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Crippen, John K. signed typewritten letter to Zora Neale Hurston, Park Ridge, Ill. (2pp. 8 1/2 x 11). American Negro; co...
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Finding Guide: A Guide to the Zora Neale Hurston Papers
 Material Information
Title: Crippen, John K. signed typewritten letter to Zora Neale Hurston, Park Ridge, Ill. (2pp. 8 1/2 x 11). American Negro; communism. Enclosures.
Series Title: Correspondence
Physical Description: Archival
Language: English
Publication Date: 1955, Oct. 29
Physical Location:
Box: 1
Folder: 59
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Subjects / Keywords: Hurston, Zora Neale
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Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
System ID: AA00009755:00015

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Box 365,
Park Ridge, Ill.
Oct. 2S, 1955

M~iss Z~ora; Neale Hurston,
Eau Callie, Fla.

Dear Mliss H-urston:

Thank yoju for your f'ine letter of Oct. 24th. M~iy emibarraamen~t at
having assumed you to have been (a) a man and (b) a preacher fades
at the graciousness of your reply. And perhaps you can assume
these errors to have been a c~omplim-enlt.

I: amr sorryg to learn of the infection in your hand. I assuane this
waTs from fish scales. I got one, once, int the Gulf of Msexico,
hauling out several.hundred pounds of black and red troupers,
and not bothering to wear a canvass glove on my left hand.

I conlcur ~it~h most of your reflections on nThle Smile", excepting
that I tend to de-personalize such reflections. It is my opinion
that; men who are used by the Commnies, thle leftwingers, and the
political opportunists, are for the most part men of less than
superior intelligence, and are so selected: because of ths er
attribute. Nlow, with respect to Com~munism, it is -my belief that
in all fields in which the greatest penetration has been made,
and fron~ters, "fall guys", and party-liaison hias been achiieved,
has followed a simple principle: Those who front for certain
lef-twing objectives have not been selelt3ied for their brains
(wvith some notable exceptions;) but for their lack of superior
intfelligence. Such people can be built up, through public
relations, publicity, and propaganda. witnesss the number of
men in the past years who never even wrote their ow~n speeches.
The pronouncements wrere not of their own, but of those nervee
Centers" (to use Senator fMcCarthy's term) who weree following
"-definite courses, and could use the gullible "frionters"~ to
achieve such. courrses,. provided these fronters~did not do their
own thinking.

I have seen thiss again and again in the field of' Religion,
Book-writing and article writing:, aidvertising,, acting, and so
on, ad infinitem. The modern school superintendent, for example
(at least i~n many, many cases) are not mieofserobais
but men wrho take orders. Their pronounce nts come oe
liaison group as Association of Second i School 4 les, and
so on. J ]"
We need men in public office who can estoceadoerWo
will not take dictation, whlo will' not become mere fig~urehieads for
the schaemers and planners who could never succeed if their identity
and purposes were :made known. Of such stuff, in my opinion, w~as_
forgive mie -- is Senator Joe HolC~arthy made although2 I do not, advocate
hin for president). The I.anions, Jeaners, Brick~ers, and so on.

IL note that y-ou are going to have reprints -of your find letter
made. Please let us .:now whe~~n theyr are available. Possibyy wre can
help find a wray to finance them. Write me airmail' (w~hen your
hand is well enough to punch the typewrriter or write lonighand)








-2-


and let us know how you plan to have the reprint-s made. Perhaps
you could: name a miodest price, and let N~ational Reprint Service
handle a part of them for you -- we to forward whatever we secure
on such a basis. (Note enclosed, whiichl shows our reprint; distribution
method). I must secure an oka~y on this from a very efficient and
dedicated Chlristian ladyl in Pittsbaurgh, but believe she w~ill concur
in this. TJe are not in business to make money -- only to help the
cause.

~~e have on hand a number of good reporint-s, some of which wre could
distribute for you, to your colored- friends. In the near future,
if you are interested, I shall send you ,ome, including sane works
by Dr. Alfred P, Hiaake, sho now lives in Largo, Florida (formerly
Maayor of Park Ridge), and if you have not seen it, would like.
tro send you, with my compliments, a copy of his splendid bookr,
"FITHrr~; ANDr FEaCT".

Your clear thinking and opinions vesriies ;What I ha~ve long knowTnr --
that the H:egro mind is no different fromrthe white mind. My~ greatest
resen~tment ils a abnst those political oppvortunists wh place
artificial barriers to cultivating~ serenity of th~ught~s, ideals,
and beliefs constantly playing one set; of people or group against
another in the typical "p~ressure-group*r fashion, whiiichi seems to
have become the! fad today. You seem to .understand this truth as w~ell
as -- perhaps better than, -- most of us wh~lit~e people.

Paul L~awrence Dunbar has been and is one of my favorite poets, aund
I: believe his poem Th;ren LI.alindjr Sings"' is a great ITegro classic.
I wcrote a poem. (published in an. Ameriean anthology in 'a6) called&
"Eachl Idle Thought*n, w~rhich wais set to music and' sung by a~great
iregsro tcenor, Lawrrence Aimoreuxi, oveD a nationwide chain. Amoreux;,
I: understand, died some years ago. Hle wa7s nev-er idolized by thie
Stupe-Dupes and s;nthetic Sob-Sisters woho earn their livigg telling
people howr to run their lives -- such as have taken the IHegro
Comruiie Softies like that traitor, Ralph Bunche.

You hav~e added a new wuord to my vocabu~lary -- "sank~le". Thait is
indeed a ;;ood one .and I never heard it before! Yes, I shall "LSankle"
over to pay you a visit, whlen I am downwn Florida w~ay*,.observing
all. the proper amienities and protocols...

You will note our "Grass Roots" feature mentioned your letter (which
I see the igrea~t: "HUI.iki~ :~~l EViIS" alsoo quoted, and wYe do like your
expression -- "There is no wrhimper in thne Americtah I~ndian*b, and that
that is your position. I should like to add, there~is no..utim~iper
in the Ameriomaa HIeg;ro!
With? kindest rre.ards, and trusting you will take good care of your-
self and that; hand, so trhat you may t e l;;ia )idingsg for man: cy~ears
to come. 7
Cordia V, p

jke / 76n JI. Cr up~







PROGRAM


FOR


PAT RIOTS


*Condensed Study of
WE, THE PEOPLE
Platform and Action Program



From Conference Reports *
Written and Approved by
State and District Delegates at
Constitution Day Convention
Sept. 17-18, 1955, Chicago, Illinois


*Reports in full published in Oct. 15 issue, FREE
ENTERPRISE, 32-12 Crove Ave., Berwyn, Ill.



Additional copies of this book: 10c each, 50 for 54.00,
100 for 57.00, 500 for 525.00, 1,000 for $40.00. Write to
WE, THE PEOPLE, 35 E. Walcker Dr., Chicago 1, Illinois.







PROGRAM FOR PATRIOTS


ANSWER THIS POLL
1. Will you start now, as a Founder, in devote your time and energies
to help build WE, THE PEOPLE inta a movement of millions of
Americlei dedicated to this platform and this program of action?
AN5W~kr/
S2. How many copies of this book, PROGRAM FOR PATRIOTS (pries an
f: ronll do you wanl? .. ANSWER: ..
3. Do you agree that we should present pelilions to the conventions
bothh parll .gest iba orillions (Pr1dlatiolic Americans,ids.mar

i seetirng we wld fa vorijowrrl ve Dlleal s Welfare Staters," or
ANSWER:.
4.Far which of the following Americans would you voe focr Pre-
ident or Vice-President? ICHECK 2 Republicans n eort)
Sen. Bricker Sen. Byrd
Frank Holman Sen. Eastiannd
Sen. Jenner Gov. Lalusche
Sen. Knowland Dean Manion
Gov. Lee Gov. Shivers
Sun. MCalrthy Heml uTalmadge

OTHERS ...
s. Whom would you nominate as State Chairman of WE, THE PEOPLE
in your state?
- Name.
Address .
S6 Will you make up a list of pairiols in your Congressional district.
and call on them to join WE, THE PEOPLE now? ...........
7. Can you devote weekends to help organilE yDUr StalO ......
B. If you cannot be very active in this work, you can still assist with
a contribution to help defray the expense of mailings and the
travel cost of organizers. If so, how much? ...
I enclose 5 .. .. for. . .. .. ....books.
Ol enclaleO .. ... ... a a contribution.
PRINT YOUR NAME and mail lo WE, THE PEOPLE, 35 E. Wacker Drive,
Chicargo 1, Illinois.
Name ...... .... ....... ..: .. ....... .. .. .....Cong. Dist. No. .....
Address

city ........ .iliation form an other r ids


WSHY W~E HELD A CONVENTION

Over 600 of America's patriot leaders, from 38.
states, met in convention here because they and
millions of others are disturbed by the way our gov-
ernment and other institutions bave been infiltrated
and influenced by left-wing forces working to bring
us into socialism and world government.

