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 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Dedication
 Acknowledgement
 Foreword
 Table of Contents
 List of Figures
 I. Cross-cultural inquiry--framing...
 II. Cross-cultural mini simulations--value...
 III. Concept acquisition
 IV. Concept application
 V. More mini simulations
 VI. Information acquisition and...
 Selected culture and cross-cultural...
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 Material Information
Title: Cross-cultural models of teaching Latin American examples
Physical Description: xi, 161 p. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Casteel, J. Doyle
Hallman, Clemens L. ( joint author )
Trueblood, Felicity M. ( joint author )
Publisher: Center for Latin American Studies, University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Civilization -- Study and teaching -- Latin America   ( lcsh )
Social life and customs -- Study and teaching -- Latin America   ( lcsh )
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Statement of Responsibility: J. Doyle Casteel ; with Clemens L. Hallman and Felicity M. Trueblood.
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Rights Management: Copyright by the Board of Regents of the State of Florida. This work is licensed under a modified Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 3.0 Unported License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/. You are free to electronically copy, distribute, and transmit this work if you attribute authorship. However, all printing rights are reserved by the University Press of Florida (http://www.upf.com). Please contact UPF for information about how to obtain copies of the work for print distribution. You must attribute the work in the manner specified by the author or licensor (but not in any way that suggests that they endorse you or your use of the work). For any reuse or distribution, you must make clear to others the license terms of this work. Any of the above conditions can be waived if you get permission from the University Press of Florida. Nothing in this license impairs or restricts the author's moral rights.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 02670073
lccn - 76013369
isbn - 0813005582
ocm02670073
Classification: lcc - F1408.3 .C37
ddc - 309.1807 C2755c
System ID: AA00010117:00001

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Title Page
        Page i
        Page ii
    Dedication
        Page iii
        Page iv
    Acknowledgement
        Page v
        Page vi
    Foreword
        Page vii
        Page viii
    Table of Contents
        Page ix
        Page x
    List of Figures
        Page xi
        Page xii
    I. Cross-cultural inquiry--framing a rationale
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
    II. Cross-cultural mini simulations--value clarification activities
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
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        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
    III. Concept acquisition
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
    IV. Concept application
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
    V. More mini simulations
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 129
        Page 130
        Page 131
        Page 132
        Page 133
        Page 134
    VI. Information acquisition and processing
        Page 135
        Page 136
        Page 137
        Page 138
        Page 139
        Page 140
        Page 141
        Page 142
        Page 143
        Page 144
        Page 145
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        Page 148
        Page 149
        Page 150
        Page 151
        Page 152
        Page 153
        Page 154
    Selected culture and cross-cultural references
        Page 155
        Page 156
        Page 157
        Page 158
        Page 159
        Page 160
        Page 161
        Page 162
Full Text




































































LC
1099
.C381











































c"EX LIBPIIS

ZINIVEAtSITY of 'FLORIDA



















I .. . ,,: aiP o
Jr r









Cross-Cultural Models of Teaching
Latin American Examples







J. Doyle Casteel
Professor of Education
Associate, Center for Latin American Studies




with



Clemens L. Hallman
Associate Professor of Foreign Language
Education, Romance Languages,
Sand Latin American Studies

and

Felicity M. Trueblood
Assistant Professor of History
and Latin American Studies


Center for Latin American Studies
University of Florida
Gainesville / 1976







LC


.C391


COPYRIGHT


1976 BY THE BOARD OF REGENTS OF THE STATE OF FLORIDA


ALL RIGHTS RESERVED


SPONSORED BY THE CENTER FOR LATIN AMERICAN STUDIES





Library of Congress
Catalog Card No. 76-13369
ISBN 0-8130-0558-2


PRINTED IN FLORIDA






















For my parents, Mr. and Mrs. Lacey B.
Casteel, good mountain folk who worked
hard and sacrificed much that I might
participate in Anglo-American culture.












ACKNOWLEDGMENTS


It is with particular pleasure that I acknowledge the manifold
contributions of the following Florida classroom teachers to
this book:

Monte Adkison
Richard Barnett
Sandy Carlisi
Cathryn Gregory
Jo Anna Hallman
Esther Hernandez
Robert Stahl
Ann de Veliz Wolff

In a very real sense, the classroom materials included herein
could not have been developed without the aid and inspiration
of these devoted teachers.

The essence of the material appearing in Chapter I is also
published in Foreign Language Annals, Vol. 8, No. 4, December, 1975.

Thanks are also due to William E. Carter, Director; and Terry
McCoy, Assistant Director, Center for Latin American Studies
of the University of Florida, who participated actively and cre-
atively at every stage of this volume. Finally, a very special
work of thanks must go to Melanie Aultman, our curriculum pro-
ject assistant, who with her usual efficiency and dedication
typed and put into final form the version you read here.


Felicity M. Trueblood
Curriculum Coordinator
Center for Latin American Studies
University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida 32611


v















FOREWORD


Those of us who study and teach in the United States can pool
our resources and knowledge in order to address ourselves to the
challenge of preparing students to live in a multi-cultural world
in which diversity will continue and will be valued. Our Curricu-
lum Development Project, part of the Outreach program of the Center
for Latin American Studies, University of Florida has for the past
three years provided an opportunity for Latinamericanists, class-
room teachers and professional educators to share ideas and prepare
classroom materials. Cross-Cultural Models of Teaching: Latin
American Examples is published as part of this continuing effort
and commitment.

Far too much teaching about foreign areas focuses on im-
personal information about geography, economics, strange customs,
literary masterpieces, and great heroes. With such an approach,
the foreign area remains far removed, and to a considerable ex-
tent unreal. The concepts and exercises developed in this book
are an attempt to begin correcting the situation.

Value clarification, one of the methods presented in this
book, is being increasingly used to improve understanding among
people, whether they be members of different national, linguistic,
and ethnic groups, or simply married couples. The advantage of
the concept is that it leads people to a greater understanding not
only of others, but of themselves.

Most of what we consider "normal" and "proper" behavior is
culturally transmitted and reinforced. "Common sense" is a
cluster of values we have learned during our years of enculturation
within a particular tradition. Citizens of other countries who do
not share our values are too easily criticized as being "wrong" or
even "inhuman". Just as they offend us with their behavior, so too
do we offend them. Neither is fully aware why this happens, for the
underlying assumptions of behavior are learned early and thoroughly.

The present wave of isolationalism sweeping the United States
speaks for itself. As a people, we have very little understanding
of and empathy for others different from ourselves.

Only by thrusting an individual into real situations of
decision and conflict (or, barring that at least into simulation
of such situations) can the unconscious bases for thinking and
behavior become consciously perceived and intelligently understood
and handled.

The exercises contained in this small book attempt to take
students and teachers into real situations crosscutting the many
fabrics of Latin American society. If there is a presumption to the
exercises, it is that no one is inherently evil or necessarily stupid.
vii






viii


The challenge is to understand why they occasionally appear so to
us, and why we appear so to them. As in life, the exercises have
no final or completely "right" answers. Nor will their completion
prepare an individual for a particular "job". The end product,
rather, will hopefully be an increased sensitivity both to others
and to oneself. What could be more relevant in this increasingly
populated and interdependent world?



William E. Carter










CONTENTS


FIGURES ...... .. ........................ ... .. Xi


CHAPTER I








CHAPTER II

















CHAPTER III


CROSS-CULTURAL INQUIRY--FRAMING A RATIONALE ....

Propositions on Cross-Cultural Inquiry

Teacher Laboratory I

Buena Suerte


CROSS-CULTURAL MINI SIMULATIONS--VALUE
CLARIFICATION ACTIVITIES......................

Value Sheets--Mediating Links

Illustrative Examples of Value Sheets

Forced Choice Format Examples

Affirmative Format Examples

Rank Order Format Examples

Classification Format Examples

Teacher Laboratory II


CONCEPT ACQUISITION..........................

The Concept of Concepts

Concept Formation

Classroom Examples
Pairing Phase
Discrimination Phase
Conceptualization Phase

Teacher Laboratory III


ix


1

1

8

13



14

14

16

19

27

35

43

51


53

53

54

60
61
65
69

73






x


CHAPTER IV















CHAPTER V















CHAPTER VI


CONCEPT APPLICATION

A Model of Concept Application

Classroom Materials
Differentiation Mode
Generalization Mode
Analytical Mode

Summary

Teacher Laboratory IV


MORE MINI SIMULATIONS........................

A Model of Concept Personalization

Classroom Examples
Forced Choice Format
Affirmative Format
Rank Order Format

Summary

Teacher Laboratory V


INFORMATION ACQUISITION AND PROCESSING ........

Locating and Converting Resources into
Learning Activities

A Model of Resource Utilization

Illustrative Classroom Activities

Teacher Laboratory VI


SELECTED CULTURE AND CROSS-CULTURAL REFERENCES .................. 155


75

75

80
80
84
84

104

104


105

105

110
110
118
126

134

134


135


135

137

140

150










FIGURES


Figure II-l:


Figure

Figure

Figure

Figure

Figure

Figure

Figure

Figure

Figure

Figure

Figure

Figure

Figure

Figure

Figure


Figure

Figure

Figure

Figure


11-2:

III-1:

111-2:

III-3:

III-4:

III-5:

III-6:

11-7:

IV-1:

IV-2:

IV-3:

IV-4:

IV-5:

IV-6:

V-l:


V-2:

V-3:

V-4:

V-5:


Illustrative Functions for Different Value
Sheet Formats

Interrelations Facilitated by Value Sheets

The Concept Acquisition Model

The Introductory Phase

The Defining Phase

The Pairing Phase

The Discrimination Phase

The Conceptualization Phase

The Closing Phase

A Concept Application Model

The Revision Mode

The Range Mode

The Generalization Mode

The Analytical Mode

The Consolidation Mode

A Model of Concept Personalization Consistent
With the Use of Value Sheets

Lesson Set Procedures

Comprehension Procedures

Decision-Making Procedures

Summary Procedures


xi


17

18

55

56

57

58

59

59

60

76

77

77

78

79

79


106

107

108

109

109












CHAPTER I


CROSS-CULTURAL INQUIRY--FRAMING A RATIONALE


Philosophical assumptions tend to shape how instruction is plan-
ned, transacted and evaluated. This chapter contains two sections in-
tended to help teachers articulate and organize a rationale for plan-
ning and teaching cross-cultural lessons. In the first section, nine
benefits to be derived from cross-cultural study are presented in the
guise of propositions. In the second section, a teacher laboratory
based on these nine propositions is presented. By using the materials
and adhering to the directions provided in this chapter, a group of
teachers can articulate and organize a rationale for stressing cross-
cultural inquiry as one important dimension of schooling. With this
rationale framed, teachers may proceed to analyze, evaluate, and,
should they so choose, apply the cross-cultural models presented in
subsequent chapters.


Propositions on Cross-Cultural Inquiry


PROPOSITION A: One may study cultures other than that of the United
States in order to help students learn the importance
of "critical incidents" as these occur within cultures.


Every society provides for the occurence of criti-
cal incidents. Some critical incidents are quite dra-
matic--for example, birth, death, and marriage. Each
culture develops institutional ways of reacting to and
ritualizing behavior deemed appropriate for such oc-
casions. These institutional behavior patterns and re-
sponses help members of a culture to share and live
with grief and tragedy. At the same time, they enable
members of a culture to share joys and successes. If
one would understand the behavior of other persons,one
must be able to interpret their behavior in response to
critical incidents in terms of how correct and incor-
rect responses are defined by members of that person's
culture.

There are other critical incidents in any culture
that are less dramatic but nonetheless important. Ex-
amples of this form of critical incidents are shaking
hands, hospitality, greetings, and etiquette. Latin
America, as well as other cultures, furnishes a labora-
tory within which critical incidents, the dramatic and
the less dramatic, can be studied.


PROPOSITION B: One may study cultures other than that of the United
States in order to help students learn how "time"
functions in different cultures.


1






2


Time is not assigned the same significance in all
cultures. There are questions involving time that a
person must be able to answer if one is to function
successfully in any society. Two are:

1. How long past the time of my appointment do I
wait before deciding I have been insulted?

2. How long can I prolong a visit without staying
beyond my welcome?

By studying other cultures, students can learn how time
is assigned different values and meanings by different
peoples. Latin America affords numerous examples.

Often, if Latin Americans wish to stress the need
to be punctual, they will provide a time and subscript
the stated time with the clause, horaa inglesa." With
the exception of members of the growing urban pro-
fessional class in Latin America, the North American
expression, "Time is money," has little meaning.

Citizens of Latin America and citizens of the
United States also differ in their concept of the
future. The Latin American tends to think of tomorrow
-"manana." A person in the United States attempts to
predict and takes somewhat elaborate steps to predict
and control what occurs--the future. Mariana persons
may be encountered in the United States and futurists
are growing in number in Latin America. Nevertheless,
given only a person's culture of socialization, one
could hypothesize these statements to be accurate.

Examples such as these can be used to help
students become aware of how different concepts of
time function.



