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P. K. YONGE LIBRARY
OF FLORIDA HISTORY
UNIVERSITY 0. FLORIDA
REMBERT W. PATRICK
THE PHOTOGRAPHS OF
GRAPHS OF ALVAN
JOAN PERRY MORRIS
CURATOR, FLORIDA PHOTOGRAPHIC COLLECTION
FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE, DIVISION OF ARCHIVES, HISTORY, AND RECORDS MANAGEMENT
LEE H. WARNER
DIRECTOR, MUSEUM OF FLORIDA HISTORY
FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE, DIVISION OF ARCHIVES, HISTORY, AND RECORDS MANAGEMENT
BOOK DESIGN BY JAK DEMPSEY
A FLORIDA STATE UNIVERSITY BOOK UNIVERSITY PRESSES OF FLORIDA TALLAHASSEE
Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data
Harper, Alvan S., 1847-1911.
The photographs of Alvan S. Harper, Tallahassee, 1885-1910.
"A Florida State University book."
Includes bibliographical references and index.
1. Photography, Artistic. 2. Tallahassee (Fla.)-Biography-Portraits.
3. Tallahassee (Fla.)-Description-Views. 4. Harper, Alvan S., 1847-1911.
I. Morris, Joan Perry, 1935- II. Warner, Lee H.
TR652.H37 1983 779.9975988 82-24765
Copyright 1983 by the Florida Department of State
All rights reserved.
Printed in the U.S.A. on acid-free paper.
UNIVERSITY PRESSES OF FLORIDA is the central agency for scholarly
publishing of the State of Florida's university system, producing books
selected for publication by the faculty editorial committees of Florida's nine
public universities: Florida A&M University (Tallahassee), Florida Atlantic
University (Boca Raton), Florida International University (Miami), Florida
State University (Tallahassee), University of Central Florida (Orlando),
University of Florida (Gainesville), University of North Florida (Jackson-
ville), University of South Florida (Tampa), University of West Florida
(Pensacola). The central offices of the consortium are located at 15 NW 15th
Street, Gainesville, FL 32603.
This publication is cosponsored by the Florida Department of State, Division
of Archives, History, and Records Management, the Florida Bicentennial
Commission, and the Florida State University Press.
Typography by RapidoGraphics, Inc., Tallahasssee, Florida
Printing and Binding by Rose Printing Co., Tallahassee, Florida
Dedicated to the Doctors: Doak S. Campbell, Dorothy
and Allen Morris, but for whom neither the Florida
graphic Archives nor the Harper Collection would exist.
The editors wish to acknowledge contributions of time, patience, research,
and encouragement by David Avant, Fenton D.G. Avant, Bernard Byrd,
Paula Custer Richey, Dan Deibler, Dorothy Dodd, Sherry Dougherty, Gil
Lawhon, David Morrill, Marion and Floyd Rinhart, Jeanne Ruppert, Frank
Stephenson, Thomas B. Van Brunt, and Martee Wills.
The Florida State University Press gratefully acknowledges the Florida
Heritage Foundation, Inc., and the Florida Department of State, Division of
Archives, History, and Records Management for financial support in the
publication of this volume.
Special thanks to Will Roy McDaniel of the Florida State University
Photo Lab for his assistance in producing from the Harper negatives many of
the exhibit-quality prints used in the preparation of this book.
LIST OF PLATES /ix
THE ALVAN S. HARPER COLLECTION /1
by Joan Perry Morris
THE PHOTOGRAPHS OF ALVAN S. HARPER /7
ALVAN HARPER'S TALLAHASSEE /123
by Lee H. Warner
LIST OF PLATES
NOTE: The photograph reproduced on the frontispiece and the pho-
tographs included in the introductory essay are listed here separately.
In the order of their appearance in this volume, these photographs are
designated as follows in the Florida Photographic Archives: Alvan S.
Harper, 1847-1911 (Negative 2684); Alvan S. Harper photographing
dogs in a horse-drawn carriage (Negative 2417); Mr. Oglesby's portrait
upside down on the copy stand in Harper's studio (Negative 55);
Laurie A. Perkins posed in Harper's studio; note the neck brace in the
comer (Negative 53).
1. Overton Bernard with his surveying equipment. Negative 148.
2. Carpenter with the tools of his trade-a hatchet, plane, and
plank. Negative 1022.
