founditinhabitedbyatribeofArawakIn,dians; peopleofgentleandpeaceable disposition, living exclusivelyinsettlementsonthecoastoritsimmediateneighbourhood,andsubsistingalmostentirelyon fish, ekedoutwithtwoorthreekindsofvegetables,chiefofwhichwasthemanioc, or,asitisDOWcalled, cassava. Followingtheirusual customindealingwith the aboriginalracesoftheNewWorld,theSpaniardsproceeded toexterminatethesepeople,andappeartohavetreatedthemwithgreaterbrutalityonaccount{)ftheirgentleandunwarlikenature.Oneoftheir{)wnhistorianstellsus how Spanish'soldierswouldsallyforthwithswordsandpikes,anddeliberatelykillormaimunoffending individuals who chanced across theirpath,forpastimeorexercise,orto displaytheirprowesswiththeirweapons.TheyenslavedtheArawaks,andputthemtoagriculturalla bour,towhichthey were entirelyunaccustomed, killingthemoff by slow degrees inthatmanner.To escapethecrueltyoftheirmasters,thebestandstrongestamongtheIndians-physicallyandmorally-lefttheir beloved seashoreandtookrefugeinthemountainsoftheinterior, whichhithertotheyhadneverdaredpenetrate,clothedtotheirsummitswithdense forest,andaboundinginwater,whichroaredandsparkled;asitdoes to-day,incrystalstreamsdown every ravine.Infactthename"Jamaica"issaidtobe derivedfromtheArawakword"Xaymaca,"which signifies "aboundingin wopd andwater."Inthesemountain:fastnessestheyfound meansof subsistence andpleas ant livingintheabundanceoffeathered game,wild

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THEMAROONS.271hogsandconies,andatotalabsenceofnoxious wild.animals:afeaturewhichtothisdaydistinguishesJamaicafromallothertropicalcountries.Theonly.animalsthatcould possibly betermednoxious were snakes,andofthesenonewerevenomous;whileatthepresentday,sincetheintroductionofthemon :goose fromIndia,eventhesehaveceasedtoexist.Asthesettlementandcultivationoftheislandproceeded,andtheArawaksdiedout,or escaped to the woods,theSpaniardsprovidedagainstthein -creasing demandforlabourersbytheimportationofnegroslavesfromtheWestCoastofAfrica.Of.,theseintheirturnthoseofthestrongestphysiqueandmostresolutedispositionmadetheirescape. Thusthe numbersofthefugitiveremnantofArawakswere -constantly beingaugmentedbytheverypickofthe 1lCgro slavesfromtheplantations,andaninterminglingofthetworaceswasthenaturalresult. The physicaltracesofthisinterminglingpersistincertainfamiliesandindividualstothepresentday,althoughalltheoriginalArawaksmusthave disap pearedatleasttwocenturIesago,whiletheelement Qf negrobloodsteadily in<;reased yearbyyear,and now completelypreponderates.ThehairoftheIn
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272 AWESTlNDIANPOLICEMAN.cription is designated bytheordinarynegroesas "Ma roonhair."Themodeoflifeandthesurroundingsof the tribethatthusspranginto existenceweresuch as. toensurethe"survivalofthefittest" from a physicalpointofview;andastheywereentirelycutofffromsuchinfluencesofcivilizationasmighthave trickled.tothemfromtheSpaniards,andhadnoresourcesoftheirowninthatdirection,theyremainedina con-ditionofsavagery.Indeeditis beyondallquestionthatthelowerandmoredegradedAfricanelement.amongthemby degreesintroducedthepracticeof canniJ5alism; andthatitwas indulgedinbythem Up' to compaaatively recent times. AlsothattheAfricanformofsuperstitionknownasObeah becamepracticallytheirreligion,andis believedinbythemnowtoagreaterextentthanbytheordinarynegro popu lation. AsthehistoryofJamaicaunderSpanishruleisvirtuallya blank, we donotknowtowhatextenttheSpaniardssufferedfromtheraidsanddepreda tions oftheMaroonsastheyincreasedin numbers.. and securityfrom pursuit;but,judgingfromwhatoccurred inthatdirectionunderBritishruleandinamoresettled state ofaffairs,itisreasonableto infer thattheytookadvantagetothefulloftheiroppor-tunitiesof av.enging themselvesupontheiroppressors. Intheyears1655to1657theyreceivedlargeadditionsto'theirnumbersduringtheconquestof the: by. the British. of th.e con-: fusion. created. by the militaryoperationsandthegra duaI:driving'blitofthE;Spaniards, theslaves aban'don the and, ta:ldng; in

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THEMAROONS.273thehills,joinedtheMaroonsinsuchnumbersthattheybecame a serious menacetotheEnglishthemselves.Itis possiblethatsomeofthemoreambitious amongthem-menwhohadprobably heldexaltedrankamong their tribesinAfrica-hadvisionsofanegrokingdomtobe estaNished inJamaicabydrivingintotheseaboththeopposingnationalities()f whites who werethencontendingforthepossession()ftheisland.Forthisis howMajor-General Sedgwick,thefirstAdministratoroftheisland,appointedbyCromwell,speaksofthemin1656, in alettertoSecretaryThurlowe,which isstillextant.AfterrelatinghowtheydestroyedwithoutmercyanystragglingBritishsoldiers whomtheychancedtomeet,hegoes ontosay:-"Havingno moral sense,andnotunderstandingwhatthelawsandcustomsofcivil nations mean,weknownothowtocapitulateortreatwithanyofthem.Butbeassuredthattheymusteitherbe destroyed ()rbroughtinuponsometermsortheother,orelsewill prove agreatdiscouragementtothesettlingofthecountry."Anexpeditionwassentoutagainstthemin 1656,andsucceededindrivingthembackintothemountainswithsome loss.ButtheMaroons,retaliatedbyambushingandcuttingoff someforty()fthesoldiers, whomtheyslaughteredto aman.Colonel D'Oyley, Sedgwick's successor,undertookseriousoperationsagainstthemin 1657,andpressedthemveryhardindeed.AboutthesametimehedealtthelastblowtotheSpaniards,andexpelledthemfin,allyfromtheisland;and,intimidatedby his successinthisdirection,thelargestbodyofMaroons,whohadbeenholdingoutwithgreatobstinacyunderaleadercallinghimselfJuandeBolas,surrendered

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-274 AWESTINDIANPOLICEMAN.D'Oyley'stroops.ThehillsinwhichthisMaroonleadermade hislairaretothisdayknownasthe Juan deBolas mountains. .Butthereyetremainedatlargeconsiderablenumbersofirreconcilables;andthese began tobeaugmentedagainbyrunawaysfromtheslaves,whomtheEnglishintheirturnnow begantoimportforthepurposeofsettlingandcultivatingthecountry.Aboutthistimethename"Maroon"appearstohavebeen definitelyappliedtothese people.Theoriginofthenameisnotquitedetermined.Bysomeauthoritiesitissaidtobe derivedfromaFrenchword"Maron,"used bythebuccaneerstodescribefugitivenegroes, while byothersitistracedtotheSpanishword"Cimaron,"meaningacertainkindofmonkey. Astimewentontheyincreased innumbersandin confidencetosuchanextentthattheyoccasionallyraidedtheoutlyingsugarplantations,carrying off invariablythebestamongthefemale slaves,andinducingthe elite ofthemales tojointheirranks.Asearlyas1663theLieutenant-Governor,SirCharles Lyttleton, endeavoured to conciliatethembyissuingaproclamationofferingtoeachmanwho wouldsurrendertwentyacresofland, afree andfreedomfromslavery.Butthisdoesnotseemtohavehadanysubstantialeffect.Ascultivationin creased,andplantationsbegan to be pushedfurtherintotheinterior,eachplanter'shousehadtobe constructedinsuchawayastobeproofagainsttheattacksoftheMaroons;andarmsandammunitionwere. providedandguardswerealwaysin readiness.Inshort,everyhousewasa small" fortification.There are someofthesehousesstill in existence:withtheir

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THEMAROONS. 275: massive stonewallsloop-holedformusketry,and,insome cases,undergroundpassagesandvaultsasalastrefugeincaseofemergency.In1664thesurrenderedleaderJuande Bolas himselfwasappointedColonelofaregimentofblacks,andsentagainstthem,but was ambushedandkilled,witha considerablenumberofhisfollowers A subsequent expeditionunderCaptainColbeckwhosenameisperpetuatedintheestateofthatnameon the south sideoftheisland-metwithbettersuc cess; andafterfouryearsofconstant guerillawarfaretemporarypeacewassecured.Duringthesefouryearstheislandhadspent,000inthesubjugationoftheMaroons, whiletheLegislaturehadpassednofewerthanforty-fourenactmentshavingthesame.objectinview. Thenextserious trouble occurred in 1730, when anotherrisingtook placeunderaleaderbearingtheburlesque appellationof"CaptainCudjoe," whose chiefhauntwasanisolatednaturalstrongholdintheBlue Mountains,intheveryheartoftheforest, call ed NannyTown-NannybeingthenameofCudjoe's chief wife. A successfulattackwasmadeonthisstronghold bymeansoftheskill,courageandenterpriseofaCaptainStoddart,whocutapaththroughthetracklesswoodsanddraggedupbyhand,in a direction whencethe Maroons never expectedanyattack, apairofsmallcannon, "which,"toquotethelanguageofone chronicler,"hefixedtothebestadvantageandfired sobrisklythatmanywereslainintheirhabitationsandseveralthrewthemselvesheadlong downtheprecipice.CaptainStoddartpursuedthisadvantage, killed numbers, tookmany .a,nd inshortsocompletelydestroyedorroutedthe

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276AWESTINDIAN POLICEMAN.whole body,thattheywereunableafterwardstoeffectanyenterpriseofmomentinthisquarteroftheisland."TothisdaythemostabsurdlegendsarecurrentamongstthepeasantryoftheBlueMountainvalleysoftheexploitsofCudjoeandthesupernaturalpowersofNanny.ThesiteofNannyTownitselfissaid.tobehaunted,andcertaindeathispredictedasthefateofanypersonwhoshallventurethitherunlesshebe a Maroon. Ihavepersonallyvisitedthespottwice, sleepingthereforfournightsaltogether;andmyexperiencesareveryfullydescribed inthelittlevolumeentitled"UntroddenJamaica,"which I publishedin. 1891. ImaysaythatIwaswarnedandadvisedinthestrongestmannerbymanypersonsofdifferent-classesofthecommunitynottoventureontheexpedition;whilethehalf-dozenfaithfulnegroes who accompaniedandguidedme, did sointhefaceofthefervidentreatiesoftheirwivesandalltheirotherrelatives.AboutthesametimeasthedestructionofNannyTown adefeatwasinflicted ontheMaroonsonthenorthsideoftheislandby a forceunderoneCaptainEdmunds:andthesetworeverseshadtheeffectofpracticallybringingthemintosubjection intheeast-.ernportionoftheisland;butinthewesternpartsraidsstillcontinued.Inthosedistrictsthecountryintheinterioris even more difficult andinaccessibie than the'-Blue Mountains,though' the hillsdo notriseab6ve'3;000 feet,' instead ofrunning up to 6,000land ,000-a's' inthelatter.Therock isall limestone ofmost fantasticformation.Hugecavesand 'fathom less abysses,. locally knownas "cockpits"," abound in

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THEMAROONS.271alldirections,affordingthemostcompletesecuritytofugitivesfamiliarwiththecountry.Thevegetationisrankanddenseinspiteoftheapparentaridityofthesoil;whilethewatersupplyconsistsofoccasionalstreamswhosecourseisforthemostpartunder grflund, breakingouthereandthereintothelightofdayatthefootofsomeloftycliff,andvanishingagainintogloomyandawesometunnelsoflivingrock.OfcourseinsuchacountrytheMaroonswerecomparatively securefrompursuit,andthegovernmentcouldonlyresorttoa processofattritiontoweardowntheirresistance.TothisendtheybuiltbarracksinascloseproximityaspossibletothehauntsoftheMaroons, whichtheygarrisonedwithpickedirregulartroops,bothwhitesandloyal blacks. These werelocallycalled"whiteshot"and"blackshot." And in 1737twohundredIndianswere'broughtoverfromtheMosquitocoastofCentralAm erica tostrengthenthese garrisons. Thesewereintheirturnknownas"Iridianshot,"andmanyoftheblackandcoloured peopleofthewesternpartofthe'island-asaruleofaveryfine physicaltype-proudlytracetheirdescentfromthe"blackshot"orthe"Indian shot."IntheselatterthemarkoftheIndianblood isverydistinct.Inadditiontothehumangarrisonsofthesebarracks, eachwasfurnishedwithapackofdogsfortrackingpurposes,andthesehad,bylaw,tobeprovidedbythechurchwardensofeachparish!Roads weremadeleadingfromonebarracktoanother,andthebuildings werestronglyconstructedandheavily, provisionedagainstemergencies.Excursionswerefrequently made bythegarrisons;andwhenevertheycameacross a provisiongroundofthe'Maroonsthey

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278AWESTINDIANPOLICEMAN.utterlydestroyedeverythingitcontained,thusgraduallydeprivingthemoftheirsupplyofvegetable food. Remainsofthesebarracksaretobefoundhere.andthereintheislandatthepresentday;andthememoryofothersisperpetuatedinthename"barracks"which is borne bycertainplaces,apparentlywithoutanyreason,excepttosuchasareacquaintedwiththehistoryoftheMaroons. Thesemethodsprovedentirelysuccessful,andamplyfulfilledtheexpectationsoftheiroriginator,EdwardTrelawny,Esq., who was Governoroftheisland from 1738 to1751.HisnameisperpetuatedbytheparishofTrelawny,thechief townofwhich is namedFalmouth-Trelawnybeing,ofcourse, a Cornishman.ThetrackalsobywhichCaptainStoddartreachedNannyTownwithhisgunswaskeptopen,andis calledtothisday"Trelawny'sPath."Itis still quitedistinctupto a certainpoint. Ihaveseveraltimestraverseditmyself.TheMaroons were drivento,desperatestraits,andwhenTrelawnyproposed peacetothemin1738theyeagerlyaccepted his proposal.Butthegovernment didnotknowtherealextentoftheextremitytowhichtheMaroonshadbeendriven;so insteadofdemandinganunconditionalsurrender,theyproposedcertainterms,whichhadtheeffectofpracticallymaintainingthestatusoftheMaroonsasa semi-independentpeople,insteadofmergingthemintothepopulation. There was no reason whatever'whythey should nothavebeenthusmerged,as-puttingasidetheslightadmixtureofArawakblood, nowalmostcompletelyeffaced-theyconsistedofthesameelementsastherestofthenegropopulation.However, aregular,formaltreatywasdrawnupbetweenJohnGuthrieandFrancisSadler,Es-

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THEMAROONS.279quires,representingKing George II., of theonepart, and Captains Cudjoe, Accompong, Johnny, Cuffee,andQuaco, of theotherpart.Thistreatyisdated1stMarch,1738,andprovidesfreepardontoallMaroonsexceptsuchfugitive slavesashadjoinedtheirranksduringtheprevious two years, unlessthese of theirownwillreturnedtotheirowners;permissiontocultivatelandsandbringproducetothemarketsinthevarioustowns;libertytohunthogsuptowithinthreemiles of anysettlement;incase of meetinghuntersfromany of these settlements afairdivi sion of thegametobemadebetweenthetwoparties;theMaroons to servethegovernment of theisland against rebelsandinvaders;intheevent of anywhitemandoinginjuryto a Maroonredresstobeappliedforbeforeanyofficercommandingtroops;incaseofinjurytoawhitemanby a Maroon,theoffendertobe handed over tothewhites by Captain Cudjoe;runawayslaves to becapturedandbroughtinata 'feeof 30/perheadandallexpenses;CaptainCudjoeandhis successors towaitontheGovernor,ortheofficer commandingthetroops, once ayear if sorequired;Cudjoeandhissuccessors empoweredtoinflictpunishment ontheirQwnpeople.withexception of thedeathpenalty;1,500acres of landto be giventotheMaroonstoformasettlementatTrelawnyTownintheparish of St.Elizabeth,and1,000acresintheaggregateatMoore TownandCharlesTownintheparish of Portland,andScott'sHallintheparishofSt.Mary;theMaroonstokeep openandinrepairtheroads leadingfromTrelawnyTown to Westmoreland .andSt. Elizabeth. Twowhitesuperintendentstobenominated bytheGovernor, were to resideatTrelawnyTownandkeepintouchwiththeMaroons;and

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280 .AWESTINDIANPOLICEMAN thesuccession to thechieftainshipafterCudjoewastopassinturntoAccompong, Johnny, Cuffee,andQuaco. Thistreatywasagreatmistake,asI havealreadyindicated,anditcontainedthegermsofseri. ous troubletothegovernment, which borefruit,as we shallsee, somesixtyyearslater.Thepeopletowhomthistreatygrantednumerous privileges which werenotpossessed bythegreatbulkoftheircountrymenthroughoutthecolonywereagangof depraved. ignorant,Africansavages,thegreatmajorityofwhom did not know a wordofEng-. !ish. Cannibalism, polygamy and obeah worshipwerepractised by all of them.Theirintellectualandmoralstatuswas,ifanything,lowerthanthatoftheslavesontheplantations,andverymuchbelowthatofthefreecoloured peopleoftheisland;andyettheywereencouragedto keep themselvesapartfrom,andre-. gard themselvesassuperiorto allofthese.Theydidnottaketoagriculturallabour,exceptsuchas couldbe done bytheirwomen, whomtheyregardedandtreatedasmerebeastsofburden.Thepostofwhitesuperintendentnaturallyfelltomenoflow moral calibre; who, sofarfromexercisinganyelevatingorcivilising influence upontheMaroons,re garded theirappointmentasameansofindulgingtheirown passionsinthemost unbridled license, without the troubleofhavingtoworkfora living.Tothesealsomaybeyonddoubtbetracedsomeofthe physical characteristics amongtheMaroons above des cribed.ThefavouriteoccupationoftheMaroonswasthehuntingofthe wild hogswithwhichthemountainsabounded,andthefleshofwhichtheysoldinthemar-.

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THEMAROONS. ketsaftercuringitbya process whichthey call: "jerking."Theso-calledMaroonsofthepresentdayprepareandsellthefleshofthewildhogjustin the: sameway.Afterbeing killed,theanimalis cleaned.andcutlongitudinallyintotwohalves,thehairbeingremovedbysingeing.Thehalvesof the carcasearethenlaidwiththeskin-sidedownwardsupon grid ironmadeofsticksover aslowfire,whichslowlygrillsordriesit.Duringthisprocessthemeatis.sprinkledwithsaltandpepper;andtheplacingofthearomaticleavesofthepimentotree,orthepepperelder,uponthefiregreatlyimprovestheflavour'ofthemeat;which,whenproperlydone, is exceedinglygameyandtoothsome.Thehogsthemselvesarelean,andasactive as goats.Theirfood is of the very cleanest, consistingentirelyofrootsandber ries, whiletheirdrinkistheverypurestwater. The huntingofthemintheseprecipitousmountains,clothedwithdenseforest,demandsthegreatestagilityandthemostperfectphysical condition on thepartofboththemenandthedogswhichtheyem ploy. Whenatbaytheyareformidableantagonists.I have seentheirtuskmarksonthetreesinthe Blue, Mountainforestsbetweenfourandfivefeetfromthe ground;andIwaspresentatonehoghuntwhere,althoughwe never sawthequarry,one dogwaskilledoutright,andanotherso badlycutthatwehad.tostitchuphiswounds. Besideshuntingthemwithdogs,theMaroonsalsocatchthemwith snares setinthetracksbywhichtheygotoandfromwater,usually well beatenpaths.The vegetables necessaryfor. sustenancewerecultivated,asalreadystated, ent-1i'ely bytheirwomen; chief among these beingthe'yam, whichin

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:282 AWESTINDIAN POLICEMAN. Africa andtheWestIndiesoccupiestheplacefilledbythepotatointheUnitedKingdom.ButinthefertilesoilofJamaicacultivation,inthepropersense ,oftheword, ishardlynecessary.Thenegrohasonlytoplantinthemostperfunctorymanner,andhisharvest isassured.Besidesthewildhogs,thewoods .aboundedwithconiesandvarious kindsofpigeon,of which theringtail, even tothepresentday,isregardedasthegreatestdelicacy whichtheislandproduces. Mullets, eelsandcrayfishswarmedintherivers,and .at certainseasonsthelandcrabswereveryplenti ful. SooffoodtheMaroonshadabundance,andof "the bestandchoicest description.Itis no wonderthattheythoughtlabour,suchasfelltothelotofthe ;slaves ontheplantations, undignified. The Obeahmen were supreme among them. Obeah,if.ithasanyfundamentalprinciplesatall, Itaketobethepropitiation of evilspiritsandtheinvokingoftheiraidforanyobjects, goodorbad-morefre ,
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THEMAROONS.283:manyoftheabove-named delicaciesascould be obtained,wasalwaysprepared;andifthevisitorremainedovernightfurtherhospitalitywasextendedtohim in a guise which will scarcelybeara public des -cription. On such occasionsthevisitorwould alsobeentertainedwiththespectacleofashamfight. Decking themselveswithbranchesoftreesandthefrondsofthetreefern, whichwastheirusualfightingdresson.accountofitsusefulnessinrenderingtheminvisible .inthefoliageoftheforest,theywentthroughanticsandmanoeuvresofthemostgrotesquedescription;firingguns, shouting, rolling ontheground,turningsomersaults, leapinghighintheair,andmakinghideousgrimaces-allaccompanied bythesound ()f the"abeng,"thecow'shornbymeansofwhichtheysignaltoeachother.Tothisdaytheypreservea codeofsignalsontheinstrumentwiththegreatestcare;butitisknown
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284 AWESTINDIAN POLICEMAN.to ahornmanwho was near,andthisone made a:. certainblast on hishorn,whichwasrepeatedbyananother,andanother, and. another,higherand higher up,untilitdiedawayamongtheridges above us.Notanothershotwasfiredinourimmediateneighbourhoodduringthewholeofourprogress,althoughwefrequentlyheardtheminthedistance. Onarrivalatthesettlementwewereentertainedina boothbuiltofbamboosandcoconut boughsintheyardoftheveryneatlittle school-house,wheretherisinggeneration were beingtaughttoreadandwrite, whileoutsidetheirelderswereindulginginthestrangecapersandpracticesoftheirsavage ancestors. A copiousmealofjerkedhogandyamswasspreadbeforeus;andafteritwewereentertainedwitha dance, which,althoughthemusicwasmadewitha fifeanddrum,wasofadistinctlybarbariccharacter,someofthemovementsofthedancersbeingrathertoosuggestivefordecency. Oneofthemaledancersadvancedandretreatedinfront'ofLadyBlakewiththemostgracefulofhis capers,andholdinginhishanda long necklacemadefromthebrilliantredandblackseedsofa vinethatgrows inthewoods-called"JohnCrow beads"-intimatingbyhisgesturesa desiretodecorate her withit.LadyBlakeaccordinglybentherhead,whiletheyoung Maroon,witha deep obeisancehungthe aboutherneckandthenbacked away, caper ingmore fantasticallythanever.Itwill nodoubtberememberedthat the, articlesofthetreatywasone bindingtheMaroonstorendermilitaryservicetothegovernmentincaseofinvasionorrebellion.Thiswasbased on a false notionwhichhadbeen popularly conceivedoftheirval-

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THEMAROONS.285 -()ur. Bytheirmysteriouslifeamongthewoods,the :nne physiqueresultingfromit,theirstrangegarb,thesuccess whichtheyhadinambushingsmallbodies -()f troops,andtheirunspeakablebrutalitytothe'fall theyhadrenderedthemselves obj ects ofdreadtotheinhabitantsofthecountrygenerally,andthusearnedanutterlyundeservedreputationforbrav -ery. Thiswasputtothetestonthefirst occasion'whenthey were called upon to servethegovernment in amilitarycapacity.Intheyear1760 a serious re bellion brokeoutamongtheslavesintheparishofSt.Mary,mostofwhom belongedtothefierceand -warlike tribe knnwn asCoromantyns.TheMaroonswhoweresentagainstthese distinctly showedthe.whitefeather,andfaredverybadlyindeedatthe Jlands oftheinsurgents;andtheywould havefaredstillworsehadtheynotbeen rescued by a detachmentofthe74thReginientunderMajorForsyth,who eventuallysuppressedtherising. Arewardwasofferedforthecapture,aliveordead,oftheleaderofthisrebellion, aCoromantynnamedTackey.Aparty of Maroonsfoundhim one day, aloneandunarmed,whentheyavengedtheirdefeatby killinghimonthe.spot,andafterwardscookingandeatinghisheart and entrails.They were offered alsorewardsforthe ofanyof the'dispersed rebels;andanumberofthemshortly returned toheadquarterswitha collection 'ofhumanears; 'which,itheyasserted tobe ithose' offuiitive'teneIs'whom'they'nad':But"thesewere'subseq'lienu'ifo'Uhdtb1J:1-iffigenciit "the headsof'thosewho had 'faWm'in between'thesoldiers'and' the rebels"at.lit,phice'ca1IE:id ',' ... .1I". toHeywood'Hall. '.., .... .., .... ,.... ;'With 'exception of theaDove"inCident'all

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286 AWESTINDIANPOLICEMAN.seems to have gonequietlyandwell-forthose dayS" -untiltheyear1795,whentwo MaroonsfromTrelawnyTown werearrestedforstealingpigs,andtriedandconvicted by ajuryattheQuarterSessionsinthetown of Montego Bay. Theyweresentenced toreceive 30 lashes each.ThepunishmentwasinflictedinthegaolatMontegoBayby ablackwarder,andthemenweredischargedimmediatelyafterwards.TheyreturnedtoTrelawnyTownandrelatedwhathadoccurred.TheMaroonsregardedthisflogging-in-flicted on twooftheirnumberby a negro, who was'himselfaslave-asanunpardonableinsult,and,perhapsjustly, as a gross breachofthetreatyof Theresultwasarisingsurpassingingravityanythingthathadpreviously occurred. ThewhitesuperintendentwasorderedtoquitTrelawnyTown at once,andawrittendefiancewasdespatchedtotheCustosandMagistratesatMontego Bay, combinedwithathreattoattackthetownonthe20thJuly.Anattemptwasactuallymadetokillthesuperin-tendent,whohadtakenrefugeona neighbouringplantation.TheMilitiawerecalledout,andanex-pressmessengerwassentoff toSpanishTown,thenthepoliticalcapitaloftheisland,toinformtheGo-vernor,theEarlofBalcarres,ofthestateofaffairs.UponthistheGovernordespatchedadetachmentof8QmenfromaregimentofDragoonsthatwasthenquarteredintheisland.TheyarrivedatMontegoBayonthe19thJuly,andtheiradventprobablyinduced'_theMaroonstodefertheirthreatenedattackonthetownandaskforaparleyinsteadwiththeCustosoftheparish.Thisparleywasheldonthe20thJuly,andwasattendedby some 300oftheMaroons,fullydressedandpaintedforwar.(Itmustberemembered

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THEMAROONS.287thatfor yearsthey had beenunmolested-in fact regardedasthealliesoftheGovernment-andnaturallyincreasingenormouslyinnumbersandinconfidenceintheirownstrengthandprowess.) Their demeanouratthisparleywasmostinsolent.Theydemandedinstantandfullreparatjonforthefloggingoftwooftheirnumberby a slaveinthepresenceofotherslaves and criminals whomtheythemselveshadbeeninstrumentalinapprehending;quiteoverlookingthefactthatunderthelawsthenin forceanywhitemanwhohadbeen convictedofasimilaroffence wouldhavebeenpunishedinpreciselythesamemanner.TheCustosinreplypromisedtosubmitthematterfortheconsiderationoftheCommand er-in-Chief,andtheMaroons retired. This parley was only intended to gain time;forbeforeanycommunicationcould possiblyhavebeenmadetotheauthorities,the"Maroons began a seriesofraidsonoutlyingplantations,burningthebuildings,andbutcheringthewhiteinhabitants,youngandold,withmercilesscruelty.Inmorethanoneinstancewhitefamilies were savedfromdestructionattheirhandsbythedevotionoffaithfulandattachedslaves.InthecourseoftheseraidstheMaroons receivedfurtheraddition totheirranksfromamongthedisaffected slaves.Theprincipalmotive which inducedthemtogaintimebyproposingaparleywasthefactthattheyknewthatonthe26thJulya convoyof150sugarladenshipswastosailfromKingston, whichwouldbe escortedbyalltheavailablemen-of-war,England th<>n beingatwarwithFrance;andthat,besidesthe83rdRegimentandtheDragoonsalreadymentioned,therewerepracticallynotroopsintheisland.They

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'288 AWESTINDIAN POLICEMAN .also knewthatthelatterregimentwas.underorders 'to embark onanexpeditiontotheislandofSan 'Domingo;andtheycherished hopesofbeing abletoinducetheothernegroesintheislandtojoin them inageneralrebellionagainstthewhites. Onthevery ,day oftheparleytheybegantotamperwiththe,.slaves onthepropertiesaboutMontego Bay, someof whomwarnedtheirmasters,andtheseinturnwarnedtheauthorities.Butthegentlemenpresentatthe parley hadpersuadedthegovernmentofthegoodintentionsoftheMaroons,andtheconvoy'indue course sailed onthe29th.Inordertogonorth,how -ever, theshipshadtobeatupagainstthetradewind, .and weathertheeastendoftheisland,anoperationinvolving some days. On receiving newsofthe-depredationsoftheMaroons,LordBalcarresactedwithdecisionandpromptitude.Hedespatchedmessengersoverland tothetown ofPortAntonio, wholeft there ina fast-sailing boat two daysafterthedepartureoftheconvoy,andintercepteditoffthenortb-eastcoastwithorderstothesenior naval officerto.change his course tothewestward,rundown beforethetradewind,andanchorintheharbourofMontego,Bay.LordBalcarresalsoembarkedthe83rd Regi-mentunderColonel Fitch, 1,000 strong,inthefrigate"Success,"CaptainPigot, which landedthemin MontegoBayonthe4thAugust;andheplaced.thewholeislandundermartiallaw.Healsoembarked : 280 DragoonsunderColonelSandford,and'130men'of-the62ndRegiment,underColonel Walpole,on'a :-charteredmerchantvessel, whichlandedthemat'BlackRiver;onthesouthside, ,toholdtheMaroonsin,check inthatdirection.Andonthe.4thAugustLord

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THEMAROONS.289BalcarreshimselfleftSpanishTownforMontego Bay. Thispromptaction crushed all ideaofrebellion among theslaves,andleftonlytheMaroons to dealwith.,Amongthesethemselvestherewere divided .counsels; theolder men advocated peace;buttheywereout-voted bytheyoungerparty,who criedoutforthebloodofthehated"bockra"-thevernaculartermforwhiteman.Aproclamationwasissued commandingallMaroonstocomeinandsurrender.Somefortyoftheoldermendid so,andtwoofthemweresentbacktotryandpersuadetheothers.Theseweredetainedbythewarlikeparty,whothereuponsetfiretotheirtown,andfinallydeclaredwarbymakinganattackonthenearestpartyofMilitiaholdingtheroadtoTrelawnyTown, whomtheydispersedwithgreatslaughter.Thesubsequentoperationsweredistinguishedbyallthe eld traditionalBritishfaults.Contemptfortheenemy,anddisregardoftheadvice of experienced menresultedinfrequentdisasters,bothtotheMilitiaandtheRegulars.ColonelSandfordpaidwithhislifeforanactofdisobedienceofhisexpressorders;andinthesame action CaptainG.G.Barrett,oftheMilitia, owedhissafetytothedevotionofoneofhis slaves, whointerposed his ownbreastbetweenhismasterandthegunofoneoftheMaroons, receivingthechargehimself.Itis pleasant to notethat this faithfulslavesurvivedhisinjuries.ThefamilyofBarrettisstillrepresentedinJamaica,anda notable scionoftheEnglishbranchofitwasthelateElizabethBarrettBrowning.AfterColonelSandford'sdeaththecommandde volved upon ColonelFitch;andhetoofeUintoanambuscadeandwaskilled,alongwithfiveofhismen,whileCaptainLeighandtenmenwere wounded.

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290 AWESTINDIANPOLICEMAN.Leighafterwardssuccumbingtohisinjuries.Apartywhowenttorecover ColonelFitch'sbodyfoundthathisheadhadbeencutoffandentombedinhisown bowels.Thisguerillawarfarelastedformonthswithoutanyappreciableresult.The Maroops foundshelterinthealmost impassable "cockpits,"andwhen h.ardputtoforwatertheydrankthatcontainedinthe leaves. ofthewild pine, aparasitewhichgrowsinlargequantitiesontheforesttrees,andthenaturaljuiceofthewater-withe, a vine whichaboundsinthoseparts,andwhich,on'being severed, yields apurefluidexactlylikewater.Atlength,indesperationattheunsatisfactoryresultoftheoperations,theLegislatureresolvedtoresorttotheextrememeasureofimportingfromCuba,whereslave-catchinghadbeen reduced to a fine art,anumberofbloodhoundsalongwiththeirattendantchasseurstohuntdowntheMaroons.Thecommandofthetroopshadpassed, on ColonelFitch'sdeath,to Colonel Walpole,andhehadbeen promotedtotherankofMajorGeneral.Heprotestedagainstwhatheregardedasaninhumanmeasure,butin vain,andthebloodhounds werebroughtover, 100innumber.TheMaroonsheardofitindue course,andwere terrifiedattheprospect;especially whentheyheard stories ofthesizeand ferocity ofthese dogs; oneofwhichwastotheeffectthaton anegrowomanattemptingtorescuefromoneofthema pieceofmeatshewascookingforthesoldiers, whichthedoghad stolen, theanimal flewather, seizedherbythethroat.andheldherinsuchagripthatitsheadhadtobeseveredfromitsbody beforeitcould be detached,thewomanherselfdyingoftheinjuries shehadreceived. Onhearingthis,andotherstoriesaboutthe dogs,

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THEMAROONS.291theMaroons offeredtheirsubmission. GeneralWalpole acceptedtheoffer on conditionthattheyshouldsettleintheislandasordinaryfreenegroes,andthatallabsenteesandrunawaysshouldreportthemselvesatheadquarterswithina given time.Threehundredandtwenty-sixofthemthereuponcameinandgaveuptheirarms;butas, besides thosethathadbeen killedandmadeprisoners, alargenumberwerestillunaccounted for,LordBalcarresresolved ondeportingthemfrom th:e island. GeneralWalpoleagainprotested,withoutresult;andofallplaces intheworldNova Scotiawasselectedastheirplaceofabode. Sixhundredoftheminallwereaccordinglytransportedthitherin1796. Thus ended th';) most formidableoutbreakthathasdisturbedtheislandofJamaicaduringitsexist-, enceof250yearsasaBritishcolony.Thesuppressionofthis rebellion costthecountryno less a sumthan,000;butsucha senseofreliefwasexperienced bythewhitepopulationoftheislandatthetermination ofthetroublethattheLegislature voted a sword or honourtoLordBalcarresandanothertoGeneral Walpole.LordBalcarresacceptedthegift,but Gen eralWalpoleindignantlyrefusedit,andaccusedLordBalcarresofbreakingfaithwiththeMaroonsbydeportingthemto Nova Scotia.Returningto England,. he obtained aseatinParliament,wherehe brought in a motion denouncingLordBalcarres.But in athinHouseof39membersheonlygotfivetovotewithhim.'TheMaroons,asmusthavebeen foreseen, proved.utterlyincapableofstandingtheclimateofNova Scotia,andin averyshorttimetheybecame pensionersonthecharity thegovernmentofthat

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292 AWESTINDIANPOLICEMAN.which presently made a claim ontheJamaicagovernmentfor,000ascompensation;butthislittlebillwasneverpaid.Theywerealleventuallytranshippedtothemorecongenial regionofSierraLeone,ontheWestCoastofAfrica,wheretheirdescendantsstillexist. Of course,asalreadyindicated,thisexodus didnotembraceevery individual Maroon intheisland.Smallbandsofthemstilllurkedhereandthereinthewoods;andanyrunawayslave who joinedthembecame, byvirtueofthatact, a Maroon. Besides,thisrebellionappearsto have been confined tothelargestsettlement,thatofTrelawnyTown,andnottohavebeenparticipatedin bythedenizensoftheeasternsettlementsofMoore Town,Scott'sHallandCharlesTown. Noneofthese, however, seemtohavegiventhegovernmentanyfurther andina seriousris' ingoftheslaves whichoccurredin1832-alsointhevicinityofMontegoBay-thereis norecordofMaroonshavingbeen engaged,eitheronthesideoftheslavesoras alliesofthegovernment.Churchesandschools were establishedintheirsettlements,andalargeproportiongraduallymergedintotheordinarypopulation,whilenominallymaintainingtheirstatusasadistinctbody;thatisthosewhostillcontinuedtoreside inthesettlements.After emancipation,manyofthemsettledinthetownsandil'lotherpartsofthecountryandtook upordinaryoccupations. 'Inallpartsoftheislandatthepresentdayyou will find men following different callings, who willtell you that theyareof"Maroonblood." Wehavea considerablesprinklingoftheminthepolice force. The last occasion on which wehearofthemactingas homogeneous body isintheyear1865,during

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THEMAROONS. 293 thedisturbancesinSt.ThomasyeEastundertheregimeofGovernorEyre;disturbanceswhichcreatedconsiderableexcitementinEnglandatthetimeoftheiroccurrence.TheMaroonsofMooreTownandtheotherEasternsettlementswerecalledupontoassistinsuppressingtheincipientrebellion,andtheyresponded tothecall;butintheopinionofmanypersonswhorememberthoseeventstheydisplayeda hesitationwhichappearedtoimplythattheywaitedtoseefirsthowthingswerelikelytoturnout.Andwhentheydidproceedagainsttherebels,they,accordingtotheirtraditionalcustom,wereresponsibleforagreatdealofthe"unnecessarycruelty"whichtheRoyalCommissionfoundtohavebeen used insuppressingtherising.AfterthedisturbanceswereoverapartyofthemmarchedtoKingston,wheretheyre ceivedthethanksoftheGovernor,andarewardfortheassistancetheyhadrendered.Aftertheeventsof1865theConstitutionoftheislandwassurrendered,anditbecame aCrownCol ony,toitsverygreatadvantage.Aneraofreformwasinaugurated;thecountrywasopenedupbymeansofgoodroads;educationwastakeninhand;thepublic servicewascompletely re-organized,andanentirelyneworderofthingswasinstituted.Inshort,Jamaica fellintotheranksonthemarchofcivilisationandhasmademoreprogressinthelastthirty-fiveyearsthaninanypreviouscentury.Underthese con ditionstheanomalouselementoftheMaroons,asaseparateandsemi-independenttribe,distinctfromthe'restofthepopulation,hasgraduallydisappeared.Theyhavemingledandinter-marriedwiththeordinaryinhabitants,andthusthemselveshelpedtobreakdownthedistinction. Onlythosewhoreside

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294AWESTINDIANPOLICEMAN.inthesettlementsaffecttokeepupthetraditionsofthepast,andoccasionallymakeashowofassertingtheirformerprivilegesbyclaimingexemptionfromtaxes;andnowandthen.bylayingclaimtolandswhichtheyallegetohavebeen devisedtothemby .... hegovernmentinthepast,orbyformerwhitesuperintendents.Suchaclaimasthiswastheoriginofadisturbancewhich occurrednearAnnattoBayin1898,attractingsomeattentioninEngland,and thiR disturbancewasallowed toassumesuch dimensions liS tonecessitatethecallingoutofthemilitary,simply il;rough notbeingnippedinthebudbythepoliceattheveryoutset.Thesepeoplerelyonthemysterywithwhichtheyhave beensurroundedinthepast,andthetraditionalawewithwhichtheyareregardedbyallclassesofthepopulationofJamaica-mostofwhomaretotallyignorantoftheirhistory-toaidthemtoachievetheirendsbymeansof"bluff."My own personalexperienceofthemisthatiftheyaregivenclearlytounderstandthattheyareregardedinpreciselythesamelightasanyotherofthenegroesoftheisland,andthatanyattemptatviolencewillimmediatelybemetbysternandrelentlessmeasures,theylosenotimein"climbingdown,"asourAmericancousinspicturesquelyexpressit.Anydifferencethatexistsbetweenthemandthe ]'est ofthenegropopulation isentirelyinfavourofthelatter.Theso-calledMaroonsare,asaclass,moreignorant,unreliableandsuperstitious.TheircommunitiesareconductedonlineswhichinsomerespectshaveastrongflavourofSocialism. BUt'ials andmarriagesamongthemaremadeoccasionsofuniversalfestivalstowhichtheyallsubscribe,mak ing upa commonpurseby contributio:ps, eachac-

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THEMAROONS. 295 .cordingtohismeans.Andtheyelectamongthemselvescertainchiefs,towhomtheygivethemilitarytitlesof"major"and"captain."Theyusedtoconferthehonorarydistinction "colonel" upon someinfluential whiteresidentintheneighbourhoodoftheirtowns-indeedsometwentyorthirtyyearsagothishonourwasheld by a Scotch lady, one Mrs.Strachan;butthiscustomhasalso nowfalleninto disuse. Agreatnumberofthemen still followtheirfavouritepursuitofhog-huntingandsellingthe"jerked"meatinthemarketsofthedifferent towns.Theirusualcostume when engagedinthispursuitconsistsofashirtandtrousers,andabatteredoldhatorcap,orsometimes ahandkerchieftiedroundthehead;whilehungfromtheirshoulderstheycarryatinderhornwithflintandsteel, a calabash gourd contain ing pepper and salt,anda cutlass,or"machete"ina scabbardmadefromtheflowersheathofthecab bagepalm.Aknifeand,sometimes,an"abeng"completestheequipment. Insteadofcarryingloads perched onthetopofthehead,asothernegroes do,theyrestthemontheirbacks, suspendedbya rope passed roundtheforepartofthehead.Theadvantageofthismethod .)f carriagethroughdenseforestis obvious. On thevarious expeditions which I havemadeintheuntroddendepthsoftheBlueMountainsmy oWn menalwayscarriedtheirloadsinthismanner-"Maroonfashion"astheycalledit. Imayremark that theexpeditions which I made toNannyTown,andalsoanother s\J.bsequent one which IundertookacrosstheJohnCrow Mountains, afrightfullyrepellentandentirelyunknownrangetotheeastoftheMooreTownsettlement, causedgreatuneasiness among them.

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296 AWESTINDIANPOLICEMAN.ThiswasveryforciblydemonstratedatapublicceremonyinthetownofPortAntonio whichSirHenryBlake,theGovernoroftheisland,attendedacoupleofmonthsafterwards.Hewasconversingwithoneofthegentlemenpresentaboutmyrecentexpedi.tioninthehearingofanaged Maroon, whenthelatterturnedroundtoSirHenryandinangryandin':'dignanttones deniedthefactthatIhadbeen to the placesnamed,assertingthatitwasquite inipossibleformetodo soandreturnunharmed.Onanotheroccasionmychief guideandwoodsmanon myexploringexpeditions, Hibbert,fellinwithapartyofthematarumshopin a village intheBlueMountain Valley,wheretheywere sellingjerked hog', andmyNannyTown expedition cameunderdiscussion,meetingwiththesameindignantdenialofmyachievements. AlittlelaterHibberttook oneofthemen, whomheknewverywell, asideandsaidtohim:-"Now,Mr. So-and-So,don'tyou know very wellthatInspectorThomaswenttoNanny Town withus,andslepttheretwonights?"Thereplywas,"Well,Mr. Hibbert, wecan'tdeny it, c.but wedon'twantthoseother 'nanturs' tothinkthatitistrue."

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THEMAROONS.ChapterXVIII.THEMAROONS(CONTINUED.)297Theforegoingchapterformedthesubstance of alecturewhichIgaveattheImperialInstituteinJanuary,1902,withField-MarshalSirHenryWylieNorman,G.C.M.G., aformerGovernorofJamaicaunderwhomIhadserved,inthechair;anditsohappenedthata coupleofyearsaftermyreturnto the: islandIwasbroughtintomuchclosercontact with thesepeoplethanIhadpreviouslybeen,andwasaffordedthefullestopportunityofverifyingandcon firmingtheestimateoftheircharacterwhichIhadformed,assetforthabove. OntakingcommandofthepoliceofSt.Eliza-bethini904, IfoundtheembersstillsmoulderingofanagitationwhichtheMaroonsofAccompongTownhadstartedsomemonthspreviouslyrespectingtheareaofthelandallottedtothembythetreatyabove describedashavingbeen concludedbythegovernmentin1738 betweenKingGeorgeII.andCapt. Cudjoe, Accompong,andothersavages.Thisallotmentwassupposedtoconsistof1,500acres of Crownland,anditwasabundantlyadequatetotheirrequirementsatthe date ofthetreaty.But in theCourseofahundredandseventyyears,owingtothenaturalincreaseofthepopulation,andtotheir crude methodsofcultivation,inwhichtheuseoffireplays un importantpart,thisland-which,itmustbeadmitted, is far frombeingofthebestquality-gradual':'

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AWESTINDIAN POLICEMAN.lybecame exhausted, both inareaand fertility. As anaturalresulttheMaroons begantoencroach on -their neighbours, who appealed tothegovernmentforprotection. A survey was made bytheSurveyor 'General's department,andit foundthattheoriginallimitsofthesettlementhadindeed been verylargelyover-stepped, tothedetriment oftheownersoofthe adjoining land. Thesehadno doubt tacitly ac -quiesced inthetrespass,untilitbegantobe discover-ed thatthelandinthatdistrictwas suitableforthe -eultivation ofbananas, whiCl1 industrywasjustthen:rapidly increasing.Attheoutsetthegovernment 'handled the situation in the same kid glove fashionasithad done on previous occasions,thusencouragingtheMaroons in the beliefthattheystill enjoyed special -privileges. Of course intheendtheyhadtoresortto .stronger measures, beforetheMaroons were driven back withintheboundariesoftheoriginal concession, .sullen and resentful.Itso happened, however,thattherewasamong -their ranksa man whohadservedfortenyearsintheconstabularyandhadretiredfromitafterat therankofcorporal. He was averyfine char .acter; andheenjoyedtheadditional prestigeofbeingownbrothertotheso-called "Colonel"oftheMa roons. He was offeredtheappointmentofrural -constable forAccompong.Heacceptedit;andrightfaithfully,loyallyandimpartiallydidhefulfil his dutiesandobligationsaslongashe heldthepost.Hewasappointedveryshortlybefore Iwenttothe :parish; andafterassuming charge I lost no timeinvisiting Accompong Townandpassinganightathis bouse, where mywantswereattendedtobyhis very

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THE MAROONS. 299 -shrewd andcapablewife, a woman whowasnother-. a Maroon, whom.hehadmarried while servinginthe police.rused to visittheplace periodically, .and inaveryshorttimeIhadtheMaroons all "feedingoutofme'and"-asthe London bus-driversaid
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300 AWESTINDIANPOLICEMAN. 11ight bymysergeantatBalaclavastation,(Ander son, afterwardssergeant-major,andnowretired).Some showofresistancewasputup,andanattempt.madetostampedethepolicehorses.Ipurposelyab-stainedfrominterferingmyself,inordertoshowtheMaroonsthattherankandfilewerequitecapable of dealingwiththem.ButIspentthenightinthevicin ity,standingbytotakeahandiftheoccasionhadrequiredit.Whenthecasecameonfortrial,thedefendants.andtheirfriendswenttotheexpenseofbringingdownabarristerallthewayfromKingstontoconductthedefence,whileImyselfundertooktheprosecution.Thefactsbeingentirelybeyond dispute, Tearned counselforthedefence, (who, Imayremark,.has since. risentoeminentrankintheserviceofthe. ColonialGovernment),actuallyhadthehardihood t() pleadtheprecious"treaty"whichisquotedabove. Icannothelpthinkinghemusthavedoneitwithhistongueinhischeek;butheproduced apaperwhich purported tobea copyofthisdocument,andattemptedtoputitinevidence. Iatfirstobjectedtoitsbeingreceivedatall,buttheResidentMagistrateconveyedtomebymeansofthoseproverbialnodsandwinks:whicharesocleartoablindhorse,suchakeen desireto deal with thetreaty,thatIatoncewaivedmyobjec tion,and it wasdulyputinevidence.Afterhearingcounsel'saddressontheprovisionsofthisdocument,andstatingthatnoreplyfrommewasrequired,thecourtproceeded,metaphoricallyspeaking,totearitintominutefragmentsandtrampleit underfoot. Thetreatywasdissectedparagraphbyparagraph,anditwaspointedout

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THEMAROONS.301 in scathingtermswhatanabsurdanachronismthewholetenorofithadbeen reducedtobythemarchof,civilization,inthefirstdecadeofthetwentiethcentury.Theresultofthetrialwasa conviction onthe,chargeofunlawfulpossessionofrum,andtheimpo sitionofexemplary fines.Therewasanadditional chargeofresistingthepoliceintheexecutionoftheir duty, andthiswas also proved,anddealtwithin likemanner.Thechiefdefendantwasunabletopaythefine imposed on him,andhewas accordingly haled offtoSpanishTowngaoltoservetheaIternativetermofimprisonment;tothegreatconsternationandchagrinoftheMaroons, whowereallthusconvincedthatmywarningstothemhadbeen nomereidletalk.Thelawofthelandhavingbeentriumphantlyvindi inthismanner,andtheamenabilityoftheMa roons toithaving been conclusively established,therehasnot, sofarasIamaware,beenanyfurthertroubleofthisdescription;certainlynotpriortomyfinallyleaving St. Elizabeth in 1921.Inthefollowing year,ifIrememberrightly,somefreshlandtroubledid .arisewitha coupleoftheAccompong people.ItwasreferredbytheGovernortome-thenstationedinWestmoreland-asbeingthecompetentauthorityon the subject,andI gavewhatI consideredthebestadvice.IncidentallyI offeredtoputanendtothewholeaffairwithintwenty-fourhoursiftheywouldsendmeto Accompong;butI neverheardanything fur theraboutit. I shouldstatethat,realisingtheimportanceoftheissues involvedinthisprosecution-whichwasreally atestcase-Ihadtakencertainsecretprecau-

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302 A WEST INDIAN POLICEMAN.tionsagainstanyseriousdemonstrationbythe roons suchaswould have' giventhemthesurpriseoftheirlivesiftheyhadattemptedanythingoftheSort.Butalthoughthelittle courthouseanditsyard at Balaclavastationwere crowdedwithbetweentwoandthreehundredofthemwhohadcometohearthe case, a few wordsofadmonitionfromme provedsufficienttoallayacertainamountofexcitement which began to manifest itself whenthejudgmentofthe CQurt was pronounced;andeverything passed offwith <'JUt anysymptomsofdisturbance. Now,itappearsto methatall persons of normal mentalitywillagreethattheproceedingsinthiscasehadachieved averydesirable result.Theanomalous b.nd anachronisticnatureofthestatusoftheMaroons. andoftheiralleged"treaty"hadbeen ruthlessly expos ed, and theyhadbeenbroughtinto linewiththerestofthe populationinthe eyes ofthecriminal law.But it will scarcely be believedthatthereweretobe found persons whothoughtotherwise;andthosenotnativeJamaicans,butpracticalandhard-headedScotsmen.Theattitudewhich these gentlemen tookupinthematteraffordsthemoststrikingillustrationoftheextraordinaryglamourwhichhasbeen allowedtoenveloptheMaroons inthecourseofa coupleofcen turies,aspreviously described.Thenumericallysmallreligioussectknownasthe"ChurchofScotland,"which flourishesinthiscountry,alongwithmanyothers,hadestablished someyearspreviously a schoolandchapelatAccompongTown, whichthe pastor inchargeofthedistrict used tovisitatstated periods'-":about once amonth; and hethoughtithisdutytoreporttotheheadof

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THEMAROONS. 303 his church,residingin Kingston,thecircumstancesofthecase,andtocallattentiontotheinjusticewhich had, in his opinion, been inflicted onthe ThislattergentlemaninhisturnapproachedtheGovernoroftheislandonthesubject,andenteredinto correspondencewithHisExcellency,pointingout-toputitshortly-thatthe.actionofthepoliceand th,:, judgmentofthecourtconstituted a breachofthe"treaty,"andshould be repudiatedbythegovern ment.TheentirecorrespondencewasprintedintheJamaica Gazetteofthe15thMarch, 1906,andthelastparagraphbutoneofthereverendgentleman'sreportreadthus:-"If,however,suchmethodsarepursuedwefearthattherewill becreatedintheirminds (Le., thoseoftheMaroons) a suspicionthattheseattemptshavebutone object, viz.,tograduallydeprivethemoftheirancientrightsandprivilegesandtherefore(create?)astateofaffairsthatmayleadtoserious dis quietude,ifnotriot."As asampleofspecialpleadingandspeciousargumenttheletterishardtobeat;andthefactsstatedareallofcourse derivedfromtheaccusedandtheirfriends.Itis averycommonthingforignorantanduneducatedpeasantstoworrythegovernmenttogo behindthe judgments ofcourts by meansofex parle statements;butone doesnotexpectsuchthingsfromministersoftheChurchofScotland,oranyotherchurch. However,theGovernoratthemomentwas,fortunately,SirJamesAlexanderSwettenham,who, however obj ectjonablehemightbeinhismethodsoftreatinghis subordinatesinthepublic service, was atanyrateamanofhishands,andoneaboutwhom

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:304 AWESTINDIAN POLICEMAN.therewasnottheleast ambiguity.Hedealtwiththematteroftheprosecution,aswellaswithothel'mattersgermanetoitarisingoutofthe"treaty,"inthemostdetailedandexhaustivemanner,quotingformercorrespondence,anddecisionsofpreviousGovernors;andgenerallyaffordingtohis petitioners amassofusefulinformationonthesubject,ofwhose existencetheyhadpreviouslynothadanyknowledge whatever.Itis preciselytheencouragementwhichthesepeople havefromtimetotime received throughthenodoubtwell-meaningandsincere,butmisguidedinterferenceofsuch personsastheseScotch ministerswhichhasimbuedthemwith a totallyexaggeratedestimateoftheirown importance. I think, how -ever, thatitis now safetosaythatthereply madebySirJ.A.Swettenhamto toe saidScotchministersdealtthemastrokefromwhichtheyhave never re covered. The day oftheonce dreaded Maroon is past,andtheglamourhasbeenstrippedfromtheminthe .oyes ofthose whoareconversantwith the circum stances. Only in onerespectdoesanytraceofthatglamourstillsurvive,andthatis inthebeliefwhichis cherishedbythepopulation intheirskillasprac l.itioners of of wilich one strikinginstance will be given in due course,inthechapterdealingwith that superstition.Itwill suffice tosayherethatsub sequent totheevents whicharenarratedabove wear l'8sted no fewerthanthreemen chargedwithserious erimes, two of them murderers, whom wehadtracked to Accompong Town;theyhaving gonethitherinorderto invoketheaid oftheMaroon obeahmenintheir tlight from justice. And not long before I finallyleftWestmoreland we interceptedanotherwho, also

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THEMAROONS. 305 ,chargedwithmurder,wasonhisway tothesame place. on a similarerrand,fromthelatterparish.DuringtheGreatWarIreadinthepapersthatthes,e peoplehadofferedtheirservices tothegovern ment,asMaroons,anallegedlyorganized bodyseparateanddistinctfromtherestoftheblackpeopleoftheisland.Itpleased metonotethattheauthorities didnotappeartotakethisoffer seriously. Ihaveno doubtthatinthisrespecttheyverycorrectlygaug ed theamountofsinceritywithwhichitwasmade.Tomeitwassupremelyridiculous.InthepreviouschapterI havemadementionof an attemptatland-grabbingonthepartofMaroonsintheparishofSt.Marywhichwasallowedtode veloptosuchanextentthatadetachmentoftheLeinsterRegiment was eventually marched downfromNewcastleforthepurposeofquellingthedisturbance.Ithasalwaysbeenaninexplicablemysterytomewhythetroublewasnotnippedinthebudbythepoliceatthevery outset. However, Ihadnothingtodowithit,directlyorindirectly, beingthenstationedinTrelawny;butI wastransferredtoSaintMaryafewmonthslater,andIshallpresently des,:" cribe how Idealtwithanattemptwhichwasin con,:" templationfora recrudescenceofthisagitation.This disturbance wasorganized by alleged MaroonsofScott's HallandCharles Town settlementsinSaintMary,andthepieceoflandto whichtheylaidclaimformed a portionofGibraltar,thepropertyofMr.A.C.Westmorland,who is now Custosoftheparish.Thisland, which liesjustoutsidethetownofAnnottoBay, is known bythenameof"Fyffe'sPen";andtheclaimmadebytheMaroonswasthatithadbeen

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306 AWESTINDIANPOLICEMAN.devisedtothemby aformerownerofthenameofFyffe, oneofthewhite "Colonels" mentionedina previous portionofthishistory. One finedayin1898 a mobofthese peoplemadea descentuponthisland,armedwithcutlassesand-someofthem-withtheirancientmuzzle-loading shot-guns,cutdownthefences,andtook forcible possessionofit;defyingallattemptstopersuadethemtowithdraw.Ofcourseoncetheballwasstarteditgatheredandincreasedinsize like a snowball,andanyvagabondbananaruffianfromAnnotto Bay,thatjoinedthemobtherebyatonce became aMaroon;untilthelanditselfandthatportionofAnnottoBayadjoiningwere formedinto twoarmedcamps. Iamnotin a positiontogiveallthepitifuldetails;butI knowthatinspiteoftherebeing sometwohundredarmedpolice onthescene,withanInspector-General-whowasaboutthemostweird specimenofanofficial everimportedintothiscountry-nothingwasdone.TheMaroons-realandfictitious-wereallowedtoremainonthespotuntilTommyAtkinscametrampingdownfromNewcastle,whentheymeltedaway,withoutashotbeing fired. Now, Imakeboldtoassert,frommyownsubsequentknowledgeofthecircumstancesandofthesepeople,thattheycouldnotpossiblyhaveorganizedthisraidwithsuchcunningandsecrecyasentirelytoconcealtheirintentionsfromthepolice.I recollectexperiencing a, keen senseofshameandhumiliationwhenreadingofEnglishtroopsbeingbroughtdown from NewcastletotackleajobthattheJamaicaConstabularyhadapparently"funked." However.letusdrawa veil:itwasnotthefaultoftherank and file. The officersinchargeatthetimearelong sincedead.