PROPOSITION C: One may study cultures other than that of the United
States in order to help students understand how "space"
between and among people functions in cultures.


Most people learn to use space between and among
people in an informal and non-conscious way. They
observe such things as how others stand when they are
talking with one another, how young couples walk when
they are courting, how a mother demonstrates affection
for a child, how students approach a teacher in order
to ask a question. They also observe the consequences
of these kinds of behavioral patterns and, through imi-
tation, incorporate behavioral patterns that "work" into
their repertoire of behaviors. Such learning is often
referred to as modeling or social learning.









The Latin American's use of space differs from the
North American's. Generally speaking, a Latin Ameri-
can's concept of space demands that those interacting
with one another be in closer contact than is common in
the United States. Examples are: (1) When involved
in a conversation, Latin Americans stand too close, by
North American standards, to one another; or (2)
Latin Americans communicate their love and their desire
to protect their children by spending more time in
tactile contact with them.

If students are to understand their own or another
culture, they must be helped to become aware of how
people use space in order to communicate. Latin
America provides one mirror in which students can begin
to perceive space as critical to the success of com-
munication.


PROPOSITION D: One may study cultures other than that of the United
States in order to help students become aware of how
people verify knowledge, engage in thought, and arrive
at decisions (i.e., understand "cultural heuristics").

Any culture operates primarily on the basis of
authority. There are valid authorities from whom one
is taught to gather information and beliefs. Much of
what we believe (and much of what we do not believe),
we believe because an authority we trust told us it is
true. How societies select and change authorities
differs from culture to culture but authority remains
constant as a primary source of knowledge. To under-
stand behavior in a culture, one must know how authori-
ties come to be authorities and how authorities are
changed over time.

Ways of thinking and valuing are also incorporated
within a person's cultural heritage and are reflected
in one's choice of language patterns (linguistic configu-
rations). Within a given culture some patterns, sup-
ported too by authority, are so legitimate that one
just thinks in one's way because one's way is consistent
with the common sense of members of one's culture. Com-
pare the following instances of Latin Americans and
North Americans referring to the same event.

North American: I broke the watch.

Latin American: Se me rompib el reloj.
(The watch broke on me.)

In the first instance, people instigate actions and the
environment is theirs to control. In the second
instance, nature and the environment operate to limit,
control, and, in this instance, to cause people harm.






4I


In sum, people perceive, interpret, and make de-
cisions within the limits of their culture. To argue
the comparative truth of their interpretation is to
miss the point. People believe their perceptions are
accurate and proceed to behave as if their intepre-
tations are valid. If one is to understand why people
think as they think and value as they value, one must
interpret their thinking and valuing in terms of their
view of the world and people's place in it. To learntto
view phenomena in this fashion is to acquire an under-
standing of cultural heuristics.


PROPOSITION E: One may study cultures other than that of the United
States in order to help students become aware of how
"cultural" and "historical constraints" guide and
shape human behaviors.


Culture affects how a person perceives his/her en-
vironment, the behavior of other persons, and even his/
her own behavior. Culture does this in many ways. Two
mechanisms through which culture operates may be re-
ferred to as the cultural screen and the cultural frame
of reference. The cultural screen functions by deter-
mining to what events people will pay attention to.
Some events come to attention by passing through the
cultural screen; other events do not come to people's
attention because they are screened out by their culture.

Each culture has available a limited number of
legitimate ways by which events are interpreted and
evaluated. For example, citizens of the United States
are usually limited to some facet of liberalism whether
their orientation is conservative or liberal. Ways of
interpreting and evaluating events and social alterna-
tives available in other political traditions that
might be used in resolving problems are not typically
considered. Because these alternatives are outside the
liberal frame of reference, they, too, are illegitimate
and not "worthy" of the culture.

Students are more likely to become aware of
cultural screens if they study other cultures and seek
to learn to pay attention to those events noticed by
members of another culture. The same probability holds
true for cultural frames of reference. In short,
through the study of other cultures students can learn
to operate intellectually in ideologies that differ
from their own. This in turn enhances their ability to
comprehend and analyze their own cultural screens and
frames of reference.

Historical constraints also function to guide and
shape the behaviors typical of another culture. One






5

example from Latin America suffices. The system of
land ownership has historically functioned in a con-
straining manner with regard to cultural patterns. The
division of land into haciendas (or estancias) has
been a major factor in Latin America. It has guided
and tended to shape educational and economical de-
velopment in many ways. Because of this system, the
upper class has typically devalued manual labor and ex-
ploited the working class and the land with one result
being the fact that production has traditionally been
focused on production of raw materials. Understandably,
such phenomena have not always generated the capital or
social consciousness that would enable Latin America to
pursue universal education as a desired goal.

Members of all cultures are limited by historical
constraints. The study of such constraints in another
culture holds promise for helping students become more
aware of such features in their own culture.


PROPOSITION F: One may study cultures other than that of the United
States in order to help students learn a range of
"concepts", such as the concepts of social stratifi-
cation, social conflict, social change, and social
justice.


Concepts enable one to categorize, interpret, and
analyze phenomena in their own and in other cultures.
To treat discriminately different things as though
they were equivalent is to use a concept.

Imagine two men moving at different speeds. Each
of the men may be described as running. The word run-
ning refers to two discriminate events (two men moving
at different speeds) as though their behavior were
equivalent (the same). Hence, the word running refers
to a concept.

Imagine again two furry creatures that have sharp
claws, make the sound "meow," and climb trees. One is
black and the other is white. Each object may be con-
ceptualized as an instance of a cat. Here the word cat
refers to discriminately different objects as though
they were equivalent. Hence, the word cat is a label
for a concept.

Once learned, concepts can be clustered into pat-
terns where the relationship between concepts is ex-
plored. This exploration yields principles, chains of
concepts, such as the following:


If social stratification, then limited mobility.






6


If mass education, then capital saving.

With such rules and principles, students can engage in
problem solving and problem resolution.

Concepts useful for purposes of analyzing and ex-
plaining phenomena need not necessarily be taught in an
intercultural setting. However, concepts do have a
range. There is a point at which a furry, four-legged
animal ceases to be a meowing cat and becomes a barking
dog. This is to say that concepts have a range and
that phenomena within this range may be accurately
identified as instances of a given concept such as con-
flict, social change, or justice. This is also to say
that in order to teach students to categorize events
and objects accurately it is necessary to help them
test the limits of concepts and draw boundaries.

One may use phenomena from another culture such as
Latin America in order to help students learn to think
and value conceptually. Among these possible ways are:
one, to develop new concepts such as social strati-
fication; two, to help students explore the range of
concepts learned within their culture in the context of
another culture; and three, to help students formulate
and verify principles by which intellectual problems
may be solved and social problems resolved.


PROPOSITION G: One may study cultures other than that of the United
States in order that students may learn to explain
social phenomena using the concepts of social structure
and function.


This proposition is clarified here by using the
social structure of the school as an example. In every
society there is a need to adequately socialize all in-
dividuals. Systems of formal education or schools com-
monly exist to help meet this need. The social
structure of the school consists of interrelated roles
and statuses centered on a common set of goals. For
example, the relationships among service people,
teachers, administrators, and students make up the
social structure of the school. Their interaction is
based upon shared expectations of behavior and purpose.

Through the operation of the school as a social
structure the school functions to transmit the skills,
knowledge, and values of the society. As a reflection
of the society of which it is but one part, the school
tends to maintain the societal pattern of social strati-
fication. The school may also provide for a segment of
any population which is more open to change than the
rest of the society and thus functions to promote








social change. These functions may be manifest, in
that they are apparent; or latent, such that they
become apparent only after time or through analysis.
In some cases a system of education may produce ef-
fects which are dysfunctional or are harmful, i.e., an
emphasis on fiscal conservation by school adminis-
trators may result in teacher dissatisfaction and poor
teaching, or a modification in the curriculum may re-
sult in fewer people acquiring the skills needed by the
society.

With the concepts of social structure and
function students may analyze and explain an aspect of
a social system or institution. Within Latin America,
for example, the educational system may be seen in
terms of its social context rather than how it differs
from what we do. Students could examine schools in
terms of cultural values and norms which underlie be-
havior as well as the behavior itself. School popu-
lations could be studied in terms of the prevailing
patterns of social stratification. This could also
lead to what is taught and why it is taught. Similar
approaches using the concepts of social structure and
function are applicable to political and economic
systems.


PROPOSITION H: One may study cultures other than that of the United
States in order to help students learn to interpret
particular phenomena in any culture as "functioning
elements" to be understood in terms of the culture in
which the phenomena occur.


If one views bits of behavior in another culture,
in isolation from other events, one is likely to per-
ceive behavior that makes a great deal of sense to
members of that culture but that appear strange, ridicu-
lous, or bizarre to one as an outsider. For example,
members of the female sex in Latin America may walk
down the street holding hands with no self-consciousness
whatsoever. Similarly, when Latin American men, who
are friends, meet, they are likely to embrace one
another spontaneously. Such behaviors are no basis for
questioning the degree to which Latin Americans achieve
a sense of role identity. Such isolated behaviors are
functioning elements of a culture and are to be inter-
preted within the context of that culture.

Any behavior that tends to occur repetitively in
another culture functions as part of that culture. To
know a number of such elements and the way these ele-
ments function individually and in interaction in order
to maintain that culture is to begin to have an under-
standing of that culture in terms of concrete instances.






8


Latin America affords a setting within which
students can study particular behaviors in order to
determine their function. Latin America also provides
a setting within which students can analyze relation-
ships among particular behaviors as these fit into the
context of that culture.


PROPOSITION I: One may study cultures other than that of the United
States in order to highlight elements of United States
culture that are so common they are often taken for
granted.


North Americans hold unstated notions and biases
about people in general and about themselves. In order
to help students become sensitive to their ideas and
their biases, much time is devoted to study of U.S.
history and U.S. culture. Helping students become
aware of their own culture, however, is sometimes a
difficult task.

Many aspects of U.S. culture are so common that
students growing up in U.S. culture assume that theirs
is the natural way that all men of common sense follow.
It is difficult to interest students in an analysis of
their familiar world because they presume that they
already know all they need to know about "this kind of
stuff." Contrasting U.S. culture with another culture
such as that of Latin America supplies one method by
which those cultural behaviors that tend to be both
common in and relatively unique to U.S. culture can be
highlighted and perceived in terms of their significance
for North Americans.


Teacher Laboratory I


Work with a group of four or five other teachers in order to
complete this lab. Each activity in the lab is preceded by directions.
Follow these directions carefully.






9


Activity 1

Directions:


Nine assumptions one might employ in order to justify
cross-cultural inquiry are presented below. Without con-
sulting with other members of your group, rank order these
assumptions from the best to the worst. To do this, place
a "1" by the best proposition, a "2" by the second best
proposition, and so on until you have placed a "9" by the
worst proposition.


One may study cultures other
order to help students learn
dents" as these occur within

One may study cultures other
order to help students learn
cultures.


than that of the United States in
the importance of "critical inci-
cultures.

than that of the United States in
how "time" functions in different


One may study cultures other than that of the United States in
order to help students understand how "space" between and among
people functions in cultures.

One may study cultures other than that of the United States in
order to help students become aware of how people verify
knowledge, engage in thought, and arrive at decisions (i.e.,
understand "cultural heuristics").

One may study cultures other than that of the United States in
order to help students become aware of how "cultural" and
"historical constraints" guide and shape human behaviors.

One may study cultures other than that of the United States in
order to help students learn the range of "concepts" such as
the concepts of social stratification, social conflict, social
change, and social justice.

One may study cultures other than that of the United States in
order that students may learn to explain social phenomena using
the concepts of social structure and function.

One may study cultures other than that of the United States in
order to help students learn to interpret particular phenomena
in any culture as "functioning elements" to be understood in
terms of the culture in which the phenomena occur.

One may study cultures other than that of the United States in
order to highlight elements of United States culture that are
so common they are often taken for granted.






10


Activity 2

Directions:


Working with other members of your group, determine how
each person rank ordered each proposition. To do this
use the matrix provided. To the left of the matrix,
enter the name of each member of the group, including
your own. Then, record how each person rank ordered
each proposition by placing the number each person used
to rank order each proposition in the appropriate cell
to the right of each person's name.


U _ _


A


PROPOSITIONS
Y T 1 7 Y Y Y1I 5


B


D


E


F


G


H


I







11

Activity 3

Directions: Working with members of your group complete the reaction
guide provided, completing task 1, first, task 2, second,
and task 3, third. Seek consensus. Do not vote.


Task 1. The three best reasons for planning and teaching cross-
cultural lessons are:


2.




3.


Task 2. List specific social benefits that might be expected, if Latin
American culture were studied for these reasons (at least five).

1.

2.

3.

4.

5. 0

Task 3. Imagine that a person respected by your group indicated that
the social benefits you listed are unimportant. If this oc-
curred, what argument would you use to convince this person
that the benefits listed are significant?


--







12


Activity 4

Directions:


Working with members of your group, complete the reaction
guide provided, completing task 1, first, task 2, second,
and task 3, third. Seek consensus. Do not vote.