3. Cigar-smoking waiter awaits his guests. "Hawkins Ball's bar."
4. White-capped nurse holding her charge. Negative 534.
5. Coachman holding the top hat that symbolized his occupation.
6. Tallahassee fireman posed with a broom. Negative 911.
7. West Florida Seminary (later Florida State University) cadet.
8. Father Joseph Leon Hugon, for 37 years pastor of Tallahassee's
Catholic parish. Negative 149.
9. Woman dressed in mourning. Negative 606.
10. Mattie Sullivan (older sister of Kate) draped in a shawl pinned
with fern and spring flowers. Negative 878.
11. Woman in a white taffeta and lace bodice. Negative 646.
12. Old woman in a black dress. Negative 790.
13. Young woman in a black dress. Negative 318.
14. Old woman, her black dress pinned with a large brooch and
magnifying glass on a chain. Negative 328.
15. Man dressed in well-worn clothing. Negative 1026.
16. Miss Munroe, posed in a draped shawl. Said by Miss Clare
Bowen to be the most beautiful woman of the time in North
Florida. Negative 618.
17. Old woman in a black dress and hat. Negative 815.
18. Fanny Gibbons, draped in a shawl, wearing a straw hat deco-
rated with ostrich feathers. Negative 836.
19. Boy, in a shirt and skirt, sitting on his tricycle. Negative 473.
20. Francis B. Winthrop with a toy gun. Negative 255.
21. Boy posed with a rattle and a bicycle rifle. Negative 1286.
22. Child in a perambulator with a fringed top. Negative 1260.
23. Girl wearing a straw hat and holding a doll, evidently home-
made. Negative 1169.
24. Man in a satin-faced coat, holding a cane. Negative 969.
25. Young woman in a black embroidered dress, on a swing in
Harper's studio. Negative 634.
26. Woman in a light dress with embroidered, scalloped tiers, hold-
ing a fan. Negative 840.
27. Nellie Franklin in a flower-trimmed hat and print dress, with a
parasol. Negative 227.
28. Woman in a dark dress, wearing a pince-nez and holding a fan.
Note jewelry on neck, bodice, wrist, and fingers. Negative 764.
29. Woman in a dark hat and dress, holding a parasol and fastening a
glove. Negative 789.
30. Mustachioed man in a frock coat and top hat, probably a person
of importance. Negative 1019.
THE PHOTOGRAPHS OF ALVAN S. HARPER
31. Kate Kemper and Mr. Shrader in costume for a production of the
light opera "The Mikado." Negative 152.
32. Woman dressed in a peasant costume and carrying a basket of
greens. Negative 706.
33. Believed to be Mamie Ball, dressed in a Colonial costume. Nega-
34. Woman in a white beaded dress with train. Possibly her wedding
dress. Negative 897.
35. Marie De Cottes Myers, seated on a moss-covered bank and
watched over by an "owl." Negative 633.
36. Man in hunting clothes, holding a shotgun. Negative 1005.
37. Girl in a fairy costume, complete with crown and wand. Nega-
38. Maggie Pearce (left) and Miriam Choate. Negative 213.
39. Mattie Houstoun (afterwards Mrs. Perry G. Wall, left) and Sadie
Williams (Mrs. Kenneth Moran). Negative 146.
40. Two men, probably brothers, posed beside Harper's studio gate.
41. Couple at the gate. Negative 526.
42. A girl and a boy, probably sister and brother. Negative 1305.
43. Two young girls, probably sisters, posed by the gate, holding
spirea. Negative 452.
44. Two boys, probably brothers, with shotguns. Negative 561.
45. Girls in dark dresses, holding paper-whites. Negative 573.
46. Smiling youngsters, probably sister and brother. Negative 550.
47. Phelps Wilson (left) and Laurie A. Perkins. Note the elaborate
head on Perkins's cane. Negative 250.
48. Phelps Wilson (left), now minus beard, and Laurie A. Perkins,
minus mustache. Negative 250B.
49. The Kentucky Club at Meridian Plantation. Of those in the
back row, only the first woman, Jennie Wilson, has been iden-
tified. The playful woman with the gentleman's hat in front is
Miss Houteling. Negative 5.
50. Members of the 1889 Florida House of Representatives, with staff
and family, on the steps of the Capitol. Negative 31.