We are concerned because we have too fewv states-
men left in America today; and too many selfish
politicians who readily yield to the will of the pres-
sure groups. And the left-wing organizations today
exert the most, powerful pressure!

Politicians of both parties have come under so-
cialistic influence. The result is more government
subsidies, continued foreign aid, heavier public
debt and taxation, and continued destruction of our
American economy wvith its individual incentives
and opportunities,

We, the people, under our political system, are
responsible for our government--good or bad. It is
bad today because we, the people, have too long
neglected our political responsibilities. We have
nearly lost the power of authority that goes with that
responsibility. Others who stepped into our place-
"social planners," heads of organized pressure
groups, bureaucrats--now wield vast power over
Our lives. We, the people, must regain that power
in order to plan our owrn lives and provide a future







14 PROGRAMh FOR PATRIOTS

BOARD OF DIRECTORS 1955-1956

Elected at Convention, Sept. 18, 1955


I PROGRAMl FOR PATRIOTS 3

of opportunity for our children! That's why we met
in Chicago!

Because most politicians respond to the greatest
pressure groups, we,, the people, met to build the
greatest pressure group of all! To organize a voting
" bloc of millions of patriotic Americans from both
parties to demand conservative candidates in both
parties! When w~e hold the power of life or death
over the politicians, then they will respond to our
demands and again represent us, the people!




WE'E, THE PEOPLE UNITED


At this convention we organized WE, THE PEO-
PLE as a movement for non-partisan political ac-
tion. This is no third party but an independent ac-
tion movement, free from the dictates of both par-
ties. With the strength of millions of voters we will
be able to command the politicians. The left-wing
pressure groups, although small, have influenced
both parties in the past because they are well-or-
ganized. The patriotic Americans are in the major-
ity but they have never been organized for political
action. This is their hour! WYE, THE PEOPLE
groups are now being organized throughout the
country for that purpose!

At this national Constitution Day~ Convention in
Chicago some of the best conservative minds of our
times w~ere brought together to write the platform
and lay the plans for action for WE, THE PEOPLE.


*Dr. Emrnes E. Anthony, Jr.
Ft. Worth, Tex.
Waie J lrandwi.

Mary coin
summit, Miss.

Pro id n e,r R.
'E. Gordon Fox
Chicago, Ill.
'Capt. Eugene R. Guild
Glenwood Springs, Col.
Merwin K. Hart
New York, N. Y.
Harry T. Everingham, Executive


Jerome Joachim
Berwyn, III.

.AMlin o,r Va.
Mlr. Louis L. Minor
Memphis, Tenn.
Drd lmer V. McCarthy
William R. Schneider
St. Louis, Mo.
Dan Smool
Dallus, Tex.
*Willis E. Stone
Los Angeles, Cal
Diredlor, Chicago, III


eacE ght drer rts wew elected to roor onter ede sxreltaea in
seven were elected as directors at large.


ol~~ratr w~ill be e~lecrea tbY the BoardT orT Di~re. tol r after cOm.
milittefk bave I. .parea rigT-inas and other orpanzalion jirall
erate chairman. rie-chairman,, srcr.raryr and treasurer. States
muay onae dlistriCt o)Pr ounty chairmrn to hclyp rOfflnReG 10081
groups la the preciners wrho will elect their ow-n off~icers.

Our Present Position
The polelces of the mnjs who follows Eisenhowerr Into the
Presidenes will decidet c bnr as au naro 11 r rgen aetions

mural bankrurrey if wre c~ntinul. along the road of the w~elfar
atntedend Internnatonal entanogl mens toward beetalism and



Vilce-President who, if elected, will return this nation to c'on-
stitnrianal government to preserve our Am~rienn wvag o' Ilife
and individual treed~om. W1il you hplp to get hundlreds to sign
this petliron:-






PROGRAIfT FOR PATRIOTS 13

A Personal Appeal

Our enemy's forces are strong. Our strength willl
come from millions of Americans who have stayed
home from the polls because they were disgusted
w~ith both parties. Over 58 million stayed home in
Sthe last election. Just a third of these will give us
the largest voting bloc in America! In addition, we
will have millions of other Americans who are sick
Sof voting for "'the lesser of tw~o evils" and will
eagerly join us in demanding candidates wre can
vote for!
Our enemies have millions of dollars in their
treasury. We are starting with nothing but faith in
Divine Providence andl the knowledge that Amer-
ican ideals are still held dear in the hearts of mil-
lions of our fellow citizens--dedicated patriots who
will join together to again make self-government a
Reality in America. This may be our last chance to
save the America wve love for ourselves and for our
children! The election of 1956 may be our best
chance to rout the forces that would take us into
Socialism and world government. Will you join us
now to help make this movement strong to w~in this
victory?
We need every American to join with us who will
dedicate himself to preserve American free enter-
prise, with limited government, for personal prog-
ress and individual responsibility under God. With
millions of patriots dedicated to these principles, we
cannot fall!
Will you be one of the founders of this movement?
This Is your call to defend America's future. This
is your place in 'history!


PROGRAlIt FOR PATRIOTS


THIS IS OUR PLATFORM
PREAMTBLE:
We, the people, having recognized that our right
to Life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness are given
to us by God, are dependent upon the United States
Constitution to protect these God-given rights.
WE, THE PEOPLE shall actively oppose all at-
tempts to substitute atheism, alien ideologies or
anti-Christian traditions in place of our Christian
concepts.
The authors of our Constitution had an unusually
shrewd comprehension of the dangers of concentra-
tion of governmental authority. They sought to in-
sure, for all time, that the Federal Government
could not attain a position of dominance over Amer-
ican citizens but that it would ever remain an instru-
ment for the preservation of law and order and that
it would be subservient to the people.
Under this Constitution, unique in history, the
Unidled State dev loed from a weak nation into a
For fifteen decades the Constitution was upheld
by~ our representatives in government. But, during
recent decades, we have witnessed evasion, selective
enforcement and total revision of our Constitution
via the back-door of court-interpretation As a re-
sult, government by men Is being craftily substi-
tuted for government by law; powers not delegated
to the Federal Government are being grossly
usurped; countless unauthorized functions are being
undertaken by Federal Government and we are rap.
idly trending toward the very dictatorship which
our Constitution was specifically designed to pre-
vent.
The world is now heavily engaged in a "cold war"
between the principles of dominant government un-
der which people are pawns in the control of their
leaders as exemplified in the USSR, and the prin-







12 PROGRAILI FOR PATRIOTS

11. To appraise all candidates for office by their
performance and their stand on the planks in our
platform.

12. To stimulate broader participation in govern-
ment, by the people, by concentrating public atten-
tion and our effort toward fundamental principles
rather than fringe issues.

13. To develop an umbrella movement under which
members of all patriotic organizations can unite
their~ efforts in a spirit of teamwork for effective
results.

141. To voice a presently suppressed viewpoint and
to serve a constructive role as critic of the current
one-party system.

15. To follow~ through on the performance of candi-
dates after elections, to back them up where war-
ranted and to remind them of their promises when
necessary.

17. To alert Americans to the dangers threatening
their traditional American freedoms through social-
ism, communism and World Government.