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THEMAROONS. 307 Thisepisodeoccurredin1898,justaboutthe closeoftheSpanish-AmericanWar,anditwaswitnessed bymorethanonehome-returningEnglishnewspapercorrespondent,andreportedtoseveraljournalsintheoldcountryaccordingly.InFebruary,1899 IwastransferredfromTrelawny to St.Mary;anda description oftheconditions Ifoundprevailingtherehasalreadybeen giveninapreviouschapterofthisbook,althoughthisparticularepisodehasnotbeen alluded to.Thesergeantmajorofthedivisionwasoneofthefew black sheepamongthemenwhohadbeenimportedbySirHenryBlakefromtheRoyalIrishConstabulary,anditdidnottakemelongtofindoutthathisremovalwouldbehighlydesirable.(Hewasafirstclassmanina row, likemostofhisrace,butthatwasnoteverything.)So IpersuadedtheInspectorGeneral, Mr.E.F.Wright-whoalwaysaffordedmethemostwholeheartedsupportinsuch matters:....-to sendmetheman..IhadleftinTrelawny,wherehewas"wastinghis f-weetness onthedesertair."(HewasinlateryearspromotedDeputyInspectorGeneralovermyhead,. as describedinChapterXIII.)InhimIhadthemost: nbsolute confidence;andthetaskof licking St.Maryintoshapewasdivided between us.Hissplendidphysiquewasagreatasset;hesucceededmeinthecommandoftheparish,afterreceiving a commission,andremainedtherefor.manyyears... I soon found tp.e Inspector'squartersinPortMaria:. :00 small,andaltogetherinconvenientformynumerousfamily;so I consultedtheCustosoftheparish,.Dr. Pringle-he hadnotyetbeenknighted-onthematter.Hehadknownmeforma.nyyearsbeforeIcame

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308 AWESTINDIAN POLICEMAN._toSt.Mary,andhisgreatdesirewastohavemeasnearto himselfaspossible; beingatthattimethelargestlanded proprietor inJamaicawithexceptionoftheUnitedFruit Company. Hisown residence, Cape Clear,was not far from theseatoftheMaroondisturbancejustdescribed,andoneofhisproperties,AgualtaVale, actually adjoined Gibraltar. Sothedelightful old house on that place being vacant,heprevailedupontheGovernor,SirA. W. L.Hemming,toallowmetorentoutthequartersinPortMariaandtransfermyresidencetoAgualtaVale.Inordertomeetthedifficultiesoftheincreasedtravellingthusinvolvedhegavemethefreeuseoftwoofhishorses, in additiontopasturageformyown;andforllE'arly eighteen months I was inclover-thankstohiskindness,andthatofhis sainted wife, who proved a veritablefairygodmother to my children.Aboutthemiddleof1900 I receivedfromMr.WestmorlandatGibraltarinformationofa confidentialnaturewhich convinced methattheMaroonswerecontemplatinganotherraidonFyffe'sPensimilartothatof1898.ImmediatelyonreceiptofthisIwenttoKingstonbythefirsttrainonthefollowingmorning-aSunday-andsawtheInspectorGeneral. I impartedtohimalltheinformationwhich Mr.Westmorlandhadgiven me,andtoldhimwhatIproposedtodo.Heentirelyapprovedofmyplans;butsaidthathe would likefirsttolaythewholesituationbeforetheColonialSecretary,andmadeanappointmentwithmeforalaterhourintheday.WhenIsawhimagainhetoldmethatmyproposalshadfoundfavourat hea(1quarters, ,and directedmetore bythefirst train on Mop-day morning-there

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THEMAROONS. 309' usedto betwoeachwayeverydayatthattime-andtakethemeasures which Ihadsuggested; while he would keepanarmedpartyofthirtymenandasergeant-majorstandingbywitha specialtrainreadytobringthemoverincase Ishouldwirehimtothateffect.Inpartingfromme he said:-"Thomas,I won't come myself,althoughIshouldliketo,because Ithinkyouarequite capableofseeingtheaffairthroughyourself,andIwantyoutohavealltheere...:ditforit. Iintendedcoming overtoinspectyourdi visionnextweek,butanyhow,ifIdocome before youhavefinishedthisbusiness Iwon'tsupersede you." IaccordinglyarrivedatAnnottoBayearlyintheforenoonofthenextday,andafterascertainingthateverythingwasstillquiet, proceededtoAgualtaVale,returningtoAnnotto Bayintheafternoontoinauguratemyplanofcampaign.IhadarrangedbytelegramfromKingstonthatasmanymenascould besparedfromPortMariaandotherstationsintheparishshouldarriveatAnnottoBaynotlaterthannoonontheTuesday,allfullyarmedandprovidedwithballcartridge.KnowingasI dothepsychologyofthepeoplewithwhom Ihadto deal, I foresawthatthenewsoftheappearanceofthefirstbatchofthesewould bewaftedabroad onthewingsofthewind,andgive "furiouslytothink."Now,therewaslivingverynearthepolicestationatAnnottoBayacertainMaroon,runningasmithyanda coach-buildingestablishment,whosenamehadbeen giventome as theringleaderinthetroublewhichwasbrewing.Heused to doallmyownblacksmith'sand work,andIwas onveryfriendlytermswith him; butthecircumstances Iamnow discussing proved him

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310 AWESTINDIANPOLICEMAN. tobejusta goodexampleofthatshiftinesswhich Ihavedescribedasbeingcharacteristicofthese people.Hewasveryintelligent,andwell-spoken; so much sothatIfrequentlylenthimbooksandmagazines.In.appearance hewastall, erect,andalthough black,withnothingnegroidabouthisfeatures.Hishairwasofthesortwhich I have describedas"Maroon." I likedtheman;andnever, unless I wasinagreatburry,failed topullupathisestablishmentandpassthetimeofdaywithhim.Butitnow became necessary,inthelightoftheverycompleteinformationwhichMr.Westmorlandhadobtained,totreathiminmysternestmanner.Itshouldbeclearly understoodthatindealingwithpersonsofhistypea good command ofimpressive language isofthegreatestvalue;andthelanguagebecomesverymuchmoreimpressive whenthe person to whomitis addressed knowsthatthewordandtheblowarenotatallfarapart.Iaccordinglysentmy Sergeant,Kenny-afterwardspromotedtosergeant-major,andnowdeceased-tosummonmy.Maroonfriendtoaprivateinterviewatthestation,intheafternoonaftermyreturnfromKingston.Hecame,andinKenny'spresence Iaddressedhimforsometwentyminutes,withoutallowinghimonceto 'Open his mouth. Beginning bytelling him thathisintentionswereanopen book to me, I gave him abriefsummaryofthehistoryoftheMaroons,fromtheirorigin downtothelateraidonFyffe'sPen. I .impressed on hismindthefactthattheso-calledprivileges whichhadbeenconferredonthemby aweak and misguided government intheeighteenthcentury had now, by effluxionoftimeandthemarchofcivili-

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THEMAROONS. zation, been reducedtoananachronismandbecome. t!. dead letter. I deploredthefactthatin1898ithad bten thoughtnecessary to calloutwhite troopstodealwithMaroon robbers,thusencouragingtheminthebeliefthatthepoliceoftheisland werenotcapableofdoingso;andIassuredhimthatare newal ofsuchanattemptwould give themthesurpriseoftheirlivesatthehandsoftheJamaicaConstabulary,led by myself. I wound up bypaintinga vividpicture'oftheconditioninwhichtheywould find themselves when Ihadfinishedwiththem.andtoldhimthathehimselfwould bethefirstmantoperishifIsawhimthere.WiththisperorationI dismissedhim .from mypresence.Whenheenteredmyofficehe was black; whe>n heleftithe was morethecolourofanewslate.Iproducedtheexacteffect '\vhich I had intended. Therewasnotthen,andthereneverhasbeenS_l1ce,anyattempttorenewtheraidon Mr.Westmorland'sproperty.IkeptthereinforcementsfromtheotherstationsatAnnottoBayforseveraldays longer,andbeforetheendoftheweekMr.Wrightpaidhispromisedvisitofinspection. Ithenturnedoutquite alargeparadeonthebeachoftheUnitedFruitCompany'spremises,inthecourseofwhich we expendedabouttenroundsofblankcartridgepermanin volley-firing.Theentirepopulationassembled to witnessit;andiftherewere stillany Embers smoulderingoftheproposed agitation,theywere finallyandcompletely extinguishedbythatwarlike display. Iwasforciblyremindedofthis episod@,. andofthewholeoftheSt.Marylandcampaign iouched on inChapterX., by almostthelastwordsspokentomebyMr.Wrightbeforetheoutbreakof

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312 AWESTINDIAN POLICEMAN. the riotinMontegoBayonthenightofthe6thApril. 1902. Lulledintoa sense offalsesecuritybytheprotestationsofthewiseacres whohadtakenchargeofhim,asdescribedinChapterXI., he,poorman,allunconsciousofthetroublethatwasthensonearathand, intimated to me his intention ofreturningtoKingston onthefollowing day,andwound upbysaying:-"Thomas,I know I cantrustyoutoputthefearofGodinto them(theMontego Bay mob) like you didinSt. Mary."Itwas a real pleasure to serveunder a manwho couldthusappreciateone's work,andgive one fullcreditforit. Thetabletto his memorywhich adorns a walloftheHalfwayTree Church, was placedtherebytheofficers and men oftheforce.

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OBEAH.ChapterXIX.OBEAH. Theblack cloudofthisdegradingrelicofAfri-, can superstition lowers overthemoraland horizon ofJamaicawitha steadily increasing threat._Itgives no signwhateverofbeing dispersed bythereligiousandeducational influences,andleastofallbythevarious legal enactments,thatareconstantlyattackingit;but, onthecontrary,appearstogainin gloomandintensity.Inpastyearswhen I used to devote agreatdealofattentiontothissubject,I aIways consoledmyselfwiththereflectionthatthedays in which Obeahwasanaccessory to crimesofviolencehadgone by,andthatithaddegenerated in to amerelysillyandcomparativelyharmlessmethod of gullingtheignorant .and superstitious;butrecent, events have provedthatIwaslabouringundera de lusion. There have occurredinquite recent times within ashortdistanceofthecapitalofthisislandtwohorrihle cases of cold-blooded murder, committedattheinstigationofobeahmen, which have caused the public to gasp withhorrorandastonishment.If'thesearetoberegardedasa signofthetimes,thenJamaicais indeedinaparlouscondition.DuringmysojournintheparishofSt. Thomas, which is describedina previouschapter,besides con ducting a vigorouscampaignagainstObeah,inwhich I secured a considerablenumberofconvictions underthethenexisting laws, Iwrotea good deal on

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:214 AWESTINDIAN POLICEMAN.thesubject.Someofmywritingsattractedattention .(4broad, formentionwasmadeofthemin Chambers's.Journal ofFebruary,1902. I alsomadeaninterestingcollectionofvariousimplementsusedbyobeahmen, .and bookskeptbythem.fortheJamaicaExhibitionof1891,whichIplacedina show-case,payingforthe,space occupied,inthehopethatmyexhibitwould beofsomeuseincombatingthesuperstition.MuchtomysurpriseI receivedwithinafortnightoftheopen:ing oftheExhibitiona politerequestfromtheCommissionerstoremovemyexhibit, onthegroundthatitwas"unfavourablyaffectingtheattendance."(NosuggestionwasmadeofarefundofthepriceIhadpaidforthespace.)Atthesametimetheproprietor cf oneoftheside-shows,anoptical illusionwhichwaslabelled"AmphritetheLivingObeah"wasdirectedtoremovefromhissignthelastword,sothatitreadfromthenonwards"AmphitritetheLiving---."Ithinkthatitwasonly'thenthatIbeganto:realizewhatareal power Obeahisinthelana,andIhavelearntagreatdealsince;thetwocasesofmurderabovereferredtohavinggiventhefinishingtouchtomyeducation.Almostinvariablywhenraidsare:.madebythepolice on obeahmen,andtheirpremises ;searched, lettersarefoundfrompersons, someofwhomareevidentlyintelligentandwelleducated,askingtheobeahman'sassistanceinrespectofhealth, success inbusiness,theobtainingofemployment,love,affairs,andmanyothermatters.Infact,myexperi nce inthisdirectionhasbeensuchthatIshouldnot-thinkofattemptingtodrawa lineatanyoneparticular'stratumofsocietyandsaying:"Herethebelief jn Obeah ends." Ihaveinmypossessionnow corrG-

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OBEAH.315 withtheEducationdepartmentoftheislandwhich ensued onmyreportingtothemthatwe bad found inthehouseofa notorious obeahwoman-forthepractitionersbelongtobothsexes-aletterofintroductionwhichtwowould-be clientshad brought toherfromthemasterofa government school. Icanonlysaythatnoactionwhateverwastakenbythedepartmentagainsttheschoolmasterconcerned. Alargeproportionofsuchcorrespondence comesfrompersonsresidingin Cuba, Costa Rica,Panama,Colon,andotherplaces to whichourpeople emigrate. Believers in Obeahareto befoundinalmosteverywalkoflife.Theveryministersofreligionofthedifferentdenominations,iftheywill behonestwiththemselves, willadmithearingthatamongsucharemembersoftheircongregations,andevenoftheirchurchcommittees.Theaveragenegroofthelabouring dass will have noscruplea'boutlettingthedoctorandtheparsonstarve,buthe will always find moneyfortheobeahman,andthelawyer. Idonot. mean by this anydisrespect tothelegal profeSsion, butmerelytoindicatethefactthatthenegro isnaturallyofa litigious disposition,andnotinfrequent ly employstheobeahmanasanauxiliarytothelawyer-withoutthelatter'sknowledgeofcourse. Someofthemoreambitiouspractitionerssetupon piecesofunoccupiedlandinremotedistrictsregularhealing establishments, whichtheycall "balm yards," (balmofGilead, Ipresume),inwhichtheyadministertotheirpatients,besides magic potions ac companied byritualisticincantations,corporealmortificationoftheflesh by flogging them'withswitches,

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316 AWESTINDIANPOLICEMAN.todriveouttheevilspirits.Ihaveseeninsuch a. placeasmanyasfifteenortwentylittle ofsaplingsanddrygrassbuiltuparoundalargercentralone,thedwelling-placeoftheprophet,eachwitha little redflag flyingfromit;while outsidethesurroundingfenceweregathereddonkeys, mules, buggies,andevenmotorcars,whichhadborne tientstotheestablishment.IhadtodowithonecaseinSt.Elizabethinwhichthefatherofaladwhohadactuallypassedtheexaminationqualifyinghimforthepostofpupilteach er inagovernmentelementaryschool,hadapprenticedhimtooneoftheseprofessorsoftheblackart.Now,.manypeoplewillnodoubtask"whatisObeah?"Thereplyisthatitisinprinciplenothingmorethana beliefinwitchcraft,ortheattainmentofdesiredendsbytheaidofoccultmeans.Thatisinitselfnothingveryalarming.Notacenturyandahalfagowitchcraftwasanoffence recognizedbythelawofEngland.Asiswell known,JohnWesleybelievedinit,tosuch an extentthathesaidto give upthatbeliefwouldbetantamounttosurrenderinghis.beliefintheBible.ButwherethiscultispractisedinsuchadegradingmannerasobtainsamongitsvotariesinJamaica, oftn forthevilestpurposes-leavingcrimeoutofthequestion-andearningan easy andlucrativelivingforitshighpriests,thenitcanonlybedescribedasanopen,festeringsoreonthe bCldy politicofthe 'Country. Manyofthedetailsof CYbeah caseswhichIhavewrungfromthelipsoftremblingandashen-huedwitnessesinthecourtsareentirelyunprintable.Thestock-in-tradeoftheaverageobeahmancon-

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OBEAH.317 ;gists asaruleofarticles,scraps,andfragmentsof .a ridiculousnature.Healwayshasasmallpocketmirror,a piece ofwhitechalk, a glass marbleortwo, .a few dogs'oralligators'teeth, apackofcards,feathers,orperhapsthebeakandfeetofabirdofsome kind, a reelofblackthread,a fewshells'ofpeculiar. .shape, a bunchofnegrohair,aEttleasafoetidaor.sticksulphur,resintakenfromamangotree,and.allsortsofrubbishofsimilarkinds. Apintofrumisalso necessarytohis incantations,andongreatoc (;asions a white cock is sacrificed, whose bloodmustbepreserved, whileitsflesh is cookedandservedupwithrice.Theincantationsusedattheceremony consistof"unknown tongue,"oraflowofjabberingwordswhichdonotformpartofanyknown lan Someofthe dbeahmen have a wonderful gift,ofreeling offthesewithoutapauseforminutestogether.Afrequentmodeofprocedureonthepartoftheobeahman isthis:-Hecasts a lustful eye on some good-lookinggirlwhotakeshis fancy, and, findinghisadvances repulsed, decidestoinvoketheaidofhisart.Heapproachesthegirl'smotheranddropsahintthatthedaughterisnotlooking well,andhefearsthatsheis goingtobeveryillunlesscertainprecautionsaretaken.Themotherrepeatsthese hints tothedaughter;andthelatter,respondingtoaform.ofauto-suggestion which isnotuncommonamongprimitive races,actuallydoes begintofailinhealth.Theobeahmancontinuestoworkonthemother's feelings,andfinally inducesherto consenttoreceivehimatherhouse on adaytobe fixed,inorderthathemaysubjectthegirltohistreatment.

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318 AWESTINDIANPOLICEMAN.which hasbutone endinview. Sometimeshe his aim,butsometimeshedoes not,ashappened once in averycelebratedcase intheparishof Thomas.Inthisinstancetheobeahmanstoodmuchhigherinthesocial scalethantheordinaryprofessoroftheart.Hewas alittlebrownman,alwaysneatanddapperin appearance,veryintelligentandwell educated,.havingbeen a sch
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OBEAH. 319> triedtopersuadethegirl'sparentsandbrotherstodrinksome.Theyrefused,buthedrankaportionof'ithimself,andspilttheremainderonthefloor.Variousotherperformanceswere gonethroughwhilethefleshofthecockandtherice were being cooked,andwhenthese werereadyhepartookof a. heartymeal,butthefamilywere toostrickenwith.disgustandterrortoeat.Finally,whenafter his sup_ perheinsistedthatthegirlandhermothershouldaccompanyhimintothebedroom,whathe began theresuddenlyarousedtheindignationofboth erandmotherto such a degree thattheyejected the rascal fromthehouse,andonthefollowingdaycamestraightto meatMorantBay. We worked up the: caseagainsthim. with complete success; actually findinghis bag, whichhe h2d thrownawayinthewoods .. with alltheimplementsdescribed,andhe was senten ced to twelve months' imprisonmentandtwenty-five lasheswiththe cat-o'-nine tails. Hehadbeen paid a fE-e of bythedeluded people. I quotethiscase for'thereasonthatitisthemost ceiebratedandimportant. onethatIeverhadtodowith. The accusedwasable tobringa solicitor allthewayfrom Kingston to de fend him.Itsometimes happensthata remarkable dence occurs whichtendstosupportthepretensionsofsomeofthese people,andto increasethepowerwhichtheywield. Anoteworthyinstanceofthekindcame withinmyexperience in St.Elizabethataplacecalled Balaclava. Ihadtakenproceedingsagainsta par. ticularlyimpudentblackmanwho usedtocombinetheillicitpracticeofmedicinewiththatofObeah.Hewasfairlyeducated,andintelligent,upto acertain

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=320 AWESTINDIAN POLICEMAN.point.Heclaimedtopossess a medical diploma, ob tained by correspondencefromsome American collegeofmedicine. IwasprosecutinghimundertheMedical Lawsofthecolony,andIhada complete ,caseagainsthim,inwhichtheGovernmentDistrictMedical Officerwasabsolutelynecessaryasa techni cal witness,Thecasewastocome off on a Monday, .and on myarrivingatthecourtI received informa-. tion thatthedoctorhadbeen found deadinhis bed .thatmorning,afterhavingretiredtohis roomatteno'clock onthepreviousnightapparentlyinperfecthealth.Itafterwards.transpiredthathehadforsometimebeen sufferingfromdiabetes,andhadpassed .awayina diabetic coma.Atleast,thatwasthepro nouncementofthemedicalman madethepost examination;butthegeneral belief of coursewasthathisdeath had been caused bythemagicof the managainstwhom hewasto have given evidence,andwhosereputationwastherebyenhanced in pro Ilortion. Ihadno alternativebuttowithdrawthecase; .aI!d thiswasundoubtedlyasignaltriumphforthepowersofevil. SomeyearsafterwardsI prosecutedanother rascal ofsimilartype, whohadboldly assumedthetitleof"Reverend,"andtravelledabouttheparish wearing a surplice,andbaptisingchildren.Hecir 'Culated pamphletsin which he describedhimselfas'''LicensedbytheGovernmentofJamaicatobaptisefortheJamaicaEvangelicalIndependentBaptistRe vival Reversionary Bond (sic)ofHope Association."Alongwiththepamphletshedistributedphotographs 'Of himselfinfullcanonicals.Hewasforatimeverysuccessful in obtaining quite considerablesumsof

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OBEAH.321money,andvalueinkind,fromtheignorant;butIhadthesatisfactionofbringinghiscareertoanabruptclose by convictions ontwochargesofpractisingObeah,andsentencesofeighteen months'hardla hour. Thismanwasofa more ambitiousnatureand, Imust cOl1fess, displayedmoreoriginalitythantherestofhiskind;inproofofwhich someofhispublicationsareproduced below:-"THEGREATWONDERS ANDMYSTERIESOFTHEAGE. Read,thinkandwonder, abouttheElectric Medical Machiriethatcuresallsortsofhumansickness,withoutdrugs,painsorknife. Rev. Dr. Simeon Luther Blagrove,theMedical ElectricSpecialist.Atlasthehasarrived.Permanenthealthforthesick womenandmen, uncleandcousin, oldandyoung.Bya Machinethatisrecommended by someoftheworld'smostfamous DoctorsandleadingmeninthehospitalsofEurope, Americaandothercountries,andis knownasoneofthegreatestintheworld. Afriendoftherichandacompanytothepoor.Rememberthename,"WhiteCrossElectricVibrator."Ithandlesandoperatesa forcethatissuperiort<>allothermedical science,andyetharmless.Itpassesthehealingpowerthroughthebodyincountless minutes,andimmediatelygiveshealth,happinessandsuccesstothepoorsufferer.Hereisamanwhohasdevoted his time,talent,learning,andenergyinstudyinga forcethatover comespainsandallotherailmentsamongsufferinghumanitiesandis nowprofessedtodemonstratethetruesideof-healing. -Thisis

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322 AWESTINDIAN POLICEMAN.themanfromOrient;justfromtheEast.SimeonLutherBlagrove,ofKingston, Jamaica, is a luckybornfroma luckyplanet,Jupiter,thebrightestofthesevenHeisspeciallyendowedwiththepowerofhealingbytheauthorityoftheKing'shighestrepresentative,JesusofNazereth,KingoftheJews.TheMachineisguaranteedtocureFacialBlushes,Warts,Moles, Colds, Coughs,Cramps,Constipation,Consumption,La-gripe,Weakness,Headache, Dumbness, Deafness,LameEyes, Blindness,SoreThroat,BadBowels,LameBack,Strains,Sprains,Dropsy,Fits,Rheumatismandeverydescriptionof Thedoctor,. Mr.Blagrove, is anativeofJamaica,bornSunday,June-30,1874;hadtakenhisEducationaldegreesattheChurchofEngland,receivedthegiftoftheDivinebytheSpiritofconversion 1894;ordained aMinisterofreligion, December 21, 1899,aftertheBaptistorder;grantedtheprivilegeofa licensetodealinmedicinalherb,October, 1901,bytheauthorityofHisExcellencySirL. A.W.Hemming,afterwritingapetition,became astudentwiththeInternationalSchoolofChemistry,Scranton,Pennsylvania,U. S. A., 1907,includingavarietyofstudiesfromothercorrespondenceColleges.Heisfittedtofill aplaceofhonourandtrustamongthoseoftherespectability.In1913hehadbeenspeciallyappointedtheplaceofaPresidentforasocietyunderthenameoftheSt.ElizabethEvangelicalRevivalReversionaryBandofHopeAssociation,theaimofwhichistopromotea revivalofreligionamongallgoodpeople.Turningbacktohispresentengagement

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OBEAH.323.henowfullyclaimstobe aVendorofmedicines, .MinisterofreligionandSpecialistinMedicalElectricity.HispatientsarethoroughlyexaminedbytheaidofapowerfulEx-raylampwhichnableshimtoreadthroughthebodyasifitwasmadeupofglasses.Allletterswithbirthday .and dateshouldbeforwardedtotheaddressof.Rev. S. L. Blagroveat........................................................................District.............................................................................. P.O.Ateven erethesunwassetThesick0LordaroundThee lay,owithwhatdiverspaintheymetowithwhatjoytheywentaway. S. L. BLAGROVE."Itis a goodthingforbrethrento dwellto gether inUnity."UnityisStrength.THEST.ELIZABETHREVIVALEVANGELICALREVERSIONARYBANDOFHOPEASSOCIATION.ThisSociety is organized by aprogressivebandofmenand "\V0men residentsofJamaica,B.W.I.Theaimofwhich istopromotea revivalamong.all God's people.TheSocietyagreedthat.aformofgovernment be madeasaprotectionoftheChristianconvertsandthepromotionand -elevation of. Christ'sholycause. To havetheaffairsoftheISociety methodicallymanaged,themembersunitedlyappointthe 'REV. SIMEONLUTHERBLAGROVEof :'lton, Jamaica,B.W.I.to betheirPresident.

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324 AWESTINDIAN POLICEMAN. 1'he RulesandBye-LawsoftheAssociationconferredthepower onthePresidenttohave aTrustDeed signedatHisMajesty'sSupremeCourtfortheprotectionoftheconvertsand pro pertyoftheAssociation.Andunder. these con ditionstheSociety shall be ruled by aPresidentfromtimeto time. Membersforadmissionwillbeonly admit tedthroughtheExecutive Board. All letters should be WTittenanddirectedtothePresidentattheGeneralHeadquarters. ....................................DistrictP.O. REV. S. L. BLAGROVE,President."The one which followsnextisprintedin large typeon pink "JAMAICATRAVELLING MISSIONARY.NOTICE!Parentsof children whynotbaptisethemandlivehappy?. The Rev. SimeonLutherBlagrovewasli censed 21st December, 1899, bytheGovernmentofJamaicatobaptizeadults,childrenandinfants,everywhere.Heis MinisterandLeaderforTheJamaicaEvangelicalIndependentBaptistRevival Re versionary BondofHope Association.Hewill hold Public Serviceat. ........................................................................districtintheparishof : ;.onthedayof191 Who will gladlybaptizechildrenatthisSer-

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OBEAH.325 viCe. Two qualifiedgodparentsisrequiredforeachchild. Oneshining,willbetakenasfeefrom each forthecertificateandotherexpenses.Rememberthedate. Comeearly.SeetheauthorizedagentfortheSociety,hewill give youallinformation.Mrdistrict. S. L. BLAGROVE, MINISTER." Thiscreature'smentalequipmentmaybestbe describedasamixtureofcrassignorance, combinedwithincredible impudence,andgarnishedwithblas phemy. I tookhimmyselfonedayintheResidentMagistrate'sCourtatSantaCruzinSt.Elizabeth.justashesteppeddownfromthewitness boxaftergiving evidence in a civil caseinwhichhewastheplaintiff,andheimmediatelyfell in adeadfaintonthefloor.Hewasdoing aroaringtradeinthatdistrict at the time.Theliteratureabove quotedwasfoundinlarge quantitiesathis house;andhis "White Cross ElectricVibrator"proved to be a little toy electric hat terywhichhadevidently long beenoutofcommission.Itwas still possible toturnthehandle,andthatwas all. Hespentthefollowing eighteen months in striCt seclusion.andI neverheardof him again. I have previously made mentionofthefaetthatthe Maroon ObeahmenofAccompong Townenjoya I'pecially highreputation;andonly a few years agoI succeededinbringingwithinthegraspofthelawthecleverestandmostcunningofthese.Hewasa man of substance, owning averygood house, land,andstock 'ofdifferentkinds.Hewasalso apillaroftheScotchChurch whiCh I have described inthechapter

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326 AWEST INDIAN POLICEMAN.ontheMaroons,andusedtoentertaintheparsononhisperiodical visitsthere.Infactheactuallybroughttheministerasa witnesstocharacterathistrial.He wasin thehabitofabsenting himself from homeforweeksata time,duringwhichhetravelledon horseback-andverywellmountedtoo-halfroundtheisland, exercising his calling. Ihadbeenfora v.erylongtimeonhistrackbefore I succeededinentrappinghim.Forhis defence hewenttotheexpenseofbringingfromKingston totheBlackRivercourt .a weli knownbarrister,whowasalso amemberoftheLegislative Counciloftheisland.TheCourtconvictedhimandsentenced himtonine months'hardlabour.Ofcourse he appealed totheSupreme Court, but.thejudgmentofthelowercourtwas upheld; sohewas duly haledofftodoh-isnine months'hard laoour; manyweeks having elapsed beforethecase was finallydisposed of.Naturallyitwasnotpossibleforhimtoindulgeinsuchlegalluxuriesasdescribed,with out payingverydearlyforthem;andtheresultoftheproceedingswastoleavehimanutterlybrokenman, in mind, bodyandestate. ThemostoriginalandinterestingcharacterthatI ever encountered in theshapeofanobeahman was also a nativeofSt. Elizabeth, who residedneartheplacebearingtheeuphonious nameof"Maggotty."Thereisbotharailwaystationandapostofficethere.Ihadbeentrailinghimintermittentlyfora coupleofyears;andhis case is particularlynoteworthyasbeingtheonly onewithinmylongandvariedexperienceinwhich Ihaveeverhadreasonto 8uspect,inconnection withObeah, the goodfaithofanyof niy subordinates;butIamcertainthatin this

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OBEAH.327 case therewere at leasttwo-oneregularandoneruralconstable-incollusionwiththeObeahman.Consideringtheholdwhichthissuperstitionhasonthegreatmassofourpopulation,Iregardtheimmunitytoitwhichthepoliceusuallydisplayasahightributetothedisciplineandthecivilising influ ences ofthe force. Inthiscase, however, Ifoundinthehouseoftheobeahmanaletterwarninghimthatawarrantwasbeingissuedforhisarrest,afactwhichwasknownonlytomyselfandtwoofmymosttrustedsubordinates.Theletterwasunsigned,butthehandwritingwasobviously disguised,anditborethedateofthedayprevioustothe execution ofthewarrant.Onthemorningofthedayofhistrialtheobeahmanexpressedawishtospeaktome,andIhadalongconfidentialtalkwithhim,inthecourseofwhichhe toldmethatheintendedtoplead guilty.Hesaid,further,thatheknewthatObeahwasallignorance,butthatitwasaveryeasywayofmakinggoodmoney;thathehadbeendoingitalongtimeandwantedtogiveitup,butpeoplewouldn'tleavehim alone. Hisrelativesattendedthecourt,and.withouthisknowledgeorconsent,theyengagedasolicitortodefendhim,butherefusedtohaveanythingtodoWiththelatter,andwhenhewaschargedhepleaded guilty. Ithenrecountedthefactstothecourt,includingallthattheaccusedhadsaidtome,askingatthesametimethathebelenientlydealtwithinconsiderationofhispleaofguiltyandthecandourandoriginalityofhiswholeconduct.Hewasletoffwithasentenceofsixmonths.Iobtainedveryconvincing evidenceonone occa sionofthehighreputationborne,asIhavealready

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-328 AWESTINDIAN POLICEMAN.lndicated, bytheMaroon obeahmen when I arrest.,. edthedispenserofa certain government hospitaloftheparishof St. Thomas,alongwithhis wifeandhismother-in-law, onthechargeofstealinganddisposingofnumerousarticlesofhospitalclothing, bedlinenandotherequipment.Thetwo womenhailedfromKingston;andin searchingtheeffectsofthefamilyI came across anumberofletterswhichhadpassedbetweenthemanandhis mother-in-law.Thelatterappearedto be apersonofgreatforceofcharacter,andinherlettersshe wascontinuallyurgingherson-in-lawtogo overtotheMaroonsettlementofMoore TowninPortlandtoobtaintheservicesofoneoftheobeahmen there. Ikeptthoselettersforovertenyears, finally consigning them totheflames when packing upformytripto Englandin1901. Thecase_broke down,asImighthave expected,forthesimplereasonthattheDistrictMedical Officer responsibleforthemanagement ofthehospital,andthusnaturallythechief witness,"ratted"ina shamelessmannerto save his own skin.Intheearlypartofthischapter I have madereference totheletters whichthepolice often findinthecourseoftheirraidsonthedwellingsofworkersintheblackart;andinproofandillustration ofmyassertionandcontention I will now proceedtosubmita fewsamplesofsome whicharestillinmyposses sion. They were found inthehouseofa femaleprofessorofthecallingintheparishofSt.Elizabeth,anditwill be noted th,at inthemthereis nointimationof any criminal,oreven wicked,intentimpliedorexpressed: only a beliefintheoccult powers pos sessed bythepersontowhomtheyareaddressed.But

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OBEAH.329 who cansaywhentheborder-linemightbe over-stepped?.Theladyconcernedwasa widowbearingthenameofSusanF.,andshehadaspartnerinherbusinessanotherwomanwhosenamelikewise beganwithFThe firstletterbearsnodateorsignature.It is writtenon goodruledpaperfromawritingpad,but .I haveunfortunatelylostthesecond sheet, soitbreaksoffabruptly.Thehandwritingisverygood indeed, being evidentlythatofaneducatedperson, whilethespellingisabsolutelyflawless,andthemodeofexpression correct,withexceptionofa few local idioms.Thewriterisamarriedwoman,. whose hus .bandwasmostprobably a schoolmaster.Theletterdisclosesthefactthathedidnotsharehersuperstitions,andthatshemusthavecarriedonhertrafficwiththeobeahwomanwithouthis knowledge.Itreadsasfollows:-MyDearFriend,-AlthoughIdon'tknow youpersonally,I will consider you a goodfriendever. Imustreturnyoumanythanksforallyou have doneformy only child. Tongues cannotexpressmythanks.Hehasbeen quite achangedchild since. Before I couldnotgethim to study one lessonandhis actions were like' apersonalmostmad.Poorchild, enemieshaveplayedmischiefon him.Hisfatheris so anxiousabouthimmakinggood useofwhatis beingspentforhisfutureeducationbuthadhebeen allowedtoremainIdon'tknowwhatwould becomeofthechild.Thelastthingyousentmeinthelittlebottlebymysisterisalmostfinish;justa fewdropsleft.Canyou send me somemoreorwhatyoQ

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330 AWESTINDIANPOLICEMAN.will know best asearlyyoucan?Iwanttosendhim downfortheChristmasbutdon'tknowifhisfatherwillallowhim.Anyhowyou willhearfurther.Imust ask youtostilltry your verybestforme. Ican'tsend you moneyina lumpbut:willalwayssendtorepairyouasoftenI can. Imustaskyoutobe oil thelookoutforhis schoolex aminaHon will beginthismonth,the10th, be foreChristmasandtheenemiesaregoing tosetforhimthereagainsoastospoil hisworkin school. Onetoldthechilditiswastingmoneytosendhimtoschoolforhewill never learn onethingaslongasheistherealltheotherboyswillbeathim off every time. Ihaveprovenyourgoodworkalreadyso Iagainaskyoustilltodoyourbest. Time is sohardnowandthingsaresodullthatonecan'tgetthemoneyasdesired. However wemusttry."You will find I send you2/6inpostalorder.I hope to send yousomethingbetterasChristmasIamsuretogetsome money. Mysisterwrotemethatyou were sick. Itrustbythisthatyouarequitebetter.I'don'tknowifyou were toldthatwhyIcan'tmoveasrequestedmy husbl1nd don'tbelievethatanyonecandoanothersuchevils.Poorman,Idarenotsayonewordinthatlinetohimandtheyhavedonesomuchforhim. Mylittleson islearningtoplaythepianoandhispoorfathertriedandbought)neforhim'topla.yinthehomeandyethe wouldnottouchitforweeks.Hepositively' tohateit.Butohenightwhilehewas alone inthehall playing-"

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OBEAH.33tTheremainderis missing,asstatedabove,butmyrecollectionofitisthattheboysuddenlyopenedtheinstrument,entirelyofhis own volition,andbe-gantoplayonitandtostudymusicfromthattimeforth.ThisconsummationthewriteroftheletterattributedentirelytotheagencyofMrs.SusanF.A secondletter,evidentlyofmucholderdate, from Mandeville P.O., is alsothehandiworkofan ed ucatedwoman,writinga good old-fashionedItalianscript:-"MydearMrs.F.-1was speaking toAunt.Mary,asshemusthavetoldyou, I do alotoffancyworkandhave quite lost my luck in sellingsame.Ihavea lot inPortAn tonioandalsoinMandeville,andathome here,butcan sell more. SoIwantyouto givemeluckthatImaysell.AuntMarysaysthatyoucando it. SoIhavesent2/tomybrothersaskingyoutodoyourbestforme.Ihopesoontosee youformyselfandto have a long talkwithyou,butinthemeantimeImustask'youtodoyourverybestforme.Trustingtohearfromyou soon, Believemeyourstruly,B--M--P.S.-1amsendingoutsomeofmyworkthisweektoaladywhowantstobuysome,butmyluckis sobadthatshemaychangehermind, so send me somethingbymybrothersto give me luck.Trustingyou will do some goodforme,YoursB-M-"Thenextone comesfromCristobal,CanalZone,.and'readsasfollows:

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:332 AWESTINDIANPOLICEMAN.IDear MissF.-(MissbeinganabbreviationofMrs.)-Bythisletteryou willinformofmypresentcondition.Madamyoumustforgivemefornotwritingyou before this,butit'sall causefrommyconditionoflife. Well,fromI beeninthecountrymyluck becomesverypoor; when ever IgetajobIcanneversticktoitlong.IfI keepatitforamonthortwotheylaidme off andthenI will be walking about seeking an otherforthenextmonthortwo. Now MissSueyou will fine enclose4/youmaketakethatit'sverysmallbutthat'sallIcanmanageforthistimethingsisverybadatpresentandwhenever I can send you a littlelargeramt. (amount) I will do so.Pleasewritemeandletme knowasquickaspossibleforawaitingyourreply.Complimenttothefamilyathome.Yoursrespectfully,A.V.RememberItellyoutheluck isverybad."Theeducationofthewriterofthisis on a lower -plane thanthetwoprevious ones,butthenextfol jowing arestill lower in everyrespect:"Mrs.F.-PleasemamI will be comingupthereonSundaynightassoonasever youcanevenleftdinnerforme.Forthingsis gone badfortheotherpartiessaythathegainthecase so Idon'tknowwhattodo,so when I come up I willtellyou everthing.Iam, Yrs.,J.L."

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OBEAH. 333Thisevidentlyreferstosome proceedingsina courtoflaw,andso also doesthefollowing,whichis oneoffourbythesamewriter:apersonsoilliteratethathisproductionswould bequiteunintelligible toanybutanexpertlike myself.InreproducingitI have been compelledtointerpolatea'good deal of translation,butthehandwritingis quite legible: "to Mrs.F.-dearmader(mother}i send: this'sanon'(even I havetogiveupthisword)toyoumamIamnotable to comeupthereforIamhardatwork bllttryyourbestformeitis notmind (mine)itismylady(concubine) a consable (constable)bringhimupandthecort(court)nextweekthursday(?)(ThursdayorTuesday).The19afNovemberJugeCort(JudgeCourt, i.e.,ResidentMagistrate's)buthetoldme come to morror(to-morrow)the13butiamnotgoingpleasesendandletme nowwhatIam to do.Dearmaderhopeyourwill plese lhank God iamwell Iwon'tsee youtell(till)Christmasisendthislittlemiteforyoutobuyyourdrinkwhatever tobedone youmustsenditbuy(by)theboyformemyladysendkindhowdyforyoumyloveandrespectmamiamA.V." I will closewithextractsfromtwoepistleswrit tm byanotherclientofthislady's who was evidently a candidateforthepostofpupilteacherina governmentelementaryschool.Thehandwriting and' thespellingareunimpeachable,butsomeofthesubjectmatterrelatestothemost deplor&uIe! asitisthemost salient,featureinthemoraland social condi tionofthepopulationofacountryinwhichabout

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:334 AWESTINDIAN POLIOEMAN f:ix andahalfpersonsoutofeverytenaretheoff..springofillicitunions. I havethroughoutthisbook .contrivedtoavoiddwellingonthisaspectoflifeto.anyextent;buttheselettersthrowsuch aluridlightonthesubjectthatIcannotrefrainfromquotingthem:evenatthe.riskofoffendingthesusceptibilitiesofmyreadersbytheslightindelicacyofexpres whichtheycontain.ThefirstextractisfromaJetterdated13thMay, 1916,andrunsthus:-"Whatmyfriendhave given you iswhatI gavehimtogive you.ItisofalittlefailureofmoneywhyI could not manage more, as I have to send totheGovernmentDepartmenttheamountoffiveshillingsso Ihavetoshortenordividemypocketintwoparts.I beg youtoacceptitandassoonasI realize anextamountIshallletyou haveitsoon DearMotherSusanmytrustisinyouthatyouwill passmethroughtheGovernmentExaminationnootheryearbutthisyear,1916,andI soagainaskyoufornothingbutthe truth thatifyou see youcannotmanagetodo soletme know beforeI goandfailagain. Iwantyoutodonothingbutimprovemewithknowledge,andifnotanamedonotcomeintheGazetteforthis.yearmynamemustbeprintthere.Ifyoucanonlyread,I beg youtakeyourBibleandread -the 35 Psalm. Read carefullyandmarkthe26, 27and28 verses. I begandbeseech youdearmother help, methattherejectedstone.mightbecomethechiefinth,e corner. The -tion willbe.onthe21stJulycoming.1 Will be .examining intheThirdYear'slistofpapers.The

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OBEAH.335numberracehorsethatIamgoingtobetIwillsenditorbringitassoonasitcomes.DearAuntSusan,Ihavegottwosistersinmyhome. Oneofthemisfoundtobewithchild. Ithereforebegyouradviceand assistancetoknowifanyofmyorhersenemieshavenotlaid a plotordamagetohambug(sic) her. Ibegkindlytoknowifyou please. I am, yours,O.F."Thenextletterformsa sequel totheforegoinginrespectofthefamilyscandalinwhichthewriter'ssisterisconcerned;butthereisnotanydirectfurthermentionoftheexamination.It is addressedtoMrs.SusanF.andherpartner,jointly,andbearsthedateof2nd June,1916:"'Mrs. SusanF-andMrs.F-My dealt good people, Isendtotellyouthatsince Iunder ... standaboutmysisterwe sendhertotheyoungman'shometohearhisintentionconcerningthemaintainance(thisistheonlyerrorof ortho-: graphy,andperhapsthecommonest one intheisland,thewordalwaysbeingpronouncedthus,withaccentonthesecondsyllable)ofthechildandthemoneytopaythemidwife,andseveralotherthings,butIcantellyou sorrowflIllythattheyoungmansimply look onherandtold her thatthestomachisnothis.Hesaiditisfor a nextmanbutnothe, S. L.C.(givingtheman'sname)and if mysistercomebackinher(sic).yarda second time.fromto-daythe2nd he. will flogherproperlyandbesidetake.herto

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336 AWESTINDIANPOLICEMAN.court and letherprove in courtthatthestomachis hisornot.DearMotherSusanandMrs. F.,whatIwastocomeanddoformyselfIhadtogivehertocome to you both. You havetriedhercasebyme already on Tuesday, soIsentherto you.Iwantyouboth to compeltheboytoownthestomachandinthreedaystimeallow himtofindhimselfinmyyardandthrowdown money givethegirljustlikerainfallingthatshemaygetasmuchtopayyou in a quick timeand tn paythemidwife because you see all is throughtheboyandnotthegirl.Iam,O.F."Theletteriswritteninink;thenfollowsthispost script inpencil:-"1beg you bothtobond downtheboyjustathersideandfixitin such awaythathecanneverfinditout." Silly and misguided youth though he be,hede servescreditforthechivalrousspirithe displays by sncrificing his own interests inorderto obtainredressforhiserringsister. The letters includedintheabove small collection go farto prove howtheObeah superstition stillmaintainsitshold in acountrywhich bristleswithplacesofworship, and where a sum of over ,000 ayear is expended bythegovernmentforeducational purposes among a population lessthanone million. My descriptionofthedetailsofitspracticeis confined to suchascanbe givenwithdueregardtodecency; but,asalreadyintimated,therearesome timeshorrorsaccompanyingitwhicharequite un-

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OBEAH. 33'1, printable;while of late,asisalsostatedabove, foulmurderis being committed itsauspices. Iamsurethatallthinkingmen who have knowledge simiIlartomyownoftheextenttowhichthisopensoreiseatingintotheheartofthecountry.musttrembleforthefutureofJamaica;forinthelight ofrecenteventstherecanbe no denyingthatmattersaresteadily goingfrombadtoworseinthisrespect.

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338 AWESTINDIAN POLICEMAN. Chapter XX.THEJAMAICAPOLICEMAN.WhenthelateW. S. Gilbertwrotein"TrialbyJury"thewords:-"Apoliceman's life isnotahappyone," he,withoutknowing it,reallycoined. aproverb. And, I think,thepoliceman'slifeinJamaicaisinmanyrespectsaneven lesshappyonethanitisinmanyothercountries;fromcauses which willpresentlybe described. I havemorethanonce offeredtowriteahistoryoftheJamaicaConstabularyForce,butmyofferwasneveraccepted.Itis, however,stillopen-fora consideration,ofcourse.InChapterV.Ihavegiven a shortsketchoftheoriginandconstitutionoftheForce,which willin1927 haveattainedtherespect able antiquityofsixtyyears, practically unscathedbythevariousattemptswhich haverepeatedlybeenmadetoalteritsorganizationandthusimpairitsef ficiency.Asfarbackasthedays when Iwasa boy SubInspectorthereusedtoariseyearbyyearanoutcryfromtheradicalpoliticiansoftheday, backed by the"ColonialStandard"newspaper,forthetotalaboli tionofthemilitarycharacteristicsoftheForce,anditsconversionintoapurelycivil body,armedwithnothingmoredeadlythanbatonsandhandcuffs.ThereusedalsotobethesamechatteraboutthespursoftheSub-Inspectors, which seemed tohaveaneffect on peopleofacertainclassasirritatingas

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PhotobyBTennan PARADE AT SU'r'l'ONSTREET1YI'l'HBA"XD, FOR BY G. O.C. 'I'JWOPSIXWESTINDIES, 1911.INSPECTOnG EXJmALI(EUSHAWD"COJLlIAXD.

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THEJAMAICAPOLICEMAN.339theydid onourhorses. peopleappeartoregardthewearingofspursas,ifnotaltogetherim moral,mostcertainlyproductiveofthediseaseofswelled head. Icanunderstandtheirobj eetion t()spursbeingworninmotorcars, but inthosedayswe roderealhorses-andverygood ones too.Intheyear1883 oneofthoseperiodicallyrecurringCommissionsfromwhichthisislandsuffers,cameouthereforthepurposeofenquiringintothingsgenerally.(Ibecame oneofitsvictims,asalreadydescribed inChapterIX.).ItconsistedofSirGeorge Baden Powell,(anelderbrotherofthefamous Chief Scout),andColonel Crossman,thesecretarybeing Mr.C.AlexanderHarrisoftheColonialOffice-thegentlemanwhowassokindtometherein1901,astoldinChapterXIII.(Hehasnow, since1923,retiredfromtheGovernorshipofNewfoundlandasSirCharlesAlexanderHarris.)Oneofthemanyproposalsbroughtbeforeitwasthissame divestingtheforceofitsmilitarycharacter;andintheirreporttheCommissionverystronglyrepudiatedthesuggestionofanysuch measure,asbeing .most unwise,anda menace tothesecurityofthecountry.[Theyalso deprecateda suggestion, which somecrankbroughtforward,toremovetheredstripefromtheuniformtrousers,regardingthatinitselfasa wholesomemor f41 influence;ifI remember rightly.] Subsequent events. haveamplydemonstratedthewisdomoftheCom mission's decision onthatpoint,andsincethattimetheideahasonlyoccasionally flaredupinthebrainof some fatuous politician, likethespasmodic: glimmeringsofanexpiringcandle. IhadthehonourofbeingthefirstofficertocausethemenoftheJamaicaConstabularytousetheirweapons on ariotous

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34{) AWESTINDIAN POLICEMAN.mob,astold infundetail inmydescriptionoftheMontegoBaydisturbance;andtheyhaverepeatedlyproved : sincethenthatthecountrycanrelyontheir loyaityin anysimilaremergency.Eversince I was a boy intheservice I have had the good fortune to winthedevotion of my sub-officers andmen;and onthatterriblenightin Montego Bay,althoughpersonallyknown only to a small proportionofthemen whom I commanded,theywould oneandallhave followedmetothegatesofhell itself.Althoughastrictandun compromising disciplinarian bynature,every.man iIicluding the bad characters who used to be common enough in myyoungdays-knewthathewas certainofabsolutejusticeat lily hands;andthatI would never send himtodoanythingthatI wouldnotdo myself. Allthismaysound like boasting,butthere lilustbe hundredsofmen now alive inJamaicawho will be only too glad tobearme out.TheonlytimethatIcanrecollect a deliberateattemptbeingmadeby a memberofa mobtodo me injury, I was saved 'by a man whose dismissal fromthe forcein Kingston, as an utterly character, Ihadprocuredonlythreeweeks previously.It in 1882ina fight onthealways disorderly race course at SpanishTown,ofwhich placethemanwasa native. 'My helmet had been knocked off my head, andI wasstandinginthemidstofa crowdofroughs,holdingonwithonehandtothecollarofamanwho had struck lily horsewitha stick and whom Ihadar rested,and withthe'other to my horse's bridle, while sticks were flyingallaroundine.Thismanwas'standing ,near by;hesawmyplight, pickedupmyhelmet al1tlhandedit to me, saying: "For God's sake, Inspec-

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THEJAMAICAPOLICEMAN.341tor,putiton quick, sir." Iletgothebridleandputonthehelmet. Ihadbarelygotitonmyheadwhen a woman cameupbehind meandsmasheditrightontomyskull,withoneofthose pointed sodawaterbottlesthatLover'sHandyAndycalled"the -little bottles widoutannybottoms." The helmet undoubtedlysaved me afracturedskull.(Ineverletgooftheman,though;andhisnextplaceofsojournwas thE!' SpanishTownhospital).Therehave been some instancesoftwogenerationsofthesamefamilyserv ingunderme,andinSt.Elizabethoneofthree.Therearemanymen now intheForce,andretiredfrom it, who servedwithmefromthelowestrankuptothatofsergeantandsergeant-major;andseveralofthemhave, on leavingtheforce, securedthemeans of live lihoodthroughmyinfluence-someevenabroad.Among these IrememberjustnowthenamesofCoombs, bailiffoftheSt. ElizabethR.M.Court;Palmer,who occupies asimilarposition in Manches tel'; H. B. Robinson, who diedasSuperintendentof 'the Kingston Slaughterhouse; Cassells, now a cultivatorinHanover;andFoster,myofficeclerkinSt.Elizabeth, whowasthroughmyintercession allowed to leavetheforce,andwentto Colon, wherehe was enlisted, on my recommendation,inthepolice oftheCanal Zone.HewentfromtheretotheGreatWar;andIwaspleasedandproudtoreceive himatBalaclavarailwaystation in June,1919, on his returntoJamaica,asa company sergeant-major, of whomhisofficers spoke veryhighlyindeed. Ilastsawhimasa smallproprietorintheneighbourhood of MalverninSt.Elizabeth. The lateSergeant-MajorW.B.Campbell also, passedthroughthemillundermyhandsuntilhe was promotedtothatrankandsentto Hanover, inwhich

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342 AWESTINDIANPOLICEMAN.division I had firstmethim. Hewaskilledbya motortruck,while on duty nearLucea a fewyearsago,leavinga widowandsix children.Iwasnotincharge_ -of thatparishatthetime,buton goingthereinJan uary, 1921,as relatedinChapterXVI, Idiscoveredthatthegentleman who ownedthemotortruckhadverygenerously placed inthehandsofa firmofsolicitorsasumofforthebenefitofthewidowandchildren, elevenmonthspreviously,andthatuptothetimeofmyarrivalonthescenetheunfortunatewomanhadnotseen a single penny ofthemoney.Iimmediately tookthematterinhandonherbehalf,withtheresultthatin lessthanamonththerewaspaidtohertheamountof,andlodgedintheSavingsBankforthebenefitofthechildrenbyorderoftheSupremeCourt;whiletheoddwasallottedfoxlawcosts. Sheandherchildrenareenjoyingthebenefitof that moneytothisday.Thatis onesampleoftheprotectingcareIusedtoexercise overmydeserving subordinates. Thentherewas mydearoldSergeantGrant,myofficeclerk in Westmoreland,duringmy first sojournthere .. Heactually refused promotion to sergeantmajor'srankbecauseitwould havetakenhimawayfromme.Naturemade atruegentleman, incapable of guile, when she produced him.Idonot knowwhat has become of him,butifhehaspassed away,Ihope hehasleftdescendants who willreadthistributetohis memory. Curiously enough, his official constabularynumber(or"regimental"numberasthe.mencallit)was1.Hecertainlywas"number one" inheartandsoul.Anotherpleasantandtouchingmemorywhich I

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THE JAMAICA POLlCF,lMAN.343carry isthatofbig, burly,.heftySergeant-MajorAnthonyofthewaterpolice, bidding me farewellatthegangwayofthePort Antoniowhendepartingonmycompulsorytripin1909,withthebigtearscoursingeachotherdown .his honest black face.Hehadbeenwithmeallthrough the MontegoBayriotsandthesubsequenttroubles.Hewasso well knownamongthepopulaceofMontego Bay,andsuchafavouritewiththem,thatall they did to himduringtheriotwastogive him a good ducking inthefountaininthemiddleofthesquare. Consequently hewasable to be activelyonthealertallnight,andnomanwasmoresuc cessfulthanheinidentifyingriotersandprocuringevidenceforourpurposes.Thenewsofhisdeathcameasagreatgrieftome.Therehave beenmanyactsofgallantryperformed by menoftheforce which have passed into obli vionforwantofS0mehistorical record. I will men tion a couple:-Themost notable which occursto memory-althoughitdidnothappeninmydivisionisthatofCorporalThompson, whohadawarranttoarrestaburlynegroinSt. Andrew, nativeofanotherisland-Iforgethis name.Thismanthreatenedhimwith a loaded shot-gun,butinspiteofthatThompson walkeduptoarresthimwithhisemptyhands,andreceivedthechargefullinhischest.FortunatelYhesurvivedtheinjury,andthecowardlyruffian wasputawayby aCircuitCourtJudgeforfourteenyears,ifIrememberrightly.I usedalwaystoimpressuponmymenthattheymustnever allow themselves to be mauled by a prisoner, unlesl'l absolutely overpowered bysheerforceorbynumbers;thatiftheydid sowithoutusing

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344 AWE.ST INDIAN POLICEMAN.theweaponswithwhich.theywere provided, they would not only receive nosympathyfromme,butwouldhavetoshow good causewhytheyshouldnotbepunishedaswell. Ialwayscautionedthemtobepersuasiveandgentleaslongaspossible,butifitbecameclearthatroughnesswasa necessity,thentoapplyitin nouncertainfashion. Myteachingborefruitin twoparticularin stances withmen whohadbeenwithme a longtimeoneofthemin two divisions. ThiswasacorporalnamedReid, inchargeofBetheltownstationinWest moreland. An habitual criminalnearMontego BayhadwoundedtheSt.Jamesdetective whowenttoarresthim-armedwithnothingbutasupple-jack--insuch cruel fashionwitha cutlassasalmosttoseverhislefthandatthewrist.Hethenfledtothewoods ontheborderbetween St.JamesandWestmoreland.CorporalReid,warnedbytelegram,andhearingoftheman'sbeing in hisneighbourhood,tookhiscarbinewithtenroundsofballcartridge,and, ac companiedbyConstable MacPherson, went insearchofhim. Reid came upon him inthebushstillcarryinghiscutlass, and on his hesitating tosurrenderpromptlydisabled himwitha bullet in theshoulder,arrested him, and' took himtoMontego Bay.AtthetrialintheMontegoBayCircuitCourtReidwashighlycommended'forhis actionbytheChief Justice,SirFielding Clarke, and he'received arewardfromtheGovernmentaswell.In1913,veryshortlyafterIhadhanded over WestmorelandtoInspectorWright,somesixoreightprisonersone finenight made theirescapefromthe I;>olice stationatSavanna-Ia-Mar-of'which I

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THEJAMAICA POLICEMAN. 345 given agraphicdescription-stolea canoefromthebeach,andstartedon a voyage tothewestward, il? which directionNegrillies.Theonlyconstableatthatplacewasa corporal namedHunter,whohadbeen schooled bymeasabove described. On receivingparticularsbytelegramoftheescape, hegota couple ofdistrictconstables, commandeered two canoesfromthefishermen,and,takinghis carbineandammuni-. tion,putto sea, intercepted thefugitives, androundedthemupatthemuzzleofhisweapon,returningeveryonesafelytoSavanna-la-Mar.Forthishe alsowassuitablyrewarded.He is now asergeantinSt.Elizabeth.OfcourseIamunabletosaywhetherhe received detailedinstructionsfromhisofficerwithregardto his methodofprocedure,butIamquitecertainthathe would inanycase haveruntheshowasabove described.PoorReidhadtoleavetheForce.onaccountofdefective eyesight,andis now dead. 1 do not recollect ever havinghadamanofmine maul ed byanyprisoner.Anotherfeat,ofa different kind,butexhibiting intellIgence and resourcefulnessofa veryhighorder,. wasperformedby acorporalofminenamedW.J.Henry,atHagleyGap, amountainstationinSaintThomas. Awellknownrowdyofthedistrictonedayslashedanothermanintheabdomenwithapruningknife,ina villageabouta mile from thestation, in flicting a woundofsuch a seriousnaturethathisen.trails protrudedto quite a considerableextent.WhenCorporalHenryreachedthespothedid not" worry about theassailant,whowasknown,andtherebeing eye-witnessesoftheassault,butturnedhisat. tentiontothe wounded. man. The :nearestdoctorwas.'

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:346 AWEST!NDIANPOLICEMAN.twelve miles away, overridingroadsthroughthe J3lue Mountains; soHenryperformed a surgical op eration,withtheaidofcoldwater,brownsoap, castoroil, adarningneedle,andsome whitey-brown.thread..Hefirstexaminedtheprotrudingintestines'very carefully,andfindingthattheyhadnotbeen in Jured,hewashed themandthewound thoroughly 'withthesoap, sterilizedtheneedlebyheatingitinthekitchen fire, soakedthethreadwiththecastoroil, ::pushed theintestines back intotheabdomen,andstitchedupthewound.Thenheplacedonita padof ,clean whitecalicosaturatedwiththeoil,andband a2'ed theabdomenwiththesamematerial.Itbeingthentoolatetogotothedoctor,hemadethemanliedowninbed on his back,instructinghiswifeto .see thatheremainedin that position,andtogivehimnothingbutcondensed milk. Onthefollowingmorn.ingHenryhadthemancarriedon astretchertothe,doctor's house.Thelatterdidnothingmorethanexaminethewound, provide dressingandbandages,andsendthepatienthorne again.Thecor. j>oral's surgerywasnotinterferedwith.Theassail.antwasverysoonarrested,andsentfortrialatMorantBayCircuitCourt,beforeSirAdamGib Ellis,thenChiefJustice.WhenHenryhadfinishedhisevi denceSirAdamlookedathimhardfora coupleof .seconds, thensaid, in his quiet,rathercynical way:' "Andyou didallthisonyourown initiative,withouthavinghadanyprevioustrainingorinstruction?"Renry,whowasrathera nervous man, begantofidgetinthewitness box,fearingthathehaddone some -thing wrong. He replied:-"No,YourHonour;,!have :neverhadanyinstruction."Afteranotherintervalof

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THEJAMAICAPOLICEMAN.347 duringwhichHenry'snervousnessappeared 1:0 increaseundertheJudge'sgaze,SirAdamsaid:"'Well,yourconducthasbeen most admirable.Byyourintelligenceandpromptitudeyouhaveinallprobability saved two lives:thatofthewoundedman,andthatoftheprisonerinthedock; who,butfor:your actionmightnow be on histrialformurder."Then,turningto me, he continued:-"1presume, J\Ir. Inspector,thatdue noticehasbeentakenofthis -corporal's mostadmirableconduct."Henryonlyre-ceived rewardthough;thesumwhichinthose
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348 AWESTINDIAN POLICEMAN.rumcouldalwaysbesmeltatagreatdistance.) Brooks did not hesitatetotacklethemsingle-handed,. whereupontheysoughtrefugeinthekitchenofayardbytheroadside. Brooks,nothingdaunted, fol lowed them, seizingasa weapon oneofthose big hardwood pestlesthatthepeople useforpoundingcoffeeandotherthings, which he found intheyard.The smugglers made such a determined resistancethattheysmashed allthevessels containingtherum, and actuallyburntdown the kitchen over Brooks's head;butlaying out a couple ofthemwithhis pestle he managed to secure them, identifytheothers,andsave about a teacupful ofthe_rum, sufficient to obtaina conviction, supported bytheperfume emitted bythefragmentsofthereceptacles whichhadcon tainedthe rest; For-toparody a well knownverse"Youmaybreak, you mayshatter.thejugifyou will,ButtheGermanrumflavour will clingtoit still." Gallant old Brooksretiredon his pensionafterIleftTrelawny,andis now dead,tothe nest ofmy knowledge. I cannot help introducing anotherrumstory ill which I myself figured about the same period.Fridaynightswerethefavouritetimefortheoperationofthe rum smugglers; and I had organized a system ofnightpatrols from Duncan's, Clark's Town and StewartTown stations, which covered practically'alltheroadsinthesugardistrictofUpperTrelawny. OneFridaynightIleftthe hospitable roofof my' theCasserleysatBramptonBryanestateabout11o'clocktoreturntoFalmouth.Itwas a verydarknight, and while drivingata slow pace througha woodedstretchoftheroadonArcadiaestate my

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THEJAMAICA POLICEMAN.34'9horsessuddenlyshiedverybadlyatsomeobjectatone sideofit,andmynostrilswereassailedatthe same momentbytheoverwhelmingodourofnewrum.Pullingupandgettingouttoexaminetheobject,1 founditto be a four-gallon demijohn fullofrumfreshfromthestill.Therebeing nopersonin sight 1mademyservanttakeitupandplaceitinthebackofmybuggy.Scarcelyhadhedone sowhen.astoutblackman,evidentlyslightlyintoxicated,and .carrying acutlass,emergedfromthebushattheroadsideintothefullglareofmylamps,andlookingupanddowntheroad,begantoaskwithterrible oQaths, whohadtakenhis demijohn. 1theninformedhimthat1 had done so,andthatitwasnow my in': tentiontotakehimalso.(Iwasinplainclothes.)Atthesametime1 downfromthebuggyagain,toldhim who 1 was,andcollaredhim.Heatonceputupa fight,butinaccordancewithmyprinciplesalreadyquoted, 1lostnotimeinpersuadinghimwithtbeoak saplingthat1 always used tocarry,tiedhimuplike ahogwithmyhorses' ropes,andliftedhimintothebackof the buggy,withthehelpofmyser vant. (Thatcudgel,theinseparable companionof all myjourneyings,wasaperfectimplementofitskind, a much prizedgiftfromadearfriendinthe RG.A. Itwastheonly weapon 1carriedintheMontegoBayriot,andwastherestruckoutofmyhandandfor -ever lost.) 1mademyservant,sittingbeside me,lean 'Out throughthebackwindowofthebuggy,andkeep .a firmgripontheropesbindingmyprisoner,whileI drove on to Duncan's station, -andgreatlysurprisedthesergeantinchargeby deliveringhimthereaftermidnight,givingstrictinjunctionstoforwardhim to

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350 AWESTINDIAN POLICEMAN.Falmouthintimeforthecourtonthefollowing day. TherumI tookwithme. Mymandulyturnedupby10 o'clock ontheSaturday,verysoreinmindandbody, pleaded guilty,andwassentenced toseveralmonths'imprisonment-thisratherlessthantwelve hoursafterhis encounterwithme. The R.M., Mr.C. M. Calder, in passing sentence remarkedthatit was a strikingexample of"bis dat qui cito dat."(He gives. twice who gives qUIckly.) Duringtheremainder Of thatcrop my patrols did not succeedinmaking'asinglecase of unlawful possessionofrum;andonmy asking thesergeantatDuncan's, whowasalwaysincharge of thepatrols,forsome explanation of it, he said:-"Well thepeopleareall so frightenedbywhathappenedto the man you tookatArcadiatheothernightthat they seemafraideven to walk ontheroad on Fridaj nights. We scarcely ever see anybodyafterdark.Itisthetalkofthewhole district." Whichwasamost fiatisfactory result. When one considers.allthecircumstancesunderwhichrecruitsareobtainedfortheJamaicaConstabulary,Ithinkeveryintelligentmanwithanopenandunprejudiced mindmustadmitthattheforce makes:averycreditable showing. In'thefirst place,itmustbeadmIttedthattheaverage intelligenceofthe class fromwhichthemajorityofthecandidatesaredrawnisnotofthehighest order. Arawandrustic youth be tweentheages of 18and25 years istakenfromaruraldistrictin which hehasprobably up tothatperiod been exclusively engaged inagricultural'pursuits,and knows nothing of townlife;trainedatthedepotfortenortwelve months, according to his intelligence, ?ond thenturnedloose, investedbythelawandwith'a

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THEJAMAleA POLICEMAN.351 good dealofauthorityoverthefellow-citizens with. whom hehashithertobeenmerelyon a footing of equality-orperhapsevenofsubordination.Isitthenathingtobe wonderedatthathe should.sometimes. exhibitsymptomsofswelledhead?Again:his physi cal standardis ahighone-noman beingtakenonwhoseheightisunderfivefeeteightinches; hewearsasmartandbecoming uniform,andoftenpresents.animposing figureinthestreets.Thatrendershim liabletothewilesofthe"eternalfeminine"-particularlyinacountrywheretherearepractically no moralrestrictions-andthewomenofhis class clus-terabouthimlike fliesroundasugarbarrel.Thisgivesgroundfortheremarkwhichithassooftenhurtme tohear:-"Thereisanotherof those damned policementalkingtoa womanasusual."Thetwomostdangerouspitfallslying across hispathare'those which I haveindicated:swelledheadand wo. men.Hisphysicalstandardis ahighone,andheshould endeavour,asfarasinhis power lies,toraisehismoralstandardtothesamelevel.Thereis a good old copybook maxim which reads:-"Avoidthe very appearanceofevil;"andifhe followsthat,and culti. vates a civil and courteous demeanourtowardseverybody-saying"sir"toagentlemanand"ma'am"toalady-hewill'gofartowardsbreaking downtheprejudicewhichundoubtedlydoesexistagainsthimamongtheupperclasses. He knows agentlemanoraladywhen he meets oneaswellasanybody else. Civil ity, costs nothing,anditgoesfar.Itisthelackofitwhich makesthepeopleofthemoreopulentclasses resent being"orderedaboutbydamnedniggers,"andthoseofthelowerorders speak ofthepoliceas "dog-.