51. Members of the 1889 Florida Senate, with staff and family, on
the steps of the Capitol. Negative 23.
52. Staff and guests on the steps of the Leon Hotel. Negative 120.
53. Children, with baby-sitter, on the steps of the Leon Hotel.
54. Group of men and boys on a store porch and steps. Negative 88.
55. Group of men and boys on a store porch and steps. Negative 37.
56. Three young women, probably sisters, in black dresses with lace
collars. Negative 278.
57. Country gentleman with two of his servants. Negative 554.
58. An older couple with children, probably their grandchildren.
59. Family of six with servant. Negative 580.
60. Five young people, probably brothers and sisters. Negative 568.
61. Children in play clothes with a watermelon in a cart. Negative
62. The Weekly Floridian office at the northwest corer of Monroe
and Pensacola streets. Negative 11.
63. The Capitol. Built in 1845, shown 1891-1901. Note the cupola
added in 1891. Negative 103.
64. The Capitol. Shown soon after the 1902 additions of North and
South wings and dome. Negative 104.
65. A predecessor Leon County Courthouse that constitutes the
center section of the present building. Built in 1882, and shown
ca 1885. Negative 87.
66. St. John's Episcopal Church. Northeast corer of Monroe and
Call streets. Built in 1880-81, shown between 1903 and 1910.
67. Leon County Jail. South side of Gaines Street, between Gadsden
and Meridian streets, built in 1888, demolished in 1937. Nega-
THE PHOTOGRAPHS OF ALVAN S. HARPER
68. First Leon County Jail. Center of the block bounded by Monroe,
Park, Adams, and Call streets. Negative 68.
69. Mr. Oglesby, the manager, at the desk of the Leon Hotel.
70. Leon Hotel parlor, decorated with moss, pine, fern, and flowers.
71. Morgan Hotel, known also as Brown's and City Hotel. West side
of Adams Street, between Lafayette and Pensacola streets. Built
in 1834 by Thomas Brown (afterwards Governor), burned 1886.
72. Leon Hotel, on the North side of Park Avenue, between Monroe
and Adams streets. Built in 1886, burned in 1925. Shown in
1888. Negative 56.
73. The Columns. Southwest corer of Adams Street and Park
Avenue. Built ca 1830, moved in 1971 to the Northwest corer
of Park Avenue and Duval Street. Negative 47.
74. Probably the Harper residence, with Mrs. Harper and one of her
sisters on the front porch. Negative 112.
75. Mrs. Harper and sister on the back porch of the Harper home.
76. Dismukes family posed on the steps of their home on King Street
in Quincy. Negative 92.
77. Rear view of the Dismukes home in Quincy. Negative 89.
78. Man reclining on the steps of an unidentified home. Negative
79. Horse and buggy in front of an unidentified home; man standing
near a tree. Negative 106.
80. Woman holding a baby up to a man on horseback. Taken at
Lakeland Plantation, one mile East of the Capitol on Old St.
Augustine Road. This photograph appears in the 1894 booklet
Features of the Hill Country, Florida. Negative 114.
81. Identified by Ruby Diamond as the home of her grandfather,
Robert S. Williams, on the Northeast corer of Monroe and
Virginia streets, 1903-11. Negative 109.
82. Fred T. Myers's home. Southeast corer of Monroe Street and
Lafayette Street (now Apalachee Parkway). Negative 94.
83. Woman sitting on the step of a log cabin. Negative 110.
84. Men and children picking pears. Negative 98.
85. Stereo of cane grinding. Negative 74.
86. Stereo view of a syrup-boiling shed. Negative 73.
87. Emile Dubois, owner of San Luis Vineyard, near his San Luis
Ridge home. Negative 96.
88. Workmen, one with a shotgun, in the San Luis Vineyard fields.
89. A sawmill by a bridge, probably on the Ochlockonee river.
90. The Walkatomica at St. Marks, 3 September 1885. This, the
first Tallahassee-built steamship, was taken to St. Marks by train
in June of 1885 and ran between St. Marks and Apalachicola
until it burned on 4 October 1898. A Florida Railway and
Navigation Company train is visible on the bank at right.
91. Florida Railway and Navigation Company inspection team
posed beside Engine number 28 with tender (a wood-carrying
railroad car) and coach. Negative 30.