18. To educate and inspire the American people to
take action to protect their ow~n future and their
children's heritage of freedom and opportunity.


morlTo rdestli mo and avdhehrmn tat 11g 1py cptl
practiced by our founding fathers and implanted by
them in our original Constitution.

20. To stimulate public demand to preserve the sov-
eeign rights sofa thebS atnes tob r-sthabs rtahe sy

legislative, executive and judicial powers in the
Federal Government and to restore the United States
Constitution to its original function of protecting
individual freedom through limited government.


PROGRAMS FOR PATRIOTS 5

ciples of restrained, limited government under
which people are sovereign citizens, as conceived
by our founding fathers andi exemplified in the
United States Constitution.
Despite our pretense of opposition to the concept
of dictatorial, dominant government, the United
States is currently abdicating its position as a obam-
pion of its owin Constitutional principle of Limited
government and is increasingly adopting the Com-
munist concept of omnipotent government.
It is apparent that only decisive and fundamental
action can halt this vicious trend in America to-
ward a socialized state in which the citizen will be
dependent upon the will of his rulers and have
neither liberty nor security.
It is necessary that we, the people, now take ac-
tion to regain the rights usurped by the Federal
Government and demand that they be returned to
the states and to the people!
To this end, wre propose the following':


PLATFORM
i States' Rights. Return to the States the rights
and responsibilities which have been usurped by
the Federal Government. The States must have the
sole power to regulate such matters as (1) conduct
of their schools, (2) racial problems, (3) voting
qualifications of their citizens, and (41) enactment
and enforcement of their own criminal laws.
2. Interstate and Foreign Commerce- The pow-
er given Congress in the Constitution to regulate
commerce wvith foreign nations and among the sev-
eral States has been extended by Federal mnterpre-
tation so that nearly all labor, business and agricul-
ture have been subjected to Federal regulation and
control and the power of the States to regulate com-






PROGRAILI FOR PATRIOTS


PROGR~lkI FOR PATRIOTS


merce within their owvn boundaries has been
usurped. To end this abuse of power, w~e favor an
amendment to the Constitution providing that the
Federal Government's right of regulation shall ex-
tend only to exchange of goods and services between
citizens of different states and between Americans
and other nationals, and shall not extend to rela-
tionships between emnploy~er and employee, or con-
ditions under which the goods andl services are pro-
duced within a state, or to prices charged therefor,
or to the carrying on of any business by the Federal
Government.
3. Spending. There must be drastic reduction in
Federal spending, and all improper or unnecessary
projects and jobs must be eliminated, so that the
Federal budget may be balanced. We favor an
amendment to the Constitution limiting Federal ex-
penditures in any fiscal year to the estimated re-
ceipts for that year, except in times of emergency to
be determined by~ a three-fourths vote of Congress.
To this end we favor an amendment such as the
Byrd-Bridges Amendment revised so as to control
expenditures rather than appropriations.
We favor further an amendment to the Constitu-
tion limiting the spending power of Congress.
4. Taxation. The heavy progressive rate fea-
tures of our income tax law~s can and must be elim-
inated without impairing the power of Congress to
raise revenue, and the States must be given the
exclusive right to impose death and gift taxes. Such
a change in our tax law's would over the years in-
crease national wealth, assist greatly in saving our
free enterprise system, free the States and the peo-
ple from Federal domination, and aid in preserving
our system of constitutional government. We favor
an amendment to the Constitution, such as the
Reed-Dirksen Amendment, limiting the power of
Congress to impose taxes on incomes, inheritances
and glits.


ACTION PROGRAllI of We, The People


1. To locate and list all A\merican citizens, regard-
less of party, wh'iose political beliefs correspond
with those of We. The People.

2. To form and aid precinct organizations in every
congressional district, through which conservative
citizens can work together to promote our patriotic
cause.

3. To supply these groups with helpful information,
materials and speakers and political training.

4. To nominate and elect delegates to conventions
and candidates at all levels, who will resist the sub-
version of America to the status of a Welfare State.

5. To provide a national clearing house for the
profitable exchange of ideas and experiences be-
twieen groups.

6. To advise and assist local..state and regional
groups upon request.

7. To provide documented research to support our
stand.

8. To develop leaders who will promote unity and
sustain political action for the advancement of our
cause.

9. To coordinate the efforts of all state and local
groups in national problems and provide national
support to local efforts.
10l. To develop strategy toward political realign-
ment of parties to enable conservatives from both
of the present parties to pool their efforts to gain
their common objectives.


- 1






PROGRAMl FOR PATRIOTS


PROGRAM FOR PATRIOTS


19. Fair Employvment Practices Legislation. We
believe in the equal rights of all under our laws, in-
cluding the right to choose one's associates. We con-
demn the so-called Fair Employment practices leg-
islation.
20. Immigration. Indiscriminate Immigration
cannot be tolerated. The MicCarran-Walter Act must
be preserved and enforced.
21. MIoney. Under the Constitution Congress has
the sole power to comn money; and regulate the value
thereot, and of foreign coin. We demand that Con-
gress resume its Constitutional powe.


A Program for Action
Unlike other patriotic conventions that met mere-
ly' to hear speeches and pass resolutions, we met
and planned political action Action at elections
and between elections. action in the states, the dis-
tracts and the precincts. Action at state capitals and
at our nation's capital. Action to elect delegates to
conventions and regain leadership in both political
parties. Action to back up conservative right-wing
politicians and r-e-elect them. Action to defeat left-
wingers in both partles.Action to purge both parties
of left-wing pressures and return them to American
principles and ideals.
The general assembly of this conference heard
many libertarian speakers present such plans of
action for WE, THE PEOPLE. The Action Commit-
tee received synopses of these plans, heard them
discussed by their authors, and also considered sug-
gestions submitted through the mails. From this
came a broad plan which will serve as a guide to
the governing board of WE, THE PEOPLE. Our
present action will be directed at the forthcoming
political caucuses and conventions and the 1956 elec-
tion.


5. Reform of Electoral System. The method of
electing a President and Vice-President should be
changed by an amendment to the Constitution, sueb
as the Mundt-Coudert Amendment, providing for
election of each presidential elector in the same
manner as his counterpart member of Congress.
This amendment is designed to take away the ex-
cessive power now exercised by the minority groups
in the larger cities under the present electoral sys-
tem.
6. Constitutional A9mendment Procedure. We
favor adoption of an amendment, such as the Reed-
Walter Amendment, giving to the states an addi-
tional method for proposing amendments to the
Constitution. This is to protect the power of the
States to amend the U. S. Constitution.

a. oITeauty--MakiagPnmer. it favor tadop~tio kof
Amendment, to prevent the changing of our Consti-
tution and our domestic lawi by the mere exercise
of the treaty-making power.
8. Government Competition with Private Enter-
prise. The use by the Government of the taxpay~-
ers' money and Government credit to compete wirth
any form of private enterprise must be stopped.
We favor an amendment to the Constitution to pre-
vent such abuse of Government power.
9. Delegation of Pow~ers. The Constitutional
powers and duties of each branch of the government
shall be exercised and performed only by such
branch, and may not be delegated, even in time of
wa3r, to any other branch.
10. Construing Constitution. The duty of the
Federal Courts is to construe the Constitution, not
to rewrite or revise it. The Courts' practice of re-
w~riting the Constitution must be stopped, and an
appropriate amendment to the Constitution to ac-
complish this purpose must be adopted.





