Lower Suwannee Archaeological Survey 2009-2010: Investigations at Cat Island (8DI29), Little Bradford Island (8DI32), an...

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Lower Suwannee Archaeological Survey 2009-2010: Investigations at Cat Island (8DI29), Little Bradford Island (8DI32), and Richards Island (8LV137)
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Technical report
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Sassaman, Kenneth E.
McFadden, Paulette S.
Micah P. Monés
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Laboratory of Southeastern Archaeology, Department of Anthropology, University of Florida
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Gainesville, Fla.
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LOWER SUWANNEE ARCHAEOLOGICAL SURVEY 2009-2010 INVESTIGATIONS AT CAT ISLAND (8DI29), LITTLE BRADFORD ISLAND (8DI32), AND RICHARDS ISLAND (8LV137) Kenneth E. Sassaman, Paulette S. McFadden, and Micah P. Mons Technical Report 10 Laboratory of Southeastern Archaeology Department of Anthropology University of Florida

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LOWER SUWANNEE ARCHAEOLOGICAL SURVEY 2009-2010: INVESTIGATIONS AT CAT ISLA ND (8DI29), LITTLE BRADFORD ISLAND (8DI32), AND RICHARDS ISLAND (8LV137) Kenneth E. Sassaman Paulette S. McFadden Micah P. Mons Technical Report 10 Laboratory of Southeastern Archaeology Department of Anthropology University of Florida Gainesville, FL 32611 April 2011

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2011 Department of Anthropology, University of Florida all rights reserved Cover photo: Micah Mons (left) and Neill Wallis (right) recording profiles of test excavation at Little Bradford Island (8DI32), June 2009. ii

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Management Summary Field investigations in 20092010 at Cat Island (8DI29), Little Bradford Island (8DI32), and Richards Island (8DI137) inaugurate a l ong-term partnership be tween the Laboratory of Southeast Archaeology (Department of An thropology, University of Florida) and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to inventory and assess archaeological resources in its Lower Suwannee and Cedar National Wildlife Refuges, as well as private and state inholdings contained therein. Fieldw ork on the refuge was conduc ted under an Archaeological Resources Protection Act Permit (LSUWNWR 042209) and Special Use Permit (41515). Limited subsurface testing at Cat Island and Little Bradford served the need to rescue samples from archaeological deposits that ar e actively eroding along the shorelines of low-relief islands, while rec onnaissance survey of Richards Island initiated efforts to document archaeological deposits on elevat ed landforms such as relict dunes and hammocks. Research structuring rescue a nd reconnaissance efforts centers on the longterm relationships between environment and human settlement of the study area, notably changes in sea level that affected the inhab itability of land and access to resources of human value. Cat Island, a private inholdi ng, contains evidence of human occupation spanning the past 4000+ y ears. Changes in the proportions of shellfish species register changes in the estuarine biome at the mouth of the Suwannee River from high to low salinity. Little Bradford Isla nd, in contrast, contains a disc rete component dating to about 2000 years ago with evidence for an intermediate level of salin ity in the delta. Results from Richards Island suggest that elevated landforms in the study area have great potential for extensive midden deposits, as we ll as mounds and ridges dating as early as 2000 years ago. Although such sites are currentl y out of the zone of active erosion, they will eventually be subject to cutbank er osion and overwash flooding as sea level continues to rise over this century and beyond. Taken together, the results of these initial efforts underscore the enormous research potent ial of refuge sites an d thus the pressing need to inventory and assess them before they are damaged any further. In addition to detailing the results of field investigatio ns (Chapters 3-5), th is report provides a framework for long-term inves tigations (Chapter 1), a summ ary of what is known about the archaeology of the greater study area (Chapter 2), and recommendations for a second phase of fieldwork (Chapter 6). iii

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Acknowledgments Archaeological investigations of Little Bradfo rd Island and Richards Island were made possible through permits issued by U.S. Fish and Wildlife Services. Ours thank go to Regional Historic Preservation Officer Richard Kanaski for assistance in obtaining an ARPA permit (LSUWNWR042209) and for his ove rall support and encouragement of this project. Lower Suwannee and Cedar Ke y Refuge Manager John W. Kasbohm issued a Special Use Permit (41515) and likewise lent considerable support to this project. Additional assistance was provided by Ref uge Law Enforcement Officer Ken McCain. Access to Cat Island was granted by the landowner, Mike Crews, who also provided a copy of a report on earlier work by Ne w South Associates, Inc. Author of that report, Steve Koski, lent his advice and assistance in designing our fieldwork on Cat Island. The insight and generosity of many othe r individuals ensured success with this project. Foremost is Silas Si Campbell, who not only donated an extensive collection of artifacts, bone, and shell he amassed over the years from two dozen eroded sites in the study area, but also escorted crew members of several fiel d trips on his boat and hosted us at his home in Suwannee. Sis observat ions on the distribution and condition of sites proved to be invaluable. Michelle LeFebvre, Neill Wallis, Meggan Blessing, Mark Donop, Asa Randall, Micah Mons, and Jason ODonoughue each participated in at least one of several trips; Michelle and Neill were pa rticularly active in two field visits with Si and recorded many of the obser vations he made as they traveled from site to site. An initial effort to utilize Seahorse Key as a base station was enabled by Professor Harvey Lillywhite and staff of the Seahorse Key Marine Lab, University of Florida. Temporary use of McClamory Key as an overnight camp was made possible through the good offices of Gloria Barber (Florida Di vision of State Lands), and Jenelle Brush (Florida Wildlife Commission). Mrs. Thel ma McCain provided useful insights on Richards Island from her time residing there in her youth. Fieldwork for this project was ably executed by Micah Mons, Mark Donop, Michelle LeFebvre, Neill Wallis, Meggan Blessing, Paulette McFadden, and Elyse Anderson. Laboratory assistance was provided by Erin Harris -Parks and Elena Thomas. Ann Cordell of the Florida Museum of Natura l History shared her c onsiderable expertise on pottery typology, and Asa Randal l of the Laboratory of Sout heastern Archaeology lent his skill and advice on mapping and other grap hics. Karen Jones of the Department of Anthropology handled the finances for this pr oject with great care and efficiency. Most of the funding for this work was provided by the Hyatt and Cici Brown Endowment for Florida Archaeology. iv

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Contents Management Summary......................................................................................................iii Acknowledgments..............................................................................................................iv Chapter 1. Introduction and Research Orientation..............................................................1 Chapter 2. Environmental and Archaeological Contexts...................................................19 Chapter 3. Cat Island (8DI29)............................................................................................57 Chapter 4. Little Bradford Island (8DI32).........................................................................85 Chapter 5. Richards Island (8LV137)..............................................................................113 Chapter 6. Conclusions and Recommendations...............................................................133 References Cited..............................................................................................................1 55 Appendix A: Catalog......................................................................................................169 Appendix B: Radiocarbon Data......................................................................................191 v

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CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION AND RE SEARCH ORIENTATION Kenneth E. Sassaman In 2009 the Laboratory of Southeastern Archaeology, Department of Anthropology, University of Florida, launched a long-term project to investigat e the archaeological resources of the northern Gulf Coast of Florida from Cedar Key to Horseshoe Beach (Figure 1-1). This 47-km stretch of the Gu lf Coast is occupied by the Lower Suwannee and Cedar Key National Wildlife Refuges, as well as private and state inholdings. Outside of the towns of Cedar Key to the south, Horseshoe Beach to the north, and Suwannee in between, this is an undeveloped tract of coastal Flor ida. Aboriginal communities since at least 4500 years ago when sea-level reached near-modern standsthrived in this region, at times pe rhaps exceeding in number the populations of today. Our knowledge of these an cient coastal dwellers is very limited, however, as little archaeological research has been conducted in the modern era. The Lower Suwannee Archaeological Survey (LSAS) aims to remedy this situation with a sustained program of investigations in accordance with federal manda tes of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to inventory, assess, and manage its cultu ral, as well as its natural, resources. Reported herein are the result s of an initial round of archaeological investigations in the study area. Specifically, this report includes results from testing at two sites exposed in the eroding shorelines of Cat Island (8DI29) and Little Bradford Island (8DI32) and reconnaissance survey on Rich ards Island (8LV137). The former two locations were chosen to address the pervasive problem of si te destruction attending sealevel rise, while the latter location was chosen to initiate the long-term goal of inventorying and evaluating archaeological reso urces in locations that have seen limited or no attention to date, but wi ll, in the longer-term future become vulnerable to rising water. Both types of investigations are structured by a research framework centered on the relationship between coastal se ttlement and environmental change. RESEARCH ORIENTATION Coastal locations have long attracted hu man settlement, and those of the lower Southeast were especially attractive for thei r rich estuarine and intertidal resources conducive to sustained human e xploitation. But coas tal dwelling in the lower Southeast has always been a challenge for humans because sea levels have routinely fluctuated with changes in global climate. The rate and magnitude of sea-leve l change has varied markedly over the course of human settlement Since the time of human colonization at the end of the Ice Age, sea levels have incr eased a total of 100 m, flooding about half of the relict Florida peninsula. The rate of rise slowed sharply after 6000 years ago, and since about 4500 years ago sea level has fluctuat ed up and down a couple of meters in an overall rising regime. Sea level continues to rise today, arguably at rates that have accelerated over the past two centuries. 1

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2 Lower Suwannee Archaeological Survey 2009-2010 Figure 1-1. Composite U.S.G.S. topographic quad map of study area extending from Horseshoe Beach to the north to Cedar Key to the south.

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Introduction and Research Orientation 3 Long-term perspectives on human dwe lling in dynamic coastal settings are encased in the archaeological reco rd of protected coastal areas, such as the Refuges of the northern Gulf Coast of Florida. Some 4500 years of human occupation is recorded in scores of coastal archaeological sites on th e Refuges, along with an untold number of unrecorded sites yet to be found. Like other locales of the lower Southeast, the Florida Gulf Coast is a relatively flat, low-relief landscape, subject to vast flooding with only minor rises in sea level. These same low-lying conditions are conduc ive to extremely productive estuarine and intertidal habitat. However, productive near -shore habitat is as vulnerable to coastal transgressions as are places suited to human settlement when sea levels change even modestly in such low-relief terrain. The many submerged and intertidal sites of preColumbian age on the Refuges are longitudi nal records of changing settlement and culture against the multi-decade and centu ry-long rhythms of sea-level change. In repeatedly invoking the need for archaeological investigations, the 2001 Comprehensive Conservation Plan for the Re fuges acknowledges that sites indeed hold great informational potential about environm ental change, while also recognizing the vulnerability of these sites to coastal erosi on. Previous archaeologi cal investigations in the Refuges have been spotty and we know little other than the region was home to scores of communities since at least 4500 years ago. Sites of this age and younger exist in a zone of subaerial exposure that is the modern tidal range. There remains a large inventory of shoreline sites with preserved remnants, pl us a sizable inventory of sites in hammocks that are inaccessible by boat, even at high tide. Collectively, the inventory of archaeological sites in the Refuges is an enormously rich record of long-term environmental and cultural change that may u ltimately be destroyed by shoreline erosion in the 21st century. The extant record of sites coincides with the contemporary shoreline and estuarine locales of modern sea level. As noted above sea levels were lower than today for most of the ancient human past, and coastal sites predating ca. 4500 years ago are expected to be either totally destroyed by rising seas, or fully submerged and/or capped by estuarine deposits. Stone tools dating to the period before pottery was made (i.e., before ca. 4500 B.P.) are occasionally recovered from sites currently eroding into the Gulf or landward, but no intact coastal sites of th is age are known for the Refuges. Episodes of higher-than-present sea level may have occurred occasionally over the past few millennia (e.g., Mitchell-Tapping et al. 1989; Walker et al. 1995), creating an archaeological record of coastal occupati ons that are now stranded from the water as sea levels regressed. Not all paleoenvironmen tal scientists agree with the argument that levels rose to higher-than-present stands because changes in depositional regimes alter basin geometry, sedimentation, and water di splacement (Fitzgerald et al. 2008; Otvos 2004). Nonetheless, the Refuges indeed cont ain hammocks that appear to have been occupied when tidal water abutted now-stranded landforms because of either higher levels or lower subaqueous substrate. Very few such sites are documented, but many potential locations await examination. While these sorts of preserved finds provide hope

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4 Lower Suwannee Archaeological Survey 2009-2010 that we can still learn much a bout the coastal experi ences of ancient residents, these sites will be the victims of sea transgressions in th e decades to come if current projections of sea-level rise are accurate (e .g., Fitzgerald et al. 2008). Need less to say, efforts to locate and characterize these unaffected but vulnerable sites must begin now. This is an opportune time to implemen t a program of sustained archaeological investigations on the Refuges to address the intertwined demands for conservation and research. A three-pron g approach involving reconnaissance, rescue and research addresses agency and academic needs simultaneously. Reconnaissance Basic inventory and evaluation of cultu ral resources on federal lands is the mandate of several legislative statutes and t hus integral to agency policy on land use. Full-coverage reconnaissance survey is al most always beyond the economic reach of most agencies, U.S. Fish and Wildlife among them. The LSAS is designed to provide full-coverage reconnaissance of the coastal zone s of the Refuges at no direct costs to U.S. Fish and Wildlife. Reconnaissance survey is divided into two aspects: (1) shoreline survey, and (2) hammock survey Shoreline survey constitutes one of the greatest challenges of the program. The 47-km linear stretch of coast encompassing the Refuges is scores of kilometers longer in actual shoreline, as this in cludes an untold number of tid al creeks coursing through salt marshes and other estuarine flats. In pract ice, shoreline reconnaissance entails careful inspection of all shorelines of landforms with subaerial expos ures. Low-tide visitation at such locations is desirable to maximize exposures for eroding midden and related archaeological deposits. Shoreline survey has been the method of choice for hundreds of private citizens who have collected pottery, stone tools, a nd other artifacts from the eroding middens of dozens of sites on the Refuges, as well as seve ral state and private inholdings. Aside from collecting on private lands w ith landowner permission, artif act collectors have operated illegally. With limited manpower and little detail about the location and condition of archaeological sites, Refuge law enforcement cannot adequately enforce laws prohibiting artifact collecting and the more egregious acts of illicit digging. However, in some cases, private collecting has salvaged materials that would have otherwise been lost to sea. Although private collecting never guarantees public access to information that would otherwise be lost, we are fortunate that tw o citizens have availed their collections to analysis and reporting. In both cases these i ndividuals made repeated visits to eroding sites over many years, collecting all exposed materials indiscriminately, and keeping all collected materials in separate lots, properly labeled and stored. The resulting collections are longitudinal samples of shoreline-exposed archaeological sites, sa mples that would be virtually impossible to obtain throug h standard archaeological practice. The record of over two dozen sites collect ed by these citizens provides a baseline for the types of artifact assemblages we can expect on the Refuges, as well as a

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Introduction and Research Orientation 5 benchmark for salvaging sites that are activ ely eroding (see below). In effect, this inventory constitutes the extant record of conspicuous sites, those readily seen from open water and actively eroding at elevations in the modern tidal range. In some cases, eroding sites are accessible by boat only at high tide, but evident and easily collected only at low tide. This poses something of a chal lenge for artifact collectors and archaeologists alike. Gaining access by boat to islands a nd other landforms with shoreline middens requires careful timing of tides and winds, and protracted vi sits are required to ensure adequate inspection. Survey archaeologists learned quickly in this first year of investigation that contingenc y plans are a must, as many hours can be lost on mudflats and oyster bars if tides and winds do not cooperate. Methods for effective shoreline survey ar e a work-in-progress. Small, low-draft watercraft is required in many locales and in others even ca noe travel is problematical. Of course, all landforms currently outside the modern tidal range can be surveyed by foot during at least low tide, when mudflats and sa lt marshes are sufficiently drained to enable crossing. Such landforms may be invulnerable to tidal waters today, but they will be vulnerable to tidal erosion in the future as sea level continues to rise, plus many are currently subject to storm surge and related episodic erosion. The need to inventory and assess such landforms before they are dest royed is the intent of hammock survey. Hammock survey is the catch-all term for reconn aissance survey of the many tree islands or hammocks that punctuate the marshe s of the study area. As reviewed in Chapter 2, these include the low-lying landforms of the tidal zone that have subaerial exposure at least at low tide, as well as relict dunes that extend several meters above mean sea level. Landforms of both varie ties are sometimes surrounded by extensive salt marsh lacking navigable channels and thus mu st be approached by foot, generally at low tide. Others, of course, are situated along tidal creeks or ha ve gulf-facing exposures that are eroding today. In these cases, hammock survey follows from shoreline surveys that identified eroding sites. Irres pective of current exposure, a ll hammocks have potential to house significant archaeological deposits and, indeed, hammocks inspected to date prove this to be the case. As discussed in the research section below, occupation of hammocks cut off from navigable water today and those on high dunes pose interesting questions about changing environmental conditions. Hammock survey is enabled by aerial photographs and other remotely sensed imagery (e.g., LiDAR) that provides sufficien t information to design sampling schemes for particular landforms. All terrestrial landforms for which no surface evidence of human activity is observed must be subject to subsurface testing to explore the possibility of buried sites. Standard procedure in these cases is to excavate 30-x-30-cm shovel tests to a maximum depth of one meter spaced 30 m apart along linear transects. All fill from shovel tests is passed through -inch hardwa re cloth and all recovered archaeological materials bagged by unit. Sketch profiles and ph otos of all shovel tests are taken as well. All extant and newly discovered sites also require subsurface testing to determine their horizontal and vertical exte nt (i.e., site definition). Sta ndard procedure for sites with terrestrial components is to dig 30-x-30-cm shovel tests to a maximum depth of one

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6 Lower Suwannee Archaeological Survey 2009-2010 meter on a cruciform pattern spaced 10 m apar t. Shovel tests for site definition are treated in the same manner as those for s ite discovery, although we exercise greater caution with the former in dete cting stratigraphy within the pr ofile of shovel tests and in maintaining separate proveniences for archae ological materials recovered from distinct strata. All aspects of reconnaissan ce survey, as well as other investigations described below, are integrated in a regional Geogra phic Information Systems (GIS) database. Recently obtained LiDAR coverage for the study area provides high-resolution topographic data, as well as sufficient elev ational data to rela te all archaeological deposits to benchmarks for water levels. LiDAR is also useful for detecting aboveground anthropogenic deposits (i.e., mounds, ridges) when canopy cover is not too dense. On-the-ground mapping using a laser transit is necessary to record such features when LiDAR coverage is inadequate. The locations of all subsurface tests are recorded with a hand-held Global Positioning Systems (GPS) unit and uploaded into GIS coverage. Whenever possible, reconnaissance survey includes inholdings in the tidal zone for which we can obtain landowner permission. Although inholding survey is not required by U.S. Fish and Wildlife to fu lfill its oblig ation under the law, thorough knowledge of all archaeological sites in the gr eater region is required to provide the comparative basis to detect meaningful vari ations in time, space, and form. To date, three landowners have granted permission to conduct archaeological investigations on their properties. The investigations of Ca t Island (8DI29) reported here are our first on private land, and constitute what we refer to as rescue operations. Rescue As noted earlier, many of the extant sites on the Refuges are actively eroding into the Gulf and will soon be lost forever. It is not clear in some cases whether the erosional face of any particular site is the remnant of a primary midden, or the secondary midden of a habitation site whose core remains intact. In other cases, shorelin e deposits are merely the redeposited remnants of middens l ong since destroyed (e.g., Dasovich 1999). Sites with intact midden deposits that ar e actively eroding need to be sampled before they are completely destroyed. Determ ining how much of a midden remains intact at any given location requires subsurface testing, but in some cases the landform in question has been reduced to a thin strip of subaerial land merely a foot or two above mean sea level and occasionally exposed only at low tide. The integrity of erosional remnants can sometimes be determined by th e exposed profiles along shorelines, notably when escarpments expose both anthropogenic de posits and underlying soil. Of course, sites with substantial topographic relief (e .g., relict dunes) are less vulnerable to imminent destruction, although in such cases, the shoreline midden potentially represents a component of land-use and deposition that is functionally distinct from the deposits situated on the upland units of islands and peninsulas. In any event, erosion from tides and storm surge has been ongoing for millennia, so landforms currently flattened to nearsea-level relief include those that once stood in higher relief.

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Introduction and Research Orientation 7 Washover and undercutting of shoreline mi ddens are the two major forces of destruction observed at Refuge sites toda y (Dasovich 1999). Both processes operated throughout the past, but the magnitude of each would have been affected by the rate by which sea level rose. When sea level rise s slowly and continuously, shoreline middens are most vulnerable to undercutting; in cont rast, rapid, intermittent transgressions of sea preclude the gradual erosion caused by tides and waves. Moreover, storm surges carrying sediment also have the potential to cap near-shore deposits, rendering them less vulnerable to surface disturbances (and less visible to the survey archaeologist). In all cases, one has to bear in mind that arch aeological materials eroded in one location get redeposited elsewhere, sometimes in form ations that mimic anthropogenic deposits. A thorough inventory of all sites faci ng imminent destruction awaits reconnaissance survey, but in the meantime, se veral sites collected by private citizens can be addressed immediately. One such site is Little Bradford Island (8DI32) in the Suwannee River Delta. Reduced to a narrow st rip of intact midden, Little Bradford is situated in a pass between distributary cha nnels of the delta that sees frequent, highvelocity boat traffic with destructive wakes. The site is one of those collected by a citizen who availed to us assemblages for anal ysis. In fact, this individual had earlier contacted the Bureau of Archaeological Re search because human burials were being exposed by the eroding shoreline. State Archae ologist Ryan Wheeler (1998), then of the states CARL Program, visited Little Bradford and other si tes known to this individual and filed a report on the exposed burials. A second eroding site in proximity to Little Bradford is Cat Island (8DI29). The subject of archaeological evaluation in 2003 (Koski et al. 2003), Cat Island consists of low salt marsh with an upland ridge some 4.5 acres in extent but only five feet above mean sea level. Intact midden is eroding quickly from tidal undercutting, particularly when trees of the upland marg ins are uprooted. Our decision to conduct salvage work at Cat Island was partly motivated by logistic s. The landowner, Mike Crews, not only granted permission to test the site, but also to use the island as base camp for our work at Little Bradford. Although Cat Island is not as vulnerable to imminent destruction as other sites on the Refuges, it is one of the only locations from which field operations in the delta area can be deployed. Our rescue efforts were thus initiate d with testing at Cat Island and Little Bradford. Standard procedure in these cases was to excavate two 1-x-2-m units each to the landward side of eroding shoreline middens Units were excavated in 10-cm arbitrary levels within obvious archaeostra ta and terminated at two ste rile levels or at the water table at low tide, whichever came first. All fill was passed th rough -inch hardware cloth and all recovered archaeo logical materials bagged by leve l. Plans and profiles were recorded in photos and scaled drawings. Fi nally, a 50-x-50-cm co lumn was removed by archaeostrata from the most intact and repres entative profiles of each unit and all fill returned to UF for processing by fine-screening and flotation.

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8 Lower Suwannee Archaeological Survey 2009-2010 Research Pursuant to the spirit and the letter of laws protecting cultural resources, the significance of archaeological sites most often resides in their potential to provide information relevant to science. Occasi onally, federal agencies are able to support programmatic approaches to archaeological research (e.g., Savannah River Site of DOE; some U.S. Army Bases), but more often ac tions involving archaeol ogical consultation are contracted out in piecemeal fashion with no integration of the individual research projects. A sustained research program for the Refuges will provide the strongest, most thorough, and most economical ba sis for rendering decisions a bout site significance for management purposes in the long-term. We do not presume to know enough about the archaeological record of the Refuges to propose nuanced research questions at this time. Indeed, there is much basic archaeological work to be done to enable higher-order inquiry. Documenting the full range of variation in the dist ribution, timing, and content of sites is a fundamental goal. However, it will take years to attain this goal, and yet, as these data accumulate, any number of problem-oriented studies can be laun ched through the initia tive and effort of faculty and graduate students of the Universi ty of Florida. Four basic problem domains are proposed to structure future research. 1. Environmental Change It goes without saying that any research program aiming to investigate the changing relati onship between people and environment must develop robust proxy data on variation in cl imate, water, vegetation, and fauna. The study area is one of the least developed coast lines of the Gulf and thus its present-day environments offer good opportunity for unders tanding the structur al and processual relationships among natural forces affecting the inhabitability of land and the utility of its resources for humans. Natural science investigations of both modern and ancient environments are prevalent in and around the study area (e.g., Bergquist et al. 2006; Castaneda and Putz 2007; DeSantis et al. 2007; Wright et al. 2005) and offer a solid foundation for developing data relevant to specific archaeological questions. Several areas of paleoenvironmental resear ch bear relevance in any investigation of changing human-environment relationships. With respect to c limate, changes in temperature, seasonality, precipitation, air circulation, solar radiation, and storm patterns are among the more obvious factors. Since the end of the Pleistocene, when humans first colonized the lower Southeast, climate ha s tended to become warmer and wetter. However, this overall trend was punctuated by shorter-term reversals, as well as periods of relative stability interrupted by rapid cha nge. Moreover, in contemplating the effects of climate change on humans, it is important to distinguish climate variation from regime change, that is, the difference between fluctuations within a range of variation experienced by humans in real time, as opposed to change that is unanticipated for lack of experience and thus poses a threat to the perpetuation of traditional practice. One of the most obvious effects of climate change in any coastal setting is change in sea level. Transgression of shorelines due to rising seas is one of the consequences of global warning as sea water expands with te mperature increases and ice locked up in

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Introduction and Research Orientation 9 polar and mountain glaciers melts and is return ed to the oceans. Shoreline regression comes into play too, as periods of c ooling reverse the overall trend for rising temperatures and seas throughout the Holocene. Inasmuch as sea levels track changes in global climate, the overall trend has been for wa ter to rise since the terminal Pleistocene, when levels were as much as 100 m belo w present and the breadth of the Florida peninsula was roughly twice what it is today. Virtually all models of sea-level rise acknowledge that the rate of rise has slowed over time, with rate s averaging over 113 cm per century in the first millennium of the peri od to as little as 4 cm per century over the last five. Multiple analysts have presented data that show intermittent higher-than-present sea level stands during the middle to late Holocene (e.g., Balsillie and Donoghue 2004; Mitchell-Tapping et al. 1989; Mo rton et al. 2000; Walker et al. 1995). Other analysts point to potential problems with the proxy data used to infer higher-than-present stands. In particular, Otvos (2001, 2004) contends that arguments for higher-than-present stands have not taken into consideration changes in sedimentation and basin geometry that affect water displacement. It has cert ainly been the case that with decelerating rates of sea-level rise over the Holocene, coastal sediment ation switched from transgressive to aggradational (Wright et al. 2005). This process helps to explain how landforms that were occupied intensively during the late Holocene are now cut-off from navigable water, even at high tide. Equally relevant to any reconstruction of s ea-level change in the study area is alteration of the sediment suppl y via the Suwannee River. Whereas most of the gulf-draining stream s fed by springs carry little to no sediment to the Gulf, the Suwannee River, with headwaters far into the Coastal Plain of Georgia, has potential to carry a substantial bedload. Coupled with ep isodes of denudation (e .g., large-scale fires or agricultural clearing), periods of heavy rain and runoff likely resulted in sedimentation spikes and delta progradation. Changes in freshwater runoff would also have dramatic affects on the availability of resources of economic importance to human s. For instance, a common constituent of gulf coast middens is the inedible remains of the Eastern Oyster ( Crassostrea virginia ), a species of bivalve that thrives in the estuar ine conditions of the Suwannee Delta region. Oysters enjoy a wide range of to lerance to salinity (ca. 5-35 ppt), and can thrive in both intertidal and subtidal condi tions. However, the effect of parasites such as Dermo ( Perkinsus marinus) and Oyster drills (e.g., Urosalpinx spp. and Thais spp.) on oyster survival and productivity are exacerbated wi th increased salinity (ca. <15 ppt), thus narrowing the range of habitat to intertidal zones with adequate freshwater input (Bergquist et al. 2006). Oyster predation is likewise strongly correlated with salinity, as well as submersion patterns. One study along a salinity gradient to the Suwannee River estuary suggests that recent decreases in freshwater flow from the river has diminished oyster productivity in the subtidal reefs and pr omoted greater intertidal reef development (Bergquist et al. 2006). Variations in the use of oyster and other shellfish species are apparent in middens spanning 4000 years of human occupation in th e study area. As we outline elsewhere in this report, the use of oyster at some sites gave way to increased use of Carolina marsh

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10 Lower Suwannee Archaeological Survey 2009-2010 clam (Polymesoda caroliniana ) over time, the latter comp rising over 40 percent of the shellfish assemblage of Cat Island at ca. 1300 rcybp. It will be critically important to determine the extent to which this sort of trend is driven by cultural preference, ecological factors, or a co mbination of the two. Nume rous other dimensions of environmental variation will become relevant as we delve deeper into the residues of human subsistence and the ecological pa rameters of relevant resources. 2. Changing Land Use The sort of environmental changes that reconfigured the distribution of resources important to hum ans likewise affected the distribution of inhabitable land. Most directly, we can be certain that tran sgressions of the sea flooded the coastline, forcing people to relocate occa sionally as traditional places of dwelling became uninhabitable. Coastal sites occupied during the late Pleistocene and early to mid-Holocene are now kilometers from the present-day coast, and archaeologists are actively seeking evidence of ear ly coastal dwelling under mete rs of water (e.g., Adovasio and Hemmings 2008; Faught 2004). If changing land use over the course of the past 12,000 years were simply a history of repeated relocation in response to a slowly transgressive coastal front, then the record of archaeological sites, both inundated and subaerial, would c ovary precisely with changes in sea level. A variety of factors mitigate against any such correlation. For one, changes in sea levels we re neither constant nor unidirecti onal. Slow, gradual change over the course of ones lifetime, or even a century or two, may not warran t relocation, at least not in the short run. Building houses on sti lts or on earthen platforms were among the tactics communities may have employed to combat the effects of gradual change. However, many changes would have been more eventful, potentially catastrophic, as in the increased storm surge attending sea level rise. Such dramatic, eventful change may have necessitated abandonment and relocati on. Displacement landward is not unexpected for people eager to maintain the life with which they were familiar, but given the availability of paleodun es in the study area, relocation upw ard was an alternative. It is worth investigating the conditions under which use of paleodunes was favored over landward relocation. Seemingly the former option enabled communities to remain in close proximity to abandoned sites, but living on dunes posed new challenges, and eventually many such landforms were cut off from the mainland to become sea islands. A second consideration is that sea level ri se occasionally revers ed its course for relatively short periods of time, long enough to have encouraged the relocation of communities seaward. This is well documented on the coasts of South Carolina and Georgia, where Early Woodland sites situated on the coast during a multicentury episode of dropping sea (and presumably global cooli ng) are now at least partly submerged (Brooks et al. 1989; DePratter and Howa rd 1981). Again, this need not be a unidirectional and gradual trend, however short in dur ation, but instead a process with fits and starts, and with altern atives besides relocation. Because environmental factors affected communities and not simply individuals, the social consequences of change bear rele vance. Specifically, we must be concerned with factors that affected not only the pattern s of land use at the si te-specific level, but

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Introduction and Research Orientation 11 also the relationship of sites and communitie s to one another. Social solutions to environmental change, as well as other disrupti ons, are actually the first line of defense for societies capable of relo cating at will. Where people move after abandoning sites has as much to do with existing relationships w ith people in other communities as it does the physicality of inhabitable land. In other word s, networks of affilia tion and interaction play a large role in site selection and land-use patterning. At play here are both opportunities to relocate and join other communities, as well as impediments to relocation due to demographic (e.g., crowding) or political (e.g., conflic t) factors. Land use clearly entails more than simply positioni ng communities relative to natural resources alone; the sociopolitics of land useuse right s, social obligations, cooperative labor, competitive relationships, and moremay occasionally trump the microeconomic imperatives of coastal living. Sociopolitical impingements of land use re mind us also that certain places on the landscape became significant to people for hist orical and symbolic reasons. Places of intensive and repeated occupation had the pot ential to draw people back, generation after generation, because of the grav ity of tradition. With su stained settlement, landforms often accreted with midden, rende ring them less vulnerable to rising water and erosion, and possibly affecting their economic potential positively or negatively. These sorts of consequences were likely unintended, but nonetheless significant factors in the overall patterns of settlement. In addition, purposeful modifications of the landscape are evident in the many mounds erected in the study ar ea. The association between mounds and human burials underscores the symbolic import of certain plac es, as well as the intentionality of coastal dwellers to create environm ents of their own design. 3. Built Environment. Mound construction in peninsular Florida arguably dates back as much as 7000 years (Sassaman and Randall 2011), and mounds erected specifically to inter the deceased date back at least 5000 years (Endonino 2010). Unfortunately, any coastal mounds this old or older would have suffered the fate of rising sea. Our first glimpse into coastal m ounding dates to about 4500 years ago, when socalled shell rings and associated shell mounds took form along both the Gulf and Atlantic coasts of Florida (Russo 1991, 1996; Russo and Heide 2001). Because they are constructed of shell, rings and mounds this old on the coast, like those of the St. Johns Basin, have long been regarded as merely accumulations of food remains (Goggin 1952; Marquardt 2010; Milanich 1994; Miller 1998; Wyman 1875). The most recent research lends new evidence to the inference that shell rings and mounds in Florida were sometimes intentionally constructed (Sassa man and Randall 2011; Schwadron 2010) or at least the output of nonsubsistence, ritual activity (Russo 2004). The intentionality of mounde d deposits is not in questio n for constructions dating to the Woodland period. Starting at about 2500 years ago in the American Midwest, earth was used to construc t elaborate mortuary mounds, platforms, enclosures, and animal effigies. The Hopewell tradition of ca. 200 B.C. A.D. 500 exemplifies the elaboration of mound ritual centered on veneration of th e dead. With extralocal influences over half a continent and adapted to a variety of local circumstances, Hopewell ritual became manifested in north Florida in a regional expression known as Swift Creek.