Task 1. The three worst reasons for planning and teaching cross-
cultural lessons are:

1.


2.





3.


Task 2. List social benefits that would be lost if Latin American con-
tent, as taught, failed to reflect these reasons (at least five).


1.

2.

3.

4.

5.


Task 3. Assume your group wished to justify losing the benefits listed.
What criterion would you use?


--


--






13


Activity 5

Directions:


Assume you wished to convince a school principal that
cross-cultural inquiry should be stressed in your in-
structional field. Given this assumption, write a
business letter to the principal conveying the following
information: 1) the instructional field you teach;
2) what the phrase cross-cultural inquiry means; and
3) a set of reasons for stressing cross-cultural inquiry.
Each member of the group should complete this task indi-
vidually.


Buena Suerte


Now that you have established your rationale, you possess a
criterion that you may use to evaluate materials that follow. In
Chapter II, you will find problem solving activities related to
culture shock. In Chapters III through VI you will find models for
cross-cultural teaching related to concept acquisition (Chapter III),
concept application (Chapter IV), concept personalization (Chapter V),
and resource utilization (Chapter VI). iBuena suertel Nada mas.









CHAPTER II


CROSS-CULTURAL MINI SIMULATIONS--
VALUE CLARIFICATION ACTIVITIES


Value clarification activities may be employed in order to help
students develop cross-cultural understandings. Value clarification
activities project students into cross-cultural decision-making situ-
ations and enable them to simulate the act of confronting critical
social situations in a new culture. The central concerns of this
chapter are to introduce the reader to value clarification activities
and to provide teachers with the means whereby they may test how well
such activities work with the students they teach.


Value Sheets--Mediating Links


Language, thought, and culture are inextricably intertwined.
Cultural and cross-cultural inquiries are legitimate elements of in-
struction in foreign language, history, humanities, literature, and
social science classrooms. One means of approaching the design of
cross-cultural study is called value clarification which may be defined
as patterns of language usage by students, patterns of verbal statements,
from which the teacher may infer that students are engaged in valuing.
Value clarification may be secured by using value sheets.

Value sheets are carefully planned and written activities. They
are designed to elicit value clarification patterns of language usage
from students. Furthermore, value sheets are planned and used in con-
junction with ongoing units of conventional content. The use of value
sheets in connection with units of instruction avoids the danger that
students will perceive valuing as a form of activity isolated from the
content they are learning. Since the value sheet is, by definition,
integrated with other instructional activities, the teacher need not
interrupt the sequence of instruction in order to assign and use value
sheets.*

A value sheet always contains at least three elements: a situ-
ation, decision sheets, and a set of eliciting questions.

The first element is a structured situation referred to as the
social and scientific context. This element structures a situation
within which students are to respond. This may be a description of an
event or a set of phenomena. The situation may be contrived by the
teacher in order to highlight some aspect of culture toward which the
teacher wishes to direct the attention of the students.


Value sheets are defined here as planned and written student
activities. Once value sheets have been planned and written as
integral elements of a teaching sequence, the teacher may use such
options as role playing in order to confront students with situations
at the focus of value clarification.






15


The social and scientific context may also assign a role to
students who are to react to the value sheet. For example, a student
may be asked to respond to a value sheet as he would react were he a
missionary, a teacher, a tourist, a diplomat, or an exchange student
in another culture. Or, he may be asked to respond as if he were a
member of another culture.

The second element is a set of decision sheets. Usually, there
are two, one to be completed individually, and a second to be com-
pleted by members of a small group of five or six students. The de-
cision sheets both structure for and cue students to use appropriate
verbal behaviors.

The third element is a set of eliciting questions, called
discussion starters. These questions provide a frame of reference
that the teacher uses in order to guide student reactions. There are
questions intended to help students understand the structured situ-
ation given. There are also questions designed to help students re-
late the situation to the unit of instruction that is being taught.
Finally, there are questions intended to elicit statements of value
and feeling from students. Eliciting questions helps the teacher to
guide discussions. However, the teacher must remember to be flexible
and open in guiding value clarification exercises.

Value sheets may be written in various formats. Each value sheet
format stresses a different aspect of value clarification and decision
making. Casteel has identified six formats in which value sheets may
be written.* These formats are called:




The theoretical approach and protocols for each format are pre-
sented in J. Doyle Casteel and Robert J. Stahl, Value Clarification in
the Classroom: a Primer. Pacific Palisades, California: Goodyear,
1975. Examples for use in high school science classes are available
from the ERIC Center (Columbus, Ohio): J. Doyle Casteel, Robert J.
Stahl, and John J. Koran, Jr., Value Clarification: Using the Concept
of the Value Sheet. 1974, 96 pages. Other examples of the value sheet
are: J. Doyle Casteel and Robert J. Stahl with Monte Adkison and
Thomas Gadsden, Jr. Value Clarification: Six Formats of the Value
Sheet for the Social Studies (Bulletin) Gainesville, Florida: Florida
Educational Research and Development Council; J. Doyle Casteel and
others, Valuing Exercises for the Middle School. Resource Monograph
No. 11l, Gainesville, Florida: P.K. Yonge Laboratory School, 1974, 31
pages. The approach to value clarification used is based on a verbal
feedback system. This system is described in J. Doyle Casteel and
Robert J. Stahl, The Social Science Observation Record: Theoretical
Construct and Pilot Studies. Research Monograph No. 7, Gainesville,
Florida: P.K. Yonge Laboratory School, 1974, 125 pages.






16


the standard format
the forced-choice format
the affirmative format
the rank order format
the classification format
the criterion format

A major function for each format of the value sheet is depicted in
Figure II-1.

Structured mini simulations in the guise of value sheets link a
number of dimensions of teaching. Thus, value sheets may be used to
link the study of language with the study of culture; foreign
language instruction with social studies instruction; or content
goals with skill objectives. These linkages are depicted in Figure
11-2.

Figure II-2(a) suggests that language study enhances cross-
cultural inquiry and that cross-cultural inquiry contributes to the
study of language.

Figure II-2(b) illustrates the fact that foreign language and
social studies teachers may profitably share ideas and articulate
foreign language and social studies units of instruction.

Figure II-2(c) conveys the idea that value sheets are likely to
result in student growth in knowledge of content as well as in social
and learning skills. This growth is more likely if the conditions
depicted in Figures II-2(b) and II-2(c) are present.


Illustrative Examples of Value Sheets


Four formats in which value sheets may be written are to be pre-
sented in this section: forced choice, affirmative, rank order, and
classification.* The value sheets were written using the concept of
culture shock as an instructional focus.

Culture shock refers to a set of feelings and thoughts persons ex-
perience when they leave their familiar environment and find themselves
in another culture. The following conditions can create culture shock:

(1) If an individual finds that he/she must learn new rules for
sitting, shaking hands, eating; or

(2) If an individual finds that he/she must learn new cues--
verbal or non-verbal--by which to guide his/her behavior
(gestures, facial expressions); or

(3) If an individual finds that he/she must learn cues as to when
and where rules are to be followed; or


Standard format examples are presented, below, Chapter VI.
















Illustrative Functions for Different Value Sheet Formats


classifi-
cation


I I


rank order


_ _Ii


affirmative


invention


organization


invention


I i t _


basis


standard reaction reaction reaction reaction


student
shares
reactions
to social
situations


student
provides
basis for
choice


student
generates
a range
of
alternatives


student
organizes
preferences
in a
hierarchy


student
links
choices
with con-
sequences


student
chains
choices,
consequences,
and judgmental
criteria


forced
choice


criterion


linkage


basis


basis


H^


Figure II-1:








(4) If an individual discovers that values and behaviors are
shared by his/her culture and another but that he/she must,
nevertheless, reorder his/her priorities and redesign his/
her behavior.

In order to function successfully in a new culture, one must develop
new conceptualizations of space, new organizations of preferences, and
a new sense of what is proper. Unless one developed such competencies,
experience within another culture may result in an increase in pro-
vencialism.


Figure 11-2: Interrelations Facilitated by Value Sheets


Figure II-2(a):


Figure II-2(b):


Figure II-2(c):


Linking Language and Cross-Cultural Study


Linking Foreign Language Programs and
Social Studies Programs


Linking Student Growth in Knowledge with
Student Acquisition of Skills


18






19


Forced Choice Format Examples


The Junta: The Social and Scientific Context


Debby was making plans for her exciting vacation. Every year she
joined her father in Ecuador for three months during the summer.
Debby's mother had died when she was born and she had lived all of her
life in either the United States or Ecuador. This year, her father
had promised that she could stay and begin school in the fall in
Ecuador instead of returning to the United States to live wirh rela-
tives.

Her father is an executive with the United States Oil Company
which has a big office located in Quito, Ecuador. He has lived in
Ecuador for twenty years. During this period he has earned the re-
spect and loyalty of all the men who work for him. Her father, who
is a millionaire, owns a large hacienda and other property in Ecuador.
He remains, however, a loyal citizen of the United States and votes
by absentee ballot in each election. He has also been well-respected
by the government officials in Ecuador.

One week after Debby's arrival, her father awakens her. It is
early morning. He tells her that he is putting her on a plane for the
United States. Overnight, a military junta has overthrown the govern-
ment. The junta has announced that they will not be responsible for
the safety of citizens of the United States living in their country.
Debby's father has made the decision that, for her safety, she must
return to live with relatives in the United States.

Debby's father explains the situation to her. He also tells her
that he will not be returning to the United States with her.

"You see, Debby," he says, "a man in my position can only make
one of five decisions. None of these five involve leaving the country."

She asks, "Daddy, what are the five choices?"

He responds:

-"I can refuse to leave and force the new government to
carry out its threat, even if it means going to prison."

-"I can use company money to support counter-revolutionaries."

-"I can destroy our oil wells so they cannot be used by
the new government."

-"I can arm the men working for me and fight to save the
company."

-"I can make a deal with the new government."


Debby sadly begins to pack her clothing.






20


The Junta: Individual Decision Sheet


Directions:


Below are listed the five choices Debby's father can make.
Select the choice you think is best and mark it. Do not
consult with other members of your group.


A I can refuse to leave and force the new government to carry
out its threat, even if it means going to prison.


B I can use company money to support counter-revolutionaries.


C I can destroy our oil wells so they cannot be used by the
new government.


D I can arm the men working for me and fight to save the
company.


E I can make a deal with the new government.



Suppose a person whose opinion you value said, "I don't see how any
person could justify that choice." How would you explain your choice?






21


The Junta: Group Decision Sheet


Directions:


Work with members of your group. Choose one best policy
and one explanation that satisfies all members of your
group. Do not vote.


A I can refuse to leave and force the new government to carry
out its threat, even if it means going to prison.


B I can use company money to support counter-revolutionaries.


C I can destroy our
new government.


D I can arm the men
company.


oil wells so they cannot be used by the



working for me and fight to save the


E I can make a deal with the new government.



We chose this policy because






22


The Junta: Discussion Starters


1. What position did Debby's father hold in the Latin American
country?



2. What types of business activities are associated with an oil
company?



3. What do the words hacienda and junta mean?



4. Suppose you had been Debby in the above story. What would have
been your reactions to the sudden change brought about by the
junta?



5. In what ways might a person having Debby's experience be said to
suffer from culture shock?



6. Debby expected to live a year in Latin America and attend school.
What new rules would she have encountered? How would the need to
learn these new rules relate to culture shock?



7. In what ways might Debby's father's decision to remain be evidence
that he is a good citizen of the United States?



8. Should the United States send troops into a country in order to
protect American property?



9. What does Debby's father value most highly? Do you share this
value?



10. Debby's father wields great economic power in a Latin American
country. He maintains his U.S. citizenship. Should the U.S.
allow this? Should the Latin American country allow this?






23


Bi-Cultural Considerations: The Social and Scientific Context



A group of American businessmen are going to Buenos Aires,
Argentina, on a business trip. You are a person who has some
knowledge of Latin American culture. A close friend of your
family who is a member of the business group says, "We've been told
that we will be more effective in Argentina if we obey the following
five rules:


(1) Don't present political pronouncements,
particularly those justifying U.S. foreign policy;


(2) Make an extra effort to listen to their views and
don't rush into volunteering solutions and advice.
In Latin America assent is not agreement;


(3) Make the extra effort to be patient when your business
counterparts either don't show up on time or make you
wait outside their office for what may appear to you
as an inordinate amount of time. Further, don't expect
to rush in and out of an interview. "Time is not money.";


(4) Repay courtesies and any entertainment in your honor
by the host group;


(5) Dress formally rather than informally even when not as
a business function.







24


Bi-Cultural Considerations: Individual Decision Sheet


Directions:


Suppose you are in a situation where you could only
obey one of these rules. Select the rule you think
is the most important to obey:


A Don't forward political pronouncements.


B Make the extra effort to listen to their views and
don't rush in giving advice and trying to solve their
problems. "Assent is not agreement."


C Make the extra effort to be patient when not met
punctually and when a meeting goes on for a longer
period of time than you are used to. "Time is not
money."


D Repay courtesies.