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.352 AWESTINDIAN POLICEMAN.drivers"-whichusedtobethefavouritetermofopprobriuminmyyoung days.Indealingwithanyone whomhearrestson a -criminal chargeheshould rememberthatthemoment .a man becomes a prisonerthatman is, sotospeak, wrapped in cotton woolandputunder a glass case,andthatifheattemptstocracktheglass-let alone interferingwiththewrapping-thereareoccupantsofthejudicial pench whowillnothesitateto h9ld himuptotheobloquyandridiculeofa crowded 'Court. Another difficultythattheJamaica pQIiceman hasto contendwithisthathedoesnotgetthe same .assistancefromthemembersof public ingeneralthattheEnglishpoliceman does.Perhapsthereare on both sides;andit bethatthisattitudeQnthepartofthecitizen is due tothefailings which I have indicated above:althoughtherecannotbeanyquestionbutthattheconsiderationof coJour hassomething todowithit.ButI am quite confident that strictattentiontothemaxims which Iamen deavouring to inculcate willsurely-ifslowly-im p!ove thatattitude. Already I notice a distinct ad VAllce inthatdirection in themannerin which driversofvehicles obeythesignals given bytheconstablesattheprincipalcentres .of traffic. Beingconstantlyonthemoveab9utthecityandsuburbsasI am,and always on thealertto be of use to the police in case of anytrouble, Ican:ri:ot helpbeingmostfavourablyimpressed by th,econditions now prevailing inthatre spect.But there is always athandamind of acertain type whichregards a policemanasfairgame for a gibe inthepress. This typefound forcible expression

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THEJAMAICA POLICEMAN. 353.inthefollowing utterance by somereporterintheGleanerofthe30th September,1926:... "The Traditions of the Force. "One incident describedinthecourseoftheevidence, caused arippleofmirthtopass over theroom.Referringtoaminorincident, oneofthe ",itnesses being askedifanyonewaspresentwhenitoccurred, replied, 'yes, a policemanwas there.'"Thiscaused a smile all round,foritwas feltthatfora policemantobeactuallyon the. scenewhenanythingwashappeningwasquiteagainstthebesttraditionsoftheForce-infactmightalmostberegardedasagravebreachofdiscipline." Now, I have nodoubtwhateverthattheperson who pennedthatthoughthimself brilliantly clever; buttheonlywayfittinglytodescribehiseffusionisbycallingita sneer,ascheapandsillyasitis unde servedanduntrue,andasimpoliticandunwiseasitisanyoftheabove.Itcannot tend towardsstrengtheningthehandsofthepolicetosee thusscoffedatinthecolumnsoftheone daily paperoftheisland. Most likelytheliteraryg'enius whosemindevolvedthisscathingsatirewould beamongtheveryfirst to runyellingtothedespised policeforprotection ontheappearanceofanysymptomsofaraceriot. He knowsthathewould be onsafegroundthere .. a 1; any rate. WhatIentirelyfailtounderstandistheattitude of, acertainclassofourpeople in downupon any member of theirfamily who Ja ....

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354 AWEST INDIAN POLICEMAN.maicaConstabularyasa meansoflivelihood. Ihaveknown of some cases myself, and have been toldofotherseven worse. I donotmeanthetillersof the soil,the"hewersofwoodanddrawers water,"butthose of a higher class. To begin with,theJamaicapoliceman isbetterpaid,fromthevery outset,thananyothermanofhis Class inthiscountry-andinmanyothersforthatmatter.Thenbysteadinessandgood conduct, providedhepossessesthenecessary education, hemayrisetoarankwhich willultimately givehima pension on he will be abletolivefortherestofhis life; evenifhe couldnotsupple lnent itbytheemployment which is alwayswithin the reach of ex-membersoftheforcebearinggoodcharacters.Employersoflabourareonlytoogladtogetsuch men.Somuchforthe force in general"; but I now proposetohave a. littleheart-to-hearttalk,withthesergeant-majors and sergeants, to whom I intendto address direct-using tl!e secondperson-thefatherlyadvice which I have given verballytomorethanoneofmyowntrustedmen who havefelt-andquiterightly-thatIwasthevery bestfriendforthemtoconsult.IfI weretofailtomake somepronouncement inthisbook onthevexed questionofpromotingthenative sub-officerstocommissions, I feelsurethatI should beregardedasshirkinganobviousduty;and in allmylong life no mim except the "Hon ourable" Hugh Clarke, has everdaredtoinsinuatethatIamcapableofsuch malfeasance. The idea isofcourse based ontheutterlyfallacioustheorythatallmenarebornequal:which,asanyfool can see,theyarenot.Itisnothingnew.EveninthedaysofthatCommission which I have

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THEJAMAICA POLICEMAN. 355 described ab9ve, thesubjectwas broached,andtheirreportwas,ineffect, as follows:_uWeregarditasessentialthattheofficersoftheforce should be drawnfromsuch a classastobe capableofminglingontermsofsocial equalitywiththehighestdigni tariesoftheirrespective districts, and, indeed, ofthewhole island." QuotingfrommemoryafteralltheseyearsIcannotbecertainoftheexactwords,butI :l!tl in no doubt whateverastothegistandpurportofthe finding onthatpoint. Nowtothesub-officers indicated above Iwouldsayasfollows:-You oneandall know quite wellthatnomanhasyourbestinterestsmoreatheart,orismore jealous ofthestanding andreputation ofthe forcethanmyself. Therefore,ifIshouldsayanythingthatdoesnotaltogetherplease you, youcannotdoubtthatI do sofromthepurestmotives;andbe cause Ithinkthatperfectlyplainspeaking will lead bytheshortestandmostdirectroadtoacompleteunderstanding. Youareallmenofmatureyears,andsomeofyou havealreadyarrivedatmiddle age,withsettledideasandhabits. Society is constituted in acertainfashion to-day,andnotoneofyou willeverlive long enough to seeanymarkedchange init;nomatterwhatthefardistantfuturemay have in store.Thatis averyimportantconsiderationforyoutobearin mind, quiteapartfromyourfitnessforcom missions by reasonofefficiency inyourpolice duties.Ifyou were promoted,itwould be necessaryforyoutocutyourselves loosefromthose persons who'arenowyourassociates,andyou would find yourselves boycottedbytheupp'er classesofsociety.-hovering.from a social pointofview, between heavenand

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356 A ,WEST INDIAN POLICEMAN; coffin.Doyou thinlf: theCustos Rnd the Magistrate would invite youtotea?And jf by aIJ.y chancetheydid so, how would you feelintheirdrawing-roomS? A fishoutofwaterwould be inParadisein comparison. Havingpassed thrQugh themillofyears;andattainedyourpresentrankintheJamaicaConstabulary, youarefittotakeyourplaces alongsideofthenon-commissioned of ficersofanypolice forc.e intheworld.Thereforemyadvicetoyou istobecontent.withthat,andnottoaspiretoafalseposition, which you would findtocontainforyou nothingbutunhappiness;ifnot downrightmisery.Thatisallfromthesocial angle. Now, listen to my arguments from the official point ,of view.(Iam,ofcourse,takingitforgrantedthattherearenoneamongyou who have been contaminated bytheteachings oftheD.N.LA.):-Themenliketheirofficerstobewhite-or"passassuch,"tousetheexpression coined bythelatememberforPortland,("late"in two senses).Hecould no more keepthisphraseoutofhisannual speech on the Constabulary votethanDickens's Mr. Dick could keep King Charles's headoutofhis mem orials.Andyou likeitalso,ifyou will behonestwithYO,urselves; and you know perfectly wellthatifyouwerepromotedtocommissionstherewould be end lesstroubleaboutthesaluting-nottomentionanyth,ingelse-especiallythose whose complexionsareofdarkerhue. Youareallreadytosaluteawhiteofficer instinctively. I usedtobegreatlyamused wlJ.en IgotmyfirstIrishsergeant-majortoseethe hands,Jly up ,to their capswhenevertheywent t9lJ;im, althoughhe of cOl.1rse noten-

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THE JAMAICA POLICEMAN. .357 titledtoa salute.Ittookthem some timetoget over thehabit.Thereisanotherdanger .. Amongyour people-asamong all primitivepeoples-a favourite :formofabuse iswhatis called inJamaica"tracing";thatismakinguncomplimentary allusionstoone's.';'ancestryand antecedents. When I was a boy Sub-ln spector, and violentanddisorderly characterswere notuncommon in the forge, oneofthose whom Iwas handlingonedaytoldmethatthey(theconstables) hadno meansofknowing whohadbeen intheRe :formatoryin.England!Hewas"tracing"me.Just thinkofwhatmighthappentoanyofyourselvesinsimilar circumstances! I willillustratemymeaning, by one of mypertinentstories:-OnceattheBethel.'town court in Westmoreland, I was discussingthis very questionwithtwofriendsofmine, both mem bel'softhelegal profession. Oneofthem,G.,from; Montego' Bay, was amanofexceedinglydarkcom plexion,asnearblackascould be,althoughhishair fine in texture, and only slightly curly.(Iamsurehemusthave been a descendantofoneofthe .!"Indian Shot"whom I have mentioned inthechapter :on theMaroons. I usedtoknowanuncleofhiswhoboreexactlysimilarphysical characteristics.Both menarelong since dead.)Go'sstandingin hisprofession, and in society, is best attestedbythefactthat,darkthoughhewas,hewas solicitorforpractically the'white families in St. J ames. otherwas.'T.,a man of clear brown complexion, and a comparativelyrecentarrivaliIitheparish. He usedabout :that toprofessopinionsofaradicaltype,butthese, Iampleasedtonote, hehasverygreatlymodi 'fied in thecourse ofyears.Heremarked'thathecould,

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358 AWESTINDIAN POLICEMAN.notseewhyofficers' commissionsshouldnotbe giventodeservingblackandcolouredsergeant-majorsoftheforce,and'asked mewhetherI could give a reason;whereupon Iputitto himthus:-"Puttingaside .thesocialaspectofthequestion, T.,thereis a very good reasonfromthepointofviewofdiscipline, which Iamsureyou willadmittobethe'backboneof.theforce. The men would give endless trouble about salutingoneoftheirown colour,andmoreespeciallywouldthedifficultyarisewithmenoflight.com plexionanddarkorblack officers.Ofcourseifthereistobeanysuch 'promotionatall,no ,colour linecanpossibly bedrawnamongthose whoarepromoted.Thatwould becreatingafarmore invidious distinc, tion.Theywould alsoresentbeingpunishedbysuch officers;anditwouldveryprobably happenthatamanwitha violent temper, andperhapsinflamed by drink, would give expressiontohisresentmentinmost insubordinate language, windingupsomewhatinthisfashion:-'butwho is youanyatall? Nothesame damnnaygurlike myself?' Andhewould havethesecretsympathyofalltheother men whomighthappen' to be present. The discipline oftheforce would very soon go to hell." Then,turningtoG.I continued:"What do you say,G.,amIrightorwrong?""Thomas.youareperfectlyright;you havehitthenailonthehead.""Oh, I see,"thenremarkedT.noddinghis head..slowly upanddown. "I never lookedatitinthatlightbefore. I neverthoughtofthat.""No," Isaid;"neitherdoanyoftheotherpeoplewhoarealwaysgassingaboutit."G. knew thatIwasright;so doallofyouto

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THEJAMAICA POLICEMAN.359. whom theseremarksareaddressed; andsodoes everyintelligentmanwho knows his country, nomatterwhathis colourmaybe.Itmaybeanunpleasanttruth,"buttherecan be no doubtthatitis atruth. N"9 : donotallownoisy demagoguesorblatantpoliticians to undermineyourloyaltywithspeciousargumentsinthisdirection.Havingattainedashighandrespecteda positionasyouarefitted byNature,educationandtrainingtofill, be contenttocontinue servingyourcountryinthatpositionwiththeloyaltyandefficiency which have raised youtoit,insteadofaspiringtobecomesquaremen inroundholes.Notwithstandingthesneersof newspaper scribblers, your country is proudofyou,andconfidentofyourfaithandloyalty. Becontent,then,tocontinuetodeservethatprideandconfid ence.Thatistheadvice which,outofthewealthofhis knowledgeandexperience,yourbestfriendgivesyou:afriendwhohaslived in honourableandpleasantfellowshipwithyouandyour predecessorsforverynearlyhalfa century.Therearealso twoorthreeminormatterswithregardtowhich I wouldwarnyouallto"watchyourstep,"astheAmericans say. Youdon'tknow whomaybe looking onwithaneyeasobservantasmyown,andtakingnoteofyourconductandbearing;thereforealwayscarryyourselvesinthestreetasifalleyes were upon you.Iftwoormoreofyouarewalking together,forgoodness sakewalkinstep,anddon'tshamblealonganyhow, likeundrilledmen.Don'tkeepyoursmartnessonlyforparadepurposes. I expecttobe called a hide-bound old fossil:butifthereis onethingthatirritatesmemorethananotheritistosee a constable inthestreetwithacigar

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:: 360 AWESTINDIAN POLICEMAN oOr cigarette In his mouth, especiallyifhehashis cap at theback of his head. Smokinginpublic while in uniform was neverpermitteduntil1899, and Ithoughtitthenagreatmistaketoallowit. Ithinkso still. I used to be ahardsmokermyselfupto a few yeats ago,butnomanever'sawme smokingin-uniform in public. Nothing will ever reconcile meto it.. Whenever a newmanjoined my division, oneofthefirst questions I alwaysputtohimwaswhether hewasa smoker.If he answered intheaffirmative I usedtosay:i'Verywell:you have aperfectly legal righttosmoke in public;butitisnotalwayswiseto,doeverythingthatyouarepermitted todo,foryou,maystand a chanceofgettingyourselfdisliked; so -if yo'uwant'to behappyandgeton inmydivision ; youVvill' do well ,nottolet mesee yousmoking inthe 'streetsofthe town intheday-time.Atnightoralong acountryroad, Idon'tmind."AndI donotrecollect',thatanyman ever disregardedmyadvice.Inconclusion I have to thankthesub-officersand'men for the asSistance theyhave rendered meto'wardsthepublicationofthisbook.

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Photo1111 B,'ennan GUARDFALLENIN, STREET XORTH VERANDAH, WITHINSPECTORWEDDERDunNAND S. M. WAITE.

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THERACEQUESTION. Chapter XXI.THERACEQUESTION.361Somecursoryallusiontothismatterhasalready < been made inChapterIV.,buton reflection Ihave totheconclusionthatsomefurtherplainspeakingwill produce asalutaryeffect. I fully realizethat 'the subject is a delicateanddifficult one;butmyconfirlence withregardtotheposition which Ihave achievedintheesteemofmyblack fellow-countrymenissuchthatI feelcertainofmyabilitytodeal withitinamannerwhich will wintheapprovalandappreciationofthebest element among them.Afterhaving residedinthecountrydistrictsforthebestpartoffourdecades, nothinghasshockedand '. amazed me morethanto find how racehatredhasde '\rcloped andspreadamong acertainsectionoftheblack populationinandabout Kingston.Inchapter IV. I haveattributedthattotheactivities oftheUni versal Negro Improvement Association. To these good ,people I would now ay thatthewaytogivetotheirrace a real liplift, morally, intellectuallyandsocially, is not byendeavouring to poisontheirmindsagainst .;the whiteandcolouredinhabitantsoftheisland.That only lead along a downwardpath,through"envy, .hatred, maliceandall uncharitableness"; ending ulti matelyinviolenceandbloodshed. Physical forceis the ultima ratio regum-.thelastargumentofkings-and ;:it willnotrequire much reflection to convinceanyblack ;,man of intelligence who will havetheupperhand

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362 AWESTINDIAN POLICEMAN.itcomes tothatextremity. I would suggesttothemthatthefirststeptheyshouldtaketowardsthe"improve ment" ofthe"universal negro"istoimprove hisman liers: toinduce him to exchangethataspectofstudied insolence towards persons having skins offairer which he now appears to cultivate,fora pleasant and courteous demeanour towards all men.Further:I em phatically denounce as a malignant falsehoodthe doc trinethatintheCivil ofthiscolonythere is anydifferentiation causedbyreasonofcolour. One has_ only toenterand look around the various public offices. fortherefutationofthat.When I enteredtheservice fifty years ago a dark tace in a publicofficeused toattractimmediate atten tionbyreasonofitsrarity;whileanout-and-out black one wasasunknownasa skirt To-day, as everybody knows, the conditions 'arejustthereverse; saveinoneortwo exceptional instances.Thatisa radical .. change which I have'myself been witness of. Wellmighta liberal and enlightened government proudly saywiththeRomanofold, pointing to these tokens ofitsgoodfaith:-"Simonumentum quaeris, circumspice" freelytranslatedforthebenefit of thoseto :whomthis chapteris specially dedicated,means:"ifyouare ,8earching fora monument,justlook about y?u.") I have been horrifiedatbeing told, on unquestion able authority, of black men in the streetsofKingston-andsometimes in the broad lightofday-endeav'ouring to foment racehatred by haranguinggatheringsof otherignorantnegroes, advisingthemto "push these foreigners intothesea," to"drivethese foreign ers outofthecountry." By "foreigners" they meant Englishmen,ifyou pleas'e! One oftheseoratorswent

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THERACE QUESTION. 363 IIsofar,on arecentoccasion, as actually to advise his hearers to "cut thethroatsof every white and coloured man intheisland,thenwe black Jamaicans will be Thoselastwords alonefurnishsome meas ure oftheunfathomable ignorance of this self-consti-tilted leaderofhis race. I myself once,ridingon atramcar, calledtheattention oftheconductortothedis gracefully filthy conditionofa black man whom I found occupying afrontseatoppositetome. This man scowl edatme, but, deterred perhaps bytheverytruculentaspect which I can assumeatwill, didnotsaymuchun-til he was leavingthecaratCross Roads, when he toldmejusttowait"untiltheblack man gets on top." In cidentsof this description were unheardofinthedays of my youth. Now, I should first like toaskall people of the class which J am endeavouring to describe, es_ pecially those .possessinganyintelligence-asmany of" them undoubtedlydo-whomtheyhavetothankfor the blessings of civilization, and individual freedom lillI'passing thatofanyother realm intheworld?And,_further-vileingratesthattheyareI-whowasitthat guarded thesewatersduringtheGreat War, and en little Jamaica to lead a more peacefulandshel tered existencethanalmostanyothercornerof the Empire,ifitwas not theBritishNavy?Itseems almost a pity that some of thesegentrywere inthismannersaved fromgettingjust()nelittle, taste of German rule. I can assure themthatthe mere ruspicion ofhaving used such languageasI have quot-edabove would have speedily resulted inthespeak-.erdanglingattheend of a rope fromthenearestlamp post. There is a certaintypeof black man, who, while

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AWESTINDIAN POLICEMAN.: having sufficient intelligencetorealisethatNaturehas ':fixed agreatgulfbetween himselfandthewhiterace,insteadoftryingtobridgethatgulfintherightway, ".bitterly resentstheexistenceofit,andgivesventto".hisresentmentinblindhatredofthewhite;utterlyignoringtheincalculablebenefitswhichhederives :from thelatter.I generally haveatcommand apertin entstorytoillustratemypoints,andthefollowing .-exactly fits intothissituation:-SomefortyyearsagoIwasridingonemorning "through aruralsettlementattheeasternendoftheisland,inplainclothes,whenIcameuponagroup -of honestcountrypeople, onthewaytotheirprovi .siongrounds,whoweregatheredaboutasmalltwo .wheeled vehicledrawnupbytheroadside,theoccu-pantofwhichwasdistributingadvertisements of patentmedicine.Hewasaverywelldressedand. -well groomed plack man, evidently onverygood -terms withhimself;andhecaughtsightofmeasI 'Pulled upmy horse a fewyardsaway.Hisdemeanour :towardstherusticswasdistinctlyhaughty.Thereupon :he immediately began to talk,nottome,butatme, usinglanguageexpressiveofhiscontemptforthewhite.race.Hedidnotknowwho i was,andhiswordswereintendedfortheedificationofhishearers,some whom soon began to:recognizemeas"hespoke. I en llured his obloquyfora coupleofminutes, until,ashe -appearedto be gaining bymy Ithoughtitwastimetoreadhima lesson.Riding "close upto'hislittlecart,I addressedhimthus:"Look here,myfriend,evidentlyyoudon't think-much"'o:r'a white man; butjustdomethefavourto :answer afewquestions,willyou?" "Yes; cer.tainly; goon." "

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THERACE QUESTION. 365.; "That'saverynicefelthatyouhaveon: will,. you kindly tell me who made it;whiteman,orblack?'" "Oh! well,whiteman, yes." "Youarewearinga nice smoothwhitecollar,. a fine necktie,anda handsome tie-pIn:mayIaskwhose handiworktheyare-whiteman's,orblack ?". He now commencedtoshow signsofdiscomfort. anddid.notanswerthisquestion,butlookedroundatthecountrypeople, who were beginning to snigger. Ithereforecontinuedmycatechism,butdroppedin tothevernacularattheendofeach sentence, tothegreatdelightofmylisteners, who presently shrieked,. withlaughtereverytimeI ceasedspeakingtoawaita reply.Theblackgentlemancommencedtoshow' symptomsofa desiretoleavethespot,butIrodemyhorserightacrossthefrontofhis,and,warmingup' to my work,andstimulatedbytheapplauseofmyaudience,'I continued:-"Youhave a very fine gold chain. there, and a watch attached toit;who mekit;buckra elsenaygur?Yourmouthis filledwithgold,putthereby a dentist.Thedentistmayhave been a black man' like yourself,butwho mekdentis':buckra, else nay gur? You have averygoodsuitoftweed clothes on, but who mek de cloth: buckra, elsenaygur?"And so I continued,inthesamestrain,whilethegentleman. was completelystruckdumb; andthecountrypeople,. whosenumberwasgradually increasing, simply rockedwithlaughter.Someoneappearedto have told'him whowastalkingtohim,andhewasvery duly' andproperlyimpressedbytheknowledgeof myidentity.Allhis"side" evaporated.Afterfinishingwithhisclothing I conductedhimto his house; where I assumed he had'at -least three dining-and bedrooms. 1 went

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366 AWESTINDIAN POLICEMAN.throughthem all, enumerating every article I could -calltomindoffurniture,glassware,cutleryand-other conveniencesofcivilisation; while iil thebed-roomI mentioned everythingpertainingtothetoilet,not_ evenomittingsucharticlesofcrockery-wareas :are puttothebasest uses. Ithentookhimtotherailway,thestreetcars,theelectric light, thepost()ffice,thetelegraphoffice,thesteamersatthewharves,andtoeveryotherapplianceofcivilizationthatI could remember, until my memory was exhaust oed; asking,afternaming each one:-"Whomekit;naygur,elsebuckra?"(Therewereneithermotor-cars, moving pictures, aeroplanes,norgramophones inthose days,orI should havetakenhimon astilllonger excursion.)Havingreduced himtoamassof 'Perspiring pulp, I administeredthefinal blowthus:"'Yes, youimpudentandungratefulnigger,ofallthethingsyouwearanduseinyourdaily life, every single one was madeor inventeq bytheWhite race -unlessyou have some ObeahcharmthatIcan't 'See hangingroundyourneck,underyourmerino. Youar-eliving onthewhiteman'smoney now, by distributingthose verypapersthatI see you with.Instead 'Of goingaboutthecountryabusing them,-asyouappeartobedoing,yououghttogo down onyour knees :andthankyourGod everynightthatyourancestorswerebroughttoJamaicaasslaves.Butforthat,-in 'Stead ofdrivingaboutwell dressed, in a freeandciv ilizedcountrY,ongood roads,witha good horseandtrap,youmighthave been a naked cannibal,hidinginsomeAfricanjungletosaveyourskinfromsomeothernaked cannibalwaitingtokillandeatyou,ormakea slaveofyou." Withthisperoration I allowed himtopass;and

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THERACE QUESTION.367 as hedrove off amidthederisivelaughterofmyhon countryfolk, Iheardthefollowing expression irom morethanone of thewomen:-"Lard!missis, Inspector mashupdemanfetrue."The maninthiscase belonged tothelower order!'!; butI came across oneofthesametypeinLondon,in .a muchhighersocial position, beinginpracticethere.as a medical man.Hewasnotblack,butoftheshade -of colour knowninJamaicaas"sambo." AJamaicanbybirth,hehadbeensenttoEnglandasayouthto.study medicine;andhehad found theamenitiesofLondon,centreoftheworld'scivilization, somuchtohistaste,thathe neverreturnedtohis nativeland.No:London was good enoughforhim;andhe appearsto have repaidthehospitalitywithwhich hewastreatedbythewhiteraceby abusingandvilify ingthemwheneveropportunityoffered.Heevenwent.sofarasonce topublisha book called"TheUncolour ..d Races."Itmusthavefallenstill-bornfromthepress, 'for Idonot recollec.t everhearingofitexceptinabriefreviewthatI came across onceinsome paper, whosenameI have forgotten,inthecourseofmyomnivorous reading.Fromthisreview Igatheredthattheessenceofthebook was anexpressionofhis.aversionandcontempttowardsallmankindpossess ing skinsoffaircolour.Hehailed, I think,fromtheparishofSt. Ann,andhewasamanoftrulysuperbphysique. Isawhimtwice:thefirsttimeintheen trance hall of the HouseofCommons in August 1901, when I knewnothingabouthim;andthesecond time in circumstances which IshallnoWdescribe. Ilearnt it good dealabouthimlatei'. "Ihavealready mentionedthelectureonJamaica which I gaveattheSocietyofArtsinLondon onthe5thFebruary,1902

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AWE'ST INDIAN POLICEMAN .withMr.'W.'F.Lawrence, M.P., inthechair.It was while Mr. Lawrencewasmaking his openingremarksintroducing metotheaudiencethatIsawthemanenterthehallandtakea seat, recognising himat onceby his magnificent proportions.Itwasarawnight,andhis imposing presencewasfurtherenhanced by a fur-lined overcoatwitha heavy collar.Incompanywithhim were alittleEnglishparsonandhis wife, whom Iatonce-andasIafterwardsdiscoveredcorrectly-diagnosedasbelongingtoacertain religious denomination which I havealwaysheldtobelargelyresponsibleforthedisseminationofracial antipathy. Theysatone on each sideofhimandwere evidently pleased and proudtohave him undertheirwing. IdulyreadmypaperonJamaica,andexhibitedmylimelight views.Inthecourseofthepaperoccurredthe followingremarks:"As someinformationregardingthesocial conditionofJamaicamaynotbewithoutinterestI will concludethispaperwithsomeremarksonthesubject. We have not,asisthecase intheUnitedStatesofAmerica,anyraceorcolour"problem"to solve: The white people of theis land constitute, roughly speaking,the"classes";butonthesame footingastheseandmingling withthemontermsofperfectequality,arenumbersofwell-to-do coloured people,ofvarious. shades of complexion, well-educated, cultured, and travelled;manyofthemoccupying positions inthepublic service, and practising as lawyers,anddoctors,andholdingofficeintheChurch.'Anofficial social functionat Government House,forinstance, is a very motleY'as

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THERACE QUESTION.369 far ascomplexions go,butalltheguestsareontermsofperfectequality."Thenegroes, who constitutethebulkofthepopulation,andarethelabouring classes,arecontentedandhappy.TheyareasproudofbeingBritishsubjectsasanyoftheirwhitecountrymen;andnatureisbountifultotheminthewayofsupplyingtheirsimplewants.I donotpropose.toenterintoanydissertationontheirfaultsandvices,butitshouldbe rememberedthatitisonlyalittlemorethan60yearssincetheybegantoenjoytothefulltheblessingsofcivilisation;thereforeitisunfairtojudgethembyEuropeanstandards.Itseems reasonabletoinferthatthevirtueswhich distinguishnorthernraceshavebeen engenderedandfostered byrigoursofclimateandthestruggleforexistence.Stimuliofthisdescriptionarelackingintheregionswhereitis"always afternoon," andthereforethemoral'standardis necessarily a lower one.Butthis'muchIcansayabouttheJamaicanegro:thatheisextremelytemperateinthematterofdrink,andcomparatively freefromserious crime. Thosehorrifying'casesofwife-beatingthatfigure sO' constantlyinEnglishcriminalrecords neverdisgraceours.Ourblackfellow-subjectsaregood-natured,andnotintheleastvindictive:theywantprincipallytobelet alone. Occasional thinly-veiledattemptsarenowandthen made by someofthebetter-educatedamongthem-menwho oweeverythingtheyknowtothewhiteman'skindness-tostirupracehatredandto persuade them' that'they are'oppressedand

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370 AWESTINDIAN POLICEMAN.downtrodden;butthenegro, simpleasheseems,hasa good dealofsound common sense,andisaveryshrewdjudgeofhumannature,sothattheseattemptsatagitationinvariably meetwiththefatetheydeserve." (Incidentally, I donotthinkthatallmywords, with reference to.thenegroesarequiteasapplicableto-dayastheywereatthatdate, twenty-fiveyearsago.)Atthecloseofmypapera discussion aroseonsomeofthepoints contained in it.InthisSirEdwardNoel Walker, K.C.M.G.,formerlyColonialSecretaryforJamaica, and Colonel W.G.Dawkins, a large land edproprietorinClarendon-both,oldandgoodfriendsofmine-andothergentlemen tookpart,dwelling chiefly ontheeconomic sideofthequestion;butwhentheyhadsaidwhat they hadtosay,themanwhom Iamdescribing roseto the fullheight oJ his commanding figure. andthefollowingthentook place, as recordedinthe"Journal of' The Societyof .4.rts:"Dr.T. E. S. Scholes saidthathedidnotquite agreewithMr. Thomas's descriptionofthecontentmentandcompletesatisfaction of thenatives.Inanarticle inthatday'sTimes,itwasannouncedthata deficitof,530wasanticipatednextyearintherevenueofJamaica,andthearticleconcludedwiththesignificantwords:'Thereiswidespread poverty,andthebusiness outlook still remains gloomy.' The classofthepopulationupon whomthepressureofthatpovertyrestedmostheavily wasthepeasantry, so thatafalseimpressionwaslikelytobeproduced

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.THERACE QUESTION. 371, whenthenatives were describedasthoroughlycontented.Hewasafraidthattherewasanincreasingtendency onthepartofpeople inthiscountry,andofthewhite races generally,toregardthecoloured racesassimplyrecipients.As a colouredmanhimselfhefeltthathewasnotinthatposition. While he receivedfromtheBritish,theBritishalso receivedfromhim.Theywereworkinghandinhand.Thecoloured peoplecertainlyboretheburdenoftaxation,and, becausetheydid so,theyhadarighttodemandcertainthings,andifthosethingswerenotforthcoming,theywereentitledtomake aprotestwithoutbeingregardedasseditious.Hethoughtitwasimportantthattheruling race shouldbear that pointinview,asitwas often forgotten. Undoubtedlyhewould betoldthatthecultivationofsugarconferredagreatbenefit uponthe Indiansbythecirculationofmoney occa sioned thereby.Thatwascorrect,butitdidnotcoverthewholeground,becausesugarenjoyed no. immunity from taooation and, as thepeasantryborethetaxationtheyassistedinbearingtheburdenofthesugarplanting industry. As a loyalBritishsubject, he contendedthatitwas only whentheinterestsofall classesoftheEmpireweretakeninto considerationandwhen every man, judged onlybyhis ability,and characterwasgiven every chance,thatthestabilityoftheBrit-ishEmpirewould be thoroughly assured." (Howthetimes havechanged!Fancyanybody lnaking a .fuss about a deficitof,530 Why, inthese

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372 AWESTINDIAN POLICEMAN.days a deficitofsuch dimensions would have averynarrowescapeofbeingregardedasasurplus!)"Mr. Thomas, inreplytoDr. Scholes,repeatedthestatementhe had made inthepaperthatoccasionallyattemptsweremadetostirupill-feeling,butthatthoseattemptsalwaysmet with thefatetheydeserved, becausetheirblackfellowsubjectshadtoo much good sense.'" I didnotthenunderstand,andI haveneversince succeeded inunderstanding,whatthegentle desiredtoconvey by his cryptic, incoherent, dis ingenuousandplausible utterances. Tomymindtheyappearednothingmoreorlessthanoneofthose"thinly-veiledattemptstostirupracehatredandpersuadethem(thenegroes)thattheyareoppressedanddown-trodden," to which reference was madeinmypaper.Itistruethat"Mr. Thomas in replyrepeatedthestatement he had madeinhispaper;"butwhatwas in Mr. Thomas'shearthe couldnotallow to pass his lips,forfearofdisturbing the harmonyoftheevening, which wasthis:-"You,sir, afford inyourown person a typical exampleofthe kind of man whom I described.Hereyou have sat,yearafteryearinEngland, in theheartofthe white man's civilizationp"living in the enjoyment of his hospitality and his com forts,ofyour own choice from yournativeland, "and even fo luxuryofa fur-lined great-coat;yet this..evening fromthisLondon lecture hall youaretryingto persuade your less fortunatecountrymen,thenegroes of Jamaica,thattheyarebeing unfairlytreatedby the ruling race." Laterinthenight, while discussingthisepisodeatsupper at"the National Liberal Clubwith Mr; Law-

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TH;E RACE QUESTION.373 renee,SirEdward Walker andColonel Dawkins, I elicitedthewarmapprovalofthese gentlemen by de .1ivering,myselfinthewords quoted above.ThismanistheworstexampleofunreasoningracehatredthatI have ever comeintocontactwith.Byaremarkable,coincidencetheverysamenumberofThe Journalofthe SocietyofArtswhichreportsthese proceedings, containsthefollowing:-"OBITUARY. "Sir ConradReeves.-TheHon. Sir. William Conrad Reeves, ChiefJusticeofBarbados, whosedeathtook place onthe8thJanuarylast,waselected a memberoftheSocietyofArtsin 1897. Hewas bornatBarbadosin1838,thesonofThomasPhillipsReeves, a medicalpractitioner, and he began life in aprintingoffice,afterwardsbecoming areporter.Hisabilitywas' somarkedthathis 'friendssenthimtoEnglandtoreadfortheBar.Afterhe'hadbeen called bytheMiddleTemplehereturnedtohis nativeislandandsoon acquired a considerablepracticeasanadvocate.In1873 he was elected totheHouse of Assembly, .and in1876 hewasappointedSolicitor-General.In1881 he becameAttorneyGeneral,andin1886hewasadvanced to the Chief Justiceship.TheHon.SirJohnWorrallCarrington,ChiefJusticeoftheSupremeCourt, Hong Kong,inalettertotheTimes,describedSirConrad Reeves as "themost distinguished manofcoloureverbornintheBritishdominions." On his death theGovernor,withtheconsentofthemembersofthelocallegislature,accorded himthehonourofapublic .

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374 AWESTINDIANPOLICEMAN.Now,thesubjectofthisobituarynoticewasaman,Iaminformed,ofcomplexionverylittle-ifany-lighterthanthistruculentdoctor;andall thesehon.oursanddistinctions, culminatingina knighthood,hadbeenconferreduponhiminaWestIndianislandwherecolourprejudiceisfarstronger"anditsattendantlineofsocialdemarcationfarmorerigid.thaninJamaica.SirConrad Reeves was oneofthose dark-complex ioned men who, being gentlemen"bythegraceofGod," bymeansofsheernaturalability,tact,andpersistence, succeedinbridgingthegulftowhichreference ismadeatthebeginningofthischapter.Whatacontrasttotheworthydoctor!FortunatelyforJamaicawe donotsufferfromanydearthofmenofthe'Reeves type,toformabulwarkagainstracehatred.Severalnames occur tome,astheywilltoallmyin,telligentreaderswhoknowtheircountryasI do. Ithink,amongmanyothers,ofmen liketheHon. HectorJosephs,theHon.theReverend A.A. Barclay" Dr. D.J.Phillips,theRev.F.W.Coore,theheadsoftheAfricanMethodistEpiscopalChurch,andtheRev. C. A. Wilson.Thelast-namedofthesehaspennedinhis"MenWithBackbone" a fearless,honestandscathingcriticismanddenqnciation of thefaultsandfailingsofhiscountrymen suchasfewmenwould havedaredtoattempt.AndIregarditasadistinctly'healthysignthatthebookwassohighlyapprecia,tedastorendera second edition necessary.BeforeclosingthischapterIwouldaskthoseblindleadersoftheblindwhostrivetofomentraceantipathybysuchutterancesas'arequotedin -the earlypartofita few qqestions:-

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THERACE QUESTION.375Arethey aware ofthedangers whichareattendantonplayingwithfire? Dotheyrealisethedepthofblack ignorancethatprevailsamongtheloweststratumofthepopulace which listenstotheirinflammatoryspeeches?Havetheyforgottenthefathomlessnatureofthisabyssofdarknesswhichwasrevealed onlyaboutayearago, when athousandofsuch personsgatheredinthelowerpartofKingstontowitnessthearrivalofa woman who theyhadbeen toldhadbeentransformedinto a mule,andwasabouttobe de positedintheMuseumoftheInstituteofJamaica;andhowitbecame necessaryinconsequencetoclosethegatesoftheInstituteandinvoketheprotectionofthePolice? Dothesedemagoguesnotknowthat,shouldtheybyanychance succeedinhavingtheirpoisonous doctrinestranslatedinto actionbysuch persons,thepowersthatbe haveathandaswiftandcertainremedyforthe disease? AsI haveintimatedelsewhere,thepityofitisthatsuch a consummation would findthemostblatantofthemsecureintheirown homes, savingtheirown skins "whentheguns begin to shoot,"andleavingtheirhapless dupes to sufferthepenalty oftheir ne fariousteachings.No:ithashithertobeen a sourceofpridetous,andofwonderandadmirationtoourrapidlyincreasingnumberofvisitorsfrom ove::r:seas --notablythosefromtheUnitedStates-thatinJamaicawehaveno"raceproblem."Itwould, how ever, appeartobethedesireoftheU.N.I.A.tosullythefairfameofthisislandbycreatingone;but this desirethedominating good senseofourpeopleis

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376 AWESTINDIAN certainintheend tofrustrate,undertheguidanceof sucll menasI havenamedabove;andofmany ()thers ofthesametypewhom space willnotallowmetoenumerate. Itoccurstome, before finallyquittingthissubject,torefertotheexistenceinformeryearsofwhatused t9 be averydistinctelementinthesocial lifeoftheisland,butwhich seemstomenowtohave :appeared,andthatmaybest be describedasa colour ed aristocracy.Thememories of youthful daysbringback to methefigures of eightortenmen ofvaryingshadesofcomplexion-someofthemverydark-whowereprominentinthesocietyoftheirday.Almosttoamantheywereoffine physique,portlyanddigni fied presence,andpolishedmanners,readyandwittyofspeech,andclassical scholars. They werelargelandedproprietors,planters,penkeepers, breedersofracehorses,andassuch necessarilysportsmenoffinecalibre;racingbeing in thosedaysasportineverysenseoftheword-notthefinancialenterpriseto'whichithassince degenerated. Someofthemwere also membersofthelearnedprofessions;andallhadgood librariesintheirhomes, where, beingbonsvi'vants,oneoftheirchief pleasureswasto dispensethe true old'Jamaicahospitality-nowadaysalso athing of thepast-accompaniedby"feastofreasonandflowofsou1."Andhave wenotherein Kingston astatuerearedtooneofthem(deceased beforemyday)whoistheonlyJamaicanthatwaseverentitledtowritetheletters"C. B."afterhisname?Theyhaveallnowpassed over totheGreatBeyond;buttome,whoas a youngster was alwayspersona gratawiththem.they' remain avery pleasant and vivid memory;particularlydelightfulbeingtherecollectionofa da1,1gh-

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THERACE QUESTION.377-terofoneofthosegentlemenwhowasthe'finestsong.stressthat. ever openedherlipson aJamaicaplatform.BeforeclosingthischapterIthinkIoughtto.say,asamatterofsimplejusticetomynegrofellowcountrymen,thatinthecourseofmydailytravellingaboutinthestreetcars, I have witnessedwithgreatpleasureactsofcourtesypaidbyblackmenon thesecarsto ladiesoffaircomplexion.Truthcompelsme however alsotosay-andI do sowithdeepregret-thatsuchcourtesyhasnotinevery case been acknowledged!bythefairrecipientinthemannerwhichitdeserved.Similarcourtesiesarealsofre'quently extended to myself;butIthinkI needhardlysaythatI never neglectmostpunctiliouslytorenderthanksforthem.Note:-Sincetheabovewaswritten,andactuallyinthepress,thesadnewshasarrivedoftheprematuredeathoftheHon.theRevd. A.A.Barclay.Maythislosstohiscountryandhisracebe soonmade good bysomeothermanofthesametype!

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378.A. WESTINDIANPOLICEMAN ChapterXXII.ODDS AND ENDS.Thischaptermustberegardedasa kindofscrap heap.Itscontents consistofmatterswhich, having: temporarilyescapedmymemory inthecourseofthe'mainnarrative,I havestillthoughtworthyofpresentationtomyreaders;ofcertain moralisingsandreflections which donotexactlyfit anywhere into ,the frameworkofmystory;ofvarious anecdotesof like description;andotherthingswhichmaybegroupedtogetheras"etceteras."First of all, loth as Iamtoinflict uponthereaderanymoreofmyprivateconcernsthanI havealready .one, ifthetragicstorypouredintohisearsinthepreceding pageshasfailedtoarouse hissympathy,I feel confidentthat,unless hisheartbeofthequalityofthenethermillstone,thefollowing illustrationof my illluckmustsucceedindoingso:-Intheyear1923,mysolicitor beingawayin England, Ientrusted to a Kingston house agent, out ofthehard-earned savingsofmyriperyears,themoneytopurchase a houseforme tosettledowninonmyretirementfromtheservice. Onmyarrivalinthemetropolisin Mal'lch 1924, I wasmetwiththepleasantdiscoverythatthis.manhadembezzledupwardsofofmymoney. I needsayno more, excepttoreiteratemyagreementwithBumble's verdict already quoted:-"Thelawis a ass."Foralthougha criminalprosecutionwouldnothavehadtheeffectofrestoringmy money.

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ODDSANDENDS. I wasdebarredevenfromthesatisfactionofundertakingthat, bY) thefactthatthisparticularsum had. never been inmypossession. Theagenthadreceivediton my behalf from a person whohadpurchased from' me a house which I had bought without seeing, but: which on inspection failed to please me. Ihadin structed him to sellthisone and buy another.Hecarriedoutmy instructions,buttransferred to' his own pocketthatportionofmymoney indicated above, which hehadreceivedfromthepurchaserofthefirst house.Thereforethejudicialauthoritytowhom I appliedforawarrantruledthata criminal: prosecution could not lie. Themanis dead, andmymoney is gone. Yes:"thelawis a ass."Thatexperi-. ence isthecrowning mercyofmyoIdage.Itformsa fitting climaxtomycareer,andoneentirelyconsistentwiththewholetrendofit.**** *Formanyyearspast-andwithgreaterinsistenceastimerollson-wehave beenhearingthecry"JamaicafortheJamaicans."Incidentallyitmayberemarkedthatitproceeds chieflyfrompoliticiansofacertaintype,andthatitwill be a blackdayforthiscountryifitshould ever resolveitselfintoactuality.ButIthinkmy own career inthepublicservice of" thecolonyfurnishesampleproofofthefactthateven in a case where a deservingJamaicanis conce:rn-ed-devoid of moneyorinfluence,withnothingbuthis own meritstorecommendhim-thecryis "mere and fury, signifying nothing." I haveneverderivedtheslightest benefit, directorindirect, from the

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.{380 AWESTINDIAN POLICEMAN.factthatIamwhatanotherfavouritecatch-word'calls"asonofthesoil."The only manwho,tomy:knowledge, ever exercisedanyinfluence onmybehalfwasmydeardeadandgone friend,SirJohnPringle, a Scotsman. Whenin1909SirSydney Olivier promoted overmyheadanEnglishmanwhowastenyearsmyjuniorintheservice,theonlymanwho ever said awordon my behalfintheLegislative Council wasthememberforSt.James,astoldinaformerchapter.HewashimselfaJamaican,itistrue,buthewasonewithwhom I neverwas-andcouldnotpossibly .ever havebeen-ontermsofsocial intercourse: whominfactIhadtreatedworsethana dog.Yetheseta luminousexampletoseveralotherJamaicanswhosat therewithout openingtheirmouths, in spiteofhavingknownme-sociallyaswellasofficially-formanyyears. Amongthemanytributesto meutteredbythisgenerous-heartedmanwasthatmyqualificationsforthecommand of theentireforce werevastlysuperiortothose possessedbyInspectorGeneralKershaw himself. Again, ill' thecaseofthe"JohnCrow Moun -tain" controversyof1920, whenmyprotagonistwasanEnglishmanoftheleisuredandwealthyclasses,manyofmycountrymenrevealedinthepressthe trueparrot-likenatureofthatcry;andatthesametimetheinherentsnobbishness whichformsanother marked characteristic. This episode deserves arathermore extended notice, which I shall proceed to give:InthechapterdescribingmyexperiencesintheparishofSt. Thomas, I have mentionedthevariousxplorations undertakenbymeinthe remote recessesoftheBlue Mountains,asalsothecrossingofthe

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ODDSANDENDS.381.JohnCrowMountains;andthefactthatIhadpubJished accountsoftheseinalittlevolume entitled."UntroddenJamaica."Imaysaythatsomeofthese,expeditions-andnotablythelastnamed-wereun dertakenunderthedirect patronageoftheGovernor,.SirHenryBlake,andthatofhisgracious Lady, who, beingherselfofaliteraryturn,always took a deepinterestinthedescriptionsofmyadventureswhich used toappearfrommypeninthe pages ofourlo cal magazine,The Victoria Quarterly,theninthefull. bloomofitsalas! too short-lived existence. She also exhibitedgreatdelight inthelarge collection of moun-tainorchids I alwaysgatheredon those expeditions,withwhich Ipresentedher,andwhich were bestowed in a special sheltered nookofthegardenatKing's; House. Ihadthehonourofreceivingmanylettersfromherexpressingherappreciationofmywork;andmylittlebook"Untrodden 'J amaica"is,withher' gracious permission, dedicatedtoher.,Now, inthe.]nmaica Gazetteofthe4thDecember, 1890,SirHenryBlake caused to be publishedthefollowingnotice:-"No. 465,1stDecember, 1890. The Governor directsitto be notifiedforgeneralinformationthatHisExcellency desirestherangeofmountainsinPortlandandSaintThomasknownas"TheJohnCrowMountains"shallinfuturebe knownanddesignatedas"TheBlakeMountains,"asamarkofappreciation of' theservicesperformedbyInspectorThomas in undertakingtheirexploration,andinaccordancewiththerequestofMr. Thomas inthematter." This noticewasofcourseonlyissuedaftercareful considerationbytheSurveyor' General's'Depart-

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..'382 AWESTINDIAN POLICEMAN.mentofthereportandthecrudemapaccompanying :it, whichIhad submitted to His Excellency;andforthirtyyearsIenjoyedthereputationofbeingthesoleexplorerofthisvirginterritory.Thentheredes cended on the shoresofJamaica acertainMr. Scores"byRoutledge:manofwealthandleisure, traveller, explorer,andbiggamehunter.Notcontent with: his .achievements inprimeval European, Asiatic, African, American, and Australasian wilds, he actually under. tooktorob poor, humble, insignificant meof-myonelittleewe lamb,theJohn Crow Mountains;whichforthirtyyearsIhadtreasuredonthisinfinitesimal :speckoftheearth'ssurfaceofwhichIhappentobe .a native.Ifirst came across him in May, 1920, inthe:streetsofBlack River, seekingforinformationwithregardtohotel accommodationandbanking facilities.Iatonce"placed"him;andInaturallyproceed -ed toassisthim in hisquest;spendingapartofthe .afternoon, andtheevening in his company.Isoon dis 'Covered thatwehadkindredtastes,andonlearningbisnameIdeeplyarousedhisinterestbytellinghimthatIhadrecentlyreadinTheFieldofLondon, alengthyreviewofa book his wifehadwrittendeal ingwiththeirexplorationofthemysteriousEasterIslandinthePacific. He himselfhadnotyetseenthebook. Tomakea longstoryshort:afterspendingan -eveningwithhimIlenthimmyonly copyof"Untrod-denJamaica," andheleftBlackRivernextday. I receivedfromhim a fewdayslaterashortletterac 'Companying thereturnofmybook,butI neverheardfrom himagain;although I n()ticed intheGleaner some accountofhishavingundertakenanexpedition _totheJohnCrow Mountains.Hepassedawayfrom

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ODDSANDENDS.383mymind entirely. TomygreatsurpriseIread some weekslaterinthecolumns of theGleanertheaccount .of alengthyinterview whichthisgentlemanhadac .corded in LondontoareporterofThe EveningNeW8,.boastingofhis having crossedtheJohnCrow MountainsofJamaica,hithertountroddenbyhuman foot Inhis rhodomontadetherewasno mentionofmyname,oranyallusion to mewhatever;unlesshis.scornful descriptionofhaving "discovered tracesofsome person having made a journey overthefoothills" -could be construedassuch. To my stillgreateras tonishmenttheeditorofthe Gleaner approvedofand .endorsed all of this, in spiteofmy remonstrancesandmy calling uponhimforthe vindication of myclaims, whichhadstood unchallengedforthirtyyears.InreplyI was treated'withscornandcontumely. How ever,itvery soon becameapparentthatIhadinfluentialfriendsinEnglandtoatoneforthedefectionofmy compatriots,andtheyralliedroundme;some beingpersonallystrangerstome,andothersformerresidentsofJamaicawhose very existence f hadlostsight of. Those gentlemen,among'whomwasMr.FrankCundall,SecretaryoftheInstituteofJamaica-hehappeningtobe inEnglandatthetimetookup'thecudgels onmybehalfintheTimesandtheWest India Committee Circular; whilethelead ing English sporting paper,The Field,withwhose editor,SirT. A. Cook, Ihadbeenincorrespondence duringthewhole war, devoted agreatdealofspaceto my vindication; going sofarastoprintthelittlemap insertedin"UntroddenJamaica."TheresultWasthatthenefarious designsofMr. Routledge werefrustrated,andhewas completelyrouted

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384 A WEST INDIAN POLICEMAN.(nopunintendedofcourse)and'drivenfrom neld: However, on becomingawareofall'thisthelocalpressabandoneditshostileattitude-althoughnotuntilmanyweekshadpassed-andmadetheamende honorablewith the bestgraceitcould. r didnotthendispute-andI .have'neveratanytimeattemptedtodispute-thefactthatMr. Scoresby Routledge crossedthemountains.WhatI took excep-tiontowashisstatementthatno one elsehadeveraccomplishedthatfeat,andtheentirelyun-Englishcharacterofhis behaviourtowardsme. I have dwelt. uponthisepisode becauseitfurnishes such strikingevidenceofthejnsincerityofthecry"Jamaicafor the: Jamaicans,"andatthesametimeademonstrationof the truthofthatBiblicalsaying:_HAprophet is notwithouthonoursaveinhis owncountry."(InfactIthinkmywholecareerdoesthat.)Allsorts.andconditionsofpeoplebuttedintothecontroversy;andforweeksthecolu.mnsofthepaperteemedwithlettersformeandagainst;someofthelatterbeingwritten schoolboysandotherpersons all equallyignorantofthefacts, whohadneverseen"UntroddenJamaica."Thehostilerankswere reinforcedbyno>less apersonthantheSurveyorGeneral,alsoa countrymanofmine,butatotalstrangertome."Jamaica ;for theJamaicans,"forsooth!Thetwoexampleswhich I have quoted belong to a bygoneday-althoughtheoneof1920 isnotsoveryremote;but,.asiftoemphasise,accentuateanddrive hometothehiltthetruthofwhatI am, endeavouring to illustrate,. athirdinstanceoccurredattheverylastsittingoftheLegislative Council,inOctober, 1926:' If willbe quitefresh inthe memoriesof my readershoW-in the

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ODDSANiidebate onthe Cinematograph Law,six Ofmycom patriotsendeavouredtoreducebyone-third a smallsalarywhichthegovernment proposedtopaymein ofcertain dutiesfortheperformanceofwhich theyhaddone me the honourofselectingme;two ofthem being men whom I would have expected to.jump at thechanceof doing me a good turn.I trlist thatthese fellowcountrymenofmine foundabundantcon solationforthefailureoftheireffortsinthewarmapproval whichtheyelicited from. theeditorof the Gleaner.This gentleman penned an editorial paeaninpraiseofthese men, holding themuptothesympa thetic admirati9n oftheircountrymenasmartyrsina noble and patriotic cause; who, although defeatedihroughthepusillanimityofcertainoftheirown col leagues, had deserved welloftheircountry-andhisQwn,and mine. Of coursehis,attitudeinthisinstance was entirelyconsistentwiththatofthe John Crow Mountain episode. [With respect tothislatterImay iay thatI have a good deal more upmysleeve,withwhich I willforthenoncerefrainfromregalingthepublic-unlesstheoccasion should arise forso doing.Butit would be wiseforcertain persons tobearin mindthefactthatIamno longer a member of thepoiice force.] JamaicafortheJamaicans, forsooth!Lord help the Jamaican who, like myself,hasneithermoney nor influence, ifhe is pittedagainsta big man from"'over water."! ** *. As a matter ofcoursethisbook will be subjectedto criticism' ofthemost searching kindbythose to

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A WESTINDIANPOLICE MiN. whomitwould afford pleasure to find holesinit;anditthereforebehoves me to be very' carefulofallmyde tails. Some "fellah whowantstoknow, don't you know" maydesire-andquiterightly-anexplanationofcertain discrepancies between my chronology andthatofthe "HandbOok ofJamaica,"inview ofthefactthatI date my own service as fromthe8thJanuary,1877,andmakemyselfoutastwelveyearssenior to:Mr. W.E.Clark;whereas inthe"Handbook"thedate Of my"firstappointmenttopublic service" is givenas17th April, 1878,andthatofClark1stDecember 1879. The explanation is this:-AfterI had servedverynearlyfourteenmonths-namelyattheendofFebruary,1878-1wastemptedbywhatpromisedtobe a goodprospectofleaving Jamaicafor"freshfieldsandpasturesnew." Iwentawayon leavetothecountry,and-irresponsibleyoung cubthatIwas-insteadofwaitingfortheprospecttomaterialise, I resigned myappointment. Theprospectvanished intothinair;andI thenwrotethegovernment asking to be allow ed towithdrawmy resignation, or, failingthat,to be re-appointed. I am entitledtothinkthattheymusthavelooked upon measa promisingladeventhen;for,notwithstandingthefactthattherewereaboutone hundred mimes on thewaitinglistfortheappointmentofSub-Inspector,myrequest wasatonce accededtO,andthe17thApril, 1878 wasthedateon which I reported myself in Kingston to take up SUb-Inspector'sdutyagain. I wasexactlyonemonthoutofthe force.With-regardto Mr:" Clark:his"firstappointment" may have been1stDecember, 1879,butthatwasnottotheConstabulary.Hepassedthroughtwo Qther departments, coming to usfromthePostOf-

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ODDSAND.ENDS 387 twelveyearsjuniortomeasanInspectorofPolice. Sothat'sthat.** ** .* *I have donemanythingslying outsidethescope -of mydutiesasa policE' officer,tendingtothegeneralwelfareofmycountry,totheadvancementofitscivilization,aswellastotheprestigeoftherulingrace,andthatoftheforce of which Iwasa memberforforty-seven years. And IthinkImaysay, with. outanysuspicionofboasting,thatonly since Ihavebeen leading a quietandsequestered lifeinKingston have Icome tothefull realisation ofthereputationthatI have succeededinestablishingamongtheinhabit ofmyisland home.Ithasbeen a pleasing revela tiontome,andtheknowledge of ithashelped to con sole meinthemanifoldsorrowsandtrialswhich havefallentomylot. Someofmyachievements have already been mentioned,andI shall now enumerate more of these extraneousservices:-WhentheExhibitionof1891wasbeingorganizedtheCommissionersappointedme a member ,oftheModelIndustrialVillage Committee,andthroughtheinfluence which Ihadeventhengained overthepeasantryofSt.ThomasIwasable topersuadethree or fourfamiliesofwell-to-dosmallsettlerstomigrate to Kingston,andcarryontheirvarious industries::manufacturing"new"sugar,makinggrasshats, boobaskets,barkwhipsandropes,cedarandfigWoodbowls,mortars and pestlesforpounding coffee,. bananatrashmatsandnumerousotherthings. I shep. herded these people to an9. fromKingston; watched

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388,,' A WESTthemduringtheir stayofthreemonths ;anddistributedamongthemtheremuneration' which .had: been promised them.Andthisatatimewhenthousandsoftheblack people were being deterredfromvisitingtheExhibitionbytheextraordinaryrumoursthatwerecirculatedallovertheislandwithregardtothe purpose ofit. Thewildestofthesewasthata ship was corning outfromEngland laden withhandcuffsandleg-irons,and that itwastheintentionof the whites, whenallthepeople were asseinbled intheDuildings,toclose the doors, bindtheblackshand and foot,andonce rnOl"e establish slavery.(I.would refer those whomaycan this impossible totheinci dentofthe mule;.woman described inchapterXXI;and, remember,this was thirty-fiveyearsprevious). I wonthe devotion oftheentireEastIndian popu lationofSt.Thomas-whichwasaprettylargeone on accountoftheindenturedlabou-rers onthesugarestates-bydiving down into fi'fteen feetof muddy waterin a stream flowingthroughLysson'sestate af':',ter a flood rain, and bringingupfromthebottOinthebodyofa newly married cooliegirlwhohadbeen initshortlybefore I pasged alongthe road; Therewere a cou,pleof hundred neg.rolabourersonthe spot, allofwhom refusedtomaketheattemptunlessthecooliesagreedtopayfrom to. I de terminedtoteach them a lesson,andIdidit; aJ though1had'togo down five timesandgrope along, thebedofthestream,unable to see onaccountof the mud. When I came tothe surfacethe fifth time; .grasp ingthe 'COrpse'by the a:nk-le.:-she wasa ,beautifullittle' thing, notmuch more than achild-thecoolieswent wiHlwithdeUght.T;he wotnen:mn>upshrieking..and1