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12 Lower Suwannee Archaeological Survey 2009-2010 On the Florida Gulf coast, Swift Creek dates to the first few centuries after Christ, and it contributed to the subsequent Weeden Isla nd tradition, which persisted on the Gulf coast until at least A.D. 800. Both traditions i nvolved the construction of conical earthen mounds containing mortuaries, as well as plat form mounds. Shell mounds and ridges are also known from these traditions, but too little evidence is available to ascertain their genesis and function. Because Swift Creek and Weeden Island mounds often contain burials with whole pots and ot her items desired by collectors, most were destroyed long ago through uncontrolled digging. Also, like Archaic shell mounds, Woodland shell mounds were often mined for construction material. At least two massive shell mounds and some 20 earthen mounds are known for the study area. Nearly all such constructions were destroyed by either haphazard or illicit digging, or mining for construction materials. The Philadelphian Clarence B. Moore excavated many mounds in the area in the late 19th and early 20th centuries (Moore 1902, 1903, 1918). His record of survey and excavatio n provides some of the only evidence we have for the location, configuration, and conten t of mounds. He and others that followed were motivated to explore mounds because they often contained human burials accompanied by whole pottery vessels, greenstone celts, and other elaborate artifacts. While we may have lost much of the c ontextual information of mound contents, including those of chronology, we still have locational inform ation that is useful in determining the relationships between m ounds and places of living and resource extraction. Some mounds were sited on landf orms that have since been inundated and eroded by rising sea. To the uneducated observer, coastal mounds might appear to have been a pragmatic tactic for raising ones living space above floode d terrain, but most large earthen mounds appear to have been c onstructed expressly for mortuary purposes. Others constructed with truncated tops or thos e that included shell may have been erected for purpose other than burial, but nothing w ould suggest any were constructed for the express purpose of habitation. Smaller mounds, linear ridges, and large U-shaped middens are indicative of intensive habitation, wh ile the extent to which people resided on top of such deposits remains to be seen. Unlike the burial mounds these sorts of deposits contain the refuse of everyday living and thus have not attracted the looters and antiquarians bent on recovering whole pots and other treasures. We know of many such features in the study area and many more are expected to turn up as reconnaissance survey ensues. One of the primary goals of documen ting and testing such deposits is to determine their life histories, that is, the timing and circumstances of their initiation, their duration and abandonment, and any changes in use and deposition over time. Equally important is detailed information on the spatial re lationships among above-ground deposits on particular landforms, as these have potential to reveal aspects of community organization and size. Needless to say, precise age estimates will be needed in order to establish contemporaneity and sequencing among such units. An overarching issue relevant to research on the built environment is that places of either deliberate construction or longterm, accretional deposition were sometimes sited in places that simply could not su stain human habitation, or, in the case of

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Introduction and Research Orientation 13 nonresidential features, became inaccessible due to flooding or sedimentation. How changes in environment affected cultural perceptions of places on the landscape is a central theme of the proposed research, on e that bears directly on contemporary challenges attending sea level rise. Anthropol ogists who study resettlement have noted that the toughest challenges of mitigating th e adverse impacts of displacement are those related to the reconstitution of commun ities (e.g., Oliver-Smith 2003). Places of historical and cultural significance play a cri tical role in the formation and maintenance of community identity, so it stands to r eason that geographic ruptures between such places and the people who regard them as meaningful erode the chances that communities can simply be relocated without undergoing major structural change. Of course, structural transformati ons arising from displacement are an important subject of study in their own right, and are particularly pertinent fo r understanding the social effects of climate change today. 4. Interregional Networks. Just as local environmental conditions are affected by and recursively affect larger-scale natura l phenomena, local communities of the north Gulf Coast were both products of and precedents for extralocal social realities. Evidence for extralocal connections abound. Soapstone used in the manufacture of bowls during the Late Archaic period is found at many sites in the study area, and none of it could have come from sources closer than north-central Ge orgia. Pottery of the St. Johns tradition is actually quite abundant at many sites, and its te mper of spicules from freshwater sponges points to sources in northea st Florida. The influences of north-central Florida communities during the late pre-Columbian era is evident in the substantial Alachua pottery assemblages in the northern part of the study area. Other dimensions of interregional interac tions can be cited, but perhaps none is more compelling than the geographic reach of Middle Woodland practices traceable to the Hopewell tradition on the Midwest. Gene rations of archaeologists have pondered the sorts of processes accounting for the widespread sharing of ritual practices manifest in mortuary mounds. Underwriting this practice materially is the acquisition of sumptuary items from far and wide, as well as an industr y of elaborate pottery manufacture, much of it expressly for ritual uses. The longstandi ng but now largely di scounted dichotomy between sacred and secular life (Sears 1973) implies that some manner of world religion sweep the country, imposing a sacred or der to daily lives that varied from region to region, as nature and society dictated. There are clearly major contrasts between elaborate and simple pottery, between m ound complexes and small midden sites, and between lavish and austere burial treatments. However, the contra sts are blurred when we investigate the provenance and final dispos ition of material culture presumed to be mundane and local. In a recent study of Sw ift Creek pottery, for instance, Neill Wallis (2011) shows that some of the more mundane classes of pottery were heirloomed and transported substantial distances to be gifted in the context of mound burial. A variety of supporting data enabled Wallis to infer how local communities were constituted through interregional connections that united diverse people in shared ritual. It follows from this perspective that lo cal communities of the study area cannot be investigated as if they were independent, autonomous collectives. This is not to say that they had to depend on distant communities to acquire daily food or make everyday

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14 Lower Suwannee Archaeological Survey 2009-2010 pottery. Rather, as in small-scale soci eties generally, conne ctions with other communities entail larger-scale, longer-term social and economic dimensions. In many cases, such connections were the basis for economic security, as the option to abandon sites and relocate may have been predicated on pre-existing ties. It is not unusual for such ties to be structured along lines of kin, particularly the ma rriage alliances of exogamous communities. Under some circ umstances, materials and/or knowledge important to ritual practice implicated comm unities and social relations spread far and wide. The overall point is that biological reproduction may not have always involved scales of interaction beyond the local, but social reproduction, including alliances of marriage and the like, entailed far greater scales of interaction. In this sense, the political economy of Woodland communities, as well as those before and after, was regional in scope and thus irreducible to local circ umstances. Indeed, one can argue that participation in political economies structure local economies as much, if not more, than do local ecologies (e.g., Be nder 1985; Lourandos 1988). Ritual feasting, surplus production, and storage are pote ntial manifestations of political economies involving food. When considering extralocal scales of interaction and networking, the viability and reliability of transportati on corridors bear relevance. In the study area, water and wetlands are the defining surface features. Movement of people by watercraft up and down the coastline is certain ly expected, although we cannot assume that ease of transport is correlated directly with level of interaction or integration. Wind and shoreline currents can severely impede transportation by watercraft, as our field crew quickly learned. Equally important ar e demographic and cultural pa tterns of settlement that determine spacing between communities of cultural affinity. The study area is on the southern edge of the Woodland tradition known as Swift Creek, but fully situated within a broader gulf-coastal distribu tion of the subsequent Weeden Island tradition. How major mound centers such as Crystal River and t hose farther south around Tampa Bay affected the distribution of settlements in the study area and movement of people among them is a problem of considerable interest. Once again, the relationship between a domestic economy of daily subsistence and a political eco nomy of regional inte gration lies at the crux of this problem. Movement up and down the Suwannee River implicates other extralocal influences and histories of interactions and migration. The Suwannee River has headwaters in both the Okeefenokee Swamp of Georgia, as well as the south central Coastal Plain near the headwaters of Pied mont drainages that envelope sources of soapstone and the greenstone used to make celts of Woodland age. During the early Weeden Island era, the norther n portion of Florida was home to the McKeithan tradition (Milanich et al. 1984), a regional expression of Weeden Island with unknown affinity to coastal counterparts. A Weeden Island mound complex along the Lower Suwannee known as Fowlers Landing (Moore 1903) is a po ssible link in river-wi de interactions. Although this site was long ago destroyed, pottery and other items recovered by Moore may hold clues to relationships among coastal and interior communities.

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Introduction and Research Orientation 15 Our understanding of regional in teractions in Florida has long been dominated by analyses of pottery. It is not uncommon for pottery assemblages in Florida to be divided into local wares and trade wares, usually on the basis of tradition alone, but in more nuanced approachessuch as those of petrography (Cordell 1984) or chemical sourcing (Wallis 2011)on the distinction between local a nd nonlocal sources of clay and temper. Sometimes the differences are very subtle a nd require sophisticated instrumentation, but in many cases nonlocal wares are evident in m acroscopic technical attributes, as in the presence of mica (a Piedmont mineral) in clay. Even variations in the abundance and condition of aplastics as common as sand ca n signal divergent geographical roots in communities of potters. Extant collections of pottery available from sites in the study area lend themselves to a program of paste ch aracterization as a means to identify seams of cultural and geographic varia tion that can be then tested against other, independent lines of evidence. In sum, the four research domains outlined in the forgoing sections offer multiple points of entry into a long-term research program that has as its ultimate goal the detailed historical reconstruction in the study ar ea for purposes of deriving generalizable knowledge about the relationship between l ong-term processes and short-term human experience. Given the patently multiscalar aspects of human experiences in the study area, all research efforts, no matter their pa rticular bent, will benefit from an approach that tacks back and forth between the loca l and extralocal, and between the synchronic and diachronic. It bears repe ating that any research effort in the study area will depend on the development of solid chronology, a t horough inventory and assessment of sites, and the integration of datasets that register both the natural and cultural dimensions of variation attending coastal living. Our inaugur al efforts reported in this volume are a small, initial contribution to this empirical baseline. BRIEF SUMMARY OF RESULTS Cat Island (8DI29) Rescue efforts at Cat Island entailed the excavation of two 1 x 2-m units in the upland portion that exists above the high-water level but not outside the zone of storm surge. A surface stratum of sand some 40 cm thick signals a recent storm deposit, presumably from the March 1993 Storm of the Century (Lott 1993). Beneath these sands in both units was a 40-50-cm thick shell midden, underlain by sterile sands situated just above the watertab le. Charcoal from the base of the midden in Test Unit 1 returned a two-sigma calibrated age range of A.D. 610-680. Pottery recovered throughout the midden consisted primarily of sa nd-tempered plain ware, but also present was a moderate yet diverse assemblage of sher ds of the Weeden Island tradition. Overall, the assemblage of pottery accords well with the calibrated date range, roughly the early portion of Willeys (1949) Weeden Island II subperiod. Test Unit 2 at Cat Island, a mere 16 mete rs east of Test Unit 1, presented a similar profile but with a basal sample of charcoal returning a two-sigma calibrated age range of 2830-2820/2630-2470 B.C. This Late Archaic age was a bit surprising given the results

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16 Lower Suwannee Archaeological Survey 2009-2010 of Test Unit 1, but missing in this second unit was any trace of Weeden Island pottery. Several examples of nondiagnostic, plain sa nd-tempered sherds were accompanied by a few St. Johns sherds. The age estimate at the base of the midden is proximate to the age of Orange fiber-tempered ware, and although no examples of this pottery type were recovered from the unit, Orange sherds are pr esent in private surface collections, as are soapstone vessel sherds. Aside from differen ces in pottery between the two test units, midden content differed markedly. Whereas oyster comprised over 90 percent of the shell in all levels of the midden in Test Unit 2, Carolina marsh clam ( Polymesoda caroliniana ) rose from 15 to 60 percent of the sh ell in the midden sequence of Test Unit 1. Evidently, local shellfish procurement had shifted from species with a wide range of salinity tolerance to those that do not tolerate salinity above 15 ppt. That midden records of such divergent ag e and composition reside only 16 m apart in an undisturbed context reminds us of the horizontal dimensions of mi dden formation and thus the need to sample more intensively, even at sites with only small middens. Little Bradford Island (8DI32) Like at Cat Island, testing at Little Brad ford Island consisted of two 1 x 2-m units spaced about 16 m apart on the landward (west) side of an eroding, shoreline escarpment. Both units presented the same surface stratu m of storm-surge sands, roughly 40 cm thick, underlain by a 30-cm-thick shell midden resting on clean basal sands. A sample of charcoal from the base of the midden in Test Unit 1 returned a two-sigma calibrated age range of A.D. 120-260/280-330; charcoal from the base of the midden in Test Unit 2 returned a calibrated age es timate of A.D. 20-220. Pottery throughout the midden was dominated by sherds of sand-tempered and limestone-tempered (Pasco) plain wares, accompanied by linear check stamped sherds (D eptford) and a few Swift Creek sherds. Carolina marsh clam comprises about one-third of the shellfish assemblage throughout the midden, with oyster dominating the remaining matrix. Richards Island (8LV137) Reconnaissance survey of Richards Island proved to be especially fruitful. The island was known to house substa ntial shell-bearing deposits along its eroding shorefaces, but the nature of archaeological deposits along the spine of this kilo meter-long relict dune was unknown. Shovel testing alo ng this spine and along seve ral transverse transects revealed midden across most of the landform. Especially notable were thick midden deposits along the northwest and southeast portions of the main spine, as well as nearly continuous midden along the southern arm of the dune. Above-ground anthropogenic deposits were located in several spots, mo st notably a large U-shaped deposit at the northwest end of the island. Apparently the result of intensive occupation at a semicircular village, the U-shaped deposit signals one of the few fully intact shell rings in the region. It holds enormous potential for informing on village structure and organization and thus warrants additional testin g. Variations in pottery recovered from shovel tests across the island suggest possible spatial segregation of earlier and later components spanning the Deptford, Swif t Creek, and Weeden Island periods.

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Introduction and Research Orientation 17 Stratigraphic testing in multiple area of the island will be required to delineate more precisely the spatial segreg ation of components and to date these radiometrically. CONCLUSION The first phase of a long-term program of archaeological investigations in the Cedar Key and Lower Suwannee National Wildlife Refuges substantiate s the potential of this region to inform on long-term histories of coastal dwelling. Sites that have been and continue to be damaged by tid al waters and related shore line erosion retain good potential for data recovery, although the window of opportunity is closing fast as sea level continues to rise. The many hammocks, tr ee islands, and relict dune s of the study area add another layer of data poten tial in locations that are currently i nvulnerable to erosion, but nonetheless in danger of destruction from both natural and human agents. Given that we know so little about this part of Floridas archaeological record, simple, basic information of the distribution, age, and conten t of sites is sorely needed before larger research questions can be addressed. Still, with each bit of new information we are beginning to expose patterning th at reflects both the adjustme nts humans had to make to changing environments, as well as the emer gence, reproduction, and transformation of cultural practices that mediated the rela tionships between people and nature. The archaeological potential of the nor thern Gulf coast is robust indeed, and we trust that the results of our initial phase of fi eldwork substantiate this claim.

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18 Lower Suwannee Archaeological Survey 2009-2010

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CHAPTER 2 ENVIRONMENTAL AND ARCHAEOLOGICAL CONTEXTS Kenneth E. Sassaman and Paulette S. McFadden The northern Gulf coast of Florida is a comp lex environmental setti ng that has been and continues to be strongly influenced by bot h shortand long-term changes in global climate, as well as processes that operate at le sser scales of time and space. For a variety of reasons, the environment of the region has been reasonably well studied in the modern era, resulting in a robust literature dealing with mari ne ecology, geomorphology, fluvial influences, and human impacts. In contrast, and despite sporadic investigations spanning 150 years, archaeological knowledge of the region is not so well known to us, at least in ways commensurate with modern natural science. Moreover, data relating human experiences to environments of the ancien t past are particularly sparse, limiting our ability to infer relationships between cultural and environmental change If the ultimate goal of the Suwannee Archaeological Survey is to achieve greater resolution in humanenvironment relations in the region, spanning all of human history, a great deal of data must be developed on both sides of the equation. This chapter out lines what is known environmentally and archaeological to this point, and thus serves as a springboard for research yet to come. ENVIRONMENTAL CONTEXT Our review of the environmental cont ext of the project area begins with contemporary conditions and works from genera l to specific scales of observation. This is followed by consideration of paleoenvironm ental conditions, notably changes attending the rise of sea level since the late Pleistocene. Regional Physiography The project area is situated squarely w ithin the so-called Big Bend area of Floridas Gulf Coast. Extending roughly from Apalachicola to Tarpon Springs, the Big Bend is a 350-km-long stretch of marine an d brackish-marine marshy coast with a complex surface geology due to variations in limestone bedrock (Davis 1997a:165). Hine et al. (1988) referred to this coastal area as the margin of an incipient epicontinental sea, based on its location on the broad, flat flooded carbonate platform. Because of the broad, low-gradient shelf of the underlying Fl orida platform (which extends more than 150 km into the Gulf of Mexico ), the relatively w eak winter storms, and the small fetch of the Gulf of Mexico when compared to th e larger oceans, the Big Bend is a low-waveenergy coast (Hine et al. 1988). Storms pr oduce enough surge to flood marsh habitat and either deposit sediment or cause significant erosion, but hurricanes rarely cross this portion of the peninsula and dominant winds (n orth-northwest) blow mostly along shore. Coupled with a low-wave-energy regime, th e relative lack of s iliciclastic sand and mud in the Big Bend contributes to a heav ily vegetated marshy biome. The Suwannee River is the only appreciable source of sand from the uplands to the east. Most other 19

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20 Lower Suwannee Archaeological Survey 2009-2010 freshwater rivers draining in the Big Bend are fed by springs of the Floridan aquifer system, and do not carry significant sediment loads. Although the Suwannee delta is relatively small, it has aggraded enough to prot rude into the Gulf several kilometers and it supports several distributar y channels (Davis 1997a:165). Limestone substrate in the Big Bend is generally shallow, often exposed at the surface in the southern reaches. Dissoluti on and collapse of limestone has produced a complex karst topography incl uding broad bedrock depressi ons that form embayments, hammocks developed on bedrock nubs, and marsh island archipelagos on flooded, irregular bedrock plan es (Davis 1997a:166). In addition to the karst topography of the Big Bend region, many of the small islands protruding from the shallow waters al ong the coastline are relict paleodunes that most likely formed during the late Pleistocen e and early Holocene. These landforms are consistent with other similar inland dunes that accreted throughout the southeastern United States between 30,000 and 15,000 years ago during a period of glaciation and drier climatic conditions (Ivester et al. 2001). Accretion of sediments on the dunes ceased and they became inactive, or relict, as the region became wetter. Reworking of the crests may have signaled reactivati on of the dunes sometime during the early Holocene; however, there is no evidence of significant deposition on these landforms after about 3000 years ago (M arkewich and Markewich 1994). Compositionally, inland dunes are accumulations of aeolian (wind-borne) sediments, which originated in the floodplai ns of nearby rivers and streams. These sediments overlie older fluvial (water-borne) levee deposits or are the result of reworked riverine sands (Markewich and Markewich 199 4; Wright et al. 2005) Dune sediments are well-sorted medium-sized sand grains that range from .5 to .25 mm in diameter, and little or no pedogenic soil forma tion is evident. The distinc tive filled-in parabolic, or Ushape is a product of the direct ion of the prevailing winds in the region at the time of formation (Markewich and Markewich 1994), and in the case of the coastal region, reworking by marine processes as sea le vel rose and the la nd around the dunes was inundated (Wright et al. 2005) Offshore, substantial oyster reefs para llel the coastline, affecting both the sediment rates and current patterns of th e estuarine system. The eastern oyster ( Crassostrea virginica) thrives in both subtidal and in tertidal zones of brackish water estuaries, including those in th e Big Bend region of Florida. The reefs constructed by these filter-feeding bivalves can grow from a small colony of around one square meter to hundreds of hectares in size, and it is co mmon for oyster reefs to be exposed during periods of low tide since they te nd to cluster in depths of less than 3 meters of water. Firm, muddy bottoms and faster moving nutrien t-rich currents provide optimal conditions for oyster colonization and areas with these a ttributes tend to foster the largest reefs (Kilgen and Dugas 1989).

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Environmental and Archaeological Contexts 21 Soils Brown et al. (1990) describe ten major physiographic zone s in Florida, with the Big Bend region being included in the Ocala Up lift District. This highly diverse region accommodates a variety of elevations, surficial materials, and landscapes. At or near the surface, tertiary limestone creates rolling karst plains, punctuated with other topographic features, such as hills and valleys that have been sculpted by streams. The northern portion of this karstic landscape is composed of soils with medium to high clay content, which grades to the south and west into sandy flatwoods. Because of its relatively diverse topography and formational history, Florida sports a variety of soil types. Seven of the 11 soil types described by the U.S. Soil Classification System are found in this state (University of Florida 2006), with specific conditions contributing to the t ype of soil found in any given region. Soil variation is a product of differential landscape position, ages of parent material, layering of sediments, and hydrology, among other factor s. A variety of soils ar e present within the Ocala Uplift District. Spodosols, soils that contai ns a subsurface horizon of organic material combined with accumulations of iron and/or aluminum, are the most extensively occurring in the state and are found in the in land portions of the dist rict (Brown et al. 1990; University of Florida 2006). The coastal areas in the Ocala Uplift Di strict are dominated by Histosols and Entisols. Histosols are heavily organic soils, with the organic material extending down at least 40 cm from the surface or to within 10 cm of the underlying marl or limestone bedrock. Overall, organic matter composes mo re than half of the soil column above the bedrock. This type of soil is found pre dominantly in swampy or marshy areas and, because of its highly organic content, is pron e to subsidence and thus is unsuitable for urban development or the construction of homesites. Two suborders of Histosols characterize marsh soils: Hemists, in which organic matter has not yet completely decayed, and Saprists, in which organic ma terial has become vi rtually unrecognizable due to excessive or complete decay (Brown et al. 1990). Composed of inert parent materials, such as limestone or quartz sand, Entisols are characterized by the lack of soil-forming pro cesses (Brown et al. 1990; University of Florida 2006). Like Spodosols, En tisols occur extensively in Fl orida. This soil type is found mostly in the sandhills and in sand pi ne scrub areas with level to sloping, well drained sandy deposits. Aquent s, a suborder of Entisols that stay wet unless artificially drained, are found predominantly in marshy areas (Brown et al. 1990). Brown et al. (1990) describe the coastal area spec ifically as a region of combined Histosols and Entisols with gently sloping to nearly level sandy beaches that are characterized by poorly drained, flood-prone marshes of minera l and organic sediments. These attributes make the coastal areas in th e Ocala Uplift District attractive for wildlife and recreational activities, but undesirable for development.

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22 Lower Suwannee Archaeological Survey 2009-2010 Climate The humid, subtropical climate of Florid a is heavily influenced by a number of factors. Perhaps the most important is th e peninsular configur ation of the state, sandwiched between the Caribbean Sea to the ea st and the Gulf of Mexico to the west (Chen and Gerber 1990). Additionally, the st ates climate is a product of latitude, land and water distribution, prevai ling winds, storms, and pre ssure systems (NCDC 2006). Cyclical in nature, the climate altern ates between cool, dry periods from October/November to May, and warm, wet pe riods from June to September/October, with the degree of dryness or wetness more pronounced in the southern portions of the state (Chen and Gerber 1990). Temperatures are linked to both latitude and proximity to water (Chen and Gerber 1990). Mean winter temperatures range from the low 50s in the northern part of the state to the upper 60s in the southern portion. During the hotte st months of July and August, the average temperature statewide is 81-83 degr ees Fahrenheit. Temperatures vary from the mean and average somewhat, with northerly areas being cooler than south Florida. More than any other state, Florida has a subs tantial number of days that fall within the comfortable range of 70-85 de grees Fahrenheit, with 125-150 days in the north and over 200 days in the south (NCDC 2006). Unfortunately, while the state experien ces relatively few days over 95 degrees Fahrenheit, excessive humid ity makes Florida summers notoriously uncomfortable. Statewide, the relative humidity during th e warmest hours of the day is 50-60%, which can create a heat index of more than 10 degr ees above the actual te mperature. During cooler parts of the day, humidity increas es to around 70-80%; however, because it is mitigated by lower temperatures, the heat index does not increase along with it (NCDC 2006). Averaging 54 inches a year, just one inch behind Louisiana, Florida receives the second greatest amount of precipitation in th e United States. Because of its southerly orientation, virtually all of th is precipitation falls as rain, with a rare contribution from snow in the northern regions. At least one tenth of an inch of rain falls on seventy to eighty days in an average ye ar, with the majority being convective rain in the summer months. Winter months see greatly redu ced amounts of rainfall due to the Bermuda High, which moves over Florida around Oct ober and weakens around May. This high pressure system causes atmospheric subsidence, which restricts the formation of convective clouds and thus prevents precipitation. Geographically, the panhandle and south Florida receive the most rain, while th e Florida Keys and the offshore bar of Cape Canaveral receive the least (NCDC 2006). Because it is a peninsula, Florida receive s breezes from both the Atlantic and the Gulf of Mexico, with the wind direction ch anging seasonally. In winter, winds come from the north, bringing colder northern air w ith them. During the tr ansitional months of spring and fall, winds are from the east, sout heast, and northeast. Summer winds come from the south, southeast, and southwest, bringing warm air up from the south. Nearly

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Environmental and Archaeological Contexts 23 constant breezes moderate temperatures in coastal areas; however, breezes are not of substantial velocity (Chen and Gerber 1990). Floridas generally mild climate is punctuated by extreme events, the most destructive of which are tropi cal storms and hurricanes. Originating in the Atlantic tropical cyclone basin, these destructive stor ms can develop in the North Atlantic Ocean, the Caribbean Sea, or the Gulf of Mexico. Each year around ten tr opical disturbances develop into tropical storms a nd five develop into stronger hu rricanes, with the peak time of storm formation in September and October. Only half of the hurricanes that form make landfall along the coasts of the United St ates, with some impacting Florida. The highest risk areas for hurricane landfall are in the panhandle, southeas t, and southwestern regions of the state, while the Big Bend region, historic ally, has experienced less hurricane activity (Chen and Gerber 1990). While wind damage and rain induced fl ooding from hurricanes cause substantial damage in upland areas, coastal areas are especi ally vulnerable because of the addition of flooding from storm surge and destruction from powerful wind-generated waves. Erosion or deposition of sedime nts that occur duri ng these storm events can significantly alter the coastline and the immediately adjacent marine environment (Chen and Gerber 1990). Of lesser destructive power, thunderstorms are quite frequent in Florida. During summer months, when the Bermuda High has ceas ed its restrictive influence, warming of the land surface in an unstable atmosphere causes thunderstorm development. These storms of varying intensity can bring h eavy rains, lightning, high winds, sudden and violent uplifts, hail, and sometimes tornadoe s (Chen and Gerber 1990). Florida has the highest tornado density, per 10,000 square mile s, of any state. However, unlike the strong tornadoes in the Midwes t, Floridas tornadoes are of relatively low intensity and many are small waterspouts that form a nd dissipate rather quickly (NCDC 2006). Winter brings with it the risk of colder than normal temperatures when cold fronts dip down from the north. These brief, but some times intense periods of cold can result in damage to plant communities. For instance, mangrove trees cannot tolerate freezing temperatures and extensive areas of mangrove forest have been destroyed by abnormally cold periods (Chen and Berber 1990). The Suwannee Delta region in the Big Be nd area of Florida experiences much the same climate conditions as other central and nor thern areas of the state. At Cedar Key, average temperatures range from lows in the 50s during winter to hi ghs in the 80s during summer. Average rainfall ranges from only thr ee inches in April a nd May to a peak of ten inches in July and August. Winds are fa irly constant and consistent, with mean wind speeds ranging from lows of around 6 knots in January and July to highs of around 9 knots in April and September (NBDC 2010). Referred to as a wind-driven estuary, the Suwannee Delta region experiences tides that are consistently affected by breezes from the Gulf of Mexico. Tides in the

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24 Lower Suwannee Archaeological Survey 2009-2010 estuary are semi-diurnal, meaning there ar e two unequal low tides and two unequal high tides per day. The low and high tides are sepa rated by just over 6 hours with a tidal range of one meter at the mouth of the Suwannee River (Farrell et al. 2005; Light et al. 2002). The estuary averages only 6.6 feet in depth, with deeper channels, of about 20 feet in depth, maintained in the East and West passes where the river discharges into the Gulf of Mexico (Farrell et al. 2005). When the shal low depth is combined with the large tidal range, this makes for a significant difference in land area that is exposed during low tide and inundated during high tide. Wind directiona lity and intensity can amplify the tidal range, causing excessively high or low tides. Because of the flat, shallow topography of the Big Bend coast, even small increases in relative sea leve l can cause significant inundation of low lying areas. Two main processes combine to raise mean sea level globally, which significantly impacts Florida coastal areas locally. Eustatic sea level rise is an increase in the volume of liquid that is held by the worlds oceans due to th e addition of water. Melt water from the Arctic ice sheets and from Greenland contribute significantly to the increased volume of water, and global warming ha s accelerated the process. The addition of meltwater; however, is less significant than steric sea level rise, or increased water volume due to thermal expansion. Even a small increase in global temperatures can result in significant sea level rise due to warming of the oceans waters. In addition to changes in mean sea level, several other factors combine to create a complex mosaic of natural processes that affect the relative sea level in the Suwannee Delta. These include sedimentation, erosi on and deposition by storm surges (Leonard et al. 1995), subsidence (Ning et al. 2008), and isostatic up lift (Adams et al. 2010). Sedimentation occurs when particles fall out of suspension in the water column and fall to the bottom, accreting the marsh surface. Punctuating the rates of sedimentation are storm surge events that can cause signifi cant erosion, or deposition, depending on the nature of the event. Along with sedimentation, isostatic uplift acts to somewhat mitigate relative sea level rise along the Florida coastline. Flor idas Swiss cheese-lik e karstic topography developed as ground water slowly dissolved the weaker areas of limestone in the states platform. The dissolved limestone is carried to the ocean where it is redeposited somewhere offshore. The result of this lost material is a lighter platform, which continues to rises up as weight is removed (Adams et al. 2010) In the local area of the Suwannee Delta, however, isostatic uplift is not enough to overcome the negating factor of subsidence. While isostatic uplift and accretion by sedi mentation act to raise the elevation of the land in relation to the sea, subsidence nega tes both of these processes. In the coastal areas of the Big Bend region, subsidence is the result of soil compaction and decomposition; the decomposition of organic materials contained in the soils; the extraction of ground water; and a lack of a sediment source to replenish subsiding surfaces (Ning et al. 2008).