E Dress formally rather than informally.


This is the best decision becuase:


- -

___







25


Bi-Cultural


Considerations: Group Decision Sheet


Directions:


Select one best response that is satisfactory to all
members of your group. Do not vote.


We chose this policy because


Notes:


_I _






26


Bi-Cultural Considerations: Discussion Starters


1. To what city were the U.S. businessmen going?



2. How many rules were presented by the businessman for
good behavior while in Argentina?



3. According to the rules given, how should one react if a
Latin American begins expressing views on a subject?



4. How do the rules indicate you should dress when in doubt
as to what would be appropriate?



5. How could you reciprocate entertainment and courtesies in
your behalf?



6. Suppose one visited Latin America unaware of these rules.
Why would one experience culture shock?



7. In what ways might you consider your advice to be "good"
advice?



8. Will your friend's attitudes and feelings toward the
Argentinians be different because of your advice? Explain.



9. Will the Argentinians' feelings toward your friend be
different if he follows your advice? Explain.






27


Affirmative Format Examples


.Que Pasa?: The Social and Scientific Context



Sandy looked out of the plane window and watched the Bolivian
countryside. She watched the ground come closer and closer as the
plane slowly landed. When she entered the airport at La Paz, her
best friend, Monte, rushed up to hug her. Monte and Sandy had not
seen each other for a long time. Monte had lived in Bolivia with
her father, the U.S. consul, for five years. After being reunited
at the airport the two girls took a quick, excited tour of the
capital city before going to the consulate.

Sandy felt Monte was so lucky to have a father who lived in
exciting places. Monte attended school in Bolivia, could speak
Spanish, and knew so much about her new home. Sandy, with her limited
ability to speak Spanish, only hoped that in her short two-week stay
she would be able to see and do everything she wanted to do. Most of
all, she wanted to see the "real" Bolivia; not just the places and
things that tourists usually see.

It was an exciting first week. Monte introduced Sandy to her
Bolivian friends and in her limited Spanish Sandy found that she
really could talk to people, even if she did make a lot of mistakes.
She began to learn some of the Bolivian customs. If she didn't
understand something, she would ask Monte, "Quu pasa?" (What's
happening?) and Monte would explain it to her.

One night Sandy was invited out to dinner by a very nice Bolivian
family. She was a little nervous as she dressed for dinner because
this was the first time she could not depend on her friend for help.
Monte came into the room to tell her it was time to leave. Sandy,
still very nervous, said, "Monte, How am I going to know how to act?
Their customs are so different here." Monte replied, "If you really
want to understand Bolivian customs, then. . ."






28


_Que Pasa? : Individual Decision Sheet


Directions:


Using the space below, list as many different pieces
of advice Monte might offer as you can imagine. Do
this individually.


Pieces of advice Monte might offer are:



















The best advice I can think of is







This is good advice because






29


jQue Pasa?: Group Decision Sheet


Directions: As a group, list as many pieces of advice as possible.
Do not refer to your individual responses.



Pieces of advice Monte might offer are:


We believe the best piece of advice is


We believe this is best because






30


r.Qu Pasa?: Discussion Starters


1. In what country does this situation take place?



2. What situation is Sandy confronted with in her South
American visit?



3. Was Sandy's experience typical for a visitor to another
country?



4. How does culture shock apply to the situation Sandy is
confronted with?



5. Is the anxiety and frustration Sandy is confronted with
justified? Explain.



6. How would you have felt if you were Sandy in this situation?



7. Was Sandy's friend correct in allowing her to be placed
in this uncomfortable position? Explain.



8. If you were a Bolivian, what would you want a North American
to learn about your culture?






31


Got his Goat: The Social and Scientific Context




Joe lives on a ranch in Texas where his father raises cattle,
sheep and a few goats. For his Four-H projects Joe has shown his
prize steer as well as his pet goats. Each year the steer he shows
at the state fair is sold for beef, but the goats are raised mainly
for milk and each one has a pet name.

Joe's father, a successful rancher, is going to Mexico to advise
several ranchers who want to learn more about U.S. cattle breeding
techniques. Joe is accompanying his father for the two-week stay and
will live with a family on a Mexican hacienda.

When Joe arrives at his new home, the Garcia family is very
excited and pleased to have him visiting. In honor of his arrival
the family is having a small fiesta that evening. The main dish,
Joe is promised, is to be very special.

Some time later, Joe inquires as to why the family servants are
at the back of the house digging a pit. Joe does not completely un-
derstand the seHora's explanation in Spanish. That evening the
servants remove a cabrito (roast baby goat) from the pit. Joe im-
mediately thinks of his own pet goats at home and a lump forms in
his throat. The family looks expectantly for what they are sure will
be a very pleased reaction. Joe knows he cannot eat the goat, but he
also knows he cannot insult his host family who have prepared this
feast just for him. Trying to do the least amount of harm, he arrives
at a decision. He decides . .





:-,; ., i ' -.' r -**'
^^**"'8132



Got his Goat: Individual Decision Sheet

Directions: Using the spaces provided, complete this decision sheet.
Do this individually.



Actions Joe might decide to take in this situation are:




















Given the possible options I can see for this situation, Joe should


I Believe this is best because






33


Got his Goat: Group Decision Sheet


Directions:


Working as a member of your group, complete this decision
sheet without referring to the individual decision sheet.


Actions Joe might decide to take are:


We believe the best choice is







We believe our choice is best because






34


Got his Goat: Discussion Starters


1. Why did Joe's father go to Mexico?



2. What cultural differences did Joe encounter during his
visit?



3. How might this culture shock have been avoided?



4. In what other areas do North Americans cooperate with Mexicans
to achieve common goals?



5. What foods do we have in the United States that might be
considered strange to someone from Mexico?



6. Which would be more important to you--sacrificing a personal
belief or avoiding insulting someone from another culture?
Explain.



7. If you were Senora Garcia in this situation how would you
have felt?


8. What good consequences might be derived from this experience?






35


Rank Order Format Examples

Social Priorities: The Social and Scientific Context



You have an advantage in dealing with culture shock in that you
are familiar with both Peruvian life and culture patterns in the
United States. Your Peruvian mother married your North American
father when he was a mining engineer in Huasipungay. For most of
your life you have spent half the year in the United States and half
in Peru. You have observed many instances of misunderstanding caused
by ignorance of the expected behaviors in both cultures.

This year you have been attending Central High School in the
United States. Students from the Spanish classes at your school will
spend the summer living with Peruvian families in Lima in an American
Field Service exchange program. They have asked you to give a one-
hour talk to your students to help prepare them for their trip.

You want to help your friends avoid culture shock and you know
that their behavior in Peru will strengthen or weaken understanding
between that country and the United States. On the basis of your ex-
perience as a bi-cultural person, you want very much to give them the
most helpful information in the short time provided.

You have listed six important areas of expected behavior. Since
you have agreed to answer all questions as they arise during your
talk, you don't know whether time will permit you to cover all six
areas. Therefore, you decide to rank the following topics from the
most important to the least important:

1. Before you smoke or eat a snack, you must offer to share what
you have with those around you.

2. Shake hands when you meet and greet friends and when you say
goodbye.

3. Be aware that it is considered more important in Latin America
to be a good friend, preserving your own dignity and that of
your acquaintances, than to get a lot accomplished.

4. On the street, girls should behave in a quiet, dignified manner
and not wear shorts or skimpy clothes; while boys should treat
girls with respect and courtesy, never as "buddies."

5. Show considerable respect to elders in such ways as addressing
them as usted rather than tu, standing until they are seated, etc.

6. Know that because emphasis in Latin American life is philosophical
and personal, Peruvians often feel that gringos are materialistic.






36


Social Priorities: Individual Decision Sheet


Directions:


Mark the most important information with a "1", the
next most important with a "2", the third most im-
portant with a "3", and so on until you have marked
the least important information with a "6". Do this
individually.


Sharing


Shaking hands


Friendship


Boy/Girl behaviors


Elders


Personalism vs. Materialism


I chose


I chose


as the most important.


as the least important.






37


Social Priorities: Group Decision Sheet


Directions:


Mark the most important information with a "1", the
next most important with a "2", the third most im-
portant with a "3", and so on until you have marked
the least important information with a "6". Seek
consensus for each ranking. Do not vote.


Sharing


Shaking hands


Friendship


Boy/Girl behaviors


Elders


Personalism vs. Materialism



We chose


as the most important.


as the least important.


We chose






38


Social Priorities: Discussion Starters


1. What is generally considered more important to a Latin
American--to be a good friend or to accomplish a lot?



2. Name three times a person is expected to shake hands
in Peru.



3. Describe two behaviors expected of girls in Peru.



4. How are boys not expected to treat girls?



5. What information should be added to this list?



6. What factors influence behaviors in a particular country?



7. Did any of the behaviors described on this list surprise
you? Explain.



8. When you read this list, what were your feelings about
the behaviors?






39

Image Making-: The Social and Scientific Context

For purposes of this exercise, you and the other members of your
group are to assume that you are the staff of a United States public
relations firm--Images Incorporated. Your services have been hired by
a group of Latin American citizens who are concerned with fostering
greater understanding of Latin American affairs and culture among
United States citizens.

After signing the contract with this Latin American group, Images
Incorparated commissioned a poll and found a number of misunderstand-
ings held by a significant number of United States citizens polled.
Given this data, you and your colleagues have decided that the first
thing you must do is to correct erroneous ideas. Furthermore, you
have decided to attack these ideas one-by-one in order to erase each
as a barrier to a better understanding of Latin American affairs and
culture among United States citizens.

In addition, your firm wishes to erase the most damaging misun-
derstanding first, the second most damaging misunderstanding second,
the third most damaging misunderstanding third, and so on until all
five have been extinguished. In order to do this, members of your
firm must identify and rank order erroneous notions about Latin America
from the most damaging to the least damaging. To do this, you must
agree on the misunderstanding you most prefer to erase and place a "1"
in the blank ( ); you must put a "2" beside the misunderstanding
you would prefer to correct next; and so on until you have placed a
"5" by the policy you believe is least damaging and hence least pre-
ferable to correct.

Latin America is a hot and dirty, but picturesque, area
somewhere south of Texas. If one is going to live in the
Southwest he should learn to locate it on a map.

Although the people of Latin America are constantly starting
revolutions, they are a poor and illerate people. But one
must remember they are also happy and fun-loving.

Although the area of Latin America is greater than the area of
the United States, Latin Americans lack the Anglo-Saxon genius
for cooperation. Consequently, one must remember that there
are many little countries.

Because Latin American countries are weak, United States policy
has been to treat them as "sister republics." Americans must
remember always to play the role of big brother.

Latin American leaders are always corrupt, harsh, and ill-
educated men. One must remember that the peones--the other
social class--are always hungry for freedom, equality, and
brotherhood.


The teacher may wish to divide the class into small groups in
order to have students reach a consensus after they have completed
the activity individually.






4o


Image Making: Individual Decision Sheet


Directions:


Rank order the misunderstandings listed below. Place a
"1" by the most harmful misunderstanding, a "2" by the
second most harmful misunderstanding, etc. until you
have placed a "5" by the least harmful misunderstanding.
Do this individually.


Latin America is a hot anc
somewhere south of Texas.
Southwest he should learn


I dirty, but picturesque, area
If one is going to live in the
to locate it on a map.


_ Although the people of Latin America are constantly starting
revolutions, they are a poor and illerate people. But one
must remember they are also happy and fun-loving.


Although the area of Latin America is greater than the area of
the United States, Latin Americans lack the Anglo-Saxon genius
for cooperation. Consequently, one must remember that there
are many little countries.


Because Latin American countries are weak, United States policy
has been to treat them as "sister republics." Americans must
remember always to play the role of big brother.


Latin American leaders are always corrupt, harsh, and ill-
educated men. One must remember that the peones--the other
social class--are always hungry for freedom, equality, and
brotherhood.






41


Image Making: Group Decision Sheet


Directions: As a group, rank order the misunderstandings listed below.
Place a "1" by the most harmful misunderstanding, a "2"
by the second most harmful misunderstanding, etc., until
you have placed a "5" by the least harmful misunderstand-
ing. Seek consensus for each ranking. Do not vote.



Latin America is a hot and dirty, but picturesque, area
somewhere south of Texas. If one is going to live in the
Southwest he should learn to locate it on a map.


Although the people of Latin America are constantly starting
revolutions, they are a poor and illerate people. But one
must remember they are also happy and fun-loving.


Although the area of Latin America is greater than the area of
the United States, Latin Americans lack the Anglo-Saxon genius
for cooperation. Consequently, one must remember that there
are many little countries.


Because Latin American countries are weak, United States policy
has been to treat them as "sister republics." Americans must
remember always to play the role of big brother.


Latin American leaders are always corrupt, harsh, and ill-
educated men. One must remember that thepeones--the other
social class--are always hungry for freedom, equality, and
brotherhood.