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ODDSANDENDS. 389' andcoveredthebodywithsheets;whilethe .men crowdedroundme kissingmyhandsandfeet,. and cursingthenegroes in English untiltheirstockof inthattongue was exhausted, when they fellback ontheirnative language.ThatwasabouttheendofJune,1890,andformanyweeksafterwards when ridingalongroadsadjacenttocanefields ill which coolies were working,mypassingused to bethesignalforprofouIidsalaams;andI could seetheoldercoolies pointing meouttonew-comers(afresh batch hadjustarrived)andhearthemtellingthestrangersofwhatIhaddone. I knew enoughHindustaniwordstosufficeformyunderstanding ... In1893, whenJamaicawaspreparingforparti intheChicago"World'sFair"asitwascall e51, I was employedbytheChief Commissioner,thelate Hon.C.J.Ward(donorofourtheatre)towritethedescriptive accountoftheislandwhich accom paniedourexhibits. My work waslaterplagiarisedbycertainAmericans, who published a book onJamaica, inthemostshamelessmanner.These gentle mencutoutofitphrases, sentences, and whole para. graphs,forinsertion intheirpublication,withoutone word acknowledgingthesourcefromwhichtheyhadbeen derived. While on leave in England in 1901-2, commission edbySirAlfred Jones, headoftheElderDempster Company, I lectured on JamaicafourtimesinLondon:tWiceattheImperial Institute,withtheEarlofStam fordasmy chairman onthefirst occasion, and MarshalSirHenryNorman onthesecond; onceattheSocietyofArts,asalreadydescribedindetail,andagainattheSouth Place Ethical Society.Atthesec-

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390 AWESTINDIANPOLICEMAN .ond ofthese Ihadthepleasureofmeeting once more Major-GeneralH.JardineHallowes, whohadseveral iimes administeredthegovernmentofJamaicawhile 'Commanding thetroops here,andknew me well.He -came speciallY' to see meandto have achatintheante !'oom beforemylecture began. I also gave two lectures in Bedford, wheremy -children wereatschool; one intheTownHallandtheotherattheGrammarSchool itself. These lectureswereillustratedby limelight viewsandcuriosi tiesofvarious kinds,andall were well attendedby'keenlyappreciativeaudiences. Anadditionalattraction was affordedtotheoneattheBedfordSchoolbytheexhibitionofhalf-a-dozen fine bunchesofbananaswhichSirAlfredJonessentmefordistributionamongtheboys.Ontheoutwardvoyage I alsQ lecturedinthesaloonofthesteamertothetouristpassengers.Ithassometimeshappenedthatmyknowledge uf foreign languageshasbeenofgood servicetothegovernment. I have actedasinterpreter,bothinFrenchand German, in courts and custom-houses.Themostnotableinstanceofthisoccurredin1898,aboutthetimeoftheSpanish-AmericanWar,when IwasstationedinTrelawny.Justatthatjunctureaveryrigidquarantinehadbeen establishedby()ur governmentagainstCuba,forboth hygienicandpolitical reasons,andBritishcruisers were watchingthenorthcoastofthisisland,withheadquartersatMontegoBayandPortAntonio. OneSundaymorningI received atelegramatFalmouthfrommycorporalincharge of theRio Buenostation,eighteen miles away,informingmethatapartyofCubanshad

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ODDSANDENDS.391landedatthatplace about daybreakfromanopen boat.Wiringhimtopreventthemfromdispersing,if he possibly could, IhurriedofftotheresidenceoftheCollectorofCustoms,andgalvanised himintoaction.(Hewasnotone whom I could conscientiously des cribeasanenergetic person.Heis long since dead.) IpersuadedhimtohireabuggyandstartwithmeforthwithforRio Bueno. Onarrivingthereatabouteleven o'clock I foundthateighteen Cubanshadlanded from averylargecanoe, andthatmycorporalhadsucceededingatheringtheminto oneofthewharfhouses toawaitmyarrival.Everyoneoftheeighteen wasarmedwitha long Cuban macheteinaleathersheath;andIsawhalf-a-dozen revolversaswell.NotoneofthemknewawordofEnglish,andtherewasnoSpanishinterpreteravailable. Howeveraftera fewtrialsI discoveredthatoneamongthemspokevery goodFrench,on which I immediately"assumedchargeofthesituation," (to quoteSirSydney Oli vier), tothegreatdelight oftheCollector.Itwasreallyhisjob-Ibeingmerelyhisauxiliary-buthesurrendereditonlytoo willingly.TheCubans,whowere averygentlemanlylot, obeyedallmyinstructionsmostimplicitly;subjecting themselveswiththebestgracepossibletotheconfinement which I im posed onthem;andtherestofthedaywasspentinworkingthetelegraphtoandfromKingston. ImadethingsaspleasantasI couldforthem,andlateintheaftern'oontheirreleasewasorderedbytheauthori ties inKingston.Butifmyserviceshadnotbeen avail able, a very.unpleasantsituationmighteasilyhavedeveloped,andconsiderable expensehavebeenentailed onthegovernment in consequence. Therewere

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m AWEST POLICEMAN.no facilities whatever atRio B;uenofor meetiJ;lg such eIllergency. ******Ineedhardlysaythatthes.e extraneous contrihu tionsofmine tothewelfareofmy countryandtheconvenienceofthe to mention otherswith which Iabstainfromboringmyreaders have never proved of th& least advantagetome,orobtainedformeanyextraremuneration(withthe ex ceptionof the Chicago matter)orofficial tion whatever. Indeed,theunpleasant convictionhasforced itself upon me inthecourse oftheyearsthatthevery advantages whichNatureandeduca tion bestowed onme;combinedwithmygratuitouszeal, have aroused incertaincirclesofmycountry noughtbuta feeling of resentment.****Idonot thinkthatI have ever beenwhatis called a "popular" police officer-that is amongthemajorityof peopie of my own socialclass,-althoughI have found heartsof gold hereandthere.Butwhenthere was "Constabularydutytobe done," asW.S.Gilbert shigs,they knew who could be relied ontodoit thor oughly and effectively: EventheCustosofWestmore land once inmy hearingwarned a man who wasmakinghimselfobjectionable atthegate ofhis premisesthathehadbetter be carefulwhat he wasabout,ashe(theCustos) had athandjusttherightmantodealwith

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ODDSANDENDS. 393:him;-meaningme. Withregardtothefriendlysenti mentstowardsme ofthehumbler classesintheparisheswhereIspent most of mY life, evenincludingWestmoreland-thatisthemountaindistrictsofthatparish-Iaminno doubt whatsoever.Itisveryeasyto become a"popular"policeoffi-cereTherearevarious waysofdoing it. One istobe hail-fellow-well-metwithRichard, Thomas,andHenry;.todrinkwiththematpublicbars;to"shuttheothereye" whentheybecomedrunkanddisorderlyorexceed. the speedlimit;be alwaysreadytoputtheminthewayofprocuringdrinksafterlegalh.ours-orof moredisreputablediversions.Andifamong yoUI' boon companions you can include newspaperreporters. of acertain tyPe, thenyoursuccess isassured;you are a "nice chap,"andaliyourofficial doings will be chron icledwithfrills round them. Thisvarietywillnotbeunfamiliartomyreaders.Anotherwayistomaintain a sQber,staidandunctuousdemeanour,slightlydashedwithreligion;tobe"allthingstoallmen";nevertosay"no"except thepressureofabsolutelyirresistible necessity;tobealwayssuavely und tactful, obliging everybody. Theformertypeis. more common.thanthelatter,which indeed postu latesthepossessionofcertainexceptionalgifts.There usedtobe a shining exampleofthissortintheforce; hewasso fulloftactthathe never inarowduringthewholeofhis long career,butalways contrived,whenoneappearedimminent,topassitontohissergeant-major.His physicalcouragewasmorethanundersuspicionamonghis.contemporaries;yethealwaysmanagedto secure the:plums of theservicewithrespecttostations. I{e,

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:394 AWESTINDIANPOLICEMAN.never served in morethanthree-orattheoutside :four-parishes.Inone he remainedforeighteen years, .-and inthelastin which he wasstationed-themost..desirableofall-thetermofhisstaywasjustshort.oftwentyyears.HerefusedthepostofDeputyIns.pector General, doubtless becauseitwould havetak-. en himtoKingston, where he would, soonerorlater, :have had to face a row..On one occasionhewas sent, -on accountofhis seniority, byanInspectorGeneral who hadnotyetlearntto know his officers,totake com :mand ofalargeforceofarmedpolice whichwasawaitingdevelopments onthesceneofcertaindemonstrationshostiletothecauseoflawandorder,and "on arrivalathis baseofoperationshewentstraight io bed, suffering,itwassaid,frommalaria.Thejun-jorofficer-himself"afirst class fightingman"fromwhom he wastotakeoverthecommand, called "his ailment by quite a differentname-andused a muchshorterword-whentellingmethe story. Hewas-thatramavisinterris,anInspectorofPolicewithprivatemeans. And everybody in speakingofhimal. ways took caretosay:-"Whata pice chap, eh?" He:isdead. Another case of gross favouritism wasthat-ofa certain Inspector who was permitted to remain :inSt. Andrewfortwenty-twoyears;Halfway 'Tree being, from the social pointofview, absolutely -the blueribandofthe service. Butthismanwas'marriedtoaladyofamplemeans,andtheyusedto give dinners,gardenpartiesandothersocialenter-tainmentsforthedelectationofthe elite ofSt. An ..(lrew andKingston.Atlength,aftertheexpiration -of thetwenty-two years,theGovernorofthedaytook

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ODDS ANDENDS.395hiscourageinbothhandsandorderedthisInspectorto betransferredto St. Thomas,whereitwouldbenecessaryforhimtodo some police work.Thissoarousedhisindignationthatheimmediately resignedhisappointment,even foregoinghispension.SaintThomasmightdoverywellforordinaryfolk like andsomeotherofficersoftheforce, but itwastoomuchtoexpect hewouldtamelysubmitto being removed thither. He is also dead; whileI,thecontemporaryofboththemendescribed,amverymuch alive; despitethefactthat,withtheexceptionofa fewmonthsofintermittentresidenceinMande ville,mylothasforthemostpartbeencastinthe worst hot-bedsofmalariawhichtheislandcontains. Verytrueindeed istheoldsaying:-"Onemanmaysteala horse, whileanothermaynotlook overthehedge"-eveninthepublic serviceofthiscountry.This proverb, bytheway,remindsmeofyetanothercase which forms a stillstrongerillustrationofit:Onone occasion, severalyearsago, acertainInspec tor, in openCourtofPettySessions,withtwoJusticessittingonthebench,inthepresenceofhis own menandoftheassembled public, pickedupanink stand fullofinkandflungitacrossthetable ofthecourtata solicitor whowasannoying him by oppos ingcertainargumentsofhisina police case.Notonlywas he not made to sufferforthispiece of playful ness,butontheoccurrenceofa vacancyinahigherranksomethreemonthslater,hewasactuallypromoted! Ihaveoftenwonderedwhatmyfatewould havo been,hadI been guiltyofsuchanindiscretion. TheleastthatI could have expected would have beeninstantandperemptory dismissal;andI shouldhaveconsideredmyselfluckynottohave a sentenceof

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AWEST. INDiAN POLICEMAN.penalservitudethrownin.Ofcourseitmayhave been. amerecoincidencethat just atthisjuncturethe 0'.;.. fleer in questionhadtwonearrelatives occupying highofficial positions--oneofthem very high indeed.Theonly twoparishesin which I have never been stationedat anytimeareSt.Ann(which is oneof"the"plums"abovereferredto)and'Portland.******Iamsometim,esiJ;lClinedtothinkthatoneofthereasons of my having failed to achieve a cheap. popu...larityistheuncompromisingimpartialitywhich I have mentionedina previouschapter.I have never wittingly and wilfully harmed man, woman,orchild;: butofcourse intheverynature of mycallingithasbeen necessaryformetomakethingsunpleasantfor a greatmany andI have never allowedany persoU:;l.1 considerationtoinfluence meinwhatI con sideredtobetheproperdischargeofmyduty.It has thusfallen tomy lot tobringabouttheretirementofthreeundesirablesfromthepublic service. Two such casesarementioned in previouschapters;butinthemost recent and notoriousone-whichhasnotbeenmentioned-thevictimmaybesaidtohave com-mittedsuicide,andtohave possessed less intelligencethanI gave him creditfor.Hehadknown meverywell indeedforanumberofyears,during which wehadmaintained a yery pleasantsocial intercourse;andiftherewasonethingaboutmethatheknewbetterthananothe!',itwasthat no manhadanythingtoteachme iIirespectofmyjob.Yethewilfullyanddeliberatelywentoutofhiswaytointerferewithme,andtreadonmycorns officially;withthe

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ODDS ANDENDS.397 -painful resultthathe cea,sed togracethepublic ser...; 'vicewithhis presence. His molestationofmewasmerelytheculminatingpointofa long seriesofde linquencies,butheturneddownthewrongstreetthattime. I have never seen such a forcible demonstrationofthetruthoftheoldLatinsaying:-. Quem deus vult perdereprius dementat.IntheoriginalmanuscriptofthischapterIhadmercifullybroughtmybriefsketchofthisepisodeto .a conclusionwiththeaboveappropriateLatin quota...; tion;butbeforeitwasputintoprintI madethedis -covery thatthesubjectofitwasseekingtowreakhis vengeance on methroughanonymousattacksofanoffensivenatureinthepublic press.Inso doinghehasmadeafurtherdisplayofthelackofintelligence which I haveimputedtohim;ofthedefectinhisknowledgeofhumannaturewhich preventshimeven nowfromrealisingthesortofmanwith wlitmi heisdealing;and, above all,ofafatuousdisregardQfthegood oldmaximwhichwarnspersons living inglasshousesagainstthedangerofthrowingstones.Inview,therefore,ofthecourse whichhehasseen fit toadopt,Ithinkitexpedient,andofpublicinter est, tosupplementmysketchwitha few detailsof the happenings which ledtohis downfall. These, I think,formanamazingstory, quiteworthyofa place among the other amazing stories withwhichthisbook abounds. Incidentally,itprovides a furtherillustra tionof the proverbaboutthehorseandthe hedge Whichis quoted in an earlierportionofthis chapter; forI amcredibly informedthatthisman'sdiversionshadbeen amatterofnotoriety long, longere hiscar eer was terminated byfallingfoul ofme; To beg:iI1;with: he wasthebiggestgame I evet'f

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398 AWESTINDIAN POLICEMAN.brought down, being no less a personagethantheResidentMagistrateofacertainparish.His interfer": encewithmewasatotallyarbitraryandillegalactinconnectionwitha criminal case occurring in a par ishotherthanhis own, committedattheinstanceofa certain tavern-keeper who was oneofhis associates.Butthismerely brought toa head a long seriesofmis deeds, which resulted in his being interdictedfromduty, and, amongotherthings, in my having to go to. Kingston as a witnessagainsthim before aPrivyCoun cil Committee. Whiletheproceedings werependinglonedayreceived from Mr. St. John Yates,thenActingAttorneyGeneral, a telegram requesting metomeethimin a certain town onthefollowing day. I did so,andtogetherwejourneyedtotheofficeofthecourtoverwhichthisperson presided,toinspecttheregisterofprocess received fromothercourts. There we found. entered inthebooksofhis own court, some eight ortenjudgmentsummonses,andcommitmentsfordebt.againsthimself.Hehadbeen,tomyknowledge,arrestedbyhis own .bailiff on oneofthese commitments.butrescuedfromdurancevile by the intervention .of His Honour the Custosofthe parish, who,inthegood ness ofhisheart,advancedthenecessary money. The bailiff,anoldsergeantofmine, whosenameI have mentioned inthesecondchapteronthe Mar:.; oons,hadcometomemorethanonce, seekingmyadviceastowhatcourseheshouldadoptintheentirelyextraordinaryand unprecedented positioninwhich he wasthusplaced. Mr. Yateshimselftoldmethathehadbeen ob ligedtoissue awrit 'of ejectmentagainstthisperson.

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ODDS ANDENDS. 399< inorderto compel himtoevacuatecertaingovern-mentquarterswhichhehadrefusedtoleave.Theaboverepresentonlyaveryfewofhislittle peccadilloes;butthesumtotalofthemreached such. dimensionsthattheCustosoftheparish,andtheheadofthePresbyterianChurch, called me into con-sultationandasked metodrawupareportsupplementingtheinformationwhichtheyhadobtained. I did so;andtheCustos duty forwardeditin a: confidentiallettertotheGovernor direct.Theresult.oftheseproceedingswasthecompulsoryretirementofthisornamentto the judicial bench,and dispenser: ofBritishjustice, on. agreatlyabbreviated pension."Verilythehalfhathnotbeentold;"butinmyhumble opinionthecasewasagainone which called forthehandofaSwettenhamtobeadequatelydealtwith.Inaddition, and, perhaps, complementary to all: hisothergifts,the hero ofthistale possessesthefacultyofaperfectlybrazenimpudence.Ofthishegavethemostconvincingdemonstrationwhen,afterhisfatehadbeen finally sealed, he actually approached:theClerkofCourtswithaproposalto issue proceed ingsagainstHisHonourtheCustos, His Reverence the Scotch minister,andmyself,forconspiracy! I think myreaderswillagreethatthisstoryisatleastfittotakeitsplaceamongtheothersrecorded' inthisbook;anditonly remainsformetosay thatall thedocumentaryevidence confirmingit-andagreatdealmorebesides-isto befoundinthere cords ofthe Privy Council. Again Iamforced to theLatinsaying above quoted.******

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-460' AWEST INDIAN POLICEMAN.When I think oftheschool hi which I was train:.. -ed, andof thephysical hardships which I underwent during mytermofservice inthepolice,asdescribed. jli these pages, I cannotresista feeling of amusement, notuntingedwithdisdain,atthesightoftheyoung 'Officers ofthe'force now rolling a.longthestreetsinmotor'cars, Iampleased, however,toobservethattheeternalfitnessof things hasbeen sofarrecog ize"d thattheyno longerwearspurs when thusen gaged. When I was stationedinTrelawnyIlearnttoridea bicycleattheageofforty;andonthatvehicle-apush-bikeofcourse-I used to visit all my stations withexceptionoftwo distant ones up inthemoun tains. Andthisalthough I owned a buggy andhorses.Iwillrefrainfromharrowingthefeelingsofthereaderby descriptionsofwhatI endured between my forty'-seventhandmyfifty-fourth year,WhenI was forcedtodoall my travelling on horseback,asdescribed in a previouschapter,inSt. ElizabethandWestmoreland. I willdrawa veil .** ... ... Itoccurstomethat,withrespecttomydeplor ing thefactofso .manyofthewitnessesoftheevents herein narratedhaving passedawaytotheGreat Beyond, there still remain two who will gladlybear me outregardingmyactivities "in theparishofSaintThomas. TheyaretheHon.J.H. Phillipps, whoforsomeyearspasthas still represents-that parishintheLegislative Council,andMr.E.B. Hopkins, now ofthe Jamaiea Fruit an4

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ODDS ANDENDS.401Shipping Company,but formerly ofBakerandCo.I knowthatIcanwithconfidence leavemyreputationintheirhands,asfriends tOf overfortyyears'standing.-******I haveina previouschapterreferredtomyphy equipment in respectofvitality, health,andstrength;andmysenilevanitynowpromptsmetorelateastorywhichnotonly proves it,butalsofurtherillustratesmypersistentillluck:-OnanafternoontowardstheendofJuly,1926,whenmyseventiethbirthdaylaysix weeks behind me, I crossedtheHalfwayTreeroad thebridgewheretheCentralRoad joins. it, to board a downtram-car,failingtoobservethatitwasnotapassengercar.Thedriverslowed downwhenhesawme crossingtheroadinfrontofit,and,justasImadethediscoverythatitwasafreightcar,acartcameupsuddenlyfrom be hindit, inthenarrowspacebetweenthelinesandtherailingofthebridge,drawnby one mule, goingatatrot,andwithtwomensittingon it.'Mybackwasthenturnedtothestreetcar, which was still movingp andtoescape beingimpaled,orrunover, Isteppedbackwardsandwas knocked down bythecarflat onmyback, while one wheelofthecartpassedrightacrossbothmykneesasIlaywithoutstretchedlegsontheroad.Thecartdidnotstop,buttwoofthemen onthecar-allofwhomweremostattentivewith a constable who came up,ranafteritandstopped it. But,havingascertainedthatno boneswere broken, I made nofurtherfuss, boardedthe.next

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402 AWESTINDIAN POLICEMAN.passengercarandreturnedtotown. l' never saw adoctor,andthefollowingdayIattendedacricketmatchatSabina Park *** ** *Ithinkthatatleastone episodeinmyvariegatedcareerwhichis describedatlength,namelymycom pulsorytriptoEnglandatmyown expensein1909,oughttoserveasawarningtotheyoungermembersoftheCivil Servicesimilartotheone embodiedinDr.Watts'shymn:-"Childrenyou shouldneverletyourangrypassionsrise."Itshouldteachthemtoholdinrestraintanyfeelings of wrath,resentmentandindignation,aggravatedby a senseofhelplessness,arousedinthembywhattheymayregardasinjustice.Otherwisethelaststateofthatmanmayproveworsethanthefirst:asinmycase.Aseveryone kn'Ows, themostsacredfetishofofficialdom is"Pre. cedent"-withacapital"P".Iamnotawarethattherewasanyprecedentforthetreatmentmetedouttome;buteveniftherewasnot,onehasnowbeenestablishedbeyondanydoubt. Iamirresistibly re-' minded,inthisconnection,ofthestoryofthefarmerwhowasbeingdriveninahansomalongastreet i:o. Londonina hurry tocatchatrain.Thehorsewasnotgoingfastenoughtopleasehim, sohesangouttothedriver:"'It'imontheraw,cabby;'It'imontheraw.i ,"'Eain'tgotnoraw.""Well,dammit,makeoneI;' Very littlereflection will convincetheintelligent theaptnessoftheillustration..

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ODDSANDENDS.403Anotherfatalindiscretionagainstwhich I warnyoungcivilservantsisthatofdeludingthemselves intothebeliefthatgovernment makes .any accountofthemashuman beings. They cantakeitfrom a seasonedveteranof many storms like my self thattheyareregardedsimplyascogs in a machine.*.*** **Ianticipatethatamongthemanyvaried effects whichtheappearanceofthisbook is destined toproduce,nottheleastwill betheawakeningofthoughtful residentsofKingston to arealisationofthefactthatdeedsofimportanceinthelife ofthecommunityarefrequentlybeing doneinthecountrypartsof the island,butthat these remain.inobscurity becausethemen who dothemhave nonewspaperreporters .at theirelbowstochroniclethem(andveryoftenmakemountainsoutofmole-hills). Most dwellersinthemetropolisareso deeply engrossedinmakingmoney,andplayingatpolitics,andsowrappedup iIi thedelightsofMyrtleBankHotel,BournemouthBath, moving pictures, Cable Hut;andother resortsi thattheyhave notimetoreadthe"news"unless their attentionisattractedbya flaring headline.AndI,don't.altogetherblamethem;fortheaverageruraleorrespondent--usuallyaschoolmaster,thechoice being necessarily severelylimited-appearsto liv;! within.thebounds extremelynarrow As arulethemostimportanteventsofwhichhetakesnotearethegainingof onemarkbythe school at

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404 .AWESTINDIANPOLICEMAN.JiggerfootMarket*atthelastinspection;thelatestmissionarymeeting;theinfantschoolatFatHogQuarter*preparingforanelocutioncontest;the"prettylittle atwhich MissIteletiaPumpkinwasjoinedinholymatrimonytoMr.ZephaniahKokohedin"thesacred edifice;" removalofa constable;thepostmistress's gumboil; a boy falling off abreadfruittree;thedeathofold Daddy Yamstick"castinga gloom" over the community.;anaccidenttoMr. Roseapple's mule;andotherhappeningsofasimilarlyexcitingnature;noneoftheactorsinwh.ich-includingthemule-areknowni;ofamebeyondtheconfines of hisparticularhamlet.** ** *Anotherdevelopmentwhich Iawaitwithcon fidenceasresultingfromthepublicationofthisbookisthatsomeofthepersons whose dealingswithmeIhavesoruthlesslyexposed innarratingthevicissitudesofmycareer,finding themselvesunabletoimpugnthecorrectnessofmystatements,andnotdaring'toseek in alegitimatemannersuchredressastheymayconsider themselvesentitledto, will complaintothegovernment,insistingupontheimproprietyofa mere pensioner, devoidofanyother Pleans ofsubsistence,placingtheirwordsanddeeds on recordinpublicprint.AndtheywilldemandthatIshall,asthepriceofmytemerity,be deprivedofmypension,andcondemnedtoendmyfewremainingyearsintheKingstonandSt.AndrewPoorHouse.Sucha proceeding isnotuncommoninthiscountry,*Thesearerealnames,

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ODDS ANDENDS.405and would be no noveltytome. I will quote two in stancesoutofmany. Overfortyyearsago Ibroughttohiskneestheeditorofacertainnewspaperthatwasagreatpowerinthelandinthecourseofcorrespond-_ ence which Iundertookforthepurposeofvindicatingadearfriendofmine whohadbeenaspersedinthecolumnsofthepaperbyacountry This editor, in his characteristically lofty style,attemptedatfirsttobrushme asideasbeingbeneathhis notice;butwhen I wrote him aletterwhichhedidnotdaretopublishforfearofmakinghimselftheobjectofridicule,itsuddenly suitedhimtore member thatI was a public officer. He thereuponresortedtotheexpedientofreportingme totheGovernor-thenSirHenryNorman-forwoundinghisdignity.Thereplyhereceived wasthatthematterwasaprivateone in whichHisExcellency didnotleel called upontonterferc.Again,in1891, acertainprinterandpublisher,withwhom Iwasthentransact/mg business,atonetimehadanacceptanceofmineforacertainsum,andwhennearmaturityIrepresented to himthatitwouldbe a conveniencetomeifhe wouldallowmetopayhalftheamountandrenewforthebalance;a financialoperationwhich,tothe bestofmy knowledge, isnotatall uncommoninJamaica. Myapplicationwasmetwithanindignantrefusal, accompanied by athreatthatifI failedtoretirethedocument in fullatmaturityhewouldreo port me -to theInspector General.(Iamsorrytosaythatmyreplyto him isnotfitforpublication). IhavenodoubtthatamongmyreadersintheCivil Service there will be several whohaveundergonesimilarex periences. ** .

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406 AWESTINDIANPOLICEMAN.IthinkalsothatIhavegivenatleastoneillustrationofthebanefuleffectwhichacourseofmeticulouscrossingof"t's"anddottingof"i's"extendingoverseveraldecadesmayproduce on ahuman'mindofcongenitallyexiguousdimensions:how it sometimesresultsintheconversionoftheindividual's bow elsofcompassionintoredtape,andofhisbrains in tofoolscappulp.***** Inclosingthischapterwithacoupleofanec-dotes, Imayremark,incidentally,thatmostofthestorieswhichI couldtenillustrativeofthepsychologyandofthemoralandsocialaspectsofthelifeofthepeople,cannotbereproducedinprintofa.nypretensionstorespectability;thereforemychoiceisrestricted.ThereisinparticularathoroughlytypicaloneofatragiceventwhichbefellinSt.Thomas,havinganalligatorasthedominatingfigure.Strangersvisitingtheeastendofthatparishhaveflatlyrefusedtobelieveituntilitwasverifiedbyme,towhomthe saidstrangerswerereferred.Butthisstorycannotpossibly besetdown here. Imustthereforeperforceconfinemyselftosuchasareprintable.In1871,whenthefirstcensuswastakeninJamaica,a well-to-dosmallsettierofSt.Thomasinfilling up'theformundertheheadingof"Occupation,"describedhimselfasan"Aperient."TheCollectorofTaxes, whowaschiefenumeratorfortheparish,observingthis,andknowingthemanwell,askedhimonedaywhathemeantbyit."Oh!sir,"repliedtheman,"don'tyouknow thati keepbees?"Thatwas

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ODDS AND ENDS. 401 Qefore mytime,ofcourse, b'ut Ihadthe story fromtheCollector himself.Inlateryears, aft'.:lr theBirthsandDeaths RegistrationLawwasinforce, awomanonedaycametoMorantBaytoregisterthebirthofafemaleinfant.On beingaskedbytheRegistrarwhetherthechildhad been named, she promptly replied:-"Oh,yes,sah,me give himname'Urina.'I was a witnesstothat.** *,,*Amongthewell-connecteddegeneratesfrequentlyfoisted onthepublic serviceofthiscolony hi formeryearswasa scionofnobility, whowasappointedtothepoliceatthesametimeasmyself,butas I join e:-d before hisarrivalintheisland Irankedasseniortohim. We did Sub-Inspector'sdutyinKingston to gether; butin1878, owingtothehiatusofa monthinmyservice describedinaformerpartofthischapter,hesteppedovermyheadandwassentoutfirsttotakechargeofacountrydivision.Physicallyhewasanythingbutanornamenttotheforce, being a 'long, lank,narrow-chested, spindle-shanked,parrottoed,andaltogethersloppy-looking specimenofhumanity.Toaddtohisattractionshegrewatonetime a downy"Newgatefringe"round his pasty.face,withoutanymoustachetospeakof.Hismentalequipmentwason linessimilartohisphysical;buttriflesofthatkindwerenotinthosedaysallowedtohandicapamanbothofwhosegrandfatherswere"belted.earls." intqe courseoftimehewasoffered(andaccepted)promotiontooneofthelittleislands,wherehewould be headofthe police force.Atthisjunc-

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408 AWESTINDIAN POLICEMAN.turethegentleman in question wasincommandofacountrydivision;anditwaswhen discussing the_ reportofhis promotionwiththethenInspector General while on avisitofinspection to meinSt. Thomas,thatthelattertold methestoryIamabouttorelate.Hebeganbysaying:-"Yes,itis quitetrue,andI have ad \ised him to accept it,asI don'tthinkhecanlastmuch longer here."Hethenproceeded to tellmethathehad been payingasurprisevisit tothisman'sdivisionintheprevious week,andthatonarrivingatone0 f hishill stationsearlyintheforenoonhehadfound allthedoorsandwindows wide open,andnotasoulonthepremisesbutaraggedblack ladsittingonthe ground engagedincleaning abitandpairofstirrup irons, who lookedupathimwithagrinofwelcome, saying:-"Mahnin,sah." The following dialoguethenensued-:-I.G."Whereisthesergeant?"Boy:"HimgahntoRetreat,sah."r.G:"Where are alltheconstables?"Boy:"Demallgahnout, sah."I.G:"Thenis nobodyhereatall?"Boy:"Only me wan, no mo,' sah."r.G:"Andwhoareyou?"Boy (increasingthebreadthofhis grin) :"Please s2h, I is de prisoner, sf\h." The heroofthisstoryis now also dead. IhQpemyreaderswill pardon my' temerity, .andattributeitto myfaithintheirindulgence,ifI windupby inflicting onthemyetanotherspecimenofmypoeticinspiration:inhumorous veinthistime.Themanto whomitisaddressed-nowmanyyearsdeadwasagreatfriendof mine overfortyyearsago.He

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ODDS ANDENDS.409wasayoungbarristerpractisinginKingstonandlivinginthesame houseasmyself. AllanKerrwashisllame;andhe used to call me "Tommy."InJuly, 1884,whilehewas absentfromKingston on circuit, Iwas suddenly orderedawayto St. Thomas,andwhen he returned hqme my place was vacant. Hewrotemeareproachfulletter,towhich Isenta replyintheform()fthefollowingparodyofthewell-known song"In the Gloaming." I shouldstatethatithadbeen my customeveryevening shortly before dinner, to construct cocktailsforourmutual 'benefit, witll the -aid oftheold fashionedswizzle-stick-anartin which I used to ,be renownedformyproficiency:-INTHEGLOAMING.Inthegloaming oh! my Allan, Whenthegashasjustbeen lit,Asyouwanderto.thesideboard, Stopandthinkofme a bit.ThinkofmeasdropsthebittersStainingrubyredthe Say ofme as flowsthesyrup:"Tommy,whereartthou, alas 1"Inthegloaming oh! my Allan Whilethesparklingice you crush, While you measure outthe"square-face"'Donotmem'ries o'er yourushOfthehand that used toswizzleSwizzletillyou shoutd "stop,"Ofthethroatthate'erwasreadyForthecocktail'slatestdrop 1

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410 AWESTINDIAN POLICEMAN.Inthe gloaming oh!myAllan Thinknotbitterly ofm.e,, Though I passed'awaysomeanly,Leftyou lonely,leftyoufree;Foryour hand wasgettingshaky, You would soonhavehadD.T.,,Itwas best to leave you thus, dear, Bestforyou and bestforme.***.***L'ENVOI.I have purposely introduced intotheconcluding portionofmystorya lighter vein, inordertorelieve,ifpossible,theatmosphereofgloom which enshrouds it.Butthereaderwill have seen how I1ersistently myfootsteps have been doggedbyill luck, andmypathbesetwithduplicity, injustice and cowardice,resultingin the total destruction riot only ofmyofficial career,butalso of my domestic life. Itrustthoughthathe will also recognizethefactthatallthishas failed to killmyloyalty to the interestsofthepublic andthegovernmentofmy country. In the course ofthisnarrativeI have quoted sev eral negro proverbs. I now finally commendyet an otherto the noticeofthevarious personagesatwhose hands I have sufferedduringmylong career.It is this:-"Time longer dan rope." Next,soas to adorn mytaleofwoewitha more classical andartisticending, Ifurtherinvitetheircon-

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ODDSANDENDS.411templation ofthewords spoken by Romola,the heroine ofGeorge Eliot's novel of t.hat name,toTito:-"You.maykill children,butyoucan'tkill deeds." And,lastofall, I would remindthemofthegood dd Latinadage:. Magna est veritas, et prevalebit.THE END.

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412 AWEST bmIAN POLICEMAN.AFTERTHOUGHTS.Itseemsinthe nature ofa paradox toaddsomethingto a bookafter"TheEnd"hasbeenwritten;buttherearealreadyin this book somanyparadoxesthatone more cannot make any difference tothereader.Ithas occurred to me since this"Story"ofminehasbeen inthepressthatImightwithadvantageaddtothemassofinformationandmaterialforreflection which itcontains twoorthreeitemsofinterest.** **Firstofall, I considerit my dutytopaysome ir.ibute tothevarious judicialauthoritiesunderwhomIservedduringmylongcareer;whose esteemandconfidence Ihadthegoodfortunetowin;and who, in consequence, accorded metheirloyalsupportandcor -dial cooperationinthedischargeofmy oftentryingandunpleasant duties, Above all remainsgravenonmymemorythe-figureofthatgrandoldman Henry JohnBicknell, who was, undertheold judicial system,priortotheintroductionofthepl'esent one in 1888,theStipendiaryMagistrateforKingston.Sittinganddispensingjusticeday by dayashe did intheold "Police Court," with no uncertain hand, he wasaffectionately known amongthelowerordersas"Tata"Bicknell. Hetaughtme my job onthelegal side;andhe conceivedaninterestinme,anda likingforme, which ledhimal-

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AFTERTHOUGHTS.413waystotreatme like a son,and to guidemyyouth fulandinexperienced footsteps intherightpath.Hewaslaterappointed, untlerthenew system, Resident MagistrateforSt. Thomas, in whichparishI once more had thepfeasure' andtheprivilegeofservingunderhim.Ourfriendship continued uptothe day ofhisdeath;and'I still hold himinaffectionate re membrance. Amongthe gentlemE:n ofmore recentyearsoccu pying thepostofResident Magistrate, I haveinprevious pages paidtributetoTheirHonours Mr.C.HalmanBeard,andMr. W.P.Clark. I now desire toaddtotheirnamesthatofMr.C.M.Calder,withwhom Iwasassociatedfora longer periodthanwithanyoftheothers:inTrelawny-hisfirstappointment-Westmoreland,andHanover.Healwayssaweyetoeyewithme;andhis methods in criminalmatterswereinvariablyinexactaccordancewithmy own views.Heretiredfromtheservice twoor three yearsbefore Idid;butwe didduty togf.'ther fornearlytenyearsintheaggregate. Imustalso mentionthelateSirRichard Orpen,andMr.1.Richard Reece,withbothofwhom I servedinSt. ElizabethandManchester.Duringmyabsence on my compulsorytriptoEnglandin1909, whichistoldina previous chapter, Mr. Reece commented onitinthemost sympatheticmannerfromthe bench inBlack River,andtoldtheassembledcourtthatthesoundofmy namewassufficient to keeporderintheparish. I don'tthinkanypolice officer could desire a highertributefroma judicialauthoritythanthat.

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414 AWESTINDIAN POLICEMAN.Inthatportionofthelastchapterdescribingthemodel police officer whoatacriticaljuncturefell avictimto"malaria," IomittedtomentionthattheKing'sPolice Medalwasactually bes1:t>wed onhimalmostimmediatelyafteritsinstitution,inthereignofSirSydneyOlivier.Wherein claimstothatcistinctionlayisa matte-r knowntonomanexceptLieutenant-ColonelKershawoftheCorkMilitia, who,naturally,musthavebeeninstrumentalinobtainingitforhim.SimultaneouslythesamedecorationwasconferreduponthegallantColonelhimself;butofcoursetherecouldnotpossiblybeanycavil.aboutthat,ashehadrichly deserved it,byhisloyal cooperationandassistancerenderedtotheIllustriousFabianinruiningmycareerandwreckingmydomesticlife,asfullydescribedinChaptersXIIIandXIV.**** Inrecountingin the lastchapterofthisbookthe.attemptmadebysixofmyworthycompatriotsintheLegislativeCounciltodeprivemeofout of the whichthegovernmentproposedtopaymeasfilm Iindicatedtwomenwhoseattitudeinthemattercameasanunpleasantsurprisetome.Theywerebothrepresentativesofparishesinwhich I had se.rved f9rlengthenedperiod,s;andbothhadonmorethanone occasionexpressedtometheiropinionthatIhadbe,enbadlytreated.bythe.government.But.thereisathird,who,asIshallpresentlyshow,earnedforhimselfstillgreaterdistinction.HeistherepresentativeofaparIshinwhichI neverenjoyed theprivi-

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AFTERTHOUGHTS.4151ege of being stationed, and is only a recent acquaint .ance. He is by way of being aliteraryperson,and,conducts a monthly journal.'Inthishe published dur ing 1926 a series of descriptive and biographical noticesunderthisheading:-"SONSOFTHESOIL'THEMENWITHBACKBONE-WHOM.WEDELIGHTToHONOUR."IntheJuly1926 issue ofthispublication Iwas.giventheplace of honour, beingtheveryfirst mentioned;andanexceedingly nicelywritten,concise,and.accuratesummaryofmylifeandcareerappeared, ac companied by a copy of the same photograph which formsthefrontispieceofthisbook; allthematerialfor'which hehadobtainedbyspecial requestfromme,of Ithinkitmustbe admittedthathe made a curi ousandperplexing displayofhis "Delight to Honour"this"SonoftheSoil" whennotthreemonthslaterhe did his best to reduce mypaltrysalaryby one-third. Verily,asShakespeare says:-"Consistencythouart a jewel!"Butof course one canhardlyexpecttherulesandconventions which guidethelivesandcon -duct ofordinarymortals to be binding onanmagnate ,of such potencyinthescheme ofthingsasto be able, from his remote countly seat,totelegraphtheSuperintendentoftheGeneralPenitentiaryto suspendtheflog ging to which mutinous convictshadbeen .sentenced by competentauthorityuntilthereceiptoffurther01' -del's fromhim!!!Amongthe arguments usedbythisbandof.patriots inthecourse ofthedebate onmysalarywasa

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al6"' AWESTINDIANPOLICEMAN.sneeringsuggestion-fullyendorsedbythat otl!er souledpatriotoftheGleaner-thatthejob wasbeiiJ,g created bythegovernmentwiththeobject-of eld:h:g outmyinadequate pension. I am perfectly certain thatthe government was innocentofanysuchphilanthropic intentions towards me;butinone respect my patriotic fellow Jamaicans were right.Thepensiolllisinadequate to alltheneeds,pastandpresent,ofwhichtheintelligentreaderofthisbook Will beableto form some estimate; andthespiritinwhichthepen fiion regulationsareframedisofso generous anaturethatI can only claim onfortyofmyforty-seven years service;anditwouldnotbe one penny moreifI hadserved for one hundredandforty-seven years. The total amount Which Idrawis cOIlsidera-bly lessthanthesum whichthepatriotlastdiscussed fdves annually toextractastravelling allowance from the coffers of agratefulcountry. Thusatlength "The End"hasbeenreached; inthelight of achievementsofthepatriot lastdes cribeditmay quiteasappropriately betermed "THELIMIT."

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Ma.p of .uJaOtlur .... lhwlu:, Pathiffin",(!fn,e,.ff;.ScaletJtStatuteMlle. o ..

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I1+HV7911T41T641 '.THOMAS, HEk8ERT THEODORE. '. THE SLOkY OFAWESTINDIANPOLICEMAN:THIS VOlUMF. BEEN ;,v'.:':".-. .' '.; BY THE :.,'.._ ryOF FLORIDA LltlKAXiES.



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, LATINCOLLECTION ,

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. -.:0..71f:#-'x.--4-r<1--7--..--=====---t..&"r-/-P?'

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Photoby Yottng,Falmottth THEAUTHOR,AGED67.

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THE STORYOFAWESTINDIANPOLICEMANFORTY-SEVENYEARSINTHEJAMAICACONSTABULARY BVltEIlBERTT.'fROMAS, -LATE INSPECTOR INTHAT FORCE. (AUTHOROF "UNTRODDENJAMAIOA."Printlld!IvTHIlGLIlANIlRCO.,IJrD.)InNGSTOl(,JAlUICAj1\12T.

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+\\1111 LATINAMERICA

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CONTENTS.AUTHOR'S Pm:FACE CIU.PfER I.-INTRODUCTORYCHAPTERn.-TUECOUNTRYCHAPTERIII.CLUIATE:KATURAL HISTORY CIIAPTIIt IV.-THE PIWPLIil CIU.PTER V.-THIIJ STORY VI-THESTORY,CONTINUEll CrrAPTKR VlI.-"" CHAPTEU VIII.-'.'" CHAPTER IX.-"" CHAPn;R X.-"" CraPTERXL-TIl&MOSTEGO BAY nIOTSCHAPTKRXIL-THItA.l!"rERMATHXIII.-STUDIKSIN PSYCBOLOGY CHAPTER XIV.-THE STORY CONTINUED....CHAI>TERXV.-" "CHAPTER XVI.-THKEND OF THESTORYCHAPTICR XVII-'!'HE MAROONSCIIAPTIm XVIII.-THE MAROONS, CONTINUEDCHAPTER XIX:':""-OBEAHCHAPTER XX.-THE JA!lIAICA POLICEMANCUAPTERXXL-THE RACllJQUE'3TIONCUAPTER XXII.-ODDSANDENDSA.FTERTHOUGHTSPagev171521 3445 596875 91110 128 145 169198224269 297313 338361378 412

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INDEXTOILLUSTRATIONS.THEAUTHOR AGED 67THEHON.HUGHCLARKE,CUSTOSOF WESTMOltI:JLAND PARADEATSUTTONSTREETS.C. G.O.C.TROOPSGUARDATSUTTONSTREET11 69112 112137 137140 140155 155 212237, 249 267338 360 FrontispiecpFacing Pago5..POLICE TENT IN STATION YARDMARCHINGTOCOURTTHEAUTHOR, AGED 67GUARDPARADINGFORCOURT THEAUTHORAGliDGO COLONIAL OFFIC&DELEGATION ATFALMOUTH ONE OF "THlt GLORIOUS DEAD"THIIBLUE HOLE GROUP OFOFFICERS AT EXHIBITIONTHESQUARE, MONTEGO BAY THE BATTERED POLICE STATION, MONTEGO BAYBRIDGEOVER CREEK,Ai-m HOUSE FIREDINTOSOME OFTHE LADY RIOTERSWAITINGAT RAILWAY STATIONTO SEE RIOTERS PASSMAl' OF JAMAICA End.

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AUTHOR'SPREFACE.There's a chiel' amangus takin' notes, And, faith, he'll prent 'e1ft. Burns. There was a time when I never thoughtof"prentin,"a book; although I had, unconsciously, been''takin'notes" in averyaccurateandretentive memoryformany years.Inmy school days Iwasalwaysatthetop ofmyclass in history, owing tothepossession of such amemory-particularlywithrespect todates;and some sixteen years ago, a young Englishman, M.A. of Cambridge, who came tothiscountryasa school master,andbecame very friendlywithme, told methatitwas adutywhich I owedtotheinhabitantsofthisisland to write a book on my experiences inthepolice forceassoon as I should have retired. I ponderedthissuggestion;andthenitgradually dawned upon methatto complywithitwas n dutywhich I owedtomy self. I accordingly began to unload my memory on paper, and continuedtodoso; chronicling all subse quent events up to mylastdayintheservice,andcol lecting necessary documents. Thereadermay thereforerestassuredthatevery fltatement offactwhichthisbook containsisabsolu tely correct inthemain. There mayofcourse be someerrorsinregardtomattersofunimportantde tail in c.onnectionwiththeoccurrencesoftheremotepast;buttherearenomen-orpreciousfew-nowalivetocheck these. When I come to review it, I findthedeathlist of those who were contemporary with me very saddening.IfIweretorelate all I know aboutthepeopleandthegovernment ofJa maica,andto make a complete recordofmy ownofficial experiences, I couldfillatleast twoothervolumesofthesame sizeasthisone. Asitis Iamconfident

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VIAUTHOR'SPREFACEthatmanyofthefacts which I havesetdown will as astartlingrevelation tothepublicofmy country. Stationedinallpartsofthe island for forty-seven yearsasI have been, and being now ontheverge of celebrating my golden jubilee as a memberoftheJamaica Club, I have become a walking encyclopaediaofJ 2.maica family histories-even thoseofthefewwithwhomIampersonally unacquainted. Havingthus selected mymaterial, I began towritemy story as soon as Ihadsettled down in Kingston;butwith aspirit crushed and clouded by the misfortunesattendantonthecloseofmycareer, andfurthersmittenbythefinancialdisasterrecorded inthelastchapter, myliteraryworkwasproducedwithgreatmental effort, wasnotspontaneous, and didnotdome justice. However,IsenttheM.S.to England, where friendsofminetriedto placeitwithhalf-a-dozen differentpublishers. These all gavethesamereply:thattheywere miwilling to undertake pUblifation as :-l. speculation, because my subject was not of sufficient general interest, being too local initspurview. My friend Mr. Algernon AspinalloftheW.I.Committee advised me totrythe Gleaner Company, withtheviewofpublishing locally. This wasaftertheM.S.hadbeen over ayearinEngland;and whenitwasreturnedto me, having regained my normal mentality, I re vised, and practically re-wrote, the book, extendingit to nearly twiceitsoriginal size. I decided todoso, will be seen, intheintimate and familiar style which suits a small community, where everybody knows everybody else, and in which Iamprobably known,eitherpersonallyorbyreputation, to more personsthananyotherindividual man in it.InfactIhavenothesitated tobaremy very soul; and Idoherewithcommend my work to"Thecharitywhich thinketh no evil." There will doubtless. be some who willsaythatI havewrittentoo much about myself. To thatI would replythatitismystory,isn'tit?And must Inotthereforeofnecessity100mlarge init?AndifIam

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AUTHOR'S PUED'ACE,VH held to haveerredinthatdirection, will you not make !'lome allowanceforthegarrulitywhichissooftenat tflndant on old age? And will younotalso excuse.aspardonable vanityofanold man,thedesiretorevealtoa youngergeneration-ofpolicemenespeciallY"which knewnotJoseph," (likethenew king overEgyptinthefirstchapterofExodus),whatmannerofman was inhisyouththevenerableruintheynow seetotteringaboutthestreetsofKingston? Others again may findfaultwithmylanguage,asheing unnecessarily strong,orbitter.Withregardtothe first, I claim to be in good company;forhasnotaneminent critic declaredthatsuch aliterarylightas Thomas Carlyle"thoughtin a passion"?Atanyratemy language can, I submit, claimthemeritof being entirely devoidofall ambiguity, andthat sane per son can fail to understand it. Asregardsthebitterness, Iventuretothinkthatin viewofthetreatmentmeted out to me, andofthe misfortunes which have be fallen me,asdepicted in these pages, I should have beeneithervery much morethanhuman,orlessthanhuman,ifthe iron hadnotdeeply entered my. soul even before I reached middle age. IdonotthinkI needdomore tojustifythebitternessthan.refertotheseparation from mynearanddearones, resulting fromthattreatment,from March 1902 until to-day-with exceptionoftwoshortmonths in 1909: separation on which in five cases the handofdeathhasalreadysetthe sealofeternity.Somuchformy countrymen. bybirthand adoption! Withregardto thestrangersfrom overseas into whose handsthisbook may fall, I cherishthehopethat theywill find initsufficient toattractthemapartfrommy personal concerns.ButI also make boldtoforeseethatmany ofthem-generous,good-natured and kind ly-hearted folk as I know them to be inthemainwill be induced totakea humaninterestinthewriter ns well.Forbeing abletomeet the financial requirementsattendantonthepublicationofthebook, I haveto

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VUIAUTHOR'SPallFAC&tJ)ank various fellow officersofthepolice, alidofdtherbranchesofthepublic service,aswellasfriends out side, who obtaihed subscribersforme.Butmost Of all 11m I indebtedtothat shining exampletothemen 01 theJamaicaConstabulary,Sergeant-MajorBlack,forhisuhWeatyingand succeSSful effortsinthatdirection among' themembersoftheforce. IIERBERT T. THOMAS R Geffrard Place, Kingston, Jamaica; December, 1926,a'M

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INTRODUCTORY.Chapter1.INTRODUCTORY. This book is intended inthefirst instancefortheinhabitants oftheIslandofJamaica andforpersons with,orinterested inthecolony;thenfortheresidents ofotherWest Indian countries; and lastly forsuchofthe membersofthegreatBritishpublicas may be desiroustoextendtheirknowledgeofGreatBritainBeyondtheSeas,ofwhichthislittle island forms a small,butbyno means insignificantoruninterestingportion. There was a time whenthegeneral public knew nothing aboutJamaicaexceptthatitwas celebratedforthe excellence ofitsrum;butthose days are, I think,past;although no doubt the advertisement ofthatproduct whichhasbeensowidely broad casted by meansofthe'Planters'Punch"atWembley will vivetherecollection. A good deal has beenwrittenabout the island in recent years, chiefly inthelineofarticles in magazines and newspapers. Scenesfrom.Jamaica have also been incidentally introduced into novels dealingwithtropical life. Some ofthewritersofthese have been globe-trotters ofthesame type as Kipling's"Paget,M.P." Others have suffered lack of sufficient knowledge,andfrom a credulity which seems almost child-like; ,among thesetheAmeri eans easilytakingthe first place. Others again havewrittenunderthe influence of a complaint to which I hnve given the name of "Tropicalitis." This is a men-

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2AWESTINDIANPOLICEMAN.taldisease,broughtonbytheglamouroftheeternalsummer,theconstantsunshine,theluxurianceofthevegetation,theflashingandmurmuringstreams, the blue, blue wavesbreakingonthecoral beaches,andthewitcheryofthemellow moonlight; allofwhichtendtoobfuscate reasonedjudgment !tnd senseofproportion.EvenawriterofthecalibreofJ.A.Froudesuc cumbedtothisinfluencewhenhesetdowninhis"BowofUlysses"thestatementthatthelightofthefireflieswascarriedinlanternshungattheendsoftheirantennae.Anotherandmore recent caseofthiscomplaintwaspresentedbyanAmerican lady who visitedtheis. land on a honeymoontrip,inayachtbearingtheextraordinary name of"Speejacks." Onreturninghome she described Kingston,inwritingasurveyofhertripfortheAmerican press,as"acityofunusualbeauty." Certainly,ifKingstonmaybe .describedaspossessing any "beauty,""unusual"becomes amostfittingtermwherewithtoqualify such a description.Yetanother,andstill morerecentcase isthatof the "educatedandtravelledEnglishman,"whowasstatedby areporterinthecolumnsoftheGleanertohave called Kingston"thecleanestcityhehadeverseen."Itisdifficulttoimagine a caseof"tropicalitis"exhibitingmorevirulentsymptomsthanthis;andnodoubtthisgentleman's descriptionofourmetropolismusthaveadministered a severe shocktotheintelligentresidents. Lastly,thereisthe disgruntled writerwho,havingfromtheveryfirst momentofhislandingstruckaninharmonious note,takesa savage pleasureinheapingcalumny onthecountryanditsinhabitants;

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INTRODUCTORY.3exaggeratingtheunpleasant aspects which undoubt edly dooffer themselvestoa sensitive observer,andreiusingtoseeanyredeeming feature in anything.Thelnostshining exemplarofthistypeofwriterisone l{eith-Jopp, who recently published a novel,thesceneofwhich is laid in Jamaica, and whichhasobviously beenwrittenwitha pen dipped in gallofthebitterest I think, however,thatIamon firm groundwhenIclaimthatthisbook of mine iswrittenfromanentirelynovel, original and unique standpoint, whichisfully explainedinthetitle;anditisscarcely neces cary forme to saythatall the factsthereinsetdown are eithertaken frommyown personal experience,orsupportedbyunimpeachable evidence. No doubtthetruthsthusrecorded will be unpalatabletosome peo pie;butI have always hadthecourageofmy opinions-perhapsintoo marked a degreeformyown com:':ort while inthepublicservice-andIamnotlikelytoshowthewhitefeathernowthatI have shaken off the shackles of official life. Most Jamaicans are, astheeditorofouronedaily paper frequently reminds them, inclinedtobethin :3kinned, and to resentthe telling of unpleasanttruthsabouttheircountry. Thishascometobe known as "Knocking"Jamaica;andthey objecttoitsbeing donebyanyonewhoisnotanativeofthe island. They suffer from a conceit which makesitdifficultforthemto realisewhataninfinitesimal and insignificant scrapofthegreatworldJamaicais;andtheylosesightofthatimmortal coupletof the poetBurns:-

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4 AWESTINDIANPOLICEMAN."Oh, wad some powerthegiftie gie us To see ourselvesasothers see us." Some negroesofthebasersortnowadays evenhavetheeffronterytorefertoEnglishmenas"foreigners;"while others seemtocherish some dreamofthepossibilityofcreating a "nation,"astheyput it, outofthemanyheterogeneousandconflicting ele ments which constitute the populationoftheirlittlecountry. Some evenduringa recent electionofa member C'!theKingston and St.AndrewCorporationcarriedtheirimpudence tothelengthoftryingtoinducetheelectorsnotto votefora certain candidate, becausehe anEnglishman, forsooth!Itis pleasingto record. however,thatthevoters had sufficient good sense t() l'eturnthis"foreigner"over the head of hisJamaican:rival by a substantialmajority;thesaid"foreigner" being a man who had /:lpent thegreaterpartofhis lite inthecountry; had married into a Jamaicafamily;and had rendered yeoman service tothecityofKingston in a public capacity. Thislastsymptom is a noxious weedofrecentgrowth;and Idonotrecollectitspushingitsugly head above ground onanyprevious occasion.Itis no doubt a sample ofthetaresamong the wheat whicharebeing sedulously sown by a certain Asaociation, which is dealtv.ithin a subsequent chapter.Butthe above ismoreorless a .digression; and I hasten totakeupthethread. once more. Nothing, however, intheshapeofobjection onthescore of nationality can possibly be levelledatme. Not only;;tm Ia Jamaican, inthethirdgeneration,butI have served my native country inthecapacity of an

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ONEOF"THEGLORIOUS DEAD." (TALANA FARM CEMETERY, BELGIIDI).

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INTRODUCTORY. {) officer of policeforupwardsof years-a period whichinpointoftime alone constitutes a record p asfaras my knowledgegoes-andthatwithloyalty cmd zeal, which may have been equalledbutneversur-.1)assed, and efficiency such as those whoreadmy book will be able toappraiseforthemselves.Inadditiontothatmy humble familyofJamaicans bolds therecord oftheentireBritishWestIndiaColoniesforservicetoandsacrificefortheEmpire. I had five sons, allof whom served intheGreat WarpoOn land,atsea, and intheair.Fortheeldestofthemitwas his second campaign, ashehadenlisted inEnglandduringtheBoerwarfrom Bedford schoolasatrooperin Baden-Powell's South African Constabu lary, and servedthroughthelastfifteen monthsofthatcampaign,earningthe King's medalwithfive clasps. Of the fivethethreeeldest were killed in duringthewarin consecutiveyears;two in France,andoneinEastAfrica;whilethefifthand :Joungest, who had passedthroughthewholewarintheAirservice without a scratch, perishedafternearlythreeyears of peace in.' thedisaster which occurredat Rull in 1921 totheairshipR 38. Ofthefive two were decorated:thesecondwiththeDistinguished Service Crossfor hi& partintheSuvlaBaylandingatGalli :poli; whiletheyoungest was awardedtheDistinguish FlyingCrossforsinking a German submarine intheNorthSea,withall hands a few weeks beforethearmistice.Inaddition to my own direct descendantsmyorilybrother'sonly child,myone nephew, who won theJa-" maica Rhodes scholarshipof1913, received a comn.issionatOxford intheRoyal Field Artillery onthe

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6 AWESTINDIANPOLICEMAN.raisingof"Kitehener's Army," and servedtowithin t.VIO monthsoftheArmistice, when he was invalided home: Such istherecord of myself and my humblefamily;andifonthefaceof that' Imaynotregardmy. fielf asentitledtoexpressmyopinions respectingmynativecountry anditsinhabitants"without favouror. affection," I should liketoknow whoelsenlay.Injudgingmy work I wouldaskthereadertobearin mindthat,asweareall moreorlesstheplaythingsofcircumstance and environment,thevariousunpleasant, unique, and sometimestragicexperiencesofmy lifesetdowninthesepages-aswellasmany c.thers whichdonotappeartherein,thisnotbeingbyanymeans a completeautobiography-havehadtheeffectofgradually convertinganingenuousandcon fiding youth, brimming overwiththemilk ofhumankmdness, into a cynic, a sceptic, a pessimist, andverynearlya misanthrope, long before I reachedtheageofseventy. Finally, I deeplyregretthatsoverymanyofthecontemporary witnessesoftheevents herein record andofpersons spokenofgenerally, have inthenaturalorder of thing'S passed over tothegreatmajority;andthatI have been consequently sometimes l,mder thenecessity of speaking unkindlyofthedead.Butinmyopinion.demortuis nil nisi verumisjust as good a maxim asthesame one ending inbonum.If that werenotthecase,thenposterity has dealt ur.l:rindly withsuch personsasNero,Judas Iscariot.and thelate Dr. Crippen,forinstance.