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Environmental and Archaeological Contexts 25 The combined processes of subsidence and sea level rise far outweigh the mitigating factors of accretion and isostatic uplift. Since 1852, sea level has risen relative to the land an estimated 30.5 cm in the vici nity of the mouth of the Suwannee River (Light et al. 2002), and as the climate continues to warm, ra tes of sea level rise will continue to accelerate, putting the Suwann ee estuary system at significant risk. Biota Floridas diversity of climate, soil types, and hydrology foster a highly variable biota, which can be classified into three dist inct ecosystems. Upland ecosystems contain regions of pine flatwoods a nd dry prairie, scrub and hi gh pine, temperate hardwood forests, and the south Florida rockland. Fr eshwater wetlands and aquatic ecosystems contain regions of swamps, freshwater marshes, lakes, rivers, and springs. Lastly, coastal ecosystems contain regions of dunes and ma ritime forests, salt marshes, mangroves, inshore marine habitats, and co ral reefs (Myers and Ewel 1990). The Big Bend region of the state supports all three ecosystems, and with the exception of the south Florida rockland, all of the habitats within these ecosystems are present. The inland portions of the regi on are characterized by the upland ecosystem, with extensive areas covered by pine flatwood s and dry prairies, intermingled with the freshwater and aquatic ecosystem. The wester nmost extent of the region is characterized by the maritime forests, marine habitats, and especially the salt marshes of the coastal ecosystem. Within the coastal ecosystem in the Suwannee Delta estuarine region, there are distinctive habitats that support different sp ecies of plants and animals. Tuckey and Dehaven (2004) identified and described three ma rine habitats in the region: tidal-creeks, areas of sea grass, and oyster reefs, each of which supports a diversity of plant and animal species. Focusing mainly on fish species, Tuckey and Dehaven (2004) collected nearly three years worth of data on tidal creek and sea grass habitats Fish were collected from randomly chosen areas within the two habitats on a monthly basis with a goal of tracking changes in frequencies by species and size. They identified several species of fish that were restricted to certain habitats during certain times of the year, including gar, eagle ray, and sunfishes that were restricted to th e tidal-creeks; and barracudas, mackerels, and triggerfishes that were restricted to the sea grass habitat. Of significance was their finding that areas of sea grass were used as a nursery for many species of fish that inhabited other territories as ad ults, making this one of the most important habitats in the marsh. Colonies of eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica ), some of which can grow quite large in areas that provide optimal conditions, create the oyster reef habitat. Temperature, salinity, and food availability ar e all important factors in the success of any colony. Oysters are poikilothermic, meani ng they are cold-blooded organisms whose body temperature varies with that of their envi ronment. They can tolerate a wide range of water temperatures, from just above freezing to nearly 97 degrees Fahrenheit. However, while the oyster may tolerate diffe ring temperatures, other factors that are

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26 Lower Suwannee Archaeological Survey 2009-2010 indirectly affected by temperature, for instance the amount of soluble oxygen in the water, can adversely affect the organism (Kilgen and Dugas 1989). Salinity and food availability can be significantly influen ced by freshwater inflows from the Suwannee River and various smaller creeks (Livingston 1990). Additionally, rising sea levels can change water conditions enough to destroy an established reef. A large, diverse, yet characteristic co mmunity of organisms, ranging from micro to macro fauna, inhabits the oyster reef. K ilgen and Dugas (1989) provide an extensive list of organisms that inhabit oyster reefs, including protozoa; sponges; anemones; tube worms; various gastropods and other mollusks; various species of crab, shrimp and other shellfish; and multiple fish species. Sheep shead, black drum, goby, blenny, and toadfish are among the major fish species that are a ssociated with the oyster reef habitat. The salt marshes provide both terrestrial and marine environments, making it the most complex of the habitats in the estuar y. Plants and animals that inhabit these marshes must be able to cope with both environments, and thus, species in salt marshes are often abundant but of low diversity (Mont ague and Wiegert 1990). Black needlegrass ( Juncus roemerianus ) and cordgrass (Spartina alterniflora ) are the two dominant plant species found in salt marshes, and characterist ic of northwest Florida marshes, they occur in monospecific stands. These marsh grasses grade into high marsh plants, such as wax myrtle (Myrica cerifera ), and eventually to trees, such as live oak ( Quercus virginiana ), as elevation increases an d flooding is less frequent. A variety of vertebrate species finds food and cover on the fringes of the marsh grass. These transient species include raccoon ( Procyon lotor), mink ( Mustela vison), marsh rabbits ( Sylvilagus palustris ), cotton rats ( Sigmodon spp.), and cotton mice ( Peromyscus gossypinus ) (Montague and Weigert 1990). Within the salt marsh environment, Montague and Weigert (1990) id entified four distinct habitats, each of which supports different plants and animals. The aerial habitat includes the leaves and stems of salt marsh plants, which supports bird s, insects, spiders and various species of snails. The intertidal zone, where water a nd marsh sediments interface, supports various gastropods, crustaceans, and mollusks, su ch as the Carolina marsh clam ( Polymesoda caroliniana ), that burrow into the sediments beneath the marsh grasses. Salt marsh creeks are home to various fi sh species, including mullet ( Mugil spp.), spot ( Leiostomus xanthurus), and pinfish ( Lagodon rhomboides ). Crabs, including blue crab ( Callinectes sapidus ), make their home in salt marsh creeks, as do oysters. Lastly, salt marsh tide pools are topographic depressions that retain water even as the surrounding marsh is exposed during low tide. The species supported in this environment is much the same as in the salt marsh creeks. A multitude of invertebrates inhabit the nearshore marine environment, including mollusks and gastropods, and vertebrates, including fishes, reptiles, and marine mammals. In addition to the fish species f ound in the marsh environment, speckled trout ( Cynoscion nebulosus ), and various species of snapper and mackerel are found in the marine environment bordering the marshe s (Livingston 1990). Marine mammals, frequently the bottlenose dolphin ( Tursiops truncatus ) and occasionally manatees

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Environmental and Archaeological Contexts 27 ( Trichechus manatus), share these waters with green ( Chelonia mydas ) and loggerhead ( Caretta caretta ) sea turtles. The small islands that dot the marsh, numerous hammocks of varying sizes, and the inland areas adjacent to the marsh provide sufficient elevations to allow for colonization by terrestrial vegetation. The forest canopy in these areas includes pumpkin ash ( Fraxinus profunda ), swamp tupelo ( Nyssa biflora ), sweetbay magnolia ( Magnolia virginiana ), live oak ( Quercus virginiana ), laurel oak ( Quercus laurifolia), loblolly pine ( Punus taeda), and cabbage palm ( Sabal palmetto ) (Darst et al. 2003). The understory is dominated by saw palmetto ( Serenoa repens ), but also can include wax myrtle ( Myrica cerifera ), blueberry ( Vaccinium spp.), blackberry ( Rubus spp.), and various species of greenbriar ( Smilax spp.). These forested terrestrial zones are home to numerous species of fauna, many of which utilize the surrounding marsh and marine habitats. Mammalian species include opossum (Didelphidae), rabbit (Lepor idae), Eastern Grey squirrel ( Sciurus carolinensis ), otter (Lutrin ae), raccoon ( Procyon lotor), and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus ) (Montague and Weigert 1990). Additionally, the wild offspring of once-domesticated pigs ( Sus domesticus ) are occasionally found. Avian species that inhabit both the terrestrial and marsh environments include ducks and geese (Anatidae), hero ns (Ardeidae), wild turkeys ( Meleagris gallopavo ), swallow-tailed kites ( Elanoides forficatus ), bald eagles ( Haliaeetus leucocephalus ), and osprey (Pandion haliaetus ). Additionally, smaller birds, such as seaside sparrows ( Ammodramus maritimus ), wrens (Troglodytidae), and other passerine birds inhabit these areas (Montague and Weigert 1990). Prominent reptiles that inhabit the fore st and marsh environments include pygmy rattlesnakes (Sistrurus miliarius), water moccasins ( Agkistrodon piscivorus), and various turtles, including mud and musk turtles (Ki nosternidae), soft shell turtles (Trionychidae), snapping turtles ( Chelydra serpentina ), and gopher tortoise ( Gopherus polyphemus) (Kohler 1974). Additionally, se veral species of lizard (Lacertilia) also make their homes among the vegetation. Late Pleistocene and Holocene Environmental Trends The Florida coastline along the Gulf of Mexico as we know it today took shape after the end of the Ice Age. During the late Pleistocene, glacial conditions had lowered sea levels significantly and as a result, th e continental shelf al ong the margins of the peninsular formation of Florida was exposed. In the Big Bend region of Florida, the late Pleistocene shoreline of the Gu lf of Mexico was approximately 200 km to the west of its current position. Melting of the glacier s during the early Holocene contributed significant amounts of water to the oceans, and global warming compounded the eustatic changes with thermal expansion of sea water. This caused rapid sea level rise that inundated the low lying continental shelf along Floridas coasts.

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28 Lower Suwannee Archaeological Survey 2009-2010 Numerous studies have sought to understa nd late Pleistocene and Holocene sea level changes. Using geomorphic beach ridges in the coastal area of central west Florida, Stapor et al. (1991) suggest that sea levels rose to higher than present le vels around 2000 years ago before falling again around 1500 years ago. Walker et al. (1995) suggest archaeological evidence from aboriginal she ll middens demonstrate higher than present sea levels between 1750 and 1450 years ago. Using geomorphic features that they interpreted as raised marshes, wave cut be nches, scarps, and spits along the Texas Gulf Coast, Morton et al. (2000) s uggest higher than present sea levels of almost 2 meters from 5,500 to 1200 years ago. Also considering raised ridges near the coast in Texas, Blum et al. (2001) used foraminifera and radiocarbon dates to suggest these ridges are abandoned paleoshorelines dating from 6800 to 4800 years ago. Many of these studies have been criticized for using proxy data to infer marine highstand in the absence of evidence of peat formations that are indi cative of marine environments (Otvos 2004). To further complicate the controversy ov er higher-than-present sea levels, a recent study by Adams et al. (2010) suggests elevated paleoshorelines along the eastern coasts of Florida and south Geor gia are the result of isostatic uplift rather than retreating seas. As in Texas and other areas where s upposed paleoshorelines are found, this region of Florida and Georgia is a te ctonically stable, passi ve margin. The isostatic uplift that created these paleoshorelines wa s a result of the lightening of the Florida (and portions of Georgia) platform due to carbonate dissolution over the millennia. This uplift creates marine terraces that are above present sea level, the most rece nt of which was dated in the study to 120 ka. While the controversy over hi gher than present sea level continues, the nature of sea level rise has also become a contentious issue. Nelson and Bray (1970) studied a series of sand and shell ridges, oriented para llel to the coasts of Texas and Louisiana and interpreted them as relict shorelines. Later, Frazier (1974) studied offshore ridges on the Gulf shelf, also interpreting them as relict shorelines, and proposed a model that suggests sea levels rose in a stair-step fashion, char acterized by long periods of shoreline stability punctuated by periods of rapid sea level rise. Later studies by Thomas (1990) and Thomas and Anderson (1994) used seismic data to infer prolonged still-stand phases from sedimentary parasequences deposited during the Holocene off the coast of southeast Texas. The presence of these relict shorel ines, specifically their location and dates of formation, could offer important information a bout marine still stands. However, a study by Rodriguez et al. (1999) found several ri dges overlying more modern lagoon and backshore deposits, suggesting these ridge s had been reworked by the marine environment and had migrated landward. Contrasting with the stair-step model, se veral significant studies suggest gradual but decelerating sea level rise over the course of the Holocene. Scholl et al. (1969) and Robbin (1984) used data from peat forma tion in mangrove swamps and salt marsh sediments to show rapid sea le vel rise in the early Holocene, with declining rates in the middle to late Holocene. Goodbred et al. (1998) published similar findings but with evidence for a short period of rapid rise around 1700 cal yr BP before rates once again decelerated. More recent studies by Trnqvist et al. (2002) in the Mississippi Delta and

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Environmental and Archaeological Contexts 29 Toscano and Macintyre (2003) found evidence fo r gradually declining rates of sea level rise from 8000 to 3000 BP. Wright et al. (2005) conducted an exte nsive study in the Suwannee Delta and developed a localized model for changing rate s of sea level rise during the Holocene. Cores were collected from three transects, one at the mouth of the Suwannee River, one from an area to the north, and one from an ar ea to the south. Analys is of sediments in the cores provided information about the discrete depositional environments and radiocarbon dates obtained from organic mate rials within the stratigraphic units of the cores provided important chronological information. The resu lts of the study suggest that between 7500 and 5500 cal yr BP, sea level was rising at a rate of .16 centimeters per year. Between 5500 and 2500 cal yr BP, the rate declined to .07 centimeters per year. Rates further declined to .05 centimeters per y ear between 2500 and 750 cal yr. BP. Shoreline transgression was significant along the coastline in the region that would become the Suwannee Delta. Prior to 8000 cal yr BP the Suwannee Delta region was well inland from the coast of the Gulf of Mexico. This flat pl ain was thinly covered with sediments, punctuated by eolian dunes that had accreted during the Late Pleistocene, when other southeastern dunes were formi ng from riverine sands. The shoreline transgressed quickly across the low, flat sh elf, and by 5400 cal yr BP was within eight kilometers of its current position. Rates of rise slowed after 5400 cal yr BP, allowing for the formation of oyster bioherms offshore, which trapped marine and other biogenic sediments. The accretion of these sediments ke pt pace with sea level rise for a time, but by 4440 cal yr BP, this was no longer the case and the shoreline moved to within six kilometers of its current position. Along w ith the new shoreline, a new, inner oyster bioherm began to form and was well establis hed by 3630 cal yr BP. Rates of rise again slowed, but the shoreline conti nued to transgress and by 2400 cal yr BP, it was close to its modern position (Wright et al. 2005). Decelerating sea level rise, coupled with increased sediment discharge from the Suwannee River, allowed for the formation of the deltaic system at the mouth of the river. By 4840 cal yr BP, modern riverine sediments began to accumulate where the Suwannee River empties into the Gulf. As the shoreline transgressed, those riverine sediments were overlain by marine sediments, and by 3810 cal yr BP, the delta reef bioherm was established. The modern marsh be gan to form after 2350 ca yr BP. To the south of the mouth of the Suwannee Rive r, marshes moved landward and inundated freshwater swamps and upland sand and limesto ne areas. The relict dunes that dotted the landscape were flooded, creating islands in the growing estuary and by 1380 cal yr BP, the sand sheet to the north of the Suwannee River was overtopped and the marshes transgressed as they had in the south (Wright et al. 2005). Of interest in the study by Wright et al. (2005) is their conclusion that there is no evidence of higher-than-present sea levels in the Suwannee Delta region. Additionally, in opposition to the stair-step model, the authors suggest that sea level rise was gradual, albeit decelerating over time. However, the di scovery of an abrupt change to salt marsh

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30 Lower Suwannee Archaeological Survey 2009-2010 sediments from brackish water sediments at 1600 cal yr BP is suggestive of a brief period of accelerated sea level rise, much like that proposed by Goodbred et al. (1998). Obviously, sea level rise si gnificantly affected the ancient human populations that inhabited the coastal areas of Florida. In addition to displacement as the shoreline transgressed, resource availability most lik ely would have changed. For instance, increased salinity in localized areas would have significantly affected oyster reefs (Bergquist et al. 2006). ARCHAEOLOGICAL CONTEXTS Much is known about Floridas ancien t human past from a long and storied history of investigation beginning in the 19th century (Milanich 1994). Comparatively speaking, however, the region encompassing the Lower Suwannee and Cedar Key National Wildlife Refuges is woefully understudied. Like other regions of Florida, it was the subject of investigation by antiquarians who had established that mounds were good places to find burials and that burials were good places to find museum-quality artifacts. Thereafter, the region fell into a long histor y of intermittent work, much of it very productive and insightful, but none of it sustaine d for more than a year or two. Once the study area came under the jurisdiction of U.S. Fish and Wildlife, preservation and conservation took precedence. Unlike the U.S. Forest Service and other federal agencies, Fish and Wildlife does not conduct many grounddisturbing operations. It follows that they have fewer Section 106-related actions than other agenci es and thus fewer opportunities with compliance funding to condu ct archaeological investigations. Before moving on to discussion of specific lo calities and sites in the project area, it is worth mentioning a survey conducted by Fl orida State University (FSU) on behalf of U.S. Fish and Wildlife. In February 1980, a team of three FSU archaeologists surveyed select tracts and properties of the Cha ssahowitzka, Cedar Key, and proposed Suwannee National Wildlife Refuges (Dorian 1980). So me limited testing was conducted at several locations, while others were simply visited to document surface conditions. Despite its spotty coverage, this study st ands today as one of the onl y large-scale surveys in the project area. A grant-sponsored project run out of the University of Florida some nine years later provided additional coverage in the Cedar Key area (Borremans and Moseley 1990). Other compliance-related surveys, noted in turn below, have involved relatively small tracts of land, and no major excavations have been conducted at sites in the study area since the mid-twentieth century. To facilitate discussion of pr evious research, it is useful to divide the study area into subunits that reflect patt erned variation in site density and type (Figure 2-1). Of course, a comprehensive survey of the proj ect area has never been executed, so the known inventory of sitesa total of 111 as of this reportingis likely to be heavily biased toward the largest and most elaborat e sites (which attracted the attention of antiquarians), as well as middens and ot her anthropogenic depo sits that present themselves today along eroding shorelines and escarpments (which are the convenient target of modern relic seekers).

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Environmental and Archaeological Contexts 31 Figure 2-1. Composite topographic map of st udy area, showing inset maps of five tracts discussed in text.

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32 Lower Suwannee Archaeological Survey 2009-2010 Figure 2-1 depicts the entirety of the st udy area on relevant portions of U.S.G.S. topographic quads, along with the outlines of five tracts that encompass virtually all known archaeological sites in th e coastal zone. Coastal areas not encompassed by these tracts, as well as adjacent lands to the interior, are also relevant to th e overall goals of the project, but we focus our discussion below to the demarcated tracts, beginning with the Cedar Key tract to the south and working pr ogressively northward toward the Horseshoe Beach tract at the north end of the study area. Cedar Key Tract The Cedar Key tract is the largest of the five tracts and it c ontains the largest number of recorded sites (n = 34). As is clearly evident in Figure 2-2, the tract consists entirely of islands, twelve of which are under jurisdiction of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife. The most seaward of the islands (Snake Key, Seahorse Key, Dead mans Key, and North Key) are designated Wilderness areas and th e distal most, Seahorse Key, supports one of the largest colonial bird rookeries in north Florida. The town of Cedar Key occupies Way Ke y, which is linked to other sea islands and the mainland by a causeway and state route 24. Prior to 1896, when a hurricane wiped out the town, Cedar Key was located on the island of Atse na Otie, about one kilometer south of Way Key. At various poi nts in its fascinati ng history (McCarthy 2007), the Cedar Key area was a way station for Spanish galleons, an interment camp for Indians, a trans-Florida railroad depot, a Federal outpost during the Civil War, a leading producer of cedar for pencils, and a major fishing and shipping port (Figure 2-3). With the early development of its railroa d, as well as its shipping infrastructure, Cedar Key was accessible to ninet eenth-century visitors interested in its archaeological resources. Among the earliest a ccounts were those of R. E. C. Stearns (1869) and Jeffries Wyman (1870), both of whom made mention of sites on Way Key, notably its impressive mounds. Although these accounts offer limited analytical value, they do give a good sense of the size and configuration of mounds th at were later mined for shell or destroyed by illicit digging. The account of mounds on Way Key by Stearns (1869) is especially informative. At the south end of Way Key there is a gr oup of mounds of unusual size and elevation; the largest and most southerly presents an abr upt face to the beach, having been partially dug away. Its height, as seen from this point, cannot be far from twenty-five feet; but this, as well as others of the group was, lik e the large mound near Fernadina, used for military purposes during the recent war. The aggregate thickness of the shell strata with the intercalated seams of ashes, upon the southerly side of the principal mound, and directly facing the sea, is about twenty feet and composed principally of the valves of Oysters ( Ostrea Virginica ), while on the north side of the same mound the shell deposit is somewhat less in thickness, and largely composed of valves of Scallops ( Pecten dislocates ?) (Stearns 1869:354).

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Environmental and Archaeological Contexts 33 MAP REDACTED FOR SECURITY PURPOSES. CONTACT REGIONAL HISTORIC PRESERVATION OFFICER, U.S. FISH AND WILDLIFE, FOR FURTHER INFORMATION Figure 2-2. Topographic map of Cedar Key tract, showing locations of s ites on file with the Florida Master Site Files, Bureau of Archaeological Research. Stearns goes on to describe two other mounds to the north of this first mound and an area between the mounds that was a pparently used as a cemetery. Just north of the above is the second in point of size, but the shell deposit, composed of the same species, is not as thick or deep, while at the northeast is a third mound of exceedingly regular form, also composed of shells; this latter has not been materially defaced, though a house of considerable size has been erected upon its summit. Between the two largest mounds, and connecting them, is a piece of flat or slightly uneven ground, which was used apparently for burial purposes, for here can be obtained human remains undoubtedly aboriginal, and fragments of pottery of large size may be picked up (Stearns 1869:355).

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34 Lower Suwannee Archaeological Survey 2009-2010 Figure 2-3. 1884 panoramic lithograph of Cedar Ke y, Florida (produced for Levy County by J. J. Stoner, Madison, Wisconsin; lithograph by Beck and Pauli, Litho, Milwaukee, Wisconsin). Library of Congress, Washington, D.C. Digital source: commons.wkimedia.org/wiki/File:Cedarkey_florida-1884-historicalmap.png. Accessed June 15, 2010. The complex Stearns described is now la rgely destroyed. It s exact location is uncertain, but is purported to have been in the area marked 8LV19/20 in Figure 2-2, the Goose Creek Midden (8LV19) and Goose Creek Mound (8LV20) (Borremans and Moseley 1990). It is not clear if the mode rn site polygon for the larger of the two (8LV19) also encompasses the two other mounds noted by Stearns. If not, the area of site 8LV4 may have contained the mound Stearns mentioned to the north of the shoreline midden/mound complex, and the area of s ite 8LV284 may have contained the one he noted to the northeast (Figure 2-2). Persistent ambiguity in the locations of mounds, cemeteries, and middens in Cedar Key makes it difficult to connect specific historical references to the faint remnants of what appa rently was an expansiv e and impressive built landscape. Some additional insight on the location and nature of the mounds can be gleaned from historic maps and photos, as discussed further below. Among those who dug in or near the mi dden and mound complex described by Stearns was Lt. A. W. Vogeles (1879) a nd W. W. Calkins (1877-1880), while A. Ecker (1878) reported on human crania exhumed from one of its sand mounds (see Willey 1949:17). S. T. Walker (1883)1 followed with a report on shell strata exposed in a road cut in town (although we cannot be certain of locati on, Figure 2-3, wh ich dates to same time as Walker, shows several major road cu ts through apparent mounds; more on this lithograph below). If Walkers description of four distinct shell strata in the mound is correct, he observed a sequence that had succ essive layers of Early, Middle, and Late 1 Willey (1949:314) cites Walker 1885 for this observation, but the correct citation is Walker 1883. Authors since Willey have perpetuated this error (e.g., Dorian 1980:28; Weinstein and Mayo 2006:17).

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Environmental and Archaeological Contexts 35 Woodland deposition, capped with a compon ent of the Mississi ppian era (Willey 1949:314). Walker was also im pressed with the hiatus in shell accumulation in the middle of the sequence, accompanied by soil de velopment he suggested was a period of abandonment of about least two centuries. We know today that the soil between layers of shell could very well have been emplaced deliberately, but no matter the process of formation, Walker observed a marked unconform ity that signals a ch ange in site use and/or depositional practice. On the last of his many excursions thr ough the Southeast, C. B. Moore in 1917-18 conducted excavations at two sites in Ceda r Key, including 8LV4, which he termed aboriginal cemetery in Cedar Key (Moore 19 18:569). By the time Moore delved into the cemetery, it had already been severely impacted by prior digging. Local informants reported that relics in the cemetery were num erous and elaborate. Among previous relic seekers were members of the Buffalo Society of Natural Sciences, the director of which, W. L. Bryant, supplied Moore with record s of the finds, including a photograph of a whole Weeden Island Incised ve ssel (Moore 1918:569). Digging into an intact portion of the cemetery, Moores crew encountered 11 burials eight in the sand overlain with shell, and three from a shell stratum limited to only a portion of his excavation area. In commenting on the apparent Weeden Island age for this site, Willey (1949:309) noted that no other (nonmound) ce metery of this era was known, suggesting to him that Moore and others had dug into the basal portion of a mound that was razed. If so, the shell deposit from which Moore exhumed three interments may have been a submound midden of earlier age. A compliance-related project in 1991 documented the presence of Late Archaic and Deptford peri od components at the site, but this work was unable to determine the relationship of these earlier deposits and those of Weeden Island age (Borremans 1991; see also Borremans 1993). With lingering ambiguity over the distribution and structure of all components, the possibility remains that one of the mounds noted by Stearns (1869:355) existed in the confines of what today is classified as 8LV4. It is equally likely th at at least a portion of the fl at area between mounds used for burials is likewise encompassed by 8LV4. In the late 1980s, the Cedar Key Lions Club initiated some development in an area that Calvin Jones (1992) considered to be a southern extension of the cemetery Moore investigated. Grading had already ex posed three burials in a 3-m high cutbank before Jones was dispatched to monitor la nd-clearing operations. Observed by Jones in another area of grading was the remains of a small Weeden Island sand mound that was built atop a Weeden Island midden, then capped with later shell midden. Five tightly flexed skeletons were recovered from the sa nd mound at depths of ca. 60-70 cm. Given the likelihood that add itional burials would be encountere d, grading of this portion of the site was halted and the remnan t of mound was preserved in plac e at the site of the Lions Club (809 6th St.). The mound is listed in the site files as 8LV284 although Jones (1992) referred to it as 8LV4. One final note on 8LV4 comes from Moore s observation that few artifacts were associated with the 11 burials he excavated. Contrasted with the richly adorned graves

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36 Lower Suwannee Archaeological Survey 2009-2010 dug by his predecessors, the depauperate graves Moore excavated led him to suggest that the aborigines had used one part of the cemetery in which to place burials with mortuary deposits and had selected anot her part to make interments without such deposits (Moore 1918:375). Again, this may very well signal the contrast between either mound and nonmound burials, or between Weeden Isla nd and earlier (e.g., Deptford) burials The other site excavated by Moore is r ecorded in the site files as 8LV43, evidently located along the southeast shorel ine of Way Key. At the time of Moores visit, the site consisted of a seven-foot-high mound, some 32 x 73 feet in plan at the base, and composed largely of sand. The owner, W. H. Hale, told Moore that shell had been removed from the seaward side of the m ound. Others who had earlier dug into the mound showed Moore celts and beads that were found superficia lly in the mound (Moore 1918:568). In digging three excavation units, Moores crew found disarticulated human bone, a celt, shell beads, and a fragment of a copper ornament. In the 1940s Willey and Goggin conducted lim ited surface collection of sites near Cedar Key. The only published accounts of th is work are the short summaries provided by Willey (1949:313, 315-316), although the collec tions are well maintained at the Florida Museum of Natural History. Other co llections from the greater area are housed at the Peabody Museum at Harvard (Willey 1949:310) and at Yale (Willey 1949:312-313). Another noteworthy site on Way Key is Hodgesons Hill (8LV8). Goggin in 1947 made a small surface collection that Willey (1949:312) reported, and, accompanying Goggin and students in 1949, Wille y (1949:313) helped collect a second assemblage he likewise reported. A few De ptford, Swift Creek, and possibly Safety Harbor sherds were recovered, but the majority of pottery from Hodgesons Hill is of the Weeden Island series (see also Borrema ns and Moseley [1990:22], who report sandtempered plain and Pasco plain sherds from shov el tests in shell midden in one area of the site). The Piney Point site (8LV9) one kilo meter south of Hodgeson Hill also produced a predominately Weeden Island surface assemblage (Willey 1949:313). Before considering archaeological work in other portions of the Cedar Key tract, we review in brief some insights enab led by the 1884 lithograph panorama shown in Figure 2-3. Panoramic drawings were very popular in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Dating from the Renaissance, th e technique used to produce these images involved careful observations of the shape and distribution of features across the landscape, from which isometric projections were made on a predetermined angle and distance. Although panoramic, or birds eye views were never marketed as technical renderings, they were, in f act, often quite accurate. The Cedar Key panorama features good deta il about its buildings, streets, and topography. In a close-up view of the ar ea encompassing the mounds described above, shown in Figure 2-4, several details hint at slopes and contours of anthropogenic deposition. Area A, in the foreground, provides the best exam ple. Evident in this area are contours (marked with red dashed lines) of mound slopes, the steepest of which faces the Gulf to the south and appears to be scarre d by a series of erosiona l rills. This large

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Environmental and Archaeological Contexts 37 shell mound occupied land known today as 8LV 43/279. Whether this pa rticular location was the one visited by Moore ( 1918) is uncertain. In fact, Moore described a sand mound that does not appear in the panoramic view and Moores visit postd ates that drawing by 33 years. We hasten to add, however, that the sand mound Moore observed was in an area of shell mining, as he noted (Moore 1918:568). Thus, like the Lions Club mound Jones encountered, the one Moore observed may have been fully encased in shell when the panorama was drawn. One other relevant note about Area A is the cruciform road cut seen at the intersection of 2nd and E streets (marked by dashed yell ow lines in Figure 2-4). The cut exposed in tall profiles the heart of the she ll deposit. This location is the likely spot where Walker (1883) described a 12+ ft profile of mounded deposition. Both the crosssectional imagery of this locus and the desc ription of strata provi ded by Walker would suggest that anthropogenic depo sits continued well below the grade of the road, that is, deeper than 12 feet. Figure 2-4. Portion of 1884 pa noramic lithograph of Way Key, showing landscape features that appear to coincide with 19th-century descriptions of shell and sand mounds (red dashed lines mark apparent mound slopes; yellow dashed lines mark road cuts through mounds; letters designate mound loci discussed in text). Locus B on the panoramic view is an appa rent escarpment, presumably composed of shell, with two structures tucked behind. As we noted earlier, this location is generally regarded as 8LV19/20 and speculated to be the 25-ft tall shell deposit that Stearns (1869:354) noted had an abrupt face to the be ach. This same escarpment appears on the 1890 Sanborn map as a 20-ft high shell ba nk. One additional historic resource lends a bit more detail to this setting. An undated photograph on a website for a rental property in Cedar Key known as the Coachman House ( www.roi.us/cedar.htm ) shows an Indian Mound with a steep blu ff (Figure 2-5). To the right of the shell bluff is a small dwelling, and in the background, behind this building, is the roofline of a second

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38 Lower Suwannee Archaeological Survey 2009-2010 structure. If facing sout hward, the perspective of this photo matches closely the relationship between the shell bluff and tw o shoreline buildings in the panorama. Substantiating this notion is wording on the we bsite that indicates that this image was taken one-half block west of the Coachman House. With the Co achman house located on the 700 block of 4th Street, the location of the photo comes very cl ose to the location of the escarpment in the panoramic view and the Sanborn map. Figure 2-5. Mound and adjacent structures depicted in this undated photograph posted on the website of the Coachman House in Cedar Key ( www.roi.us/cedar.htm ), accessed June 18, 2010. Areas C and D in Figure 2-4 are short, curvate creases in the topography brought into view, like other slopes facing east, by the shadows of an artist-imposed afternoon sun. The house with a walkout basement in Ar ea C bolsters the inference that this artistic convention truly signals a sloping surface and its inflection by fla tter terrain. Areas A and B would likely be contiguous were not fo r the structure built in the hollow between them. Of related interest to the immediate eas t of this structure is a larger complex of structures on elevated terrain, including a lobe extending to the shoreline. Its southfacing slope resembles the escarpment of Area A, although perhaps not as steep. Area E is another area of elevated terrain with appa rent road cuts but an indecipherable planview shape. The circle ma rked F in Figure 2-4 is the location of the Lions Club mound (8LV284), between 6th and 7th streets. It would ap pear that the lack of a sand mound at this location in the panorama would call into question the accuracy of this representation. However, it bears repeat ing that the Lions Club mound, like the sand mound Moore observed to the south, was encased in shell deposition, apparently becoming a component of an amalgam of la rge depositional units, which included other mounds, as well as midden. Added to the ambigu ity of this area is its distance from the

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Environmental and Archaeological Contexts 39 observer. As with any pers pective with great depth, the panorama lacks detail in the background. Areas G and H, for example, provide some sense of topographic relief, and Area G is even symmetrical in outline. Despite the lack of detail, these distant features no doubt signal additional mounds and relate d deposition. Added up, the anthropogenic landscape of this portion of Way Key was expansive and complex. Estimated to cover about 16 ha, the totality of the mounded lands cape in the Way Key area of the panorama is nearly twice the extent of the Crystal River complex to the south. Turning now to work in the Cedar Key tract on islands other than Way Key, the record consists largely of recent research pr ojects and a few compliance-driven efforts. Regional survey by the University of Florida in 1989 involved su rface inspection and limited subsurface testing at several of th e islands surrounding Way Key. Four shell middens (8LV268-271) on Scale Key were dom inated by Pasco plai n pottery, although one (8LV270), along the eastern margin of the island, pro duced Carabelle punctate and check stamped sherds (Borremans and Moseley 1990:17). One kilometer to the south on Dog Island, the trace of a badly eroded site (8LV278) was detected by a single sandtempered sherd in a shovel test, while at Cedar Point Key to th e northeast, another heavily eroded site (8LV25) produced a large assemblage of Pasco plain, as well as sandtempered plain and dentate stamped sherds. Rattlesnake Key to the west of Way Key also contains an eroded midden (8LV287) with an intact component to the interior dominated by plain sand-tempered sherds (Borremans and Moseley 1990:27). Candy Island to the west of the Cedar Key causewa y features (redeposited? ) shoreline deposits (8LV273) with sand-tempered sherds but no Pasco potter y (Borremans and Moseley 1990:20). Three other shell midden sites (8LV275-277) on islands along the causeway are largely destroyed. The only comprehensive, well-reported survey of islands in the Cedar Key tract was undertaken on Atsena Otie by Paname rican Consultants., Inc. in 2001-02 (Ambrosino et al. 2002). Although the bulk of this project was de voted to documenting the historic remains of the abandoned tow n, its cemetery, and industrial works, two recorded and two new aboriginal shell midde n sites were investigated. Site 8LV15, on the southwestern corner of the island, has long been known as an eroding Middle Woodland shell midden with burials. The other three sites, like 8LV15, are badly disturbed, but noteworthy for midden that includes scallop, as well as oyster and gastropod. Site 8LV418, near the Atsena Otie cemetery, yiel ded an abundance of scallop shell in apparent associati on with Pasco plain pottery. Given the advanced level of deve lopment on Atsena Otie in the 19th century, any mounds or middens in the interior of the is land were likely leveled. The portion of Atsena Otie in the panorama is indeed quite fl at. The only relief depicted in this image lies along the eastern margin of an inlet used to float logs to a mill (Figure 2-6). Incidentally, the Panamerican project compared the distribution of structures in the panorama to their survey data on foundations and related structural footprints and found relatively good concordance. Ambrosino et al. (2002:89-90) noted, however, several discrepancies between the two re cords, reminding us of the bi ases attending this manner of representation.