42


Image Making: Discussion Starters


1. For what firm do you work?



2. How does your firm identify stereotypes about Latin Americans?



3. List at least three misconceptions about Latin Americans in
your own words.



4. How do misconceptions differ from stereotypes?



5. How are misconceptions similar to stereotypes?



6. How do misconceptions contribute to culture shock?



7. Should people hire image makers? Explain.



8. How might misconceptions about Latin Americans hurt North Ameri-
cans?


9. How should ideas about other cultures be gained? used? changed?



10. When you read the misconceptions listed, what is your first
feeling?









Classification Format Examples


Jerry: The Social and Scientific Context


Jerry, a student at Osceola Middle School, is overjoyed when he
receives his letter of acceptance for the student exchange program
in Sincelejo, Colombia, a sister city of his hometown, Ocala, Florida.
There were many students who applied to go down to Sincelejo and he
felt very lucky that he had been chosen. The organization sponsoring
him had given him a list of things that needed to be done before his
departure in two months: passport, shots for typhoid, smallpox, and
tetanus, flight plans, travelers' checks, and communication with his
new family in Sincelejo. After talking with his Spanish teacher,
Jerry realizes that there are many other things that need to be con-
sidered when traveling in a foreign country. He sits down and com-
piles a list of all the things he feels could be important.

1. Verbal communication in the native tongue.

2. The accepted and proper things to wear.

3. Typical menus, eating habits, and the correct manners to
use when eating.

4. How time is defined and valued.

5. The relationship between man and nature.

6. How decisions are made and enforced and their resultant
effect on the people.

7. How people relate to individuals and to groups.

8. Orientation to situations of daily life.

9. Behavioral norms in private and in public.

10. The value placed on religion and the role of the church in
everyday life.

11. The use of leisure time.

12. Availability of educational opportunity and its content.

Aware of the time limitations that have been placed upon him in
preparation for his trip, Jerry knows that he has to choose from his
list the three items that he feels are most important. He also real-
izes that he must eliminate the three that could possibly be learned
from his Colombian family once he is in Sincelejo. Perhaps he will
have time before he leaves to study the remaining ones.

If you were Jerry, faced with this decision, what would you de-
cide?










Jerry: Individual Decision Sheet


For me, the three most preferred areas of cultural study are:

1.

2.

3.


My reasons for choosing these three areas are:


For me, the three least preferred areas of cultural study are:

1.

2.

3.


My reasons for rejecting the last three areas are:


--






-

I






45


Jerry: Group Decision Sheet


We believe the three most preferred areas of cultural study are:

1.

2.

3.


Our reasons for choosing these three areas are:












We believe the three least preferred areas of cultural study are:

1.

2.

3.


Our reasons for rejecting the last three areas are:







46


Jerry: Discussion Starters


1. How did Jerry feel about being chosen to go to Sincelejo,
Colombia?



2. What preparation was necessary before he left?


3. How did Jerry approach the problem of learning
country?


about another


4. How did Jerry try to prevent culture shock?



5. Who else could Jerry have consulted to provided valuable
information before departing?



6. What other areas might possibly have been included for
consideration?



7. What would your immediate feelings be had you been chosen
to go to Sincelejo?



8. Given that you will be a representative of U.S. culture,
what impressions would you want Colombians to have about the
United States?






47


Press International: The Social and Scientific Context


A group of prominent Latin American journalists have invited you,
a famous U.S. newspaper editor, to be the guest speaker at a confer-
ence to be held in Quito, Ecuador. As the guest speaker, you see a
valuable opportunity to answer several questions about the United
States that frequently occur in Latin American newspapers. Prior to
the conference you are sent a list of these questions from the Latin
American group and upon reading them you discover that many of the
questions have some truth in them, but most are half-truths or facts
that are not completely explained about U.S. life. Also, as you read
them you notice that most of the questions are stereotypes that many
Latin Americans hold about the United States.

Realizing the limitations that time and knowledge have placed upon
you, you must choose which three questions you consider most deserving
of a response and which three questions are least deserving of an at-
tempted explanation. The questions are:

1. Your country is rich and has modern methods of technology yet
you still have poverty and unemployment. Why?

2. Why do you allow U.S. women to work outside the home? This has
been largely responsible for the increase in divorce, juvenile
delinquency, and unemployment.

3. Is it true that your youth are corrupt and drug-dependent?

4. The United States has a historical democratic tradition. Why
then do you support dictatorships (Chile, Nicaragua, Paraguay,
Spain) and military juntas which are also dictatorships?

5. Why do you retain control of the Panama Canal? Shouldn't it belong
to the Panamanians?

6. Your foreign aid just makes the rich richer and does not help the
poor people. Why then do you continue to claim you are helping
the people of Latin America?

7. Why do North Americans have such limited knowledge about Latin
America--its geography, customs, history, and language?

8. Why did the Alliance for Progress fail?

9. Why do you permit your businessmen to get rich on our wealth by
exploiting our natural resources and selling over-priced U.S.
goods to our people?

10. You trade with Communist countries. You don't want us to. Why?









Press International: Individual Decision Sheet


I believe that the three most important questions to answer are:

1.

2.

3.


My reasons for selecting these three are:


I believe


that the three least important questions to you are:


1.

2.

3.


My reasons for rejecting these three are:


- ----

---






49


Press International: Group Decision Sheet


We believe that the three most important questions to answer are:



2.

3.


Our reasons for selecting these three are:


We believe that the three least important questions to you are:

1.

2.

3.


Our reasons for rejecting these three are:


--






50


Press International: Discussion Starters


1. What group is meeting in Quito, Ecuador?



2. What is your position?



3. What do you plan to accomplish?



4. What circumstances could have caused the U.S. editor
to feel that it was important to talk to the Latin American
journalists?



5. What causes stereotypes to be formed?



6. Suppose a person went to Latin America and did not know that
Latin Americans hold these perceptions. How might that person
be surprised? shocked? make serious errors?



7. As a Norteamericano, how did you feel when you learned of
these opinions of the United States?



8. Is is good for the United States to continue to deal with
countries that hold such opinions?



9. If you were the editor, how would you feel about addressing
the journalists?







51

Teacher Laboratory II


In order to complete this lab, members of your group will need the
following materials and equipment:


Five copies of one of the two forced-choice formats
of the value sheet;


Five copies of one of the two affirmative formats
of the value sheet;


Five copies of one of the two rank order formats
of the value sheet;


Five copies of one of the two classification formats
of the value sheet;


Four audio cassette tapes; and


Four audio cassette recorders


Activity 1


Directions: Each group member is to do the following:


1. Choose one format of the value sheet to field test
with a group of students. Each group member should
select a different format.


2. Locate five students with which to work. Try to
locate secondary school students. If this is not
possible, use adults.


3. Assign the group to complete the value sheet.


4. Tape the lesson, including your opening directions
and your follow-up questions.







52


Activity 2


Directions: Working as a group, do the following:


Evaluate the degree to which the forced-choice format functioned
as suggested in Figure II-1.






Evaluate the degree to which the affirmative format functioned as
suggested by Figure II-1.






Evaluate the degree to which the rank order format functioned as
suggested by Figure II-1.






Evaluate the degree to which the classification format functioned
as suggested by Figure II-1.


Activity 3


Directions: Review the letter you wrote as the last activity for
Teacher Laboratory I. Then assume this question: To
What extent are value clarification activities consistent
with your rationale for teaching cross-cultural lessons?
Save a copy of your letter. You will need it again.









CHAPTER III


CONCEPT ACQUISITION


Concepts are the building blocks of knowing, thinking, and
valuing. If one would report a fact, one would use concepts. If one
would frame a generalization, one would use a concept. If one would
assign value to an object of valuation, one would use concepts. This
chapter is intended to meet three objectives germane to helping
students acquire concepts they might use in order to analyze, interpret,
or respond to Latin American events: to develop the concept of con-
cepts; to present a teaching model of concept acquisition; and to
illustrate critical elements of the teaching model with student learn-
ing exercises for the concept of power.


The Concept of Concepts


When one treats discriminately different phenomena as though the
different phenomena were the same, one uses a concept. Stated form-
ally, a concept exists if and only if persons or groups treat discrimi-
nately different objects, events, or phenomena as though they were equi-
valent.

Discriminately different behaviors may be categorized as though
they were equivalent in that all the different behaviors are examples
of power. Power, for example, is the label by which one refers to
discriminately different events one is treating as though they were
equivalent. One also uses the label, power, in order to refer to those
rules by which phenomena are sorted out as examples or non-examples of
the concept.

Concepts may be divided into two groups--disjunctive concepts and
conjunctive concepts. Suppose a concept referred to by X. If a is a
criterial attribute adequate for the concept X to be applicable, or b
is a criterial attribute adequate for the concept X to be applicable,
or c is adequate for the concept X to be applicable; then X is a dis-
junctive concept. If a and b and c are necessary for the concept of X
to be applicable, then X is a conjunctive concept.

If one is teaching a disjunctive concept, one stresses criterial
attributes. If an event is consistent with one of the criterial attri-
butes for a disjunctive concept, then that event is appropriately classi-
fied as an example of the disjunctive concept.

If one is teaching a conjunctive concept, one emphasizes critical
dimensions. The critical dimensions establish a focus within which the
criterial attributes of a conjunctive concept function. Since power
will be used as a focal concept in order to illustrate the concept
acquisition model to be presented in this chapter, a formal definition
for power and an explanation of its critical dimensions are presented
here.


53






54


Power: If one entity (a person or group) controls access to
objects valued by at least one other entity (a person
or group); AND

If the entity controlling access to valued objects
uses this control in order to influence the second
entity to behave in ways desired by the first entity.

Power tends to be displayed along three dimensions. These three
are as follows:

(1) If one individual or a group uses punishment in order to in-
fluence the behavior of another person or group, a condition of power
is said to exist. A parent's whipping a child in order to secure com-
pliance is an example. Disbarring a lawyer as a means of influencing
other lawyers to comply with ethical and legal norms is a second ex-
ample of power that is consistent with this critical dimension. Access
to personal or professional well being is the source of power.

(2) If one individual or group withholds anticipated or custom-
ary rewards from a second individual or group in order to influence
behavior of the other person or group, a condition of power is said
to exist. Benching a basketball player at the beginning of a game
because of tardiness at practice is an example of this critical attri-
bute, if the player usually starts as a member of the first team.
The anticipated reward for being a skilled player, starting, is with-
held by the coach who controls access to th.s end, in an effort to in-
fluence subsequent behavior. A grocery story manager, whose annual
bonus is automatically reduced because gross receipts have declined, is
in a situation which serves as a second example of power that is con-
sistent with this critical dimension.

(3) If one person or group provides rewards, in order to influ-
ence the behavior of a second person or group, a condition of power
exists. The behavior of a student who works extra hard and crams for
all tests in order to secure one of the few "A's" given by the teacher
is an example. A situation in which a scholar works extra hard to
learn Spanish in order to secure the good will and friendship of Latin
Americans is also an example of this critical dimension of power.

SIn all three of the dimensions provided, one entity uses its con-
trol of valued objects in order to influence a second entity to behave
in ways that are valued by the first entity.

These three critical dimensions may be used in conjunction with
the formal definition in order to teach students how to categorize
social events as examples of power, i.e., to conceptualize. A presen-
tational model that teachers might use in order to help students ac-
quire this skill is presented next.


Concept Formation


When a teacher confronts an instructional task, the presupposi-







55


Figure III-l: The Concept Acquisition Model


0


0
+4
a
1-1


Yes No ?


Lesson introduced in terms of idea or
topic being taught
ci _____________________________________----__------
02
0 Concept label presented frequently

Concept related to teaching idea


Definition presented to students on
ditto or overhead

Definition explained by teacher

Paraphrase of definition elicited from
student


Discrimination pairs introduced-. .
ci) _________ __________________________ --------------_-----_----- ----
S Pair 1 used
Pair 2 used
Pair 3 used
Pair 4 used

Discrimination sets introduced .

Set 1 used
Set 2 used
Set 3 used
Set 4 used

Display definition removed

Conceptual sets introduced

,) Set 1 used
Set 2 used
Set 3 used
Set 4 used

Lesson closed

Defining attributes summarized by
a) teacher or students

^ Lesson related to topic or idea at
focus of instruction


bD


ci
P-i


0
O
*ri


-P
S,


ca


r-i
4.,
Cd
rl
ra


O

0


02
0
H
r.)






56


tion is that the teacher has mastered the content and skills students
are to acquire. Given this precondition, however, there is still no
warrant for assuming that students will acquire the content and skills
possessed by the teacher. Although no teacher is likely to teach in
a manner that is superior to his mastery of content and intellectual
skills, it is very possible for a teacher to teach in ways that are
inferior to his/her knowledge and skill. With regard to this chapter,
teachers may know the concept of power (content knowledge) and be able
to apply the concept of power in order to analyze Latin American events
(an intellectual skill) but, nevertheless, be unable to convey such
knowledge or transmit such skills to students. In order to convey
their knowledge and skills, teachers must first be able to help
students acquire the concept of power. This section is addressed to
that need.

The concept acquisition strategy is modeled in Figure III-1. The
model contains six phases -- introduction, definition, pairing, con-
ceptualization, and closure. The functions of each phase are presented
in the following paragraphs in order to establish the necessary set
within which subsequent classroom materials are to be understood.