PROGRAMl FOR PATRIOTS


PROGRAM FOR PATRIOTS 9


11. Communism and Socialism. Communism
and Socialism have no place in the American way
of life. Communists and Socialists must be cim-
pletely eliminated from public payrolls.
12. Housing, Education and Medicine. The Fed-
eral Government's powers and duties must be re-
duced if individual liberty is to be preserved. Aid in
such matters as housing and education is not the
function of the Federal Government. We are also
unalterably opposed to the socialization of medicine.
13. Monopolies. We favor the equal application
of anti-trust lawvs to all monopolies, whether of busi-
ness, labor, agriculture or cooperatives which en-
croach upon the rights and freedoms of our people,
14. Labor. We emphasize the importance of labor
to our economy and wVe affirm that the wrage earner
has the same rights and responsibilities as other
persons or organizations. This includes the right to
organize and to work or not to work, free from in-
terference by any individual, organization or govern-
ment agency. It Includes also-the right to bargain
collectively, the freedom to strike when such strikes
will not seriously endanger the national economy,
and the right to join or not to join a labor union as
a condition of employment.
Legislation pertaining to relationships between
employer and employee shall be within the province
of State and local governments only. The only juris-
diction the Federal Government may have in this
area shall be for the protection of life and property
when such protection cannot properly be given by
the State or local government.
15. Foreign Aid. Billions of dollars of taxpayers'
money have been and are still being given away to
foreign countries. The effect of this has been to
maintain the Socialist governments of those coun-
tries and to prevent the balancing of our Federal
budget. Further foreign aid should be confined to


strictly essential military purposes which are in the
interests of the United States.
16. Foreign Policy. (a) For years our foreign
policy has been against the interests of the United
States. Our betrayal of Nationalist China led to the
Korean War with 150,000 American casualties. Our
continued appeasement of Communist enemies will
cause still further injury to this country and endan-
ger our existence as a free nation. W'e should w~ith-
out further delay withdraw from the United Nations,
demand removal of the United Nations headquarters
and all its agencies from American soil, and term-
inate diplomatic relations .with the Soviet Union
and her satellites.
(b) The Congress shall make no treaty which
would deny to any, American citizen, acting for the
United States government in a foreign country, any'
of ihis rights as an American citizen, including his
right to trial by courts of American jurisdiction.
The Status of Forces treaties must be rescinded.
17. Foreign Trade Agreements. Under our Con-
stitution Congress, and not the Executive, has the
power to impose t~ariffs. The present Reciprocal
Trade Agreements Act delegates this power to the
Executive contrary to the provisions of the Con-
stitution. We demand Its repeal.
We are opposed to this country's becoming a
member of the International Trade Organization,
or any other international organization, where such
action might surrender to a world bureaucracy fun-
damental powers over our own economy.
18. Agriculture. We recognize the great import-
ance of agriculture to our economy and the need for
an orderly return to a free market. We are opposed
to subsidies of all kinds and to the regimentation of
farms and farmers as contemplated by Government
planners. Farmers must be left tree from Gov~ern-
ment control and coercion.









































































E AMERICAN
UY AMERICAN
BOYCOTT COMMUNISM


AS PREDICTED IWN THIS COL-
UMN over a year ago, the Demo-
crat control of Congress, with the
aid of internationalist one-worlder
Republicans, and a President whose
knowledge of the Communist con-
spiracy is but a trifle better than
that of Roosevelt or Truman, would
have and has had the effect of
leading us back to an aniazing
softness-to-Communismu. The firing
of an experienced and seasoned
.Anti-Communist, "Senator Joe,"
and replacement, by a far less ex-
perienced Democrat has caused the
expected to happen.
WE A3RE NOWV FACED DAILY
WITH THE PARADOX of spending
billions for defense against Com-
munism; while, at the same time,
giving in to every whim, of the
Communists. Our administration
is buying reams of their "me-too"
propaganda. "If we have it, they
have it only better." The re-
sult: "They will spend themselves
to destruction." Lenin said that of
us, back in 1917. And our Social-
ist planners -- always soft to Com-
munism are no match for the
Communist conspirators.
WE HAVE SOME ANTI-OOM[-
MUNISTS in name only, striking-
ly like the "anti-Comnmunists" who
found their way into the Voice of
America and Radio Free Europe.
We have such gigantic frauds as
"Fund for the Republic," allegedl-
ly fighting Communism, but a co-
lossal, tragic fraud.
THEER~E ARIIE, OF COURSE,
many good men left in the Con-
gress. But their's is the "stil,
small voice" unheard by the
majority of politicians, and labor
leaders, educationists, religionists,
entertainers, and so on, who have
turned politicians. We have many
highly-paid propagandists spread-
ing Communist-inspired messages
.. UNIESCO), UIN, WVorld Labor
Conferences, and so on. A rather
sorry spectacle!
BUT -- MAi NO MISFTAKE
ABOUT THIfS The Grass Roots
of America are beginning to stir.
There is a re-awakening that is
almost miraculous to see. It is
evidenced in "letters to the edi-
tors" .. Men and women spring-
ing to the defense of persecuted


victims of both. Communism. and
bureaucracy (Lucille and Manuel
Miller; the Finn twins, and others).
It is seen in many meetings, held
by informed men and women, in-
forming others. The gallant fight
of The Vigilant Women, the Minute
Women, and many other groups.
It is evidenced in such publica-
tions as National Republic, Free-
man, Human Events, Capsule,
Free Men Speak, Free Enterprise,
and so on.
AN;D THRE IS "WE- THBE
REOiP~lE!"
~POI'DICIAS HIAiD BETTER
LISTEN TO THGESE AMERICANS,
for there is an election comig in
'56. There is talk of "K~nowland's
for US, We're For Knowland"; of
possible working coalition arrange-
ments between Jeffersonian Demo-
crats (~Gov. Allan Shivers, Sena-
tor Byrd) and good, solid Repub-
licans. Stickers are, appearing on
envelopes abd posteaards. They
show the temper and growing
awareness of the American people:
"Do You Want Milton Eisenhower
For A Second Term?" .. "To
The Sticks In Fifty-Six," are but
a few. (I have samples of over 40
in my files.)
AMERICA IS .AWAILE~NING. And
more evidence is in a definite plan
(much of it already put into effect)
for BOYCOTTIN COMMUNISM!
The Plan
TH PLAN FOR BO~YCOTTIN~G
COMMICUNISM is not solely this
writer's creation. More especial-
ly, it is gleaned from the hundreds
and hundreds of fine, loyal, in-
formed Grass Roots Americans.
They are seasoned, thoughtful, in-
formed citizens who know what is
going on, and what must be done
to correct the amazing "drift to
the left."
FROM THESE PEOPLE, repre-
sentative of the great majority of
"thinking Americans," comes this
simple and' yet potentially tremend-
ous plan for defeating Communism.
It will work because it relies
upon drying up the source of Com-
munism's power. It will work
because it is based upon a know-
ledge that Communism -- deadly
efficient when it has other than
its own resources to feed upon -


becomes a gargantuan of ineffie-
iency when its principle source of
nurture-eapitalism-is removed,
BOYCOTTING COMM UNISEM,
Americans know, can be accom~
polished by the following means:
S(1) A list must be prepared for
lall goods and services which either
directly or indirectly (~as through
English trade) feeds Communist
economy and therefore its war-
making potential. "Made in the
13ritish Colony of Hong Kong," for
example, should be a signal for
immediate boycott. (Many of the
wicker items, as car back-rests
nlow sold in W~algreen, are also
made in America Florida, and
also the Philippines).
(2) Businessmen and firms, in-
cluding advertisers, must firmly
resolve and translate into ACTION,
their refusal to purchase sizh
goods or services.
(3) Internationalists and Olie-
Worlders -- with their eyes on the
left end of the rainbow and its
pot-of-gold must be replaced in, na-
tional affairs.
(4) Since certain newspapers and
magazines, radio and TV shows
:have consistently favored "soft-
ness-to-Communism" (as admnis-
sion of Red China, repeal orf all
Barriers to trade and admission of
,any and all refugees, etc.) these
must be replaced with American
"thought and American ideals ..
turned from a negative to a posi-
tivie force. An alert, aroused citi-
zenry alone can do this. "The
other fellow" cannot do it alone
(5) Leftwing newspapers, circu-
lating and publishing firms, their
ex ecutive s, advertising men
agents, and all, must be made to
feel the last of American public
opinion. Authorities have tireless-
"ly, over the years, gotten the facts.
IThese facts AIRE available. We
know who most of the rotten apples
.are, spoiling the "good apples."
The American public must be made
. to demand the good, not the bad.
(6) The entertainment medium-


always a vast source of revenue
for the lefties must be cleaned
out. This job has only begun.
~(7) Not only must Communism,
but softness- to ommunismn, be
stomped out. Don't be fooled by
Commies disguised as "Lambassa-
dors of good wml," as in the pres-
ent farce of exchange of delegates.
Softness-to-Communism, too, must
be boycotted.
(8) ALL FIIELDS must be clean-
ed of these "softies" entertain-
menrt, politics, education, religion,'
social service, civil service, inter-
national affairs, and I hope --
that great nest of international in-
trigue, the United Nations. (It it
has been of help to the cause of
peace, why do the Commies want:
'Red China in? Answer that one,
you pro-UN dreamers.)