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40 Lower Suwannee Archaeological Survey 2009-2010 Figure 2-6. Portion of 1884 panoramic lithograp h of Atsena Otie, showing one likely area of relief (red dashed line) along the bank of an inlet. Finally, the three large islands that form the distal reach of the Cedar Keys have never been adequately reported, although an occasional project has resulted in some preliminary data. Seahorse Key, the anchor of the three, is the locus of two recorded shell midden sites: 8LV64 and 8LV68. Dorian (1980:41-42) reported that 8LV64 was an oyster shell midden extending some 90 m along a terrace on the southeast margin of the island with an average height of 1.5 m. A Middle Woodland component is noted, but pottery was too eroded to lend greater specificity to a cultural affiliation. Site 8LV68 was in similar shape when Dorian and crew (Dor ian 1980:43) visited in 1980. It too had an eroding escarpment facing the gulf, in this case to the north. Snake Key to the east of Seahorse Key and the much smaller Deadmans Key to the north was visited in 1980 by the FSU surv ey crew, but no cultural material was observed (Dorian 1980:51). North Key, to the west of Seahorse Key, holds substantial deposits of shell in three locations (8LV65, 66A 66B). Site 8LV65, on a terrace of the southeastern aspect of the island, was an int act shell midden 50 x 200 m in plan when observed in 1980 (Dorian 1980:42). On the north side of th e major eastern bight, 8LV66A ran for 300 m along the shoreline and some 35 m to the interior, with an ex tension to the western shore at the narrowest point of the is land. A high ratio of clam (Mercenaria ?) to oyster was

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Environmental and Archaeological Contexts 41 noted by Dorian (1980:43). Its counterpart on the eastern shore to the north, 8LV66B, consists of a 200-m long shoreline midden and a 2.5-m tall parallel berm to the interior. It is not clear if this berm is cultural or a product of storm surge. Nina Borremans (1989) initiated field work on Seahorse Key and North Key as part of her dissertation research. Test units produced samples of pottery, faunal remains, and charcoal for radiometric dating, but none of this has been reported, at least not in full. A list of eight radiocarbon a ssays made on clam shell ( Mercenaria campechiensis ) on file at the Florida Museum of Natural Histor y shows that midden accumulation at 8LV65 on North Key spanned roughly 1300-50 cal B.C., while accumulation at 8LV68 on Seahorse Key spanned cal A.D. 500-1200. In a synthesi s of the north peninsular Gulf coast, Borremans (1991) notes that zooarchaeological analysis of materials from these islands indicates year-round occupation, but she does not specify the time period or components involved. Shell Mound Tract Twenty-two archaeological sites are known in the area designated here as the Shell Mound Tract (Figure 2-7). Among the sites is the largest extant shell deposit in the study area, the namesake Shell Mound site (8LV42), as well as some of the most elaborate mortuary facilities known for the re gion. Also included in this tract but very poorly understood are semi-circular or ridge-parallel shell structures of presumed villages. Our current investigations include lim ited work at one such feature, on Richards Island, which we report fully in Chapter 5. Others are coming to our attention through the application of LiDAR data, as well as inventory associated with the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill (Randall et al. 2010). Shell Mound (8LV42) is one of the very few large mounds in the region that has not been leveled by mining, development, or vandalism. When C. B. Moore (1902:349) visited the area in 1902, the landowner, W. R. Young, was residing in a house atop the mound, and presumably prevented anyone from compromising its substrate. Its present configuration shows a central hollow that is open to the southeast (Figure 2-8), apparently the result of shell mining at some unknown time. No information is readily available to substantiate this assumption, and, until such information is found, we remain open to the possibility that its present configuration is more-or-less original. As discussed further below, semi-circular enclosures like this exist in the area, albeit at less er scales of relief. Shell Mound is the tallest extant anthropogenic deposit in the region. It currently stands about 6 m above the surrounding gr ound surface and some 8 m above mean sea level. In maximum plan dimensions it cu rrently measures 120 x 160 m. Information about its internal structure and composition is limited to a report by Bullen and Dolan (1960) on a 10 x 10-ft unit the junior author excavated at the summit of the mound in 1959. Retrieved throughout this 10-ft deep sequence of mostly oyster shell were sherds of the Pasco series and some sand-tempered pl ain. In the upper four feet of the sequence Pasco sherds were joined by several sherds of St. Johns plain, and trac es of other, coeval types. Surface collections from around the mound produced sherds of later age (e.g.,

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42 Lower Suwannee Archaeological Survey 2009-2010 Wakulla check stamped, St. Johns check stam ped, Chattahoochee Brushed), but no such sherds came from secure mound strata. Bu llen and Dolan (1960:20) note a significant change in mound stratigraphy with the disappear ance of the St. Johns wares. At this depth, roughly 4-5 feet below surface, shel l became pulverized and mixed with black earth, and possible hearth-like features were observed. This apparent occupational level was underlain by additional shell, but with in creased frequencies of clam. Bullen and Dolan (1960:22) posited a shift in economy at this point toward grea ter use of fish and shellfish, perhaps, they suggest attending rising sea levels. MAP REDACTED FOR SECURITY PURPOSES. CONTACT REGIONAL HISTORIC PRESERVATION OFFICER, U.S. FISH AND WILDLIFE, FOR FURTHER INFORMATION Figure 2-7. Topographic map of Shell Mound tract showing locations of sites on file with the Florida Master Site Files, Bureau of Archaeological Research.

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Environmental and Archaeological Contexts 43 Figure 2-8. LiDAR topographic projection (top) and aerial photo (bottom) of Shell Mound (8LV42) (courtesy of Asa Randall).

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44 Lower Suwannee Archaeological Survey 2009-2010 The bottom half of Shell Mound remains co mpletely uninvestigated and we thus can only speculate on the initia tion of mound deposition. Po ttery has not been located anywhere on the surface or er oding faces of the mound in th ree casual surface inspections by the authors over the past year. It seems reasonable to suggest that the basal core of Shell Mound is actually prepotte ry in age. If so, it would st and alone in the region as not only the sole intact mound, but also the oldest, intact or not. Further subsurface investigation is clearly warranted. A mortuary complex on Hog Island, opposite Shell Mound (8LV42) was the target of repeated and aggressive digging since at least the mid-19th century. Also known as Graveyard Island, Palmetto Island, Rattlesnake Island, Pine Island, and Pine Key (Mitchem 1999:7), Hog Island was the locus of a cemetery and/or burial mound recorded variously in the site files as 8LV2, 7, and 40. Mitchem (1999:23) discusses the confusion surrounding the identity and locatio n of this site. Moore (1902:348-349) lists the locus as Mound on Pine Key, but he describes it as a sort of burial place, or cemetery. Moore was preceded by others, notably Decatur Pittman in the 1880s, whose large collection of pottery at the Florida Museum of Natu ral History was reported by Willey (1949:311312). Swift Creek and Weeden Island ware s dominate the assemblage, but Willey was impressed by their associati on with sherds of the St. Johns, Papys Bayou, and Pasco series. One additional note on this mortuary locus is the unreported work of Montague Tallant, as summarized by Willey (1949:308). A couple of decades after Moores visit, Tallant dug into what Willey states was a sand mound. He located secondary burials accompanied by pottery caches in marginal fill of the mound, as well as skulls inside of large vessels. Some of the burials apparen tly came from a submound pit, and Tallant found stone celts, pendants, a c opper gorget, and lump galena in pit burials. Why Moore did not mention this mound in his report of earlier work suggests that he and Tallant worked different sites on the island, or perhaps different islands altogether. Notwithstanding the ambiguity, the Hog Isla nd locus immediatel y opposite Shell Mound was a major mortuary locus during Swift Creek and Weeden Island times, perhaps even later (see Willey 1949:308). In 1962 John Goggin conducted a field school at this Hog Island location (what he called 8LV2) with students from the Univ ersity of Florida. Although Goggin never issued a report of this work (he died less th an a year later), stude nts wrote papers that provide some information about the method a nd results of excavati on (e.g., Mykel 1962; Rubin 1962). The 10 x 10-ft unit they excavated along the (east?) margin of a heavily looted sand mound contained a dense concentr ation of sherds some 20-28 cm below the surface. Although the vast majority of nearly 2200 sherds from this unit were plain or eroded sand-tempered, the balance included a few hundred Weeden Island types. The student reports note that sherd concentrations such as this are not uncommon in burial mounds of early Weeden Island age, and they cite Willeys (1949:405) mention that such concentrations formed pathways or paveme nts connecting the eastern margin with the center. Willey further indicat es that pottery was deliberatel y broken for this purpose. A visit to this locus in 1989 showed that lo oting has continued in more recent decades (Borremans and Moseley 1990:32).

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Environmental and Archaeological Contexts 45 Another mound on the mainland, immediatel y northeast of Shell Mound (8LV42), was described by Moore (1902:349) as 6.5 ft tall and 64 feet wide at the base. Moores trenching revealed alternating st rata of oyster shell and sand, with an 18-inch cap of sand over the top. Although Moore encountered no burials, he noted the presence of fragmentary human bone from ear lier looting. The location of this mound is recorded in the site files as 8LV41. The 1989 University of Florid a survey headed by Borrema ns included visits to several sites in the Shell Mound tract. She ll midden was observed across the entirety of McClamory Key (8LV288), although storm su rge and erosion has compromised the integrity of this low-lying deposit (Borremans and Moseley 1 990:27). A short visit to the south end of Seabreeze Island revealed sh ell midden but no pottery, although subsurface testing was not possible due to logistical c onstraints (Borremans and Moseley 1990:29). One-half a kilometer to the northwest of S eabreeze Island and an equal distance south of Shell Mound, the UF crew encountered a re markable site on an unnamed island they dubbed Komar (8LV290; Borremans and Mose ley 1990:29). The entire island consisted of a ridged, horseshoe-shaped midden with shel l mounds on either si de. A single shovel test placed in the top of the ridge produced dense shell with mostly Pasco plain pottery, but also some Carabelle Incised and sand-temp ered plain. As we discuss in Chapters 5 and 6, similar horseshoe-shaped middens with considerable relief and associated mounds are now known for at least four other locati ons in the Shell Mound tract. Shell Mound (8LV42) itself would be a fourth such constr uction if its horseshoe-shaped plan were not simply an artifact of shell mining. Richards Island (8LV137), the subject of Chap ter 5 of this report, was also visited by the UF crew (Borremans and Moseley 19 90), and before then the 1980 survey crew from FSU (Dorian 1980:48-51). The FSU crew documented substantial midden and ridge deposits at the south end of the island in the clearing of an old home site. Observed in the spoil of potholes and gopher tortoise burrows were sherds of Middle and Late Woodland affinity, as well as human skeletal remains. Weather drove the crew from the island before the northern half could be insp ected. As we will see in Chapter 5, this portion of the island houses a la rge, intact shell ring. Immediately north of Shell Mound and H og Island, the UF survey crew recorded shell midden deposits on Garden Island (8LV291) and Buck Island (8LV292) (Borremans and Moseley 1990:29). Only one plain sand-tempered sherd was recovered from Garden Island, but Buck Island contai ned Swift Creek and check stamped pottery. Two additional middens (8LV293, 294) were located on Raleigh Island to the northeast (Borremans and Moseley 1990:34). Several of the larger isla nds in the Shell Mound tract are private inholdings (e.g., Deer Island, Clark Island), and a few (e.g., Mc Clamory Key) are state property. Each of these locations are known to contain shell middens some recorded in th e site files, others not. The overall pattern for landforms in th is tract is for widespread midden punctuated by arcuate or semi-circular ridges of shell en closing a plaza area 30-50 m in maximum

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46 Lower Suwannee Archaeological Survey 2009-2010 dimension. Sand mounds other than 8LV2/7 ar e not known for the tract, but we note that such features may be obscured by later shell deposition, as we have seen on Way Key. Suwannee Delta Tract Thirteen archaeological sites are listed in the area designated the Suwannee Delta tract in Figure 2-9. The only known mound s ites among them are those listed in the site files as 8DI26, 27, and 39, just southeast of Alli gator Pass at the mouth of the river. The large marsh island and hammock complex known as Hog Island was visited by C. B. Moore in 1902 (1902:348), when he descri bed only one mound, and again in 1917-18 (Moore 1918:568), when he noted the presen ce of two other mounds. All three mounds were dug into prior to Moores visits, and all three c onsisted of sand overlying shell, ranging in size from 40-50 ft in diameter and 3-9 ft tall. He mentions burials in one of the mounds, confined apparently to a foot-thick mantle of sand. This mound was located on a considerable shell ridge (Moore 1918:568). No data are available on the cultural affiliation of any of the mounds or the shell midden, but it is noteworthy that one of the mounds featured limestone slabs. MAP REDACTED FOR SECURITY PURPOSES. CONTACT REGIONAL HISTORIC PRESERVATION OFFICER, U.S. FISH AND WILDLIFE, FOR FURTHER INFORMATION Figure 2-9. Topographic map of Suwannee Delta tract showing locations of sites on file with the Florida Master Site Files, Bureau of Archaeological Research.

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Environmental and Archaeological Contexts 47 Other sites in the tract are known primar ily as eroding shoreline middens. Cat Island (8DI29) and Little Brad ford (8DI32)both reported here in detail in Chapters 3 and 4, respectivelyare good examples, as ar e several others on other islands and peninsulas in the vicinity. Casual survey of sites such as this shows that most locations with upland units proximate to shorel ine middens contain intact components of Woodland age, and, as Cat Island shows, occas ionally older deposits. Most such sites also contain human interments, although none are known to come from mounds or other sorts of specialized facilities. Otherwise, one of the defining features of the delta sites are assemblages of shellfish that include siz eable proportions of Ca rolina marsh clam, a species adapted to the low-salinity conditions enabled by a constant input of freshwater. Before closing this section it bears men tioning that C. B. Moores work in 1903 involved an excursion some 16 km up the Suwa nnee River. He invest igated a series of sand mounds at locations along this stretc h of the river, most notably a mound at Fowlers Landing (8LV1). Described as 7-ft tall and 50-ft in diameter, this circular sand mound was completely excavated by Moore (1 903:364-370) to reveal 47 bundle burials. A large cache and smaller deposit of killed pottery vessels included examples of Weeden Island Incised and Plain (Willey 1949:307). A second, badly damaged sand mound 69 m southwest from the first was classified by Moore (1903:371) as domiciliary. Moores work up the Suwannee River reminds us of the importance of regional-scale processes such as trade and mi gration that brought populations of the coast and the interior into contact. Shired Island Tract Thirty-one recorded sites are known for the area we designate the Shired Island tract (Figure 2-10). The namesake for th e tract, Shired Island, is a complex of 11 recorded sites, the westernmost (8DI7) of which was recorded by John Goggin in 1948, and later excavated from 1951-53. The entirety of this five-acre parcel is shell midden, with portions up to two meters thick. At th e highest point on the landform is a shell mound 30 x 40 m in plan that has been badly damaged from looting. An escarpment up to 2.5 m high along the south shoreline has und ergone severe erosion. Dorian (1980:59) indicate that this was th e location of Goggins excavations, which, in 1980, was flooded at high tide. Goggin never published the results of this work, but a UF student used the materials curated at the Florida Museum of Natural History to write an M.A. thesis (Goldburt 1966). This work re ports stratified deposits span ning the ceramic Late Archaic through Swift Creek periods, and additional artifacts from the site push the sequence both back into the prepottery Ar chaic and forward to perhaps the Safety Harbor period. Dorian (1980:59) make particular note of fragments of soapstone sherds and hematite plummets in a private collection from the s ite, evidence of interaction with communities from interior locales to the north and west. The Bird Island site in the Horseshoe Beach tract (see below) duplicates this evidence.

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48 Lower Suwannee Archaeological Survey 2009-2010 MAP REDACTED FOR SECURITY PURPOSES. CONTACT REGIONAL HISTORIC PRESERVATION OFFICER, U.S. FISH AND WILDLIFE, FOR FURTHER INFORMATION Figure 2-10. Topographic map of Shired Island tract, showing locations of sites on file with the Florida Master Site Files, Bureau of Archaeological Research. The area of Shired Island marked as 8D I47 was the locus of Goodsons Fish Camp when the FSU crew surveyed in 1980, but is now part of the Lower Suwannee National Wildlife Refuge. Although no subs urface testing was conducted during the FSU survey, the landowners showed the crew artif acts collected from the parcel spanning the Middle Archaic through Woodland periods, and they indicated that human burials were encountered when a septic tank was installed.

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Environmental and Archaeological Contexts 49 Another extensive site in the Shired Isla nd complex is 8DI35. The site occupies a sand ridge running some 350 m north-south with a ~30-cm-thick shell midden across most of the landform. Historic debris is scattered about, as are occasional potholes. A few check stamped and complicated stamped sherds are reported by Dorian (1980:62) amid an assemblage dominated by eroded sherds. Small beach hammock sites (8DI36-38) along a spit extending south of Shired Island contain sparse shell and Woodland sherds of various types, but much of this material may have been redepos ited as these small hammocks eroded in recent decades. Additional small middens (8DI74, 8DI76) we re located across the upland unit to the northeast of this spit, as was a vandalized low sand mound (88DI75). Little Pine Island (8DI64) and Big Pine Island (8DI22-25) we re surveyed by the FSU crew in 1980 (Dorian 1980:55-57). The former site consists of a small, sparse shell midden with purportedly Weeden Island potter y. The latter complex of four sites is dominated by a 200+ m long beachfront midden (8DI23) along the west ern shoreline. Its counterpart to the north (8DI22) is likely an exte nsion of this first site, as Dorian (1980:56) note that cultural material is co ntinuous between the tw o. A third shoreline site (8DI24) and an interior midden 15 x 50 m in plan are not well documented, and definitive diagnostic artifacts ar e not reported for any of the four sites. However, the private collection donated to LSA contains sherds spanning the Late Archaic through Woodland periods, including abundant Deptford, Pasco, St Johns, and Weeden Island sherds. Sites just north of the mouth of Fis hbone Creek (8DI21A-C) are distinct from most of the other midden sites in the st udy area in their general lack of shell and relatively high frequency of lithic artifacts. The FSU survey crew visited the largest of the three (8DI21B) and placed shovel tests to the interior to reveal thin shell lenses some 35 cm below the surface. Little other in formation on the Fishbone Creek sites is available, but given the frequency and diversit y of the pottery in the private collection at LSA, as well as human skeletal remains, we disagree with the c onclusions of Dorian (1980:57) and Goggin, who they cite, that 8DI21B is not worth investigating further. The same applies to the other two Fishbone sites, which, as far as we know, have never been examined professionally. Horseshoe Beach Tract The Horseshoe Beach tract (Figure 2-11) is the smallest of the five in the study area and it contains the least number of archaeo logical sites (n = 10). The small number of sites may be deceiving, however, because l ittle work has been conducted in the area now occupied by the town of Horseshoe Beach and it likely housed substantial midden and perhaps mounds before the 19th century. Midden deposits recorded on the mainland peninsula of the town (8DI71, 8DI129) consist of poorly documented shoreline exposures. Better detail is found in the pr ofessional work conducted at sites on Bird Island (8DI52) in the Gulf, and Garden Patch (8DI4) on the mainland to the northeast.

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50 Lower Suwannee Archaeological Survey 2009-2010 MAP REDACTED FOR SECURITY PURPOSES. CONTACT REGIONAL HISTORIC PRESERVATION OFFICER, U.S. FISH AND WILDLIFE, FOR FURTHER INFORMATION Figure 2-11. Topographic map of Horseshoe Beach tract, s howing locations of sites on file with the Florida Master Site Files, Bureau of Archaeological Research. Bird Island is a privately owned island one-and-one-half kilometers southeast of Horseshoe Beach. Since first recorded by G oggin in the 1960s, the archaeological site on Bird Island (8DI52) has been i nvestigated repeatedly as storm surge and erosion exposed midden and human burials along its southern sh oreline. Although s ubsurface testing has never been conducted, surface collections of eroding midden include artifacts spanning the Late Archaic through Weeden Island pe riods. Notably, the fragmentary skeletal remains of 33 individuals were salvaged and analyzed by Stojanowski and Doran (1999) to provide some of the only modern data on hum an interments in the study area. A single radiocarbon assay on human bone returned an uncalibrated age estimate of 4570 B.P. (Stojanowski and Doran 1999:139). Because this assay was not corrected for 12/13C fractionation, calibration is not warranted; nonethele ss, the assay corroborates circumstantial evidence to suggest that the majority, if not a ll of the skelet al population is preceramic Archaic in age, making it the oldest in the study area. Archaic pottery and a large assemblage of soapstone vessel sher ds (one AMS dated to 3630 B.P. [Yates 2000]) from Bird Island signal a slightly later component. The volume of soapstone at this site is unparalleled in the region, suggesting that Late Archaic inhabitants were connected to the network of soapstone exchange that delivered tons of soapstone vessels

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Environmental and Archaeological Contexts 51 from sources in Georgia and Alabama to sites as far afield as Poverty Point in northeast Louisiana (Sassaman 2006). After repeated hurricanes in 2004, the eroding shoreface of Bird Island was stabilized with a seawa ll. The effects of storm surge a nd shoreline erosion on the islands archaeological deposits have been well st udied (Dasovich 1999; Stojanowski 2002), but the lack of systematic subsurface testing across the site li mits our knowledge to data recovered from disturbed contex t. Fortunately, the landowne rs are open to proposals to tests portions of the site they have protected from ongoing erosion. Three kilometers northeast of Horses hoe Beach along a terrace overlooking the salt marsh is a complex of mounds and midden known as Garden Patch (8DI4). In 1948 John Goggin of the University of Florida (UF) located three s ites in the area of Garden Patch. What he deemed Garden Patch 1 is a natural sand ridge with midden; Garden Patch 2 is a sand mound measur ing 20 x 30 m in plan and 1.5 m high; and Garden Patch 3 is an extensive shell midden in close proximity to the sand mound (Kohler 1975:28, 31; Willey 1949:306-307). Students of Goggin conducted limited test excavations in what ostensibly was Garden Patch I and III, and in 1974 Timothy Kohler added a couple more test units and reported his findings in a UF masters thes is (Kohler 1975). Results of the most recent work warranted the consolidatio n of Garden Patch 1-3 into a single site designation, 8DI4. Kohler ve rified that much of the mound complex was Weeden Island in age, but was able to infer that mound compon ents varied in functi on and age. He also proposed that the Weeden Island occupation of the site, being situated between marsh habitat and soils suited to agriculture, was supported by a combination of marine procurement and corn farming. That Weeden Island residents of the project area engaged in food production has not been substantiate d in later work, although, admittedly, little work has since been conducted. Moore (1902:346-348) invest igated a mound complex on the edge of the salt marsh north of Horseshoe Point in an area of extensive shell midden. Willey (1949:304) reports this location as 8DI1, which is not shown on Figure 2-11. The complex Moore investigated included three mounds, the sout hern most situated on old shell midden. Burials and Swift Creek and Weeden Island vessels were encountered in this 40-ft diameter, 6-ft high sand mound. The second mo und consisted of a 6-ft high linear ridge 60 x 80 ft in plan with burials, celts, and plain pottery, and the third was a circular sand mound lacking burials and thus considered dom icillary by Moore. According to Kohler (1975:19) 8DI1 has occasionally been mistaken for the Garden Patch site (8DI4), and he suggested that the m ound complex Moore visited, purportedly now destroyed, was located approximately 2 km north of Garden Patch (Kohler 1975:20). However, in the National Register of Historic Places Nomination Form, filed in 1991 (an update of the 1986 nomination), a new map of the site is included which show s three additional mounds to the east of those illu strated by Kohler (1975:29). In addition, the narrative of the nomination form indicates that Moore was the first to investigate Garden Patch, and the three mounds he described are included as part of 8DI4. Although no mention of 8DI1 is made in the nominati on, it is evident that whoever prepared the form and the new

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52 Lower Suwannee Archaeological Survey 2009-2010 map (Kohler?) decided that the mounds Moore described and Willey lists as 8DI1 are contained within the boundaries of 8DI4. Other sites of note in the Horseshoe B each tract include an unaffiliated shell midden on Cotton Island (8DI51), two Deptford and Swift Creek middens on the eastern arm of Butler Island (8DI50, 8DI97), unaffiliate d sites north of Horseshoe Beach reported to the states CARL program by private co llectors (8DI131, 8DI132), and an alleged burial mound north of Garden Patch named Hosie Pond (8DI79) with Alachua tradition pottery. Discussion The lack of adequate communication routes, the swampy terrain, th e sandy soil, and the low lying coast (subject to drastic storm surge) have all contributed to the cultural pattern of this area being out of the mainstream of regional developmen ts (Dorian 1980:14) Although the sentiment expressed by Alan Dorian about the cultural pattern of the study area was directed specifically at the area of the Lower Suwannee National Wildlife Refuge, and was clearly influenced by th e lack of development in historic times, new, emerging data for the region challenges this characterization. We are beginning to understand that the extant r ecord of human occupation in the study area has been woefully underestimated in both scale and co mplexity. Surely there were places that were only sparsely populated, or used for only transient pur poses, but there are also many places on the landscape that supported intense, re peated utilization for at least the past 2000 years. The mound and village complexes of the Cedar Key and Shell Mound tracts rival those of other Gulf coast localities. The complete inventory of recorded coas tal sites in both Refuges includes some 111 aboriginal sites, almost all with shellbearing deposits (Table 2-1). The sorts of shoreline middens collectors have visited over the years dominate the inventory of known sites, but included as well are many sand and shell mounds of the region, most eradicated by early excavators and looters. In additi on, a few intact sites lo cated on hammocks and paleodunes surrounded by salt marsh attest to probable occupation at times of either higher-than-present sea level and, more likely before marshes accreted with slowing sea level rise. As reported in Chapter 5, work at Richards Island shows how pervasive and intensive use of paleodunes a ppears to have been. When we factor these sorts of landforms into the inventory of potential site location, we can expect a manifold increase in the actual number of sites. Happily, thes e landforms have been the least impacted by natural forces since they were occupied a nd thus hold great poten tial for garnering new data. We are fortunate that two local collector s who salvaged materials eroding from shoreline sites have recently donated collec tions for professional study and permanent curation. In the late 1990s, one of these indi viduals contacted the University of Florida and the Bureau of Historical Resources to al ert archaeologists about the research potential of actively eroding sites. Stat e Archaeologist Ryan Wheeler (at the time an archaeologist with the states CARL Program) accompan ied this individual on a tour of

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Environmental and Archaeological Contexts 53 Table 2-1. Components and Other Attributes of Recorded Sites in the Fi ve Tracts of the Study Area. Horseshoe Shired Suwannee Shell Cedar Beach Island Delta Mound Key Total Number of sites 10 31 13 23 34 111 Number of sites w/diagnostics artifacts 6 14 8 12 22 62 (% of total tract sites) 60.0 45.2 61.5 52.2 64.7 55.9 Number of sites with: Orange 1 3 3 5 1 13 (% of diag. sites) 16.7 21.4 37.5 41.7 4.5 21.0 Deptford 4 8 4 9 7 32 (% of diag. sites) 66.7 57.1 50.0 75.0 31.8 51.6 Swift Creek 2 4 3 3 4 16 (% of diag. sites) 33.3 28.6 37.5 25.0 18.2 25.8 Weeden Island 2 6 4 10 17 39 (% of diag. sites) 33.3 42.9 50.0 58.3 18.2 30.6 St. Johns 0 4 4 7 4 19 (% of diag. sites) 0.0 28.6 50.0 58.3 18.2 30.6 Alachua 2 3 2 3 0 10 (% of diag. sites) 33.3 21.4 25.0 25.0 0.0 16.1 Mississippian 0 0 1 3 1 5 (% of diag. sites) 0.0 0.0 12.5 25.0 4.5 8.1 Colonial 0 1 1 1 2 5 (% of diag. sites) 0.0 7.1 12.5 8.3 9.1 8.1 Shell mound(s) 1 2 3 3 3 12 (% of total tract sites) 10.0 6.5 23.1 13.0 8.8 10.8 Sand mound(s) 2 6 3 3 6 20 (% of total tract sites) 20.0 19.4 23.1 13.0 17.6 18.0 Burial(s) 4 8 5 7 8 32 (% of total tract sites) 40.0 25.8 38.5 30.4 23.5 28.8 the area and provided recommendations for re cording provenience information. Since then, this individual maintained site-level provenience for some 26 sites stretching from Horseshoe Beach to Cedar Key. The second individual, who collected mostly sites in the

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54 Lower Suwannee Archaeological Survey 2009-2010 Cedar Key tract, likewise keep site-lev el provenience and both individuals were nondiscriminatory in what they picked up and kept. Inventory and analysis of these private collections, along with others curated at the Florida Museum of Natura l History, are underway and promise to provide valuable information on the distribution of sites by period across the study area. The pottery typology appropriate to these efforts is the on e developed by Willey (1949). Although it is now over 60 years old, this typology has w ithstood decades of application to remain the most comprehensive and effective tool fo r sorting pottery. However, as with any typology, its application acr oss different contexts must be applied critically. We simply do not have enough information about the formal, temporal, and spatial variations of pottery types in the study ar ea to accept without question th e parameters of variation established elsewhere. Indeed, one of the major goals of the Lower Suwannee Archaeological Survey is to refine the t ypology and chronology of Willeys scheme so that we can confidently arra nge in sequence the cultur al changes attending site establishment and abandonment, transfor mations in ecology, a nd the contours of tradition and innovation. It is premature to propose ty pological refinements in the study area, so we close this chapter with a brief summation of patterning using the nomenclature and time periods of established culture-historical taxa. Judging from observed archaeological evidence, most of th e shoreline sites eroding into the Gulf are multicomponent middens containing pottery of varied chronological and geographic affinity. The most intensive and sustained human settlement of the Refuges took place duri ng the Deptford (ca. 500 B.C.-A.D. 250) and Weeden Island periods (ca. A.D. 200-900). Vi rtually all sites in the collection have appreciable quantities of Dept ford pottery and smaller, but pervasive assemblages of Weeden Island sherds. Sand burial mounds dating to the latter period were attractive to early excavators, like Moore, who recovered whole vessels and other items of ritual importance from graves. Most of the Weeden Island sites recorded to date are likely the domestic sites of communities with affinity to nearby burial mounds. Pasco pottery is present in nearly all pottery assemblages of the private collections (although not included in Table 2-1 because of l ack of consistent reporting in site files), and it often comprises the majority ware at si tes near Cedar Key. It is believed to be coeval with Deptford and early Weeden Island throughout the Refuges, although to the south, towards its namesake county, Pasco pottery apparently persisted for a few centuries more. Plain sand-tempered pottery believed to be coeval with late Weeden Island was perhaps the counterpart to late Pasc o ware in the Refuges, especially north of the Suwannee River delta, where it likely co existed with Deptford and Weeden Island pottery since 500 B.C. Another minor but pervasive pottery ware in the collections is Swift Creek, a cultural expression whose more conspicuous manifestations date to A.D. 150-300, thus bridging the Deptford-Weeden Island continuum. Considerable chronological overlap among these various traditions is apparent and it continues to challenge efforts to refine

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Environmental and Archaeological Contexts 55 chronology through cross-dating alone. A large suite of radiometric dates from good contexts and with sound pottery a ssociations is sorely needed. Other aspects of the pottery assembla ges reflect both greater time-depth and geographic reach than the local Deptford-W eeden Island continuum. Occasional fibertempered sherds with incised decorations atte st to occupations duri ng the Orange period (ca. 2500-1500 B.C.) and a consistent pres ence of spiculate-paste wares includes potentially early St. Johns pottery (ca. 1000 B.C. through possibly Weeden Island). Late St. Johns pottery (i.e., check-stamped ware s, post-A.D. 750) occurs in only trace amounts. Both the Orange and St. Johns ware s have regional dist ributions centered on the St. Johns River and adjacent Atlantic coast. Finally, traces of Alachua (A.D. 700contact) and Safety Harbor (A.D. 900-contact) pottery attest to late-period connections with populations up the Suwannee River a nd down the Gulf Coast, respectively. As shown in Table 2-1, mounds are recorded at some 32 sites in the study area. Those described as shell mounds occur at site s in all of the five tracts, ranging from a low of 6.5 percent to a high of 23.1 percent of total sites per tract. Th ose classified as sand mounds likewise occur at sites in each of the tracts, ranging from 13.0 to 23.1 percent of total sites per trac t. As should be evident from the foregoing description of many of the areas mounds, the distinction between sa nd and shell mounds is not altogether valid. Many of the sand mounds described by C. B. Moore and others consisted of mantles of sand overlying shell de posits. Mounds consistin g entirely of sand are likewise known for the study area. Whether sand was emplaced over shell or deposited alone, humans were of ten interred in sand. Burial s also occur in what are described as shell mounds a nd clearly they occur with relatively great frequency in shell deposits (middens?) that do not expre ss much topographic relief. Across the entire study area burials are reported at no fewer that 23.5 percent and as much as 40.0 percent of sites per tract. N eedless to say, intermen t of the dead at sites in the study area was very common and at times it was attended by th e construction of mounds and inclusion of elaborate material culture. As we continue to investigate the hammo cks and paleodunes of the study area we will have to address the appropriateness of the term mounds to accumulations of shell with topographic relief and ge ometric regularity. Many su ch features are linear or arcuate in plan and some are cl early circular or semicircular. We are inclined to refer to the latter features as shell rings, conscious of the fact that these are not necessarily the equivalent of Late Archaic shell rings el sewhere on the Gulf and Atlantic coastlines (Russo and Heide 2001). Work to date suggest s that many such rings in the study area are Woodland in age (Deptford through Weeded Island?), and may thus have greater affinity to the circular villages known fo r Woodland sites in the greater Southeast (e.g., Stephenson et al. 2002). Still, some of the circular or semi-circular accumulations of shell are indeed quite high, like some Late Archaic rings and unlike the low-lying middens known for Woodland vill ages of the Florida panhandle, for instance. This goes to show how extant knowledge of variability among Gulf co ast sites elsewhere may be insufficient to interpret project area sites.

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56 Lower Suwannee Archaeological Survey 2009-2010 Before closing this chapter we note in br ief some recent proj ects in areas outside the five tracts reviewed above. These include survey of Gulf Hammock west of the Waccasassa River (Jones and Borremans 1991); survey of a proposed 400-acre Suwannee Wastewater System (Archaeol ogical Consultants, Inc. 1995); survey of the Suwannee O&M Project Upland Disposal Site (Weinstein and Mayo 2006); and su rvey of disposal sites for the Suwannee River Dredging Project (Janus Research, Inc. 2001; Koski et al. 2003). In addition, personnel of the Gulf Archaeological Research Institute have conducted multiple surveys of the Withla choochee Gulf Preserve, Crystal River shoreline, and elsewhere along the north ern Gulf coast (Gary Ellis personal communication, 2008). Finally, of particular in terest is the ongoing work of Pluckhahn, Thompson and Weisman (2010) at the famous Crystal River complex some 50 km southeast of the study area. We are eager to examine how this famous site compares to the mound and villages complexes of the Ce dar Key and Shell Mound tracts, which, as we have mentioned, were perhaps even larger in scale than their counterpart to the southeast before they were razed by development and lo oting (Randall et al. 2010). CONCLUSION Natural science studies have been diverse and extensive in the project area owing in large measure to the mission of the Refuges to preserve and manage natural resources in areas set aside from development. Ar chaeological studies in the Refuges lag far behind. Understandably, the lack of land-altering activities by U.S. Fish and Wildlife precludes the sort of mitigative archaeol ogical projects common on other federal installations or federally funded projects. At the same time, natural forces such as tidal erosion are destroying archaeological evidence at a frightening pace. Whereas the forces of nature can be more destructive than any manner of land development, federal mandates and resources to mitigate the forces of nature do not exist. The Lower Suwannee Archaeological Survey offers a st opgap measure to capture information on the Refuges before it is lost forever, and to relate this information to the large and growing body of natural sciences studies the Refuge s enable. To the extent archaeological investigations provide a deeper time perspective on the pro cesses and forces of nature that transform landscape, ecologies, and ultima tely human societies, they are consonant with the greater mission of the Refuges. In addition, our limited knowledge about the archaeology of the study area begs modern i nvestigation to both fill in the gaps of an understudied area of Florida, as well as rethink the biased pe rspectives that were forged in the age of antiquarianism.