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THECOUNTRY.Chapter II.THECOUNTRY.7The island ofJamaicais situatedintheCaribbean Sea between 17and18 degreesnorthoftheEquator, and isthirdoftheWestIndianislandsinpointof size. Itis about 144 miles in length,anditswidthvaries from 50 to22miles; whileitstotalareais 4,200 square miles.Itliessprawlingonthebosomofthewaters, in shapeverymuch likeanalligator ;anditconsists, roughly speaking,ofa backbone of mountainrunningalongitsentirelengthfromeastto west,withc:ountless subsidiary ridgesbranchingoffatevery con ceivable angle downtothesea. Ofits4,200squaremiles ofareaonly about2,000-0rlittle lessthanhalf-lieatlessthan1,000feetabove sea-level; whileintheBlue Mountainrangeattheeasternend ofthe is. land thehighest peakattainsanaltitudeof7,450 feet. Thisentirerangeis clothedwithprofuse vegetationl.ptotheverysummit.Thereareno bleakandbarrenpeaks stapding aloft. All are cladwitha mantle of densevirginforest,ofsodarkaverdureasto'1endthetintofdeep azure whichhasearnedforthellighestrangethenameof"Blue Mountains."Innearlyeverycleftofthismassofmountainthereisrunningwater, especially intheeastandnorth.Streamsroarandbabble over rocks, boulders, and pebblesundertheshadeofforesttrees;or,inthe limestone regions,burrowtheircourse underground, flashing out nowandthenforabriefspace intothe

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8AWESTINDIANPOLICEMAN.light of day, and unitingtoformriverswhich flowmtothe sea onthenorthorsouth sidesoftheisland. Owing to the precipitous formationoftheirbeds only of these riversarenavigableforany distancefromtheirmouths. Thelargerofthese istheBlack River in the parish of St. Elizabeth, which is usedasawaterhighway totheseaforsomethirtymilesofiiscourse. The immediate neighbourhoodofthisriveralso affordsthesupreme illustration oftheprocessofunderground percolation mentioned above, intheexistenceofsome 60,000 acres of morass, allthewater (1f which is fresh and thickly grownwithreedsand <1ther aquatic vegetation; and, most remarkable of all, possessing the only lake in the island. This is a body of pure, sweet water, fedby several springs issuing fromtheadjacent hills.Itis one mile in length, and covers bn areaof about 100 acres, partially clothedwithwater-lilies, and of enormous depth.Itdischargeswitha steady flowon the southern side throughanadjoining morass intothesea, which is about a mile
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THECOUNTRY.9sertingthathisisland is"themost beautifulcountryintheworld," being quite unableto .realise whataverylargeorderthatis;andhisjudgmentisnotin frequently endorsed by casual visitorssuffering un.,.,rler theinfluence ofwhatI have describedas"Tropica jitis." Certainlytherearegemsofscenery hereandtherethatwillbearcomparisonwithalmostanyof the beauty spotsoftheworld. Many of these how (,ver areentirely offthebeaten tracks,andareonly seen by personswitha loveforexploration, suchasI used tobeinthedays of my youth. I have describ ed severalofthem in my little book"UntroddenJamaica," published in189l.Itis a curiousthingthattheindigenous vegetation uf theimmediate neighbourhood of Kingston,thegatewayoftheisland,isof a distinctly unlovelyandrepellentdescription. The soil howeverisofa wonderfullyresponsivenature,andwiththeaidofirrigation <'an be made togrowanything,asthegardensprove;butthenative vegetation consistsentirelyofthe scrubby andprickly growths which one associates with adesertcountry, save and exceptthelignum vitae trees,withtheirbeautiful blossoms. Theverygrass Bcarcely concealsthebareearth.This kindofscenery (.xtends, roughly speaking,fromthesea onthesouth, ,eastward tothevillage of White Horses in St. Thomas, .and westwardasfarasPorus, exceptwheretheirri system has madetheenvironment oftherailway }ine about Spanish Town to blossom liketherose. The wholeofthesouth side alongthecoast line isnotto be comparedwiththenorthinpointofbeauty,ifwe exceptthesouthern slopesoftheBlue Mountains

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10 AWESTINDIANPOLICEMAN.andtherocky gorge knownastheBog Walk,throughwhichtheRio Cobrehascarveditswaytothesea.ButbeginningatthevillageofWhiteHorsesalreadymentioned,rightroundtheeastendandalongthewholenorthcoast to Lucea,themost westerly town,theviewsarepracticallyanunmixed delight. Of courseina countryofsuch a mountainousnaturetherearegreatvarietiesofclimate.Itis afar cry fromthetorridzoneandthemalodorous mangrove swampsofthesouth coast tothedeliciousandexhilaratingairoftheBlue Mountains. I couldtake you fromfoetid lagoons, acrossthedepthsofwhose brownwaterstherootsofthemangrovestraddlelikegiantspiders, toriverglades where blazescarletclumps of the single Amaryllis lily; to swellingpastureswhere but forthearchingplumesofthegraceful bambooand an occasionalgiantcotton tree, youmighteasily imagine yourself in abitofEnglishgrazingcountry. I couldtakeyouhigherstill,andshow you dogrosei; andblackberries growing bythewayside;redandyellow gladiolus blooming amongthecoffeetrees;andhedgesofscarletgeraniumthreefeethighencirclinggardensfilledwithnothingbutEnglish blossoms.We('ould gohigherstill,andfeaston wildstrawberriesuntilourteethwere on edge,andperhapsobtain afewluscious peaches.Therearecovesofsparklingwaterfringedwithcoral beacheswheremaidenhairfernclothestherocks down tothewater'sedge,itsdelicate :fronds often searedwiththesaltsea spray. Andtherearerocky gorgeswherethemountaintorrentroarsandflashes along ahundred feet belowthepath, whilethestatelytree-fernsnodandwhisperoverhead, amid clustersofpinkandwhite begonias

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Photo by N. l1cMonttrylwc.1'HF)!JLVF)IJOLE/

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THECOUNTRY.11 and wreathsofcrimson ipomoea. Thenat eve, withyourday's wanderingatanend, you may listentothegurglingchorusofthebullfrogsandthechirpofthe crickets, andwatchthefireflies flitinandout among the branches, whiletheland-breezerustlestheleavesofthetall coconut palms,andthesilver moon, addingtothewitcheryofthetepid, languorous night, floodsthe iandscape andthemurmuringwaveletsoftheseaatyourfeetwitha mellow light. .I once, manyyearsago, attemptedtoembody these impressionsinverse, which I nowventureto in flict uponthereader.ADREAMOFJAMAICA.Islandofforestdarkandsilverstream!Thystately mountainsatthedawning's gleam Towero'ertherestless wavethatbeatsthyshoreWithcreamy crest,andsullen, ceaseless roar. Clothingtheirpeaks in cloud,theycalmly gazeIntotheopalEast,andwaittheraysThatsoon shall steal acrossthedimpleddeep To rousetheirmany-tinted world from sleep. Lo! how on peakandridge,indarkravine Leaps into life anewtheforestgreen;Rose-redandpurple, blueandgolden, glow The mist-wreathed heights above,theplains below; There, wherethetorrent'srushyondarkrocks stem, Hangso'erthe fall a rainbow diadem: A dream of beauty,wroughtby magic hand, Fr.om sombre mountain peak to silverstrand.The tropicdaywearson;theunpitying sun

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12 AWESTINDIANPOLICEMAN.O'erhillandplain a fiery course dothrun;Then, slowly sinkingto his ocean bed,Paintsthewholewesternskyinflaming red.MarkhowthescarredandfurrowedhillsidesthrowTheiransweringsignaltohispartingglow. Now gold, now orange,lasta crimsonbrightKissesthedying sun a fond good-night,Andnight-mistskindfromoutthevalleysstealThe sun-seared hillandthirstingplain to heal. The land-breeze sighs adownthegorges deepAndlullsthefretfulwavestotunefulsleep. The short-livedtwilightfades,night'sshadows fall, And darkness shrouds theewitha scented pall. The sweetest incensewreathesthyslumberssoft;Of trumpet-flowerandof night-jasminewaftAbroadtheforestwindsthefragrancerare,Andcircle theearoundwithperfumedair.The golden moonuprisingpours ontheeA mellow radiance, which moretenderlyEmbracestheethaneverwascaressedThemaid close clinging toherlover's breast. Lookwhereyon creeping cactus tangles droopFromtreetotree,ofwanton maids atroopNight-blooming cereus clusters boldlybareTheirvirgincharms, unblushing, totheglareOfamorous moonbeamsfortheirone sweetnightOf passionthatshall diewithmorning's light.Islandofforestdarkandsilverstream!Ifainamidthywhisperingwoods woulddream,Downintheirfernyhollowssoftandwarm,My lifeawayintheirmysteriouscharm ..

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THECOUNTRY.13Ofthave I roamedthysilentforeststhrough,Heardthegreenparrotscream,theblue-dove coo ;OfthaveI listened whilethesolitaireThrilledwithhisplaintive notethemountainair;Ofthave Ibythecamp-fire's fitfullightHearkenedthesolemn voicesofthenight.Oftenhave Ibyfern-boweredwaterfall,Lurkingneathmoss-cladtrunksandtree-fernstallThoughtthatamidsuch scenes'tweresweettolayMe downtorest,andendlife'swearyday.Itisan unden,iable factthatthenumbersoftouristsfromtemperateclimes whovisitJamaicaduringthewintermonths donotseethecountryatitsbest;althoughofcourseatthatseasontheclimate ismoreendurable.Itistheverydriesttimeoftheyear,es peciallyduringthedroughtswhich have been soper sistent oflate. All vegetation is moreorlessathirst; and mostofthedeciduous trees, amongthemthe graceful featherybamboo,arealmost leafless.Thefullgloryofleafandflower comesatalaterperiod. Thesevisitors-iftheyarriveearlyenough-mayseethepale goldofthelogwood blossom covering count l<.>ss acres,atthewestend of theisland especially,and itshoneyed sweetness;buttheydonotseethepinkcloudsofthedogwood,orinhalethefragranceofsweetwood, ackeeorguinep,andotherflowering 1rees. Theymissthedivinearomaofthecoffeeandthepimento blossom; whichlatteris such amarkedfeatureofthatpartoftheislandwhereitgrowsmost profusely,thatitfinds a placeinthechroniclesrecordingthediscoveryofJamaicabyColumbusinMay 1494andhislandingatSt.Ann'sBay.Thepimento

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14 AWESTINDIANPOLICEMAN.growsingreaterquantitiesintheparishofSt.Annthananywhere elseintheisland,andMayisthemonthofitsblooming. Theremusthave been wholeforestsofitgrowingtherein 1494;anditis easyforus evenatthisdayto imagine howthewholeatmospheremusthave been ladenwiththedivinefragrancewhich was borne seaward bytheland-breezeandtotheSpanish ships lyingatanchor offthecoast. Politically,thewhole island is divided intofourteen parishes, which practically correspond tothecoun tIes in England.Eachhasitschief town,inwhicharesituatedtheofficesofthe publicdepart ments: courts, revenue, medical, police, etc.,andeachhasa body whichcarriesoutthefunctionsofthelocalgovernmentboardforadministeringtheinternalaf tail'S oftheparish. Kingston,thecapitaloftheisland,formsaparishby itself,andcontainstheseatofgovernmentandtheheadquartersofallthevarious departmentsofthepublic service. All these divisions l:i.re fully illustratedbythemapinsertedinthebook.

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CLIMATEAND NATURAL HISTORY.15ChapterIII.CLIMATEANDNATURALHISTORY.Thereareevennow-althoughrapidlyonthedecrease-manyerroneousideasprevailinginEngland about theclimateofJamaica;ideasforwhichSUChstoriesas"TomCringle'sLog,""TheCruiseofTheMidge"andsomeofCaptainMarryat'snovelsarechiefly responsible.Thesebooksbreatheanatmospherepermeatedbyrumandyellowfever:a hectic lifeofriotanddebauchery,terminatinginswiftdeathbyYellowJack.Theymayhave beenfaithfulpicturesofJamaicalifeinthelatterpartofthe18thandearlyinthe19thcenturies,buttheyhavelongceased to be such. IthinkIamcorrectinassertingthatthedreaded yellowfever-ofwhich two seriousoutbreakshaveoccurredwithinmyown recollection-neverwasindigenousto,orendemicintheisland,butwasalwaysbroughtherefromCuba,orCentralorSouthAmerica.Andnowtheoriginofthedis ase hasbeen sothoroughlyascertained,andthescienceofsanitationhasreachedsuchapitchofperfection,thattheverynameofyellowfeverisnevermentionedanymore.Intheyear1889theofficer whowasthenattheheadoftheArmyMedicalDepartment,asitwascalled in those days, compiledstatisticsdatingfrom1817.thefirstyearinwhichavailablerecordscould befound,upto1889.Hisinvestigationsshowedthatwhereasthedeath-rateamongthetroopsfrom1817

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16 AWESTINDIAN POLICEMAN.to1836was121.3perthousand,inthelastdecadeoftheperiodunderreview, namelyfrom1880to1889,ithadbeen reducedto11.36orjustone-eleventhofwhatithadbeen inthefirsttwentyyears.Andthiscalculation, beitremembered,includesdeathsfromallcauses,andhasnoparticularreferencetofeversoranyotherdistinctivelytropicaldiseases. Iamnotawarewhetheranysimilarstatisticshave been com piled bythemilitaryauthoritiessince;butiftheyhave, Iamconfidentthattheresultsarestillmore reassuring. I only knowthatwhereas, withinmyown experience,itwasalwaysconsideredimperativethatthedetachmentofwhitetroopsquarteredintheislandshould be stationed inthecantonmentofNewcastleintheBlue Mountains, 4,000 feet abovethesea,theyhaveformanyyearspastoccupiedbarracksinthelowlandsatUpParkCamp,justnorthofKingston;andthattheirsicklistcomparesfavourablywiththatoftheblack soldiersoftheWestIndiaRegiment, whichhasitsheadquartersinthesame place.Incertainpartsoftheislandtheclimatehasa marvellously beneficial effect on persons suffering from pulmonary complaints. I have known people with respectto whom I shouldnotbe intheleastoffendedifanyone on seeingthemweretocastdoubtonmyassertionthattheyhadcometoJamaicaasalastresortto avoiddeathby consumption.InKingstonandtheothertownsalongthecoastthetemperatureaverages between70and87degrees,andtheheatisalmostinvariably tempered by a breeze fromthesea soonerorlaterintheday;whileinthemountainsmanyofthemoreancientplanters'dwellingsareprovidedwithfire-places.Insuch

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CLIMATEANDNATURAL HISTORY.17housesI havemyselffoundtheglowofa firemade ()f fragrantcedarorpimento logsverygratefulindeed;while ontheBlueMountainPeakI haveseenthethermometerdown to 40 degrees, inthescreen live feetabovetheleveloftheground.Jamaicamaywell becanedthelandofperpetualsummer.Itis no exaggerationtosaythatonatleastthreehundredandfiftyoutofthethreehundred.andsixty-fivedaysoftheyearthesunrisesina cloudlesssky:thatisinthelowlandsatanyrate.Whenthereisrainitusuallycomeslaterintheday, -except, duringtheOctober "seasons,"andwhenaboutDecemberorJanuaryawet"norther"happenstodriftdownfromtheAmerican continent.Thereis a goodstorytoldin connectionwiththisp.eculiarityoftheweather,asfollows:-Theoverseer()fa certainsugarestate-ormanager,asheis calledinallotherWestIndiancolonies-ahard-bittenoldScotchman,hadsentouttohimasanunderlingayouthfromtheWestern Highlands, whose experience ()f fine morningshadnecessarily beenstrictlylimited.Theweatherhadbeenforweeksunusuallydry,andthe"busha,"(asthenegroes invariablycalltheover ..seer, ormanagerofanyproperty)wasbecomingdailymore anxious aboutthewelfareofhis young canes. Meeting his youthful countryman on his roundsonemorninghewasgreetedwith:"Good morning, busha." "Good morning, Mr. MacEacharon.""It'sa fine morning, sir.""Ah yes, it'sa finemorning all1.'ight:' Twoorthreedaysafterwardsasimilarencountertook place-..there havingbeen no signof

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18 .A WESTINDIAN POLICEMAN.changeintheweather-atwhichtheasperityofthebusha'sreplywasverymuch more marked.Thenextdaybutonetheymetagainforthethirdtime,andthesimpleyouthonce more offered hissalutation:"Good morning, busha." "GoodmorningMr.MacEacharon;"(verycurtlyindeed)."It'saf--." "Aw man,taehell wi' your fine morning;it's al-: waysa finemorninginthisdamncountry."Jamaicais inmanyotherrespects asingularlyblessedisland;initsfertility,and its freedomfromdangerouswild animals.Theonlycreaturewhichcanbe describedassuch isthealligator,(which is reallya crocodile,)anditfigures intheofficial coatof-armsofthecolony.Therenever wereanyvenom ous snakes; and nowtherearenoneatall. Thisisowingtotheirhaving beenexterminatedbythemon goose, which wereimportedfromIndiaforthepurposeofdestroying rats on thesugarestates. They. nave destroyed a hostofother creatures, though, leav-.ingmostoftherats;and among themarethe snakes.Withregardtothealligatorsitis a curious circum stance.ofwhich few peopleareaware,andnoneareabletoexplain,thatwhiletheyabound in every river,deltaandlagoon onthesouth sideoftheisland,the'northaideisentirely free from them. AsfarasIknow, only on two occasions have specimens been seenonthenorth,andon eachjustafterahurricanehadswepttheisland fromthesouth east.Theoillyreally'dangerous wild animal isthetick.Hehasnofearofmanwhatever; and heaboundschiefly inthedry-thatis thetouriat-sea-' .,.I

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CLIMATE AND NATURALHIsroRY. 19 wn. Heattacheshimself wi+..hout hesitationtotheper:.onofhisvictim,andistoosmantobehuntedordes-"troyedbymeansoffirearmsorlethalweaponsofany.sort.Shortskirtsandrudimentarysleeveshavehisentireapproval.Anotherpeculiarityofthecountryisthatthe.numerousproductsofnaturewhichnowformthe enief substanceofitsexporttrade,andfurnishfoodforitsinhabitants,are,withscarcelyanyexception,. exotics.Theonly indigenous onesare-IthinkIamcorrectinsaying-firstandforemostthepimento, which practicallydoesnotgrowinanyothercountry;themaniocorcassava, whichformedthestaple.foodoftheaboriginalinhabitants,theArawakIndians;thefustictree;andthefruitknownatthis day astheneesberry,ornaseberry;also perhaps,thestarapple.Sugar-cane,logwood, coconuts,bananas.: cacao, oranges,annatto; ginger, eventhebreadfruitandmangoes, whicharenow staple foodsofthepeo ple,growinginextravagantabundanceallovertheisland,andtheveryguinea-grass whichcarpetsitfromoneendtotheother,affordingtheverybestfeedingforhorsesandcattle:allwerebroughtherefromothercountries, chieflyfromthefareast.Theexplanationofthename"neesberry"mentioned aboveisthat'thefruitstronglyresemblesthemedlar,whichisverycommoninSpain,andtheSpanishnameofwhichis"nispero,"(accentonthe11rst syllable).TheSpaniards,seeingthefruit,andbeingatoncestruckwithitsresemblancetothemed ial', promptlycalledit"nispero;"andthenamehasstuckinaslightlymodifiedform.Thefruit is notaberry,and"nees"or"nase"meansnothingatall.

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AWESTINDIAN POLICEMAN.Thepresentnameappearstometobeundoubtedly a corruptionof"nispero." Anothercuriousfeatureinthenaturalhistoryoftheisland isthatthecoconutpalmgrowsprofuselyallalongthenortherncoastrightdowntothebeach,andconstitutes oneofthechief beautiesofthe scenery.Alongthesouthcoast however,fromWhiteHorseswestward,itis conspicuous byitsabsence.withexceptionofa fewtreesatLittlePedroBayinSt.Elizabeth,andBluefieldsandNegri! in Westmore land. Iamnotawarewhether there areanystatistics available on the point,butfrom my knowledgethecountryIestimatethattheaveragetemperatureon the northside is several degrees' lowerthanthatofthesouth. I havecertainlyfound orchids growingonthenorthatanelevationofsixhundredfeetwhich on thesouthIhadnever seenatlessthantwothousand.

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THEPEOPLE.ChapterIV.THEPEOPLE.21ThepopulationofJamaicawassetdown inthecensusof1921at858,118,andthenumbersareno longer officially cataloguedintheHandbook,astheyusedtobeinformerdays,accordingtocolour,butmerelydividedinto"males"and"females;"whichis asignofthetimes. Ithinkitissafetosaythatatleasteightypercent.ofthisnumberarefull-blooded negroes,orverynearit,whothusconstitutethegreatbulkofthepopulation;and'when Ispeakof"thepeople"itisthosewhom I have in mind,andchieflythedwellers inthecountrypartswheremy experience lies;notmorethanfourofmyforty-sevenyearsinthepublic serv icehavingbeenpassedin Kingston.Kingstonis alawunto itself,requiringspecialtreatment;andIama firm believer intheold maximne sutor ultra cre pidam.Verylittle reflection will convincetheintelligentobserverthatnearlyallconditions,andespecial ly thatoftherelations betweentheraces,mustofnecessity be differentinthecapital oftheislandfromthose obtaining intheruraldistricts.TherehasgraduallycreptintotheEnglishlanguagea loose,improper,andslightlyirritatingmeaningattachingtotheword"native."Writersofallkinds use itinthesensethatitappliesonlytothedark-skinnedinhabitantsoftropical,orotherremoteanduncivilised,orpartiallycivilised countries.In

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22 AWESTINDIANPOLICEMAN.speakingofEuropeortheUnitedStatestheyneverdescribethepopulationas Jamaicahassharedinthisrespectthesamefate everyothercountryinhabitedby,a colouredpopulation.Peoplewhowriteabouttheislandforget-ortheydonotknow-thatitdoesnotcontainanyaboriginal,autochthonousinhabitants.Itdid so whentheSpan inrds possessed themselvesofit,buttheylost notimeinexterminatingtheaborigines.Thepresentpopulationisentirelyexotic. Imyselfama"native;"butIamcertainthatnowriteronJamaicawould sodesignateme,forfearofconveying afalseimpression:tosuchanextenthasthemeaningofthe word become distorted.Itis nowwithinmeasurable distanceofbeing asynonymwith"savage"or"heathen."Itis amatterofunfailingastonishmenttovisitorstoJamaicatofindthatthereisnoracequestionhere.Wehavenotyetreachedthestagewhereblackandwhiteinter-marrywithout'exciting comment,buttheoldhard-and-fastcolourdistinctionsofpastgenerationsarebeingrapidlyandsteadily,wipedout.Itisbecomingincreasinglydifficulttotellwhereblackleaves offandwhitebegins.Everymanwhoseheartisintherightplacehasanequalchancewithhisneigh bour, nomatterwhatthecolourofhisskinmaybe.Attemptshave beenmadeinlatteryearstostirup race-prejudice.It was introduced'intothepoliticsofthecountryatelections,bytwoblack men,atdifferenttimesandplaces;andagainbya colouredman,8pseudo-championofthenegro, whohadprovedtheinsincerityofhisownprotestationsbymarryingawhitewoman.Andquiterecentlyrenewedeffortsin this dirac-

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THE PEoPLE.23 tionhavebeenmadebyanorganisationcallingitselfthe Universal Negro Improvemen.j AssociatioR, withheadquartersintheUnitedStates.Intheyear1919 this Associationusedto dLqf;ributt> inthisislandan organ ofthepressprintedinAmericaandknown as "The Negro World,"theavowedobjectofwhich wasto excitethehatredofblackagainstwhitebyinuendoesandlyingcalumniesof vilestdescription.Theleadersofacertainchurchinthisisland,whichconsistsexclusivelyofnegroes--allhonourtothem-broughttheimportingofthispaperto the noticeofagentlemanwho,himselfofverydarkcomplexion,isalreadyhighupinthejudicialbranchofgovernmentservice,andwillmostassuredlyrise higher still.Heinhisturncalledtheattentionofthegovernmenttothisperniciouspublication,andthematterwasreferredtomeforconfidentialenquiryandreport;withtheresultthatthepaperceasedtobedistributed.ThereaderwillthusrealisethatIamspeakingofthatwhichIknow.IhavenotyetseeninprintanyindicationofthelinesalongwhichthesegoodpeopleproposetoimprovetheUniversalNegro.TheironlyactivitiesofwhichIhavereadarechildishamusements,suchas 'The CrowningoftheQueenofSheba,""TheUnveilingofaChart,"theholdingof procesSionsby memberscladingorgeousapparel,andtheconferringbytheirleaderofvarious high-sounding titlesof no bilityuponhisdisciples.Iamafraidthattheywillbeobligedtoascendtoahigherplaneiftheyexpecttobetakenseriously.Further,Iwouldsaythatthereputedsuccessofoneoftheirladiesin making afortunebyinventingsomeprocessfor taking the kink

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24AWESTINDIANPOLICEMAN. outOfnegro hairdoesnotpointtothat"prideof race" .which is oneoftheirwatchwords.No:fortunatelyforthepeaceandprosperityofthislittleislandwe have amongourblackpopulationtoostrong a leavenofsound common sense to be disturbedbysuchfrothyebullitions; andthebackboneofour com munity consistsofa class of "small settlers,"asthey are called, who have a stakeinthecountry,andcorrespondtoagreatextenttotheEnglishyeomanry.Theyknowinwhatdirectiontheirbest interestslie;or,toputitvulgarly, on which sidetheirbreadisbuttered.SotheD.N.LA. doesnotappeartomakeanysuch headwayastocreateapprehension.Inspeakingofthe people I donotproposetodilate upontheirdefectsandshortcomings,withwhichmycallinghasnaturallybroughtme into closeandconstant contact for nigh on fifty years,buttothrowthelighton totheothersideofthepictureby t'mphasizing theirvirtues,ofwhich I have also had. experience.Injudgingthemthefactshould never belostsightofthattheirancestorsoffromfourorfive gen erationsago-orevenless-wereAfricansavages who couldnoteven speaktheEnglishlanguage,andmostofwhom wereactuallycannibals. Cases do occasionallyoccur which revealdepravityofsuchanunspeakablenatureastopointunmistakably to a savageracialorigin;butforthe mostpartwe live in a well. ordered community, in which life and propertyareassafeasinanycountryintheworld-andsaferthaninmanywhich claim centuriesofcivilisation.Again:one shoufd reflect ontheawfullives most ofthemar& eompelled to lead, especially inthe sugarmanufac-

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THE PEoPLE.25 turingdistricts.Unabletoread,oftenwithnolightbutthatofatireintheirone-roomed hovels,andde voidofanyformofrationalamusement,isitanywonderthatafteraday'shardtoiltheyturntosuchrelaxationofaprimitiveandelemental descriptionasnatureprovides,andashavebeenhandeddowntothembytheirforefathers?Whenallissaidanddone, Imaintainthattheirfaultsareinmostcasesmorethoseoftheheadthanoftheheart;andIspeakfrommyown experiencewhenIsaythatoncetheirrespect,esteemandconfi dencehavebeenwonbystrictlyfair,impartialandconsistentdealing,theycanbehandledaseasilyassomanychildren.Severitytheydonotmind,forthey Tegard leniency asasignof weakness; butone'swordmustbeone's bond.Theyareveryquickandkeenjudgesofhumannature;andasillustratingthistheyhavea proverb--expressive, asmostoftheirproverbsare-thatrunsthus:-"Duppyknow who fe frighten."(Aghostknows whomhecanfrighten).TheyareintenselyloyaltotheBritishCrown.ThebogeyofadesireforannexationtotheUnitedStates, whichisperiodicallytrottedout-forpoliticalpurposesnodoubt-simplydoesnotexistinreality.AmongtheoldergenerationthenameofQueen Victoriawasalwaysutteredwithloveandreverence. Iremembertheold cookofafriendwithwhom IwasstayingatthetimeoftheQueen'sdeathcomingintotheroomwhereIwassitting,foldingherhandsoverherabdomen-whichistheattitudeprescribedbyetiquette-bobbingmeacurtseyandsaying:"Please.Inspector,isittrueIhear'missis' Queendead ?" Onmyansweringintheaffirmative. she bob-

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26 AWESTINDIANPOLICEMAN.bed a second curtsey,thencastbothherhandsandeyes heavenward, which isthegestureofdespair,andheaving a deep sigh,turnedandlefttheroomwithoutanother word. Theyallusedtothinkthatitwas Queen Victoriaherselfwhobroughtabouttheemancipationoftheslaves.Itis no idle boasttosaythata white woman could travelunprotectedfromone endoftheislandto the other without beingmolested-thatis asfar asthe countrypartsareconcerned.Justaboutthetime whentheJamaicacontingentoftheBritishWestIndies Regiment wasreturningtotheisland,thereweresymptomsofalapsefromthishighstandardofconduct;butthesesymptomswere exhibited by a few "lewd fellowsofthebasersort"only, whohadmadethediscovery whileabroadthattherewereotherwhite women intheworld,ofatotallydifferentsortfromthe"buckraladies"towhomtheywere ac customed intheirown country. IthinkI am safein fJaying thatthiswas only atransientphase, whichhasnow definitely passed away. I canbeartestimonytothefactthatderelictwhite men,desertersfrommerchantships, ex-con victs,andotherwaifsandstrays,haveconstantlywanderedupanddowntheislandfromendtoend, doing' practicallynothing,andbeingsupportedandcherished bythehospitalityoftheblacks. Those used invariably to speakoftheiruninvited guestsas"depoorbuckra." I remember oncearousingdeep resentment among somemarketwomeninMontegoBaybyorderingthearrestofoneofthesevagrantswhom Ihadknownforyearsas aparticularlyworthlesscharacter..

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THEPEOPLE.27Manyof tnenegro girls dress verystylishly,andlook uncommonly wellinthelatestEuropeanmodes,withthe 'erect andgracefulcarriagewhichissofrequentamongthem.Thetraditionalcolouredbandannaheadkerchief is nowasaruleonlytobe seeninthecountry'parts,andthenonlyonwOrking days.Itisinstructivetonotehow quicklythey respond tothedictatesoffashion.Ifitdecreesthatwaistsaretobewornunderthearmpits,orintheumbilicalre gion, theneweststyleimmediatelycatcheson.Andtheconditionofnudityoftheneck, shoulders,andarmswhichjustnowcharacteriseswomen's dress,irrespectiveofweatherconditions, seemsparticularlysuitableto them. Like most half-educated people, whentheyhavelearntalittletheyimaginethattheyknow agreatdeal. Most ludicrousaretheattemptsofthose whoseambitionliestowardsconvertingthecuriousdialectwhichtheyspeakintoproperEnglish.Thistheychieflytryto achieve byputtingthevowels"a"and '0" intheirproperplaces;andastheuneducatednegrogenerally pronounces"0"as"ah,"theeffectisoftengrotesque.Thenegroes themselvescallit"clip ping theEnglish."Thereis astoryinthisconnectiontellingofamanwhothusdeliveredhimselftohis:servant: "Baai, lookinde packetofmy kawkee jock -et, andbringmedebaxofmotchyou see dere." (Boy, look inthepocketofmykhakijacketandbringmetheboxofmatchesyou seethere.)ThisI believetobemoreorlessapocryphal;butthefollowing Imy 'Self heardonceincourt:Resident Magistrate:"Whatdid youdowiththepursewhen he gaveitto you."

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28 AWESTINDIANPOLICEMAN.Witness:"Iputitinmyfab,sir."R.M.:"Inyourwhat?"Witness:"Inmyfab,sir,inmyfab;"(pattinghimselfontherightsideoftheabdomen,intheregion vf thevermiformappendix). R.M.: "Oh, Isee;inyourpocket."Witness:"Yes,sir;inmypacket."(By"fab"hemeant"fob.")Theyareveryemotional,andinclinedtobehysterical,especiallyatperiodsofreligious excitement.Thelinethatdividesthetearfromthelaughis averyfine oneindeed;andone whounderstandsthemcanplayontheirfeelings like amusicalinstrument.Abroadjokeutteredinthevernacularcanchangeanattitudeofthreateningaspectintoafriendly,oratleastaneutralone, in a few seconds.Consequentlytheyareeasilyledastraybyunscrupulous"soap-box"orators,astheAmericans call them,andmenofthekind whomtheeditorofourdailypaperhasaptlydescribedas"tin-pot"politicians. Thesecharlatanscovertly incitethemto violence,butareverycarefultorenderthemselvesconspicuousbytheirabsencewhenarmedpoliceappearonthescene.Fortunatelythemobsareeasilycowedbyadeterminedshowofforce.Itshouldalwaysbe borne inmindthatallhoughundernormal conditionsthereis noracialanimosityinevidence,anyriotwhich isnotpromptlyandruthlesslysuppressedatoncetendstodevelopintoaracewar:orrather,Ishouldsay, aclasswar;forthepeopleofmixed race,andeventhewell-to-do negroes themselves, would insuchaneventfarenobetteratthehandsofthemob-consistingasit does ofthelowestandmost.dangerouselementsofthe

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THEPEOPLE. 19 population-thanthe"buckra"whostandsatthetop ()f thesocial scale. Imakethese observations onthestrengthoftheutteranceswhich I havemyselfrepeatedlyhearddroppedbythemobelementinvariouspartsofthe i::;land attimes of disturbance,andevenofgeneralcalamitycreatedbynaturalcauses.Anothercuriousfeatureinthepsychologyofourpeopleisthestrangecontradictionswhichmanifestthemselves.Theirgreatestcurseisthetendencytopettytheft,andespeciallytopraediallarceny,orthepilferingoftheunguardedprovision fields.Yetitis a verycommonthingtosee abasketortrayofeggs, cakes,fruitorvegetables exposedforsale on alittletableattheentranceofatrackleadingtoa dwelling some distanceaway-andsometimesnotevenwithinsightofthespot-withoutanybodynearit.Ifyou should desire' tomake a purchaseinpassing you will probably have to call several times before receiving areply.Yetinallmylongexperience I do riot remembereverhavingheardofanythingbeingstolenunderthese conditions.Again:anotheroftheirvirtuesis sobriety,thesightofadrunkenmanbeingextremelyrare;yettheywillrunalmostincrediblerisksandexercisethemostmarvellouscunningtostealrumfromthesugarestatesincroptime.Itshouldbestatedthatrumisregardedasin dispensableatafuneral,atthecuttingdowriofacottontreeforthemakingofa canoe,orata"diggingmatch."Thislastis asystemofjointlabourby whichtheyassisteachotherinthepreparation of theirprovisiongroundsfortheplantingseason,

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3Q AWEST INPIl\.N POLICEMAN.whichfallsatthesametimeoftheyearasthesugarcropontheestates.As arulethenegrouses astickorastonetoemphasize hisargumentsagainstanopponentwhenwordshavereachedtheirlimit,veryrarelyresortingtolethalweapons.Butassoonashebecomes a soldier, he habituallycarriesarazorinhispocket,and 1,lses itonveryslightprovocation;preferablyon a policeman. Aregrettablefeatureinthisaspectoftheconductofthepeoplegenerallyisthefactthatconstant intercoursewiththeSpanish-Americancountrieshasresultedinbringingtherevolverintofashion;anditis being used now-a-dayswithafrequencyandrecklessnessthatarebecomingalarming. A.nother revelationoftheircurioustraitoffundamentalhonestyis to be found inwhathappensevery dayateverycountrypostofficeintheisland.:Saturday.isthegreatdayforatleast 000 member of. familyfromthecountrysettlementstovisitthemarket, beitina townoraruralvillage,forthepurposeofdisposingoftheirproduceanddoingtheshopping.She-foritpracticallyalwaysis awoman-isalso commissionedtocallatthepostofficeandcollectanylettersthatmayhavearrivedaddressedtoherrelativesandfriends.Thefollowingdialoguethenensues betweenthemessengerandthepostmistress,to whomtheformerismostprobablyatotal,stranger:-Messenger:"Pleasema'am any letterforJaneSaunders?"P.M.:(aftera search inthepigeon-hole)-"No,.noneforJaneSaunders."Messenger:"AnyforKeturahBillings?',

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THEPEOPLE 31. P.M.:"Yes,herearetwoforKeturahBillings."Messenger:"AnyforJochabed Brown 1"P.M.:"Yes,hereisone."Andsoitgoeson;thepostmistress deliveringperhapsa scoreofletterstohalf-a-dozen women whom shehasneverseenbefore;andyetitis oneoftherarestthingsforalettertofailofreachingitsdestination. Idon'tpretend tosaythatitneverhap-pens;butwhen onewatches the processandreflects,itis atributetothehonestyofthepeoplethatitdoesnothappenevery day.Theheterogeneouscharacterofthepopulationis beingfurthersteadilycomplicatedbytheimmigra-'tioninincreasingnumberofChinese, whoalmostin-'variablyadoptthecallingofretailshopkeepers.East:IndiansandSyrianswehavehadformanyyears,buttheymostlylivetothemselves;whiletheChinese co-habitmoreandmorewiththecreole women, generaallyselectingthoseofacoloursimilartotheir own ..Astheresultofthisa mixedraceis beingcreated,which willinthe near futureaffordaninterestingstudyinanthropology.I believeitis nowanaccepted physiologicalfactthatclimateandenvironmenthavetheeffectofalter-.ingandmodifyingthephysiognomyofraces. I have.readthatincertainoftheWesternStatesthewhiteAmericansarebeginning to acquirefeaturesofa distinctlyRedIndiantype. Iamcertainthatsome changeofthesame kindhasbeenfora longtimeinprogressinthiscountry;fornowthecharacteristic.Africantypeoffacehasalmostentirelydisappearedamongtheblacks.Inmyyoungdaysitused to be ,:ery common;. Qut in these times one meets every day.

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32A WEST INDIAN POLICEMAN.scoresofnegroes whosefeaturesarealmostentirelyCaucasian in outline.Inthe secondyearofthe Great War, whenrecruitswere calledforbytheMother Country,Ja maica madeagallantresponse.Thetotalnumberofmen who enlisted was upwards of 11,000. Avastlygreaternumbercameforward;but,sadtorelate,s.omeseventypercent.ofthemhadtobeturneddownasphysically unfit.Althoughemployed chieflyasa corps, those who cameintothefighting line acquitted themselvesgallantly,notably on acertainoccasioninPalestine.Therewas oneplatoonwhich consistedentirelyofmembersofthepolice;andin connectionwiththisI cannot omitthefollowingstory:AfteralltheJamaicacontingenthadreturned homeandbeen demobilized, I was onemorningputtingmy menoftheSt.Elizabethdivisionthrough tlIeir annual musketry course ontherangeatBlack River,andamongthemwas one whohadservedinthewar. To him I said, "Reid,whatwasthelast place at which you fired amusketrycourse?" "J erusalem,Sir."Thinkofit!Formethatanswercontained a complete epigram. Kipling's Recessional withitswords"Lordofourfar-flungbattleline" cametomymindatonce.Herewasthissimple-minded, loyal black policeman, doing hisannualtrainingassuchinanobscure town inanobscurelittleWestIndianisland, who couldtellmethatthelastplace in which he had fired hismusketrycourse was Jerusalem.Fortheremainderofthatdaymymindwas filledwiththoughtsofthemightandmajestyoftheBritishEm pire. ItfelltothelotofthevariousInspectorsof

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THEPEOPLE.33Policetoinvestigateandverifytheclaimsmade by therecruitsformaintenanceallowancestotheir de pendentsduringtheirabsence.Ipersonallydealtwithseveralhundredsof thesE-; andmanyofthemwerecuriositiesindeed.Mostofthemengrosslyexaggeratedtheirearnings,andmisnamedtheirrespectivecallings;whichIsupposewasonlyahumanweaknesssuchasmightbeexpectedallovertheworld.Ihavehoweveraverydistinctrecollectionofoneclaiminwhichtherecruithaddescribedhimselfasan"electrician,"althoughunabletosignhisname.OnenquiryIdiscoveredthathisclaimtothisdesignationwasbasedonthefactthathehadbeenusuallyemployedbythePublicWorksDepartmenttopatrol 'the roadsalongwhichthetelegraphlinesran,and 'trim awaythebranchesoftreeshangingoverthe Toad whichthreatenedtocomeintocontactwiththe !Wires. Foringenuitythatwouldbehardtobeat ,as thedefinitionofanelectrician.

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34 AWESTINDIANPOLICEMAN. C1uJ,pter V.THESTORY. I wasborninJamaicainJune1856,butwastakenawayfromtheislandin1861attheageoffive years,anddidnotreturntoituntilIwasnineteen.Duringthisperiod IgrewupandwaseducatedinEnglandandGermany;andIthinkImusthave im bibed, beingthenatthemostimpressionable age, someofthethoroughnessandattentiontomattersofdetail whichareso characteristicoftheGermans. Icertainlyacquired a completemasteryoftheGermanlanguage. My school inEnglandwasinthenorth,inthecounty of Yorkshire.ItwasnotasbadasDick ens's "Dotheboy's Hall,"butinsome respectsitusedtobe afairimitationofthatcelebrated institution. When I look back on some of my experiencesthereI feel convincedthatifIhadnotbeenmadeofex ceptionallyrobustmaterial I should have died a very earlydeath. TheSpartantoneoftheestablishmentmaybe imaginedfromthefactthatitwasregardedasa signofeffeminacytowearunderclothingofanysort,inwinterorsummer.InthisrespectI, n raw,callow fledgling fromthetropics, conformedtotheunwrittenrule;andI continuedthecustomafterIwenttoGermany, wherethewintersweremuch longerandmore severe.InDecember 1876 I receivedanappointmentasSub-InspectorintheJamaicaConstabulary Force,andreportedmyselfatthedepot, whichwasthenat

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THESTORY. the oldmilitarybarracksinSpanishTown,thefor mer capitaloftheisland, onthe8thJanuary1877. The force was organisedin1866and67bySirJohnPeterGrant.whowasappointedGovernorofJamaica cleanupthemesswhichhadbeenleftbehindbytheoldformofgovernmentofthecolony,culminatinginthehistoricMorantBayrebellionof1865.Ittooktheplaceoftheold police force,whichwasone ()f themanyrotteninstitutionsaboundinginJamaica at thetime.Itwasconstitutedasanarmedforce, ()n thegenerallinesoftheRoyalIrishConstabulary;theofficers beingcalledInspectorsandSub-Inspectors,whileintheotherranksthepurelymilitarydesignationsofcorporal, sergeant,andsergeant-majorwereadopted.TheInspectorGeneral,MajorJ.H.Prenderville,wasanex-officerofthethenrecentlydisbanded3rdWestIndiaRegiment;andtherewas among theotherofficers asprinklingofmenfromthesamecorps.Wewerearmedwithmuzzle-loading riflesoftheSniderpattern;andtheshootingwhichwehadtodomightaptlybecalledpurelytheoretical,aswehadno rifleranges.Afterspendingthreemonthsun dergoing. instructioninSpanishTown, Iwasput!throughanexamination,astheresultofwhichIwaspronounced fittobetransferredtoKingston,thecapit !al oftheisland,forpracticalduty.TheKingston ito which IcameinApril1877,wasatotally different1place fromtheKingstonofthepresentday.Thestreetswereunlighted,andmostofthemwereinbadcondition,withpitsofvaryingsizeanddepthinthegutters,usuallycoveredwithveryodoriferous slime. Igottoknowsomeofthosepits

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86 AWESTINDIAN POLICEMAN. intimately inthecourseofsucceeding years, andwhensome of themdisappearedduringtheprogressofimprovementsinthesanitaryconditions, Ialmostfeltthesenseoflossofold friends.ThethoroughfareknownasGoldStreet,inparticular, was nothingbetterthana gully pavedwithcobble-stones.alongwhich no vehiclewasever knowntoventure,anditappeared to serve nootherpurposethantocarry down totheseathestormwatersdischargedfromtheupperportionsofthetown.Therewasa good dealofraininMay 1877,andI havemanyatimehadtocross GoldStreetatmidnightandinthesmallhoursofthemorning, while visitingthebeats,throughrushingwaterthatreached tomyknees.Therewere notram-carsonthestreets.Theonlypublic vehicles werethe"busses;"nottheluxurious equipages ofthepresent day, which haveinheritedthename,butflattraysonsprings,havingateach ofthefourcorners a postsupportinga flat roof.andseatingaccommodationforthreepersons besidesthedriver. Thislatterwas,asoftenasnot,animpudent,foul-mouthed ruffian, whosepersonalappearanceandmanners were quite in keepingwiththeramshackleconditionofhis wholeturn-out.The race course tothenorthofthetownwasgenerallya wildernessofbush,standingwaist-high in someparts,withnumerous foot-tracks leadingacrossitindifferent directions, whichitwasnotsafetotraverseafterdark.Itwas cleaned up once every year, inpreparationfortheone race meeting which usedtobe heldforthreedaysinthesecond weekofDecember. There were no railingsorprotectionof

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THESTORY.37anysort,andnopermanentgrandstand.Thiswasonlytemporarilyerected afewdayspriortotheracesandafterwardsremoved;andtheroadpastthelacecourseranbetweenitandthetrack.Thepolice had tokeepthetrackbysheerphysical force,withtheaidofafewtemporarypostsandastoutcableattheentrance.Asthedirect result ofthisarrangementIhadthenarrowestescapefromdeathwhichI haveeverexperienced,inthelastraceofthelastdayofthe1879 meeting.Sixhorses,immediatelyafterbeingstarted,boltedwithoneaccordandrodemedownattheentrance,pinningmedowntothegroundwithmyownhorseandthreeoftheracehorses.withtheirriders,ontopofme.WhenIwasextricatedfromthemess,thecrowdwhichhadgatheredtoviewthecorpsegaspedwithastonishmentwhenIaroseandshook offthedust,practicallyunhurt.Therewereseveralcasualtiesamongthebystandersthough.Onecuriousfeatureaboutthisannualracemeetingwasthesuddenspringingupofavillageinthecentralportionoftheracecourse:avillagebuiltofcoconutlimbsandbamboos,bitsofpacking-casesandkerosenetins.ThepopulationconsistedoftheverydregsofKingstonandlowerSt.Andrew;whoamusedthemselvesbygamblingandviceandde'baucheryofallkindstotheaccompanimentofdrum beating allnight,whiletheraceslasted.Itwasnotsafeforthepolicetoenterthislocalityatnightsexceptingroups.'Assoonastheraceswereoverthevillagedisappearedassuddenlyasithadsprungup.InthosetimestherewasnoicefactoryinKingston.Theentiresupplyofice used tobeimportedfromtheUnitedStatesinfastschooners;and the

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38 AWESTINDIANPOLICEMAN.depotwasatthefoot of Duke Street, adjoiningtheRoyalMailCompany'swharf.Thepricewas pence apoundinKingstonasa rule,andinSpanishTown,thirteenmiles away, threepence.Thenegroes from thecountrypartsusuallyhandledandlookedatitwithcuriositynotunmixedwithaweandreverence;andthereweremanystoriescurrentaboutwomenandchildrenwhohadbeen commissionedtobuyandbringhome ice onmarketdaysbeingunabletoaccountforitsdisappearanceonreturningtotheirhomesmanymilesaway-withdisastrousresults.Ononeoccasion awealthyladyresidinginSpanishTowngavea picnic onthebanksoftheRio Cobre,forwhichsheprovided alargeblockofice.Thissheentrustedtoaservant,withstrictinjunctionstodeposititin averycool place.Fortunatelyforthepicnicpartythehostessnotlongafterwardsnoticedthattheicehadvanished;andonmakingenquiryshediscoveredthattheservanthadcarefullyplaceditintheriveritself,asbeingthecoolest place he couldthinkof.Inthose daystherailway, which wasownedbyaprivatecompany, extended nofurtherthanOldHarbour,some twenty-five milesfromKingston,withabranchofaboutfourmilesrunningupto aplacecalled Angel's, tothenorthwestofSpanish Town.Therewere notelegraphstationsinthecountryexceptalongthelineofrailway;andthepostage onletterstoEnglandandtootherWestIndiaislandswasone shillingforhalfanounce. There used to be some curiously original charactersaboutKingstoninthose days. Onewasa man, whosenameI learnt;butwhowaswontto celebrate every eventofpublicinterestin doggerel

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THESTORY.39verse,whichwasprintedandcirculatedalongthestreets.Ihaveadistinctrecollectionoftwoofthis.person'seffusions. On one occasion a case cameonfortrialattheKingstonCircuitCourt-whichwillreceivefurthermentionlater---ofawhitemanatOldHarbourBaywhowaschargedwithmurder,hehavingshotdead a blackmanofthedistrict,whichbore averybadreputationforruffianism-anddoessotothisday.Thecircumstancesofthecasewereprovedatthetrialtobethatthewhiteman,whosenamewasMilne, firedtheshotindefenceofhiswife,whomthenegrowasatthemomentattackingwithanaxe,andtheaccusedwasacquitted.Irememberverydistinctlytwolinesoftheballadinwhichthisoccurrencewasdescribed bythepoet.Theyranthus:"Hedidnotcareonesingledam,Butshotthenegrodown." Onanotheroccasionthepolice invokedthe at tentionofhisMuse,withunpleasantresultstoatleastoneofhisreaders.IthadoccurredtothethenInspectorGeneraltoalterandimprovethesystem of streetdutyinKingstonbydividingtheofficersand.menintothreereliefs,eachofwhichdidnightdutyforfourteenconsecutivenightsfrom9 p.m.,to5 a.m., then sevendaysdaydutyandthenbackagaintothefourteennights.Theresultofthecarryingoutof!thisbrilliantideawasthatthesicklistwasincreasedbyseventy-fivepercent.;tosaynothingofotherun'pleasantconcomitants;andthroughtheeffortsof(lUI'own medical officer(thefatherofthepresentheadoftheKingstonhospital)thisimpossiblesituationwasbroughttothenoticeoftheGovernor, whoperemptorilyputan end toit.ButtothisdayIhave a

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40 AWESTINDIANPOLICEMAN.vivid recollectionofthedrearytrampingthestreetsofKingstonthroughthelonghoursofthenight,hearinghourafterhourstrikeontheparishchurchclockandcrawlinghome, hollowandred-eyed,atfive o'clockInthemorning.Well:ourpoet describedthecon ditionsofthisepisodewithacertainamountofwit,"andnotaltogether sarcasm,inthefollowinglines:"ThesleepingconstablesatnightTheysnoreliketherollingwaves;PatrollingstreetforfourteennightsWill sendthemtotheirgraves."Itbecame acommonpracticeofcertain"lewdfellowsofthebasersort"tosingthisquatraintoawaltztunewhichwasmuchinvogueatthattime;andonedayoneofthesehadtheeffronterytowarbleitwhilepassingthefrontofthestationinSuttonStreet,whereacertaincorporal,anex-soldierofthe3rdWestIndiaRegiment,anda good boxer,happenedtobestandinginthegateway.Thiscorporalappearedtotakenonoticeofthesinger;butwhenthelatterhadpassedonandturnedup aquietlaneabout a hundredyardsaway,hefollowed softly behind, overtookhiminanisolated spot,andadministeredwithhisfistssuchpunishmentashethoughttheoccasioncalledfor;andallsoquicklyandquietlythatnoalarmwasraisedbyanypasserby.Thereusedalsotowanderaboutthestreetsandlanesanelderlymanoffine physique,witha fullbeardandmoustache-mostunusualthingforanegro-irongrayincolour,whoseoceupationseemedtobetheexaminationofthepeople'srubbishheaps,toseewhathecouldfindinthem.Hewasinvariably

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THESTORY.41dressedintheremainsofanoldbatteredtophat,andafrockcoatthathadseenbetterdays.InhisconversationhealwaysexpressedhimselfinverychoiceandcorrectEnglish,witha refinedaccent;andashetrampedalongheusedfrequently to sing,ina full,resonantbaritone:"GreatprivilegeinEnglandForthenegroboy."HetoldmethathehadbeentakentoEngland as asmallboy by hisemployer,andhadgrownupinthatcountry;afterwardsgoingtosea,andiinallydriftingbacktohisnativeland.Hewasevidentlyslightlyoff his balance,mentally,thoughquiteharmless;buthisintelligencewasasmuchofahighorderashis physiquewasstriking.AnotherwaifandstraywhohadrunashoreherewasaquaintlittlewizenedEnglishmanwhohadmarriedablackwomanofthetown.Hefollowedthecallingofa grin'derofknivesandscissors;andheusedtoperambulatethestreetsdayby day,pushingalonghisorthodoxknife-grinder'soutfit on wheels,withthelittlegrindstonework ed by apedal,andallthenecessaryauxiliarytools.Hewasofataciturnandreserveddisposition;buthedidexcellentwork. I feelsurethatthehousekeepersofthepresentdaywouldbegladtosee asuccessortohim.Thegreateventof1877wastheinaugurationofthelightingofthestreetsofKingstonbymeansofgaslamps, onthe10thMay.Aftera coupleofpreliminaryrehearsalsincertaincircumscribedlocali ties,thegeneralgrandillumination took place between (;ight andnine p.m., onthedatenamed.TheActingGovernor, drove downfromKing'sHousefour-in-

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42 AWESTINDIANPOLICEMAN. hand; andonhisarrivalattheParadeeverygas-jetburstintoflameamidthecheersoftheassembled populace. I !"emember thatoneofthehorsesriddenbytheGovernor'sescortofpoliceorderliesbecamequiteunmanageable.byreasonofthenoiseandex citement,andanastyaccidenttotheriderwastheresult.WhatisnowtheParadeGardenawasthen a sandywastewhichhadveryrecentlybeenrailedinforthepurposeofbeing convertedintoagarden.Onthenortherngateofthis,facingUpperKingStreet, .a veryelaborate illuminationhadbeen installed, con 8isting ofnumeroustinygas-jetsformingthelettersV.R. surmounted bytheroyal crown.(ItmustberememberedthatthiswasduringthereignofQueen Victoria.)Theinterpretationofthisdevice circulated amongthelowerorderswasthatitsig nified"VerleyandRobinson," a firmofbakerswhose businesswasa householdwordinKingstonandtheadjacentparishesatthattimeandformanyyearsafterwards.TherewasadockyardandahospitalatPortRoyal in those days,anda receiving ship moor ed intheharbourthere.ItwastheheadquartersoftheJamaicaDivisionoftheNorthAmericanandWestIndiansquadronoftheBritishnavy, which used topaya visit toKingstonregularlyintheearlypartofevery year,andoccasionallyvisitotherportsaswell.Therewasa commodore living onshoreatPortRoyal,andthemess onboardtheoldhulk"Urgent"which succeededthe"Aboukir"a receiving numberedsome twelveorfourteenmembers.Therewasagreatdealmoreharddrinkingthenthanthere l!'l now;andasthemajorityofthese numerous officershadverylittleworktodo,theirenergies, Iregret t<>

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THESTORY.43say,hadatendencytoconcentrateontheconsumptionofalcohol. I usedtohavechargeofthePortRoyal Police station, which necessitated avisittothatplace twoorthreetimes a week;andImustcon fess to having witnessed,andindeed abetted,insome weirdandwonderfulperformances,inthesmallhoursofthemorningespecially,bothonthe"Urgent'andotheroccasional ships, and atthenavalclubon shore.Itwas a common colloquialism to speakofshipsasbeing "long"or"short"ones;thedescription beingregulatedbytheintervalswhich wererespectively allowed to elapse the consumed.Butbethatasitmay,mostpeople intheislandhadinthose days someopportunityofseeingthewhiteensign; whereas now-a-daystherearethousandsuponthousandswho have never beheld it.Thatyear1877 becamefraughtwithgrimtragedy beforetheendofthesummer,forthenavaland:military peopleatPortRoyal,atUpParkCamp,andevenatNewcastleandotherplaces onthehills;and,saddestofall,atKing'sHouse,theresidenceoftheGovernor, whichwasthenoccupied byMr.E.E.RushworththeColonialSecretary,whowasactingasGovernorduringtheabsence on leaveofSirAnthonyMusgrave.Thecausewasanoutbreakoftheterrible yellow fever, whichhasbeenreferredtoina previouschapter.Itravagedchieflythewhitegarrison. Officersandmen, womenandchildren, old peopleandyoungmen,wentdown beforeitlikecornbeforethereaper.Asabove mentioned,themost crqel tragedyofalltookplaceatKing'sHouse.TherehadcomeoutfromOxfordforthelongvacationthe 80n ofthewifeoftheColonialSecretaryby aformer

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.44 AWESTINDIANPOLICEMAN.marriage,a finelad,inthefirstflushofmanhood.Hetookthefeverfirst,andhis young life wascutoff.Thenextvictimwashishalf-sister,hismother'schild byhisstepfather.Then,lastofall,Mr.Rushworthhimselfdied. Well do IrememberbiddingfarewelltoMrs.Rushworthonthedeckofthesteamerwhichwastotakeherhome, a loneandchildless widow. I recollectanothervisitationofyellowfeversome elevenyearslater;itwassadenough,butitdidnotworkanythinglikethehavocofthe1877 epi demic.

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THESTORY.Chapter VI.THESTORY.-CONTINUED.45The judicialsystemoftheislandwasinthosedaysdifferentfromthepresentone, especially wherethecircuit courts, (which correspond totheEnglishassizes,) were concerned.Insteadofacircuitcourtinthechief townofeach.parishwithexceptionofSt. Andrewasatpresent.therewereonlyfiveheldthroughoutthewhole island,andatthesecases weretriedfrom severalparishesandportionsofparishestQgether. Thejurorswere alsodrawnfromtheparishes concerned;andtheseperiodicalgatheringsusedtoresolve themselves intoveryimportantsocial func tions, sometimeslastingforseveral days,tothegreatadvantageandgratificationofthelodging-house keepersandpurveyorsofnecessariesofallkindsinthe towns which werefortunateenoughtobetheseatsofthese courts. Thus,theKingstonCourtembraced St.Andrew:and St. aswellasportionsofSt. Mary, Portland and St. Thomas; anditwasnaturallythelargestandmostimportantofall. OneoftheoccupantsoftheSupremeCourtbench was a very uniquecharacter,whosenamewasa household wordthroughoutthecountry,andwhose memory is cherishedto day by those who knew him. Aterrortoevildoers in hisjudicialcapacity,hismannerstowardsallotherpersons were a modelofdelightfulold-fashionedcourtesy;whilethepolish-

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46 AWEST POLICEMAN.ed flowofhisspeech, especiallywhenchargingajury,wasapleasuretolistento.Hisenunciationwasjustslightlymarredbyacertainimpedimentorhesitation which causedhimfrequentlytointerlarditwithwhatsounded like"erb-erb-erb"beforepassingfrom 'on! wordtoanother.Thiswasaverymarkedfeature,eveninhisprivateconversation;anditseemed in awaysocharacteristicoftheman. ,Ihaveamostdistinctrecollectionofoneparticu lar KingstonCircuitCourtover whichhepresided:IthinkitwasinMayorJune1878.Thecalendarwasanimmensely heavy one, including,interalia,nofewerthanthreecasesofmurder,andoneofhighwayrobbery. OneofthemurderswasthatmentionedinthepreviouschapterinconnectionwiththeKingstonpoet.Anotherwasone whichhadbeencommittedeightyearspreviouslyintheparishofSt.Mary;andthesamedefendantwhowasnowsentupfortrialhadbeenarrestedandchargedatthetime,butreleasedforlackofsufficient evidence.Thepoliceoftheparishhadhowever beenmostpersistentanduntiringintheirsearchforfurtherevidence.Thishadb.eenfound,withtheresultthattheaccusedwasnow sent up totakehistrialbefore ajury.IthinkIamcorrectinsayingthatthenumberofwitnessesbroughtforprosecutionanddefenceamountedtobetweenfiftyandsixty;sothatthiscasealonerepresentedaverylargeamountofworkforthecourt.Itwastakenduringthefirstweekofthesession,andlastedtwo whole days,from10a.m.,untildark.On the firstday,asthecasewasnotyetcompleted,thejurorswereaccommodatedforthenightatthepub-

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THESTORY.47lic expense in a lodging-house knownas"BlundellHall,"undersupervisionofa policeguard,ofwhomiwas in charge. Onthesecond allthe pro ceedings having beengotthrough,andtherebeingnothingleft but forthejurytoconsidertheirverdict,theywere lockedupforthenightinthecourthouseagainundermycharge-wheretheywere suppliedwiththebarenecessariesoflife,butno bedding.Itwas averyred-eyed and dishevelled groupoftwelve menthatI delivered intothehandsoftheReg istrar ofthe Court on thethirdmorning.Afterthejudgehadtakenhis seat, on being called uponfortheverdict,theforemanannouncedthatthejurycouldnotagree,andthattherewasnoprospectoftheir ever agreeing.Itwasthereforedecidedtopostponethecase untilthefollowing weekforafreshjurytobe empanelled.Itcame onindue course before a jury;andall the wearisome and tedious details hadtobe gonethroughafresh.Asbefore,thecase lasted two whole days and nights, while exactlythesametreatmentwasaccordedtothesecond jury astothefirst one. Onthethirdmorningtheverdictwasawaitedin breathless silenceby a packedcourt;andtherewas quite a sensation when the foreman announc ed itas"notguilty." Thejudgelookedattheforemanthroughhisspectacleswitha piercing glancefora coupleofsec onds,threwhimselfback in his chair,andafterturninghimselfintheseatfromone sidetoanother,de liveredhimselfthus:-"Erb-erb-erb,-Gentlemen ofthejury,thattheverdictatwhich you havearrivedistheresultofthemostcarefulandconscientious de liberation onyourpartI havenottheslightestdoubt,

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48 AWESTINDIANPOLICEMAN.but, gentlemen, IregrettosaythatI donotconcurinit.(Iomitthefrequent"erb-erb-erb"withwhichtheaddresswasinterspersed.)"Thattheprisoner,Grant,isthemurdererofthe_manMorrisonhasbeenasclearlyprovedasanycaseeverwasinacourtofjustice. Gentlemen,byyour act, youhaveletloose uponHerMajesty'sliegesubjects in aquietandpeacefuldistrictarampant sav"': agewiththeinstinctsofawildbeast;andthatinthecourseoftime willagainexercisethoseinstinctsyoucantakemywordforit.Gentlemenyouaredischarged."ThewholeCourtsatopen-mouthedduringthedeliveryofthisscathingdenunciation,whichIthinkIhavereproducedwordforword.Indeed,Ihavesooftenrepeatedit,fromthatdateonwardsthroughupwardsoffortyyearsthatithasbecome indeliblyengravedon anaturallyaccurateandretentivememory.Andtheoldgentleman'swordswere'prophetictoo;forIafterwardslearntthatthe"ram-'pantsavage"wassomefouryearslatertriedandconvictedon a chargeoffeloniouswounding,andactuallydiedinthepenitentiary.Oneofthegreatsecretsofthisjudge'spower was theterseanddrasticmannerinwhichhewaswonttodeliversentenceonhabitualcriminalsandonpersonsconvictedofoffencesdangeroustothepublicwelfare;andtodealwithprevaricatinganddishonest witnesses. Henevertalked"overtheirheads"orwastedwordsinfutileadmonitions,assomanyofhissuccessorshavebeeninthehabitofdoing.Inthecaseofhighwayrobberymentionedabove as beingonthecalendarforthissamecourttheaccusedhadwaylaidthemoneymessengerofoneof

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THESTORY.49thecoffeeplantationsintheBlueMountains. on alonelyhill road,pulledhim off his mule,stunninghim with a cudgel,andcarried offthewhole week's wagesofthelabourers.Fortunatelyhis .assailant known to the messenger; a hue andcrywas raised,andthepoliceofthedistricttookupthescentredhot, withtheresultthattherobberwascapturedandallthemoney recovered beforehehadhadtimetogetridofanyofit.Theevidence was so conclusivethatthejuryreturneda verdictofguiltywithoutleavingthebox;andthisis howthesentencewaspronounced:"Prisoneratthebar,thejuryhave found youguiltyontheclearestpossible evidenceofthisatrocious crime. Highway robbery is athingthatcannotbetoleratedinthiscountryfora moment.Twentyyearspenal servitude.Thewholecourtgasped;andtheprisoner, apowerfullybuiltandintelligentlooking blackmanofabout twenty-five, was dumbwithpained astonish ment. But jt was many a longyearbeforetheoffenceofhighway robberyagainoccurred inJamaica;with one exception, which willlaterbe des cribed in due butin whichtherobberswerenotJamaicans,butCubans.The of theculpritinthiscase was McGa,nI:l,and therecan be no doubtthathe was an other "rampl;J.nt savagewiththeinstinctsofawlld beast," judging .byhis subsequent history, whlch happened .totall within my pl,lrview. ae fifteenofhistwentyyears' sentence,and was grantedapardonin 1893 bySirHenry Blake. who wasthenGovernor.Immediatelyon hisreleasehebenthis ,stepseastwardfroni Kingstontothepar..