AS AN PIN~TEsELY PI1AICTI-
OAL ~BEBBFG~INN to this program,
American business men and wom-
en over 40 firms -- have al-
ready instituted a ~BOIYCOT~T COM-
MUNISM OAMPA~2IG;N. One ex-
ample is the great American firm,
United Specialties. On every pur-
chase order the following appears:
cA~cceptance of this purchase or-
der implies the following condi-
tions: Goods and/or services fur-
nished by the supplier, to the best
of his knowledge and belief, have
not been produced in whole or in
part by slave, forced, or captive
labor in Communist or Communist-
dominated countries; and shall not
have been mmled, mined, manufac-
tured, assembled, processed, or
otherwise handled or transported
by or through Communist or Com-
munist-dominated countries."
BE AMER~ICAN! BUY AMEEi-~
CAN! BOY~COTPT COMMllUNJISM!
(Comments welcome: Address--
"Bo~yco~tt Communism Committee,
AACAL, Box 365, Park Ridge, Ill.")
Reprints at cost: 1%c ea. Ad-
dress' Nat'1 Reprint Service, Box
305, Park Ridge, Il.


FACTSC~ AND FANCIES

By John K. Crippen

"A Practical Plan For Boycotting Communism"







(Not printted at Government expense%







@ong atssional word~

UniedStaesPROCEEDINGS AND DEBATES OF THE 8 d CONGR ESS, SECOND SESSION




The Great Conspiracy to Destroy the


United States


SPEECH
or
HON. USHER L. BURDICIC
9- .. oFNORTH DAKOTA
IN THE HOUsE OF REPRESENTATIVES
WTednesday/, April 28; 1954
The SPEAK(ER pro tempore. Under
previous order of the House, the gentle-
man from North Dakota, E1Vr. BURDICr3
is recognized for 30 minutes.
IVr. BURDICK(. 1Wr. ~Spea~ker,. there
can be no doubt that there now exists
a widespread understanding andagree-
ment made between the agents of this
Government and the United Nations aba
North Atlantic Tr1eaty Organization to
build a world government, and to make
the United States a part of it, regard-
less of our Constitution, laws, and tradi-
tions. ,This is to be' done in the -name
of peace, but will result in the total de-
struction of our liberty. The agents
representing the United States may not
be deliberately trying to do this treason-
able work, but the best that can, be said
for them is that they are dupes. Some
mighty important people who are United
States citizens are not only going along
with this scheme, but are daily and
hourly contributing all their efforts in
that direction.
What proof do we have to back up
this general statement? The purpose
of this speech is to lay this proof before
the American people,
First of all, the people of the United
States were so completely sick of war
after World War II that these schemers
found a,fertile field to exploit. They
appealed to churches, schools, and every
other organization they could reach, on
the basis that the way ~to secure peace
in the world was to organize a United
Nations group, and that through the
machinery which they proposed to set
298497-560221


up wars could be stopped before they
started. It seemed hike a plausible idea,
and not knowing the sinister purpose
behind the move, millions of people sup-
ported the suggestion.
The first move was made at' San Fran-
cisco, where many nations met,' drew up
a charter,. and submitted that charter
to the Senate of the United States for
approVaI RS a treaty.
SThis document had none of the ear-
marks of a treaty, because the Supreme
-Court of the Ufnited S~tates has held in
many cases that a treaty is an agree-
ment made between nations, to do or
not to do particular things,. In the case
.of the Charter of the United Nations, it
was not an agreement between nations.
It was an agfreeme~nt made' by the agents
of several -governments, and there is no
contention froin anly quarter that the
-United Nations at that timae was a na-
tion with which we could make a treaty
agreement. The dark forces behind this
move knew that the United Nations wa~s
hot a nation with which we cottld make
a treaty, but intended to make it an in-
tegral power at the first opportunity.
How these forces for evil planned to make
the United.Nations nation is clear now,
since they propose at this time to build
a world government by simply amend-
ing the Charter of t~he United Nations.
Who were the principal movers at San
Francisco for this United Nations Char-
ter? Who wrote the charter, and who
.had the most to do about shaping its
provisions? The answer is that the Rus-
sian Communists and Alger Hiss, a rep-
resentative of our Sta~te Department,
were the prime movers and schemers in
arranging its provisions. That is the
same Alger H-iss who was convicted for
perjury when he denied sending secret
-material to the Soviet Union representa-
tives. Its very beginning gave this docu-
ment a bad odor.


The universal approval of. a, plan to
preserve world peace had not- worn::Off
,and the facts were yet unknown when:
the Senate was called upoh to approve'
the United Nations Charter. The senti-
ment for peace was so- strong that only
two Senators refused to approve the
charter. If the question were to come
up now, a great majority would say
"NO."
,}f the real purpose of this charter was
to outline a method to secure and pre-
:serve world peace, why was it necessary
in that charter to make an assault upon
the Constitution of the United States?
Are we not already a pea~ce-loving na-
tion, without having to rely upon the.
'Soviets and Hiss?
Here you see again that world peace
wa~s not the object of this scheme at all,
The real purpose was to build a world
government, controlled by the Commu-
nists and their dupes in the! United
States.
As soon as this charter was approved
the courts of the Umited States began to
hear about it. In the Fujii case in Call-
fornia, the Charter of the United Na-
tio~ns was substituted for the laws of the
State of California, and that remained
so for several months, until a higher
court overruled the court that made this
finding. It was a precarious situation,
-depending upon the whim of a court.
Again, in the Steel Seizure case, where
the Supreme Court was searching our
Constitution for some provision that
would: uphold the President ih~ his ac-
tion, the samne Charter of the United
Nations once more appeared. Failing to
find any authority in the Constitution
to fortify 'the President's position, the
Chief Justice resorted to one of the most
.unheard-of things- in -American history.
HRe produced the Charter of the United
Nations as the authority for the seizure!
and cited its provisions in an effort to







GONGRESSIONAL, RECORD~

free exercise thereof; or abridging the free-
domn of speech, or of the press; or the right
of the people peaceably to assemble, and to
petition' the Government for a re2r~ess of
grievances.
If the provisions of the document
called the Covenant of Kluman Rights
are adopted by the Senate please ask
yourselves what has become of these
precious constitutional rights. Here is
what the covenant says about them:
Article 15, section 8: Freedom to manifest
one's religion or beliefs may be subject only
to such limitations as are prescribed by law
and are necessary to protect public safety,
order, health, or morals, or the fundamental

Artigctt a ,r sec : Ever ono sha~ll have
the right to freedom of expression; this
right shall include freedorr to seekr, receive
and impart information and ideris of all
kinds, regardless of frontiers, either oratlly,
in writing; or in ~printi-n the form -of art
or through any other meala of his choice.
Section 3: The exercise of the rights pro-
vided for in the foregoing paragraph carries
with it special duties and responsibilities.
It my appreore be Isubject to certain re tra

provided by law and. are necessary (1) for
respect of the rights or reputations of others,
(2) for the protection of national security
or of public order, or- of public health or
morals.