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CHAPTER 3 CAT ISLAND (8DI29) Kenneth E. Sassaman Cat Island is a roughly 5-ha island approxi mately 4 km north of the mouth of the Suwannee River (Alligator Pass) and 3 km we st of the town of Suwannee. Privately owned, Cat Island is the location of an archaeo logical site (8DI29) th at continues to be damaged by shoreline erosion. In 2002 the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers proposed to deposit channel dredge material on the er oding shoreline of Cat Island in order to stabilize the landform and protect its archaeological resources, which include aboriginal human interments. That plan never material ized and the island cont inues to erode from tidal action, boat wake, and storm surge. Loca l artifact collectors continue to retrieve materials from the beach and midden escarpment. Given the ongoing damage to Cat Island, testing in 2009 was desi gned to retrieve some stratigraphic samples of the eroding midden before it is lost forever. Consistent with the plan described in Chapter 1, this rescue operation entailed the excavation of two 1-x-2-m test units and the recovery of bulk samples from profiles exposed in these units. The chapter summarizes the methods and results of this effort. BACKGROUND Setting Although it was connected to the mainland long ago, today Cat Island is an elongated tidal marsh island approximately 425 m long and 150 m wide (Figure 3-1). At its western end, facing the Gulf of Mexic o, a 50-m wide sandy ridge demarcates an upland unit that is currently about 1.5 m above mean sea level. The ridge is attenuated along the southwestern aspect of the island, where it curves to the south and back to the east, fronting a beach face up to 20 m wide at low tide. Along most of the western and southwestern aspects of this ridge is an erosional escarpment less than 1 m high that reveals a shell-bearing midden w ith aboriginal pottery, vertebrate fauna, shell tools, lithic artifacts, and occasional human skeletal remain s. Portions of midden have been undercut and dislodged from the upland unit and redeposited on the beach, where it is reworked in tidal surf and exposed for collection by local re lic seekers. Most of the upland unit at the west end of the island preser ves intact midden beneath a 40-c m-thick mantle of recently deposited sand. A second, smalle r sand ridge at the east end of the island apparently does not contain archaeological remains. Erosion of Cat Island is most active at its western end (Figure 3-2), which is exposed occasionally to high velocity winds and attendant wave action. Sand eroded from the western end is redeposited along both the northern and southern margins of the island, forming arcuate spits along the former and an aggrading point along the latter. The amount of erosion in recent years is difficult to asse ss, but judging from a comparison of aerial photographs since the la te 1960s (Koski et al. 2003:10), as well as anecdotal evidence from fallen trees and slum p banks, erosion has been and continues to 57

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58 Lower Suwannee Archaeological Survey 2009-2010 Figure 3-1. Topographic map of Cat Island based on LiDAR coverage (courtesy of Asa Randall). be severe in the location of s ite 8DI29, essentially the entire sand ridge at the west end of the island. Most of Cat Island consists of tidal ma rsh that is surrounded, and thus somewhat protected, by the upland ridges at either e nd and by the strands of redeposited sand along much of the intervening margins. The ri dges support sparse live oak and eastern red cedar with a thin understory of saw palme tto, cabbage palm, and yaupon holly. Much of the area of the western ridge is kept clear by visitors who burn available fuel and trample sparse ground cover consisting of grasses, coontie, and smilax vines. A substantial oyster bar is situated in intertidal water 20-30 m off the southwest corner of the island. Additional oyster bars exist in intertidal water along the northern and northeast margins of the island. Previous Research Site 8DI29 on Cat Island was recorded fo r the state site f iles by John Goggin in 1951. Although local collectors and the propert y owner, Mike Crew s, have retrieved artifacts from the eroding shoreline of Cat Island for decades, only recently has subsurface testing been conducted and there is no obvious eviden ce that the site has been impacted by illicit digging. In March 2002, New South Associates (NSA) of Stone Mountain, Georgia conducted an intensive survey of Cat Island on behalf of U.S. Army Corps of Engineers

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Cat Island (8DI29) 59 Figure 3-2. Two views of erosion along southw est shoreline of Cat Island: reworked midden exposed on beach at low tide (top) and toppled trees fronting midden escarpment in background (bottom).

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60 Lower Suwannee Archaeological Survey 2009-2010 (Koski et al. 2003). Cat Is land was one of several dre dge disposal sites under consideration by the Corps for its Suwannee River Dredge Project. After careful surface inspecti on, the NSA crew excavated a total of 52 shovel tests across the western, upland portion of the isla nd and portions of the adjoining beach. Spaced between 10 and 20 m apart, the shovel te sts were excavated to a depth of at least 1.0 meter, and most tests were continued to depths of up to 2.0 m with a three-inch bucket auger. In addition, augers were pla ced in the marsh adjoining the island along its northwest, west, and southwest margins. Finall y, three 1 x 1-m test units were placed in locations where shovel testing indicated the presence of intact midden (New South Associates test units in Figur e 3-3 marked as NSA TU1-3). Figure 3-3. Topographic map of western, upland un it of Cat Island, showing locations of three 1 x 1-m test units excavated by New South Associates (NSA) in 2002, and two 1 x 2-m units excavated by the Laboratory of Southeastern Ar chaeology in 2009. Topography based on LiDAR coverage (courtesy of Asa Randall).

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Cat Island (8DI29) 61 The results of surface inspection by NSA showed that the midden along the northwest portion of the site was severely impacted by tidal erosion. Along the western aspect of the island, and continuing along its southwest aspect, NSA archaeologists observed archaeological materials eroding fr om a dark-brown sa ndy midden with shell and a gray clayey matrix with abundant an imal bone and shell. This clay deposit was exposed as well in patches on the southw est beach, where human remains had been reported (Koski et al. 2003:90). In a visit to the site in January 2009 with a local collector, human remains were observed in th is clayey, beach-shore deposit. Additional human remains were observed during th e May 2009 fieldwork reported here. Thirty-six shovel test s were excavated by NSA in the upland ridge at the west end of the island. Twenty-seven te sts contained cultural materials, and of these, 20 revealed dense shell midden. Test Unit 1 (1 x 1-m unit) was placed in the center of the ridge, at the highest point of the landfor m, where visitors today camp. Observed in profile was a 35 to 40-cm thick stratum of white sand ca pping the buried surface of a 25-30 cm thick dark gray sandy midden with oys ter shell, pottery, and vertebrate fauna. Another 40 cm of dark gray sands beneath the midden contained archaeological materials. Dominating the pottery recovered from the shell midden we re types of the Weeden Island tradition, as well as Pasco Plain and sand-tempered plain. Sparse sherds of the Swift Creek, St. Johns, and Pasco traditions were r ecovered beneath the shell mi dden, along with vertebrate fauna and a few lithic flakes (Koski et al. 2003:92). Test Unit 2 was located on the southwest beach, just above the high-tide line, where clayey midden was exposed. Dense oyste r shell in clayey matrix was observed 3040 cm below the beach surface. Clay with virtually no cultural material continued for another 25 cm below this upper midden deposit but at 65 cm below surface, oyster and bone again appeared. Excavat ors encountered great diffic ulty extracting the clayey matrix from the unit, and even greater diffi culty processing it thr ough a -inch screen. Recovered from the upper shell midden were se veral plain sand-tempered sherds and one St. Johns sherd; sherds we re not recovered from the lo wer midden, although the reduced size of the unit (0.5 x 1.0 m) and difficulty sc reening likely biased recovery. Still, two lithic flakes and a sandstone abrader were recovered. Augering at the base of the unit showed that clay continued down to ca. 120 cm below the surface, where it overlaid dark gray-brown sand. A third test unit (Test Unit 3) was placed near the north shoreline of the upland unit, where shovel tests revealed dense mi dden. The overlying sands observed in TU1 were thinner in this location (10-15 cm ) and capped a 20-30 cm thick shell midden. Sterile brown sands were observed in levels below 45 cm. Taking into consideration not only the resu lts of subsurface testing but also the personal collections of the landowner, two local residents, and a small assemblage curated at the Florida Museum of Natural History, NSA archaeologists concluded that 8DI29 contained deposits extendi ng from at least the Late Ar chaic period (soapstone and fiber-tempered sherds) to the historic er a (Leon-Jefferson ware). Dominating the assemblages were sherds of plain sand-te mpered pottery, which is generally not

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62 Lower Suwannee Archaeological Survey 2009-2010 diagnostic of particular cultural traditions. Sherds of Pasco, St. Johns, and Weeden Island types appear with appreciable fr equency, while trace amounts of Orange, Deptford, Swift Creek, Alachua, Safety Harbor and Leon-Jeffers on wares attest to at least transient use of the site over the past four m illennia. Lithic flakes and tools, shell and bone tools, and moderate to abundant vertebrate fauna, as well as human interments, reflect diverse uses of the site. Despite the advanced erosion of 8DI29, NSA archaeologists concluded that the remnant of the site expressed sufficient inte grity and content to make it eligible for nomination to the National Register of Historic Places. METHODS AND RESULTS OF 2009 INVESTGATIONS Archaeological investigations of Cat Is land by the Laboratory of Southeastern Archaeology (LSA) took place from Ma y 18-21, 2009 during an unusual spring storm that brought high winds, cool temperatures, and abundant rain to the region. A stalled, late-season cold front was characterized by gale-force winds that pushed northern Gulf coastal waters far beyond normal tidal lows, stranding the crew and its boats on Cat Island for three days. Fortunately, abundant supplies of near-by oysters supplemented the crews food provisions and a series of well-placed tarps kept both camping and excavation areas sufficiently dry and protect ed. The planned work was completed on time and the crew was able to depart the island on May 21 amid heavy rainfall. Following the research design for rescue outlined in Chapter 1, the plan for Cat Island was to excavate two 1 x 2-m test units in locations proximate to the eroding midden along the southwest aspect of the island. Given the results of work by NSA, units were positioned in the area just to the s outh of NSA TU1, where shovels tests showed consistent shell-bearing midden. A baseline was established with a Nikon Total Station running parallel to the eroding midden escar pment (roughly NW-SW) and Test Unit 1 (TU1) was sited near Datum A, at the nor th end of the line. Oriented roughly perpendicular to the escarpment, TU1 wa s dug in 10-cm arbitrary levels within observable strata and all fill passed through -inch hardwa re cloth (Figure 3-4). All artifacts and vertebrate fauna were retrie ved from the screen and bagged by level. Observations on content and composition of each level were recorded on forms, as were depths taken from a corner datum and not es on any obvious features. Upon completion of the unit, all profiles were cleaned, phot ographed, and drawn to scale. Strata descriptions including texture, density, and co lor were recorded on the profile drawings. Finally, a representative profilein the cas e of TU1, the north profilewas sampled with a 50 x 50-cm column that was excavated in 10-cm levels within archaeostrata and all fill recovered for waterscreening and fl otation back in Gainesville (Figure 3-5). Test Unit 2 (TU2) was located approximatel y 16 m southeast of TU1 (Figure 3-3). It was excavated in the same manner as TU1 except that the sample column was taken from the east profile.

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Cat Island (8DI29) 63 Figure 3-4. LSA Crew excavating Test Unit 1 at 8DI29, May 18, 2009. Figure 3-5. Removal of sample column from Test Unit 1, 8DI29, May 20, 2009.

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64 Lower Suwannee Archaeological Survey 2009-2010 Test Unit 1 Photographs of the north and south prof iles of TU1 are provided in Figure 3-6, and Figure 3-7 gives the scaled drawings of all four profiles of this unit. Table 3-1 provides descriptions of the strata marked in Figure 3-7, and Table 3-2 gives an inventory of the archaeological materials reco vered by level and column strata. Excavation of both TU1 and TU2 shows that the upland unit of Cat Island was the recipient of a recent deposit of sand, evident in the strata marked I-III in Figure 3-7. These upper strata consist of thinly bedded sa nds ranging in color from white to light gray. The combined thickness of Strata I-III is 42 cm, which appears to represent a single depositional event of pulsating sedimentation. However, a thin buried root mat at about 30 cm below surface (cm BS) suggests an inte rruption to this pr ocess, possibly long enough to allow organic matter to accumulate subaerially on freshly deposited sands. Alternatively, Stratum II is merely a lens of organic matter that precipitated out of a relatively still water column after higher-ener gy waters subsided temporarily. In any event, the presence of 20th-century artifacts throughout these strata point to a recent depositional process, and the lack of soil deve lopment precludes long pe riods of stability. It seems likely that most, if not all of this mantle of sand formed during the Storm of the Century, in March 1993. Ov er 3 m of storm surge alo ng the northern Gulf Coast resuspended and transported nearshore sedi ment onto the open-marine marshes and many of its low-relief islands (Goodbred and Hi ne 1995). The effect at Cat Island was especially marked, with at least 28 and as much as 42 cm of sand dumped onto a landform only slightly 1.0 m amsl. Beneath the sand mantle in TU1 excavation revealed a buried A horizon (Stratum IV) consisting of very dark gray fine sandy lo am. This stratum grades conformably into the underlying shell midden (Stratum V) to extend down about 83 cm BS. Consisting of relatively dense clam and oyste r shell, Stratum V also contained a moderate amount of pottery sherds of the Weeden Island tradition. A sample of charcoal recovered from the bulk sample at the base of this stratum returned a conventional AMS assay of 1380 40 B.P., which gives a two-sigma ca librated range of A.D. 610-680. The stratum immediately below the shell midden consists of a dark brown fine sandy loam generally lacking she ll and cultural material Interpreted as a zone of organic leaching from the overlying midden, Stratum VI extends down some 10-15 cm below the shell midden. Within this stratum, and ex tending even farther down into the underlying sterile sands (Stratum VII) are at least two zones of fine sandy loam generally lacking shell but with moderate amounts of vertebrate fauna. Designated Strata Va and Vb in Table 3-1 and Figure 3-7, these zones likely si gnal the presence of pi t features emanating from a surface within Stratum V. Unfortunately, these zones were not recognized as possible pit features during level excavation a nd became apparent only after profiles were prepared for photography and drawing. It is likely that most of the vertebrate fauna recovered from Levels G-I in TU1 came from th ese two zones; associated sherds were too sparse and fragmented to draw any infere nce about the age of these possible features.

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Cat Island (8DI29) 65 Figure 3-6. Photographs of the north (top) and south (bottom) profiles of Test Unit 1, 8DI29.

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66 Lower Suwannee Archaeological Survey 2009-2010 Figure 3-7. Stratigraphic profiles of Test Unit 1, 8DI29. Excavation of TU1 was terminated at 115 cm BS after removing a level of generally sterile, brown fine sand (Stratum VII). A soil tube was inserted into the floor of the unit to verify that the underlying sediments were free of additional anthropogenic deposits. The watertable at low tide was enc ountered 70 cm beneath th e floor of the unit, or roughly 185 cm below the ground surface. Test Unit 2 Located approximately 16 m south of TU1, Test Unit 2 (TU2) was sited in an open area about six meters landward of th e erosional escarpment fronting the beach. Although the profiles of this second unit bear similarity to those of TU1, the content, composition, and age of the buried shell mi dden in TU2 is appreciably different. Photographs of the north and south profile s of TU2 are provided in Figure 3-8, and

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Cat Island (8DI29) 67 Figure 3-9 gives the scaled drawings of all four profiles of this unit. Table 3-3 provides descriptions of the strata marked in Figure 3-9, and Table 3-4 gives an inventory of the archaeological materials recovere d by level and column strata. Blanketing the midden in TU2 is the same ~44-cm thick sand stratum observed in TU1. Microbedding in these sands is interrupt ed by a discontinuous, th in lens of organic matter (Stratum II) that, again, reflects eith er a period of subaerial accumulation or changes in the force and tempo of storm surge that produced the laminations of Strata I and III. Either way, these sands cap a bur ied A horizon (Stratum IV) with a maximum depth of 60 cm BS. The western half of this stratum contained considerable oyster shell but little vertebrate fauna and only sparse cu ltural materials, notably a few small sandtempered sherds with eroded or unidentifiable surface treatments. Table 3-1. Stratigraphic Units of Test Unit 1, 8DI29 Max. Depth Munsell Stratum (cm BS) Color Description I 28 10YR8/1 fine, unconsolidated white sand with discontinuous bedding planes and occasional oyster shell II 30 10YR7/1 buried root mat/organic stringer with minimum light gray fine sand III 42 10YR8/1 fine, unconsolidated white sand with discontinuous bedding planes and occasional oyster shell; intercalated organic matter along base of stratum IV 60 10YR3/1 very dark gray fine sandy loam (buried A horizon) V 83 10YR2/2 very dark brown fine sandy loam with dense clam and oyster shell, and occasional gastropod shell (intact midden); AMS assay of 1380 40 BP obtained from charcoal near base of stratum Va 115* 10YR3/3 dark brown fine sa ndy loam lacking shell but emanating from Stratum V (possible pit feature) Vb 115* 10YR3/2 very dark grayish brown fine sandy loam lacking shell; relationship to Stratum V ambiguous; possible pit feature VI 98 10YR3/2 very dark grayis h brown fine sandy loam; zone of organic leaching from stratum above; generally devoid of cultural material VII 115* 10YR4/3 brown fine, mois t sand generally devoid of cultural material (sterile substrate?) *terminated at maximum depth of excavation, ca. 115 cm BS, where top of watertable was encountered.

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68 Lower Suwannee Archaeological Survey 2009-2010 Table 3-2. Inventory of Materials Recovered from Test Unit 1, 8DI29. Pottery Lithics Vert. Shell Concret./ Charcoal Historic1 Other (n) (n) Fauna (g) (g) Pebbles (g) (g) (g) (g) Level A 2 2 15.5 6.6 26.0 38.9 B 7 1 50.4 11.7 21.0 C 1 2 18.5 0.1 0.2 3.3 D 5 32.8 0.2 6.3 3.4 E 28 1 137.3 0.3 0.1 19.9 F 75 2 446.7 4.9 13.3 8.0 0.4 G 5 2 304.3 22.3 26.6 0.9 0.1 H 1 195.9 6.3 1.3 0.1 0.3 I J 2 16.1 1.1 K 4.4 350.2 Total 124 12 1221.9 392.0 85.4 10.0 87.3 Bulk IV-A 1 1 7.0 319.2 0.7 IV-B 3 2 82.0 652.0 5.1 6.3 V-A 4 97.5 2540.8 5.8 1.2 22 V-B 96.0 2152.5 1.2 0.4 13 V-C 46.1 653.4 0.7 0.1 VI 20.7 103.8 Total 8 3 349.3 6421.7 12.8 8.7 3 1 historic artifacts include glass, metal, plastic, and other modern materials 2 bone pin fragments that conjoin at old break 3 gastropod shell fragment with battering at base The underlying stratum, Stratum V, contained sparse-to-moderate shell, sparse vertebrate fauna, and only two sherds, one w ith spiculate paste, presumably of the St. Johns tradition. Below that was the primar y shell midden deposit of this unit, Stratum VI. Dominated by oyster and with only minor traces of clam and gastropod, Stratum VI has only a moderate amount of vertebrate fa una and virtually no pottery. One punctated sherd and several nondescript sa nd-tempered sherds were recovered from Level H (76-86 cm BS), but sherds were absent in the bulk of the stratum and completely absent in the fill from the column. A few lithic flakes, a fragment of bone awl, and a shell disk bead (Figure 3-13) round out the small artifact asse mblage of this stratum. A sample of charcoal recovered from the bulk sample at the base of this stratum returned a conventional AMS assay of 4030 40 B.P., wh ich gives two-sigma calibrated ranges of 2830-2820 and 2630-2470 B.C. The stratum beneath the shell midden, Stra tum VII, is a bit more complex than that observed below the midden exposed in TU1, but it too consists predominately of relatively shell-free sand that is organically enriched from leaching of the overlying midden. However, Stratum VII in TU2 return ed a greater amount of vertebrate fauna than its counterpart in TU1, and it containe d zones of concreted sand with minor amounts of shell. As in TU1, these submidden anomalies most likely reflect pit features that

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Cat Island (8DI29) 69 Figure 3-8. Photographs of the north (top) and south (bottom) profiles of Test Unit 1, 8DI29.

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70 Lower Suwannee Archaeological Survey 2009-2010 Figure 3-9. Stratigraphic profiles of Test Unit 2, 8DI29. penetrated the sand below, but no such featur es were defined in le vel excavation. Water was encountered at 121 cm BS, where excavatio n was halted. A soil tube sunk into the floor of the unit verified the absence of a dditional anthropogenic de posits to a depth of ~200 cm BS. ARTIFACT ASSEMBLAGE A total of 201 artifacts were recovered fr om the excavation of Test Units (TU) 1 and 2 at 8DI29. The inventory is dominated by pottery sherds (n = 170), 78 percent of which came from TU1. Flakes of chert from modification of stone tools comprise a small sample of 24, and worked bone and worked shel l occur in trace frequencies. Descriptions of artifacts in these respective classe s follow in the subsections below.

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Cat Island (8DI29) 71 Table 3-3. Stratigraphic Units of Test Unit 2, 8DI29 Max. Depth Munsell Stratum (cm BS) Color Description I 31 10YR8/1 fine, unconsolidated white sand with discontinuous bedding planes and occasional oyster shell II 32 --discontinuous burie d root mat/organic stringer III 44 10YR8/1 fine, unconsolidated white sand with discontinuous bedding planes and occasional oyster shell IV 60 10YR4/1 dark gray fine sandy loam (buried A horizon) IVa 85 10YR2/1 black fine sandy loam with moderate shell (pit feature) V 77 10YR4/2 dark grayish brown fine sand with sparse shell Va 68 10YR3/3 black fine sandy loam with moderate shell VI 102 10YR2/1 black loamy sand with abundant shell (intact midden); AMS assay of 4030 40 BP obtained from charcoal near base of stratum VII 121* 10YR4/2 dark grayish brow n wet sand with very sparse shell (sterile substrate?) VIIa 121* 10YR4/3 dark brown sand w ith gravel-like, concreted texture *terminated at maximum depth of excavation, ca. 121 cm BS, where top of watertable was encountered. Pottery The frequency of pottery by levels and type in TUs 1 and 2 is provided in Tables 3-5 and 3-6, and representative sherds are shown in Figures 3-10 and 3-11. The types listed in these tables include both culture-his torical types and generic or analytical types that crosscut culture-historical types. For instance, the only variety of Deptford pottery that is listed in Table 3-5 is the Linear Check-Stamped (LCS) variety. Other types of Deptford pottery (plain, simple-s tamped) are not sufficiently diagnostic to warrant sherd-level classification. Sherds that are sandor grit-tempered and bear demonstrably plain surface treatments are cla ssified as simply sand-tempered plain and eroded or otherwise undetectable surface treatm ents of sherds with sand/grit tempering are included under the sand-tempered unidentifia ble (UID) class. All sherds less than -inch in maximum dimension are given to the class of crumb sherd; the disproportionately high frequency of crumb sher ds from the bulk samples is a function of matrix processing that was finer (1/8-inch) than that of level excavation (1/4-inch).

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72 Lower Suwannee Archaeological Survey 2009-2010 Table 3-4. Inventory of Materials Recovered from Test Unit 2, 8DI29. Pottery Lithics Vert. Shell Concret./ Charcoal Historic1 Other (n) (n) Fauna (g) (g) Pebbles (g) (g) (g) (g) Level A 3 16.9 0.1 8.7 B 1 6.8 8.8 C 8 55.1 0.8 0.9 0.2 12.3 D 7 68.8 0.7 6.2 95.6 E 5 50.0 1.2 0.1 2.9 F 4 1 66.5 0.4 0.2 3.2 G 2 38.4 0.5 0.3 2.8 H 8 3 160.2 707.1 27.9 1.8 I 2 114.9 8.8 82.6 J 172.9 39.9 46.6 22 K 21.8 0.4 2.5 L 2 2.3 Total 38 8 774.6 759.9 166.7 2.6 134.3 2 Bulk IV-A 12.2 594.3 0.8 0.3 2.3 IV-B 15.2 688.2 1.3 0.7 V 115.6 1068.7 0.8 0.9 VI-A 132.3 2259.1 48.3 0.1 VI-B 1 115.1 2859.9 1.9 0.8 VI-C 156.8 4514.0 1.0 23 Total 1 547.2 11,984.2 53.1 3.8 2.3 2 1 historic artifacts include glass, metal, plastic, and other modern materials 2 crown conch shell with perforations in body and battering on bases 3 one bone pin fragment and one shell disk bead In TU1 the inventory of sherds -inch or greater in size is dominated by sandtempered plain (n = 12) and UID (n = 34) sherds, the majority of which came from Levels E and F, the heart of the shell midden. However, these same levels also produced a moderate yet diverse assemblage of pottery of the Weeden Island tradition. Examples of Weeden Island Plain (Figure 3-10d) and one Weeden Is land Red (Figure 3-10e) are accompanied by several sherds of Ruskin Dentate Stamped (Figure 39:F-2, right) and a couple of Wakulla Check Stamped sherds (F igure 3-10f). One burnished plain sherd from the bulk sample column of the midden (S tr. IV-B) is also likely a Weeden Island variety. A single sh erd of Lochloosa Punctate (Figure 310b) is not directly related to Weeden Island (being part of the Alachua Tradition of interi or Florida), but, as noted in Chapter 2, it is not unusual to find in a ssociation with Weeden Island pottery on the northern Gulf Coast. Finally, a single exam ple of Carabelle Punctate (Figure 3-10a) was recovered from the storm surge deposits overl ying the midden. Overall, the assemblage of pottery accords well with the cal. A.D. 610-680 date range, roughly the early portion of Willeys (1949) Weeden Island II subperiod.

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Cat Island (8DI29) 73 The three Deptford sherds recovered from TU1 are badly preserved examples of the Linear Check-Stamped variety. Whereas tw o of these came from the very top of the intact midden, the third was recovered from the base of the overlying sands, suggesting that at least some of this material was disl odged and redeposited from storm surge. Other Deptford sherds have been observed in su rface collections from Cat Island (e.g., Koski et al. 2003:99), in some cases in appreciable frequency (e.g., Campbell collection at LSA). Given that most of the surf ace-collected materials came from the beachfront of the island, its Deptford component(s) may have been larg ely, if not completely destroyed by tidal erosion and storm surge. Pottery sherds from TU2 were generally ol der, less diverse, a nd less frequent than those of TU1. The assemblage of 38 sherds is dominated by crumbs (n = 16), sandtempered plain (n = 7) and sand-tempered UI D (n = 8). Other sherds include one Swift Creek Complicated Stamped (Figure 3-11a), four eroded specimens with St. Johns (spiculate) paste, and one sand-tempered puncta ted sherd of uncertain cultural affiliation (Figure 3-11c). One of the larger sand-temper ed sherds (Figure 3-11b) exhibits a darkcolored paste or use-related residue on a pocked surface. This sherd, the punctated sherd, one of the St. Johns sherds, and a few small sand-tempered sherds were the only sherds from the midden proper; no sherds (not even crumb sherds) were retrieved from the bulk sample column. The AMS assay from the base of the midden in TU2 is at the dawn of pottery making in Florida (ca. 2500 cal B.C.). The ge neral lack of pottery in the midden of TU2 is thus not surprising, although both the sandtempered punctate sherd and the St. Johns sherd near the base of the midden are not like ly to date this old. The midden in TU2 is clearly a good bit older than the midden in TU1, and there is nothing to suggest that the two overlap in any appreciable fashion. Thus, while the greater age of midden in TU2 is substantiated by the AMS assay, the pottery in this context, albeit at low frequency and generally early, does not corroborate the absolute age estimate. Additional analyses of the pottery from Cat Island await larger samples. As indicated earlier, just about every pottery type known for th e region is present in surfacecollected samples from the island. Research to investigate how variations through time are registered in vessel size, shape, and function necessita tes large samples of large sherds (or reconstructible vessel portions). The Campbell collection housed at the LSA has this potential, but more samples from secure, radiometrically dated contexts are needed as well.

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74 Lower Suwannee Archaeological Survey 2009-2010 Table 3-5. Absolute Frequency of Po ttery Sherds from Test Unit 1, 8DI29 Deptford Ruskin Wakulla W.I. Sand-Tempered LCS Dentate C-S Plain Plain UID Other Crumb Total Levels A 11 1 2 B 2 5 7 C 1 1 D 1 1 1 1 1 5 E 2 1 3 11 12 10 39 F 16 1 3 8 19 13 27 87 G 5 5 H 1 1 I 0 J 0 Total 3 17 2 3 12 34 3 50 124 Bulk IV-A 1 1 IV-B 14 2 3 V-A 4 4 V-B 0 V-C 0 VI 0 Total 1 1 6 8 1 Carabelle Punctate 2 Lochloosa Punctate 3 Weeden Island Red 4 sand-tempered burnished plain Table 3-6. Absolute Frequency of Po ttery Sherds from Test Unit 2, 8DI29 St. Johns Swift -------Sand-Tempered------(eroded) Creek Plain Punctate UID Historic Crumb Total Levels A 3 3 B 1 1 C 1 2 2 3 8 D 2 2 1 2 7 E 5 5 F 2 2 4 G 1 1 2 H 1 1 4 2 8 I 0 J 0 K 0 L Total 4 1 7 1 8 1 16 38 Note: no pottery was recovered from the bulk sample column of TU2

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Cat Island (8DI29) 75 Figure 3-10. Examples of sherds recovered from Test Unit 1, 8DI29 (a. Carabelle Punctate; b. Lochloosa Punctate; c, f. Wakulla/St. Johns Check Stamped; d. Weeden Island Plain; e. Weeden Island Red; g. Ruskin Dentate/Punctate).

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76 Lower Suwannee Archaeological Survey 2009-2010 Figure 3-11. Examples of sherds recovered from Test Unit 2, 8DI29 (a. Swift Creek Complicated Stamped; b. sand-tempered plain with a slip or use-related residue and surface pocking; c. sandtempered punctate). Lithic Artifacts The only lithic artifacts recovered from th e test excavations of 8DI29 were small flakes of bifacial retouch. TU1 yielded 15 such items, while TU2 produced only nine. Although the small sample size precludes inferences about associati ons with pottery and midden, it appears flakes are widely distribu ted vertically, including in the storm surge deposit over TU1, with a slight tendency to occur deeper than pottery in the middens of both units. It appears likely that some of th ese flakes came from pre-pottery occupations of the island. Early and Middle Archaic bif aces have been recovered from the surface at Cat Island (Koski et al. 2003:103), as ha ve later period flaked stone tools. All the flakes from TUs 1 and 2 were struck from cores or bifaces of chert. No silicified coral were observed, consistent with earlier investigations (Koski et al. 2003:102). Overall, the meager flake assembla ge of this and earlier investigations suggest that reduction of chert cores was not a primary activity at the site, and that all flaking activities were centered on the thin ning, rejuvenation, and recycling of bifaces brought to the island in finish ed or near-finished form. Modified Shell Three modified shells from the crown conch ( Melongena corona ) were recovered in testing, one from TU1 and two from TU2 (F igure 3-12). Each exhibits battering at the

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Cat Island (8DI29) 77 basal end, and each has at least one hole that li kely received a handle. Thus, each of the specimens was likely used as a hafted hammer, consistent with Type G in the typology used for south Florida (Luer et al. 1986; Marquardt 1992). Type G hammers are quite common at sites across the study area. The single example from TU1 came from the middle part of the Weeden Island midden. It expresses considerable attrition at both the apex and basal end, and the hole in its whorl is elongated (ca. 32 x 22 mm) and irregu lar in shape. Its lo cation in the whorl is not opposite the aperature, as it is with T ype G specimens elsewhere, including those from TU2, so it may not qualify, technically, as a Type G hamm er. Nonetheless, the hole is positioned in a way that would allow a ha ndle to be inserted and wedged against the columella sufficiently to enable light hammering. The specimens from TU2 both came from Level J, just below the midden proper, in the stratum that includes concreted sands and what perhaps are submidden features. The smaller of the two is actually very sm all (ca. 48 mm in maximum length), owing in part to its young age at death, but also advanced attrition of both ends. The ca. 15 mm diameter hole in its whorl is paired with a ca. 12 mm notch on the margin of the aperture. The larger one (ca. 93 mm in maximum length) is in a good state of preservation, with two holes cut into the whorl, each slightly ovate at 20-22 mm in maximum dimension. With this configuration, the sh ell could have been hafted in two ways: either through the two cut holes of the whorl, or through the aperture and the cut hole opposite the aperture, which is the more typical design. One additional shell artifact is a flat disk bead made from marine shell (Figure 313). Measuring 9.8 x 9.0 mm in plan and 1.7 mm thick, this roughly circular bead has a cylindrical hole that measures from 3.2 to 3.4 mm in diameter. It was recovered from the very base of the shell midden in the bulk column of TU2. Figure 3-12. Hafted hammers (Type G) fro m 8DI29 made from shells of Crown conch (Melongena corona ).