92. Florida Railway and Navigation Company train at the Lanark
Hotel on the Gulf in Franklin County, a summer retreat for
Tallahasseeans and others. Negative 107.
93. Two small boys sitting on Engine number 16 of a Florida Railway
and Navigation Company train. Negative 76.
94. Three young men with Penny-Farthing bicycles. Left to right:
unidentified, Captain Louis H. Strumm, Laurie A. Perkins.
95. Eight young men with Penny-Farthing bicycles. Seated left to
right: unidentified, unidentified, Captain Louis H. Strumm,
Laurie A. Perkins, unidentified, Edward Houstoun. Others un-
THE PHOTOGRAPHS OF ALVAN S. HARPER
identified. It is surmised that the young man at the far right
followed the cyclists with the horse and carriage in case they
tired or had a mishap. (Negative 2.)
96. Mary Merritt, a nursemaid; Francis B. Winthrop and Guy L.
Winthrop on a pony; Eddie Merritt and Mathew Merritt, a
coachman. Negative 223.
97. Four children on an ox cart. Negative 108.
98. Boy on a pony between Willie Perkins's home (left) and Gov.
David S. Walker's home (right). Negative 19.
99. A wagon of sugarcane on the way to the mill. Negative 41.
100. A sailing vessel loaded with supplies. Negative 115.
101. Believed to be Mrs. Harper, in a horse-drawn buggy. Negative
6L I fo
THE ALVAN S. HARPER COLLECTION
by Joan Perry Morris
A Ivan S. Harper was born in Norristown, Pennsylvania,
in 1847,1 but he grew up in Philadelphia, where he
moved with his parents in 1849.2 Gopsill's Philadelphia
Directory lists his occupation as clerk in 1870 and 1871. He is not
listed for the years 1872-1874, but he appears again in 1875 in
the entry "Alvan S. Harper & Co. Photographers." In 1878 or
1879, he married Agnes Walmsley, who was seven years his
senior3 and who appears to have worked with Harper in his
studio. Little else is known of his life in Philadelphia.
A chance meeting with Judge J. T. Bernard of Tallahassee,
who was in Philadelphia as a Commissioner from Florida to the
1876 Centennial Exposition, may have led to the Harpers' move
to Tallahassee. Wishing to have a photographic portrait made,
Judge Bernard was advised to go to Harper's studio. When he
arrived at the studio at 800 Parish Street4 hot and exhausted
from the walk, Agnes Walmsley gave him a cool drink and
insisted that he rest. Judge Bernard's great-grandson, Bernard
Byrd, recalls that his grandfather was so grateful to Miss
Walmsley for her kindness that he gave her a gold-framed minia-
ture (returned to the Byrd family years later, following her
The Harpers moved to Tallahassee in October 1884, perhaps
after the death of a child. We know that Mrs. Harper had given
birth to a child,6 but none is buried with them in Old City
Cemetery. The third person accompanying them when they
arrived was one of Mrs. Harper's three sisters. The Weekly Flori-
dian reported that they were domiciledd in the dwelling owned
by Mr. Levy, on South Monroe Street,"7 which, according to
courthouse records, was on the northwest corer of Gaines and
Harper opened his first Tallahassee photographic studio in
January 1885 at his residence, the Ayer Building on South
Monroe Street, and began advertising his services as a portrait
artist and photographer. An editorial note in the newspaper
observed that Harper was "a first class artist, and proposed] to
do only first class work, on a guarantee of satisfaction to his
customers."9 Harper's business was evidently good, for a year
later he bought a house and three lots on the east side of Monroe
Street, between Madison and Gaines streets, from George C.
Floyd.10 He also moved his studio to the southwest corer of
Monroe Street and Park Avenue.11 But this move was only
temporary, until the building of his own studio near the north-
east corer of Monroe and Gaines streets was completed in
October 1889. The Weekly Floridian's editor noted that "Mr.