~When we go so far as to hedge in, re-
strain and circumvent free speech, then
there is no free speech. There will be
no free press. There will be nio free reli-
gion. Does anyone who is acquainted
with these facts want to say that the
United Nations is not trying to rewrite
our Constitution, with the aid and sup-
port of Communists and revolutionists?
Just why is it necessary to emasculate
our Constitution if the only objectof the
United Nations is world peace? Is not
our Constitution and the, desire of all
the people of this country in favor of
peace?
SIt is necessary to ch-a~nge our' Cohistt-
tution in order. to carry out the design
and conspiracy to build a world govern-
ment. Is it not perfectly clear to you
. now that this was the real purpose of
the framers of the United Nations' from
its very beginning? It ought to be obvi-
ous to any fairminded person thiat it is
the deliberate scheme of the United Na-
tions to destroy the Constitution of the
United States, and should need no fur-
ther proof.
But that is not all, as the following
steps will disclose. The United Nations
has produced another convention, which
in time they will ask the Senate to ap-
prove. I refer to the Genocide Conven-
tion. This is an appealing subject and


support the President's act. Fortu.
nately for the people of the United
States, the majority _of the Court would
not permit this commuistic charter to
supplant the Constitution of the United
States. It was, however, a close call,
and abundantly proved the need of the
Bricker amendment. No one can ever
tell what the next decision might- be,
although throughout our history God
seems always to be on our side; and no
matter what the political complexion of
the Supreme Court may be, the decisions
have upheld the Constitution.
The next assault on ~the Constitution
is found in the Covenant of Human
Rights, which has not as yet been pre-
sented to the Senate for ratification.
The United Nations has amended its fist
draft several times, and because of the
rising tide of objection to what it is doing
and phinoning to do, the latest draft.has
not come before the Senate. .
The subtle and fraudulent work of the
United Nations in trying to prepare the
people of the United States for the ap-
proval of this un-American document
ought in itself to condemn its further
consideration by the people and their
leaders.
To prove to you that its procedure was
fraudulent. and totally dishonest, I wish
to clearly state ~that the United Nations
put out a Declaration of H-uman Rights,
which, upon its face was not objectioi-
able. This declaration was propagan-
dized by the spreading of millions of
copies among church people, in the com-
mon schools, and in the higher institu-
tions of learning. Every civic organ-
intkion was also the object of this
avalanche of propaganda.
There was a cunnigly designed pur-
pose in this. It was necessary to prepare
the people for the advent of the Covenant
of Human Rights. When the propa.
gandists thought the ground work had
been sufficiently laiatdhe real huifian
riights document appeared. It was' and
`5till i called the Covenant of H~uman
Rights, but it is entirely different from
Sthe propagandized Declaration of H~u-
man Rights. Here in this Covenant of
Human Rights the United Nations,
among other things, undertakes to do
three- important things, all of which
threaten the Constitution of the United
States. It has rewritten what is meant
by free speech, a free press, and free
religion. The Constitution is not in
doubt in defining these three funda-
mental attributes of a free government.
Here is what it says:
Congress shall make no law respecting an
establishment of religion, or prohibiting the
298487--50221


it has caught in its net a great many
good American citizens. As defined by
the.dictionary, genocide is "the use or a
user of deliberate, systematic measures
toward the extermination of a racial,
political, or cultural group."
The wholesale destruction of a race
or group of people for no reason at all
except that they are a race or group, is
against all principles of humanity, and
in this country is a violation. of moral
and civic law. Is there anything in the
Constitution of the United States, or even
in the laws of any Stat~e.of this great
Union, that approves such crime? Why
is it necessary to change and amend,
abrogate and repeal, our own Constitu-
tion in order that we shall be -authorized
to rise up against such a moral and legal
crime? The answer is that there is no
possible reason for this action--if the
Purpose of the covenant is to prevent
genocide. -
This Convention undertakes to further
amend- the Constitution of the United
States and deny the rights of our citizens
under- the Bill of Rights in another .re*
spect. The sixth amendment to the Con-
stitution provides:
In ah criminal prosecutions, the accused
shall enjoy the right to a: speedy and public
trial, by an impartial jury of the Starte andi
district whereinthe crime shanl have been

previously ascertained by law, and to be in-
formed of the nature and cause of the accu-
satio~n; to be confronted with the witnesses
against him* to have compulsory process for
obtaining witnesses in his favor, and to have
the assistance of counsel for hiis defense.
The Genocide Convention ~provides
that a, citizen of the United States, who
has, in the opinion of the United Na-
tions, libeled or injured the feelings~of
a race, a group, or any member of a
group, shall be subject to trial for vio-
lating the covenant. WCCill the. accused
be tried here in the United States, where
the crime was alleged to have been com-
mitted? No. He will be tried wherever
the United Nations may decide. W~ill he
be tried under the Constitution and laws
of this country, with the safeguards
provided by the sixth amendment? No.
He will be tried under such laws as the
United. Nations World Court shall pre-
scribe. Why was it considered necessary
to take away' from the citizens of this
country the protection our Constitution
gives them? Are our people engaged, or
were they ever engaged in race anni-
hilation?
The real, hidden, and treasonable pur-
pose of this provision was and is to tear
down our Constitution and make all citi-
zens, who are entitled to -the enjoyment







CONGRESSIONAL; RECORD

the United Nations-~principally at the
expense of the taxpayers of this coun-
try--to teach our children ways by which
they could become world citizens, and
that a strong national spirit interferes
with this world venture. The birthdays
of our great leaders, like Washington,
Jefferson, 1Madison, Monroe, and Lincoln
were not to be celebrated in honor of
these leaders, but the day of celebration
should be devoted to propagandizing
these children on the benefits of this
future world government. They made
it exceedingly plain that love for the
United States and its institutions pre-
vented our participation in such a world
government.
Printed matter, radio and television
were used night and day to carry on the
cultivation propaganda, and to root out
Sthe love of country from these United
St~ates;- This program is still being ear-
ried on, and the worst part of it is that
the people who will eventually be stripped
of the protection of our Constitution will
pay the price of its destruction in taxes.
It should now be proven overwhelmingly
that the United Nations was organized
to destroy the Constitution of the United
States. This is all done in the name of
world peace eut who ndus s bti

dom we have? Who wants to surrender
the sovereignty of this great republic to
an organization which has been assidu.
ously at work from its very beginning to
abolish our Constitution?
Two very important sessions of the
world government advocates have been
held in London, and in the proceedings
it is made plain that the machinery for
world government is already set up in
the Charter of the United Nations, and
all that is necessary is to make a few
amendments to that charter. 1Vany ad-
vocates of the United Nations have now
come out openly for this world govern-
ment.. Some very influential men .in
public life say that we can afford to give
up some of~ our sovereignty to obtain
world peace. The propaganda for a
world government has flourished in many
quarters. I am here to tell you that we
cannot afford to give up any of our na~
tional sovereignty for any cause.
W(e have the only government on earth
where the people themselves rule. The
government here exists for the people,
and the people do not exist for the gov-
ernment. For over 160 years we have
gone on our way with our own concept of
government, and we know what freedom


of life, liberty, and the pursuit of happi-
ness, subject to the provisions of a world
court, which is already being set up to
function in this supergovernment-a
world government,
Do we need further proof that the
real and only purpose of the builders of
the United Nations was to fashion a
world government and to make our citi-
sens subject to that world government,
and to strip from them, the protection
guaranteed them under the Constitution
of the United States?
If this is not treason, then I do not
understand the provision of~the Consti-
tution defining it. Election 3 of article
III of the Constitution says:
Treason against the Unitedl States shall
consist only in levying war against them, or
in adhering to their enemies, giving them
aid and comfort.
'"jf'ear tilai 1 i;re may be some in
the United States who are not yet con-
vinced by what I have said so far, I will
not rest this case there, but will present
further evidence.
The United Nations set up an organ-
izton kno n us UEC-nie a

tural Organization--for the purpose of
spreading universal learning, which the
promoters contended would bring the
people of the world more quickly to a
mutual understanding than anything
else would.
There was no objection to this pro-
posal-at least on the face of it. But it
turned out to be the most dangerous, the
most dastardly undertaking of all that
the United Nations had theretofore con-
trived. Its purpose was not what its
promoters said it was. It was a deliber-
ate plan to create public opinion for the
coming world government. The ma-
licious and cowardly element of the
enterprise wvas that it was directed to the
schoolchildren of the Nation, where
minds are young and impressionable,
and it is patterned exactly after the So-
viet teaching of the youth of the country.
These schemers knew that the United
States has a strong national spirit; they
knew that the average American loves
his country; they knew he would defend
its institutions, which had brought free-
dom in a new land. The plotters deter-
mined that this spirit must be destroyed,
or at least minimized. So UNESCO
went to work.
The first step was to train teachers at
Columbiat University, sit the. expense of
298487--50221