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78 Lower Suwannee Archaeological Survey 2009-2010 Modified Bone Analysis of vertebrate fauna from th e bulk column samples has yet to be conducted, but in the process of sorting bulk matrix, three pieces of worked bone were located. All three are fragments of bone pi ns, essentially cut, split, and ground large mammal long bones (almost certainly deer) with one tapered (pointed) end (Figure 3-13). Two fragments from Stratum V-A in TU1 fit t ogether at an old break; the other, from Stratum VI in TU2 is the distal portion of a pin. These are not unusual finds for sites throughout Florida, and they enjoyed a long period of use beginni ng at least 8000 years ago. The generic forms of those recovered fr om 8DI29 do not lend themselves to culturehistorical classification, but given proveniences involved, both Late Archaic and Weeden Island era uses are implicated. Figure 3-13. Modified bone (left and center) and shell disk bead (right) from 8DI29. FAUNAL ASSEMBLAGE Invertebrate As might be expected on any shell midden, the inedible remains of shellfish make up the bulk of food remains in th e midden matrix. Of course, sh ell is usually discarded in the act of eating the flesh of shellfish. As we have seen, some shell is parlayed into raw materials or blanks for tools, and other sh ell may have very well been ground, burned or otherwise destroyed. Like wise, shell middens are notorious for their complicated stratigraphy and other sampling biases that re nder comparisons between units or strata within units suspect. Nonetheless, the sa mples retrieved from bulk columns at 8DI29

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Cat Island (8DI29) 79 reveal some sharp contrasts in the compositi on and structure of sh ell matrix. Putting these into temporal context, variations possibly reflect changing estuarine ecology, cultural preferences, season of collection, site formational factors, or any combination of these and other factors. Tables 3-7 and 3-8 provide frequency data on the occurrence of shell by taxa and strata in the two bulk samples columns from 8DI29. On the w hole, shell from the column of TU1 (Table 3-7) is relatively evenly distri buted between two main taxa: eastern oyster ( Crassotrea virginica ) and Carolina marsh clam ( Polymesoda caroliniana ). These two taxa are simplified in the tables and discu ssion that follows as oyster and clam. Occasional shells of hard clam ( Mercenaria mercenaria ) were observed in the test unit excavations, and at some sites in the st udy area they are preval ent, but none were recovered from the bulk columns at 8DI29. Other, lesser species of shellfish in Table 3-7 include occasional crown conch ( Melongena corona), and miscellaneous fragments of unidentifiable gastropods. Although the aggregate proportions of oyster and clam in TU1 are roughly equal, when compared across strata, a spike in the fr equency of clam is evident in Stratum V, particularly in its upper 10-20 cm (V-A and V-B). Oyster also expresses its highest frequencies in these same levels, reflecting the overall relative density of shell in this portion of the profile. This is the same pos ition of the greatest density of Weeden Island sherds and the AMS assay of 1380 40 B.P. (cal A.D. 610-680). Given these associations, it seems safe to conclude that Stratum V is an excellent subsistence and paleoecological datum for the early part of the Weeden Is land II subperiod. Shell recovered from the bulk column of TU2 (Table 3-8) is dominated by oyster, while clam comprises less than four percent of the aggregate sample. Lesser numbers of other shellfish in Table 3-8 include occasional crown conch ( Melongena corona), one large, whole shell of a lightning whelk ( Busycon sinestrum ) near the base of the midden (Stratum VI-B), and miscellaneous fragments of unidentifiable gast ropods. Not shown in Table 3-8 is a trace of barnac le shell (7.2 g total) distribu ted across four levels of the column strata, but mostly (5.4 g) in the basal level of the basal stratum (VI-C). Proportionally, oyster does not vary much acr oss strata of TU2, but in absolute terms, the basal stratum (VI) holds the greatest density of oyster, and, within that stratum, it is concentrated in the lowest level (VI-C). This stratum also contains the only crown conch, the whole lightning whelk, and virtually all the barnac le shell fragments. Two large hard clam shells were also collected from the level excavation of this stratum. Thus, while oyster dominates the basal stra tum throughout, a variety of other shellfish species are present in trace frequencies. A lthough a few pottery sherds were recovered from this stratum, the AMS assay of 4030 40 B.P. (cal B.C. 2830-2820 and 2630-2470) provides tentative evidence that Stratum VI provides a solid Late Archaic datum for subsistence and paleoecology at 8DI29.

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80 Lower Suwannee Archaeological Survey 2009-2010 Table 3-7. Absolute frequency of marine she ll by strata of bulk sample column, taxa, and valve (for oyster and clam), Test Unit 1, 8DI29. OYSTER Right Valve Left Valve Fragment Total ct. wt. (g) ct. wt. (g) wt. (g) wt. (g) IV-A 9 33.6 21 71.2 137.0 241.8 IV-B 29 103.0 35 129.4 220.0 452.4 V-A 47 124.6 68 270.1 371.0 765.7 V-B 40 175.5 34 299.3 182.7 657.5 V-C 15 55.6 14 125.3 205.7 386.6 VI 3 6.8 3 38.7 24.5 70.0 Total 143 499.1 175 934.0 1140.9 2574.0 CLAM Right Valve Left Valve Fragment Total ct. wt. (g) ct. wt. (g) wt. (g) wt. (g) IV-A IV-B 1 1.6 3 4.9 6.5 V-A 47 191.9 70 272.2 723.2 1187.3 V-B 36 157.5 56 230.9 534.2 922.6 V-C 10 38.4 10 45.7 25.1 109.2 VI 1 3.0 12.4 15.4 Total 94 389.4 140 556.7 1294.9 2241.0 OTHER Crown Conch UID Gastropod UID Fragments ct. wt. (g) ct. wt. (g) wt. (g) % of Total IV-A 1 7.5 69.9 21.9% IV-B 1 16.5 176.6 27.1% V-A 2 13.1 574.7 22.6% V-B 2 77.2 493.0 22.9% V-C 1 58.2 99.4 15.2% VI 18.4 18.3% Total 3 135.4 4 37.1 1432.0 22.3% In comparing the shell assemblages from Weeden Island II (TU1, Stratum V-A and V-B) and Late Archaic (TU2, Stratum VI) bulk samples, at least three differences bear mention (Table 3-9). First, the density of shell in the Late Archaic stratum is greater than in the later stratum. This is especially the case for the basal level of Stratum VI in TU2, where the total weight of shell exceeds any other level in either test unit by nearly two kilos. Relatedly, the density of shell in the Late Archaic stratum increases with depth, whereas the shell in the Weeden Island II stratum decreases with depth. It would appear that the two formed under different circumstances, or perhaps that the Late Archaic stratum of dense shell was buried und er sediment and then intermixed before additional shell (Strata V and VI) was deposit ed. Not knowing the age of the upper shell strata in TU2, we are in no position to speculate on the timing of these presumed events.

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Cat Island (8DI29) 81 Table 3-8. Frequency of marine shell by strata of bulk sample column, taxa, and valve (for oyster and clam), Test Unit 2, 8DI29. OYSTER Right Valve Left Valve Fragment Total ct. wt. (g) ct. wt. (g) wt. (g) wt. (g) IV-A 18 58.9 24 83.7 365.8 508.4 IV-B 32 111.8 33 277.3 229.0 618.1 V 46 97.7 53 343.7 404.2 845.6 VI-A 119 403.0 148 973.2 676.1 2052.3 VI-B 113 444.2 107 811.7 859.4 2115.3 VI-C 149 527.9 214 2151.4 1376.9 4056.2 Total 477 1643.5 579 4641.0 3911.4 10,195.9 CLAM Right Valve Left Valve Fragment Total ct. wt. (g) ct. wt. (g) wt. (g) wt. (g) IV-A 1 5.2 9.9 15.1 IV-B 1 6.8 1 6.4 2.2 15.4 V 3 12.2 7 31.4 30.7 74.3 VI-A 8 28.7 4 5.1 54.7 88.5 VI-B 8 37.6 4 30.5 35.6 103.7 VI-C 2 14.1 2 15.3 28.4 57.8 Total 23 104.6 18 88.7 161.5 354.8 OTHER Crown Conch UID/Other Gastropod UID Fragments ct. wt. (g) ct. wt. (g) wt. (g) % of Total IV-A 70.5 11.9% IV-B 1 10.7 44.0 6.4% V 1 0.6 148.2 13.9% VI-A 2 1.9 115.2 5.1% VI-B 2 21.2 1 462.31 157.1 5.5% VI-C 5 147.5 247.1 5.5% Total 7 168.7 4 475.5 782.1 6.5% 1 one whole whelk ( Busycon sinistrum ) shell The second difference follows from the first in that the shell of the Late Archaic stratum is less fragmented than that of the W eeden Island II stratum. This is indicated in Table 3-8 by the proxy value of percent UID fragmented shell by weight. None of the levels in the Late Archaic stratum contain more than 5.5 percent UID fragmented shell, while the Weeden Island II leve ls have values no less than 22.6 percent. Again, rapid burial of the Late Archaic stratum may account for this difference, insofar as burial would preclude the comminution of trampling or other sorts of near-surface disturbances. And finally, the ratio of oyster to clam is dramatically different between the two samples (Table 3-9). Late Archaic shell cont ains no more than 5 percent clam by weight, whereas the Weeden Island II sample consis ts of roughly 60 percent clam. Oyster remains important in the Weeden Island assemblage, but clam rises to be the dominant species. As discussed in the final chapter of this report, the trend toward increased use of

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82 Lower Suwannee Archaeological Survey 2009-2010 Carolina marsh clam appears to be a slow and steady development, perhaps attending changing estuarine conditions but also possi bly attending an expanding shellfish diet during the Woodland period. Table 3-9. Comparison of Test Units 1 and 2 for Total Weight (g) of Shell, Percent by Weight UID Fragments, and Ratio of Oyster to Clam Shell, by Stratum, 8DI29. Total Shell Percent by Wt. Ratio Oyster: Wt. (g) UID Fragments Clam (1: x ) Test Unit 1 IV-A 319.2 21.9% 0.00 IV-B 652.0 27.1% 0.01 V-A 2540.8 22.6% 1.55 V-B 2150.3 22.9% 1.40 V-C 653.4 15.2% 0.28 VI 103.8 18.3% 0.22 Test Unit 2 IV-A 594.3 11.9% 0.03 IV-B 688.2 6.4% 0.02 V 1068.7 13.9% 0.09 VI-A 2259.1 5.1% 0.04 VI-B 2859.9 5.5% 0.05 VI-C 4514.0 5.5% 0.01 Vertebrate Full-blown analysis of vertebrate fa una recovered from both level and bulk samples has yet to be completed. Inspection of the total weight of animal bone recovered from both contexts (Tables 3-2 and 3-4) s hows that bone density covaries with shell density. This applies both to the relative de nsity of bone within th e levels/strata of each unit, as well as the difference between the un its. The greatest bone density is found in the Late Archaic stratum (VI) at the base of the TU2 shell midden, followed by the Weeden Island II stratum (V-A, V-B) in TU1. In a zooarchaeology course at the Univer sity of Florida taug ht by Susan deFrance in the Fall 2009 semester, graduate students Paulette McFadden ( 2009) and Ellen Lofaro (2009) analyzed the vertebrate faunal remains from three levels of TU1, specifically, Levels F-H, which amounts to the lower aspect of the Weeden Island II midden. Although the -inch recovery method of level excavation precludes adequate characterization of the actual vertebrate fauna represente d in the midden, the general results of their analyses are worth mentione d. As might be expected, the bony elements of fishes dominate the assemblages from a ll three levels (88 to 94 percent by NISP and 81 to 91 percent by MNI). Among the more prevalent species represented by MNI are sheepshead ( Archosargus probatocephalus ), black drum ( Pogonias cromis ), hardhead catfish (Ariopsis felis ), gafftopsail catfish ( Bagre marinus ), and Crevalle jack ( Caranx

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Cat Island (8DI29) 83 hippos ), followed by lesser numbers of gar ( Lepisosteus sp.), mullet ( Mugil sp.), speckled trout ( Cynoscion nebulosus), and red drum ( Sciaenops ocellatus ), and traces of members of the grunt (Haemulidea) and porcupine fi sh (Diodontidae) families. A moderate number of bones of unidentified turtle (Testudines) were accompanied by a small numbers of mud/musk turtles (Kinosternidae), sliders ( Trachemys spp. ), and box turtles ( Terrapene ). Identified mammal bones were restri cted to a few elements of Northern raccoon ( Procyon lotor ) and rabbit/hare ( Leporidae ), and only a few unidentifiable bird bones were present. Traces of ray (Rajif ormes), shark (Lamniformes), American alligator ( Alligator mississippiensis ), and unidentified snake (Serpentes) round out the assemblage. Pending analysis of larger, fine-screene d samples from 8DI29, it is worth noting in closing that within the three level samples analyzed by Lofaro and McFadden, there is a trend for decreased frequency of sheepsh ead and drum and increased frequency of catfish through time. This trend coincides w ith the increased use of Carolina marsh clam through time. Data on the size of the fish cap tured could help to re solve the degree to which this trend reflects differences in seas onality, estuarine ecology, cultural preference, or merely sample bias. CONCLUSION Limited testing at 8DI29 on Cat Island pr ovides a small glimpse into what appears to be a complex, multicomponent midden depos it sealed beneath a ~40-cm-thick storm surge deposit. Active shoreline erosion of the site ensures that this midden will eventually be destroyed completely. Comparing surface-collected materials in private collections to the materials recovered in the te sting reported here sugge st that some of the sites components may have already been elimin ated by shoreline eros ion. Still, portions of Late Archaic and Weeden Island II midde ns remain intact and warrant further investigation. Situated only about 16 m apart, Test Units 1 and 2 both revealed subsurface midden but from vastly different time periods and appreciably dis tinct composition. The differential composition of shell midden an d associated artifacts corroborates the radiocarbon assays, with the midden of TU2 expressing a Late Archaic basal age, and that of TU1 dating to the early Weeden Island II subperi od. Oyster dominates the older one, while clam grew increasingly important over the time the TU1 midden accumulated. Apparent changes in vertebrate fauna accomp any the increased use of clam. Additional fieldwork at Cat Island is required to reconcil e the stratigraphic rela tionship between Test Units 1 and 2, and additional analysis, partic ularly of the fauna, are recommended to determine the degree to which apparent chan ges in the collection of shellfish and fish signal changing estuarine conditions over the nearly three millennia represented.

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84 Lower Suwannee Archaeological Survey 2009-2010

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CHAPTER 4 LITTLE BRADFORD (8DI32) Paulette S. McFadden Little Bradford is a small, federally owned Gu lf coast island, located at the mouth of the Suwannee River approximately 3.2 km southwest of the town of Suwannee. The archaeological site, designated 8DI32, was first recorded by John M. Goggin in the 1950s. It is situated on a small strip of elevated sandy ground that is currently endangered by tidal and boat-wake erosion. As part of the overall research plan for the Lower Suwannee National Wildlife Refuge, Little Bradford Island was targeted for test unit excavations as a means of mitigatin g the loss of important archaeological information. Two 1-x-2-m test units were excavated, one in 2009 a nd the other in 2010, and associated bulk samples were collected from each. The following chapter will outline the methods and results of these excavations. BACKGROUND Setting Little Bradford is located at the mouth of the Suwannee River in a deltaic formation consisting of salt marsh islands cu t off from the mainland by Wadley Pass to the south and Northern Pass to the east (Figur e 4-1). While the southwest to northeast oriented island is approximately 1.3 km l ong and 0.6 km at the widest point, it is comprised mostly of saltmarsh. The only ar ea of the island that supports terrestrial vegetation is a small sandy strip, approximately 130 meters long and 30 meters wide, on the eastern side of the island that fronts Northern Pass (Figure 4-2). Unlike erosion at Cat Island, which fronts open tidal water, site 8D I32 on Little Bradford is affected most directly by the wakes of boats traveling at high speed through Northern Pass. The channel connecting Northern Pass to the ma in channel of the Suwannee River (Wadley Pass, aka McGriff Pass) was designated an entrance channel in the Water Resource Development Act of 1999. Since then, proposed additional dredging of this channel has met significant public resistan ce (www.saveoursuwannee.org). Erosion of 8DI32 to date has resulted in a roughly 1 meter high escarpment along the shoreline of this sandy strip, revealing aboriginal midden ma terials (Figure 4-3). The ex posed artifacts, coupled with easy access to the island, have made this si te an attractive targ et for collectors. Previous Research Ryan J. Wheeler investigated the site in 1998, after a local co llector notified the Office of State Archaeology of exposed human remains along the erosional escarpment of 8DI32. He reported that the midden was composed primarily of oyster shell and contained a variety of pottery types, including fiber tempered, Perico linear punctated, and Deptford simple stamped, check stamped, and linear check stamped (Wheeler 1998). The pottery types, in addition to a Citrus point found by the collector, led Wheeler to suggest that the site dates to the Florida Transitional (1200-500 B.C.) and Deptford (500 85

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86 Lower Suwannee Archaeological Survey 2009-2010 Figure 4-1. Topographic map of Little Bradford Island and vicinity based on LiDAR coverage (courtesy of Asa Randall).

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Little Bradford Island (8DI32) 87 Figure 4-2. Topographic map of portions of Little Bradford and Bradford islands, showing locations of two 1 x 2-m units excavated at 8DI32 by the Laboratory of Southeastern Archaeology in 2009 and 2010. Topography based on LiDAR coverage (courtesy of Asa Randall).

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88 Lower Suwannee Archaeological Survey 2009-2010 Figure 4-3. Two views of shoreline erosion along eastern margin of Little Bradford Island: toppled tree with midden in root mass, at low tide, facing north (top); erosional midden escarpment at low tide, facing south (bottom).

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Little Bradford Island (8DI32) 89 B.C.-A.D. 100) periods. The human re mains observed by Wheeler were found in concreted portions of shell midden, and he esti mated that up to 10 individuals had been disturbed by erosion of the midden. Wheeler recommended stabilization and protection of the site because it was a representative example of the regions coastal shell middens and contained an interesti ng type of human burial. METHODS AND RESULTS OF TH E 2009/2010 INVESTIGATIONS Consistent with the research design out lined in Chapter 1, testing at 8DI32 entailed the excavation of two 1 x 2-m units adjacent to the erosional escarpment fronting Northern Pass (Figure 4-2). The units were spaced approximately 15 m apart to provide samples for comparison. Test Unit 1 was excavated in June of 2009 (Figure 4-4). Standard archaeological techniques were utili zed, with the excavati on of 10 cm arbitrary levels, designated by letter (i.e., A, B, C, etc.). All level matrix was screened through -inch hardware cloth on site. Lithics, bone, pottery, and other cultu ral materials were recovered, bagged, and labeled; however, shell was discarded unless it appeared to have been modified. Profiles were photographed and drawn after excavation (Figure 4-5) was complete and bulk samples were collected from a 50 x 50-cm colu mn in the west profile at 10 cm levels within Stratum II, the main midden stratum. Samples were not collected from the upper stratum, which proved to be storm surge deposits from the 1993 storm that also affected Cat Island. Five-liters of each bulk sample were reserved for future flotation and the remaining material was water screened using 1/8-inch hardware clot h at the Laboratory of Southeastern Archaeology. All recovered ma terials, including shell, were sorted and analyzed along with the -inch ma terials collected from the unit. Test Unit 2 was excavated in May of 2010. The upper 50 cm of storm surge deposits were removed by shovel without scr eening. Subsequent levels of intact midden were excavated using standard archaeological techniques as described above. Bulk samples of the midden were collected from a 50 x 50-cm column situated along the west profile. Test Unit 1 Test Unit 1 (TU1) was placed on top of the erosional escarpment parallel to the north-south-oriented shoreline at a location where a large fallen tree had recently exposed subsurface midden. Situated near the nor thern limit of exposed midden, TU1 was set back from the escarpment about 1.5 meters in a small area free of trees and dense surface vegetation. A local datum was established at the northwest corner of the unit, and a permanent datum (Datum A) was set 23.0 cm grid west and 9.0 cm grid north of the local datum. A second permanent datum (Datum B) was established with cloth tape 10.0 m grid south of Datum A. Both permanent datu ms were marked with 3-ft long sections of -inch galvanized conduit driven into the ground nearly flush with the surface.

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90 Lower Suwannee Archaeological Survey 2009-2010 Figure 4-4. Excavation of Test Unit 1 at 8DI32, June 13, 2009. Figure 4-5. LSA Crew drawing the profile of Test Unit 1 at 8DI32, June 13, 2009.

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Little Bradford Island (8DI32) 91 Four distinct strata were revealed in the excavation of TU1. Photos of the west and east profiles are provided in Figure 4-6, an d scaled drawings of all four profiles are given in Figure 4-7. Descriptions of each stratum are provided in Table 4-1 and Table 42 gives an inventory of the archaeological materials that were recovered by level and column strata. Stratum I consists of medium grained sa nds in alternating microstrata of white and very pale brown and represent accretion du e to past storm surges and other natural processes. These deposits contain modern debr is, such as fragments of glass, metal, and plastic, and also include some displaced abor iginal artifacts. The modern materials are consistent with an early 1990s age and support the inference that Stratum I formed when the area was inundated by the surge of wate r associated with the March 1993 Storm of the Century. Due to its recent age and lack of organic matter, this sandy stratum has a limited root mat. Relatively large roots fr om the surrounding trees however, penetrate this stratum in several lo cations. This upper stratum continues down 37-40 cm and encompasses levels A through C and some of the upper portion of level D. No artifacts were collected from these levels, with the exception of the lower portion of level D from which pottery and bone were collected from the upper part of a buried shell midden. The buried shell midden, Stratum II, was id entified by a sharp contrast in color and content from Stratum I and represents the bulk of the archaeo logical deposit of 8DI32. It is characterized by organic, very dark brown, dense, fine sand with mollusk shell, vertebrate bone, and pottery, with only occasional root intrusions from the surrounding trees. Stratum II is relatively unifo rm in thickness, ranging from 42 cm at its thinnest to 50 cm at it thickest and encomp asses the lower portion of Level D, all of levels E, F, and G, and the upper portion of Level H. The mollusk shell in this stratum is dominated by w hole and broken eastern oyster ( Crassostrea virginica) and Carolina marsh clam (Polymesoda caroliniana ), with occasional larger, thicker-shelled hard clam ( Mercenaria mercenaria ). A portion of an unidentified gastropod was retrieved from level H that may exhibit battering at the base. Clam is the dominant mollusk in the upper 10 cm of this stratum, but oyster dominates the remainder of the stratum. Pottery fr agments recovered included Pasco limestone tempered sherds, Deptford Linear Check St amped sherds and one Swift Creek sherd, along with several unidentified sand tempered and crumb sherds. As with the shell and pottery, vertebrate faunal material appears to have been uniformly distributed horizontally throughout the unit while varying ve rtically. Charcoal recovered from the base of Stratum II returned a conventiona l AMS assay of 1810 40 BP, which gives twosigma calibrated age ranges of A.D. 120-260 and A.D. 280-330 (see Appendix B for details).

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92 Lower Suwannee Archaeological Survey 2009-2010 Figure 4-6. Photographs of the west (top) and east (bottom) profiles of Test Unit 1 at 8DI32.

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Little Bradford Island (8DI32) 93 igure 4-7. Stratigraphic profiles of Test Unit 1, 8DI32. tratum III encompasses the lower portion of level H and all of levels I and J, and 150 cm below the datum at the midpoint of the rising tide. F S is characterized by very dark gray fine sa nd in the upper portion, grading to light gray brown, and eventually to light gray at the base of the unit. Field observations note that the upper portion of the stratum contains re duced amounts of shell. Additionally, it contains a moderate amount of vertebrate fauna, and a few sh erds of Pasco and Deptford Linear Check Stamped pottery, all of which de cline in density with depth. One-quarterinch material was collected from level ex cavations in this stratum; however, no bulk samples were collected. Excavation was terminated at 110 cm below surface (cm BS) when relatively sterile sand was encountered; however, Stratum III extends down below this depth. A soil tube used to retrieve a small core sample from an additional 40 cm below the excavation floor returned clean wet sand with the water table evident at about

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94 Lower Suwannee Archaeological Survey 2009-2010 Table 4-1. Stratigraphic Units of Test Unit 1, 8DI32. Max. Depth Munsell Stratum (cm BS) Color Description I 41 10YR8/1-3 alternating fine white and very pale brown laminated II 89 10YR2/2 wn organic fine sand with dense oyster, hard clam, occasional whelk, moderate vertebrate fauna, III 1101 10YR3/1 fine sand ottled concreted sand 10YR4/1 sand very dark bro and ceramics very dark gray IV 982 10YR4/1 dark gray and pale brown m 1Terminated at maximum depth of excavation, ca. 110 cm BS. 2Lense creteand in northwest of ashy cond s corner and west wall terminated at ca. 98 cm BS. tory of Materials Recovered from Test Unit 1, 8DI32. arcoal Historic1 Other Table 4-2. Inven Pottery Lithics Vert. Shell Concret./ Ch (n) (n) Fauna (g) (g) Pebbles (g) (g) (g) (g) Le vel 2 147.8 -A 4 1 42.1 2794.7 4.3 13.2 31.0 4 55.4 3623.9 54.0 13.2 D 6 0.1 E 16 33.8 31.9 0.1 145.3 F 23 82.2 4.9 .5 G 5 24.3 0.8 H 16 114.6 57.1 0.5 I 5 200.7 14.9 1.2 J 1 3 38.1 1.3 Total 72 3 493.8 110.9 1.7 0.1 Bulk II II-B II-C 4 105.1 4916.4 0.6 4.5 II-D 1 5 140.1 4689.4 0.3 2.7 2.72II-E 4 4 75.6 3766.1 5.4 3.7 Total 17 10 418.3 19,790.5 10.6 78.1 44.2 2.7 1 historic artifacts include glass, metal, plastic, and other modern materials. 2 fossilized coral urface in the vicinity of TU1. Note: A chert hafted biface not included in this invent ory was found on the s In the northwest corner of the unit, seen in both the west and north profiles, tratum IV, recognized by a change in color an d texture, intrudes into Stratum III. This lens of S mottled dark gray and pale brown c oncreted sand is approximately 18 cm at its thickest in the west profile, thinning in the north profile to 5 cm. Materials, if any,

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Little Bradford Island (8DI32) 95 recovered from this stratum were not segregated from the other materials in the level, as this stratum was not eviden t until profiles were cleaned for photography and drawing. Test Unit 2 Test Unit 2 (TU2) was located approxima tely 15 m south of TU1, its northwest orner specifically 16.8 m grid south of Datum A, at an az imuth of 190 degrees. Like TU1, it shell midden. Stratum I consists of medium to light brown, coarse to fine laminated sands and corresp atum II was identified by its abrupt co lor and texture change. This 5-9 cmthick lens of material is characterized by very dark brown, highly organic, silty fine sand and is ted by two distinct strata. Stratum III, which corresponds to Stratum II in TU1, is identical in color and texture a) is the predominate mollusk in the upper portion of Stratum III, accompanied by lesser amounts of Carolina marsh clam ( P. caroliniana) and one crown c was placed parallel to the shoreline on the top of th e escarpment and was oriented north to south along its long ax is. Photos of the west a nd east profiles are provided in Figure 4-8, and Figure 4-9 gives the scaled drawi ngs of all four profile s. Descriptions of each stratum are provided in Table 4-3, and Table 4-4 provides an inventory of the archaeological materials recovered in level excavations and from the column strata. Excavation of TU2 revealed f our distinct strata, two consisting of aboriginal onds to the same upper stratum in TU1. Vegetation was sparse in this shoreline location and root mat was relatively light, with the exception of a few tree roots that were encountered throughout excavation of the unit. As in TU1, this stratum yielded modern materials, such as glass, metal, and plas tic, along with a few displaced aboriginal artifacts. Because it represents an overbur den of recent storm deposition, material from this roughly 55-cm thick stratum was not screened and no leve l designations were assigned. Str interpreted as a buried A-horizon. The first level designation, Level A, was assigned at the interface of this stratum with Stratum I. Few artifacts appear to be present in this stratum, which immediatel y overlies the main midden stratum. Beginning at around 65 cm BS, the primary mi dden is represen to Stratum II, but it contains dense sh ell, and includes bone a nd pottery. It is 27 cm thick in the southwest por tion of the unit, but gradua lly increases to an unknown thickness as it extends below the terminal level of excavation in the northwest portion of the unit. This stratum crosscuts the lower portion of Level A, all of B and C, and the upper portion of Level D. Oyster ( C. virginic conch ( Melongena corona). Clam increases relative to oyster with depth in this stratum, eventually almost equaling it. Vertebrate fauna accompanies shell in this midden layer, including a clus ter of unidentified turtle ( Testudines ) bone found in the southeast corner of the unit toward the botto m of this stratum. Pottery was present throughout the midden, and this stratum contai ned Pasco plain, Deptford Linear Check Stamped and Bold Check Stamped, Swift Creek Complicated Stamped, and unidentified sand tempered and crumb sherds.

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96 Lower Suwannee Archaeological Survey 2009-2010 Figure 4-8. Photographs of the west (top) and east (bottom) profiles of Test Unit 2 at 8DI32.

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Little Bradford Island (8DI32) 97 igure 4-9. Stratigraphic profiles of Test Unit 2, 8DI32. able 4-3. Stratigraphic Units of Test Unit 2, 8DI32. Max. Depth Munsell F T Stratum (cm BS) Color Description I 60 10YR6/4 medium to light br own, coarse to fine laminated sands II 69 10YR2/2 very dark brown, highly organic, silty fine sand; buried AIII 101 10YR2/1 very dark brown, highly organic fine sandy loam containing IV 1031 10YR3/1 dark gray, cemented, fine to medium sands containing a auna horizon abundant oyster and clam moderate amount of shell and abundant small vertebrate f 1re top of watertable was encountered. excavation was terminated 103 cm BS, wh e

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98 Lower Suwannee Archaeological Survey 2009-2010 Table 4-4. Inventory of Materials Recovered from Test Unit 2, 8DI32. Pottery Lithics Shell Vert. Shell Concret./ CharHistoric1 (n) (n) (g) Pebbles(g) (g) Tool (n) Fauna (g) coal (g) Level 3 ulk 12 45.7 3329.0 0.8 4.9 13.6 2 13.6 A 33 1 58.9 32.9 149.3 0.8 37.3 B 11 106.8 1.7 C 6 77.9 D 8 12 99.9 2.7 E 3 31.1 18.1 Total 61 1 1 374.6 32.9 290.1 0.8 39.0 B III-A III-B 1 48.0 5510.8 0.6 III-C 118.5 6386.6 0.4 2.0 IV-A 15 67.8 3106.7 1369.3 0.5 Total 28 80.0 18,333.1 1370.5 8.0 1 historic artifacts include glass, metal, plastic, and other modern materials 2 conch shell with battering at the base The dark brown, silty deposits of the Stratum III grade into dark gray organically rich ca ARTIFACT ASSEMBLAGE A total of 194 artifacts, including pottery, lithics, and shell tools, and 39,834.1 grams ottery Pottery frequencies by level for both test units are provided in Tables 4-5 and 4-6, lcium-cemented sand in Level E, at a depth of roughly 98 cm BS in the southern portion of the unit. This stratum, designated Stratum IV, thins toward the northern half of the unit, and contains shell, bone, and pottery that are concreted with sediments. The stratum includes reduced amounts of both oys ter and clam, abundant vertebrate fauna, and Pasco plain pottery sherds, along with a few unidentified sand tempered sherds. Despite not reaching the bottom of Strata III and IV, excavation was terminated at 103 cm BS, where the water table at high tide wa s encountered. A small core was extracted from the center of the unit floor, returning sterile, white/gray sand 12 cm below the last level. Charcoal recovered from the base of Stratum III returned a conventional AMS assay of 1900 40 BP, which gives two-sigma calibrated age range of A.D. 20-220 (Appendix B). of vertebrate fauna and shell were r ecovered from the level excavations and bulk samples collected from the test units at 8DI 32. Descriptions of the artifact classes and preliminary analyses of the pottery and marine shell assemblages follow. P and representative sherds are presented in Figures 4-10 and 4-11. The pottery assemblage is composed of 139 identifiabl e sherds. An additional 39 crumb sherdssherds that pass through a -inch meshwere excluded from furt her analysis. Sherds were classified by type, which includes Pasco (limestone tempered) plain and UID, St. Johns

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Little Bradford Island (8DI32) 99 able 4-5. Absolute Frequency of Po ttery Sherds from Test Unit 1, 8DI32. ---Pasco---St. Johns Deptford Swift ----------Sand-Tempered---------T Plain UID Plain LCS Creek Plain CS Punc UID er OthCrumb Total Le vels ulk 12 3 4 D 3 1 1 1 6 E 6 1 1 1 3 1 11 2 16 F 12 3 1 3 1 3 23 G 1 1 1 1 1 5 7 H 2 4 3 16 I 1 1 3 5 J 1 1 Total 30 1 1 8 3 4 5 3 7 1 9 72 B II-A II-B 2 1 13 4 II-C 2 1 1 4 II-D 1 1 II-E 1 1 2 4 Total 3 4 2 2 6 17 1 sand-tempered fibrous 2 St. Johns eroded ntate 3 sand-tempered de Table 4-6. Absolute Frequency of Pottery Sherds from Test Unit 2, 8DI32. Pasco Pasco St. Johns Swift Ruskin Sand-Tempered Plain UID LCS Creek Dentate Plain UID Other Crumb Total Le vels 1 2 ulk 1 1 1 9 12 1 A 14 1 4 3 6 1 41 33 B 4 5 12 10 C 3 2 13 6 D 6 2 8 E 2 3 Total 2 6 1 2 4 5 11 3 6 60 B III-A III-B 1 1 IV-A 7 8 15 Total 8 1 18 28 1 sand-tempered checkmped sta 2 Deptford Bold Check Stamped 3 Deptford Linear Check Stamped

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100 Lower Suwannee Archaeological Survey 2009-2010 igure 4-10. Examples of sherds recovered from TU 1, 8DI32 (a. Pasco Plain; b, e. Deptford F Linear Check Stamped [e. with crossmend of fresh break]; c, d. Swift Creek Complicated Stamped).

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Little Bradford Island (8DI32) 101 Figure 4-11. Examples of sherds recovered from TU2, 8DI32 (a. Ruskin Dentate; b, e, i. Deptford Linear Check Stamped; c. sand tempered check stamped; d. Deptford Bold Check Stamped; f, g. Pasco plain; h. Swift Creek Complicated Stamped [crossmend of sherds from different levels]; j. concreted Pasco UID).