During the introductory phase, the teacher establishes set for
the lesson that is to be taught. The teacher begins by stating or
reviewing the idea or the topic that is being studied.* Having stated
or reviewed the idea, the teacher indicates that the concept to be ac-
quired (power in this instance) is worth learning. In performing this
task, the teacher does not use indefinite pronouns to refer to the
concept; the teacher cites the label while referring to the concept
frequently. The importance of the concept established, the teacher
links the concept to the topic or idea being studied. This phase
does not require a great deal of time. Teachers, however, should not
hesitate to use two, three, or even five minutes in order to establish
set for a concept acquisition lesson. This phase of the model is
summarized in Figure III-2.


Figure III-2: The Introductory Phase




Yes No ?

Lesson introduced in terms of idea or
topic being taught

Concept label presented frequently

Concept related to teaching idea



Since one learns ideas about objects of inquiry, an idea is pre-
ferable to a topic. In addition, one acquires concepts, in part, to
chain them in order to form a principle (i.e., an idea).






57


During the defining phase, the teacher provides students a printed
definition of the concept which includes its critical dimensions or
criterial attributes. The teacher may provide this definition in the
form of a ditto handout or by employing an overhead transparency. In
any event, the definition presented should be no longer than one-half
to three-quarters of a typed page. Having provided a printed defi-
nition, including the critical dimensions and/or criterial attributes of
the concept to be taught, the teacher explains the definition, using
language and examples students can understand.* When this explanation
has been provided, the teacher asks students to paraphrase the defi-
nition of the concept, including its criterial attributes, in their
own words. If, at this point, students paraphrase correctly, the
teacher directs their attention to the first pairing exercise. If
students fail to paraphrase accurately, the teacher returns to the
definition presented and provides further explanation and examples.
Students are not allowed to proceed to the pairing phase until they
have accurately paraphrased the original definition presented and ex-
plained by the teacher. This defining phase of the model is summarized
in Figure III-3.


Figure III-3: The Defining Phase




Yes No ?

Definition presented to students on
ditto or overhead

Definition explained by teacher

Paraphrase of definition elicited from
student



During the pairing phase students continue to have before them a
definition of the concept to be learned, including its criterial attri-
butes. With this definition available for easy reference, students re-
spond to four pairs of items, one pair at a time. Each pair contains
two short stories that present social situations. Only one story in
each pair may be categorized correctly as an instance of the concept
that is to be learned. Given the two items in a pair and the con-
ceptual definition correctly paraphrased during the defining phase,
students mark the story that is an example of the concept to be learned



The examples used are obvious instances. The teacher explains
how each example cited fits the critical dimensions and/or criterial
attributes of the concept that is to be acquired. Both critical di-
mensions and criterial attributes are used with conjunctive concepts.
Only criterial attributes are used for disjunctive concepts.






58


and use the definition to explain their choice. The examples used to
develop exercises for the pairing phase should be obvious examples and
non-exemplars in the teacher's estimation, because that which is obvi-
ous to one who already knows a concept must gradually be made to be-
came obvious to one who has not yet acquired the concept. In using
materials developed for this and subsequent phases, the teacher should
focus attention on the positive examples of the concept. The non-
exemplar is not to be discussed unless students mark it incorrectly.
It is important to remember that all students finish pair 1, including
discussion, before proceeding to pair 2. This also holds true for
pairs 2 and 3. The pairing phase is summarized in Figure 111-4.


Figure III-4: The Pairing Phase




Yes No ?


Discrimination pairs introduced . .
Pair 1 used.
Pair 2 used
Pair 3 used
Pair 4 used


During the discrimination phase, the definition originally pro-
vided continues to be kept available so that students may easily refer
to it, should they need to do so. With this definition available,
students respond to four sets of items. Each set contains four stories
that present social situations. Three are examples of the concept
students are acquiring; one is a non-exemplar of the concept being ac-
quired. Students use their knowledge of the conceptual definition and
its criterial attributes in order to identify the three positive ex-
amples and to justify their choices. Unless students err, the non-
exemplar is ignored.* These items should also be ones the teacher
believes are obvious. Once again, all students complete discrimination
set 1 before proceeding to discrimination set 2. This also holds true
for sets 2 and 3. The discrimination phase, is summarized in Figure
111-5.







If a non-exemplar is to be explained, the teacher should provide
the feedback, pointing out relevant aspects of the definition.
If a non-exemplar is incorrectly identified, it is the teacher who
provides the feedback necessary for students to understand the error.







59


Figure III-5: The Discrimination Phase


Yes No ?

Discrimination sets introduced .
Set 1 used
Set 2 used
Set 3 used
Set 4 used


During the conceptualization phase, the teacher ascertains that
students have internalized and can continue to use the original defi-
nition of the concept to be learned, including its criterial attri-
butes. To accomplish this end, the teacher removes the displayed defi-
nition, perhaps by saying, "Pass your copies of the definition to the
front. Since we no longer need a printed definition, it is just in
the way." With no printed definition available, students respond to
the four sets of stories that present social situations. Each set
contains three examples and one non-exemplar of the concept students
have been learning. Students respond to these conceptualization sets,
one by one, identifying and explaining examples of the concept they
are acquiring. These continue to be obvious examples. If students
respond correctly to the four conceptualization sets, the teacher may
infer that students have acquired the concept. The conceptualization
phase is summarized in Figure 111-6.


Figure 111-6: The Conceptualization Phase




Yes No ?

Display definition removed

Conceptual sets introduced
Set 1 used
Set 2 used
Set 3 used
Set4 used







60


During the closing phase, either the teacher or the students
summarize the definition for the concept just acquired and list its
defining attributes. Following this summary, the teacher relates the
concept to the topic or idea at the focus of the lesson. If the
teacher intends to proceed to use the concept application model, the
teacher so indicates. What the teacher says during this closing phase
may be quite similar to what was said during the introductory phase of
the model; however, the students to whom these remarks are addressed
are now better informed. Although both introductory set and closure
are important, closure is the more important of the two. The closing
phase is summarized in Figure III-7.


Figure III-7: The Closing Phase




Yes No ?

Lesson closed

Defining attributes summarized by
teacher or students

Lesson related to topic or idea at
focus of instruction


Classroom Examples


Illustrative classroom materials for the pairing, discrimination,
and conceptualization phases are presented in this section. The ma-
terials are organized in a manner that exemplifies the way students
would encounter the learning tasks described for these phases. It is
suggested that the reader use the definition of power provided, and
respond to these examples as a student would be expected to respond.









Pairing Phase: Pair 1


Directions:


Two stories are presented below. One is an example of
power. One is not. Using your definition, select the
story that is an example of power. Mark your choice with
a plus sign (+).


John's mother is in the hospital this week. His grandmother is
taking care of him. Yesterday, John played with his toy trucks.
When he finished playing, his grandmother asked him to put his
trucks away. John said he would, "after a while." While John
watched his favorite T-V show, his grandmother put his toy
trucks away.



Yesterday, Mary was taking care of her little sister, Susy.
Susy played for a long time, cutting out paper dolls. When she
finished, she refused to pick up her things. Mary sent her
sister to her room for an hour. Susy cried because she missed
her favorite T-V show. Today, Susy played with her paper dolls.
As quickly as she finished playing, Susy put everything away.





Given the definition for power, my response is correct because:


WAIT to proceed until instructed to do so by your teacher.






62


Pairing Phase: Pair 2


Directions:


Two stories about two people are presented below. One
person attempts to use power. A second does not. Using
your definition, select the story in which a person at-
tempts to use power. Mark your choice with a plus sign
(+). Be prepared to explain why your choice is correct.


Tom and the other members of his family believe beef prices are
too high. Other families in their town also believe the
grocery store is charging too much for beef. Tom, members of
his family, and other families have agreed they will buy no
more beef until the manager of the store lowers his prices.



Mr. Hunt teaches science. Most of his students are very inter-
ested in how doctors perform autopsies on dead bodies. Mr.
Hunt has made arrangements for his class to view a film in which
doctors examine a corpse. Brenda, however, is not sure she can
watch. Mr. Hunt gives her the choice of watching or going to
Sthe library.





Given the definition of power, my choice is correct because:


WAIT to proceed until instructed to do so by your teacher.






63


Pairing Phase: Pair 3


Directions:


Two stories about two persons are printed below. Power
is used to influence how one of these persons behaves.
Select this person and mark your choice with a plus sign
(+). Given your definition, you should be prepared to
explain your choice.


Simon is the leader of a new nation. Yesterday, one of the
ships of Sim6n's country captured and then released a fishing
ship and a crew of United States seamen. The President of the
United States said, "For ten years we have given financial aid
to your country. Unless I am assured that there will be no
further acts of this type, I will ask Congress to give you no
more aid." In reply Sim6n said, "I apologize. This will not
happen again."



Johnson is one of the leading lawyers and citizens of his town.
A local club is having a dinner to help a number of charities.
Since some persons suspected of dealing in drugs are going to
be present, Johnson declines the invitation of friends that he
attend the dinner. However, since he wants to support worthy
causes, he buys tickets to the dinner although he doesn't attend.





Given the definition of power, my choice is correct because:


WAIT to proceed until instructed to do so by your teacher.






64


Pairing Phase: Pair 4


Directions:


Two stories are presented below. In one of the stories,
power is used to influence the way a person behaves.
Select this story and mark it with a plus sign (+). Be
prepared to explain your choice.


Leah's mother was not feeling well but had housework to do.
Leah said, "Don't worry, Mom. I'll do the dishes and clean
up the kitchen." And that's what she did.



Jimmy's father was very busy. He said, "The carpet is a mess.
If someone were to clean it up, I would buy that person a
ticket to any movie in town." Jimmy said, "Don't worry, Dad.
I'll do it." And that's what he did.





Given the definition of power, my choice is correct because:


WAIT to proceed until instructed to do so by your teacher.






65


Discrimination Phase: Set 1


Directions: Four stories are printed below. Three are examples in
which power is used. One is not. Select the three that
are examples of power and mark each of these with a plus
sign (+) Given your definition, be prepared to explain
why the stories you select are examples of power.



Tom owns the only basketball on his street. Tom loves to play
basketball and he loves to win. He always wants to choose his
own team, the very best players. Today the other boys objected.
"If we don't choose teams fairly, we'll play something else."
Tom quickly agreed.


Suzy and Linda live next door to each other. Suzy has a wading
pool. Linda does not. Linda and Suzy play in Suzy's pool every
afternoon. Today, Linda brought her lunch to school. In her
lunch, there were two slices of dill pickle. Suzy asked Linda
for a slice of dill pickle. When Linda refused, Suzy said, "You
can't use my wading pool today." Linda said, "I was teasing.
Take a slice of dill pickle."


Today, Mary brought a new pencil to school. The pencil was
really a fancy one. Tom really liked the pencil. When Mary
went to ask the teacher a question, Tom took her pencil and hid
it in his desk. Jim told Mary that Tom had taken her pencil.
Mary said, "Please give me my pencil." Tom refused. Mary
twisted Tom's arm. Them Tom said, "Here's your old pencil."


Mike and Terry rode their bicycles to the store. Each boy
spent some of his money. Mike bought a large coke. Terry
bought a bag of peanuts. Mike said, "Those peanuts look good."
Terry said, "I wish I had bought a coke."


WAIT to proceed until instructed to do so by your teacher.






66


Discrimination Phase: Set 2


Directions: Four stories are presented below. In three of the stories,
power is used to influence the behavior of a student.
Select these three stories. Mark each of your choices
with a plus sign (+) Be prepared to use your definition
and explain your choices.



Mary is a new student at West Elm High School. Today was her
first day. She wore a blouse, a skirt, and hose. Most of the
other girls in her classes wore jeans and sandals. One of them
told Mary, "You sure do dress differently." Mary has just told
her mother, "I must wear jeans and sandals tomorrow. I want to
make friends and be accepted."


Joe is happy to be playing second base for his baseball team.
Football and basketball season are over. Joe, however, wanted
to keep playing these sports. He tried to talk all his friends
into playing football and basketball. In response, his friends
reached an agreement. They told Joe, "We aren't going to play
anything with you for a week." And they didn't.


Tim, Margaret, and Scott went to the candy store. Tim bought a
new kind of candy that Scott had not seen before. Margaret said,
"I believe I'll buy it too." Scott bought chocolate fudge.
Chocolate fudge had always been one of his favorites. Scott did
not regret his choice. He said, "My fudge is good. I see no
reason to change my habits."


Miss Johnson is a new and a strange teacher. She does a lot of
new and unexpected things. At first, John liked his class with
Miss Johnson. John's classmates decided that Miss Johnson's
class was a waste of time. John, at first, said, "I disagree.
It's an interesting class." His classmates laughed at him.
Now John feels that Miss Johnson's class is a waste of time.


WAIT to proceed until instructed to do so by your teacher.