means. Are we fools enough to abandon
our course and listen to the siren songs
of those whose design it is to destroy this
great Government, and Tit it into a new
world government with a heterogeneous
collection of nations whose ideas of the
purpose of government conflict with our
own? Instead of destroying our national
spirit, it should be increased. If other
nations want to follow our example, let
them, do it; but to let any foreign combi-
nation direct the affairs of this Govern-
ment would be intolerable and will never
be permitted. It could not be done by
force. And if the American people are
alert and prize freedom and liberty as
much as I think they do, this false, in-
sidious, and conspiratorial scheme to
subdue us will never prevail.
The world government proposes a
world congress where members are elect-
ed according to t-2he population- of the
member nations. This means that So-
viet Russia and Red China and their en-
slaved comrades will control that gov-
ernment.
After examining this record, can any-
one doubt that the United Nations was
purposely set up to do to this country
what could not be done by force of arms,
but through the blandishments of Com-
munists, fellow travelers, and dupes, get
us to surrender our liberty without firing
a shot?
There are some questions that should
be answered. One of them is, "Why does
this Government permit the recognition
of Soviet Russia, when it is known by all,
including all the administration leaders,
that from the Russian Embassy here in
Washington there is a constant flow to
all parts of the country of propaganda
that is inimical to the United States?"
The next question is, "Why do we remain
in the United Nations when we can
plainly see that the whole scheme is 2i~
rected to our destruction? If' the ad- .
ministration officials hide their heads Irt.
the sand for security~, I am sure that the
people will not.
I have faith in the American people,
when they are armed with the facts.
I have faith in the Divine Ruler of this
universe, who has sustained us in the
past; and I have an enduring faith that
He will not desert us in our efforts to
maintain a1 government of freedom and
liberty here on these shores where it
began.


U. 5. GOVERNMENTS MelNTING OFFICE: 1954


I~










The Indianapolis "STAR"
We're Gaining On It

An etimae o o m ean othlgc5 ent school
year in the nation's schools has been made by the
United States Office of Education. It finds an increase
of 1,558,000 in enrollment in public and private elemen-
tary and high schools.
That substantial increase will of course be widely
cited as proof of the need for much more classroom
space. Federal Commissioner of Education S. M.
Brownell said in announcing the estimates that at the
rate of 25 pupils a classroom the enrollment gain alone
would call for the addition of 62,300 rooms. A school
rated at 25 pupils a classroom, however, would be lux-
uriously roomy by common standards.
Brownell also figured the need on the basis of 30
pupils a classroom, the rate generally used in calculat-
ing space needs. On the basip of this yardstick only
52,000 more rooms are needed this year than were
needed last year.
Brownell then provided figures which show that
the Qamg iBiPprogramo hentonssho ve h
4s2asonsenot ar cvrd hsnedjr rrhe n
rollment, wdle a comfortable margin. -Accordmg pto sh*
formation reaching hnis ortice, he safdG, uuwoclaSS-
rooms were anaea oy puonec schools ana another poov
LO .LUUUU Dy U sh t b m~a. fs lavsuvtdu gowL
need igured at the standar~d.raite of JU pupils a room, a
margin of 12,000 to 17,000 rooins f5 help meet tffe
need for replacement or obsolete buiddmgs, population
shitts an dother fa~ctors.
Thus the nation today is keeping pace with the
building needs creai~tedby erasg cholenolmet
.Ln a~ddition It is making substantial inroads on the
deficiencies accumulated from the depression and war
years.
M~oreovrer the rate of gain is climbing. When the
Office of Educanon maue~ ars est survey of classroom
needs, in 1953, its estimates of coming shortage were
based on a building rate of 50,000 classrooms a year.
In that same year, however, actual building amounted
to 55,000 classrooms. In 1954 building rose to 60,000
classrooms, and the Office of Education revised itsdfg-
ures toward a brighter view of the future. This year,
it is now indicated, thte rate da~y reack 70,000 rooms!
At such a rate of building, the anticipated heavy
enrollment increases of the n J~ew years w~ill b
hanledadeuately, anteen olbudngsua
tion can be well in hand withl r~aade or less.
i Al tIIS is bemng one wrthout Federal aid. We can
continue to do the job without Federal aid. Thirwag
our schools can remamn free of controll by the Federal
bureaucracy.








Indiana PrtA M~emberts Study Group
on Federal Aid to Education BULLETIN
P.O. Box 7027, Station A 00tdber, 1955
Ind~ianapolis, Indiana



White house Conference on Education.
Nlovember, 1955 -- Wlashington, D. C.

Only a few weceks remain before the State Committees, with their reports,
assemble in Rashington for the Conference. More and more in various
States, the subtle inference is injected that federal "aid" is desperately
needed,. and- indeed the only answer -- this in the face of the fact that
the Office of Education has admi~tted that~ the country has kept pace with
need in building new classrooms (see enclosed reprint "Wfe're Gaining on It").

There is not even the shadow of a doubt that the stage is being set
for a gigantic propaganda build-up for federal "aid"; our feeling remains
that that is the primary reason for the Conference and has been since the
beginning. Those organizations whose leaders believe in "$overnmnent
education" will be largely and vocally represented, although in most cases
the belief is that of the 'tleaders't and not the unmbership, who have not
even been polled on the question.

ARE YOU DOING WHiAT YOU CAN TO B3E SURHE YOUR STATE COMME(ITTEE HAS THE FACTS?



The Govrernor of New York has stated that his State needs federal "aid", yet
Sacc~ordaiihg to a report by the Public Elxpenditure Survey, Inc., of New York:
uI~nder the Kelley B~ill, $1.6 billion would be paid to the states over
a four year period in proportion to the school age population (ages $
through 17) in each state. New York State has 8.27 per cent of the nations
school-age population. Accordingly, New York would receive 8.27 per cent
of the aid under this bill, or $132 million.

"But the people of New York State pay at least 12.66 per cent of all
-federal t ^uri~ Therefore, they would pay 12.66r per cent or 3199 million of
the 61.6 tgfe edera tax take ~bdfi~nance the proposed federal school
aid progr akhat is ,67 million more than they would get back in federal
aid.

SIf the federal school aid bill is enacted, Newt York State wYould get
S8137'mifllon worth of school buildings for C0199 million worth of federal
taxes. They would have ~67 million more for school construction and
operation if the $199 million were raised by state and local taxes for
schools.

f'That ~67 million would pay for toustruction of over 2,000 classrooms' in
this State providing space for 50,000 or more pupils."

and this would be the result in a State that ',needs Federal Aid" .