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102 Lower Suwannee Archaeological Survey 2009-2010 plain and UID, Deptford Linear Check Stamped and Bold Check Stamped, Swift Creek Complicated Stamped, Ruskin Dentate, and where the type could not be determined, simply sand tempered. The sand tempered category was further subdivided based on surface treatment into plain, check stamped, punctate, dentate, and unidentified. One sand tempered sherd was classified separately as fibrous based on the porous nature of the paste that was observed under a stereoscop e. During sorting, efforts were made to identify crossmends, or pieces of pottery that can be fitted back together. Crossmends of fresh breaks, regardless of the number of sher ds, were counted as on e sherd so as not to inflate the frequency of t ypes in the assemblage. The highest density of ceramics occurred in a 20-cm vertical section of the midden in both units; however, the elevation of this section is slightly different between the two. In TU1 the greatest fr equency of pottery was recove red from 40 to 60 cm BS (n = 39), although there is a second ary spike from 70 to 80 cm BS (n = 16), and in TU2 the greatest frequency was recovered from 50 to 70 cm BS (n = 43). This variation in elevation is mostly likely due to differential sedimenta tion of the sandy storm surge deposits (Stratum I) that overl ie the midden. Stratum I was recorded as 40-cm thick in TU1 and just over 50-cm thick in TU2. Pasco series plain pottery (Figure 4-10a and Figure 4-11f, g), a limestone tempered ware, was the dominate type in the assemblage, constituting 54.0 percent (n =75) of all sherds. It represents 51.4 pe rcent (n = 38) of the pottery in TU1 and 56.9 percent (n = 37) of the pottery in TU2. While this type was distributed vertically throughout both test units, Pasc o sherds are found in their hi ghest numbers above 60 cm BS in both test units. Stratum IV, the lowe rmost stratum in TU2, yielded seven sherds identified as Pasco, all possibly belonging to the same vessel as they were found clustered together. Unfortunately, because the outside edges of the sherds are concreted with sand (Figure 4-11:D-1), it is difficult to determine if they crossmend. Deptford pottery is second to Pasco in frequency, making up 7.9 percent (n = 11) of the total assemblage. In TU1, Deptford comprises 13.5 percent (n = 10) of the pottery but in TU2, it accounts for only 1.5 percent (n = 1). In TU1, Deptford pottery is at its greatest frequency from 50 to 90 cm BS. In contrast, only one sh erd was recovered from TU2 between 70 and 80 cm BS. Linear ch eck stamping is the predominant surface treatment identified in the Deptford compone nt of the assemblage (Figure 4-10b, e, and Figure 4-11b, e, i). Six Swift Creek complicated stamped sh erds were recovered during excavation, three from TU1 and three from TU2. All were recovered from levels below those with the highest density of Pasco sherds, between 60-80 cm BS. The two sherds recovered from levels G and H in TU1 (F igure 4-10c, d) appear to belong to two different vessels; however, two of the three Swift Creek sher ds from TU2 crossmend. The sole Swift Creek sherd from Level D crossmends with one of the two sherds from Level C (Figure 4-11h). Overall, Swift Creek represents only 4.3 percent of th e total assemblage.

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Little Bradford Island (8DI32) 103 Over a quarter of the assemblage is sand tempered pottery that could not be classified by type. These 38 sherds comprise 27.3 percent of the tota l, 28.4 percent (n = 21) of the pottery in TU1 and 26.2 percent (n = 17) of TU2. Th e majority of these sherds (n = 18) are heavily eroded, making identific ation of surface treatment impossible. The remaining sand tempered category contains nine plain, six check stamped, three punctuate one dentate, and one fibrous sherd. When comparing the sherd assemblages of the two test units, it is interesting to note that, while Pasco is fairly evenly distri buted between the two un its, Deptford pottery was confined predominately to TU1. Ten Dept ford sherds were r ecovered from TU1, but only one Deptford sherd was recovered from TU2. Additionally, sand tempered sherds constitute almost the same percentage of each test unit; however, TU1 has much more surface treatment variation. While both test units contained about the same amount of plain and UID sand tempered sherds, TU1 yiel ded five check stamped sherds compared to only one in TU2. Punctated and dentate sh erds were present in TU1, but not TU2, in addition to the one fibrous sherd recovered from TU1. Four Ruskin dentate sherds (Figure 4-11a ) were found in Level A of TU2. It is unclear if the sherds from this Weeden Island II ware originated from the same vessel; however, the presence of them in the uppe r portion of the midden is not unexpected. Lithic Artifacts Fourteen flakes were recovered from test excavations at Little Bradford, 13 from TU1 and one from TU2. With the exception of one flake of indeterminate material, all of the flakes are chert. The small size of the fl akes suggests that they are not the product of primary lithic reduction, but rather were generated in the pr ocess of thinning, rejuvenating, or reduction of bifaces that had b een brought to the site either finished or as preforms. A stemmed biface, somewhat resembli ng a Middle Archaic Newnan type, was found on the surface in the vicinity of TU1 (F igure 4-12). It measures 4.1 cm long by 3.3 cm wide and was made on light-colored beige to gray chert. There is a small amount of secondary mineralization on the stem and on one shoulder, as well as midway between the tip and the shoulder on the reverse side The opposite shoulder has been broken. Because the stem appears to have been shaped from the plane of a transverse break, the form of this biface is possibly a produce of scavenging and recycling. However, no evidence is found for differen tial patination on the stem. The age and cultural affiliation of this form remain uncertain. In addition to the chipped stone artifacts, a small amount of fossilized coral (2.7 grams) was recovered from TU1; however, it do es not appear that this material has been modified.

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104 Lower Suwannee Archaeological Survey 2009-2010 Figure 4-12. Stemmed hafted biface found on surface in vicinity of Test Unit 1, 8DI32. Modified Shell Only one possible shell artifact was recove red from test units at Little Bradford, from Level D (80-90 cm BS) of TU2 (Figur e 4-13). This unidentified columella, with some portion of the outer spiral shell, m easures 10.3 cm long. It appears to have significant wear at the base th at may be indicative of batte ring. However, the shell is badly degraded, making identification as a tool somewhat tentative. Figure 4-13. Portion of gastropod columella with battered end from Level D, Test Unit 2, 8DI32.

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Little Bradford Island (8DI32) 105 FAUNAL ASSEMBLAGE Invertebrates Shell recovered from the bulk sample colu mns of both test units was sorted into five categories: oyster, which is composed exclusively of C. virginica (eastern oyster); clam, which includes P. caroliniana (Carolina marsh clam) and M. mercenaria (hard clam); Crown conch ( M. corona) ; UID conch ( Strombidae ), UID barnacles ( Cirripedia) and UID shell fragments. The side of the oyster and clam shell was determined where possible, based on hinge attributes. They, along with crown conch and UID conch were counted, so that the minimum number of individuals could be estimated, and weighed. All other shell fragments were simply weighed. Initially, the clam shells at Little Bradford were t hought to be from the common Rangia (Rangia cuneata ); however, upon further inspection of the hinge, it was determined that the species represented in the midden was not Rangia, but rather the small Carolina marsh clam ( P. caroliniana) that prefers the needlegrass marsh environment around the island (Duobinis-Gray and Hackney 1982). These two species roughly share the same salinity preferences and are very simila r in size (MacKenzie 2004); however Rangia have tw o cardinal teeth (see Figure 4-14), whereas Carolina marsh clam is distinguished by three cardinal teeth and an additional lateral tooth both anteriorly and posteriorly of the main cardinal teeth (See Figure 4-15) (Leal 2002). Figure 4-14. Hinge assembly of R. cuneata (USGS 2009 ) (red circle indicates location of cardinal teeth) Figure 4-15. Hinge assembly of P. caroliniana (Kohl 2010) (red circle indicates location of cardinal teeth)

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106 Lower Suwannee Archaeological Survey 2009-2010 Absolute frequencies of shell by taxa a nd strata for both un its is provided in Tables 4-7 and 4-8. Oyster and clam ove rwhelmingly dominate the shell assemblage, with oyster constituting 48.3 percent (18,524.7 g) and clam 28.7 percent (11,014.7 g) of the total. The third largest category is the UID shell fragments, which make up 22.4 percent (8,570.4 g). These are followed by crown conch at 0.3 percent (107.2 g), UID conch at 0.2 percent (75.9 g), and UI D barnacles at 0.1 percent (28.5 g). Shell densities in both units are highest in a 20-cm vertical band (See Tables 4.x and 4.x); although, like the previously discussed po ttery frequencies, th is range occurs at different elevations below the surface in each unit, most likely due to the differential deposition of sandy deposits overlying the mi dden. The highest shell density in TU1 occurs from around 60 to 80 cm BS and in TU 2 the highest density is from 70 to 90 cm BS. Of interest is the disparity between area s of highest shell and pot tery densities, with shell at its highest below the levels at which pottery is at its maximum. Table 4-7. Absolute frequency of marine she ll by strata of bulk sample column, taxa, and valve (for oyster and clam), Test Unit 1, 8DI32. OYSTER Right Valve Left Valve Fragment Total ct. wt. (g) ct. wt. (g) wt. (g) wt. (g) II-A 38 163.0 22 141.2 264.1 568.3 II-B 91 270.4 93 397.1 1259.0 1926.5 II-C 80 376.0 125 843.9 1343.1 2563.0 II-D 105 322.8 121 933.9 1567.3 2824.0 II-E 65 276.2 82 622.8 712.2 1611.2 Total 379 1408.4 443 2938.9 5145.7 9493.0 CLAM Right Valve Left Valve Fragment Total ct. wt. (g) ct. wt. (g) wt. (g) wt. (g) II-A 39 54.1 42 64.4 911.4 1029.9 II-B 84 157.7 46 167.3 882.0 1207.0 II-C 54 204.5 73 443.1 1031.1 1678.7 II-D 39 147.8 49 268.4 866.5 1282.7 II-E 47 180.5 43 165.9 468.0 814.4 Total 263 744.6 253 1109.1 4159.0 6012.7 OTHER Crown Conch UID Gastropod UID Fragments ct. wt. (g) ct. wt. (g) wt. (g) % of Total II-A 1196.5 42.8% II-B 490.4 13.5% II-C 673.7 13.7% II-D 578.1 12.3% II-E 1327.7 35.3% Total 0 0.0 0 0.0 4266.4 21.6%

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Little Bradford Island (8DI32) 107 Table 4-8. Absolute frequency of marine she ll by strata of bulk sample column, taxa, and valve (for oyster and clam), Test Unit 2, 8DI32. OYSTER Right Valve Left Valve Fragment Total ct. wt. (g) ct. wt. (g) wt. (g) wt. (g) III-A 179 393.2 121 310.3 549.3 1252.8 III-B 316 1160.3 237 1337.5 1068.1 3565.9 III-C 138 663.0 148 1240.0 960.0 2863.0 IV-A 44 217.9 40 368.9 763.2 1350.0 Total 677 2434.4 546 3256.7 2240.6 9031.7 CLAM Right Valve Left Valve Fragment Total ct. wt. (g) ct. wt. (g) wt. (g) wt. (g) III-A 29 52.3 28 59.0 462.8 574.1 III-B 52 182.4 52 233.0 585.0 1000.4 III-C 175 425.7 120 571.6 1372.6 2369.9 IV-A 41 303.6 43 212.4 493.8 1009.8 Total 297 964.0 243 1076.0 2914.2 4954.2 OTHER Crown Conch UID Gastropod UID Fragments ct. wt. (g) ct. wt. (g) wt. (g) % of Total III-A 1502.1 45.1% III-B 1 53.2 891.2 16.2% III-C 1149.9 18.0% IV-A 740.7 23.8% Total 1 53.2 0 0.0 4283.9 23.4% In the interest of detecting changes in pa tterns of shellfish utilization, oyster and clam were compared using quantities from th e bulk column samples. Table 4-9 provides ratios of oyster to clam (1: x) in both test units. In TU1 oyster is the dominant species, ranging from 0.5 to 0.6 clams for every oyster in the lower 40-cm of the midden (strata II-E to II-B). There is a significant shift in the upper 10-cm of TU1, with clam weight surpassing oyster weight, creating a ratio of almost two clams for every oyster. There is a significant drop in weight for oyster in this uppermost level from 1926.5 grams in Stratum II-B to only 568.3 grams in Stratum II-A. This is the only level in which clam weight is greater than oyster weight. TU2 shows a somewhat different pattern, w ith oyster and clam present in almost equal ratios in Stratum IV and in the lowest le vel of Stratum III (III-C). The ratio of clam to oyster drops significantly, however, in th e upper two levels of Stratum III (III-B and III-A). Unlike the drop in oyster weight in TU1, the uppe rmost level in Stratum III has considerably less clam than in the levels below, dropping from 1000.4 grams in Stratum III-B to only 574.1 grams in Stratum III-A. Because the shells were sorted by side (r ight vs. left) when the diagnostic hinge elements were present, a minimum number of individuals (MNI) could be estimated. Table 4-9 provides a ratio of oyster to clam (1: x ) by MNI. When considering MNI, there

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108 Lower Suwannee Archaeological Survey 2009-2010 Table 4-9. Comparison of Test Units 1 and 2 for Total Weight (g) of Shell, Percent by Weight UID Fragments, and Ratio of Oyster to Clam Shell, by Stratum, 8DI32. Total Shell Percent by Wt. Ratio Oyster: Ratio Oyster: Wt. (g) UID Fragments Clam (1: x ) by Wt. Clam (1:x) by MNI Test Unit 1 II-A 2795.0 42.8% 1.8 1.4 II-B 3623.9 13.5% 0.6 0.7 II-C 4916.4 13.7% 0.7 0.6 II-D 4689.4 12.3% 0.5 0.4 II-E 3766.1 35.3% 0.5 0.6 Test Unit 2 III-A 3329.0 45.1% 0.5 0.2 III-B 5510.8 16.2% 0.3 0.2 III-C 6386.6 18.0% 0.8 1.0 IV 3106.7 23.8% 0.7 1.0 are three stratigraphic levels in which clam is the dominate species or is equal to oyster: in the upper 10 cm of Stratum II (II-A) in TU 1, and in Stratum IV and Stratum III-C of TU2. The ratios of individuals from each species closely correlate with, and thus support, the ratios determined using total weight of each species, which suggests that using total species weight may be a good proxy for determining species density. Both the uppermost and lowermost levels of both test units have the greatest percentage of crushed shell, which could s uggest several different processes affecting midden formation. The percenta ge of UID fragments by weight was used as a proxy for crushed shell. Table 4-10 pr ovides total shell weight, weight of UID fragments, and the percentage of UID fragments by strata. The bottom 10-cm of each unit have higher percentages of UID fragments than the levels that represent the bulk of the midden, with 35.3 percent of total level shell weight in TU1 and 23.8 percent in TU2. The center sections of each midden range from 12.3 percen t at the lowest to 18.0 percent at the highest. In the upper 10-cm in both units almost half of each levels shell weight is UID fragments, with 42.8 percent in TU1 and 45.1 percent in TU2. The higher density of crushed shell in the lower le vels is most likel y due to taphonomic pr ocesses and breakage during recovery. The center levels above ha ve significantly less crushed shell, which may suggest rapid burial that precluded exces sive crushing. Finally, the upper portion most likely represents a long-term stable surface that permitted the degradation of exposed shell by anthropogenic and natural processes. Vertebrate Vertebrate fauna has yet to be analyzed ; however, a cursory inspection of the remains suggest the inclusion of additiona l marine species, such as sheepshead ( Archosargus probatocephalus), black drum ( Pogonias cromis ), and catfish (Ariopsis felis or Bagre marinus) As mentioned earlier, a cluster of remains from an unidentified turtle (Testudines) were recovered from Stratum III of TU2.

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Little Bradford Island (8DI32) 109 Table 4-10. Comparison of Test Units 1 and 2 for To tal Weight (g) of shell and percent by weight of UID Fragments, 8DI32. Total Shell UID Shell Fragments % of Shell FragWeight (g) By Weight (g) ments by Wt. (g) Test Unit 1 Bulk II-A 2794.7 1196.5 42.8% II-B 3623.9 490.4 13.5% II-C 4916.4 673.7 13.7% II-D 4689.4 578.1 12.3% II-E 3766.1 1327.7 35.3% Total 19790.5 4266.4 21.6% Test Unit 2 Bulk III-A 3329.0 1502.1 45.1% III-B 5510.8 891.2 16.2% III-C 6386.6 1149.9 18.0% IV-A 3106.7 740.7 23.8% Total 18,333.1 4283.9 23.4% DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION Test unit excavations at 8DI32 have yiel ded data that will contribute to a better understanding of ancient life along the northern Gulf Coast of Florida. Two immediate questions can be addressed with the data collected during the 2009 and 2010 excavations. First, what is the chronology of the occupa tion of the site, and second, can we identify changing environmental factors that affected resource usage at the site? These two fundamental questions merely scratch the surfa ce of much larger issu es that need to be addressed in the Suwannee Delta region. Howeve r, they are the types of questions that build a firm foundation for future archaeologi cal work, specifically the refinement of a poorly understood culture-history and ceramic chronology, bot h of which are necessary first steps in answering the types of questi ons put forth in Chapte r 1 of this report. The Deptford period is characterized by linear check stamped pottery (Milanich 1994; Willey 1949), and is followed by the subsequent Weeden Island period. Crosscutting these two periods is the Swif t Creek period, which is predominant in the Florida Panhandle to the northwest of the st udy area. Further south, below Cedar Key, Pasco pottery was used extensively during the Deptford period, and continued to be used well into the Weeden Island period (Milanich 1994:211). The stratigraphic position of the various po ttery types in the Little Bradford test units is consistent with this basic chronology and, given the wide range of pottery types, it could be interpreted as an intermediate assemblage. The two-sigma calibrated age estimate of A.D. 120-260/280-330 from charcoal at the base of the midden in TU1 and the calibrated age estimate of A.D. 20-220 from the base of TU2 suggests that this

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110 Lower Suwannee Archaeological Survey 2009-2010 midden began to accrete during the Late Dept ford Period. The dis tinctive linear check stamped pottery of the Deptford period is pr esent throughout the vertical extent of the midden in TU1. Likewise, the Pasco seri es is present throughout the midden, but increases in frequency in the upper portion. Sw ift Creek pottery is re stricted to a 20-cm zone of the midden, from 60-80 cm BS and la ter Weeden Island period Ruskin Dentate is present in the uppermost level of the midden in TU2, along with sand tempered sherds that have surface treatments that are also associated with the Weeden Island period. The invertebrate marine resources utilized by occupants of Little Bradford Island inhabited a relatively narrow range of salinity and therefore most likely were collected close to the shoreline. While oysters can to lerate fairly wide variations in salinity, ranging from 1-20 parts per thous and (ppt), they tend to pr efer brackish waters with salinity of less than 10 ppt. Above that, they fall prey to Dermo ( Perkinsus marinus), a parasitic organism that requires salin ity above 10 ppt, an d oyster drills ( Urosalpinx cinerea ), a small predatory snail that flouris hes above 15 ppt (Bergquist et. al. 2006). Carolina marsh clams ( P. caroliniana) like oysters, can tolerate a wide range of salinities, from 1-20 ppt, but prefer the needlegrass ( Juncus roemerianus ) marsh areas in estuarine systems where they are protec ted by the vegetation but not hindered by extensive root mats. Needle grass prefers a salinity range of 11-14.5 ppt (Duobinis-Gray and Hackney 1982). In short, the oyster and clam species found in the Little Bradford midden would most likely have been collected in the brackish waters near the mouth of the Suwannee River where salin ity was around 10 ppt. The infr equent inclusion of hard clam ( M. mercenaria ), which requires salin ity above 20 ppt, in the shell assemblage (only 249.9 grams in TU2) suggests that forays into deeper water further from the coast may have been uncommon. As suggested in Chapter 1, changing ratios of oyster to clam could be indicative of changing environment, spec ifically changing salinity due to sea level rise or fluctuations in fresh water in flow. However, the assemblage at Little Bradford does not show a significant shift from one species to anothe r. This could be due to several factors. For instance, the midden began to accrete after rates of sea level rise had already slowed (e.g. Wright et. al. 2005) and changes in salin ity may have been mitigated somewhat due to the close proximity to the mouth of th e Suwannee River, which provided enough fresh water to keep salinity levels within species tolerances. Additionally, the species that were exploited by the occupants of the site co uld tolerate the same fairly wide range of salinities and therefore minor ch anges may not have significantly affected the availability of the resources. While there is some variation in the assemblage, it is unclear if this is due to changing resource availability, changi ng preferences, or simply a product of differential deposition of materials in the midden. Little Bradford is an important, but highly vulnerable site that can help us to answer some of the larger questions posed in Chapter 1 of this report. Its placement at the transition from the Deptford period to the Weeden Island period makes this site especially interesting as it may help us to understand the circumstances that attended changing cultural traditions. More detailed analysis of data from Little Bradford could yield information that will help to answer a dditional questions. For instance, how did the

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Little Bradford Island (8DI32) 111 vertebrate faunal assemblage change over tim e, and could this shed more light on questions of changing sea levels and fluctuating fresh water inflow? Additional analysis of the pottery recovered from the site woul d be useful for determining origin of raw materials, or to identify nonlo cal pottery styles, which could help identify relationships with other communities or regions. Significantl y, when considered with other data that will be collected in the coming years, the info rmation from Little Bradford will help to create a chronology for a region that is currently poorly understood.

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112 Lower Suwannee Archaeological Survey 2009-2010

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CHAPTER 5 RICHARDS ISLAND (8LV137) Micah P. Mons An initial round of archaeological survey in the study area was launched in 2009 on Richards Island in Levy County. The loca tion of at least one archaeological site (8LV137), Richards Island provided an opportun ity to deploy reconn aissance survey to better characterize known sites and to search for additional archaeological deposits across an entire landform. This chapter reports the methods and results of this initial survey effort. BACKGROUND Setting Richards Island is located approximately 2.5 km south of Shell Mound (8LV42) and 5 km north of Cedar Key (Figure 5-1). Richards Island is roughly S shaped with a relatively high central ridge and two lower ar ms, one extending to the northeast and the other to the southwest. Sa nd Creek bounds the southern and eastern shores of Richards Island before meeting with Seabreeze Creek to the north. The western shore of Richards Island contains a tidal creek and a storm-deposit ed berm that separates it from a shallow bay that contains many oyster reefs a nd shoals visible during low tides. The central ridge of Richards Island rises 7.4 meters above mean sea level. The ridge is dominated by mature live oak and hi ckory with some pine and cabbage palm. The understory is mostly immature oak with intermittent palmetto becoming thick in places. The western side of the ridge, f acing the gulf, becomes predominantly juniper with increased proximity to the water. The forest floor under the juniper is scattered with Spanish Bayonet and coontie. The leeward side of the island is covered in scrub oak and palmetto increasing as it slopes downward. The northeast arm of the island becomes in creasingly scrubby as it decreases in elevation. The center of this part of the island is mostly scrub oak and palmetto with patches of exposed sand, dry moss, and lichen. Shovel tests in this area encountered deposits of fresh water at depths of 75 cm and below. The margin of the island is ringed by large pines before descending into marsh grasses. The southwest arm is dominated by juniper with thick clumps of greenbrier and palmetto common in the understory. The entire island is surrounded by marsh grasses with we ll used trails traversed by the feral hogs that frequent Richards a nd many of the nearby islands. Throughout the island, pig signs in the form of rooting and droppings are found. In some instances, the pigs have disturbed the surface of some of the archaeological deposits. Although no gopher tortoises were seen on the island, many bu rrows were located with artifacts in the tortoises backdirt piles. 113

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Richards Island 114 Figure 5-1. Section of U.S.G.S. topographic quad (Cedar Key, FL 1955, revised 1993) showing area of Richards Island and vicinity, Levy County, Florida. Due to its location among shallow creeks, oyster shoals, and mud flats, Richards Island proved to be very difficult to reach at times. The island is accessible by small motor boats only during the highes t of tides and can prove to be difficult even for canoes

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Richards Island 115 and airboats during low tides. It may be the remoteness of Richards Island that has kept it from being looted and collected to the degree of many neighboring islands, although with increased traffic and rising sea levels, Richards Island will likely succumb to human impact. On the north and south ends of the main ridge there are two la rge clearings. The northern clearing is the smaller of the two with small patches of aboriginal midden visible as well as 20th-century refuse. To the north of this clearing there are many gastropod shells littering the forest floor as well as mounded earth and midden. A little beyond the above-ground features there are two large pi ts of unknown origin. They are each 4-5 meters across and a meter or more in depth. The southern clearing has evidence of more intensive use during both the preColumbian and historic eras Throughout the southern clea ring there is a relatively significant amount of 20th-century domestic refuse. It is the only place on the island that exhibits any intensive use in recent times. Th e area is littered with building debris, pane glass, bottles, cans, pots, pans, bricks and even an engine block and an axle. Aboriginal activity, in what is now an open area, was also substantial. Small, circular shell-bearing middens only a few meters across are present as well as a midden ridge that runs the distance of the opening on the west side of th e clearing. Off of its northwest corner, the ridge raises to approximately 1.5 m in height. A looters pit was dug into the ridge near the highpoint and revealed a profile of dense oyster midden with some pottery near the rim of the pit that was discarded by the looters. The USDA (USDA Natural Resources C onservation Service 1996) soil survey describes Richards Island as being comprised of two main soil types: Zolfo series sand along the main spine of the landform, and Myakka series muck across much of the surrounding, low-lying areas, including the north east and southwest arms of the island. Both soils are deep, poorly drained marine sediments that formed in thick, sandy beds. The soil descriptions reported by the USDA soil survey are inconsistent with what was encountered in subsurface testing on Richards Island. The intact soils encountered in subsurface testing consisted mostly of fine light gray to brown well-drained sand with a nearly ubiquitous yellow brown sand substrate. The largest variation in soil types tended to occur in anthropogenic deposits. These depos its contained much dark er soils with high organic content, and often dens e deposits of marine shell. Previous Research The first record of the archaeological de posits on Richards Island was provided by Alan Dorian (1980) in an unpublished report deta iling a cultural resource survey carried out by the Interagency Archaeolo gical Services for U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Dorian reported Richards Island as a single site (8LV137) with the Florida Master Site File but was unable to fully survey the entire island due to time constraints and inclement weather. Because Dorian was unable to exam ine the northern part of the island, the site limits were not adequately established in his report. The northernmost limit of the pedestrian and limited subsurface exploration te rminates at the larg e clearing located at

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Richards Island 116 the southern end of the main ridge. Dorian also observed a shell ridge running north/south along the length of the clearing. Additionally, a looters pit with hundreds of pottery sherds was noted in the northwest portion of the clearing and human remains were identified as having been displaced by a gopher tortoise burrow south of the looted area. Diagnostic artifacts collected by Dori an are reported to be of Middle to Late Woodland affiliation. In addition, two Late Archaic Orange period sherds were recovered from unknown contexts on the island. In the arm that extends southwest from the clearing, Dorian also observed sparse shell and Woodland pottery along the entire length of the landform. In 1989, Nina Borremans and a small team of students from the University of Florida conducted a survey that result ed in an unpublished report with minimal information (Borremans and Moseley 1990). Th eir survey of Richards Island consisted of a single days pedestrian wa lkover of the same southern extent of the island that was examined by Dorian (1980) a d ecade earlier. The diagnostic artifacts recovered pointed to a largely Middle to Late Woodland occupa tion of the island and failed to report any new findings beyond the earlier report. SURVEY METHODS AND RESULTS The goal of survey by the Laboratory of Southeastern Archaeology (LSA) was to examine Richards Island through a series of shovel tests along transects covering the entire landform. This method allowed LSA archaeologists to both relocate the deposits described in previous survey s (Borremans and Moseley 1990; Dorian 1980) and to locate previously unknown areas of archaeological interest for study and comparison. Using topographic maps of Richards Isla nd generated from LIDAR data relative to the NAVD 1988, three main transects of shovel test pits (T-A, T-B, T-C) were established (Figure 5-2). These transects fo llowed the extent of the dominant upland ridges along azimuths aligned with the main contours of the landform. Five additional transects: T-F, T-G, T-H, T-I and T-J were positioned at 90-m intervals perpendicular to T-B along the main ridge of Richards Island, thus covering the widest portion of the upland ridge. Two final tran sects, T-D and T-E were s ited along small spurs off the northeast arm of the island. All fieldwork on Richards Island was conducted by the same two-person team intermittently from October 2009 through February 2010, and involved a total of 18 person-days of fieldwork. S hovel test pits (STPs) were assigned sequential numeric designations that were recorded along with az imuth of the transects as well as distance to and number of previous STP. The UTM lo cation of every STP was recorded with a Magellan MobileMapper CX Handheld GPS Receiver. All material excavated from STPs was pa ssed through -inch hardware cloth. All recognizable cultural material and vertebrate faunal remains was collected from all STPs. Most STPs were excavated to a depth of at l east one meter, and in cases where it was still viable and deemed necessary, excavations co ntinued past a meter with a maximum of

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Richards Island 117 Figure 5-2. LIDAR-generated topographic map of Richards Island showing locations of shovel test transects excavated by LSA archaeologi sts in 2009-2010 (courtesy of Asa Randall).

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Richards Island 118 Figure 5-3. LSA archaeologist record ing information on shovel test pit excavated on Richards Island (8LV137). 1.25 meters. In a few cases, STPs were termin ated early due to larg e root obstructions or water. If the STP was shallow and/or had not already produced cultu ral materials, it was moved to a nearby spot and restarted. Along transect C several STPs were moved to avoid looters potholes located dire ctly in the line of the survey. After excavation of STPs, a graphic prof ile along with note s on the nature and number of cultural materials was recorded on standardized STP forms (Figure 5-3). All cultural materials were bagged and provenience information r ecorded on the bags as well as on tags inserted in all bags. Survey Results During the 2009-2010 survey of Richards Island, a total of 81 STPs were completed, 57 of which yielded cultural materials in the form of artifacts, shell deposits, or both (Figure 5-44). Some of the STPs that were intend ed to be dug were excluded due to placement in salt marsh or wetlands. Po sitive STPs were encountered over much of

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Richards Island 119 the island with the exceptions of the north eastern arm of land and down slope of the island on the leeward side. During the investigation severa l above-ground features were encountered, many of which are likely aboriginal features. These features range from small circular middens less than half a meter in elevation and few meters across to larger features of mounded shell and midden. Disc overed at the northwest end of the islands main spine was a large, approximately 65-m-di ameter circular ridge reaching a height of over 2 m from the forest floor. Adjacent to the northeast edge of the ridge are two mounds of midden of unknown dimensions and origin. Given the relative density of material, it is unclear whether bounding all positive STPs would be fruitful. In many parts of the island it is likely that boundi ng would result in a massive number of positive STPs with little knowledge gain ed other than the presence or absence of archaeological deposits at particular locations. It is unclear how far the site/sites extend into the wetlands. Testing in the wetland and intertidal zones may prove productive in discovering in undated archaeological materials. Due to the fact that Richards Island is so dense in archaeological deposits and there is likely considerable overlap of components and areas of occupa tion, it might prove difficult to delineate separate sites on the island. Therefore, it woul d be of little value to assign additional site numbers beyond the existing Master Site Fi le designation of 8LV137 for the entire landform. However, as is described below, it is useful to divide 8LV137 into discrete loci for purposes of comparison. Most of the diagnostic ar tifacts recovered during surv ey indicate intensive occupation during the Middle and Late Wood land periods. Althoug h tentative, three separate loci have been identified based on preliminary results (Figure 5-4). They are identified as separate areas (Loci A, B, a nd C) based on relative density of material as well as clustering of diagnostic artifacts. The assignment of separate loci are based strictly on initial survey resu lts and will require further inve stigation to determine if indeed there were discrete episodes and/ or areas of occupation during the Woodland period. Locus A. The northern-most section of the ma in spine of Richards Island is designated Locus A. A total of 21 STPs were dug in this area in which 16 contained aboriginal artifacts with an additional 4 STPs containing only shell (Table 5-1). The majority of artifacts recovered consists of po ttery sherds, of which plain or unidentifiable sand tempered wares comprises 73 percent (by count) of the assemblage (Table 5-2). Besides plain sand tempered sherds from presumably utilitarian pottery, limestone tempered Pasco Plain pottery was the second most common pottery type at nearly 15 percent. Much of the diagnostic pottery be longs to the Weeden Island tradition (Figure 5-5). Diagnostic types recovered that corr espond to the Middle Woodland period include Pasco Plain, St. Johns, Ruskin Dentate, Carr abelle Punctate, and a Weeden Island folded rim on a plain sherd. The oldest materials r ecovered from Locus A were two diagnostic sherds of Deptford Linear Check Stamped pottery, indicating a minimal Early Woodland presence on the island. Lith ic artifacts were far less co mmon. Only 26 stone artifacts were recovered in this area, 24 of which are chert debitage, along with one small core and a possible sandstone grinder fragment.

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Richards Island 120 MAP REDACTED FOR SECURITY PURPOSES. CONTACT REGIONAL HISTORIC PRESERVATION OFFICER, U.S. FISH AND WILDLIFE, FOR FURTHER INFORMATION Figure 5-4. Results of shovel tests and inferred loci (Loci A-C) based on variations in the density and type of cultural material rec overed from tests (courtesy Asa Randall).

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Richards Island 121 Table 5-1. Absolute Frequency of Artifacts a nd Weight of Vertebrate Fauna Recovered from Shovel Tests of Transects in Locus A, 8LV137. STP Sherds Lithics Modified Shell Vertebrate Fauna # (n) (n) (n) (g) 9 2 11 62 4 1 45.8 12 10 2 13 13 14 1 15 1 4.3 16 3 19 7 21 8 22 1 66 1 1 67 1 69 18 1 2 54.3 70 39 1 3 45.0 71 1 72 1 Total 153 25 6 149.4 Table 5-2. Absolute Frequency of Pottery Sherds Recovered from Shovel Tests of Transects in Locus A, 8LV137. Deptford Weeden Is. ------------Sand-Tempered-----------Pasco St. Johns LCS Plain Plain Punct. Dentate UID Crumb Total STP# 11 5 4 1 21 6 23 62 12 2 5 3 10 13 4 1 8 13 14 1 1 19 7 7 22 1 1 66 1 1 69 11 6 1 18 70 6 1 1 21 10 39 72 1 1 Total 22 7 3 1 66 1 6 1 44 153

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Richards Island 122 Figure 5-5. Examples of sherds recovered from STPs of transects in Locus A, 8LV137 (a, e. Deptford Linear Check Stamped; b. Carabelle Punc tate; c. check stamped; d. Ruskin Dentate; f. St. Johns Check Stamped; g. Pasco plain; h. Weeden Island plain).