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50 AWESTINDIAN POLICEMAN.ish'ofSt. Thomas;where Iwasthen stationed;passed, throughMorantBayandstrolled on uptheBlueMountainValleyonaSaturdayaft'ernoon" "seeking whomhemightdevour."Itsohappenedthathefounda victim inthepersonofanursemaidfrommyown house, whohadgotleavefortheweekendtovisitherparentsata villageinthesame direction. On her, agirlof,aboutfourteen,hemade'a viciousanddeterminedassaultofacriminalnature;butshe was fortunateenough toattracttheatten'tion,ofsome passers-by, who cametoherrescue,andescortedhertoher. home. McGann escaped,butbymeansofrous the parishI 'succeeded in effecting ar rest early,onthefollowing Monday.He was dulyexaminedandcommittedfor' trial attheMorantBayCircuitCourttobeheldinOctober;thenewjudicialsystemhavingcomeinto operation some five years previously. Being sent toSpanishTownfor safecustody intheinterval,hecontrived'toescapefromtheescortthat was bringinghimback toMorant Bay fortrial theday beforetheCircuit, Court.It wasat night,ina thickly wooded part oftheroad;andhis escape was facilitatedbybadweatherandswoll en rivers.Heseemed to have, made hiswaythencenorthwards,intothe parish' ofSt. Ma"ry, whichheknewwellasa lad. By astrangecoincidence,thecarrierofthemails between RichmondandCastletoninthatparish,who travelled on footbyanunfrequented load intheearlyhoursofthemorning,wasfound deadbytheroadsidethe'nextdaybutone afterMc Gann's escape,andthemail bagscutopenandrifledoftheircontents. McGannwasseenintheneighbour hood onthe same, day,butno evidence could bepro cured to connecthimwiththiscrime. Howeverhe

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THESTORY.51 was hunted high and low throughout the' country,andtinallyarrestedbya verysmartyoung constableina.l'ailwaytrainnearSpanish Town,sentback again trialatthenextMorant Bay Circuit Court,andsen t('nced tothreeyears penal servitude.Ihave heardthaton his release he emigratedtoCentral America and became quite a respectable mem berofthecommunity in one of those republics.Ican never think of the judge who is described inthischapterwithout remembering his perfectly delightful old '\orld courtesy and consideration towards all pf usofficersofthe constabulary,notexcepting even a boy like myself.Itforms such acontrasttothedemean our of other judicial functionariesoflaterdays, someofwhom seemed to .take pleasure in addressing usinopen court asifwe were schoolboysorgrooms. One particularly offensive specimen ofthistypeactually himself bytryingtoputme inthepillory,and furn me into ridicule, inthecircuit court on one occa sion, in the presenceofmy subordinates andthat of the assembled public: andthiswhenI was oversixtyyearsofageandhadhad forty-twoyearsservice.ButIthasveryoften been my experience to find the mens 'jJarvaincorporeparvo,as inthiscase. The finest object lesson whichthedearold gen tleman ever gaveinmyhearingofhis knackofhittingthe nailon the head and gettingridofsuper fluous matterwas'duringthetrialofa desperate prisoner fromthepenitentiaryforwounding and nearly killing a warder. The accused pleaded not guilty, althoughtheevidencewasofthemostclear and direct nature,therebeing a scoreof nessesoftheoccurrence, consistingofwardersand

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52 AWESTINDIAN POLICEMAN.other "C<>nvicts.He insisted,further,onhavingsome fiveor six:of the worst:ruffians intheprisonbrought as witnesses for thedefence. The accusedwasnotl"epresentedbycounsel;andwhenthefirstofthesewitnesseswentintothebox he simply said"yes"or "no" to questions put bytheaccused,theapparentobject being to pretendthatthewarderitwaswhohad made a savageattackontheaccused insteadoftheotherway about. The whole proceedingwassoabsurdthat tJ1e CrownProsecutordeclined toenterintothefarceofcross-examination. However, oneverycon scientiousjurymanroseinhisseatandintimatedthathe wislted to askthewitness a question. Thejudgelooked at himwithanexpressionofamazementanddisguston his countenance,threwdown his pen, leant backinhis chair,andsimplysaid:"Erb-erbMr.Jury man, really!erb.really:!"On whichthejurymanin stoantlysat down andneveruttereda word. I haveneversince seenanywell-intentioned effort so sud denlyandeffectually nippedinthebud. I remember two remarkable casesofsuicide which occurredaboutthisperiod. Onewasthat ofan Englishman who heldanappointmentassuperin tendent inthePublic Works Department.HehadmarriedaJamaica lady to whom hewas deeply at tached, andshehad died quite young. The bereave appeared to .prey upon his mind very seriously,tosuch an extentastocause apprehension amonghisfriends. One MondaymorningI, being thenin chargE}ofthe Kingston Detective Office,wassummoned to his house;aHd there in hisbathroom we-beheld a melan 4:'holy spectacle. {I should mention unfortun-

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THESTORY. 53 ate man and his wife had been very fond of goingouttogetherforridesonhorseback in the evenings.) There, hanging by the neckona hemp rope, one end of which was fastened to a beamthatstretched across the room, swung-the corpse, naked to the waist. around which was fastened his wife's riding habit, tightly knotted and twistedthatitwas withgreatdifficultythatwe untiedit;and we succeeded in doingsothere was a deep and livid indentationlefton the skin,Onthe concrete floor of the bathroonlay a low, wooden, three-legged stool on which the de ceased had evidently stood while adjusting the noose around his neck, and then kicked asideatthecrucial moment.Itwas immediately under his feet;andalongside ofitlay his wife's riding whip, The drop was not higher than about eighteen inches; andthe l\Ost mortem examination revealedthatdeath had been caused by strangulation. There was displayed a mar vellous degree of grim determinationonthepartofthe deceased; and the whole tragic event created a profound sensation,onaccount of his social position. In the other case the victim of his own actwasone of the numerous Haytian refugees who usedto frequent Kingston about this time, seeking shelter under the British flag during the constantly recurring revolutions in their misgoverned country.Onenevel." f;aw any of them doing any work. They spent the whole day andpartof the night walking along the streets inthelowerpartof the town, or sitting in taverns and 'restaurants of the humblest description talking politics to the accompaniment of violent gesticulation; and theyWereinvariably clothed in black frock coats andtophats. Occasionally one of them would make his ap,..

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-54 AWESTINDIAN POLICEMAN.pearance in asuitof spotless whitefora dayortwo,butthatwasanexception. Their prevailing colou.l'";Vas very dark. One day we received from a certain memberofthiscommunity areportthathis gold watch and chainhad been stolenbyoneofhis compatriots. On tigation the evidence seemedveryclear;soawarrantwas obtained. forthearrestof the alleged thief, who was a certain GeneralA-N-(Itusedtobe a com mon saying aboutthattime-and,Ibelieve a perfectlytrueone-thattheHaytianarmycontained more cersthanprivates).Naturally a real live General would expect hisarreston a criminal chargetobe rounded byrathermore pomp and cireumstancethanthatofanordinaryindividual;soImyself proceededtoeffect it, accompanied by two detectives,andarmedwiththewarrant.We foundtheGeneralataveryhumble lodging inEastStreet;a lean and looking black man,withunusually large eyes, dressedinhis black frock coat. He received uswithdignified courtesy, andheunderstood sufficient Englishtol'ealisewhatourerrandwas.Witha stately. bowheexpressed his entire willingness to accompanyIlS,merely asking permission toretiretohis I'oomfora moment toputawaysomeofhis ings. This I, unwisely, allowedhimtodoalone.Heentered the adjoining room, closing the doorafterhim,. Icouldhearhim moving aboutfora minuteorso. ThenIhearda most peculiar choking sound,anda noise 8,S of somethinghardstrikingthe floor;afterwhich all was still.Iimmediately flungthedoor open, Enteredtheroom, and beheld a very ghastlysighton tile little iron cot which formedtheGeneral's bed .. He

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THESTORY.l1adtaken off his coat, collar, and necktie, rolled Up' his 'shirt-sleeves, seized his razOl' and cuthis throat.tromearto ear, besides inflicting twoterriblegashes. onthe anterior surface of each armjustattheelbow Joint.He'was stretchedouton his back onthecot,. with both arms hanging over the edge ofit;whilethe opim razorwaslying onthefloorintheblood which streaming out over both rooms.Therecould !lot beanyquestion of thefactthathepreferreddeath to dishonour.' TheHaytianswerenottheonly political refugees who sought safety' in Jamaica at that time. Cuba was in it chronicstateofrebellionagainstSpanish injusticeandtyranny,andtherewas a steady influx of Cubans intothisisland. Many df. theirdescendantsarestillwithus,asloyalBritishsubjects. They broughtwiththem a thorough knowledge of the cultivation of tobaccoandthemanufactureof cigarsandcigarettes, which now forms oneoftheleading industriesoftheisland.Intheparishes 01 St. Andrew, St. Catherineand'UpperClarendontheyplantedlargetractsofhitherto'neglected land with tobacco; and inthevariouscigarfactoriesinKingston Spanish was practicallytheonly language spoken. Two of these Cubansatleast introduced into the.countryaninnovation inthe perpetration of crime, within my own experience. I was stationedforatimeinthevillage of Linstead,thirteenmiles fromSpanish'fown, intheinterior;a place whichhassince. devel-. oped into a largeandflourishing townshipandtradecentre. There werethreeorfoursugarestatesinthe. neighbourhood, which used todrawthemoneyforthe weekly payment oftheirlabourers. merchantsin

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56 AWEST INDIAN POLICEMAN.the village, usuallyoliaFridaymorning. Wakefield, which was the mimeofoile of these sugar estates, always sent two EastIndian coolies, on foot,fortheirmoney, the distance being only aboutfivemiles. The road, however, led through a settlement where a num ber of Cuban tobacco planters resided.Ona certainFridaymorning the two coolies started ontheirhomewardjourneyatabout ten o'clock, carrying a bag con..;tailiing justa few shillingsshortof, nearly allin fiilver. Atabout11o'clock one of the two coolies camerunning in hot haste tothestation, and reportedthatwhile passing through the Cuban settlement above mentioned 'twomeil whose faces were hidden under black masks had rushed outatthem from a clump of bush, attacked them with sticks and knocked both of them down, the. bearerofthe money bag being rendered unconscious;thatthe two robbers had taken the bag andrunaway with it, leaving coolies lying on the ground.After waiting a few minutesthestunned man had recovered cons-ciousiless, and hastened on to report the occurrence at the estate, While theother returned to Linstead tc?alarm the police. I instantly dispatched the whole of my small available force tothescene oftheoutrage and followed them myself. There had been a very heavy dew during the night, which rendered the tracks made by the robbers in the Hwire" grass with which the whole districtwasgrown very plain indeed; andafterabout two hours' search we found the bag intact in the backyardofa house inhabited by two Cubans, and recovered every penny of the money. We also found the masks, andthe yery heavy freshly cut green sticks whichtherobbers

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THESTORY.57 hadused as weapons. Their boots and trousers were soaking wet withthedew. The evidence against them waS very strong, although their faceshadbeen con by the masks, madeofblack cloth; and they were duly committed fortrial'atthenext Kingston Circuit Court. Now, atthis time there was still in existence inthisisland an exceedingly archaic statute known asthe Law deMedietate Linguae, thepurportof which was thatin the case of any alien being arraignedfortrialbefore.ajuryon a criminal charge such alien was en -t.itled to demand thata certain proportion ofthejuryshould consistofaliens. Idonot remembertheexact proportion,butI knowthatthrough the effortsof counsel for the defence there were no fewerthanfiveCubans on thejurywhich tried these two men. They paid littleorno attention totheevidence; and I saw myself two of themfastasleep intheirseats whilethecase was proceeding. The result wasthatthejurycould not arriveata verdict; and this being thelastcase on the calendarithad to be adjournedtothe next ensuing court. Beforethatdate the Attorney General brought in a bill before the Legislative Council, whichmetduring the interval, abolishingthetrialdemedie tate linguae,on the strength of the obvious miscarriageofjustice which might have taken place inthiscase; sothatwhen the two culprits again appeared before the court they were triedjustin the same mannerasiftheyhad been British subjects. Theywerefound guilty without any hesitation on thepartofthejury;and,ifmy recollections serves me right, they each re ceived a sentence of ten years penal servitude. A good story occurs to me in connectionwitha

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58 AWESTINDIAN,POLICEMAN.manwho kept alarge shop.or "store"as,itiscalled.in thevillageofLinstead. Hewas entirely a self-made man,andhadnotenjoyed thaao.vantage ofa good education;but he wasa justiceofthe pea,cesnda personofimportanceinthecommunity. He purchased a derelictpropertyinthedistrict calledA--thename beingthatof a placeinScotlandatwhich 'existverywell'preserved remains' of anan cient Roman encampment. One daya Scotchfriendofmine,witha very keen senseofhumour, asked him hehadfoundanytraces' of a Roman encamp ment yeton,-his recently bought property. 'Theans,:, werhereceivedwasthis:--.'"N-n-no;Ihaven'tfoundanyyet;but you know Ihaven'thalffinished cleaning upthe,bush." 'This was said quite ser,iously and perfectgood faith.

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THE ..STOltY. ChapterVll.THESTORY.-CONTINUED.Intheyear1879I wastransferredfrom Kingstontobe stationed inthevillage of Chapelton intheupperpartoftheparishof Clarendon,forthepurposeofsuperintending.thestations inthatthenremoteand l?arbarous district. The headquarters ofthedivision 'wereatMay Pen, onthemain road between Mande villeandOldHarbour;anditwas not until manyye.ars. laterthatthey weretransferredtothehill stationofChapelton itself, wheretheyarenow. TherailwayceasedatOld Harbour, and Ihadtopursuemyjourneythenceforsometwenty-fourmilestomy destination by buggy. 'I'herewasno hotelorlodging house;norwerethereanyquartersfor officer;thatwasthewayinwhich we used to be chuck,,:, ed out intothecold world in those days. I found accom-: modationofveryinferiordescription inthehouseofa brown lady whose English husbandwasemployedasa foreman ontherailway extension workswhich.hadrecently been begun. He used to beabsentfrom home fiveorsix days a week;andalthough shehada baby to play propriety, my positionwasobviouslyrathera delicate one.Infactitsoon became impossible.Theroom which I occupied was of such dimensionsthatinone direction I was able to touch both wallsatthesame timewithmyoutstretchedarms;whileintheothertherewasa spaceofaboutthreefeettospare. Iwasultimately rescuedthroughthekindnessofa Scotch

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60 AWEST INDIAN POLICEMAN.gentleman and his, wife, Mr. and Mrs. Robert Craig. He was the leading man in the community; and these kindly people insisted on my removing my belongings to their house arid taking up my quarters in the bache Jor's bu;ngalow which formedpartoftheirpremises.Imay say herethatScotch people have been my best :::riends all through my life.Atthattime the parish of Clarendon enjoyed a most unenviable reputationformurders and other crimes of violence, and ruffianism generally.Itis an indisputable psychological factthat moral and intellectual level of the negro is to be foundatits very lowestonand about the sugar estates of the Island; and the chief industry of Clarendon in those days was the production of sugar. Even nowadays one frequently meets people in the vicinity of the estates in the sugar districts whomitis difficult to regardashuman beings. There wereatthe time of whichI speak two brutal murders hanging like a cloud over the parish,theperpetrators of which had notyetbeen dis covered. The first was known as the Scully murder; the victim having been a white lad ofthatname who bad been waylaidwhile carrying home money to the estateof which his father was the manager, dragged off his mule, done to death, and robbed.Noperson had ever been arrestedonsuspicion of being concerned in the foul deed; and even in my time, which was some seven years afterwards, the police of the parish were beiilg blamedforneglect and incapacity in dealing with the case. Young Scully's father was quite brok en-hearted over his boy's death. He never allowed hishairto be cut again; andI met'him in later years with Ii' luxuriant growth flowi:hg over his shoulders, allail-

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THESTORY.61 ver-grey. Nothing was ever diacovered in connection withthatmurder, in spite of a reward offered by govern,ment. The otherwasknownastheM{)rrisHallmurder;andit was inconnection with this thatIwon my spurs.Ithad occurred six years prior to my goingtoChapel ata place called Morris Hall,some-fivemiles dis tant.A a,nd his wife of the name of Bailey hadb.eenarrestedatthe time,butdischarged f9r wantof evidence; and foriiix years a reward of had offered the government for the detection of the mur derers, without result. The deceased in this case Ii young black woman who had been staying with the Baileys, and' had accompanied them to a danceat neighbouring houseona certain Friday night.Onthe following morning her dead body was foundon the ground -in front oftheBaileys' house with the .throat cut. About three weeks after myarrivalatChapelton,I received late one night an urgent message from my sergeant-major askingmetocometo the station imme rliately on.mostimportant business.Onenteringthestation I saw along with the constables a short, squat, elderly black man, apparently in a state of great mental nertur.b4lti<>:D. He wasanAfrican born, broughttoJamaicaas ,a lad, having been rescued from a slaver in the Caribbean sea by a British cruiser onthevoyage to Cuba. There formerly to be in certainpartsoftheisland whole -s.ettlements peopled by Africans who had:f.oUndtheir way here in a similar manner. Their can now scarcely be distinguished fromthe of .the population.

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62 AWEST IN'DIAN' POLICEMAN.I lookedthisman over very carefully, puthim througha course of" preliminaryquestioning,andthen asked himwhathehadcome to tell me. Tremblingwithemotion, large dropsofsweat glistening on his face, which was nowthecolour ofverydarkashes, he told, slowly and deliberately and without hesitation, the following remarkablestory:-. He began by sayingthatheknew whohadkilled tp.e young womanatMorris Hall, and had knownit.for.six years.On my puttingto himtheobvious ques whyhe had concealeditforsolong, he saidthatit was because he wasafraidof beingsenttoprison him salf forwhathehad been doing on the .nightofthe murder;nud also because Obeah had beenputupon him to ]{eephis mouthshut;butthathis conscience would Dot allowhimnow to keepthesecret any longer, and he was determined to make a cleanbreastof it, nomatterwhattheconsequencesmightbe. Hethenpro ceeded tostatethatontheFridaynightwhenthemur der took placehehad been engagedin stealing logwood on theMorris Hallproperty:thatis actually fellingthestandingtrees;athingthatused frequently to be done in the wastes of jungle which covered largeareason properties inthatdistrict, and which hehadbeen ihthe habitof doing without detection.Itwas a bril liant moonlightnight;andtherewasa footpathnearby where hewasworking leadingthroughthelog wood thicket from the directionoftheBaileys' house towards another. oneinwhichheknewthat a dance was being giventhatnight.Atanhour which he guessed to be about two o'clock in the morning heheardvoices and saw figures onthefootpath. Concealing himself behind a large logwoodtreehe saw amanand

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-THESTORY......63 a woman whom: he ,knew' wellcoining-along the path 'carrying something heavy between them; which he as 'a' female human form. Waitinguntiltheyhad gone some distanceaheao,he followedthemthroughthe bush until they arrived at'thehouseoftheBaileys, where,rightbeforethefrontdoor,theylaid downtheirburden, and passed on.Afterwait ing a few minutes hewent to the spot very cautiously and found to hishorrorthatwhathad been deposited there, wasthedead body ofa young black woman whosethroathadbeen cut fromearto ear. Stuck point downwards intotheearthalongsidethebody a common black-handled table knife, stainedwithblood. Myinformantwentonto saythatwhile view Ingthisghastly scene he heard arustling in thebush at; theback ofthehouse, and saw coming towardshim the man who had beencarryingthe'body, on which hefledfordearlife;butnot before hehadbeen recog nised by the man, 'who calledouthis name. lie thentold me thattheman was Thomas Brown,andthewoman who had been helpinghimto carry the corpse ,vas Eliza Morgan, whowereatthattime living toge to the custom ofthecountry,'and were well known to him. Onhearingthisstory 'I subjected thenarratorto the most rigid cross-examinationin every <1irection 1 couldthinkof,butwithoutshaking'hisevidence I'n theslightest degree: Heknelt before meand kiss.ed my feet,thenlifted his eyesandhishands'toheaven, swearingthemost solemn oathsthatwhathehad said wasthe whole truth,andprayingthathemightbestruckdeadon'thespotif.itwasnot.Heunbosomed all the detailsof his logwood stealingen-

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64 AWESTINDIANPOLICEMAN. bythelightofthemoon,andagain vowed,thathisconscience could not the burdenanylong er, that wasquite to;face th.e ofthelaw andtheterrorsofObeah in preference. Eventua.lly he completely convinced meofthe truth ofhisstory;andI decidedthatitwas a casein which t.hepromptest action was an' immedi.ate necessity. I foundthattheold man Jtnew where Thomas and:l4organ, who hadpartedcompany some few monthsafterthemurder, were livingat thatmoment; I took the drastic stepof them arrested at and c;letective-thelatter a manofgiantframe,anda perfectterrortothe c;rimiJl class-wereverykeen aboutit;soIsentoneofthem in one direction, andtheotherinanother, each by a coupleofmen, with orders to take'S,rown and Morgan outoftheirbeds,orwherever theyI;night find them,andbringthem tothestation. I i8 patched themshortly befor.e midnight,itbeing a dry, mooniightnight; andaboutftve o'clock inthemorning I was awakened by thereportthat IllY order alJ,ad beencarriedout without:a hitch. I had of course cSused the accuser to be detainedatthe station iIi meantime. Owing tothe if>ngth of time which had elapsed smce thecommittalofthecrimeitwas notan easyto resuscitate and piece together :such evidence as had been forthcomingattheinquest onthemurder woman. Itwill ,ber.emember.edthattheBaileys been arrested at the butverysoon discharg,. edf.rom custodY1 I found them to be quite decentand andthey.proved exceedingly use :tulto me in sorting ou
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THESTORY.65quite a new character which was broughtforthinthe light ofthelittle African's confession. The Clerk of PettySessions, who was in those daysthe function';" ary,chargedwithconductofsuch preliminary p:roceed ings,oidMr. Matthew Farquharson, (grandfatherof ourlady tennis champion), consideredtheevi dence which Iwas.able to offer quite sufficientto detain the two accused; and he remandedthemincustody week.-by week, whileateach appearance we were able to forge oneortwo additional links inthechain of circumstantial evidence whichhadtobe ob tained in support ofthatof the eye-witness. I may say thatthe little African never deviated ahair's thestory which he told me on that first pight. I recollectthatamong theveryoriginaland uhique featuresofthe evidence adducedwasthefind !11.g ina graveofa blood-stained flannelshirt,identi fied as .having been the property oftheprisoner Mor gan. The whQle case was surroundedbya denseat of Obeah. I cannot now remember allthedetails; anditis possiblethattheymightbore the.reader; soitwill suffice tosaythatwhen IleftChapel tonattheendofNovember 1879 toreturntoKing ston, Thomas Brown and Eliza Morgan,afterhavi:ng beenthreemonths in custody, had beenduly,com mitted.totaketheir trial atthe Mandeville Circuit Court, to be held inJanuary1880-ifI rememberright the, charge of murder. The result wasthat the jury ac,quittedEliza';Morgan, butbrQught in a of guilty againstThomas Brown,,whoin due met his death on thegallows.I.had at that time, asw,i,Ii,presentlyappeB,J;', appointedtothe commandofthest. Andrew division,theInspector of

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:66 AWESTINDIAN POLICEMAN.whichhadgone on leave,andwasconsequentlystationedatHalfwayTree.Buton methegovernment theresponsibilityofdistributingtherewardof which,asstatedabove,hadbeen offeredforthedetectionandconvictionofthemurderers.Iapportionedthelion'ssharetothelittleAfrican,whohad reen themovingspiritintheaffair,andthebulkoftheremaindertotheBaileys;havingin viewthefactsthattheyhadrenderedmostusefulandimportant andthattheyhadattheveryoutsetbeenarrestedandkeptin custodyforseveral days, chargedwitha crimeofwhichtheywereentirelyinnocent.Thereis a sequeltothisstory,anditillustratesinaverystrikingmannerthatchild-like simplicityand !1bsence ofall vindictiveness, whichformsuchstrongredeemingfeaturesinthepsychologyofourpeopleintheruraldistricts.Abouttwoyearsaftertheevents above narratedIwasagainsentto Clarendon;butthistimeinchargeofthewholeparish,withmyheadquartersatMay Pen. Onmywayhome onedaytowardsdusk,afterahotandtiringridetoChapeltonandadjacentdistricts, Iheardawoman'svoice callingout:-"MarningInspectorThomas"(Imaysaythattheactualtimeofdayhasno connectionwhateverwithasalutationofthiskind)."Marning,InspectorThomas." I couldnotatfirstdistinguishwherethevoice came from,asitappearedtobeaboveme;butwhenthecry was repeatedonce more I glanced upwards, andthereon a hillside overhanging theroadI beheld a buxom young black womanstandingatthedoor way ofaneatlittlehouse,withhertwohandsplaced ()n herabdomen, one overtheother-thatbeing the

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THESTORY.attitudewhich etiquette prescribesforacurtsey-bobbing up and -iown, withherwhite exposedina smileofdelighted welcome.ratonce replied tohergreetinginthevernacular.(ofwhichram amaster),askingherwho shewasandhow she came to know whorwas-being at thetimeinmufti.Tomyutterastonishment I receivedtheanawer:uNo me 'Liza Morgan,sah?I really gladfesee lookingsowell." Here was a woman whom I hadhad lockedupfor three long months, and done my best to hang, overtwo previou'sly, and whomrhadlastseenina cellattheChapelton station committedfortrialon acharge of murder,greetingmewithexpressionsofgenuine pleasureatthischance encounter. Therewasnohypocrisy aboutit;forifshe hadnotcalledmyattention to herself I shouldnothave even seenheronthe.hillside sheer abovetheroadasshe was. Therearemanycountries where a womanofother nationalityinherposition would have seizedtheopportunityof !2ying me outwitha stone,asI rode past, allunsus.pecting.

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68 AWESTINDIANPOLICEMAN. 'Chapter VIII.THESTORY,-Gontinued. In the'year1880,i:wasfortenmonthsincommandofthepoliceofSt.Andrewduringtheabsence ori.leave ofthe Inspector forthatparish.Themostnotableeventofthatyearwasthevisitpaidto theiSland by tWoRoyal Princes,namelyourpresentKing,His V,and his elderbrother,Prince Albert Victor, wholater:becameDukeofClarence, and diedinearlymanhood.Theyarrivedinthe cruiser "Bacchante," in which shiptheyheldtherankof niidshipmen. TheGovernor,SirAnthony Mus;. grave,wasawayon leaveatthetime,hisplacebeing fiiiea. bytheLieutenant Governor, Mr.(afterwards Sir,)Edward Newton.HeentertainedTheirRoyal Highnesses atKing's "House .for a weekortendays,and I wasinconstantattendancetheremyself, being persona grata withMr. Newton,andhavingmyheadquartersatHalf-wayTree,withinaveryshortdistanceofKing'sHouse. On oneafternoonacricketmatchtook placeatUp-ParkCamp betweenthegarrisonandthe"Bacchante,"atwhichthePrinceswerepresent,andwhichofcoursehundredsofpeople flockedtosee. I remember...thatthemilitaryhadnotmadeanyarrangementsforkeepingthegroundclear,andthatthisdutydevolvedentirelyon myself. Iperformedittothebestofmyabilitybyridingroundandrounoasin acircusring;buttheringgrewnarrowerandnarrower,untilatlasttherewasnolonger

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JAMAlCA EXHIBITIO-191.Photo by J.W.a.B1'ennanStanding, from lefttoright:InpectorThoma,Clmrch,Jame.,Alexander, Wedderbunl, St. Aubyn Sitting, from lefttoright:In per-tor McCrea,Pononby, Major L.F.Knolly,.M.G.(InpectorGeneral),McLeod, Clark.

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THESTORY.69sufficient roomfortheplayers,andthematch had tobeleftunfinished. Ioughttosaythattherewerenofencesorbarriersofanydescription;andinthose days "boundaries"atcrickethad not yetcomeintouse;sothattherewasnot evenanartificial Ilne markedoutaround the field.Ontwo subsequent occasions didHisMost Gracious Majestyvisitthisisland. He returnedinJanuary 1884,asalieutenantinH.M.S. "Canada," onwhich9ccasion a subscriptionballin hishonourwasheldintheold KiIlg's House at Spanish Town. Again in 1891, being then in commandofH.M.S."Thrush,"a gunboat belonging totheNorthAmeri-'can and West Indian squadron, whichinthosedaysusedtomakeanannualcruise inthesewaters,helandedinroyalstateasPrinceGeorgeofWalestoopentheJamaicaExhibition, onthe29thJanuary.Onthatoccasion, Ihadthehonourofridingasoneofhis escort, close totheoff hind wheel of hiscarriage,fromtheupperpartofDukeStreettoKing's House.HewasentertainedbySirHenryBlake, who wasthenGovernor,fortendays,duringwhich timethreeballswere given,atallofwhich Iwasinattendance.Anothernotable eventof1880,butofanunpleasantnature,was adisastroushurricanewhichstrucktheislandfromthesoutheastonthenightofthe18thAugust,passingdiagonallyacross'ittothenorthwestanddoing heavydamageasfarasSt.Ann'sBay.Therewasgreatdestruction in Kingston.Treeswereblown downalongtheroadtoHalf-way Tree, where houses were fewandfarbetween, in suchnumbersthatthemule-drawnstreetcars, whichhad by 'thattimebeen established, were unableto run for'many daysafterwards.Ihappenedtohave coine

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'10 AWEST'INDIANPOLICEMAN. down intoKingston onthe18th,andnextmorningrwasobligedtofindmywayback;to :tlly quartersatHalf-wayTreeon foot. Therehadnotbeen arealhurricaneformanyyearspreviously,andmostpeoplehadforgottenwhatitwaslike. Wehavehadmanypainfulreminderssince then. .Inthefollowing year, 1881, I was removed toLin stead, tosupervisethestationsintheupperpartofSt.Catherine,subjecttotheordersoftheInspector for theparish,who residedinSpanishTown. Someofthedistrictsroundaboutwereinanexceedingly J>enighted condition. Ihaveina previouschapterdescribed a case ofhighwayrobbery whichoccurredinthatneighbourhood;butduringmystaythererhadsomeofthequaintestexperiences whichhaveeverfallentomylot,ofwhichthefollowing isthemostamusing,inspiteoftheelementoftragedyinvolved. One of the stations withinmypurview wasin awild locality calledPointHill, whichin,thosedaysmighthave been describedasabitof"DarkestAfrica."Itwasmanyniiles from everywhere,andcould scarcely be reachedfromanydirection, exceptonhorseback.Itboasted, however, aclaimtobe gardedascivilised inthefactthatitactuallypos sessed aresidentDistrictMedical Officer. When I came to knowthisgentleman, Iatonce realisedthathewasjustthekindofperson whomthegovernmentwould haveappointedtosuch a place, becausetheycouldnotpossibly havesenthimtoanyhighly dvilised one.Ithasalways been a mystery to mehowsuch a person could ever have obtainedthe neces,:" saryqualificationsofa medical practitioner. He wasa white man, a Canadian;anditwassaidthat

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THESTORY.71heowedtheappointmenttotheinfluenceofabrotherwho occupied a good position inthejudicial ment.Hewasthebuttandthepreyofthe negroes. livingabouthim.Theyonlyconsultedhimprofessionallyforthemost'trivialailments;andtheyusedopenlytoridehishorses,andplunderhisprovisionground.ThefirsttimeIsawhim,hewaswalkingalongtheroadpastthestationin.hisshirt-sleeves, bare-footed,withawhitehelmeton his head, a machettein onehandandasmallbundleofsugar cane,on his shoulder. I received a severe shock when the corporalinchargeofthestationtoldme, inreplytomyquestion,thathe wastheDistrictMedical Officer. Isubsequentlydiscoveredthatwheneverhehad to attenda court,ortogo toSpanishTownorLinsteadforahypurpose, he used toweararustyblack frock coat,anda tophatthatmatcheditin appearance.Heisthusdescribedatlengthforthereasonthathe so fitted inwiththeothercharactersengagedinthecase Iamabouttonarrate.One fine daytherecame to meatLinsteadtwoWild-looking womenfromthisPointHilldistrictwitha weirdstoryofinfanticidecommittedonthreedifferentoccasions by amananda womanresidingintheirneighbourhood. Theystatedthatthepartiesmentionedhadbeen livingtogetherfor some threeyears,duringwhichtimethewomanhadbornethreechildren;andthateachofthesechildrenhad lymysteriouslydisappearedwhen a fewmonthsold.Anaccidenthadled to discoveryofthefactthatthelastonehadbeen buriedattherootofabreadfruittree,growingontheborderofthelandon whichthetwo women lived. Astheirstoryappearedtobe reliable,andcarefulenquiryfailedtoreveal

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72 AWESTINDIANPOLICEMAN.anymotive ontheirpart,thenecessaryinvestigationswereundertaken;andthere,sureenough,attherootofthebreadfruittreeweunearthedthebonesofthreeinfantsoftenderyears,,onesetofwhichappearedtohave beencomparativelyrecentlyinterred.ThemanandthewomanwerearrestedandsentontoSpanishTown.Therewasnorecordofanyregis.trationofbirthordeathofanychildrenatallhavingbeenmadebythesepersons;and,asalwayshappensinsuch cases,assoonasthearresthadbeen effected,plentyofcorroborativeevidencewasforthcomingfromthepeople livingintheneighbourhood. The boneswereofcoursesubmittedtotheD.M.O. above describedforexamination;andI recollectto.thisdayhowhepositively swelledupwitha senseofhisownimportance,andthepompousverbositywithwhichhedescribedtheresultsofhisexamination.TheprisonersweredulycommittedfortrialattheKingstonCircuitCourt;butunderthejudicialsystemtheninvoguetheCoronerforthe parish de cided thataninquest should be held onthebones, he,theCoroner,havingnothingtodo-ashewouldhaveunderthepresentsystem-withtheexaminationofthecriminalchargeagainstthepartiesimplicated.The coroner appointedashisdeputy acertainsolicitor,amanoflow intelligenceandpooreducation,whoneverappearedinacourt,butmadehislivingbydoing acertainamountofrudimentarychamberpractice,andactingascoroner'sdeputywhenoccasioncalled.Theplaceappointedfortheholdingoftheinquestwasa small house on apropertycalledAyl.mer'swhichwasusedasa courthouse once ineverytwomonths.

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THESTORY.73 Thejuryconsistedoflabourers working on aneighbouringsugarestate,andtheheadmanoftheestatewastheforemanofit, heandoneotherbeing the onlytwo men who couldreadandwrite.Thentherewasinattendance,ofcourse,theD.M.O. whohasbeen described, wearing,asbefitted such a solemn occasion, his frockcoatandtophat.SuchagatheringforjudicialpurposesI have never seen, beforeorsince.Themanandthewoman who were chargedwiththemurderofthechildrenwerenotinattendance,theyhaving beenalreadycommittedfortrialbyan-otherauthority.The court having been duly opened,thedeputy -coroner explained tothejurythattheywere assembl edforthepurposeofenquiring whether theboneswerethoseofcertainunnamed infants, andwhethertheseinfantshadcometotheir death by foul means-orotherwise. Alltheevidence was heard, and then, hr.ving sum meditup,thedeputycoroner directedthejurytoconsidertheirverdict, onthelines previouslyindicatoed.Aftera fewminutesofratherexcitedandin dignantconsultationtheforemanstoodupandthusdeliveredtheverdict:"We findtheprisoneratthebar.guiltyofmurder."Itwas then explained to themthattherewasnoprisoneratthebarforthemtotry;butthatalltheywere called upon to dowastopronounceuponthebones,theirpreviousinstructionsbeingcarefully re peatedto them. Once moretheyretiredin consulta ,tion; and presently the foreman deliveredan amended vordict as follows :-"WEI find that-thebones the ofthe said children, and thatthey cameto

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74 AWEST INDIANPOLICEMAN.theirdeathbyhavingtheirbirth concealed."This verdict,thepurportofwhich,thoughcrudelyex"pressed,wasquite intelligible,thedeputy coronerhadtoaccept. As amatteroffact,thejuryatthetrialofthetwo accused found them guiltyoftheoffenceofconcealmentofbirth.

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THESTORY.ChapterIX.THESTORY,-Continued.75Forsomethreeyears, between 1881and1884, Iwasshiftedaboutfromoneparishtoanother,holdingactingappointmentsinClarendon, HanoverandManchester;thenreturningtoKingstonforSub-Inspector'sduty.InJulyofthelatteryearIwassent to MorantBayto relievetheInspectorforSt. Thomas, hadobtained six months leave. Owing tocertain.circumstanceswhich werenotdiscovereduntilafterhisdeparturehewasprecludedfromreturningtoduty;andattheexpirationofhis leave a vacancy .wasthuscreatedwhichshouldintheordinarycourseofthings, havebroughtaboutmypromotion tothe rank ofInspector, I being thenthesenior Sub.ButjustatthisjunctureI experiencedthefirsttasteoftheillluckwhichhasdoggedmyfootstepsever since. A Commission whichhadbeensentoutfromEnglandin1883 to,reportonthefinancial conditionofthecolonyhad,'amongotherthings. recommendedthatthenumberoftheofficersoftheConstabularyshouldbe reduced by oneatthenextopportunity,sothatmypromotionhadto bedeferreduntilanothervacancy occurred. This didnothappenuntilnearlythreeyearslater;andwhenitdid arrive, Ihadbeen overtenyearsa Sub-Inspector.ShortlyafterI took chargeofSt. Thomasin 1884. a newformofgovernmentwasIntroduced in maica;changingitfroma Crown colonypure nnd

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76AWESTINDIANPOLICEMAN.simple,andinauguratingapartiallyelected Legis lative Council;thesystem which,withseveral amendmentsandextensions, continues co thepresentday. The introductionofthischange was,forsomereasonortheother, watchedwithagreatdealofanxietyonthepartoftheauthorities.Alargenumberof'''confidential'' instructions were issued tothepolice;and,amongotherprecautionarymeasures, no memberoftheforcewasallowedtohave leave, except on medical duringtheweekinwhichtheelec took place. However,everythingwentoff with out symptoms of disturbanceofanykind;and I havenodoubtthegovernmentfeltthatagreatcrisishadbeensafelypassed. Theparish of St. Thomashadbeen in bad reputethroughouttheislandever sincetheeventsoftherebellonof1865;andontakingupmydutiesthereIfound still livingthreeorfoursurvivors ofthemassacreswhich took placeattheMorantBaycourtllOuse andotherplaces intheparishduringthatre bellion. Twoofthem were medical men, whose lives llad been deliberately spared bytherebels on accountoftheirprofession. Theyhadsome gruesome storie3totell. I remained in charge of St. ThomasfromJuly1884,untilNovember ofthefollowingyear;andI su b sequently returned totheparishon promotion in 1887, stayinguntilJanuary1894.Ithusspentaltogetherupwardsofeightyearsthere;andImakeboldtothinkthatI succeededinprovingthatthebadreputation.oftheparishabovereferredtowasquite un cieserved. IamproudtosaythatI wontherespect,theesteem,andtheconfidenceofthepopulationin

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THESTORY.77such awaythatforyearsafter I hadbiddenfarewelltotheparishIusedtoreceive occasional lettel'sand Christmascardsfromnumerouspersonsofthehumblestclasses. While servingthereIhad some of themost unique and interesting experiencesofmywhole someofwhichIwillhere set down.Ioughttosay that ithadapparentlybeenthepolicyofthegovernmentforsomeyearstomakethe parish adumpinggroundforofficials whomtheyregardedasbeing alittlebelowthemarkofdesirability, sociallyorotherwise; althoughIam vain enough tothink that 1wasnotsentthereforanysuch reasons. OneoftheDistrictIV[edicalOfficers oftheparishwas an Ameri can, a refugee from the United States who had served in theranksoftheConfederatearmyduringthe Civil War.It used to be understoodthattherewas a price on his head. Another was a man who hadarrivedin the island as anarmysurgeon somefortyyearspreviously; since whichdatehehadneverleftit:nor,Ithink,hadhe ever opened a. medical work. His practice such asitwas, lay chiefly inthebush ofthe Blue Mountains;andon me devolved, inlateryears,theunpleasant d.uty ofbringingabouthisretirementfromtheservice altogether. cultivation, moreorless moribund, was car: rie.d onih.a desultory attheeastendof the is the east endofthe islalJ.d.:.-ovel;"the' alluvialplainknownasthe PlantaiI). Riverdistrict; but itwas bf.ling.steaqily ed,by the enterpriseofan Amedcan,to:-yVhom Ja,maica owes a debtofgratitude which can never be repaid. .

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78AWESTINDIANPOLICEMAN.Imadetheacquaintanceofthatfirminitshumblebeginningsas"BakerandCo.,"watcheditexpandinto"TheBostonFruitCompany,"andhavelivedtoseeitdevelopintothegiganticcommercialconcernwhichisnowknownas"TheUnitedFruitCompany."Ihavehadofficialandprivatedealingswiththemirallthosestages;andI gla-dlybeartestimonytothebenefitstheyhaveconferredonthisBritishcolony.Americansgenerally,rightlyorwrongly,donotenjoyaverygoodreputationfortheirmodesofdealingwiththecolouredelementintheirowncountry;but in JamaicathemannerinwhichtheUnitedFruitCo.succeedinextractingfromtheircolouredemployees.the good servicethattheydo,formsa curious andinterestingpsychologicalstudy.Intheyear1884thegovernmentfirstintroduced the experimentofimportingashiploadofChinesecooliesfromHongKongasindenturedlabourersonthesugarestates,insteadoftheEastIndians,ashadalwaysbeenthepracticeforoverfortyyears.Thewholebusinesswasbadlymanagedfromtheoutset;therewasnotevenanythinglikeanadequate ofinterpreters;andoneChinamanwassoverylikeanotherthattheimmigrationauthoritiescouldnotforsometimesortthemoutforallotmenttothevariousestates.Somesevenhundredofthemlanded, and considerablymorethanhalfweresenttoSt.Thomas,bycoastingvessels,or "droghertl" astheyarecalledinJamaica.Manyofthemwerecunningandunscrupulousruffians-probablyex-pirates-andonboardoneofthesedroghers,beatingupforPortMorant,thedetachmentroseinrebellion,andputtingthecaptaininfearofhislife, compelledhimtoputhis

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THESTORY.79 boat about and makeforKingston.Thecaptain, how ever,hadthegood sense torunintoYallahs Bay, which was then on his lee,andslip ashoreinhis dinghytothepolice station,fromwhich a telegramwassentto meatMorant Bay, on receipt of which I tookwhat I deemed necessary. When these Chinese were all eventually landedanddispatchedtotheirvarious estates, chaos andcon fusion ensued. They didnottakelong to findoutthatalltheemployees ontheestatesweremortallyafraidofthem,andcouldnotdistinguish onefromanother.Takingfull advantageofthis, they refusedtowork, 111though therationsprescribedbytheregulationsweredulyissuedtothembytheestates.Insome casestheyactuallymaderaids on theprovisiongroundsofthenegroes and onthecanefields. The situation calledfordrasticmeasures,andI applied them-asusualentirelyonmyown responsibility-givingsomeoftheworstcharactersaslighttasteofthekindoftreatmentthatwould have be'enmetedouttotheminChina,withtheresultthatin about threeweeks,workwasproceedingsmoothly on. alltheestates. Mymenenteredintothespiritofthecampaignwithgreatgusto;butweallhada girenuous time.Insomeotherparishes these Chinesedesertedinbatches, assisted bytheircountrymeninKingston;andon onepropertyinSt.Marymattersculminatedinariotinwhich oneChinamanwaskilled.ButIwasvery proud ofthefactthatowingtomydrasticmeasuresoutofthethreehundredandsixty or thereaboutswhohadbeenimportedintoSt.Thom as, only someeightorninewereunaccountedforup

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80 AWESTINDIANPOLICEMAN.tothetimeIlefttheparish,afterthelapseofsixteenmonths. Aninterestingcaseofmurderoccurred inthe year 1885among these same Chinese onanestatecalled Lysson's,aboutthreemilesfromMorantBay. Oneofthemhad been missingfromthepropertyforsome days,anditwasassumedthathehaddeserted;whenone morning, on agangbeingturnedinto oneofthecanefieldsforthepurposeofcleaningit,theycameupon a corpse in aghastly state of Onlytheskullwiththehairstill attachedtoitreveal edthefactthattheremainswere thoseofa Chinaman.Theymusthave been lyingthereforatleasttwoweeks.Thereis no place inthetropicssofearfullyhot,oraffordingsucheffectual concealment,astheheartofa canefield infullgrowth.The medical examinationofthebody revealedthattherewas afractureatthebaseoftheskull, probablycaused by a blowwithsome heavy,bluntinstrument;andleavingtherestofthecarcass to be buried,thedoctor tookthe heJtd awaywithhim to beproperlycleanedandexamined.Theclothingfoundatthespotwasidentified bythewifeofthemissing China man. Our enquiriesfurnishedno clueatfirst; which,inviewofthelanguagedifficulty,wasnotsurprising;butlatethatevening we learntthatanotherChineselabourer, nqmed Com Fook,haddisappearedfromtheestate. ImadeaverythoroughsearchofComFook'sroomandtheeffects whichhehadleftbehind;andwhatI foundtherepromptedmeatonce tosetthetelegraphgoing to KingstonandotheradjacentparishesforthearrestofCom Fook.TheImmigrationDepartment also sentafullyqualifiedinterpre ter atmy request,ortewhom theyhadrecently

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THESTORY.81broughtallthewayfromDemerara;andwith his aida good dealofevidencewasobtained.Itwasallpurelycircumstantial;but,astheevent proved,itwassufficient. Then, sometendayslater,ComFookhimselfwasbroughtbackincustody,havingbeenarrestedthrough the vigilanceandintelligenceofasmartyoung stationedatCross Roads, aplacewhich isanexceedinglybusythoroughfareontheoutskirtsofKingston. MytheoryofthecasewasthatCom Fookhadfollowedthedeceasedinto the canefieldandtheredealthima terrific blowfrombehindwiththeheadofhishoe. 'The skull, nicely washedanddisinfected,wasproducedbythedoctor;andthere'wasthefracture,intheverythickestpartofit,plainlytobe seen.Theonlydifficultywastodiscover a motiveforthemurder;butthatdifficultydisappearedundertheintelligenthandlingofmyinterpreter.He ascertainedthatsome two weeks previoustothefindingofthebody, ComFookandthedeceased-whosenameIhaveforgotten-hadhadafuriousquarreloverthegamblingtable, in the courseofwhich deceasedhadcalled ComFooka"loasenpig"-astheinterpreterputit, meaning a"roastingpig"-andthatComFookhadthenandtheresworntokilltheotherattheearliestoppor tunity.A curiouslightisthrownonthepsychology:oftheChinamanbythefactthatalltheChinese who .. werepresentatthetime,andindeed,all 1lhose ontheestate,werequitewellawareofthis,andwere not in ., theleastsurprisedwhen ComFookcarriedhisthreatintoexecution .. The case was.triedintheCircuit Courtat wherea.ll.,the. cases fromeasternSt.Thomasand Portlandusedtobesentinthosedays.

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82 AWESTINDIANPOLICEMAN.The evidence was entirelycircumstantial;and,with xception oftheoverseeroftheestate,thedoctor,thearrestingconstableandmyself, allthewitnesseswereChinese, who couldscarcelyspeakawordofEnglish.Thejuryfoundaverdictofguilty;andComFookwasdulyexecuted in Spanish. Town,aftermakingfullconfessionofhisguilt.Theonlythingthathecouldnotunderstandwaswhyhehadbeen"triedsooften,"asheputit,insteadofonly on'ce.Whathemeantwasthathehadbeenpresentataninquestwhich,asstatedintheprevious chapter, usedalwaystobe held insuchcasesatthattime-andattheinvestigation bythecommittingmagistrate,aswellasattheCircuitCourtwherehewasfinallydealt with. ItrustImaybepardonedformentioningthatMr.JusticeCharlesRibtonCurran,who presidedatthetrial,introducedinto hissummingupsomeremarksregardingthewayin whichthecasehadbeengotupwhich wereofanaturemostgratifyingtomyself. I may also say, incidentally,thatthe interpreter, amanoffine presence,andhighlyintelligent,woundupbymarryingthewidowofthemurderedman,andtakingherwithhimon hisreturnto Demerara.Itwas in St. ThomasthatI came acrossthemostdeterminedandpersistent law-brooker thatIeverknew. His namewasBennett;amanofgentlede meanour,veryquiet, civil,andsoft-spoken.Thereexists,asanauxiliarytotheregularpolice, aforceofruralconstables, whowearnouniform,anddonoconstantpolice work,butonlydon aparticularkindofdistinctive badgewhencalledupontoperformpolice duties,forwhichtheyarepaidpro r6'Il(!,ta. Bennetthadbeen appointed to apostofthisdescriptionontherecommendationofhis employer.

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THESTORY.83whowasaJ.P.,andalargeproprietor;andinthatcapacityhewasonedaysenttoarresta Chineselabourerontheestateon achargeoflarceny.ofcanes, or sugar,Iforgetwhich.TheChinamanmadesomeshowofresistance,whereuponBennettadministeredtohimwithhisstaff-quiteaformidableweaponsucha beatingthattheChinaman was orderedtohospitalasapatientinsteadofbeingtriedfortheoffencechargedagainsthim.Bennettwasthenputon histrialforunlawful wounding,andsentencedbythecourttosixmonthshardlabour;whichnaturallyinvolved his dismissalfromtheruralpolice.Havingservedhisterm,hereturnedtotheestate,andwas'againtakenon by hisemployer-who,bytheway, invariablyexhibitedgreatsympathyforhimthrough out hiscareer,uptoacertainpoint, which will be describedlater.BeforeBennetthadbeenbackamonth,by aremarkablecoincidence,theveryChinamanon whoseaccounthehadsufferedtheimprisonmentwasseizedwithamysteriousillness,necessitatinghis removaltothehospital;where,afterlingeringina comatose conditionforupwardsofthreeweeks,hegaveuptheghost.Hisillnesswascertified bythen.M.a.as"opium poisoning;"butknowing,asI do,themannerinwhichthathospitalwasrun,Ihavemyown opinionofthecase. However,asI didnothappentobeintheparishjustatthatjunctureIhadno official connectionwithit. I wassentbacktherein time towitnessthefinishofBennett'scareer.Hisnextexploit wasthestealingofawatchfrom a Chineselabourerontheestateadjoiningtheoneonwhichhewasemployed.Thewatchwasafairly one;andthecase beingprovedtothe hilt,

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84AWESTINDIAN POLICEMAN"a sentenceofninemonthshardlabourwaspassedonhim. Not longafterhereturnedfromprison onthisoccasionanattemptwasmadetopoisonthericewhichhadbeen cookedforeatingbythesameChinamanfromwhomBennetthadstolenthewatch,andtwootherswho livedinthesameroom. WearrestedBennetton suspicion,andpresenteda case sufficientlycleartocommit himfortrialattheCircuitCourt, whichasthenew systemhadcome into wastobeheldatMorantBay,fortheSt.Thomas cases only.Hisemployerstood bailforhim,andbroughtdown counselfromKingstontodefend him.Thisgentleman played so cleverly onthehostilitytotheChinese which was generalthroughoutthe thathe succeeded inobtainingfromthejuryaverdictofacquittal; which was, beyond all doubt, a gross mis. carriageofjustice.Thepresidingjudgegaveanunmistakableindicationofhis own opinionoftheverdictbyremarkingtotheprisonerondischarginghim:"Youareaveryluckyman."AfterthisepisodeBennettlaylowforseveral.months,andnothingwasheardofhim. Then, onedaymydetective cametomeandtoldmethathehadreceivedaninvitationfromBennetttoattendhis.weddingattheGolden Grovechurchon acertainday. tiOme fourweeks later,thebrideelect being a widow womanofsubstance, keeping a shopintheGolden Grove village, which adjoinsthepropertyon whichBennettwas employed. The detective, who was averyfine character,said:"You know, sir,Bennettdoesnot belong to this.' parish;he comesfrommyown di'strict oftheparish'ofSt.Mary;and,asyou know, I havejustreturned

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THESTORY.85fromleave there,andI knowBennetthasa wife alive. Isawheronly a week ago."Atthesametimehe showed metheinvitation whichhehadreceivedtoBennett'swedding.BythenextpostIwrotetheincumbentoftheGolden Grove church,informinghimofthefacts,andwarninghimagainstallowinghimselfto beentrappedinto aidingandabettingthecrimeofbigamy. IwastheninformedthattheclergymanhadsentforBennett, who, on being confrontedwithmylette.r, didnotattempttodenythathis wifewasstillalive.Thedetective, who waskeepingtrackofthe case, reported to methatBennetthadwrittenacirculartoalltheinvitedgueststotheeffectthattheweddiIighadbeen unavoidably' p'ost poned,butthatitwouldcertainlytakeplacewithin 'a few weeks, on adateofwhichtheywould be noti fied in due course. About a week later, I wasreturninginmy buggy.from Kingston, where Ihadbeen spending a coupleofdays,toMorantBay, whenatasharpturnintheroad,abouttwo miles out, between sixandseveninthe morning ImetBennettridinga good-looking theappearanceofwhichwasnotunfamiliartome.ItcertainlywasnotthesortofanimalthatBennettoranymanofhis class would own.Themangaveme afnrtiveglanceoutofthecornerofhis eyeandrodeontowardsKingston;andon followinghimwithmyeyesitstruckmethatthehorsehadevidently beenriddenfarandfast.Thespotwasaboutforty .. two milesfromBennett's home;butitdidnotoccurtomeatthe momentthatthenearestwaytohisdistrictofSt.Marywould bethroughKingston. OnarrivingatMorantBayI found atelegramawaitingme from'the sergeant atGolden Gro:ve

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86 AWESTINDIANPOLICEMAN.stationreportingthatabigbayhorsewasmIssmgfromtheestateofBennett'semployerthatmorning,.andthatBennetthadbeenmetduringthepreviousnightridingitalongtheroad;alsothatawarranthadbeen issuedforhisarrest.KingstonandSt.Marywereatoncedulywarnedbywire;andonthefollowingdayIreceived atelegramfromSt.MarycallingforthearrestofBennettonthechargeofattemptingtoadministerpoisontohis wife.ThisinformationwasatoncepassedontothepolicestationsinBennett'sdistrictofSt.Thomas;andonthethirdmorningaftermyencounterwithhimontheKingstonroad, oneofmymenstationedatBathwhile goingforanearlymorningplungeintherivernearthestationcaught him sneaking alongthebankthroughunfrequentedtracks,on foot, onhiswayhomeward.Weafterwardslearntthatthehorsewasfoundcrawlingalongtheroadsomewhere inthevicinityofSpanishTown,andtakentothepound,whereitdied.Bennettwas in due course examinedandcommittedfortrial:attheMorantBayCircuitCourtforhorsestealing,andatthePortMariaCourtforattemptingtopoison his wife.Thesamejudgepresidedatbothcourts,which wereheldwithina weekofeachother,.andheinflicted sentencesofseventeenyearspenal servitude altogether: fourteen forthelatteroffence,.andthreefortheformer.ItishardlynecessarytosaythatbystealingthehorseBennetthadtrespassedjustalittletoofarontheindulgenceofhis employer,anddidnotreceiveanyassistancefromhim onthisoccasion.Duringmystayin St. Thomas, I engagedina vigorouscampaignagainsttheObeahsuperstition,

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THESTORY.87withgreatsuccessasfarastheindividual prosecutionswent, one case inparticularbeingofamostuniqueandremarkablenature;but,sadtorelate,itis becoming everydaymoreevidentthattheeffectofconvictionsundertheObeahLawisofanexceedingly evanescentnature;andthatthisfoulsuperstitionisstrengtheningitsholdonthecountry.However,myexperiences inthisdirection will bedealtwithandthewholesubjectdiscussedinthechapterdevoted to. it.Intheyear1888, alawwaspassedwiththeviewofprotectingthechildrenofthepeasantryfromthemutilationoftheirarmsandhandswhichusedveryfrequentlytooccurtothemwhileassistingintheworkingofthesmall woodensugarmillsthattheyuseforgrindingcanesforthemanufactureofthecoarse,dark,andverysweetsugarwhichtheycommonly use. These millsareoperated byhorsesor mules whichtramproundandround in' a circle.'revolvingtherollersbymeansofcogs,thewholethingbeing constructedofwood.Themanglingofahandoranarmused tobeaverycommon accidentamongthechildrenofaformergeneration.throughbeingcrushedbytherollers.Thisnewlawprescribedthatcertainprotectiveappliancesshouldbe placed onthesemills whenevertheywerebeingworked;alsothatno oneshouldworkhis millatallwithoutitshavingbeen inspected by amemberofthepolice forceandcertified bytheInspectorofPoliceasbeing constructed accordingtolaw.Thethen Inspector GeneralofPolice,MajorL.F.Knollys,C.M.G.-amanwho isstillrememberedwithaffection by thoseofhissubordinateswho knewhim-intimatedtomethathewould begreatlypleasediftheofficers couldmakeitpossibletodotheinspec-

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:88 AWESTINDIANPOLICEMAN.tionofthesemillsthemselves;andthesuggestion .appealedverystronglytomynaturalproclivitiesfOt"explorationandadventure.Iundertookthework .con amore,much totheastonishmntofmyown men, .and ofthepopulationgenerally,especiallyoftheruralpolice, whoseduty It wastoguidemetotheremotemountainfastnesseswherethesemillswereoftenlocated;andaltogetherI inspectedinthecourse of fourorfive months,upwardsoffourhundredofthem.Irangedfromthesea-coastupto3,000feetabove sea-level,inthehigherregionsoftheBlue Mountains,generallyamid. exquisitelybeautifulscenery,andoftenwithmagnificent viewslyingatmyfeet;drinkinginthecoolmountainbreezesandlisteningtotheeternalmurmurofrushingstreams.InseveralplaceswhereImadeasuddenappearanceIcameupongroupsofstarknakedblackpicaninnieswhofledscreamingwithterroratthesightofme;butatevery mill Ifoundpleasant,peacefulandcon.tentedpeople, who received mewiththegreatestpolitenessandrespect,andinvariablyofferedmesuchhospitalityastheycould afford. Many adayI have gonewithoutanyrefreshmentfromearlymorninguntilduskotherthanthefruit;.canejuice,and"sugar-and-water"provided-withoutpaymentofanykindbeitunderstood-bythesekindlyfolk.Beingapastmasterofthevernacular,itwasveryrarelythatI didnotleavethegroupswhichusedtogatheratthemillsonmyapproachroaringwithlaughteratsomejokeqroppedbymesuitabletotheoccasion.Itwas.inthe ofthesedutiesthat [ gainedthe knoV,Vledge ofthe:parishand .established thepleasant.relations;with

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THESTORY.89thepeopletowhichallusionhasbeenmadeinthe',earlypartofthischapter.I ownedatthetimeanexceedinglycleverand !Sagacious horse, whooftenusedtocarrymesafely -over places wheremyruralpolicemen wereafraidtoridetheirmules.Anditwasaremarkablething :that alwayswhennegotiatingaparticularlynastybit,hewaswonttoamusehimselfbybitingoffgreatmouthfulsoftheluscious guineagrassgrowingalong ,-the sidesofthenarrowandprecipitoustracks.I was forcedtotheconclusionthatitwasa pieceof,deliberate"swank"onhispart.Hebecame quite a .celebrated characterintheparish.On one occasion, jn ordertoconvince some scoffingfriendswhotried 'to belittle his performances, I rodehimupthebrick steps leading tothefrontdoorupstairsoftheMorantBaycourthouseanddown again. Andthiswasafterhehadcarriedme some thirty-odd miles onthesame day.Itwas whileinSt. Thomas alsothat,overcomebythelureofourgrandandbeautifulmountains, Iundertooktheseriesofexplorationswhichare,describedandrecorded in asmallvolume entitled,'''UntroddenJamaica,"which I publishedin1891. These includedthecrossingoftheJohnCrow .Mountain rangeatthenorth-eastcorneroftheisland, where nohumanfoothadpreviouslystepped,inanexpedition which took ninedaystotraversea distanceoffifteen milesasthecrow flies. On alltheseexplorationsIwasaccompanied by abandofblackmenofSt. Thomas, consisting chieflyofruralpolice;andIcanneverspeakintoohighpraiseof "their loyalty, ,devotion,andcheerful enduranceof llardship. Ineverheardagrumbleorawryword

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90 AWESTINDIAN POLICEMAN. passamongthem.TheywereNature'sgentlemen.all;andsomeofthemwereamongthosewho use
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THESTORY.ChapterX.THESTORY,-Continued.91.Iwastransferredin totheparishof Tre-: lawny;which,aspreviously mentioned,wasso namedafteraformerGovernoroftheisland, a Cornishman;the chief town beingappropriatelycalled Falmouth.Itusedinthebygone days to be averyimportantcentreofthesugarindustry,andthetownofFalmouthborethetracesofdepartedsplendour.Practicallyallthehouseswerebuiltofsolidhewnlimestone; while the courthouse was,andstill is,thefinest building of thekindintheisland.Unfortunatelyithasrecently beenguttedby fire.Aninterestingfeatureinthe eco nomichistoryoftheparishisthataftercanesugarhadbeen killed by competitionwithbounty-fed German beet,andceased topayitsway, most. oftheestates were able tosurviveandcarryonbyreasonofthepeculiar flavouroftheirrum,whichwasingreatdemand in Germany:a clear caseofpoetic justice. A German firm in Kingston u3ed to have intheirregularemploy 3 coupleofTeutonic "rum-smellers,"astheywerecall ed, whose businessitwas totestthespiritmanufactured on the-vtrious estatesandpurchasethecrop accordingto flavour;notinfrequentlyatanadvanceoffourorfive timesthepriceof the ordinaryrumdistilledinotherpartsoftheisland: Idonotknow enoughofthesubjectto pronounceanauthoritativeopinion;butit: used to be heldthatthepeculiar flavouroftheTrelawny rum 'was due to some qualityinherentinthesoil. But.