Discrimination Phase: Set 3


Directions: Four social situations are described below. Power is used
in three of the four situations. Select the three situ-
ations in which power is used. Mark your choices with a
plus sign (+). Be prepared to use your definition and
define your selections.



The data are clear. Americans are using too much gasoline.
The President and Congress have given all state governors fair
notice. Until the 55 mile per hour speed limit is enforced, no
state will receive funds for building or maintaining roads.


John's father received two interim reports from John's school
today. Both reports state that John's work is unsatisfactory.
John's father has taken the keys to John's car. When John's
work is satisfactory, his father intends to return the car keys.


Betsy is very tired. Nevertheless, she plunges into the pool
and continues to practice the strokes her swimming instructor
asked her to work on. If she keeps working and her instructor
passes her, she will get a life-saving card and she will get the
lifeguard job in a summer camp she has always wanted.


As soon as Bonnie walked into the store, she was elated. The
dress that cought her attention yesterday was still hanging on
the rack. Bonnie quickly determined that the dress was
available in her size. Was she happy. She decided to buy the
dress.


WAIT to proceed until instructed to do so by your teacher.






68


Discrimination Phase: Set 4


Directions: Four stories are printed below. In three of the four
stories, persons are influenced to behave differently
because they want to be respected by persons who are
important to them. Select these three stories and mark
your choices with a plus sign (+). Be prepared to use
your definition in order to explain your choices.



Reverend Blunt is the minister for a church in a small, tight-
knit, and progressive town. Members of his church and towns-
people believe the Reverend Blunt is a good man. When they say,
"He practices what he preaches," the Reverend Blunt is happy.
Recently he went to the city for an important meeting. The
first evening he had hoped to eat at a very good restaurant.
Then he met a man he knew from home who wanted to have dinner with
him. The man asked Reverend Blunt to select the restaurant.
The Reverend Blunt decided to pick a cheap restaurant. Just the
Sunday before, he had preached on the need to associate with
people who are in the lower and middle classes.


Mildred Hacket is a friendly and attractive housewife who lives
on Sycamore Street. Mildred's friends believe she is the best
housekeeper in town. Secretly, Mildred enjoys her reputation.
Right now, Mildred is tired. For the last two days she has
forgotten everything because of an interesting book she was
reading. Three hours ago, as she was fixing breakfast, she
glanced at the calendar. Today was the day that neighborhood
women were to come for coffee. For the next two hours, Mildred
frantically cleaned the dining, kitchen, and living rooms. She
also brushed up the other areas her guests might see.


Marc, a star high school athlete, has received a football
scholarship to the university. Marc's family, his friends, and
the whole town believe he will make an outstanding athlete. At
the end of the first week, the coach tells Marc that he needs
more strength. "Unless you increase your strength you are not
likely to play." Marc, wanting to live up to the hopes of his
hometown friends, now presses weights religiously each day. He
does this, even when he really needs to spend his time studying.


Jane is a school leader who is involved in a lot of things. She
is a member of the basketball team. She is a cheerleader. She
is a member of the school's human relations committee. She is
helping to plan graduation. She seems to be involved in every-
thing. "I really became involved in too many things," she
thinks. "But, what the heck, you just go to school once."

WAIT to proceed until instructed to do so by your teacher.






69


Conceptualization Phase: Set 1


Directions:


Four stories are printed below. In three of the four
stories, power is used to influence your behavior. Mark
these three situations with a plus sign (+). Be prepared
to defend your choices.


Suppose your father tells you to go to bed. You remain seated
in front of the television. He tells you again. You don't
move. He tells you, "For the last time." Still you don't move.
He says, "If you want to go out tomorrow night, you had better
go to bed -- right now." You go to bed.


Suppose your mother asks you to take out the garbage. "Ah, ma,
let Jane do it." Your mother says it is your job. You tell her
you don't feel like it. She tells you "If you don't take it
out, there will be no allowance this week." You carry the
garbage out.


Suppose your older sister and her friend are in her room. They
are talking about boys, of course. You listen. Your sister
says, "I really like Tom, the new boy down the street." Your
older sister and her friend decide to just walk by the new boy's
house.


Your older brother comes
$5 from your allowance.
do, I'll let you ride my
brother the $5.00.


into your bedroom.
You want to say no.
mini-bike tomorrow.'


He asks to borrow
He says, "If you
" You lend your


WAIT to proceed until instructed to do so by your teacher.






70


Conceptualization Phase: Set 2


Directions:


Four situations are presented below. In three of the four
situations, power is used to influence the behavior of
others. Select these three situations, marking your
choice with a plus sign (+). Be prepared to explain why
each of your choices is an example of power.


Suppose you are in the Marines. You are in boot camp. The
rule is that you can't go home until you have finished boot
camp. You and a friend decide to leave anyway. Then you begin
to talk about what the Marines do to people who don't do what
they are told. You and your friend decide it is best to finish
boot camp and then go home.


Suppose it is Saturday afternoon. You can't decide what you
want to do. You really feel like riding your bike. You also
would like to go to a show. On the other hand, you really
would like to go swimming. You decide to ride your bike on the
beach. Later you may go to a movie.


Suppose you are driving along in your new Bug Bo. You are doing
close to 80. You see a police car in the distance. You im-
mediately slow down to 55. The last time, when you failed to
see the patrol car, cost you almost a hundred dollars and your
driving license for six months.


Suppose it is war time. You are in the Army. On a special
mission, you are captured. The enemy wants to know what your
mission is. You won't tell them. They torture you. You give
them the information they want.


WAIT to proceed until instructed to do so by your teacher.






71


Conceptualization Phase: Set 3


Directions: Four incidents involving nations are provided below. In
three of the incidents, one nation uses power to influence
the behavior of another nation. Select these three inci-
dents. Mark your choices with a plus sign (+). Be pre-
pared to explain why each incident so marked involves
power.



Imagine that there are two countries -- Country A and Country B.
Country A asks Country B to give it a naval base. Country B is
uncertain. Country A seizes a large city belonging to Country B.
Country B gives Country A a good naval base. Country A with-
draws troops from the seized city.


Imagine three countries -- Country A, Country B, and Country C.
Country A goes to war with Country B. Country C helps Country A
by selling it military equipment. Country B places an embargo
on the shipment of meat products to Country C. Since Country C
is dependent on Country B for its meat supply, Country C stops
selling equipment to Country A. Country B lifts the embargo.


Imagine three countries -- Country A, Country B, and Country C.
Country A is an agricultural nation. Country B is an industrial
nation. Country C is a nation of herders, foresters, and miners.
Ships, carrying the people and goods of countries A, B, and C,
move constantly among these three countries.


Imagine three countries -- Country X, Country Y, and Country Z.
Country Z is strong; its leader wants to be a world statesman.
Country X is weak and fears Country Y. Country Y is weak and
fears Country X. The leaders of Country X and Country Y want to
gain freedom from fear in order to develop their countries. The
leader of Country X and the leader of Country Y ask the leader
of Country Z to form and lead an alliance that includes Country
X, Country Y, and Country Z. The leader of Country Z agrees,
although the alliance will cost Country Z a great deal of money.


WAIT to proceed until instructed to do so by your teacher.






72


Conceptualization Phase: Set 4


Directions: This set contains four stories. Three of the four may be
categorized as social situations in which power is exer-
cised. Select these three and mark your choices with a
plus sign (+).


Mr. Johnson, the principal of Creek Town High, wants his social
studies teachers to teach a new course for seniors. One teacher
says, "Many of our students do not understand our economic
system." A second teacher says, "Day-to-day patterns of be-
havior are very important." A third teacher says, "We must be
relevant." A fourth teacher says, "Let's list the advantages
and disadvantages of each choice."


Mrs. Kann is a teacher at Wayside High School. She is well-re-
spected by her students, faculty, and administrators of Wayside.
This year her evaluation read in part, "Mrs. Kann's style of
dress is not appropriate for the classroom." After reading her
evaluation, Mrs. Kann was supposed to sign it to indicate that
she had read it. At first Mrs. Kann refused to sign the evalu-
ation because she believed the statement was untrue. Then the
principal said, "If you don't sign, will you sell peanuts next
year?" Angrily, she signed the evaluation and rushed from the
principal's office.


Mr. Dudley has always done a good job of teaching American
history. But he has always preferred to teach a psychology
course. At first, the principal refused to allow Mr. Dudley
to teach psychology. After three years, however, he told Mr.
Dudley, "You've done a fine job. You may offer and teach a
psychology class." Last year, Mr. Dudley used a game that
stressed the effects of economic distribution on poor people.
Local businessmen called the principal who asked Mr. Dudley to
stop using the game. Mr. Dudley refused. This year, Mr. Dudley
is teaching five classes of American history. Mr. Smith, who
prefers to teach American history, is teaching three psychology
classes.


For more than a month, Ms. Benthum, a middle class school
teacher has known that she will need the principal's permission
to leave school early and attend an important meeting. Mr. Peek,
the principal, likes the women on his faculty to wear knee-
length skirts, high-necked blouses, hose, and closed-toed shoes.
For three weeks now Ms. Benthum has dressed according to Mr.
Peek's expectations. Today, she asked the principal for per-
mission to leave early and attend the meeting. The principal
said, "I have been impressed with the way your teaching has im-
proved. I'm going to make an exception and let you go." Ms.
Benthum is pleased. She really wants to attend the meeting be-
cause the theme of the meeting is, "The Courage to be Liberated."






73

Teacher Laboratory III


In order to complete this lab, you will neet to:

Write a student concept acquisition booklet;

Secure the assistance of at least one student;

Teach the concept and tape your teaching performance;
and

Use the concept acquisition model to analyze your teaching
performance


Activity 1


Directions:


C






---
i''



"r


~


Using the definition and illustrative exercises provided
for by power, with whatever modifications you wish to
make, organize a twenty page concept acquisition booklet
according to the following specifications.

Content

Provide student attending directions. Answer this
question: "Why learn the concept?"

Summarize the definition and explanation you will
present to the students.

Provide a student paraphrasing guide. Give the formal
definition. Provide space for student to cite the three
dimensions.

Summarize what you will say to introduce the pairs

Pair 1

Pair 2

Pair 3

Pair 4

Summarize how you will introduce the discrimination sets

Discrimination set 1

Discrimination set 2

Discrimination set 3

Discrimination set 4


2


3



4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13






74

Page Content

14 Summarize the rationale you will use for withdrawing
the definition.

15 Summarize how you will introduce the concept sets

16 Concept set 1

17 Concept set 2

18 Concept set 3

19 Concept set 4

20 Summarize what you will say to close the lesson


Activity 2


1. Use the booklet you organized in order to teach the concept of
power to the student you have secured for this purpose, taping
the entire lesson.


2. Use the model of concept acquisition to analyze your teaching
performances.


3. Write a two paragraph report for other members of your group,
answering these questions:

a. To what extent did the students you taught acquire
the concept?

b. Suppose you were going to teach the concept again.
If you were, how might you improve your performance?


4. Share your responses to these two questions with other members
of your study group.


5. Consider working with members of your group in order to develop
and use a second concept acquisition booklet.









CHAPTER IV


CONCEPT APPLICATION


The deductive model for concept acquisition presented in the last
chapter possesses a number of generalizable characteristics. All il-
lustrative examples are perceived to be obvious ones for students who
have comprehended and paraphrased a definition of the concept. The
acquisition model is very teacher-centered in that the teacher controls
the pace of the lesson and identifies "right" and "wrong" student re-
sponses. The acquisition model stressed examples and non-examplars
related to conditions North American students are likely to experience
and to which they can relate.

The analytical model of concept application to be presented in
this chapter differs from the acquisition model in a number of re-
spects. Whereas the acquisition model uses obvious or "central" ex-
amples for students to categorize, the concept application model calls
for non-central examples in order to help students learn the range of
phenomena that may be correctly categorized as instances of a concept.
Whereas the acquisition model stresses "right" answers that may be
justified according to a given definition, the application model
stresses the logical use of an acquired concept and can accept di-
vergent answers as possessing validity. Whereas the acquisition model
presented common Anglo-American situations, the application model uses
situations derived from Latin American cultures.


A Model of Concept Application


The model of concept application incorporates five modes of in-
quiry. These five modes are: revision, range, generalization,
analysis, and consolidation. These modes and the sequence in which
they are to be used are depicted in Figure IV-1. In this chapter,
each mode is explained; then illustrative classroom materials based
on the concept of power are provided.

During the revision mode, the teacher helps students to review
the conceptual definition, including its criterial attributes that
students learned according to the acquisition model. The teacher re-
minds students of the idea or topic that is at the focus of study.
The teacher cites the concept that was learned by its name, i.e., its
label. The teacher relates the concept to the idea or topic that is
being studied. The teacher aSks students to volunteer examples of the
concept and to restate the definition they have learned in their own
words. Finally, the teacher summarizes this review by restating the
conceptual definition and by asking students to attend to each criti-
cal dimension or criterial attribute for the concept. This mode is
extremely important. Students who acquired a concept yesterday may
have lost part of it by today. The revision mode thus establishes set
for a concept application lesson and reestablishes prior student
learning. The elements of the revision mode are summarized in
Figure IV-2.
75







76


Figure IV-1: A Concept Application Model


0
o.i

4O





P4










tg
-p


Yes No ?