A. S. Harper's new art studio, just South of his residence, facing
on South Monroe Street is now finished, and it is one of the
most complete and perfect ever erected in Tallahassee."12
Harper took photographs in this studio for the next twenty-
2 / THE PHOTOGRAPHS OF ALVAN S. HARPER
two years. His advertisements suggest that business may have
been slow at times, for bargain rates occasionally were available
to groups. In 1900, Tallahasseeans were urged to "Buy a club
ticket at T. B. Byrd's store" for Harper's cabinet photos.13
(Cabinet photos were three-by-five-inch prints mounted on
four-by-six-inch cards and usually stored in family albums.) And
in 1901, Harper was willing "to exchange photographic work for
sweet potatoes and corn."14
Harper took on some major photographic and artistic projects,
including "large crayon portraits of all the past and present
Justices of the Supreme Court."15 The True Democrat reported
that "these portraits are drawn from the best photographs ob-
tainable, some of which have been exceedingly hard to find.
There have been 33 justices up to the present time, of which Mr.
Harper has been able to secure certainly 26, and has hopes of
obtaining four more or thirty in all." He evidently completed the
portraits of thirty justices,16 as well as some of Florida's gov-
Harper's photographs appear in turn-of-the century Tallahas-
see publications, sometimes with credit and sometimes without.
The Florida State College Annual staff of 1903 acknowledges
him for "making the groups this year from negatives he
had in stock, as a donation to the Argo. His gift is appreciated
and his work has delighted the students and faculty of the
school."'8 "A. S. Harper, Photographer" has the copyright for
an 1894 promotional booklet containing views of local towns,
plantations, lakes, crops, and livestock,19 but a later publica-
tion20 uses some of the same views without credit, as does the
Florida State College Catalogue (1900/1901-1903/1904) and The
Lands of Leon by J. H. Reese (1911).
There are few additional public records of the Harpers' life in
Tallahassee. Agnes Harper died on 26 October 1910, and was
buried in the eastern section of Old City Cemetery beside her
sisters, Beulah, Elizabeth, and Susan.21 Early in 1911, Harper
THE PHOTOGRAPHS OF ALVAN S. HARPER / 3
sold his property, with a life lease, to William P. Byrd, grandson
of Judge J. T. Bernard.22 He died soon after, on 26 May 1911.23
The Harpers' home became a rental property, and, while the
studio was occasionally used by photographers such as Atlanta's
Wesley Hirshburg24 (who made the photographs for the Florida
State College for Women's annual FLASTACOWO), it is best re-
membered as a fascinating playground for neighborhood chil-
Then in the early 1920s William Byrd sold his home on
Calhoun Street to make way for construction of Carolyn Brevard
School. He chose the site of Harper's studio for his new home,
and the studio was demolished.26 The glass negatives that had
been stored in the studio, and that had survived the years of
children playing and other photographers working among them,
were claimed by a local history buff. He took them home but,
because they were dirty and stuck together, left them on his
porch. Mistaken for discards, they were carried away and de-
In March 1946, the State of Florida announced its intention
to purchase several blocks in downtown Tallahassee, in an area
including Harper's former home, for expansion of the Capitol
complex.28 The Van Brunt family were renting the house, and in
preparing to move they discovered boxes of some two thousand
glass negatives in the attic. Word of the find spread throughout
town. Some of the identified negatives were given to the subjects
or their descendents,29 and photographer David Avant received
permission from Bernard Byrd to print a selection of the nega-
tives. He recalls that they were jumbled together in a big box,
some in smaller old negative and shoe boxes. About 230 had
negative numbers and appeared to be from Philadelphia. Avant
spent several months cleaning and printing negatives and then
took two to three hundred contact prints of people and scenes to
individuals and to Tallahassee Historical Society meetings for
identification.30 In May 1946, the negatives were turned over to
4 / THE PHOTOGRAPHS OF ALVAN S. HARPER
State Archivist Dorothy Dodd31 and stored by the State Library
until the Florida Photographic Archives was established at
Florida State University in 1952. At that point, Dodd turned
them over to Allen Morris, the founder of the Archives.
In recent years, a few of Harper's photographs have been used
in books and exhibits. Time-Life's five-volume series This Fabu-
lous Century used three in the 1870-1900 volume, and the
Smithsonian Institution's Museum of Science and Technology
used two when its permanent photographic exhibit was re-
opened in 1973.