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AWESTINDIANPOLICEMAN.Ido knowthatittook averystrongstomachtoswallowitinitsunmodified condition.Ialso knowthatonone .estate atleastinadistantparisha distillerfromTrelawnywasimported,andtheentireTrelawnyprocess was adoptedwiththeviewofproducingTrelawnyrum;andthattheonlyresultachievedwasentirelytoruintheflavourofthatwhichhadalways previously beenmanufacturedonthatparticularproperty,andconsideredtobeverygoodforcommonrum.The peculiartangabouttheTrelawnyspiritcauseditto be commonly called"Germanrum";andImaysayfrompersonal knowledgeoftheTeutonic rum-smellers mentionedabovethatiftheyhad conuned theiractivities to smellingonlytheremighthavebeenmoreofthem.aliveatthetimeoftheoutbreakofthegreatwar;oneoftheeffectsofwhichwasthe deathof the"GermanI'um"trade.Ispentfouryearsandahalfverypleas .a.ntly inTrelawny;havingnoveryseriousorimportant .criminal casestodealwith-rum-smugglingbeingtheprincipaloffence-andenjoyingmanyvariedkindsofdiversionformyleisure time.Idid agreatdealofboating-bothsailingand .rowing-in theharbourandforsomethreemilesup the lowestreachoftheoeautifulMarthaBraeriver; land myboys becoming very expert sailors.. (TJli';training wasdestinedtostandthetwoeldestingood .steadinlateryears.)Ihadalso excellent cricket, golf,'andtennis;'andbesides outdqor sportsI .was abletogive'fullplaytomyartisticand literary tastes.I gave concertsandtheatricalsinthefineoldtown hall, whichwerealways'wellattended;and even -organised a smalltroupe.ofcntertainerswithwhom! travE:lled asfarasBrown's Town iIi St.Ann;one memM'

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THESTORY. 93 berofmy troupe beingthepresentCustosofTrelawny Out oftheproceedsofthese entertainments Iwas able tocomplete the purchaseofa pianoforthecourthouse,. which wasundermy care, andthekey of which Ikeptuntil Ilefttheparish. Thus life passedverypleasant..' lyatmyquartersintheold militarycompound, w:ith thesea onthreesides, andmysub-officers andmenhoused in the bigbarrackssome fifty yards away.ButeventhereIhadoneofthemanyextraordinaryandunique adventures which,asthereaders ofthisbook will be bound to admit, have followed me allthroughlife.Itwas' as follows:-Sometimein1898 a man namedP-wastransferredto my divisionfromKing ston.Hehad been a detective,butreverted to ordinarydutyin consequenceofsome transgression commit. ted by him. I didnotlikethis;foritis usually the' first irretrievable step onthedownwardpathinthecareerof a detective.Butontheman'sarrivalI found' him to be a tall, fine-looking, well-set up young fellow,.oflight brown complexion, well spoken, intelligent,andvery mannerly. I took a likingtohimatonceandso'did my wife, as wellasmy childrenwithwhom he was constantly playing when off duty. He also foundgreat'favour intheeyesofmyIrishsergeant-major, being always cheerful, civil and willing. Allwentwell until' thenightofthe31st December, whenthe major, who was in charge of a patrolinthetowri' square, which is about a furlong fromthebarracks,i, noticedthatsomething waswrongwithhimand edhim back tobarracksbetween 8 and 9 p.m.ItwasIaverybrightmoonlight ,night; andas I myselfwaswending-mywaytowardsthesquarethroughthe' sertedstreets-thewhole population being concentrated

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AWESTINDIAN POLICEMAN.inthesquare-Isuddenly came uponP.walkingata furious pace,takingimmense strides,anddragginghisfeetalongtheground behind him.Hewasgoinginthedirection ofthebarracks, and he passed me like a flash.1called to him,buthe took no notice;.soIwenton intothetown to enquireofthesergeant-major, who inform.edmethatP. appeared to himtohave been drinking. I told him of my encounterwithP.,andsaidthatwehadbetterleave him alonefor the presentto sleepitoff. I .remained in and aboutthetown until nearly aquartertotwelve,andthenwentbacktowardsthebarracks,thestreetsbeing quite deserted, whilethewatch-night serviceswerein full swinginallthechurches. When I within fiftyyardsofthebarrackgate,thelarge wings of which werebarredandlocked ontheinside, I sawthesmall wicketinone ofthemopen,andaman-comeout whom I did not recognise, until hearrivedwithin a fewyardsof me. IthensawthatitwasP. and calling himbyname I asked him whE'rE' he .g"cinri to. Withoututteringa word heleapttowardsme like a wildI')east, stooped downandclasped both his .arms round my knees,attemptingtothrowme onmy. j)ack. I was in those days 185 Ibs.ofboneand and I ;'ountereJ bystrikingupwards with my kl1ee, taking him rightunderthechin. That staggered him, but didnotunloosehishold,andhevery hadme down. I managed howevertobring
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THESTORY.95mystickwithboth hands across his windpipe.Indoing"thatI bruised my knuckles onthegravelinsuch cruel fashionthatIcarrythescars tothisday.Atlasthe got to his feet again, and his windthenbeganto give
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96 AWESTINDIANPOLICEMAN.TobestrictlyaccurateI should thatitbegan in: 1898andlasteduntil1899.Themantold us la'ter thatheneverhadanyideathathewasfighting me.Hesaid thatallthetimehethoughtitwasthesameGibson who is mentioned above,andwhom,forsomereasonorother, he dislikedverymuch. Gibsonwasamanofverylightcomplexion.OfcoursethisadventuremadeitveryclearthatP.wasoneofthoseunfortunateswh() shouldnevertouch liquorinanycircumstances. OnthefollowingmorningIwenttothecellabout'7 o'clock,hadP.released,andproceededtoinspecthim.Hepresentedapitifulspectacle,withhisface,head and neck allbruisedandbloody;hisuniformtornanddirty;hiseyes bloodshotandone badly blackened,andhistongueliterallyhangingoutofhismouth. Consideringthematterfartoo serious a onefordepartmentaldiscipline, I determinedto take criminal proceed ings againstP.onmyown responsibility. Itherefore'orderedthesergeant-majortolethimhaveabathandputon plain clothes,tobe marched ,beforetheClerkof Courts atthelatter'shouse-NewYear'sDaybeinga. publicholiday-sothatI couldprefera criminalchargeagainsthim,theresultofwhichwould have entailedhisimmediate dismissalfromtheforce.ButI found thatIhadreckonedwithouttheviewsofmywife;'mychildren,andmysergeant-major.These allformeda deputation whichwaitedon mewithsuchexceedingly'urgentrepresentationsinfavourofthedelinquent,thatIwaspersuadedto abandon.myintention. Ithencom. promisedbycountermandingmyordersabout allowing ;P.toberestoredtoa p:tesentable condition,and director.:; ingaparade .ofallthenieniIi barrackstofalUn.at8 o'clock. WhenthiswasreadyIhadP.marchedfromthe

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THESTORY.97 cell, inthesame deplorable condition, byanescortofa. corporalandone man,andhalted facingtheparade,twentypaces away. I then. related tothemenwhathadhappenedduringtheprevious night, pointedoutthe: miserable condition, physicalandmental, to which P.hadbeen reduced;andwound up by telling him that,. moved bytheentreatiesofthesergeant-major, backed.bythoseofmywifeandchildren, Ihaddecided toletthemauling which Ihadgiven himandthedisgraceofthusappearingbefore his comrades onthatparadebesufficient punishmentforhis offence.Withthe tears. runningdown his cheeks he thankedme;I dismissedtheparade;andnothingmorewaseverheardofthe.matter.I left Trelawny about six weeks later,andnever sawP.againuntilthe6thApril, 1902. He was onthatday,broughtover fromFalmouthby Sub-InspectOl Tooleasoneofa reinforcement ontheoccasionof.the Montego Bay riots,anaccountofwhichappearsin a. laterchapter;andI wasthenverypleased to see a full. corporal'sstripeson his sleeve. Iregrethowever to relate that hewasultimately dismissedfromtheforceas"anincorrigibledrunkard'"-tousethewordsoftheorder.ButIthinkImaysafelyassertthatnootherofficer of theJamaicaConstabularyhas ever undergone suchanextraordinaryexperience as isnarratedabove. I have made mention inthischapteroftheopportunitieswhich I enjoyed whileinTrelawnyforindulgingmyliteraryandartistictastes.Itmayinterestmyreadersofa younger generation tolearnthatin1897theDirectorsoftheInstituteof J.amaica organisedanArtsandCraftsCompetitioninhonouroftheDiamondJubileeofHerGracious Majesty Queen Victoria,in

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98 AWESTINDIANPOLICEMAN.which I won the first prizeformusical andalsoforsinging(tenor).To me alsowasawardedthe"first prize for a poem onJamaicasuitabletotheocca sion. Isentin two poems, both of which wereprintedintheJournalof the Institute. One I have already inflicted <>n myreadersinChapterII;andI herewith cravetheirindulgence totender.fortheirperusal-and,I hope, delectation-theone which gainedthefirst prize. JAMAICA.Throughthe dim anddistantages,ina silence deep and dark, Happy, artless childofNature,roamedthywoodstheArawak;Rose alongthycoral beaches fromtheirsands sowhiteandwarmMerrysho.utofIndian maiden, while aroundherdusky formCurledand clung the crystalwater,claspingitin fond embrace. Doomed was laughter, doomedwasfreedom, doomed was allthygentlerace-Doomed onthatblack day when, seaward, gleaming white theSpaniard'ssail .And hisdarkhulls' sombre shadow speedinghitheronthegale 'Tore asidetheveilthathid thee, gentledaughteroftheWest, .AndthedarkandgrimCastilian clutched thee tohiscruel breast.

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THESTORY.99 Once l.Il0re shadows closearoundthee-shadowsstainedwithblood and tears-.Darkerveilthatliftsorlightsnot Jligh ontwice ahundredyears;Tillagainonthebrightbosomofthyblue, gem-studded seaFloatsa sailandflaunts a bannerbearingwestwarddown to thee.{Floating saH andflauntingbannerfilltheSpaniard'sheartwithdread,Forhe thebitterstoryofArmada'sburialred.]England'sLion rendsthedarkness, drivesthegrimCastilian forth,Andheflees-whoshallwithstandthem,hardychildrenoftheNorth?Morethantwice a hundredyears have passed intothegraveofTime Sincethatday whenBritain's warriors firstthymountainslopes did climb:Yearsofwarfare,yearsof suffering, yearsofdarknessdunanddim,Years,-somefew-of peace andplenty,yearsofperil.sternandgrim.Yetbehindthedarkness gleaming, slowly, surely ingthrough, Dawnedtheheaven-bornlightofFreedom, changedthytintstorosierhue. RosethemightysunofProgress, !'lmiling ontheewithhis ray, And fromoutthecloudsofdarknessguidedtheetorealmsofDay.

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.100 .AWESTINDIANPOLICEMAN.Now thoustand'stwithhead uplifted, while above serenely wavesThatproud flag beneath whose shadow men no longer may be slaves,Joiningall thosevastdominions on whose boundstheresets nosunTo acclaimtheirEmpire'sruler-herwhose woman'shearthas won Allthelove of allhersubjects, bindingthemwithchainsunseen-Truestwoman, wife and mpther; sixtyyearsmostmighty Queen!Upward!Onward! bethymotto-upward,ontowardstheLight, Marching in the marchofProgress,strivinginthecause ofRight;Tillthysons shall prove themworthyofthecharmwhichNature'shand Strewssolavishlyaroundthyforests, streams,andcoralstrand. .InFebruary1899 I bid aregretfulfarewelltoTrelawny, on beingtransferredto St. Mary, where 1 found a very differentstateof affairs.Itmight best be described as a condition of lawlessness. The banana "trade was advancing and increasingbyleaps and bounds, bringing initstrainalltheevilsinherentto a "get-rich-quick"industry;especiallyin

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THESTORY.101:acommunitysolacking in moral stamina as ours is.PortMaria and Annotto Bay,thechief shipping ports, swarmedwithruffians and criminals from everyparish of theisland, who were abletoearn,bycarryingbananasforthreedays, sufficient to keeptheminidlenessfortheremainingfourof the week,andtoallowthemto indulge intheirfavourite amusementof gamb ling and debauchery of various kinds.Theloadingofthefruitsteamers generally took placeatnights;sothose who knowthecountry and the people will have no difficulty in forming mental picturesofthescenesthatused to occur. All work was paidbyresults;andonbananadays the lives and limbs of decent people usingtheroads wereatthe mercy oftheruffianly drivers who used to racewiththeircartsanddraysup and downthehilly andnarrowroadsoftheparishbyday andbynight,hurryingtogetas muchfruittothewharvesastimewould allow. Iregretto havetosaythatsomeofthe peopleoftheproprietorclass usedtowinkatthedelinquenciesinthisdirectionoftheir -drivers."here was a conditionofgeneral contemptoflawandorder. Almost theveryfirst man whom I prosecuted was amagistrateofthe parish. He was convictedandfined the maximum amount prescribedby the law; ar.d thislaidthefoundationofabetter'stateofthings, al thoughitearnedformetheundying animosityofthegentleman in question and his very largearrayoffol lowersandfamily connections. Again Ihadto apply those drasticmeasures-allonmyown responsibility-whichI have never known tofail;withtheresult that in lessthanayearI had succeeded in effecting amostmarked improvement. I was threatened so openlywithpersonal violence, the stories of which were taken

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AWESTINDIANPOLICEMAN.byservants to"mywife,thatshe and someofmy friends advised me tocarrya revolver when travellingatnight;which I declined todo.The climax was reachedata certain race meeting held on the coursejustout sidePortMaria (enclosed in a zinc fence)atwhichithadbeen decided bytheroughsthatI wr..s tohave a severebeating-ifnot worse. Manyofthemactual lyboughtsticks for the purpose;but these were simplytakenawayfrom themattheentrancegatebymy men. andpiled up. They made quite a respectable heap. I obtained a reinforcementofthirtypicked menfromKingstonfortheoccasion. A demonstrationwithstones wasstartedabout dusk,afterthelastracehadbeenrun;and when I thoughtithadgonefarenough I carried thewarinto the enemy's countrywitha baton charge of about fifty men,withcomplete success. Sometenofthe roughs jumped intotheriverwhich flows alongsidetheroadjustoutsidethecourse, and es capedbyswimming; while we laid out a scoreofothers" alongtheroad and inthegutters.One could have heard a pin drop inthestreetsofPortMariathatnight;andthelesson was never forgotten.Anentirely novel conditionofthings was also created in theparishof St. Marythroughthesystema ticraidingof certain properties bythenegroes.It hap pened on several occasionsthaton going his rounds, es pecially on Monday mornings, aproprietororoverseer would find his boundary fence removed, and his. log wood being actuallycutdown and chippedbyagangofmen who, when spoken to, claimed the landasbe longing to some of them. This was a very seriousandunprecedentedstateof things, requiringstrongtreatment; 1:10, afterconsultationwiththeInspector Gen-

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THESTORY.103eralofPoliceandtheCustosoftheparish,Dr.(afterwardsSirJohn)Pringle, I obtained afreehand,andproceeded to dealwiththesituationaftermy ownfashion. Thefactwasthat some oftheproperties belongingto absentee ownershadbeen entirely neglected for.manyyears,thusaffordingthenegroes opportunities.ofsquattingon them. Whenitwas foundthatthe Marylands consistedofthefinestbananasoil,perhaps,intheisland,theownersofthese places, and'. theirrepresentatives, began totakea renewed interest.inthem;hencethetrouble arose.Itshould be explainedthatowing tothephysical conditionsoftheparish Eugar hadgoneoutin St.Marymore quicklythanany-whereelse in the island,andtherecamenothingto fill'its'place untilthebananaindustryspranginto being;' sothatland whichhadlong beenregardedasuseless. suddenly becameveryvaluable.Italsotranspired,when wetracedthisland-grabbingmovement toitssource,thatthepeople were being eggedon.byanunderling intheRecordOfficeatSpanishTown, whohaddiscovered amongthearchives some ratherloosely worded old wills,madeinthedays of slavery, bequeathingcertainportions of someofthesepropertiestotheslavesofthetestators. These claims were thoroughly exploited bycertainnot over-scrupu lous legal practitioners, who issued actionsagainsttheproprietorsafterIhadsquashedtheirattemptsto obtainpossessionviet ann is..butevery case resultedinjudgmentforthedefendants. Iwasfortunateto haveinthiscampaigntheveryablesupportandassistanceofMr.C.Halman Beard, who hadbe'enappointed Resi dentMagistrateforSt.Maryveryshortlypriortomy llrrival intheparish,andwhosegraspofthelawbear-

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AWESTINDIANPOLICEMAN.ingon the situation was, and still remains, unrivalled. As is well known, hewasafterwardselevated tothe.Supreme Court bench.Innearlyallthecases, appeals were taken tothe'SupremeCourt;butthedecisions ofourResident Magistratewere invariably upheld. Eventually wegotholdofthemovingspiritintheconspiracy,andhistrialand putanend totheagitation.Inlessthantwoyearspeaceandquietnesswascompletely establishedinSt. Mary,andtherehasnotbeenanyrecrudescence ofthemovement since.Thechief proprietorsoftheparish gave meverysatisfactoryandsubstantial expres oftheirappreciation ofmyservices. My healthhadsuffered somewhatduringthecampaignin St. Mary, and I was strongly advised totakea holiday; whichwasnotsurprising, seeingthatIhadservednearlytwenty-fouryearswithnofurtherre .laxationthananoccasional month's leave, about onceinthreeyears. AccordinglyinMay 1901IwenttoEnglandonce more,andultimately remainedawayfromtheisland untiltheend of March 1902. While intheoldcountryI lectured onJamaicaat various places,undertheauspices ofSirAlfred Jones, K.C.M.G., headofthefirm of Elder Dempster&Co., who in 1901inauguratedafortnightlyservice of steam -rs plying between BristolandKingstonforthepurpose of establishing atradeinbananas. Incidentally there werespecial facilities afforded to passengers whodidnot belong tothewealthy class,bymeans of which agreatnumberofpersonsinJamaicawere enabledto take atrip"home"-asweall calldearold England, exceptperhapssomeofthepeople described in chap ter III.Inlikemannertouristswereattractedtothe

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THESTORY. island;whichhassincethatdate becomeverymuchbetterknown in Englandthanithadpreviously been. Having provided myselfwitha collectionoflimelightviews, and curiositiesofvarious kinds, I deliveredlectures on two occasionsattheImperialInstitute,andonceattheSociety of Arts, besidesata coupleofotherplacesinLondon, and also in Bedford.AtoneofmyImperialInstitutelectures the chairwastakenbyField-MarshalSirHenryWylie Norman,underwhom I had served while he was GovernorofJamaica,andattheSo'ciety ofArtsbyMr.W.F.Lawrence, M.P.forone of the divisionsofLiverpool, andproprietorofFairfield and Roundhill estates in the vicinityofMon tego Bay. There were on these occasions several other peoplepresentdeeply interested in Jamaica, someofwhom Ihadknown informeryears. Among them, ImightmentionSirE.N. Walker, formerly ColonialSecretaryoftheisland, ColonelW.G.Dawkins, alargeland-holder in Clarendon,andMrs.HenrySewellofTrelawny,withherdaughters. These people all gavemea mostgratifyingreception, and someofthemshow ed, me much attention and hospitality.IfI should live to the ageoffive hundred years, I shall neverforgetthebeauty oftheday on which I landedatAvon mouth,afterupwardsoftwentyyearsabsencefromdearold England, the15thof May 1901. Alongwitha coupleofkindredspiritsIgotupatfouro'clockinthemorning to see the sun rise overtheNorthDevon hills,andwatch his light gradually stealing overthelovely shoresoftheBristol Channeloutofa perfect ly cloudless sky. Andwhata revelation wastherailwayjourneyacrossthe"GardenofEngland"toLon.

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106AWESTINDIANPOLICEMAN.don,withthewhole countryside one massof whiteandpinkandyellow!Frommorningtillnightnota cloud passedoverthesky. IwasexceptionallyfortunateinrespectoftheweatherduringthewholeofmystayinEngland.EveninScotland,duringa periodoftendaysinAugustwhich Ispentthere, only one showerofrainfell. TheFifeshirepeople all said such asummerhadnotbeen seenformanyyears. Before finallytakingleaveoftheparishofSt.Mary,Icannothelp tellingofanotherextraordinaryexperienceofa personalnaturethatbefell me there.Itisone which, alongwithothers, has oftentemptedmetoendorsethatcelebrated sententiousutteranceofthebeadle inOliverTwist:-"Thelaw is aass."Asallmyreadersofthebetterclassknow-irrespectiveofcolour-thereisinthisisland atypeofmanofmixed blood who seems to combine in his person allthevicesandtheobjectionable qualitiesofboththeracesfromwhichhe is descended; his most salientcharacteristics being a fondnessforalcohol,andaninsolent demeanourtowardsall such personsashethinkswillsubmitto it. TomygreatregretI was forced to allow amanjustofthistypetoenter portalsofmyquartersatPortMariatodosome upholsteringwork-thatbeing histrade-whichwas amatterofurgentneces sity,and therebeing no one else inthe capableofdoing it. His principal facialadornmentwas a mous-'tacneofalmostHungariandimensions, whichalwayssmeltofrum-andnotverygoodrumeither.Heworked in oneofmyoutroomsfora fewdays;andeverydaymywife used to complain to me intheeveningsof his insolent manner.Atlast, onthemorning

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THESTORY.1 Orr. ofthe1stAugust1899,-aMondayanda public day-whileI wassittingreadingontheverandah, my' wife came to mewithtearsofindignationinhereyes u andtold methatshe could notstandthemananylong H. I accompaniedhertotheroom where hewaswork...ingandmadehertell meinhispresencewhathehaddone.OnhearingitI ordered the gentlemantoleavemypremises instantly. This, beingjustdrunkenough.tobe impertinent, he point-blank refused todo;which.filled mewithanunholy joy,forIthenimmediately became entitledtoeject him,withoutusinggreater'forcethanwasnecessary,asthelaw prescribes. Dis. patching one ofmylittle boys tothepolice stationnextdoor tobringtwo of my men overatonce, I proceeded to tacklethejob myself;andgraspingthe upholsterer firmly bythescruff oftheneckandthatportion ofhistrouserson which he always sat, I conductedhimoutofdoors and half-way acrossthebackyard,whenhesuddenlyturnedpartlyround, seizedthecollar of a new flanneljacketwhich Iwaswearing, and rippeditoff my back,tearingitintwo. Beingthenlegally authorised to repelanassaultby force, I dashedhimviolently totheground,askinghimatthesame timeifhe wantedanymore. His replytothiswas to bawloutseveral timesatthetopofhis voice "Good God!myleg isfractured."Justthenmytwo menarrived;andasmyfriendwasapparentlyunable tostandup, I madethemlifthim carefully, one on each side,andde posit him onthesidewalkofthestreetoutside my back gate.Ittranspiredafterwardsthatthesmall bone of hisleft leg-,-the fibula,runningfromtheknee to ankle -wasbrokennearthetop.Hisfriends removed him.tothe hospital,andhe remained there about six

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-:-).08 AWESTINDIANPOLICEMAN.'Inthemeantime, as soon as the CourtsOfficeopened ,on thefollowing day,Iobtained one summonsagainst .him forassaulton myself, andanotherfora similar committed, as I came to learn, on oneofmylit .tIe boys twoorthreedays previously. As soonashe.leftthehospital these summonses were served on him .Hewastriedand convicted on both charges, and fined .in sums amounting,withcosts, toupwardsof. As .. hecouldnotpayhe was actually removedtoSpanish Town,andconfined in the district prisontherefora .. few days, when his friends raised enoughtopay his.fine,andhe was released. Theordinaryman would,takeitforgrantedthatthematterwould have ended there. Nothing ofthesort!Hisfriends-andI be .. 1ieverelatives-wereconnections of the man whom I have mentioned inanearlierpartofthis chapterasthe.J.P.whom I had occasion to prosecute; and one mem.berofthe family was a solicitor. Throughtheiragency .this man was enabled, in spite of alltheforegoing, to sue me six monthsafterwardsintheSupreme Courtinformapauperisfor damages.Thatis to say, hegot his processandtheservices of a solicitor, and of .counsel to conduct his case,atthe expenseofthetax payersofJamaica-orfornothingasfarashewas concerned, anyhow. The case wastriedatthePort MariaCircuit Court in March 1900bya specialjury. They returned,afterfive minutes deliberation, a unanimous verdict inmyfavour;andMr.JusticeNorthcote, who preside'd, gavejudgmentfor me,with .costs. The expensesofmy defence amountedto, ,of which I have never seen a penny tothisday. Yes: on .-aecond thoughts I agreewithBumble. One incident in connection withthiscasethrows

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THE STORY. afloodoflightonwhata sink of iniquityPortMaria.wasinthose days,andwhata man's job IhadtotacklewhenI took charge oftheplace. One ofthekings or thecommunity was a man morallyofjustthesame typeasmy upholsterer, only he was well off: a gambler .. drunkard,bully,andloose character generally. Ihadhada couple of encounterswithhim,inthecourse or which he hadlearntthetrueapphcationofthe proverb quoted in Chapt,erIIIofthisbook:"Duppyknow who fefrighten;"butonthisoccasionhe becamesojubilantovertheprospect oftakinghisre-venge bywhathe regardedasthecertaintyofmylosing thecase,thathe assembled a band of musicinthe lowerpartof the courthouseforthepurposeofplayingatriumphalmarch.Ondeliveryoftheadverse verdictr theyall slunk homewiththeir tails betweentheirlegs :.. sadderbutwiser men.

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AWESTINDIANPOLICEMAN.ChapterXI.THEMONTEGO BAY RIOTS.Itwaswitha heavyheartthatI embarkedat .-Avonmouth inMarch 1902formyreturnto Jamaica. _Although physicallysetupandrefreshed, I was sore .,ofheartatleaving behind mywifeandall mychildren;withexceptionofmy eldest son whohadbeenserving.hiscountryintheBoerwar since January1901,and whom Ihadnotseenatallduringmy stay. I shouldhavebeen still more depressedifa flashofprophetic vision had given me somewarningofwhatwas instoreforme;andIhavehere toasktheindulgenceofmyreadersforintroducingcertaindetails, of a personalnature,butnecessary to.acompleteunderstandingof:thesituation. Iwasto someextentcheered by afaintrayofhope whichhadbeen shed on mebythePatronageSecretary.attheColonialOffice.He informed methatmyname bad been notedforpromotion toanothercolony,andwould be considered ontheoccurrenceofa suitable vacancy. Hefurtheradvised me inthemeantimetowrite,usinghis name, to the Inspector GeneralofPoliceandapplyforthedual appointment tothecommandofthecombined parishes ot St.Jamesand Han,over, which was justabout to be vacated bytheremoval toanotherWestIndianislandofthemanwhohadbeen lJOldingitfora coupleofyears;asthatwould give me .:at onceanacceptable increaseofemolument. I imme "diately acted on his kindly advice;butastherewas

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THE MONTEG<: BAYRIOTS.111no time fora'reply to reach home beforetheexpiration()fmy leave, I waskeptin suspense until myarrivalinJamaica;when I was notified, even beforelandingfromthesteamer,thatmy requesthadbeengranted.Earlyinthefollowing week, as I stillhadafewdaysleave torun,Iwentfirst to St. Marytocollectmybelongings, andthento Montego Baytotake()ver my new command. I foundthatmyheadquarterswerenot to be in Montego Bay, which wasthelarger and moreimportanttownofthetwo parishes,butinthelittle fishing village (comparatively speaking)ofLucea;andthissimply because the government a housetherefor the residenceoftheInspector, where as in MontE)go Baytherewere no quarters. The distancebetween the two townsistwenty-five miles. Ihada deputy in the shapeofan Irish sergeant-majorinMontego Bay,anex-RoyalIrishConstabulary man.Itstruck me ontakingoverthattheofficer whom Iwasrelieving was in a desperatehurrytogetaway, althoughthe steamer by whichhewas to leavetheislandwas not due to sail until the following week;butI did notatthe time suspect the reason for his anxiety.lIewas a man ofvastphysical proportions;andifhistactand his courage had been cast on the same linesashisbodily bulk he would have been the ideal police offi -eel'. Ittranspiredafterwards that he must have known .some trouble was brewing,butnohintofitwaseveraJreathed to me. Cae has now been deadforsome :years.) I proceeded to Lucea on the following dayto settle myself and get mythings unpacked;andonSaturdaythe5thApril, thedayaftermy arrival,at 11.30 p.m., on my way home from the houseofmyoIdfriend Dr. "Bill" Farquharson,theDistrict

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112AWESTINDIANPOLICEMAN.Medical Officer,whereI had been dining, I receivedthefollowing telegramfromtheIrishsergeant-majorinMontegoBay:-"Riothere, send helpatonce." Iknewthattherewere only sometenmen all told availablefordutyin MontegoBay;Ihadnot yet gotmyowntravellinggearin order,asneithermyhorsesnormybuggyhadarrived;and, motorcarsnot havingyetbeenintroduced,therewas no possibility ofhiringa convey anceathalf-past eleven on aSaturdaynight.FortunatelyI foundthatmy sergeant-major,Thompson-ablackman-possesseda two-wheeled vehicle known as a"ParryCart,"not much biggerthana andaveryfastlittle mare, which wasturnedoutin a gTasspiece adjoiningthestation. His boy was alsoathand;andin about half-an-hourtheconveyance was ready.Packingsome clothing into a smalltincase,andtakingtwoofourcarbineswithbayonetsandtwentyroundsofball cartridge,thesergeant-majorandIsetout onourtwenty-five mile drive to Monteg()Bayinthepitchy darknessofa particularly black night. KnowingthatbytheLucea road we should come totheMontegoBaypolice station beforeenteringthetown proper,theuppermost thought in mymindwaswhatwe should find onarrivingthere, andwhattodowiththehorseandtrapifitshould become necessaryto go into actionatonce.Itwas about four o'clockonSunday morningthe6thwhen wearrivedat the station;andeverythingwasperfectly quiet. Nota.soul was moving about inthestreet, thoughtheground waslitteredwithbricks,largestones, bottles, and! conch shells, while every pane of glass inthestationwindows was broken. The building,anold prison, wasa verystrongone, builtofstone,andsurrounded.by a

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--------.PhotobyH.E.UptonTHE BATTERED POLICE STATIO ,MONTEGOBAY.Photoby H.' E. Upton THESQ ARE,MO TEGO BAY.

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THE MONTEGC BAYRIOTS. 11Shighstone wall,withalargepavedcourtyardinside. Ongainingadmission I foundtheIrishsergeant-majorandallthemen, nine in number, safe inside. Ilearntthatthecauseoftherowhadbeenthearrestbya young constableofa notoriously rowdycharacterfordisorderly conduct aQout eight o'clock onthepreviousevening,andtheconstable had beensetupon by agangofroughs, who rescuedtheprisoner,andthenproceed ed toattackthepoliceguardroomwhichwasinthe courthouse,aboutquarterofa milefromthestation.Thesergeant-majorhadmanaged to keepthecrowdatbaywitha loaded revolverfora time,butwasevent ually compelled tobeataretreattothestationwith the threeorfourmen who werein the guardroom,not be forehehad fired ashotwhich wounded oneoftheattackingparty.Theremainderofthemen, whohadbeenscatteredhereandthereinthetown, alsosought inthestation.Themob,afterinvadingtheevacuatedguardroomandwreckingeverythinginIt, marf'hed on tothestation, where, unable to effect anentrance, they smashedeverywindowthata missile could reach.TheIrish scrgeant-major withhis wifeandtwo childrenhadquartersintheupperstoryofthemain building facing the street. Thesetheyhadto vacate asrapidlyaspos sible, withthelossofa good dealoftheircrockery and glasswarebroken bythebricksandstonesthat came throughthewindows.Onmy arrival I foundthefamilyhoused inmyoffice,which was attheback,in the interiorpartofthebuilding.Afterreceivingthesergearit-major'sreportI made mywaythroughthenow desertedstreetstothetele graph office;andcommunicatedwith-the Inspector

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114 AWESTINDIAN POLICEMAN. -General inKingston, who informed meinreplythat.hewas coming downatonce by specialtrainwitha .strong reinforcement. Thesergeant-majorhadtele graphed himduringtheprevious night,andhadalso called upon Sub-Inspector Toole, who wasthenincom mand oftheTrelawny division,atFalmouth,twentytwomiles away totheeast,forassistance. There was nothing more todoforthemomentbutreturntothestation andwaitfordaylight; which I did, snatching half-an-hour's sleep in a hammock slung between two beamsofa store-room. As soonaspossibleafterdaybreak Itransferredthelittle luggage Ihadbroughttothenearestavailable lodging-house, which was abouthalfa mile away,attheotherendofthetown;sentbackmyHanoversergeant-majortoLucea; andstartedoutto inspect.Theguardroominthebasementofthecourthousewas a complete wreck,thefloorstrewnwithbricksandstones, every piece offurnituredemolished,andallthebooks destroyed.Earlyintheday Sub-Inspector Toolearrivedfrom Falmouthwithapartyofabouttenmen. He joined meatthelodgings, while his menwere sent tothestation,andkeptthere;because intheexistingstateof affairs I did not consideritadvisable ,to allowanyofthem to be seen aboutthestreets.The <,nly police protection whichthetownhadduringthatSundayconsisted of Toole and myself;buteverythingwasveryquiet. Wekepton wonderingwhatwasdelayingthearrivalof the Inspector General'withhisparty,until welearntthatareporthadgone abroad and hadbeen telegraphed to Kingston bythestati)nmasteratMontegoBaythattherioters intendedtodamagetherailway line soastopreventthe passage

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THE MONTEGC'BAYRIOTS.115ofthespecialtrain.Inconsequence ofthisthe h'ain wasproceeding very cautiously, andthelinewasconstantlybeing inspected ahead of it.Atlast, about 4 p.m. wehadwarningoftheapproach ofthetrain,and IwentwithToole to meetit at therailwaystation, which is a coupleofhun-dredyardsalongtheroadtoLucea beyondthepolice sta tion. We found therea crowd ofatleast fifteen hun dred persons assembled, alargeproportion ofthem quite well dressed,buteyeing Tooleina distinctly hos tile manner, whiletowardsmyselftheydidnotappear upfriendly. The reasonforthisturnedouttobethat many of them took himfortheIrishsergeant-major, Phillips, whowasthechief objectoftheiraversion,andwhose bloodtheywere determined to have. The two men bore some resemblance to each other.Presentlythetraindrewup,anddischargedtheInspector General of Police, Inspector Clark of Spanish Town, a coupleofsergeant-majors,and between sixty and seventyrankandfile, all completely armed,andprovidedwithball cartridge. Astheywere marchedaway to thepolicestationthemobsetupanironical cheer,andIheardmorethanonemanremark:-"Cho!thatisnothalfenoughfor usto-night." This gave meaninkling ofwhatwascorning;anditwas subsequently provedthattheriotofthepreviousnighthad been aprematureandaccidental ebullition,andthattherealoutbreakhadbeen organisedfortheSundaynight,assoonastheevening service inthe ch\1rches should have corne toanend. A fewmagistratesofthe townhadmet the InspectorGeneralatthe railway station;andnaturallyonhis

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116 AWESTINDIANPOLICEMAN.arrivalI fell back into second place. These gentlemen took chargeofhim, showedhimabout,anddisplayedtheirown ignoranceofthereal state ofaffairs bypersuadinghimthattheriotofthepreviousnighthadnoserious import,butwasmerely disorderly conduct onthepartofsome roughs,andthatnothingfurtherwaslikely totakeplaceinthatdirection.Inaccordancewithwhathe was told by these magistrates,andwith-Ioutinformingmeofhis intentions,orconsulting meinanyway, he madethefollowing dispositions:-He be: stowedthefourofficersatthelodging-house which I have mentioned above, while allthemen werequarteredinthepolice station,nearlyhalfa mile away,attheotherendofthetown.Forthebeats inthetown-normally patrolledby one maneach-heorderedtheIrish orto tell offfourmen to each,carryingonly batonsandhandcuffs. Then,assoon as wehaddined, hesentToole, who wasthejuniorofficer, tothepolice station tostayinchargethere;while he, myself-thenextto him inseniority-andClark, remainedthuscutofffromtherestofourforce,toawaitde velopments.Eveningservice wasthenstill going oninthechurches,andeverythingseemed quiet. About half-an-hourafterToole'sdeparture ominousroarbegan to filltheair,accompaniedbythesoundofa bugleora cornetinthedirectionofthesquareinthecentreof]thetownwherethecourthouseis;andpresentlytheInspector General's orderly cameinfromthe street in aratherexcited conditionandr,eportedthathehearda terrific rowinthedirection named. TheInspectorGeneralthenordered metogoand investi gate, toreturnandreportto him if possible;ifnot,to go on tothestationandawaitfurther,orders there.It

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THEMONTEGOBAYRIOTS.117wasa pitchdarknight, andtherewere no lampsinthestreets;theonly light beingthatwhich issuedfromthewindows oftheadj oining houses. On emergingintothesquare about twohundredyardsawayfromthelodging, I founditvery dark,andempty, saveforhalf. a-dozen men armedwithheavysticks;butIhearda tremendousuproarofvoices comingtowardsme down one ofthesidestreetsleading into the square,theshrillblastof police whistles, and a sound of a cornet playing .thetuneof"OnwardChristian Soldiers."Iwentuptothe men andaskedthemwhatwasthemeaningofit.Receiving very insolentandthreateningreplies,andseeingthattoreturntothelodgings would betorunintothearmsofthecrowd,IhurriedonasfastasIcould walk to the station, arriving' thereabout a hundredyardsahead oftheyelling mob, which consisted ofatleast two thousand persons. The soundstheyemitted were exactlythesameasthose describedinStanley's"DarkestAfrica,"which bookIhadbeenreadingin Englandnottwo months before,asac companyinganattackmade on his partybytheLakeTanganyikasavages.ThatcircumstanceimpresseJitselfon my mindinthe most distinct manner.Onbeing admitted tothestationIfound Toolehadsome fifty men paraded intheyard,andwasthenen gaged in serving out ballcartridgeto them.Here ported to methatnearly allthemen whohadbeen posted on the beatshad been driven in,everyonemoreorless seriously wounded; while some were still miss ing. Allthiswhilethemobwasyelling outsidethe sta tion;police whistles were blowingthealarmcall some where' out inthetown, and two levolver shotswere fired.

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118 AWESTINDIANPOLICEMAN.The mobhadhalted infrontofthestationandwerethrowingoverthewall stones, bricks, conch shells,andbottles filledwithsand andwithwater,someofwhich missiles did considerable damage inourranks.Afterindulginginthispastimeforsome five minutes, they sweptfurtheralongtheroadtowardstherailwaystation,andIthenmadepreparationsagainsttheirreturnto renewtheattack.Findingthatsomeofthe menhadbeguntofixtheirbayonets I immediately or dered them to desist,andshowed.themhow to usethebuttendofthecarbine.Presentlythehowling mobretraceditssteps,andonce more haltedinfrontofthestation to renewthebombardment.BythistimeIhadunlockedthebiggatewhichwasused to allow vehicles toentertheyard, and I suddenly flungitopen, takingthemob completely bysurpriseandchargingrightintotheheartofitwiththebuttsofthecarbines. Thestreetwas immediatelystrewnwiththewounded,andthecrowd temporarily dispersed. Wehadgothome intotheveryheartofthemob.Fromamongthenooksandcorners ofthenumerous small housesandyardsin neighbourhood, however, a galling fire of mis siles was keptup;forwhich we, a solid massofmenindarkuniformsagainstthebackgroundofthestation wall, formedaneasytarget,whileourassailants wereundercover;soIverysoon again soughttheprotection o! the station toawaitthe orders oftheInspector Gen eral,asI had been directed. I then discoveredthatToolehadbeencarriedin unconscious fromtheblowofa brickonhis temple, andthatsometwentymen wereupstairsinthebarrackroom, many ofthemseriouslyinjured.Toolelayinsensible until daylightnextmorn ing. The district medical officerhadmadehiswayin-

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THE MONTEGG BAYRIOTS.119tothestation,andwasattendingtothewounded; whilethecaptainofasteamerintheharbourhadmanagedtogeta blockofice to us.Presentlymyattentionwasattractedbya loudhammeringonthegateofthestation,andthevoiceoftheInspector General callingoutto Toole tomarchoutthearmedparty;notknowingwhathadbecomeofme. Openingthegatemyself, I foundhimin awhiteuniformjacketandhelmet stainedwithblood, onearmhanginghelplessathis side,andapparentlymuchexhaustedandoutofbreath. He told methathehadbarely escapedwithhis life; did not knowwhathadbecomeofClark,butthoughtthathemusthave been killed;andordered me totakeoutthearmedparty,clearthestreetsandthesquare,andfireifIthoughtitnecessary, for he had been given tounderstandthatitwastheintentionofthemob toburndownthechief businesspartofthetown inthevicinityofthecourthouse. Icarriedout my orders,marchingallthemen whO' wereable tostandup intheranksalongthemainstreetintothesquare,withfixed bayonets. Thestreetwas sostrewnwithmissilesofvariouskinds-whichwere alsorainedupon us aswemarchedalong-thatmen weretrippingandfalling everythreeor four yards,andwe didnot dare to leaveanyofthem ontheroad,ortheywould most assuredlyhaveperishedatthehandsofthemob.Onreachingthesquare I founditfilledwithahordeofyelling savages; whilethedischargeof missiles still continuedasvigorouslyasever. Seeing no prospectofotherwiseputting an endtothedisturbance, and asournumberswere being steadily depletedbycasualties-Imyself being the onlyofficel'

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.: :120AWESTINDIAN,POLICEMAN. 'notyetdisabled-Igavetheorderforindependent firing. Some twenty-five shots were fired altogether, .andtheeffectwasmagical. There was no blankcart .l-idge, andno firing overtheheadsoftherioterstothe.manifestdangerofinnocent peopleinthehousessurroundingthesquare.Atfirst someofthemob gave -outthatwe wereusingblankcartridge;butwhenthe, bullets began to fly, and one ruffianwentdownwitha ballthroughhisheart-hewasafterwardspickedup, ,,-ith a stone in eachhand-theyrealisedwhatwashappening;andinthreeminutesthesquare was clear,while terrified silence prevailed. Nowwhathadhappened totheInspector Generalwasthis:-Havingcuthimself offfromall communicationwithhis command, knowingthata disturban'cewas .afoot, andhavingsentmeouttoascertainthenatureof it,withoutwaitingforanyfurtherinformation, hehad donned themost conspicuous dress which he could pos sibly select, namely a whitetunicandhelmet,lita dgar, andgoneoutforanevening stroll intothenquare, which wasthebaseoftherioters,justasifnothingunusualwastaking place. HetookwithhimlnspectorClark, whowasalso smoking a cigar,and"wearinga helmet,butwhosetunicwas blue. On reach .ingthesquare he was accosted by acertain"gentleman"ofthetown who pointedouttohima lad lyingintheroadway,andinformedhimthatthisladhadbeenbrutallybeatenbythepoliceandperhapsfatallyinjured;would he lookathim?Atthistimethesquarewasfilledwiththeremnantsofthemob which Ihadjustcharged outsidethepolice station. AstheInspec-,torGeneralandClark, in compliancewiththisrequest,

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THEMONTEGOBAYRIOTS.121 fltooped down overtherecumbent figure ofthelad,theywereviolently assaultedfrombehindwithsticksandotherinplements.FortunatelyfortheInspector Generalhis helmet remainedonhis head,orhewouldnever havegot up alive. .He was a man of powerful physique,andthusable to knock down a couple ofhis assailants with his fists and escape byrunningtothepolicestation,aswe have seen, althoughterriblybatteredand bruised. Clark's helmet was knocked off,andhereceived a blow onthebase ofthe skull which laidhim out apparentlydead,andputhimoutof actionfortherestofthenight. His lifewassaved by a coupleofyoung fellows belonging tothePublic WorksDepartment, who persuadedtheriotersthathewasalreadya dead man. I practicallyspentthewholeremainderofthenightinmarchinganarmed patrol aboutthebusi nessquartersof thetown;andduringone of these ex cursions,atabout one o'clock inthemorning,Clarkwashanded over to me by his rescuers in apartlyde lirious condition, which lasted until daylight. About two hourslaterI rescuedsergeant-majorCrawfordofTrelawnyfrom a housenearthestation in whichhehadbeen sheltered by some decent people. Hewasso badlyhurtthathewasonly kept alive by hypodermic injections ofstrychnine;and he was ultimately in- valided outoftheservice as the result of hisinjuries.The samefateovertook some eightornineothermen who were wounded onthatnight of the6thApril, 1902. Out offourofficers and some seventyofotherranksengaged,thepolice suffered casualties amountingtoupwardsof fiftypercent.oftheirnumbers;whiletwooftherioterswere killed,andsome twenty-fourwerewounded. The wounded were nearly alltreatedbya

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122 AWESTINDIANPOLICEMAN.well-known obeahmanatRoehamptoninSt.James; I neverheardofanyfatalresults. Ihadthesatisfaction about ayearafterwardsof obtaining a con victionformanslaughteragainstthissame man.Heoperatedona MontegoBayChinamanforaneurismofthefemoralarteryby cupping,andcaused himtobleedtodeath. The riots which I havethusdescribed were abigthingforJamaica:thebiggestthathasever happenedsofarintheannalsoftheJamaica Constabulary; Force;anditwas a notable event,assettingatrestalltheuncertaintywhich Ihadpreviously oftenheardex pressedinvariousquartersastowhetherourmen would provetruetotheirsaltiftheyshould everbecalled upon to usetheirweaponsagainsttheirownkithandkin. Iamproud to havehadthe honour ofthus"blooding" theJamaicaConstabulary, especiallyinsuchtryingcircumstances as I have described. They -proved theirloyalty tothehiltOnthenightofthe6thApril, 1902; and they have done so repeatedly since then. The troublethatIhadwasnotto lead them on, but to keepthemin,handwhentheriothadproperlystarted;andifIhadhadthemisfortune to beputoutofaction,asallthe .other officers were, Iamafraidtherewould have been a bloody massacreinMontegoBaythatnight.TheInspector General of Policepaidverydearlyintheendforhis rashness. HehadtogotoEnglandon six months leave inorderto recuperatefromhisinjuries;andin lessthantwoyearsafterhisreturnto the island, he died quite suddenly one day while out on atourofinspection in a countryparish.Nothingwill ever persuade methathisdeathwasnot

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THEMONTEGOBAYRIOTS. 123= directly traceable to thoseinjuries.Atabletto his, memorystandsintheHalf-wayTreeparishchurch.Inconnectionwiththisepisode I cannot help mentioning one ofthemanyremarkablecoincidences which.haveoccurredduringmylife.Intheclosing para-graphsofthelecture onJamaicawhich,asismentionedintheprevious chapter, I heldattheSocietyofArts,..withMr.W.F.Lawrence M.P.,inthechair, I gave a.. 'short sketchoftheorganisationoftheJamaicaCon stabulary,andtoldmyaudiencethatIhadsometimeshearddoubts expressedastotheirloyalty. I saidthatalthoughthenecessityforusingtheirarmshadnotyetarisen sincetheformationoftheforce,ifit ever: shoulddoso, I hopedthatI would bepresenton the occasion,andIwasquitepreparedtostandorfallbytheloyaltyofourmen. Exactly two monthsafterwardstheoccasion did arise. Iwaspresent,andactually gave, theveryfirst commandtofire; whilethemen amply justifiedtheconfidence inthemwhich I had expressed inthatLondon lecture room. Mr. Lawrence himselfarrivedintheisland aboutthreeweekslater,on avisitto his estatesnearMontego Bay. Of course hehadheardby cableofthedisturbance before leavmgEngland.Hecame to see meatmy lodgings, and,shakingmewarmlybythehand, he said:-"WellI am: delighted to see you safeandsound. You have been makinghistorysincelast we met. As soonasIlearntoftheriotsI rememberedwhatyouhadsaid aboutyourmeninthatlectureatwhich I presided;andI seethatyourconfidence inthemwasquitejustified."Soitun doubtedly was.AsI saidinmyevidence beforethe'CommissionofEnquirywhichwasshortly afterwards ussembled to investigatethewholematter:-"No body-

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-.:124 AWESTINDIANPOLICEMAN. o()f men could have behavedbetter."I spoke nothing _-more thanthe truth. Thebarrackroomupstairswas .like a shambles, with Dr. George ThompsontheD.M.O., (since deceased), working in his shirt-sleeves like a .demon amongthe wounded men;butatevery periodi eal callto"fallin"forpatrolduringthatawfulnight.,every man who couldstandon his legsat'alllimped ,intothe ranks to follow me. Ofthesub-officersand menpresentonly a small proportionoftheolder ones knew me personally,asup tothatperiod allmyservice .had beenattheotherendoftheisland;butall knew byreputation;andeveryone,down totherecruitsfrom.the depot whohadbeenbroughtalong, followed ".my lead withthatloyaltyanddevotion which Iam .'proud tosayIhavealways found among those ofthe.rankandfileoftheforce whom I have commanded,l'ightuptothelastday of my forty-sevenyearsser -vice. There were several curious little episodes during -1:hatnight'swork,ofwhich Ithinkthefollowingwas ihe most peculiar. Those who know MontegoBaywill rememberthatabout. ahundredyardsbeyondthepolice station, opposite toTrinityChapel,BarnettRoadtakes.asuddenturntotheright, debouching into St.JamesStreet, crossingtheCreek by a stone bridge.' As al ready stated,thenightwas pitchdark;andevery timethepatrol crossedthatbridge we were assaulted, commgand going, by a hail of missiles consistingofconch shells, stones, bottles filledwithsandorwater,chunks -..of wood, andotherthings. A coupleofmy men were knocked out every time wesetfoot on thisbridge;andon one occasion somethingverymassive-Ithinkit .:rnusf have been a conchshell-whizzedpastmyear,

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THE MONTEGO BAYRIOTS.just missingI:rte, and laidouta young constable was standing next to me. We had to carry him, uncon eciqus, into barracks. Onarriving.withina .few yards ofthebig gate, Ithenhalted the men,andbackedthem up as closely as possible against" the wallofthestation. a loaded carbine from myofficeclerk-who now the bailiff of the Manchester Resident Magistrate's. Court, havingretiredfrom the forcewiththerank of sergeant-major-Iadvanced cautiously intothemiddle'of the streetsoas to get as muchofa viewofthebridge as the darkness would allow. Observing onthecrown, of the bridge some dim object moving aboutthat was faintlyvisible amid the' surrounding gloom I"drew a bead" onitand fired.Whatbecameofthebullet I cannotsay;buttherewas one terrificyell;.and we.' afterwards. passed and repassedthatspot unmolested for the remainderofthe night.Itlatertranspiredthat.ourassailants inthis locality had beenthescumof the cr:minal population from Bay"andother' eJums, whohadbeen hidingunder the bridgeinthe bed (If the Creek. IdonotthinkI can closethisnarrativeofthe,eventsofthatmemorablenightwithout paying atributetothe conductofMrs. Phillips,thewifeofmy'Irishsergeant-major. Arather,frail and delicatelittle'woman,themotheroftwo tow-headed babies, shehadbeen driven out ofherquarters" as we have seen, on the, Saturdaynightbythesmashing ofher windows andthe destructionofmuchofherproperty,andtaken refuge intheroomsatthe back, intheinnerpart of myoffice,which were not exposed tothestreet. Imay'saythatthe outerofficehad also been wrecked. When goingupstairsto lookforToole,afterthecharge-

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"1.26 AWESTINDIANPOLICEMAN. -with thebuttendofthecarbine which is described I foundherbending over him,wettinghis head -with ice,andforthemoment heedlessofthecriesofherbabiesintheadjoining room. Looking upatme, 'pale,butcalm, she said:-"OhInspectordoyouthink --We areinanyreal danger,aren'tyou goingtoshoot?" I :replied :-."Don'tyou worry, Mrs. Phillips; we havejust"beengivingthebrutesatasteofthebuttendof carbine,westill have thebayonetand the bulletinreserve; you have nothingtobeafraidof." She con --tinued toministertoToole's needs; sheafterwards :nursed theInspector andmanyofthewound ,cd sub-officers. She made coffee and toastforus,and-workedthewhole live-long night, besides attendingto -the babiesintheintervals. I myself,afterdressing inmyquartersatLucea onthemorning ofSaturdaythe5thnevergotinto a bed,orhadmyclothes off un --til Tuesdaythe8thApril. Such isthestoryoftheMontegoBayriotsofthe April 1902,andthe"blooding"oftheJamaica Con ;stabulary; now,withthatapathyand ignorancewithrespecttothehistoryoftheirowncountryso char .acteristic ofJamaicans, all consigned to oblivion, save 'by those who were living within thedangerzone onthatmemorable night. Many of these told me inthecourse -of thesucceeding dayswhata comfortithad beentothemduringthosedarkhours tohearthetramp,tramp, -of myarmedpatrol along the streets, andmyvoice orders. Of coursethewhole affair created a tremendous -Excitement throughouttheisland; and the usual lies .and exaggerations foundtheirway intoprint.The (]-lewner naturallysenta specialreportertothescene;

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THEMONTEGOBAYRIOTS.127but,asisalwaysthecaseata crisisofthiskind,theviewsoftheemissariesofthepressareinvariably coloured and biassed by the kindofpeoplewithwhomiheyarecompelled to associate; which,itisscarcely necessary to remark,arenotthecompanionsofanIn ofPolicewithanydueregardtohis socialenvironment:especially inthecaseofsuchaniconoclasticindividual as myself. Thusithappenedthatinthe earlier reportstransmittedtoKingstonmynamewasnevermentionedatall, except in some wildtalkabouttheInspector General and myself being placed onourtrialformurder!The onlyothermention madeofmewasin the columnsoftheNewCentury,apaperrunbythe man who then represented St.JamesintheLegislative Council, congratulatingthecommunity ontheappointmentofsuchanexperienced officerasmy.self to command the policeofSt. James. Thispara graph was quoted in theGleaner.Later, whentheCom mission of Enquiry sat, and things had beguntoappear m theirtrueperspective, my evidence was describedinGleanerheadlines as a "Thrilling Story."Forthedetailsof allthisplease seethenextchapter.Butsuch istheshortmemoryofthiscommunity, and its indifference totheachievementsofits"sonsofthesoil"-touse a favoQrite. catchphrase-unlessthey .happen. to have money,thatformany years past,andupto the present moment, I have been meeting people :fIufficiently old and sufficiently educated to knowbetter,who ask me:-"Wereyou ever in MontegoBay?"Sic transit gloria mundi.