Lesson or lesson segment introduced
by teacher
. Concept label presented frequently___ _
o Concept related to focus of instruction
E by teacher
Conceptual definition solicited (E/F)
Revision summarized by teacher
Differentiation pairs introduced
Pair 1 used
Pair 2 used
rd Pair 3 used
o Pair 4 used
Critical dimensions and/or criterial attri
butes of concept reviewed by teacher*
Generalization sets introduced
by teacher
Set l--Common examples identified
Third example differentiated
Set 2--Common examples identified
Third example differentiated
o Set 3--Common examples identified
o Third example differentiated
Set 4--Common examples identified
Third example differentiated
Critical dimensions and/or criterial attr
butes of concept reviewed by teacher __
Situation 1--Coqprehended
Analyzed
Situation 2--Comprehended
4, Analyzed
0 Situation 3--Comprehended,
Analyzed
Situation 4--Comprehended
Analyzed
Formal definition framed by students
Lesson closed
Lesson closure including review by
teacher
.. Lesson closure related lesson to
% focus of instruction
Lesson closure points way to simulations __ ___


Both critical dimensions and criterial attributes are used
with conjunctive concepts. Only criterial attributes are used for
disjunctive concepts.


"oI








0


H
0
02
<







*H






77


Figure IV-2:


The Revision Mode


Yes No ?

Lesson or lesson segment introduced
by teacher
Concept label presented frequently
Concept related to focus of instruction
by teacher
Conceptual definition solicited (E/F)
Revision summarized by teacher


During the range mode, students begin to establish the range of
discriminately different phenomena that may be recognized as similar.
This mode calls for four differentiation sets. Each set contains two
stories, which present social situations. The student is informed
that both stories are examples of the concept he is learning to apply.
The student responds by stating how the two stories are different.
The student may also be asked to state how the two stories are similar.
As was the case with the acquisition phases, this mode of inquiry is
teacher-paced. Once the four differentiation sets have been used, the
teacher again reviews the critical dimensions and/or criterial attri-
butes for the concept students are learning to apply. The elements of
the range mode are reviewed and summarized in Figure IV-3.


Figure IV-3: The Range Mode


Yes No ?

Differentiation pairs introduced __
Pair 1 used
Pair 2 used
Pair 3 used
Pair 4 used
Critical dimensions and/or criterial attri-
butes of concept reviewed by teacher







78


During the generalization mode of inquiry, the teacher continues
to stress criterial attributes and to help students determine the
range of phenomena that may be categorized correctly as instances of
the concept. The model suggests a minimum of four generalization sets.
Each generalization set contains three stories. Each story presents
an example of the concept students are learning to use and students
are so informed. Two of the examples stress one of the critical di-
mensions or criterial attributes of the concept. The third example
stresses another dimension or attribute of the concept. Students re-
spond by identifying the two common examples and by indicating how
these two examples differ from the third. When the four generalization
sets have been marked, the teacher again reviews the critical di-
mensions or criterial attributes for the concept students are learning
to apply. Hence, it is important to use a complete range of the di-
mensions or attributes of a concept in developing generalization sets.
This mode is also teacher-paced; however, it is likely to generate
more discussion than the previous mode. The elements of the generali-
zation mode are reviewed and summarized in Figure IV-4.


Figure IV-4: The Generalization Mode


Yes No ?

Generalization sets introduced
by teacher
Set 1--Common examples identified_
Third example differentiated___
Set 2--Common examples identified __
Third example differentiated__
Set 3--Common examples identified
Third example differentiated___ _
Set 4--Common examples identified
Third example differentiated .... .
Critical dimensions and/or criteria attri-
butes of concept reviewed by teacher


During the analytical mode, students use their knowledge of the
concept and their skill at applying it in order to explain social
events. The model again suggests four exercises, each of which is
called a "contextual situation." Each of these exercises contains
three components. The first component is a story presenting a social
situation. The second component is a list of comprehension questions
designed to help students understand the social situation. The third
component is a reaction guide according to which students explain how
the concept functions in the given social situation. Three further
comments about the analytical mode are warranted. First, if all four
contextual situations are used, the application model requires ap-
proximately two instructional periods to complete. Second, when






79


students have responded correctly to the exercises presented in this
mode, they summarize the definition of the concept, including its
critical dimensions or criterial attributes. This definition may di-
verge from the definition with which the teacher launched the acqui-
sition phase. The definition generated by students is to be evaluated
in terms of the social situations as analyzed, but not necessarily in
strict accordance with the original definition presented. Third,
students may be divided into small groups of five-to-seven with each
group analyzing one situation and then reporting its findings to the
total classroom group. This analytical mode is reviewed and summa-
rized in Figure IV-5.


Figure IV-5: The Analytical Mode




Yes No ?

Situation 1--Comprehended
Analyzed
Situation 2--Comprehended
Analyzed
Situation 3--Comprehended __
Analyzed
Situation 4--Comprehended
Analyzed
Formal definition framed by students


During the consolidation mode, the teacher reviews how students
have acquired and begun learning to use the concept. The teacher
again relates the concept to the idea or topic of instruction. If the
teacher intends to continue the study of the concept using personali-
zation activities, i.e., value sheets, the teacher indicates this in-
tention. In general, closing remarks are quite similar to the intro-
ductory remarks made during the revision mode. Given an increase in
student knowledge and skill, the consolidation mode is, however, the
more important of the two modes. The elements of the consolidation
mode are reviewed in Figure IV-6.


Figure IV-6: The Consolidation Mode




Yes No ?

Lesson closed
Lesson closure relates lesson to
focus of instruction
Lesson closure points way to simulations






80


Classroom Materials


Illustrative student activities for the differentiation, general-
ization, and analytical modes of concept application are provided on
the following pages. These materials are organized and sequenced as
they are presented to students. The reader may wish to review his
definition of power and respond to the student exercises in order to
increase his understanding of the skills demanded by each of these
modes.


Differentiation Mode: Pair 1


Directions:


Two stories are presented below. Both are examples of
power. Read the two stories carefully. Decide how these
two examples of power are different.


Many foreigners have been moving into certain areas of Costa Rica.
The residents of these areas object. The President of Costa Rica has
had new tax laws passed. As a result, Costa Rica has become less at-
tractive to foreigners. Fewer foreigners are moving to Costa Rica.
Some have left.


2


The people of Guatemala are proud of their Indian heritage. The
citizens of Guatemala are also worried. Too many pre-Colombian arti-
facts are being smuggled out of the country. In order to deal with
this problem, the National History Museum of Guatemala has created a
new medal for the government. The medal is given to those citizens
who turn in pre-Colombian artifacts.



Both stories are examples of power. In each instance, the be-
havior of people is influenced. How does the second story differ from
the first story?








WAIT to proceed until instructed to do so by your teacher.










Differentiation Mode: Pair 2


Directions:


The two stories that follow are examples of power. Read
them carefully. Decide how these two examples of power
are different.


Yesterday, the Peruvian government exiled a well known restaurant
owner. A government spokesman explained that the man was suspected of
smuggling drugs. "His continued presence in our country was a threat
to developing friendships with other nations. We hope others who may
be involved in drugs will learn from this example."


2


Three years ago, Dr. Jaime Velasco graduated from medical school.
At once, he went to the provinces to practice medicine. At least two
years of such service are required of all recent graduates. He had
always dreamed of the time when he might be a member of the staff of
the best hospital in Asuncion. Last week, as a result of his out-
standing work in provincial medicine, he was asked to join the staff
of the hospital located in Asuncion.


Both stories are
havior of a person is
from the first?


examples of power. In each instance, the be-
influenced. How does the second story differ


WAIT to proceed until instructed to do so by your teacher.


-- --


-- -- -


81






82


Differentiation Mode: Pair 3


Directions:


Two events are presented below. Each event is an example
of power. Study each story. Decide how these two ex-
amples of power are different.


Torrential rains pelted Punta del Este three weeks ago. As a re-
sult, two hundred homes lost their telephone service. Repairs have
not begun. Customers have rebelled. They have told the telephone
company, "When the telephones work, we will pay our bills. Not be-
fore." The telephone company has announced plans to begin repairs.


2


The barrio -- a mushrooming village of the poor recently arrived
from rural areas -- had become a blight on the fringes of a beautiful
capital city. Various methods had been tried to halt its growth --
with little success. Last September, workers called a general strike.
During this time of confusion, the Army sent troops into the village.
A number of persons who lived in the barrio were placed in trucks and
removed. No one knows anything about what happened to them. Persons
who live in the barrio have sent word of this event to members of their
families.


Both
havior of


stories are examples of power. In each instance, the be-
persons is influenced. How do the two stories differ?


WAIT to proceed until instructed to do so by your teacher.


--
--






83


Differentiation Mode: Pair 4


Directions:


Two more stories are printed below. Each story is an ex-
ample of power. Study each story. Then decide how the
two stories are different.


Manolo Gonza&ez, a driver for the Chimborazo Farmer's Cooperative,
has refused to drive his produce truck because members of the Coopera-
tive have said they will pay only one hundred soles for the service.
Gonz&lez has refused to drive until members of the Cooperative change
their mind.


2


The final game of the provincial soccer championship is to be
played this afternoon in Juarez Stadium. The Alcalde of Villa Maria
is an avid soccer fan. He has offered to hold a reception in his home
for all members of Villa Maria's soccer team, their relatives, and
their friends -- if they win the provincial championship.


Both stories are examples of power.
tries to influence the way others behave.
How do the two stories differ?


In both cases, a person
Yet they are different.


WAIT to proceed until instructed to do so by your teacher.






84


Generalization Mode: Set 1


Directions:


Three stories are presented below. All are examples of
power in that the behavior of some persons is being in-
fluenced by others. Two of the stories are very similar.
These two stories are marked with a plus sign (+). One
of the stories is quite different from the first two.
This story is marked with a zero (0). Read the stories
carefully. Then you are to answer the questions that
follow.


+ Garca is the overseer for a large latifundio. Last
crops were very good and his owner gave him a bonus.
lives if he works even harder, this year his reward
greater.


year the
He be-
will be


+ Ramon and his family are enjoying a long weekend at the beach.
Ram6n has an excellent record as a hard worker in a sugar
factory. In recognition of this, the government has given him
a vacation with all expenses paid.


0 Luis is having a hard weekend. The day is hot. Jail cells are
not comfortable. He has a long record of being late for work.
In his country, to be on time for work is a social and legal
duty.



All the stories are examples of power. Nevertheless the third
story differs from the first two.

1. How are the first two stories alike?





2. How does the third story differ from the first two?







WAIT to proceed until instructed to do so by your teacher.






85


Generalization Mode: Set 2


Directions:


Three social events are presented below. In each
instance, human behavior is influenced. Two of the
stories are quite similar. These are marked with a plus
sign (+). The third story is different from the first two
stories. This third story is marked with a zero (0).
Study the stories carefully. After studying them, answer
the two questions that follow.


This morning Pepito made a bad mistake. Although he knew his
cousins were coming to visit, he stayed away from home and
played with his friends. When his father heard of this he told
Pepito that there would be no ticket for the next soccer game.
Pepito intends to remember his family responsibilities next
time.


+ The director of the television station failed to interpret the
recent coup d',tat according to the point of view of the new
government. He did this despite the fact that leading families
of the nation support the change. The new director, it is be-
lieved, will be a wiser man.


O Dom Joao Azevedo, editor of a leading Brazilian newspaper,
writes editorials and prints cartoons that support the new
government of his country. He says, "I am secure." He expects
to keep his job.



Each of these events is an example of power.

1. The first two events are quite similar. How are they alike?





2. The third event is different from the first two. How is it
different?






WAIT to proceed until instructed to do so by your teacher.






86


Generalization Mode: Set 3


Directions:


Three political incidents are described below. Power is
used in each of the incidents. Two of the incidents are
quite similar and are marked with a plus sign (+). One
of the incidents differs from the first two. This third
and different incident is marked with a zero (O). Study
the three descriptions carefully.


+ For years trucks from El Salvador have used roads in
Seven years ago, tensions between the governments of
Salvador and Honduras increased to the point of war.
of Honduras have stated that trucks from El Salvador
use Honduran roads until differences between the two
are resolved.


Honduras.
El
Officials
may not
nations


+ Bolivia, a land-locked country, has had access to seaports
through Chile. Recently, Bolivia imposed a high import tax on
copper mined in Chile. Chilean officials have announced that
Bolivia, for the time being, may not have access to Chilean
seaports.


0 The government of PanamA has been attempting to expand its
fishing industry. Recently, an Ecuadorian tuna fleet entered
water claimed by Panama. A Panamanian gunboat fired upon one
Ecuadorian tuna ship, sinking it. The other ships left the
water claimed by Panama.



The two incidents marked with a plus sign are quite similar.
Explain how they are alike.




The third incident is different from the first two. How does it
differ?


WAIT to proceed intil instructed to do so by your teacher.