Colleges for Freedom, Donald J. Cowmling and Carter Da~vidson
Harper & Bros., 19117 pp. 170-72
(WIritten by the respected educator Dr. Nicholas MVurray Butler
when he wlas President of Columbia University a few years ago)
'tOne of the most noteworthy of recent developments in American life is4 the zeal
witth which machinery is designed and built ostensibly to serve various public inter-
ea~ts and undertakings, but in- reality to control them. Perhaps in no other way is
the decone of faith in liberty so clearly marked .. W~hen anything appears to go
wrong, or w7hen any desirable movement seems to lag, a cry goes up for the creation of
some new board or commission, and for an appropriation of public funds to maintain it
in reasonable conlfort. An infinite number of blank forms must be filled and an
infinite number of records must be kept, classified and audited at steadily mounting
cost . . .; .
nSo far as education is concerned, there has been over-organization for a ~long
time past. Too many persons are engaged in supervising, in inspecting and in record-
ing the wlork of other persons. There is too much machinery, and in consequence a
steady temptation to l-ry more stress upon the form of education than upon its content.
Statistics displace scholarship. There are, in addition, too manly law1s and too many
precise lanws, and not~ enough opportunity for those mnistakes and failures, due to
individual initiative and experiment, which are the foundation for great and lasting
success.
nt~t is now proposed to bureaucratize and to bring into uniformity the education-
al system of the whole United States, while making the most solemn assurance that
nothing of the~ kind is intended. Thie Glory and the successes of education in the
United States are due to its freedom, to its unesvennesses, to its reflection of the
needs and ambitions and capacities of local communities, and to its being kept in
"close and constant touch with the people themselves,. There is not money enough in
the United Statees even if every dollar of it were expended on education, to produce
by federal authority or through wzhat is naively called co-operation between the fed-
eral government and the several states, educational results that would be at all com-
parable with those that have already been reached under the free and natural systau
that has grown up among us . . It is universally' acknowledged that the unhappy
decline in German university freedom and effectiveness and the equally unhappy sub-
jection of the educated classes to the dictates of the political and military ruling
groups, were the direct result of the highly centralized and efficient control from
Berlin of the nations schools and universities.
nFor Americans now to accept oversight and direction of their tax-supported
schools and colleges from WJaslhington would mean that threy had failed to learn one of
the plainest and most weighty lessons of the wvar. It is true that education is a
national problem and a national responsibility; it is also true that it has been
characteristic of the American people to solve their most difficult national problems
.Lto bear their heaviest national responsibilities through their own action in the
: of liberty, rather than through the agency of organized government. Once more
` ~~tap the federal treasury under the guise of aiding th`e states, and once! more to
establish an army of bureaucrats in '.lashington andc another army of inspectors roam-
ing at large throughout the land, will not only fail to accomplish an~y permanent im-
provementt in the education of our people, but it will assist in effecting so great a
revolution in our American form of government as one day to endanger its perpetuity.
The true path of advance in education is to be found in the direction of keeping the
people's schools closely in touch with t.he people themselves .. Unless the school
is both the work and the pride of the community which it serves, it is nothing.
"'A school system that grows naturally in response to the needs and ambitions of
a hundred thousand different localities, will be a better school system than anly
which can be imposed upon those localities by the aid of g~rants of public money from
the federal treasury, accompanied by federal regulations, federal inspections, feder-
al reports and federal uniformities."









THE FACT FINDER

Indiana PT4 Memers Study Group
on Federal Aid to Education No. L
P.O. Box 7027, Station A
Indianapolis, Indiana Oetober 1995

FEDERAL AID TO EDUCATION

GAN TRE GOAL SOUGHT BE REACHED 7


The advocates of Federal A~id assert their goal to be equality of' educational.

opportunity for every boy and girl in the United States, At first thought this

seems an attractive and attainable objective.

But the problem is represented by more than 150,000 schools in some 67,000

school districts spread throughout the t8 states and the District,

The only measuring stick proposed and, indeed, the only measuring stick

available, is that of money spent. But you can't equate education to dollars any

more than you can determine the number of people who w~ill go to Heaven from each

state by taking a census tabulation of religious expenditures.

In 1954 New York spent 4396 per popul in average daily attendance while for

Ohio the figure was ~215.r Does any one seriously believe that the children of -the

Empire State are receiving a fifty percent better education than their Buckeye

counterparts?

If the percent e of male teachers offers any index of the financial attract-

Lyeness of teacher salary levels, it is interesting to note that in this respect

Mississippi outranks MIichigan; Arkansas surpasses California and Connecticut; and

Ivest Virginia easily outdistances New York, N~ewv Jersey and Pennsylvania.

An interesting measure of educational effectiveness` is presented by the U. 8.

Office of Education in figures showing the percentage of population of high school

age actually enrolled in school. The figures are! for 1950. D~elaware, number one in

per capital income, was only 29th in high school holding powner. Nevadat numer t~wo

in per capital income, was only 28th.


- 1 *









Can the Goal Sought Be Reached?


Public Law 815, concerned with construction of school facilities ini federally

affected areas, has required the U.~ 8. Commissioner of Edutcation to determine the

"average per-pupil cost" of constructing school buildings in each state as a basis

for grants. The figures determined for 1953' show, for example, a cost for Alabam4i,

Georgia, South Carolina and Milssirssippi of ad900. For Michigan the figure ip $1,200;

for Illinois, 61,300; for New Jersey, 81,400; and for New York, U1,600.

Thus we ha~ve the findings of the Office of Education itself that suitable

school facilities are 77$~ higher in one state than in another. Yet whebtn state

expenditures quite naturally reflect such differences, Federal Aid zealots contrive
the Conclusion that in the one Inlstance boys and girls have a 775% better educational

opportunity

Wie~are i60mpelled, then, to conclude that neither per capital income nor

per-pupil expenditure offers a measure of educational accomplishment, and thzt

anyT attempt to equalize education by equalizing expenditure is doomed to failure

before it is begun.


-2-


J~e~* ~ E





ally eating away at the fina moral ora
responsibility of the people. UFow we
are seeing a strange thing' haippen! The
Governor of M~ichigan and the Governor of
New York---two of the richest states in
the union-have both agreed that their
respective states must have more federal
aid for schools and for such other things
as housing and highways.
Now that's a pretty how-de-do. Where's
the money coming from? Well, where
else can it comze from except the states of
Missiesippi and Arkansas, whose per capital
wealth and income are still the lowest in.
the union? And from the other forty-four
states, all of whom are less wealthy than
New Yorkr and Michigan. So now woe are
begging from each others
All of which very clearly shows up the
fallacy of federal aid. It all indicates how
the "getting something for nothing" habit,
like the dope habit, gains an insidious con-
trol over people until they lose all sense
of moral vahres.
Carried to its ultimate end, of course,
federal aid means complete state social-
ism. And state socialism carried to its
ultimate enld means communism. The peo-
ple of this country do not want that.

What the states of this nation need-
South or elsewahere---is not federal aid but
economy in the federal government. Then
they would have all the money they need
to provide their owon wantts woith their owrn
money.


Southern States industrial Council
Paul A. Redmond, President
1103-1111 Stabiman Building
Noshville 3, Tennessee
(Additional Copies Available on Request)


T10 DelUSIOR


OT reaeral Al0






by
Thlurman Sensing





The E~.was susceptible to this en-
ticeme F. he South had not yet fully re-
covered from the loss of a large part of its
assets during civil war nor from the hard-
ships of reconstruction that followed. Its
per capital wealth and per capital income
were still considerably below the national
average. The New Deal government--
through federal aid--promised to remedy
this discrepancy by transferring money
collected from the wealthier states to the
poorer states of the South.
This bait was swallowed by many people
in the South, but not--and for this the
whole nation may be grateful---by any
means all the people. The South accepted
the federal aid because it was instituted
as a national policy, and the South re-
mained Democratic because the Republican
Party offered them no real alternative-
but it was mainly the influence of South-
ern members of Congress, aligning them-
selves with those of like mind from other
parts of the country, that prevented our
nation from going alfth~e way down the
road to state socialism in the following
years.
In the meantime, the South has been
gradually closing the gap in per capital
wealth and income. Nor' is this due in any




At the same time, though, the cancer-
ous delusion of federal aid has been gradu-


THE DELUSION OF FF.DrgY AID
Federal aid is, in effect, the fSedqral gov-
ernment saying to the states:-
'The people in your states need` soze
aid. So we are going to tax them, bring the
money to W~ashington, deduct the ex-
penses of admimasterang the aid, and then
provide the aid they need with, their own
money.
It is just as if a doctor said to his
patient :
"'You need a blood transfusion. I am
going to take some blood out of your left
arm; I am going to put it back in your
right arm. I wcill spill some in the process,
but I am going to give you a blood trans-
fusion woitht your owon blood.,,
There is, actually, no such thing as fed-
eral aid. The best that can be said for it
is that it is a redistribution of wealth,
In fact, it was on this basis that the
New Deal first attempted to "buy" the
South. The South generally never has
been; and is not, sympathetic to state con-
trol and regimentation of the individual.
When the advocates of these practices got
in control of the Democratic party, to
which the South has traditionally be-
longed, they therefore did not find a sym_
pathetic response in the South,

Th:!NeDea t eeapo ut e an th
ruled by the Supreme Court---that what-
ever the government subsidizes it has the
right to control.