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128AWESTINDIANPOLICEMAN.ChapterXII.THEAFTERMATH. Onthepsychological side Iamwhatoneof my. authors,Mr.EdwardClodd, calls a"mentalpeptic,"thatis to say entirely devoid ofsupersti-.tionin any shapeorform, and having absolutely.nofaithinastrology, fortune-telling, divination,orkin. dredarts.Butthefollowing circumstancehasalwaysforcibly impressed measaremarkableinstanceofthe"longarmofcoincidence,"andgiven myunbeliefaratherseverejolt. Qnmy voyagetoEnglandin May 1901, whichismentionedina previouschapter,a youngladyfellowpassengerwho claimed to beanexpertfortune-teller-withcards, beitunderstood-ataseanceheld on deck oneafternoonwarnedmeto"bewareofabigdarkmanwitha black beard."Thatforms a veryaccuratedescriptionofthepersonage who, whileinauthorityover me here,aftersubjectingme toindignitiesandpettypersecutionsofvarious kinds,.woundup.byultimatelywreckingmycareer,inthepublic service,aswill appear laterinthese pages.Hebegantoshowtheclovenhoofinthecourseoftheevents which1amabout to relate as formingthe,aftermathof MontegoBayriots;and,hadI been, ofa lesstrustfuland 'nature,Ishouldhavethenpreparedmyselfagainsthis final achievementtowardsme.I consideritnothingmoreor less thanjusticetomyselftoenlighten a puzzledand

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THE AFTERMATH.129:.f. .l",:;nystified public tothereasonwhy anoffice:r.oftl:\e JamaicaConstabulary, having such longand tomy credit,bearingthe and sessingthequalifications which I do, pro-:-moted totherankofDeputyInspectorGeneral;and. justiceI propose nowtodo myself, I beg againto apologise and expressmyregret ,to.the_ readerforintroducing certain referencesto myJ?rivate affairs;butsome knowledgeoftheseis pensable to a full understandingofthe situation which! now begantodevelopastheresultoftheriots.Itis scarcely necessaryformetosaythatlhayecarefullypreservedthroughalltheseyears copi!'!s ofsuchdocumentaryevidence necessarytosupport my assertionsasI havehadaccessto;andthattheoriginalsofthemrepose inthearchivesofthecolony; :where arealsotobefoundthose which I havenothadtheopportunityofseeing,butofwhichthepur":'porthasbeen conveyedtome.ltis amatterofcommon knowledge, among those whoareold enoughtoremember,thattheislandwasatthisperiodruledbytwo Governors;SirA. W.L.Hemming, amostamiablecharacter,andatruegentlemanin every senseoftheword, beingtheGovernordejure; while his Colonial Secretary,(then)Mr. Olivier, wastheGovernordefacto. .Atthetimeoftheriotstheformerwasabsentona visittoGeneralLeonardWood in Cuba, sothat the latterheldundisputedsway.Heactedwithcharac:'teristicenergy;losing no time inhimself visiting Montego Bay,andorderingtheCommodoreatPortRoyaltosend down acruisertoourassistance. He himselfarrivedbyspecialtrainon Monday 7th April;andH.M.S. "Tribune" droppedanchor fnthe

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130 AWESTINDIANPOLICEMAN.harbourintheeveningofthe same day,toberelievedlaterbythe"Pallas."Mr. Schooles,theAttorneyGeneral,and,I think, oneortwootherhighofficialsaccompaniedhim;andameetingofthePrivyCouncilwasheldatthehouseofMr. MaxwellHall,thentheResidentMagistrateforSt.James.AllduringthistimetheInspector GeneralandInspectorsClarkandToole werelyingdisabledinmyoffice,thusconvertedintoatemporaryhospital;while Iwascarryingon,subjecttotheordersofMr.Wright,whowascapableatanyrateofissuing them. AcompanyoftheWestIndiaRegimentalsoarrivedbythetrain,withacaptainandtwosubalterns;butastheirpresencehadthenbecomequiteunnecessary,theydidnotremainmorethanfortyeighthours.On Wednesdaythe9th,ifIrememberaright,thewounded weredispatchedbytraintoSpanishTownandKingston, Mr. Olivier leavingbythesameopportunity.Hisdeparturewasattendedbymyselfandthenavalandmilitaryofficers;andheaddresseda'fewremarkstothese,inthecourseofwhichhedesignated meas"therepresentativeofthegovernment."SoitcameaboutthatIhadnavalandmilitarycaptainsandlieutenantsforashortperiodsalutingme,andsaying"Sir."JustatthatjunctureIreachedthehighestpinnacleofdignitytowhich Ieverattained;andasMr. Olivierhadbeenpleasedtoexpresstomeverballythefullest appreCiation ofmybehaviourthroughoutthewhole episode, onthewarmrecommendationofMr. Wright, I was lulledintothebeliefthatmycourse wouldhereafterbeplainsailing: a beliefthatwasspeedily to beshatteredtopieces.Areinforcementofpolicearrivedacoupleof

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THEAFTERMATH. 131 dayslatertoreplacethewoundedmenandthosewhomitwas necessarytosend backtotheirrespective divisions.Thisconsistedofaboutahundredmen, comprising alargenumberofadvancedrecruitsfromthedepot,aswellasseasonedandtrainedsub officersandconstablesfrom St.CatherineandClarendon.Theywere commandedbySubInspectorField,alongwithwhom cametheEuropeansergeant-major fromthedepot;andtheybroughtwiththemtents.andotherequipmentforthepurposeofcampingoutinthecourtyard,astherewasnotsufficient roomfortheminthebarrackbuildings. Iwasorderedtomake specialarrangementsformessingthematthepublic expense;andImaysayatoncethatduringthewhole periodoffourweeksthatthosemen remainedwithme,I neverhadonewordofcomplaintfromthepublicagainstanyofthem;whiletherewerenotmorethanhalf-a-dozeninstancesofminor breachesofdiscipline; andthisinspiteoftheirbeing confined.tobarracksafternine o'clock every night.Theirconductwasexemplary,andathingfortheforcetobeproudof. Among thosewhowerewithmeatthisperiodwasCorporalMinto, who roselatertotherankofsergeant-major,andhasnowretiredonhispension.Heis well knowninKingston. To fillupthemen'ssparetime,ofwhich th.ey hadagreatdeal, .andtokeepthemoutofmischief, I usedfrequently to takethemoutforroutemarches tp.rough thestreetsofMontegoBayandintothecountry;visiting a coupleofvillages which hiLd abadreputation,andstrikingsuchterrorintotheirinhabitantsthatone could seethecoldsweatrunning down theirfaces. As men alongwiththeircar-

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132 AWESTINDIANPOLICEMAN.binesattheslope, bayonets fixed.andmytwobuglerssoundingmarchesattheheadofthem, a deep,lasting,andmost wholesome impressionwasproducedon populaceofMontegoBayandthevicinity.Therewasacompletemetamorphosis.Owing to policeinefficiencyandlaxity of longyearsstanding-itwasputtingthescrewoninthisdirectionthatreallybrqughtabouttheriots-ithadbecomethemostrowdyanddisorderlytown in theisland;whiletheroughelement,asafterwardstranspired,hadreceivedmostdangerousencouragementfrompeopleofabetterclass.Oneofthese, agentleman-sincedeceasedwhoenjoyed great popularityamongthem,andwhoactuallyhelda commissionofthepeace, gave astrongstimulustolawlessness bypracticallypubliclydecliningtopayhistaxesunderthenewValuationLawwhichcame into forcethatveryyear.Inshort,thingswererottentothecoreinnearlyevery respect. It maybe mentioned here, asanillustration,thatone Gf theveryfirst official personsthatI wasinstrumentalingettingridofwastheClerkoftheCourts,theCrownProsecutorifyouplease;againstwhom Imademadeoutsucha casethathewasgiventhechoice betweenretiringon his pensionandbeing dis missed.Afterthecleaning up whichtheplace got onthenightofthe6thApril,andsubsequently, Mon.:. tegoBaybecame easilythemostorderlytown intheisland.Fora longtimeafterwardsthestreets were practicallydesertedafterdark;andby nine o'clocktheywereassilent as thegrave. Afactorwhich contributedverylargely tothiswasthesearchlightofthe"Pallas."Lyingrightonthebeach totheeastoftheharbour was a foulslumknown as"Meagre Bay,"inhabitedbythevery dreg-a ofthe

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THEAFTERMATH.andnotoriousassuchfromone endoftheisland,tothe other.The ".Pallas" lay rightoppositetothisplace; andatmysuggestion,nightafternight,fromabout7.30to10,thesearchlight was thrownonitand.played slowly toand,fro, With anoccasionalspasmodic flashtowardsthehillsinthebackgroundofthetown.Theeffectofthiswastodeplete Meagre Bayalmostentirelyofitspopulation:someofthem .actually removedthehousesinwhichtheydwelttoplaceswheretheycould hidefromthedeadlyglareofthelight.The"Pallas"remainedwithmeforthreeweeks,andthenleft,tomy.greatregret.Ihadpassed manyhoursofpleasant relaxation on boardofher, and formed friendshipswitha coupleofherofficers whichlastedforyearsafterwards.Butbythistime we had finished roundinguptherioters,andherpresencewasno longernecessary;sotoourrnutualregretwe bade eachotherfarewell. The first step which Mr. Olivier tookafterhisreturntoheadquarterswastoappointa Commissiontoenquireintoallthecircumstancesconnectedwiththeriots.ThisconsistedoftheChiefJustice,SirFielding Clarke,aschairman, Colonel Egerton,thenOfficer CommandingtheForces,andtheHon.C.B. Vickers;atthattime memberoftheLegislative Coun cil for Westmoreland; while Mr.JasperCargill, whoafterwardsdiedprematurelywhile aJudgeoftheSupremeCourt,wassecretary.NolawofficeroftheCrownwassentdowntoadviseandassistmeinpresentingourcase before theCommission; and I was never instructedto regard Mr.Cargill inthatcapacity.As far asI wasaware. hewassimplythesecretaryandnothingmore;but

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134AWESTINDIAN POLICEMAN.ofcoursehedid givemethebenefitofhisadviceandassistancethroughoutthewhole of theproceedings.'WhenthetimearrivedfortheCommissionto, assemble,practicallytheonlypersons inthecourthousewerethepolice apd thewitnesses whom we hadsummonedtogive evidence. Imayremarkinpassingthatduringthiswhole period,uptothetimethatalltheriotershadbeen committed for trial,itwasorderedthatno constableshouldbesentoutondutyunless hewasarmed.ConsequentlythemembersoftheCommissionwerereceivedwiththecustomary"present arms" ontheirarrivalatthecourthouse;and'ontakingtheirseatstheysawnomorethan,perhaps, a dozen peopleintheroom besidesthepolice. Therewasnot eventheusual crowdofidlersatthe doororin the square outside,attractedby curiosity. Thetruthisthatthepreparationsfor,andthedirectorindirectparticipationin,theriotshadinvolved such a verylargeproportionofthekindofpeoplewhoalwaysputinanappearanceon'suchoccasions,astoprecludethepossibility ofanymanhavingaclearconsciencewith regard totheenquiry;sothey. all g.ave ita wide berth. 'Asthedayspassed, howev:er, a few moredroppedin,andsomeofthemcameforwardoftheirownfreewill to give evidence,nearly'alwaysinfavourofthepolice. Sorpe ofthemwere decent black people whohadliterally saved thelives of constables on thenightofthe6thApril;conspicuous amongthembeing a fine oldmannamed Stephenson, a tailor, who gave evidenceinourfavour inthemost fearlessandindependent manner, both thenandsub sequently beforethecriminal court, where his testi'monyprovedmost valuable.[Iafterwardsknew a

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THEAFTERMATH. lSS: sonofhis, adispenserinthepublic service, who wasa chipoftheold block.]The'onlyreallyhostile wit nesswas-followingtheexampleofhisofficial chiefr theClerkofCourtsmentionedabove-amemberofthe etaff oftheR.M.Court;buthewasveryeasily disposedof. Anotherofthecitizensofthetown, a promine,nt politician, whohadappeared, quite unsolicited, for thepurposeofwhitewashingthepolice,puthis footiritoit very badlywhenI,obtainingleaveoftheComInis eion totreathimas So hostile witness,andshowing goodcausefor so doing, forced 'himtoadmitthathe was theauthorofcertainletterswhich had,appeared at intervalsinthelocal newspaper,abusingandvilifyinginthemost scurrilousmannertheIrishsergeant-major,Phillips;whomthepreviousInspectorhadalwaysleft.todohisdirtyworkwhile he himself tookshelterat:hisruralretreatinLucea.Thepaperin question,ofwhich I producedthe'filesoffiveyearsprevious,wascalledThe NewCeflt.(ry,. anditseditorandproprietorwasacharacterwhohadatonetimebeen celebratedasthechampionoflawlessnessandhostility tothe police, inrespectofwhichtherewere several convictions recordedagainsthiminthecourts. Thefactthatthismanhadbeen elected torepresenttheparishofSt.JamesintheLegislative Council describes more eloquentlythan an..'t wordsofmine can possiblydothemoral Rnd social con ditionofMontego Bay. However I willrefrainfrom saying allthatI could say abouthim, in viewof the factthatwhen in 1909SirSydney Olivier gavethe coupdegracetomy career, as ,;\,rillhereafterbe seen, ,hewastheonlymanin the Legislative Counciltoutter

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J:36 AWESTINDIAN .. POLICEMAN. :a wordonmybehalf. Ihadtreatedhim throughp!It "the whole ofmytimeinMontegoBaywithcontumely :and scorn such as he never experienced before or, after wards; buthehadthemanliIiess toforgetitall,to de nouncetheGovernor's actiontowardsme,andto do his best' towardsobtainingformethepreferment -;which heconsidered to bemydueasa police officer.He at the timethat he' had no usefor me asa -man. Helived to bethe"father"oftheLegislative COUncil, anddied someyearsagoatanadvanced age'.Peace be' to his ashes !Iamgladthatabout' ayear before hisdeathIhadtheopportunityofshaking him bythehandandpersonally thanking: himforhis championship ofmy cause. I mentionhimnow be iIi theirreportontheriotstheCommission foundthatamongthe' causes which led tothemwasthefrequent appearance inthecolumnsofhis paper ofletters -derogatory' to thepolice generally,andtoSergeant PlIillips inparticular,suchasI have mentioned above in connectionwiththeunsolicitedwitness;whose role, bytheway, wasthereverseofthatofBalaam.He tobless,butwentawaycursing,withhistail between hislegs. Space willnotpermitme to record allthefindings theCommission.Theirreportduly appeared in a "'GazetteExtraordinary"whichmustbe on filewhere :such documentsareusually kept. Sufficeittosaythatthepolicewerecompletely justifiedoftheiraction, ex':'.cept inoneparticularinwhich I myselfwasdirectlyandimmediatelythechief person concerned;and which I now mention to prove mybonafides.I have described inthepreviouschapterhow we were per Mistently attackedbyunseen assailants while crossing

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PhotobyH.E.UptonBRIDGE OVER CREEK AND HOSE FIRED INTO(MarkedX).PhotobyH.E.UptonSOMEOFTHE LADY RIOTERS.

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THEAFTERMATH. 137 thebridge overthecreek,andthe. numerous which we sufferedthere;alsothat ifwaspitchdarkWell; indespairatfiridingoutwhere our assailants concealed, itseemedat that timethat the misslies -tvere coming fromacertainhouseoftwo storeysin theimmediate neighbourhood of the bridge. 1 there.fore orderedtwo 1!1en to fire intothat house,and I my:Selfsawtoit they aimed high, soas'to prevent .any injuryto persons inside whomightbe 'Two bulletspenetratedthe upperwindows ofthe striking apartitionhighup, smashing apicturehangingon it;and passed outthroughthe roof. No le inthestreets,formy men were beginning to "see red." Idonotlike torepeatwhatu'sed frequently to be said by mypersonal friends,andmanyothers, ofwhatwould have beentheprobablefateoftheoffi .cer whom Ihadjustrelieved, if hehadbeen present. During allthetimethattheCommissionwas ;sitting therounding upoftheriotersproceeded apace. ()nmyrepresentingtothegovernmentthatthewholf;matter was too big ataskfortheClerk of Courts toundertake,(evenifhehadbeen a thoroughly competentand loyal offceroftheCrown,) I had no difficultyinobtaining permission to employ outside legalaid;.and I accordingly placedthewhole prosecution inthe .able hands of Messrs. BrownandHarveyClark,

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138 AWESTINDIAN POLICEMAN.aolicitors,of MOlltego Bay;theformerofwhomstillcarrieson a lucrative practice inthattown, while the latternowoccupiesthepostofCrown Solicitor.Therewere,itwill be remembered, tworiots:thefirst accidentaloutbreakonthenightofSaturday the 5thApril, which hadbroughtme,asdescribed, from LuceatoMontego Bay,andthesecondtheorganised 0ne ofthe6th. Numbersoftheroughs whowereidentifiedhadtakenpartinboth;andallinoneor the other.Astheevidence proceededtodevelopitselfandwitnesses cameinfreelyaftera few days, chiefly the.local knowledgeandinfluenceof Brown, who was interestedasa citizenandproprietoraswell as professionally-warrantswere issued.againstsixty-eight of them. They were allarrestedwithinsometendays,manybeingbroughtfrom the. countryparts;andtheywerethenclassifiedinto groups. varyingin numbersfromfourorfive toeightorten,. the witnesses being divided according tothegroupsorindividuals whomtheywereabletoidentify:somebeingcharged a& forthe5thApril, someasfor the 6th,andsomeforboth dates.Itwas very cleverly done; andthismethodofassortmentproved to be a great convenience. I donotrecollect howmanywerecommittedfortrialattheCircuit Court to be heldinJune, but,tomake a longstoryshort, no fewerthanfifty-threewerefound guilty bythejuries;whichisa very large proportion. Among these werethemenwhohadwoundedtheInspector GeneralandInspectorClark, they being chargedwiththose specific offencesinaddition toriot;andtheyreceived sentences of fifteen and twelve years respectively.Theothershadfrom ldx monthstotwoyearshardlabour dealtout to, them;

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THEAFTERMATH. 13t notthatthose senteIices were considered sufficienttomeet their deserts,butowing tothe' legal technicality that theRiot Actnothaving been read, theiroffence had to betreatedasa misdemeanour, and notasafelony,aswould otherwise have ,beenthecase. Two years thus becamethemaximum penalty. Thefactthatnot a 'Justiceofthe Peaceputinanappearanceinsupportof the policethatnightwas commented oninvery strong termsbyMr. Justice Lumb, who presid edatthetrials.Notoneofthegentlemen whohadtriedto persuadetheInspector General on the. after.,.. noonofthe6thApril,asalreadynarrated,thatallthetrouble was over, was seen by usduringthatnight. There isanidea prevailing among the publicthatbeforethepolice-orthemilitary eitherforthat I!lat;. ter-mayfire on a mob,theRiot'Act must beread..Letthisnarrativedisposeofthatfallacy once andforall. AlltheeffectthatthereadingoftheRiotActproduces is to convert a misdemeanour, punishable 'with a maximum sentenceoftwo years, into a felony,incurringasmuch as fourteen years penal servitude .Inall the proceedings beforetheCommission,andattheCircuit Court,thepropriety of my givingthe 'order to fire on the mob was never once called ill ques tion, or, il?-deed, even alluded to.rtwas in direct consequenceoftheoccurrences which I have describedthatthe InspectorsofPolice wereafterwardsappointed magistratesfortheirre parishes. I myself hold commissions for no fewer thanfive.'Acurious complication in connection with these trials very nearly occurred; which, haditdone so, would have necessitated nearly all the cases being tried over again. Mr.'JusticeLumb, who was

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AWESTINDIANPOLICEMAN.invery bad health .atthetime, hav,ing disposed of .all but three cases,' succumbed to his illness, andhad tobe relievedbyMr. Justice Vickers,'who presidedat thetrial oftheremainderandduly 'delivered sentehce.ButMr. Lumbhaddeferred passi:Q.g sentence onthethirtyorforty before him,it being his iiitentionto deal with themalltogetheratthecloseoftnetrials. Itwas a legal impossibilityforanyother judge topass sentence on them. However, in a few days Mr. Lumb recovered sufficientlytoreturntoMontego Bay once more,andtotakehisseatonthe bench; hovering between life and death, and a ghastly. object to behold. He wasjustable to gasp outthevar i
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PhotobyH.E.Upton WAITING AT RAILWAY STATIOTOSEE RIOTERS PASS.PhotobyH.E.UptonG ARD PARADING FOR COURT.

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14idurihgthe whole in the same exemplary mannerwhich, I have described above. Also,itshould be statedthat thegentleman whoatthattime:filledthe posto( Attorney, General,TheHon.Henry PipOn Schooles, himself came down totheCircuit Court, and personally prosecuted every oneoftheriotcases.Heshowed methegreatestkindness;andoften spoke to me, and of me in addressingthejuries, intermswhich causedtheblushofmodesty to mantle my weather beaten cheek. Of courseitbecame necessaryforMr. Oliviertomake a fullreportoftheoccurrences to theSecretaryof State forthe Colonies, the Right Hon. Joseph Chamberlain; andthishe did in a dispatch dated 10th April 1902,thefollowingextractfrom which wassentto me for my information:-'"Iamsatisfied, and I have little doubtthatyou will also be satisfied,thatthe handling and the behaviourofthepolice on Sundaynightwas most admirable,andin all respects reflectsthehighest credit upon all mem bersofthe force concerned. The Officers, Inspector General Wright, Inspector Clark, Sub-Inspector Toole. nnd sergeant-majorCrawford (sic) have suffered specialinjuries;butIdonot considerthatanyoneofficerorman could be namedforparticularcreditabovetheothers. (This statement is open to question. inthelight of the account given inthepreviouschapterofthemannerin which the respectiveinjurieswere received. The only "officers" who wereinjuredin actual fightwith'the mob were Sub-Inspector Toole and sergeant-major Crawford.)Youwillnothow ever fail to note the courage a'Y1ld ability displayedby Inspector Thomas when all the other officers were dis-

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142 AWESTINDIAN .POLICEMAN. obledaMsuckgreat. respOnsibilityhad devolved on h.im,and the discipline and steadfastnessof hismen." SeeingthatIwastheofficer responsibleforthe"handling"ofthepolicefromthebeginningoftheriottotheend, Iverynaturallyregardedthistestimonytomy successasmost gratifying,andwaS correspond ingly proudofit. Rewards now begantobe distributed all round. Several sub-officersandmenhadto be dischargedfrom.theforce on accountofphysical disability occasionedbyinjuriesreceivedintheriots-Idonot remember theexactnumber-'while many others,aftermoreor less prolongedtreatmentin hospital, were able to :re sume duty. These all received compensation commensuratewiththeirrespective injuries.Theofficers were rewarded as follows:-TheIn epector General received a sum equivalenttothreemonths'payandwasmade a C.M.G.aswell; while ('1ark andToole eachhadtwo months'paypresentedtothem. I,thesubjectoftheencomiums from Mr. Olivier whicharequoted above,wasrewardedwithnothing.ItistruethatIhadnotbeen seriously injured-althoughI had several minorhurtstoshowbutI did expectthatwhentheKing's Police Medalwasinstituted,notverylongafterwards,I should have beenthefirst recipientofthatdecoration. .Iamcontenttoleaveittothereadersofthisbook tosaywhetherornotthatexpectationwasanunreasonable one.ButitwasnotuntilAugust1923,upwardsoftwenty-oneyearslater,thatthismedal was affixed tomybreastbySirLeslieProbynata specialparadeheldatthe depot forthepurpose; andforthisverymuch belated act ofjusticeI have' tothankthemembersofthe

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THEAFTERMATH. 143 Colonial Office delegation which cametothisisland in December 1921, Messrs.Wood-nowLordIrwin,Vice TOY ofIndia-Wiseman,andOrmsby-Gore,thelatterespecially.'1was told offtoactas"guide, philosopher and friend"to these gentlemen intheirtourof the westernparishes of the island,andI tooktheopportu. .nityoftelling Mr. Ormsby-Gore aboutthe riots, and .showing him the battlefield. I travelledfourdays intheircompany,duringwhichthey"discovered" me.Mr.Ormsby-Gore on 'hisreturnhome made enquiries .at theColonialOfficeabout my record; andtheresultwasthattheawardto meoftheKing's Police MedalappearedamongtheNewYearHonoursof1923, being the sole honour conferred in Jamaica.Inconnectionwiththese moneyawardsI willnarratethefollowing story, leavingthereadertodrawhis own conclus-ions:-. Mr. Schooles, theAttorneyGeneral, whoseattitudetowards methroughoutthisepisode I have des cribed above, (he died in December 1913asSir Henry Schooles, Chief JusticeofGibraltar,) came againtoMontego Bay tothenextfollowing Circuit Court, in October 1902.Aftergreetingme in his usualwarmandfriendly manner,headdressed methus:-"Bythe way, Thomas, have you gotyourmoneyfor the riotsyet?""Moneyfortheriots?I have neverheard of such a thing, and I am not expecting any." Afterlookingatmeveryhardfora coupleof he replied:-"Doy'oureally meantosaythatyouhavenotreceived any moneyforthe riots, the same as theother' officers?"

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144 AWESTINDIANPOLICEMAN.I again :t:eplied in 'the negative, more emphaticallythanbefore; whereupon hesaid:-"Well,it'sa damned shEme. Iamgoingtotell yousomethingnow which youmaymakeuseof Ifyou like;onlydon't give me away. The other day Mr. Chamberlain's final despatch onthesubjectof the riotswasreceived; amongotherthingshe approvedofthemoneyrewardsto the officersandsoforth;andonthispoint he saidthathe saw no reasonwhyIn spoctor Thomas,inconsiderationoftheparthehadplayedintheaffair, should not receive a pecuniaryrewardonthesame scaleastheotherofficers, althoughhehadnotreceivedanyinjury.Butdoyou really mean tosaythatyouhaven'treceivedanything?""Nota penny," saidI."Well," he then repeated,"it'sa damned shame."Atthistimecertaineventshadoccurredinconnectionwiththeriots whichmay,throw some light onthefactthatIwasneverpermittedto roceive arewardofanysort, exceptthepaperone above quoted. These I will now proceed tonarrate;buttheyrequire a separatechapter.

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STUDIES INPSYCHOLOGY. Chapter XIII.STUDIES IN PSYCHOLOGY. 145 Aftertheriots were over, whentheaccusedpersons had all been committedfortrialandsentawaytoSpanish Townforsafe-keeping,andconditionshadonce more become normal, evidence began to trickleinwhich showed conclusivelythatcertain persons much higher up inthesocial scale had beentheinstigatorsofthedisturbance.Itwas appallingtome to learn hownumbersoftheroughsofthetownhadactually beenputthroughasortofdrill bycertainyoung"gentlemen;"how open demonstrationsof hos tility toandcontemptofthepolicehadtakenplaceinthebroadlightofday;andmanyotherthings, which accountedfortheevidentanxietyevincedbytheoffi ('er whom I relieved toquitMontegoBay;butnotone word of which appeared to have been reported to headquarters,orinanywaysuppressed,bythisweakling. I decidedthat,as amatterof common justice, prosecution should be undertaken, if, Possible,againstthesegentry; and infurtheranceofmy investigations Isenttotheprisonsthreeofmy most intelligent men, to takestatementsfromtheconvicts. Thesestatementscorroborated in overy particulartheevidence which I hadgatheredoutside;andrevealedotherthingsinaddition. Of course I reported toheadquarterseverydetailofthe proceedings which Iwasnow engaged upon; and no one ever intimatedto methatitwasnotthedesire of thegovernment totakeany further

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146 AWESTINDIANPOLICEMAN. steps. withregardtotheriots. There wasnovoice whichevercried"halt;"andInaturallyassumedthatmyactionwasapprovedof. ImaysaythattheInspectorGeneral,Mr.Wright,wasatthisjunctureabsentinEnglandonsixmonthsleave,inconsequenceoftheinjurieswhichhehadre-,ceived;andhislocum tenens,theDeputyInspectorGeneral,happenedtobeoneofthosevery"popular"police officersforwhom Icherishcontempt.Heisnow dead.Atanyrate,whenIhadallmystatementscomplete, I laidthembeforeMr.C.M.Calder,thentheResidentMagistrateforWestmorelandandHanover,ofwhichlatterparishI stillhadchargealthoughmyheadquartershadbeentransferredtoMontegoBay,wheretheyshouldalwayshavebeen. I didthissoasto keep myintentionsassecretaspossible;andIaskedMr. Calder,toactinhiscapacityasanex-officiomagistrateforthewhole island,andissuewarrantsforthearrestofthepersonswhom I laidinformationagainst.OnperusalofthestatementsMr. Calder decidedthattherewassufficient evidencetojustifytheissueofthewarrants,andhesignedthedocuments accordingly. These IthensentoffbyexpresstoMontegoBaytoSergeant-majorO'Sullivan, whohadsometimepreviously replaced Phillips. I myselfreturnedtoMontegoBayonthesamedayaboutdusk;andI foundthatO'Sullivanhadex ecutedthewarrantsimmediatelyonreceiptofthem,andhadtwoofthreeaccusedsafeinthelockupatthatmoment.Mystrokehadfallenonthepopulation like a boltfromtheblue;andasO'SullivanandIpatrolledtheusually noisysquareinfrontofthecourthouse betweeneightandnine that night,you couldhave

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STUDIESINPSYCHOLOGY.147hearda pin drop. The few peoplethatwereaboutwereconversing in awe-struck whispers.Thethreepersonsforwhom Ihadobtainedthewarrantswere:first, acertainsolicitorofthetown, amanofverydarkcomplexion; second,anotheryoungman,oflightershade, in mercantile employ;andthird,a white youth, sonofa ScotchPresbyterianMinister, \Nho wasa clerk to Messrs.J.E.KerrandCo.Thislastnamedwasa notoriousrowdy;andused tohuntalwaysincoupleswithNo.1.Hehadgotwindofwhatwason foot,andwas shipped off totheU.S.A.byoneof Kerr andCo's steamers, whencehenever re turnedto Jamaica, asfarasIamaware.Ofhim. moreanon;butIthinkitis onlyanactofjusticenowt.ostatethattheexperiences whichNo.1then undeI' wentappeared to producetheeffectofcompletelytransforming him.Hesteadied down tothepracticeofhisprofession,ofwhich he isanexceedingly able expo nent,andhasa correspondinglylargeclientele,.while, sofarfrombearingmeanyillwill,hehas ever since,duringmanysubsequentyearsofintercourse,rightup totheverylastcourtwhich I ever attended, been oneofmymost enthusiastic champions;and never lostanopportunityofextolling,inpublicandinprivate,myvirtuesasa police officer.Inshort, Iamverypleased to count him to-day amongmybestfriends,andto wish continued success tohiminhisprofessional career. Whentheescapeofthewhiteyouth became known,thegovernment communicatedbycablewiththepoliceauthoritiesofNewYork;andonhisarrivaltherehewasarrestedanddetained, pendingtheresultoftheproceedingsagainsthis two accomplices hel'e.

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148AWESTINDIANPOLICEMAN.Whenthelatterweredischarged,aswillbeshownlater,hewasalso releasedbytheNew York police.Asalreadystated,heneverreturnedtotheisland;but, I believe, didverywellintheU.S.;sothat iIi hiscase, too,myactionwasa blessingindisguise. Thesame 3pplies also,Ithink, toNo.2,who is still among us,makinganhonest livelihood. Now,IamquitecertainthatofallthetenGov. ernorswhomIhaveserved under,anyotherthanthegentleman whose idiosyncrasiesIamnow discussingwouldatonce have recognisedthenecessityofsendingdown oneofthelawofficersof the Crowntoconduct suchanimportantprosecution; especiallyasallthenumerousfriendsandsupportersoftheaccusedwerenow openlyupinarmsagainstme, headed bythehonourablememberfortheparish, who is describedintheprevious chapter.ButMr. Olivier,thedefactoGovernor,thoughtotherwise. Onmyapplying for legal assistanceIwasinstructedto employ"alocal solicitoratthecheapest possible rate." Thosewerethe exad; words,inthehandwritingofMr. Olivier himself, whose originalminutewasforwardedformyinformation.InaturallyofferedthecasetoMr. Phillpotts Brown, whohadso ably conductedtheriotprosecu as relatedinthepreviouschapter;buthede clined it,ashe told me,forsentimental reasons,the solicitor in questionhavingbeenhisown articled clerk. Ithenretainedthegentleman who is now the Hon.G.S.Ewen,CustosandM.L.C.oftheparishofTrelawny.and wag thenpractisinghis professioninthetownof Falmouth.The convict witnesseshavingbeen broughtdownfromKingston andSpanish 'fown, we dulypre-

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STUDIESINPSYCHOLOGY.149'sentedourcasebeforetheResident Magistrate.This.gentleman hadenteredthelegal professionverylate in life;andhismostoutstandingcharacteristic.wascertainlynotstrength.Iamquitecertainthatduringallmy experiencetherehasneverbeenbroughta policeprosecution which was hedged round bygreaterdifficulties.TheothersidegotupalargesubscriptiontobringdownforthedefencethelateMr. A. L.P.Lake,-whowasoneoftheveryablest lawyersofhisday;andhesimplyhypnotised-IcannotfindanyothertermforIt-mostofthewitnessesfortheprosecution,andthe R.M. aswell.Itis a fundamental maximoflawthattheevidence-ofaccomplices inthecommissionofcrimemustbe corroborated bythatofoutside personsnotin. any wayimplicated, directlyorindirectly;andhereinlayourchief difficulty,asnearlyeverymanofthetwoorthreethousand whohadbeen inthestreetsandthesquare onthenightofthe6thApril,andnearenoughtodescribetheoccurrences,hadbeenoutfor mischief,and wastryingtosave his own skin. I shouldhavementionedthata stickofdynamite,with de tonatorandcharredfuseattached,hadbeen foundin the 'policeguardroomatthecourthouse.Thatwasnottheworkofthebrainofanysuch scumastheconvicted rioters.Itdistinctly pointed to intelligenceand malig nityofahigherorder.Anotherofourdifficulties layinthefactthattheClerkofCourts was actuallyassistingthedefence by handingto Mr. LaketheverybriefswhichhadbeenusedbytheAttorneyGeneralattheriottrialsin June.to help him inhiscross-examinationofour witneeses. It was thisoutrageous indiscretionwhichledto the

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150 AWESTINDIANPOLICEMAN.compulsoryretirementofthatofficial-whohadthenbeenthirtyyearsinMontegoBay-fromtheservice,astoldintheprevious chapter. Mr.EwenreporteditbytelegramtotheColonial Secretary,andIbylettertotheActingInspectorGeneral.Thatcircumstance Will give some indicationoftherottenstateof"NobleSt.James"atthatperiod.Itishardlynecessary tosaythateverydaywhilethecase lastedthecourt wascrammedtosuffo cation. We produced,amongotherwitnesses,theveryboy, who,as previously described,hadbeen persuadedbyoneoftheaccusedto lie down onthegroundontheapproachofMr.WrightandInspectorClark,andpretendtobeunconscious. We found him milesawayintheinterioroftheparish.Herelated how,assoonasthegentlemen stooped over him,"thecrowd begantobeatthem;"andhowhehimself received a fewoftheblows; also howhehadafterwardsbeentaken,bythesamemanwhohadpersuadedhimtolie downandactasa decoy,tothenear-bysurgeryofDr. Mc Catty,formedicaltreatmentofinjuriesinflictedbythepolice, unprovoked;andhowthedoctorhad"drivenhimaway"becausetherewasnothingthematterwithhim. This accusedpartywasduly iden tifiedbyInspectorClarkastheone whohaddrawntheattentionofMr.Wrightandhimself totheboylyingonthegroUlid. I willnotnowsaywhichofthethreeitwas.Inthelatterpartofhis evidencetheboy was corroboratedbyDr.McCatty himself;butMr. Lakedidnot have much difficultyinhypnotisingthe R.M. intotheviewthatthefirstpartofhisevidence wastainted bythefactthatinthusactingasa de-

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STUDIESINPSYCHOLOGY.151coyatthe behest oftheaccused hehadbecomeanaccomplice. And soitwentonforsomethreedays,asfarasmy memory serves me. I rememberthattwoorthreeofourwhite witnesses, givingtheiraccounts of certainpreparationswhichtheaccused were alleged to have madepriortotheriots, succumbedto Mr. Lake's spell,andmade pitiful exhibitionsofthem selvesundercross-examination. One ofthemtold meafterwardsthatLake had hypnotised him. At anyrate-tomake a longstoryshort-theR.M. came to the conclusionthattherehadnotbeen a suffi cientlystrongprimafaciecase madeoutforhimtosend before ajury,andhedischargedtheaccused; tothegreatdisgustanddisappointmentofthemostre spectable element oftheresidentsofMontego Bay. Before leavingthetown, Mr. Lake, whohadlong been a personalfriend of mine, cametoseemeatmylodgings,anddiscussed the situation with me. He said:-"Oldman, Iamverysorrytohavehadtoappearagainstyou;butI would have been a fool toreo fusethefee theysentme;andnowthatit'sover I don't mind telling youthatI havemyown opinion about the case.Butas'an old friend, IthinkIoughtto let you know how some of these people detest you." He then mentioned somethreeorfournames, beginningwiththatofthehonourable memberfor parish,andcontinued:"Theyareall too mortallyafraidof you totryonanythingopenly,buttheywilldoanythingtheycan behindyourback to make troubleforyou." My reply was:-"1thankyouverymuch,Lake;butyou can te'll them from methatiftheycould only

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152 AWESTINDIAN POLICEMAN. justbegin toformsomefaintideaofhowutterlyIdespise them,theywouldbesickatthestomach.""That'sallright,old chap,butbe onyour guard.' ImmediatelyaftertheconclusionoftheriottrialstheInspector Generalhadgone on leavetoEnglandfor'a few months,inorderfully to recoverfromtheeffects oftheinjurieswhich hehadreceived.He'returnedto the islandinNovember 1902,andveryshortlyafterwardspaid me avisitof inspection. One fine morning,aswe wereridingoff to adistantout-sta tioninthehills, he suddenly said to me:-"Thomas,Olivierhasgothis knife into you." (He had a wayofblurtingoutthingslikethat.)Amazed beyond expres eion, I replied:-"Whatonearthfor7""Oh! about those prosecutionsafterIleft,andthose people youarrested.Itwasall very welltorunin that lotthatweretriedattheCircuit Court,butyou shouldh;t have troubled-" (mentioningthenameofthesolicitor whohadbeenarrested).''Well,'' saidI,"Iamverysorry,butitseemsanextraordinarythingthathedidn'tpreventmefrom arresting thepeople,ashe knew all aboutitbefore hand.Ithoughtitveryunfairthattherabble should suffer, and the peopleofahigherclass who eggedthemon go 8Cotfree; andthereisnota spark ofmoral doubtinanybody's mindthatIgotholdoftherightmen; andthat thereare plenty more besides." "Yes; Idaresay tlult's allrightenough,butmarkmywords,Olivier will never forgive you."Thoseare as nearly as possibletheexact wordsthatpassed betweenus, noted downbymethesameday onourreturnhorne. The Inspector General proved atrueprophet.

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STUDIESINPSYCHOLOGY.153 'Olivier had got his "knife" into me; and hekeptitthereduringtheentireperiodofhis connectionwithJamaica until his final departure inFebruary1913. The final home-thrust ofthe"knife"into my vitals was given between 1908 and 1909, and therefore belongstoalaterperiod ofthisveracious history ;butI propose to forestallthatportionofthenarrativesoastoget-the IllustriousFabianand my relationswithhim off -the 'stageasquicklyaspossible. As has been stated above, I had onlyreturnedfrom eleven months leave in Englandtheweek beforetheriots, and taken over the commandofthe St.James.and Hanover divisions two days previously. Ihadbeen :appointed to this dual command on the personal recom mendation of Mr.C.AlexanderHarris,PatronageSecretary totheColonialOffice,to relievetheofficer who had helditfor nearlythreeyears previously,andwho was beingtransferredtoanothercolony. Onthestrengthoftheappointment andtheincreased emolu mentsattachingto it, I hadleftmy wife behindinEngland along with five ofoursixchildren-oneofwhom was agirl-my elc;Iest son beingatthetime atrooperin South African Constabu lary, fighting in the Boerwar;andshehadsettled herself in Bedfordforeducational purposes. The cir 'cumstanceS which now comenextinorderofnarra-tion will show how the effectofthefirst blow dealt me was to leave my familystrandedin England, and myself strandedouthere,neitherbeing abletogettotheother;and barely able to live from hand to mouth, my princely salary and allowances amountingto ayear net, all told.Atthe end oftheirreporttheRiotCommission'

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154 AWESTINDIANPOLICEMAN.made certain recommendationswithregardtoweapons, ammunition, and othersmatterswhich I donotnow recollect,thecarryingout of which would have entailedtheexpenditure of a certain amountofmoney; so nothing was ever done about them.Buttheyalso madeanotherrecommendation,theeffectofwhich wastodeprive meofall the extraemolument whichthedual appointment had brought me, and on thestrengthofwhich Ihadmadethedomesticarrangements described above; namelythatthereshouldbeaseparateofficer in Montego Bay. I have previously pointedoutthatthereasontheofficer in charge ofthetwo parishes was made to live inthefishing villageofLucea wasthattherewere governmentquartersthere, whileinMontego Baytherewerenone: a penny wise pound foolish policy, astheevent proved. Asthisrecommendation didnotinvolveanyex pense, but, onthecontrary, afforded an opportunityforthefirstthrustofthe"knife"mentionedbytheIn spector Generalbycompletely crippling me 'ly, very little time was lost incarryingitinto effect. Consequently, early in 1903 I was ordered to handovertheparishofHanovertoa Sub-Inspector, andthus to remainin commandofSt. James only.Fromthedateatwhichmy had beentransferredtoMontego Bay, immediatelyafterthe riots, I had beeninreceiptofafairlyliberal house allowance, which,asI livedinlodgings, stillfurtherincreasedmyemolu ments; andI hopedthatthisallowanceatanyratewould be continued,assome compensationforwhatI stoodtolose bythe new arrangement.ButIhad rookoned without my host, forthegovernment imme diatelybought a house, which I was directedtooccupy

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PhotobyH.E. Upton POLICE TENTIN STATION YARD. Photo by H.E. UptonMARCHING TOCOURT.

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STUDIESINPSYCHOLOGY.155asmyquarters.Theydidnoteven providethehouse withthefurnituretowhich allInspectorsofPolice areentitled;andI was thereforecompelledtoborrowa fewarticlesfromsympathisingfriends,andactuallytopurchaseothers. Ithinkthatmypowersof re sistancemusthavebeentemporarilyparalysedbYtheshockwhichI received;forIhaveoftenreflected 6ince thatI could quiteproperlyandjustlyhavere fused toenterintooccupationofthathouseuntilthenecessaryfurniturehadbeen provided.Thusafurtherthrustofthe"knife"intomyvitalshadbeen ef fected.Itwillthereforebe seenthatnotonly did Inotreceiveanyrewardwhateverformyservicesintheriots,butthatIwasactuallydeprivedofallthatwhich had previously beengrantedto me,andsaddledwithadditional financial difficultiesintothebargain.Thegovernmentwerefullyawareofallmydomesticresponsibilities;andmyconductatthetimeoftheriotshad elicitedfromthemtheencomiumswhichI have '.JUoted inthepreviouschapter;yet thei deliberatelystrandedmyfamilyinEnglandandmyselfinJamaica, sothatIneversawanyofmypeopleforseven longyears:andthisallundertheguiseoftheneces sityforcarryingoutthatrecommendationbytheRiot Commission which is mentioned above.Themostcon vincingproofofthefactthatthiswasnotsuch a vital necessityasrepresentedisthatI myself,atalatertime,administeredthepoliceaffairsoftheparishofHanoverinconj unctionwithWestmorelandforperiodsamountingintheaggregatetonearlyfive years.AmongthemanyhardshipswhichInowwasmade tosufferatthehandsofagratefulgovernment

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156 AWESTINDIANPOLICEMAN.was the necessityforhelping to keepthewolf from the door byselling my buggyandharness; and thusbeing compelled, until longafterIhadreachedtheage of fifty, todoall my travelling in St. James,andlaterinthetwolargeparishes of St. ElizabethandWestmore land, on horseback,inall weathers.Thatis where Mr. Olivierleftthe"knife"sticking into me when he departedfromtheislandin19'03.As will be seen in thefollowing pages,hehadnotfor gotteniteven then,butgaveitthe finaf pushhome,tothehiltfiveyearslater, on hisreturntothis colonY' asSirSydney Olivier, Governor, bothdejureanddefacto.Hewas sent out, as is well known, to retrievethe,frightfulsituation created bythe Ki:p.gston earth quake ofthe14thJanuary1907, in consequen'ceofthefactthatSirJamesAlexander Swettenham,whowas Governoratthatjuncture,hadthoughtit expe':'dient toretire.I, beingthenstationedinSt. Elizabeth,whitherIhadgone inJuly1904, sawhimagainforthe firsttimeataruralagriculturalshow, which he had come to open, onthe1stJanuary1908.'AfterI had received himwitha salutefrommyguardofhonour, he walked,upto me in full viewoftheassembled pub Hc,shook me. warmlybythehand,andsaid: "}lowdpyoudo Mr. Thomas? I amverypleased to seeyouagain."InJuneofthesameyearhegavemeanex a'ctlysirnihlr cordialgreetingonthegroundsofwhat is now knownasMunro College,attheathletic sports. Yetbeforetheyearwasouthehadirretrievably ruin ed mycareerinthe'public service. Ihave never been able to fathom 'themo'tives underlyinghispersistent and consistent mishandlingofso humble and insigni-

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STUDIES IN PSYCHOLOGY.151ficant apersonasmyself. I havealreadygiven afairsampleofit,butworseisyetto come. Icanonlyattributeittoanintuitiveantipathyconceivedby at theveryoutsetofouracquaintance, whichlaterde veloped--on theprincipleofvires acquiriteundo-int()notmerelya dislike,buta perfectlyrabidhatredofme.I could notpossiblytrespasssofaronthepatience of myreadersasto enumerr;.te theinstancesofslight, indignity,andpettypersecution which I suffered athishandsduringtheperiodofhisstayhereasGover nor.Itformsacuriouspsychological phenomenon;and itmusthavebeenofapurelypersonalnature,be cause hewasalwaysreadytogive mecreditformeri torious servicesperformed.I have given one instancealready;andotherswillpresentlyappearinthisnarra Towardstheendof1908theofficer whowasthenDeputyInspector G$neral, andalsoincommandoftheKingston police, announced his intentionofretiring Qn pension.Asthenextinseniorityto him,withthirtyoneyearsservicetomycredit, Iregardedmypro motion tothevacancyasacertainty;a view inwhichrwassupportedbythethenInspectorGeneral, Ker shaw, who discussedthematterwithmeata visitofinspection tomydivisionofSt. Elizabeth.Thisgentlemanrequiresmorethana passingmentioninconsequenceofthepartwhich he playedinsub r.equent events.Hiscallingwasoriginallythatofa Jandsurveyor,havingno connectionwiththeColonial Servicewhatever.He held a commission in theCounty CorkArtilleryMilitia, which entitled him to amilitarydesignation;arrivinginJamaicaasa Major,andbeingafterwardspromoted totherankofLieutenant-

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158 AWESTINDIANPOLICEMAN.Colonel. He enteredbya side door intp the public ser vice, as recorded intheColonialOfficeListof1913,attheageof thirty-two, when he accompanied some Governor toBritishHonduras asPrivateSecretary and A.D.C. A vacancyarisingin commandofthe policeofthatlittle colony, this Governor gothimap pointed toitin1886.Itis statedofhimintheplace above quotedthathe' "commanded a columnofcavalryatQueen Victoria's Diamond Jubilee review"in1897.History sayethnothow a Captain of CorkMilitia-andArtillei'yatthat-cameto be commanding a "column cavalry;" but itmaybethaton suchanoccasionasthatof The Diamond Jubilee, whenBritain'sforces were gathered together fromtheendsoftheearth,itwas highlyirregularcavalry. He had earned both Jubi lee and Coronation medals; andtheribbonsofthese he wore on his tunic when, travelling about the country,thuscausingthepublic, unversed in such mat ters,toregardhimwithawe ,and reverenceasa war'" worn veteran,notknowing that these decorationshadbeen conferred in piping times of peace.Thatfactwill afford some index to his mentality; andfurtherinsightwill be obtained bythe follow4J.g story ab,outhim:' Atoneofhis ofmy St. Elizabeth divi sion I told himthestoryrecorded aboveof my treatmentaftertheriots, dwelling particularly onthehardshipof'being obliged,atmy 'age, to .do allmytravel-' ling oP'hors'eback.'(Ithapperled'tobejust'thena'very:season)'."Thiswas'reply which I, recei:Vefrom' him:bYway'Of!must''verypleasa#tcaiiteripgalortiintheearlyit''was'lidt ;said irbnlcally,'efther,butin faith. Now; I hadeight'thenearsfbt

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STUDIESIN PSXCHOLOGY. 159 which was fourteen,andthefurthestthirtymiles away. Of courseitmustalways have been"earlymorning,"andfine weather,andeasy"cantering"formyhorseandmyself, alldayeverytimethatI visited these stations.'Idonotthinkthatanycomment is necessary.Iambound to say, however,thathealways ex hibited averyfriendlyattitudetowards' me untilhe , II"I ... t'I ..'\ r'I' l '(!" ,t II' : ." if1 'I' .''..... .''1'".1 .1r lie'wastlien.'ten'yeariniy'JuhiQr _.."." .,r .... : (..,,'" -rvr:;'ir :/ :. {. j' r' ",".: ,. J"I', fightmg stock; sonof numerous. other relativesinthe naVy-aria'army;'andduring all' the:of:011;0dose'(and Tconstant''intercourse'l had alwayS'>Ihim.to" be; the';soui 'of 'honour.-He, ,had' then;:beeiFfo'r :Jsome; yearsJin:ehaI'geofthe' :parish : of,'where) his: 'name,is :still' heldhF affectioila;te'

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160 AWESTINDIAN. POlJICEMAN. remembrance. On seeing me heatonce told me hehad been ordered to come to Kingstonfora confiden.,.. tialinterviewwiththe Inspector General, and thatthis: had taken place that.very morniIl:g; Tbe object of it was toask' hiIPwhetherhe was willing to accept post of Deputy Inspector General. He demur:r:ed to it 3nd, trueand loyal friendthathe was, mentionedmynameas being theman entitled to it.Kershaw him not toworry about me,butsimplyto saywhetherbe was willipgornot.'He .raised several other objec ... tionstotheproposal; as he reaiIyhad no ever to' betransferredto KiIigston;' among whichwas' thatunpleasantness .would be caused attpe ColonialOfficebecause'he (Kershaw) knew' ve'ryVveli'thai:Thomas' wasnotthe, mall' to allow 'himself' to be. paSs.,.ed-over without appealing to the S'ecrebiryof Again' heWaStold.not toworry' about' me ... Eventual,.. ly he had askedforsome time. to considertheproposa}:; and uitimately, much against his wili, he accepted it. This revelation' my friend McCrea made.,of coui:seunder mysol,emn pledge ofsecrecy, which. heknew he couid reiy on ;andthisis the first time tlJ.at ithas' seen the 'lightofdayinwriting. :N'atu,rally I could not'tiakeul'le of it'in my appeal tothe ofState; bu,tit, accounted to meatoncefortheevident'embarrassment which the gallant colonel had exhibit ... .ed during' his with my tru0 up totheday ofhi8andprematuredeath iriMaY' 1913. ., >, ; '.,-. As a,matter ofcQur.seI ,appealed to the Secretary ofState a!,!soQn appointment wasconfirm"" ed;but, smarting as. I wa,.su,nder an intolerable sense:Qfinju,stice,QPpressiQP,.aggravated byutter help,.'

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STUDIESINPSYCHOLOGY.161lessness, besides beinginindifferent healthat.thetime, I allowedmyfeelings to overcome my discretion; and I used language in describingtheconduct oftheGoyernor andtheInspectorGeneral-especially"thelatter-whichwasheld to verge on insubordination, andthusgaveanopeningforwhatfollowed next. The replytothis fell on me like a bomb-shellatBlack River onthemorningofthe22ndFebruary. 1909, intheguiseofa communication fromtheIns pector General whichranthus:-""Iamdirected bytheGovernorto you that" youareinterdicted from duty, and placed on leave of" absencewithfull payforsuchtermas canbe granted you undertheregulations, which afurthercommunicationwill be senttoyou; andthat, by direc tion of the Secretary ofState, youarerequired to proceedtoEngland forthwith andrejoinyourfamilyand report yourarrival at the Colonial Office." The italicsare mine; and in explanation ofthepassage I should mate thatinmymemorial I had dwelt on the situation into which mydom"esticaffairs hadbeen"plunged by my' .treatmentat -the hands of the government in 1903, as described above; and mentioned thefactthat I had not seen any memberofmy familyforseven years in consequence. .Itwillnotrequire much imaginationonthepartofthereader to realisetheutterconfusion into whichthis order threwme. There was I, strug-: gling along; with a wife, and five children being edu in England, (my eldest boy being stillin Africa,) barely"ableto exist from hand to mouth, and withoutanymarginwhateverforunforeseen contin gencies, suddenly arderedto"proceedtoEngland forthwith." The news spread through Black Riverand

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IG2 AWESTINDIANPOLICEMAN. placesinthe-parishlike wildfire, _crea con sternation: amongmyfriendsandmysub-officersandmen.Thelatter,atthe-instigationofmyfaithfulanddevotedsergeant-major,GeorgePalmer,atonce rl;tis ed,largelybytelegram,asubstantialsubscriptionforme,theproceedsofwhichtheypresentedtomeinthebarrack-room, somewithtearsintheireyes.Friends cameto therescuebypurchasingmysaddleryand0therarticlesofpersonalproperty,andtenderingsmall joans which I neednotrepayuntiltheday of judgment;andIwasthusable to provideforimmediatepressingnecessities,andtoreportmyselfinKingstontwodays receiptofmyorders.Arrivedthere,Iinterview ed theColonialSecletary, to representthatIwaswithoutthemeansofpayingmypassagetoEngland;whereupon he advancedmethesumrequired.Fortunatelyforme also,mytriedandtrustyfriend,SirJohnPringle,happened to be intown;andhe ma,de me apresentofa chequelargeenoughto-remove all causeforimmediate Iwasthusabletosail Thursday25thFebruary1909,andso to enjoythirteendaysofcomfortandmuch neededrestandquiet. IarrivedinEnglandonthe10thMarch, 1909.Therehadbeen asnowstormtwodaysbefore,andthesnow _wasstillmeltinginthe,streetsof_BristolwhenI 'landed. Ihadonlythesameclothing-both upper and u,nder which I waswearinginJamaica,andnotevenaneffi cientovercoat;butofcourse such a trifleasthatdidnotdisturbtheequanimityof'anyofthosewhowereresponsiblefororderingmeto "proceedforthwithtoEngland"inthewinter-time.I took up myresidenceatSouthsea,where mywife wasatthetime;reportedmyarrivalbyletter to

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STUDIESINPSYCHOLOGY.163 the Colonial Office;andthensatdowninapainfulstateofsuspense toawait my summons to London. This arrived in about a fortnight,andon adaytowards the endofMarch, I duly presented myselfatDowningStreet. There I wasverypleasantly received b:}T one of theUnderSecretaries, a robust, genialandkindly gentleman, rubicundofcountenance,and'altogetherreminiscentoftheconventionalrepresentations of JohnBull. He evidently foundthetaskwhichhadbeenlaidupon himverydistasteful;andhe dischargeditwith a kindnessandconsiderationtowardsmeforwhichI (;zn never cease to begrateful.Therewaspresentatour interview oneoftheprincipal clerks, a little rnan.ofr,0tund aspc.d, wearingapairoflarge gold-rimmed spectacles.Hehadbefore him a massofcorrespon dence from which he occasionally interposed aremarkwiththeobjectofreminding his chiefofsome .:normitY,on mypartwhichthelatterappeared tohaveoverlooked.In other. words,hewas doing his bestto"pushthefire,"asthephrasegoes iIi Jamaica.ButI'wasparticularly pleased to notethatevery suchattemptonthepartofthisunderlingwas brushed aside by his chief; until, in short,theyounggentleman, realisingthathe was being snubbed,presently relapsed into silence. Throughoutthewhole interviewthe personality ofthechief figure,andtheluxurious appointmentsoftheroom,withthecheerful fire inthegrate,-incontrastto my own miserable plight, physicalandmentnl very forcibly to my mindanothermost pressive negro proverb,namely:-"Rock-stone aribba battamnebber knowsunhot." Which being interpre-

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164 AWEST POLICEMAN.tedmeansthata stoneatthebottomofariverhasnoopportunityoffeeling t:'le heatofthesun.Itwas noW explained to methatSirSydney Olivierhadgivenashis reasonsfornotappointingmetothe.postofDeputyInspector Generalthefactthathedidnotconsider me "possessedofsufficienttactanddiscretion tobeplacedincommandofthepoliceofKingston"-whichtheappointmentwouldinvolve-. and thatIwas"infinancial difficulties." .The first is suchaneasywayforanymanwho desirestodamn prospectsofa subordinate whomhedislikes,isn'tjt?No evidence is necessary. The Governor'sipsedixitis sufficient;andthevictimofhisjudgmentis en tirelyhelpless.WithregardtothispointI shalllatergive ample proofoftheopinionofmy"tactanddiscretion" heldbytheinhabitantsofSt. Elizabeth,whereIwasstationedatthetime,andwhere Ispentaltogethertwelveyearsofmylife;butI now defyanymanwho knows thecircumstances, includingthenoble Lord Olivier himself, to challenge my assertionthatthemanwhowasthussentto Kingst0n over my head on accountofhissuperior"tactanddiscretion,"washimselfpersonally directlythecauseofthe"street-car"riotsofFebruary1912,byinsistinguponthearrestoftW(}menofstandinginthecityofKingstonforrefusingtopaywhattheyregaruedasanunlawful demandby'theconductorofa sfreet car..So much sothatapublic meeting was heldinKingston denouncing himasa menace tothepeaceofthecommunity,anda resolution passed calling uponthegovernmentforhisimmediateremoval fromthe metrE>polis. The second allegationitis difficulttotakeser-

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STUDIESINPSYCHOLOGY.165iously.Itis reallytheponderous descriptionofjokewhich one would expectfromsuch aquarter.AsIhaveexplainedinfull detail inthepreviouschapterhow,andby whom,my"financial difficulties"were.created,itremindedmeofthefollowing American story:.....,.. A youthofsome fifteenyearshavingbeen con victed by ajuryinaWesternstateofmurderinghisfatherandmotherwithanaxe,wasaskedbythejudgeifhe hadanythingtosaywhysentence shouldnotbepassed on him.Inreplytheculpritaskedthecourttodeal IEmientIy withhim, becausehewas"only apoororphan."Iftheintelligentreadercomparesthetwosituations carefully, he will findthatananalogous principleofhumour underliesthemboth.Apartfromthat,it would appearto suggest itself spontaneouslytotheunbiassed mindthatthemost obviouswaytorelievethefinancialemparrassmentsofa police officer whoata sUpreme crisishadso conducted himselfasto callforththeunqualified approvaloftheGovernor-videOlivier'sdispatch abouttheriotsquotedabove-would be to increase his emoluments by promotion when opportunityoffered.Iftherewereanyotherreasonsthanthese twofordenying memypromotion,thenall I cansayisthattheywere carefully concealedfromme. My interviewer then proceeded toinformmethatI had couched my communications totheGovernmentinwordsofacharactervergingoninsubordination; andthat, asa conditionofbeingpermittedtoreturntoduty, I shouldwithdrawandapologiseformylanguage. The alternativewasbeingturnedadriftonthecold

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AWESTINDIANPOLICEMAN.world. I respectfully pointedouttohimthatthisjudgmentcouldjustaseasilyhavebeen passed uponmeinJamaica,where,atanyrate,I shouldnotruntherisk ofstarving,insteadofvastly incre-asing my"financial difficulties"bycompelling me totakea voyage toEnglandatmyown expense.Hedidnotattempttoarguethematterwithme,butmerelysaidthathewascarryingoutorderswhich hehadreceived. I alsourgeduponhimtheconsiderationthatthecommunicationsto which exceptionwastakenhadbeenwrittenbyme while sufferingfromill-health, and, indeed,dur ing sick leave. Of course I agreed atonce to put mywithdrawalandapology inwriting;theonlyalternativebeing dismissalandstarvation.He.furthergaveproofofhissympathywithmebydirectingthatI r.hould anadvance on accountofmysalarytomeetcurrentexpenses,myapplicationforwhichhadllreviously b,?en peremptorilyrefusedbyHisLordshipthe(then) Earl ofCrewe,SecretaryofState.Withall due deferenceandrespecttothehighauthoritiesconcerned. Ihavealwaysmaintained,andI stillmaintain,thattheprocedure adoptedagainstme,asdescribed above,wasentirely ultra vires,and therefore illegal. Ihaveneverbeen abletofind anythingintheColonial Office Regulationsauthorisingsuchprocedure;andtheopinion which I hold is en dorsedbylegal fri2nds ofmineofveryhighstandingindeed.Thetotal sum which Iwasforced toborrowfromthegovernmentfortheexpensescontingentonmycompulsorytripamounted to .;andthatwasinduecoursedeductedfrommysalaryonmyreturntoduty.I have applied tothreesuccessiveSecretariesofStateforarefundofthismoney,butinvain;and I

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STUDIESINPSYCHOLOGY.167.am nowdebarredbytheStatuteofLimitationsfromseeking redress-if I haveany-inacourtof law.Thisisthentheconditiontowhich I found my self reducedattheageoffifty-three,andafterupwardsofthirty-twoyearsofservice suchas r have described: Allprospectsofpromotion completely cutoff; saddled with adebtof in addition to' the"financial difficulties" which were allegedasa reasonfornotpromotingme;myprivateaffairsthrownintoirretrievableconfusion; and,further,forever separa: tedfrommywifeandfamily. Ineversawanyof.themagain. Mywifediednearly twelve> years ['iter we hadparted.Fourofmyfivegallantboys laid downtheiryoung livesforEngland;whilethesolesurvivorhas beenforfourteenyarspastseparatedfrommebyhalfthecircumferenceoftheglobe,servinghisKingandcountryinan Indianregiment. So also ismyonlydaughter,thewifeofanotherofficeroftheIndianarmy;while Ihavefivegrandchildrenwhom Ihaveneveryetseen. Of courseasfarasmyfurthercareerintheservicewasconcerned,itwasa caseofonce unfit, always unfit;andas each successive vacancy inthepost of DeputyInspectorGeneral occurred, Iunderwentaprocessof-automaticelimination. The firstmanto be passedovermyheadwas,asI have already shown,ten years myjuniorintheservice.Thenexttohimwastwelve,thenextfifteen,andthenextagaintwentyyearsjuniortome;untilatlastI came downtosalutingtwoIrishmen-oneholdingthesubstantiveappointment,andtheotheracting fa!, himwhile on leave-whohadbothservedundermeassergeant-majors,oneofthemin twoparishes.

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168AWESTINDIANPOLICEMAN.I should be guiltyofbaseingratitudeif1.failedtoplace on record here my appreciationofthede meanourtowardsmeofthese two meninouralteredcircumstances. They have proved themselvestobethetruegentlemen whichNaturemade them,by in variablypreservingtowardsmethesameattitudeofrespectanddeference whichtheyused to exhibit be fore our respective positions had been reversed. They have never addressed me,eitherorallyorinwriting,withouta"handle"tomyname;andwhenthenewsofmysuccessive bereavementsduringthewar,andafterwards, reached Jamaica,theirlettersandtelegramsofeondolence were alwaysthefirstthatI received.

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THESTORY.ChapterXIV.THESTORY.-CONTINUED.169Thereis intheGermanlanguageamostsignificantword whichhasnoexactequivalentinEnglish.Itexpresses a feeling whichIusedalwaystoregardasbeingpeculiartoGermanmentality.Thatwordis Schadenfreude. The literal Englishtranslationofit is "Harm-joy," a word which doesnotexistinourlanguage;thenearestapproachtoitbeing"malice"or"malignity;"butSchadenfreude expresses agreatdeal more. Apersonwhoindulgesinthisemotion is a Schadenfreudiger (plural Schadenfreudige) meaning one whotakesadelightininflictinginjurythekindofpersonwhowouldnothesitatetoskinorroast alive anyone whom heparticularlydisliked; atypicallyTeutoniccharacteristic.Afternarratingthefurtherexperiences whichInowfoundtobeinstoreformeIamcontenttoleaveittothereadersofthisbooktosaywhethertheycanthinkofanyEnglishpersonswho deservetheappellationofSchadenfreudige. As previously stated,Ihadcher ishedthehopethathavingsocompletelywreckedmycareeronceandforall,HisExcellencySirSydneyOlivier, K.C.M.G.,andLieutenant-Colonel A. E. Ker 'shawofthe Cork" ArtilleryMilitia wouldhavebeen content to allow me toreturnto my beloved St. Eliza beth,theretodomydutyin my usualfaithfulmanner,andendmydaysintheserviceinpeace,andobscurity, .at least.ButI soon foundthatIhadreckonedwith.

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170 AWESTINDIANPOLICEMAN.outmyhost,andthatthesetwopotentateswerenotyetsatisfiedwiththeirhandiwork. IarrivedinKingstonthreedaysbeforemyfiftythirdbirth,day,the3rdofJune1909;andthefirstmanwhocameonboardthesteamertogreetmewasMcCrea:He'gavemecertain'informationwhich:(orthwithplungedmebackagainintotheblackestdepthsofdespair.Incidentally,withhischaracteristicgenerosity,hedivedintohispocketandtookouta,coupleofbanknoteswhichhepressedintomyhandsaying:"Thereoldchap;thisistotakeyououtofpawn."SeeingthatIhadatthatmomentexactlyfourshillings in mypossession, Iverybadlywanted"takingoutofpawn."WhileMcCreawastalkingtomeanorderlyappearedwithaletterfromtheInspectorGeneralcontainingnewsforwhichmyfriendhadpreparedme. I found thatsofarfromreturningtoBlack River, IwasorderedtoproceedatonceandtakechargeoftheparishofWestmoreland.Theobjectofthiswas,,nodoubt,todeprivemeofthehouseallowanceof which 1drewinSt.Elizabeth,therebeingnoquartersthere;'andwhich,asIwasabletoliveinlodgings,amountedtoaproportionateincreaseinmy There were quarters ill' Savanna-Ia-Mar, in a'disgracefullyruinouscondition:of which moreanon. Idulyproceeded to Savanna-Ia..:Marincompliancewithmyorders,andtookcharge.'Theinhabitantsofthatsalubrious place, whom I shall duly dealwithlater,appearedtolookatmeratheraskance,andtohold themselves aloof,althoughmanyofthemwereoldacquaintancesofmine. : I soon discoveredthatthisattitudewasduetothefollowingfurther hos"" tiledemonstration on thepartof the InspectorGen-

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THESTORY.171eral.Acoupleofdayspriortomyreturnhe