It was not until 1977, however, that Lee Warner, then Assist-
ant Director of the Historic Tallahassee Preservation Board,
suggested that the balance of the Tallahassee negatives be
printed and convinced the board to donate one-third of the
money needed. Tallahassee photographer Helen Buzyna was
employed by the Photographic Archives for six months to
contact-print the glass negatives, and most of Harper's portraits
were seen for the first time in nearly one hundred years. The
negatives were put into acid-free envelopes and numbered with
references to other negatives of the same sitting or person.
Identifications were sought from older Tallahasseeans, seldom
with success. The 1,600-plus contact prints, numbered to corres-
pond to the negatives, sat in boxes on a desk in the Photo-
graphic Archives, and only a rare visitor could resist looking
through them. Georgia's nationally recognized photographer
Paul Kwilecki learned of the collection and made exhibit-quality
prints from a selection of negatives. Florida, the Sunday supple-
ment of the Orlando Sentinel Star, featured Harper and his
photographs on 6 April 1980. Wings, the in-flight magazine for
Air Florida, published a story about the Harper negatives by
Frank Stephenson, along with sixteen photographs, in its
September 1980 issue. Subsequently, the Florida State Univer-
sity Press decided to publish this book, with cosponsorship by
the State of Florida Division of Archives, History, and Records
Consistent with contemporary practice in books of archival
photographs, the images in this volume have been grouped in
various categories, with the groupings separated by blank pages.
The photographs have not been cropped, and in most cases the
reproductions are close to the size of the original glass negatives.
Imperfections caused by cracks or by the flaking of emulsion from
the glass base have been left unretouched, as is also customary in
reproductions of archival photographs. While the images show
us what Harper saw, the imperfections reflect the hazards the
negatives have come through.
One wonders how these negatives survived, especially the
more than two hundred that made the trip from Philadelphia,
but those that have been lost prompt perhaps more speculation.
In many cases the Photographic Archives contains several nega-
tives of the same person on the same day, yet the Harper
photographs of these subjects in private collections often show
still a different pose. Perhaps the negatives in the Archives were
the unchosen poses, unlikely to be printed and thus stored
somewhere out of the way. If so, how ironic it is that, save for
the prints in family collections, the rejects survived while the
selected poses were lost.
Yet, however these negatives were judged when taken, they
constitute a significant historical record. Few Florida cities have
glass negative collections of comparable age, quality, and quan-
tity-at least at present. Perhaps the Harper collection's acci-
dental discovery is not an unrepeatable phenomenon: who
knows what tomorrow's attics may yield?
THE PHOTOGRAPHS OF ALVAN S. HARPER / 5
U.S. Census, 1900.
Tallahassee Weekly True Democrat, 26 May 1911.
U.S. Census, 1900.
Gopsill's Philadelphia Directory, 1875.
Conversation with Bernard Byrd, 16 May 1980.
U.S. Census, 1900.
Tallahassee Weekly Floridian, 21 October 1884.
Leon County Deed Book, Z48.
Weekly Floridian, 6 January 1885.
Leon County Deed Book, AA197.
Weekly Floridian, 30 December 1885.
Ibid., 15 October 1889.
Ibid., 26 July 1900.
Ibid., 21 October 1901.
True Democrat, 12 May 1905.
Portraits of the three missing justices were finally painted in 1979-80 by
Clarabelle Jett, a Tallahassee artist of predominantly historic Florida
17. Signed portraits of governors Bloxham, Brown, and Mitchell are in the
18. Weekly Tallahasseean, 20 March 1903.
19. Richard C. Long, Features of the Hill Country, Florida (New York: Moss
Engineering Co., 1894).
20. E. Warren Clark, Florida Hill Country (Rockford, Ill.: Homer Printing
21. Floreda D. Varrick and Phyllis R. Smith, Tallahassee and Leon County,
Florida Cemeteries (Tallahassee, 1978), p. 40.
22. Leon County Deed Book, QQ267.
23. Varrick and Smith, Cemeteries.
24. Wilsen's Tallahassee Directory, 1911.
25. Conversation with Thomas B. Van Brunt, 16 May 1980.
26. Conversation with Bernard Byrd, 30 September 1980.
27. Conversation with Bernard Byrd, 6 May 1980.
28. Daily Democrat, 13 March 1946.
29. Conversation with Mrs. Robert Sansabaugh, 6 May 1980.
30. Conversation with David Avant, 21 May 1980.
31. Daily Democrat, 1 May 1946.
THE PHOTOGRAPHS OF
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