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Richards Island 123 Seventeen STPs in Locus A produced marine shell, four consisting of dense shell midden. It was in these dense midden deposits that all of the verteb rate fauna and most of the pottery were recovered. Throughout Locus A, surface evidence of subsurface deposits is apparent. Near STP 11 there are many gastropods, presumably all aboriginal, littering the forest floor. In places where bare sand is exposed aboriginal artifacts are not uncommon. Also located in the vicinity of STP 11 are several large holes and some mounded earth and midden. It is unclear whether these are pre-Columbian or historic-era features, but they are clearly associated with subsurface archaeological remains. On the western branch of Transect F, STPs 69 and 70 intersected a large aboveground anthropogenic deposit (s ee contours in Figure 5-2). The feature is roughly arcuate in shape with a central open space measuring approximately 65 meters at its widest point. The ridge reaches a height of over 2 meters along its western margin. Two short ridges of midden are adjacent to the circ le in the far northeast corner at STP 69. The ridges are separated by steep bifurcation and may indeed have been a single feature in the past, perhaps a mound. The relatively steep slope and sharp pinnacle atop the ridges may indicate a recent disturbance of th e feature. STPs 69 a nd 70 were dug in the ridges to reveal dense deposits of shell with plentiful vertebrate fauna and pottery. Other than plain sand tempered pottery, Pasco Pl ain was the second most plentiful variety recovered in these test pits. To the north of the large shell ridge a nd approximately 10-20 meters south of the western extent of Transect A there is a possible mound situat ed near a low marshy area. The feature is roughly 15-20 meters in diam eter and rising to no more that 1.5 meters above the marsh (Figure 5-6). No disturbances were observed on or near the mound. Locus B. Locus B is situated on the central and southern aspects of the main ridge of Richards Island (Figure 5-4). Archaeologi cal deposits in this locus extend down slope to the west close to, and perh aps extending under the tidal marsh that protects the islands western shore. The densest deposits on th e island are located in and near the large clearing at the southern end of the main ridge adjacent to STPs 32 and 33. East and southeast of the clearing the large midden ex tends down slope to Sand Creek, which runs behind (east of) Richards Island. At the wate rs edge dense deposits of shell are exposed and artifacts are easily found eroding out. Th is midden is the larg est deposit on the east side of the island. Across most of the island there is scant evidence for historic-era use and/or occupation. The large clearing on the south side of the main ridge appears to have been the focus of particularly intensive historic act ivities. There is significant historic refuse and evidence for architecture in the form of brick, wooden beams, and pane glass. Domestic refuse such as bottles jars, pots, and pans are also easily seen in the clearing. An old engine block along with other auto motive parts is strewn about the clearing.

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Richards Island 124 Figure 5-6. Possible mound in Locus A, 8LV137. A total of 23 STPs were excavated in Lo cus B, 22 of which yielded prehistoric materials (Table 5-3). A total of eight STPs contained dense midden consisting largely of marine shell, all of which yielded vertebrate fauna. Plain sand tempered pottery made up the majority of the Locus B pottery assemblage, at 81 percent. This locus expressed far more diversity in surface treatment of potte ry than did Locus A. Weeden Island and Middle Woodland surface treatments are agai n well represented with check stamped, complicated stamp, dentate, punctate, burnishe d, fabric impressed, cord marked, incised, Weeden Island folded rim all present (Table 5-4). Sand tempered ceramics dominate the assemblage with Pasco Plain and St. Johns sherds present in le sser numbers. Four linear check stamped sherds were recovered in ST Ps 29 and 31 near the center of Locus B and the highest point of the island. These sherds are likely Earl y Woodland Deptford artifacts and are perhaps the oldest dia gnostic artifacts recovered on the island. Uni que to Locus B is the presence of Swift Creek Complicated Stamped pottery. All such sherds of this type were recovered in units between STPs 27 and 36. Diagnosti c artifacts recovered indicate that the greatest occupation in th e vicinity of Locus B occurred in the Middle Woodland and suggest an early Weed en Island component around AD 200-300.

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Richards Island 125 Table 5-3. Absolute Frequency of Sherds a nd Lithics and Weight of Vertebrate Fauna and Historic Artifacts Recovered from Shovel T ests of Transects in Locus B, 8LV137. STP Sherds Lithics Modified Vertebrate Historic # (n) (n) Shell (n) Fauna (g) Artifacts (g) 24 7 25 1 3 26 15 1 27 69 1 1 27.3 28 2 29 6 30 3 31 40 106.7 0.7 32 43 2 0.3 0.3 33 3 34 31 1 27.3 35 34 1 56.2 36 14 0.9 51 1 54 27 9.6 55 30 1 34.0 56 104 2 45.0 57 1 60 1 61 1 62 5 4 0.4 64 1 Total 438 11 7 308.2 1.0 One of the defining characteristics of Lo cus B is the presence of several small circular middens located on the main ridge, on the western slope, and with a few partially down slope on the eastern portion of the island. These small middens are fairly discrete and are only a few meters in diameter risi ng to a height of only about 10-20 cm. These are most visible in the clear ing, where leaf litter is spar se. They consist of dense concentrations of shell and dark organic soil containing vertebrate fauna and pottery. Northeast of the clearing was observed an inactive looters pit that cut into the end of a short ridge of midden (Figure 5-8). Th e midden was very compact marine shell with pottery. The looted ridge extends to the north for several meters and reaches a height of over 1 meter. Fortunately, the ridge featur e has not been heavily impacted by further looting activity. Several other ridged middens were encountered in Locus B. STPs 27 and 56 were both situated atop ridge middens th at extended to about a meter in depth. The ridges run roughly eastwest, but the length or shape are unknown due to heavy undergrowth. South of the clearing, not far from the midden that extends to Sand Creek, two or three linear ridges run east west fr om the top of the eastern slope for several meters at heights of approximately 1 meter. STPs 34 and 35 were both placed directly on top of these ridges revealing dense midden de posits of marine shell with artifacts and vertebrate fauna.

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Richards Island 126

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Richards Island 127 Figure 5-7. Examples of sherds recovered from STPs of transects in Locus B, 8LV137 (a, s. Weeden Island plain; b. burnished; c, d. punctate; e. irregular rim; f, l, m. complicated stamp; g. Carrabelle Punctate; h. complicated stamp; i. incised; j. Deptford Linear Check Stamp; k. fabric impressed; n. New River Complicated Stamp; o, p. Weeden Island plain; q. check stamp; r. dentate).

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Richards Island 128 Figure 5-8. Old looters pit northwest of the clearing in Locus B, 8LV137. Locus C. Locus C spans much of the sout hwest arm of the island. The archaeological deposits here were first noti ced by Dorian (1980) and again by Borremans (Borremans and Moseley 1990) in their surveys of the area. This locus consists of a long peninsula with a maximum elevation of less than 4 meters above mean sea level. All of the testing in this locus was laid out in a singular linear transect (Figure 5-2) that followed the natural contour of the island. No perpendicular transect s were necessary in this area due to the relative narrowness of this part of the island. Archaeological materials were present over much of this locus. Dense midden was located from STP 42 to STP 48 along with fairly dense concentrations of artifacts. It is also in this area of dense midden that the majority of looting has taken place on the island. During testing, several STPs had to be relocated du e to the presence of fairly large and numerous looters pits. Some pits were several meters across and perhaps two meters deep. They were concentrated in one area and represent a fa irly large investment of time by pot hunters. The artifact assemblage of Locus C is likewise dominated by plain sand tempered pottery making up 85 percent of all pottery recovered in this area (Table 5-5). The most frequent recognizable diagnostic pottery recovered in Locus C is Middle Woodland

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Richards Island 129 period and likely Weeden Island phase (Figure 5-9). Relatively little variety existed in ceramic types in this area compared to the rest of the island. The most common diagnostic is nonspecific check stamped pottery as well as six sherds with Weeden Island folded rims, and traces of St. Johns and sandtempered dentate stamped (Table 5-6). A possible Deptford Linear Check Stamp sherd is the only diagnostic of the Early Woodland recovered in Locus C. Lithics were more numer ous in this locus than any other area tested. Of the 87 stone artifacts recovered in this survey, 41 came from Locus C with 26 of that number coming from STP 47. This single shovel test also contained the only recognizable stone tools in the lo cus, a micro-drill and a core/tool. Table 5-5. Absolute Frequency of Artifacts a nd Weight of Vertebrate Fauna Recovered from Shovel Tests of Transects in Locus C, 8LV137. STP Sherds Lithics Modified Shell Vertebrate Fauna # (n) (n) (n) (g) 38 4 39 3 40 25 10 0.1 41 6 1 42 37 0.7 43 56 3 11 31.6 44 23 5.6 45 19 10.3 46 2 1.4 47 65 26 3 14.2 48 10 1 1 6.5 49 5 8.0 Total 255 41 4 78.4 1olivella shell bead Table 5-6. Absolute Frequency of Pottery Sherds from Shovel Tests of Transects in Locus C, 8LV137. Deptford Weeden Is. -------Sand-Tempered-------STP# St. Johns LCS Plain Plain Ck Stmp. Dentate Crumb Total 38 4 4 39 3 3 40 11 2 12 25 41 3 3 6 42 2 19 1 15 37 43 4 21 1 30 56 44 1 12 2 8 23 45 5 11 3 19 46 2 2 47 1 39 2 23 65 48 5 5 10 49 5 5 Total 1 1 6 129 17 2 99 255

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Richards Island 130 Figure 5-9. Examples of sherds recovered from STPs of transects in Locus C, 8LV137 (a. Weeden Island plain; b. eroded check stam ped; c. Deptford Linear Check Stamped). CONCLUSION The shovel test survey carried out by the Laboratory of South eastern Archaeology provides the first systematic survey of the archaeological deposits of Richards Island. The survey revealed three loci of activity and/or occupati ons on Richards Island that may represent separate distinct temporal and spatial component s occurring primarily during the Middle Woodland period (Figure 5-4). Locus A, on the northern end of the isla nd, is distinguished by the large arcuate shell ridge near the northwestern shoulder of the island. The distance across the partial ring spans approximately 65 meters and may be the remnants of a Middle Woodland village or special-purpose lo cation. STPs 69 and 70, excavated in the northern section of the ring, revealed dense concentrations of shell midden to at least 90-100 cm below surface and likely continuing to a greater dept h below the excavated STPs. Locus A had few diagnostic artifacts that designate anything beyond an intense occupation during the Middle Woodland and possibl y Early Woodland periods.

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Richards Island 131 At the southern end of the main ridge, Locus B contains the remains of what was likely to have been the most intense occupa tion on Richards Island. This locus it dotted with small circular middens and large ridges of shell mi dden in and near the large southern clearing. During the survey it wa s not possible to discer n any pattern to the ridge middens due in large part to dense vege tation cover. It is clear by the number and size of the above-ground anthr opogenic deposits in Locus B that this area was the focus of significant occupation and activity. The larger features may indicate intentional construction of monumental or public structures with the smaller circular middens indicative of single household domestic depos its. Diagnostic artifacts recovered in survey excavation in Locus B indicate an earlier Middle Woodland occupation than those at Loci A or C. All Swift Creek Complicat ed Stamp pottery (n = 16) was found between STPs 27-36 (Figure 5-4) in Lo cus B with a diversity of W eeden Island types also being found in relatively high numbers. This locus is also distinct ive with the only significant leeward archaeological expression on the island. Locus C is situated on the southwest arm of Richards Island. This is the most studied part of the island, having now been surveyed on three sepa rate occasions, each reporting essentially similar results. Locu s C contains nearly continuous midden that varies in density along the en tire length. Perhaps due to its relative ease of access this area has also seen the greatest amount of l ooting activity. Like Loci A and B, Locus C appears to have had a mainly Middle Woodl and occupation represented by the presence of Weeden Island pottery. In this survey, no above gr ound anthropogenic deposits were observed in what is determined to be Locus C. The most outstanding features of Richards Island are the above-ground features. They were observed the entire length of the main ridge and ranged in size from small circular middens and low mounds to larg e ridges and a village size arcuate ring. Preliminary STP testing and observations made in the field have yielded diagnostic artifacts that would indicate that the most significant occupations in all three loci occurred during the Middle Woodland period. Artifact assemblages at all loci were dominated by Middle Woodland pottery and sh ell deposits of varying intensity and configuration. Lithic artifacts were limited to a total of 87 items, with 26 recovered in STP 47 alone. Only six of the recovered lithic artifacts exhibit what may be some form of modification or utilization, mostly in th e form of edge-wear or secondary flaking. Due to the occasional overwhelming presence of shell in the ST Ps, modified shell was often difficult to identify. The most common form observed were whelk and conch hammers. This tool form was recognizable by battering on the basal end, as well as presumed hafting holes through the body. Wit hout a more refined strategy to discern what was a tool or not, only 16 shell hammer s with both basal battering and haft holes were collected in the survey. Many more shells were recovered that had either battering or holes but were discarded. The earliest occupation of Richards Island is represented by eight sherds of Deptford Linear Check Stamped. This may represent an ephemeral occupation of the

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Richards Island 132 island prior to the Middle Woodland period or simply the older occupations were not discovered or lay buried be neath the larger, younger deposits. Further testing and excavation units taken to ster ile soil will likely encounter more evidence of the islands earliest occupants.

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CHAPTER 6 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS Kenneth E. Sassaman, Paulette S. McFadden, and Micah P. Mons Archaeological investigations reported in the preceding chapters are but a modest, initial step towards the long-term and comprehensive study of the Lower Suwannee and Cedar Key National Wildlife Refuges. In this concluding chapter we review the most salient findings of this initial phase of fieldwork, and follow with recommendations for the next phase. Despite the tentative na ture of many of the observations discussed in sections that follow, an inescapable conclusion resulting from this first phase of research is that the archaeological potential of the refuges and its various inholdings is substantial. REVIEW OF INVESTIGATIONS Our review of LSA investigations in 2009-2010 is structured by the three-part project design outlined in Chapter 1: reconnaissance, rescue and research To a large extent, the results of our rec onnaissance and rescue efforts guide our developing research agenda because they each reveal patterned variation, including eviden ce for change, that begs further investigation. As with most ar chaeological projects that venture into areas that are poorly known, this project has gene rated much new information and many new ideas, even in its infancy. Reconnaissance Reconnaissance of terrestrial portions of the pr oject area was initiated with fullcoverage survey of Richards Island. The primary objective of reconnaissance survey is to examine areas that are unknown archaeologically. It is also directed toward locations where sites are known to exist bu t have yet to be sufficientl y investigated to determine site boundaries, depth of deposits, and other pr operties. Richard Isla nd is a good example of a refuge property that fits both of these criteria: it was su rveyed twice before and a site was designated (8LV137), but subsurface test s were not conducted and much of the island was never inspected. As with many sites with shoreline exposures, Richards Island has been known to archaeologists primarily by the midden eroding at the south end of the island. That aspect of the siteclear ly significant and in need of rescueis but a small component of an expansive, complex archaeological resource. Results of shovel testing across the entir e upland unit of Rich ards Island shows that subsurface archaeological deposits are di stributed virtually everywhere except the northeast arm of the island. What is more, above-ground features consisting of mounded shell, refuse, and possibly sand are found acr oss much of the island. Apparently, the density and diversity of above-ground featur es at Richards Isla nd are not all that uncommon in the greater Shell Mo und area north of Cedar Key (see Research section below). 133

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134 Lower Suwannee Archaeological Survey 2009-2010 Variations in the pottery associated with subsurface midden and above-ground features across Richards Island reveal three lo ci of activity and/or occupations that may represent distinct, if overl apping, components of the Wood land period. The arcuate above-ground feature of Locus A (north en d of island) produced mostly plain sandtempered pottery, but also a number of sherds with limestone temper (Pasco), as well as traces of St. Johns Check Stamped, and a pl ain, sand-tempered rim sherd with a Weeden Island fold. Several factors intervene in a ny attempt to infer the age of this ring-like feature based on this small sample. Indeed, only two shovel tests have been dug into this feature. One (STP 69) produced mostly Pasco pottery; the other (STP 70) also produced Pasco sherds but a greater number of sandtempered plain sherds, the aforementioned Weeden Island rim sherd, and a St. Johns Ch eck Stamped sherd. Because Pasco pottery appears to date as early as 2000 B.P. in the study area (see Little Bradford summary below), the onset of arcuate-shaped shell ac cumulation at Locus A may actually date to the early Deptford era, perhaps earlier. Sherds recovered from the second test pit suggest a younger age estimate for this aspect of the fe ature, even post-dating A.D. 750 if the St. Johns sherd is crossdated literally. We hasten to add, however, that the age range of this type and all others in the study area are uncertain, and it will take many stratigraphic sequences and associated ra diometric assays to establ ish their chronology. It is nevertheless noteworthy that an other portion of Locus A, some 100 m north of the ring, contained a variety of pottery types, including check-stamped sherds of probable Deptford affiliation, as well as presumably la ter wares. On balance then, it would appear that Locus A witnessed repe ated use over much of th e Early and Middle Woodland periods (ca. 500 B.C. to A.D. 750), but the ar cuate accumulation of sh ell likely dates to the earlier end of this time span. One additional note about Locus A is th e possible mound situated near a low marshy area at the northwest corner of the upland unit. Shovel test transects did not intercept this feature and it may be ill-advised to dig into it because of the potential for human interment. A program of small-diameter coring may be sufficient to determine if in fact this feature is abor iginal and to characterize its composition, stratigraphy, and age. Locus B on Richards Island consists of th e south-central portion of the spine of the landform. Subsurface midden and low-re lief above-ground features are distributed differentially across this area, with possible segregation among certain components. Locus B is the only portion of Richards Island to yield significant numbers of Swift Creek sherds. These are concentrated in the northern part of the locus and may be associated with low circular midden-mounds and east-west oriented midden ridges of uncertain length and composition. To the south of this area are found greater numbers of Weeden Island sherds in midden ridges proxima te to the shoreline fronting Sand Creek. Taken together, the results of shovel testing in Locus B suggests that the area was utilized intensivelypresumably for habitationover the Swift Creek and early Weeden Island periods, ca. A.D. 150-400, with a possible tre nd for increasingly southern use of the landform over time. It bears mentioning that Pasco pottery wa s restricted to a single test pit in Locus B. It is also noteworthy that midden on the upslope portion of this locus is oriented towards the gulf (west) side of the island; although archaeological remains

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Conclusions and Recommendations 135 extend easterly toward the leeward side of the island, the density of both midden and artifacts is sparse compared to that of the windward side. Locus C, along the southwest arm of the island, is a continuous midden deposit of apparent Middle Woodland age. In some areas dense midden with abundant vertebrate fauna and pottery extends more than a mete r below the surface. Old looters pits are concentrated in such deposits but it appear s doubtful that the efforts of these illicit diggers were rewarded because whole or elabor ate artifacts are rare to nonexistent. Plain sand-tempered sherds were dominant in all but one of the 12 test pits with pottery, comprising 85 percent of the total Locus C assemblage. Estimating the age of these midden deposits beyond a generic Woodland timeframe is difficult with so few decorated sherds. A few Weeden Island fold ed rims provide tentatively more precise timing, presumably post-A.D. 200. This estimate may be supported by the absence of Pasco pottery in Locus C, if, that is, Pasco pottery did not extend in to the Weeden Island period, as is presumed but not yet documente d locally. Contrasted with the relative abundance of Pasco sherds from Locus A, it s virtual absence from both Locus B and Locus C may portend a shorter lifespan for Pasco than imagined. In sum, Richards Island holds a nearly continuous anthr opogenic deposit across its upland unit, and several of its above-ground features, as well as subsurface midden in excess of one meter deep, attest to ve ry intensive occupa tion during the Middle Woodland and possibly Early Woodland peri ods. Divisions of this more-or-less continuous archaeological site into more speci fic components (and poss ibly distinct site numbers) must await further testing. The method of shovel testing used in this reconnaissance survey proved to be succe ssful in documenting the island-wide distribution of subsurface deposits. This method was equally effective in gathering information that enables us to recognize that northern and southern halves of Richards Island hold evidence for somewhat different sequences and activities. Additional shovel tests will improve the spatial and temporal resolution of these vast archaeological deposits, but nothing short of secondary test ing, such as that employed in rescue operations, will provide the context need ed to achieve analytical resolution commensurate with the goals of this project. Reconnaissance is an important first step in locating and documenting sites, but additional investigations are necessary to develop their significance for rese arch, the primary rationale for federal protection. Rescue Our initial phase of rescue work focused on two sites located in the delta of the Suwannee River: Cat Island (8DI29) and Litt le Bradford Island (8 DI32). This area is hardly unique in its inventory of vulnerable sites, but adding to the ravages of natural destructive processes is the eros ion of wakes from boat traffic in and out of the river. The area is likewise distinct from others in th e greater study area because of its output of freshwater and sediment, the latter contri buting to complex re lationships between aggradation and sea level cha nge. The erosion of these si tes is enough to remind us of the dynamic nature of the delta environment, but they also provide a strong reminder that the relationships between any two forcing variables, such as climate and sea level, will be

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136 Lower Suwannee Archaeological Survey 2009-2010 mediated by local factors, such as delta pr ogradation. Our initial effort to salvage information from eroding sites in the delta reveals variations in the composition of midden that may be useful in identifying some of these mediating factors. Patterned variations in the results of 1 x 2-m test units at Cat Island and Little Bradford are evident. In four units excav ated (two at both sites) we observed three different sequences. Units at Cat Island alone revealed marked variation, while those of Little Bradford were similar to each othe r but unlike either sequence observed at Cat Island. Absolute age estimates were obtained from charcoal collected from the basal shell-bearing stratum of each unit. Calibrate d age estimates of ca. 2500 B.C. and A.D. 650 from units at Cat Island are complemented by a pair of estimates in the range of A.D. 20-280 from Little Bradford. We thus have pr eliminary snapshots of early, middle, and late occupations of the delta over more than three millennia. Bearing in mind the limitations of such small, preliminary samples, we find promising indications that delta sites such as these encase good evidence for changes in midden composition. For instan ce, increases are ev ident in the frequency of Carolina marsh clam ( Polymesoda caroliniana ) through time. Shell of th is species comprises less than 5 percent by weight of total sampled shel l in the 2500 B.C. stratum at Cat Island, but around 60 percent in the ca. A.D. 650 stratum only 16 m away. Dating to an intervening period of ca. A.D. 20-280, basal strata at Little Bradford express relative rates of Carolina marsh clam of about 30 percent. Thus, over a 3000-year period, this brackish water species goes from insignificant, to moderate, to dominant in the samples examined thus far. It is hard to imagine that this change in clam frequenc y was independent of rising sea level, but the relationship is not likely to be direct. Carolina marsh clams are brackish water species, and thus depend on the input of freshwater from rivers or springs to maintain conditions under which they can th rive. Indeed, the sp ecies has not been observed in abundance at any of the middens we have visited at sites away from the mouth of the Suwannee. It is a consummate estuarine species and thus a good barometer of changing salinity, marsh aggrad ation, and intertidal conditions. It follows that if rising seas since, say, 2500 B.C. caused saltwater to transgress over freshwater regimes, the local availability of brackish water species like the Carolina ma rsh clam would wane through time. That we observe the opposite pa ttern suggests that either cultural factors intervened to undermine a direct connection between ecological availability and human selection and/or salinity conditions were not in lock-step with rising seas. As regards the latter, possible interven ing factors include: (1) increases in the rate of freshwater input from the river; and (2) aggres sive progradation of the delta. Both factors would have contributed to estuarine development by intr oducing processes that outpaced and thus superseded rising sea level. (Incidentally, the relatively small size of the Suwannee delta compared, for example, to the Mississippi Rive r, minimizes the potential that subsidence has itself outpaced aggradational processes an d thus accentuated coastal flooding). In addition, possible regression of seas within an overall rising regime must be considered, as we discuss in the Research section below.

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Conclusions and Recommendations 137 In interpreting the results of rescue operations, we are sensitive to the fact that samples of eroding midden come largely fr om the back edges of deposits that have been truncated by a regressive front. That is, samples may be biased towards deposits that accumulated on the landward side of near-shore middens. Likewise, the upper portions of some deposits may have been tr uncated by surging water. The same storm event(s) that left mantles of bedded sands at both Cat Island and Little Bradford appears to have scoured the surface, removing an unknown portion of overlying midden. Given these potential biases, it is imperative that we not overextend the inte rpretive potential of rescue samples. For now we should be safe in assuming that the sa mples represent data points on the age and location of anthropogenic deposition, as well as records of change over time using standard stratigraphic principl es. To the extent we are able to acquire good age estimates of the upper, as well as ba sal portions of deposits, we are able to make inferences about the time span involved, again sensitive to th e potential for the loss of younger deposits that may have been truncated. Other aspects of site formation must be investigated before we attempt to infer changes in environment from changing archaeo logical patterning. We are probably safe to assume that the materials we salvaged from sites such as Cat Island and Little Bradford are midden materials, that is, an outcome of the procurement, consumption, and disposal of matter (including tools) associated with biological sustenance. However, middens often express intersite and intrasite variations that have little to do with longterm environmental change (e.g., primary versus secondary midden, or seasonal midden). The same can be said for variations in human activities that mediate the time-space relationship between procurement and disposal ; we simply cannot assume, for instance, that all shell disposed in middens was harves ted from nearby beds. We must be mindful, too, that the middens we have sampled to da te each contained multiple human interments. Certainly the interment of humans in mounds in the study area provides contrast with midden burials such as these, but the exis tence of this alternative mode of burial does not lessen the likelihood that interment in middens was likewise attended by practices that affected the location, composition, and structure of accumulated shell. Midden may not often be only midden. Finally, our sampling strategy may need some adjustment to accommodate the complexities of site formation for even small remnants of sites. The results of Cat Island remind us that shell midden often accumulates horizontally, as well as vertically. Had we located our two units only 10 m to the west we would have missed the Late Archaic deposits and thus missed the chance to coll ect data conducive to the study of change. Shell midden deposited only 16 m apart and lyi ng at roughly the same elevation marked the end points of a 3000-year period. Clearly additional testing is warranted to not only determine if our data from each stratum is replicated by coeval samples, but also to determine the stratigraphic relationship betw een the two deposits. Given the length of time involved, we are likely to find either a long hiatus in the accumulation of midden or a stratigraphic unconformity, such as a scouring event that truncated the earlier deposit. At Little Bradford, in contrast, generally similar result s from the two units (including roughly similar basal age estimates) encourages us that single components can sometimes be rescued effectively with a pair of test uni ts. This is not to say that our units captured

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138 Lower Suwannee Archaeological Survey 2009-2010 the full range of variation encased in the mi dden remnant, only that we observed nothing to suggest that additional tests are necessary before we consider the samples worthy of further research. Research Our discussion of reconnaissance and re scue results has already touched on a series of research issues that have arisen directly from field observations. Here we simply reiterate the four guiding research t opics outlined in Chapter 1 with attention toward the emerging potential for research that our preliminary observations enable. Environmental Change It is axiomatic that local environments changed over the course of human occupation in the study area, and it is equa lly evident that changes in local environments were affected by globalscale climatic processes. Those truisms aside, the relationships of global climate to local environment and human history are matters to be investigated, not assumed, if we are to reach any semblance of understanding of what it was like to live through environm ental change and how such experiences shaped perceptions of change and thus motives for intervention. In keeping with the overall theoretical orientation of this research, we are interested in developing perspectives on environmental change that are scaled at the level of actual human experience. We acknowledge that the archaeologi cal record is not usually considered to be conducive to such observati on or inference, but we recognize too that pe rspectives on the interpretive potential of the archaeologica l record have changed over the years as new questions were asked and new technol ogies expanded the scope of observation. A great deal of environmental data is needed to even begin to outline human experience with change in the study area. Ideally, baseline data on changing environmental conditions should be devel oped from observations independent of the archaeological record. That is, changes in air and water temperature, precipitation, freshwater streamflow, salinity, sedimenta tion, sea level, and c limatic events (e.g., hurricanes, droughts) should be inferred from depositional records outside of archaeological sites. Archaeological depos its clearly provide abundant information on such change, but only indirectly, as they formed through mediating human actions and postdepositional processes. Of course, arch aeological deposits encase the evidence we seek on human experience with change, but we have to guard against the potential for circular reasoning that comes from using ar chaeological evidence as both the proxy for environmental change and the hum an response to such change. We have yet to initiate the collection of independent data on environmental change but propose that it begin with coring of marsh sediments in the immediate vicinity of sites for which we are collecting samples from archaeological middens. A program of coring along transects perpendicular to the co astline such as that employed by Wright et al. (2005) may be effective at smaller scales of analysis. As regards delta formation, which was a main objective in the Wright et al. (2005) study, basic st ratigraphic data are needed to establish the timing and sequence of marsh aggradation across transgressive fronts. Associated proxies for salinity, water temperature, turbidity and the like are

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Conclusions and Recommendations 139 needed to draw distinctions between regional or larger-scale climatic factors and local depositional processes. Equa lly important is the development of data from locations outside the area of delta form ation, mindful that local silici clastic sediment sources (e.g., paleodunes) will contribute to variations in th e rate and magnitude of marsh aggradation. Oyster reef formation is another vari able that needs to be investigated. In the absence of independent data on environmental change, we remain cautious in attributing changes in archaeological midden to climatic variables alone. As we have described in this report, preliminary observa tions indeed show significant changes in the composition of shell midden, notably the incr eased incidence of Carolina marsh clam over time. Measurable changes in the use of certain boney fishes, oyster, hard clam, and various gastropod species are expected too as sampling expands to other sites. The likelihood of environmental causes for such change grows as coincident sequences are replicated across a variety of microenvironm ents. Thus, irrespective of independent evidence for environmental change, we must st rive to collect as many samples as possible from as diverse settings as possible. Chr onological controls are needed for each sequence sampled, and each sequence needs to be replic ated at least once in coeval samples. As we continue to develop local benchm arks for environmental change, we can begin to compare our emerging data to mode ls established elsewhere along the Florida gulf coast. Foremost are models developed from research in southwest Florida by personnel of the Florida Museum of Natu ral History (Marquardt 1992; Walker and Marquardt n.d.). The approach to this ongoing research has been to compare archaeological patterning to models of c limate change derived from field studies conducted far and wide. Assuming that local climate and sea level are influenced by globalor hemisphere-scale processes, proxy data from across the northern Atlantic are considered applicable to southwest Florid a. In particular, Walker (1992, n.d.) and Marquardt (2010a, 2010b) have championed the use of Danish beach ridge records developed by Tanner (2000) to model changes in sea-level and climate for their study area. They argue rightfully that the 50-year resolution of Tanners sea-level curve is conducive to monitoring human response to rapi d climate change. A variety of ancillary studies from across the north Atlantic re gion bolster their cl aim for large-scale teleconnections in climate and sea level (Walker n.d.). Figure 6-1 provides a simplified version of Tanners (2000) sea-level curve and the climatic sequence Walker ( n.d.) has proposed to help explain major changes in Calusa history. She identifies four periods: (1 ) Roman Warm Period, A.D. 1-550; (2) Vandal Minimum, A.D. 550-850; (3) Medieval Warm Period, A.D. 850-1200; and (4) Little Ice Age, A.D. 1200-1850. These changes in climat e correspond with changes in sea level, with warm periods enabling epis odes of transgressive seas, and cool periods episodes of regressive seas. Importantly, va riation in sea level, and presumably climate, are apparent within each of these four periods, according to Tanners proxy data, a point to which we will return below shortly. Some of our preliminary data from the Lower Suwannee region can be reconciled with the model Walker proposes, but cont radictions between the two are striking.

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140 Lower Suwannee Archaeological Survey 2009-2010 Figure 6-1. Graph showing proxy measure of re lative sea level after Tanner (2000) and climatic periods recognized by Walker (2011) as influential in Calusa history. Two-sigma calibrated date ranges for sites investigated thus far by the LSA (8DI29, 8DI32, 8LV75) and a site on Seahorse Key (8LV68) investigated by Borremans (n.d.). Among the contradictions is the occupation of Little Bradford Island (8DI32) at A.D. 20280. This period spans the firs t half of the Roman Warm period, when sea levels were not only relatively high, but, according to studies by Stapor et al. (1991) and Walker et al. (1995), some 0.6-1.4 m higher than the 20th-century mean (known in these studies as the Wulfert High, ca. 50 B.C. to A.D. 550). As we reviewed in Chapter 2, rigorous debate surrounds claims for higher-than-present sea le vels along the Gulf co ast, and the study by Wright et al. (2005) at the mouth of the Suwannee found no support for such claims. Our admittedly limited data from Little Bradford corroborates the results of Wright et al. (2005): during the time midden (and burials) bega n to accumulate at the site, sea level had to have been at or below present elevat ion. The base of th e midden rests on sands only a few centimeters above high tide. Sea level during the A.D. 20-280 interval may very well have been at current levels during that time, but clearly not above. In contrast to occupation of low-elevat ion landforms such as Little Bradford Island, occupation of paleodunes in the study area lends some credence to the hypothesis

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Conclusions and Recommendations 141 that higher elevations were attractive to local residents during times of rapidly rising sea. We have yet to collect radiometric samples from the occupations of Richards Island, but we recently acquired some age estimates for an occupation at another of the relict dunes in the Shell Mound area, Deer Island. Shown in Figure 6-1 as 8LV75, a ring-like feature at the north end of Deer Is land accumulated in the range of 180 B.C. A.D. 80. This period is widely acknowledged as an era of rapid and marked sea level rise (see Walker n.d.), even before the onset of the Roman Wa rm Period shown in Figure 6-1. It follows that use of elevated landforms may have b een precipitated by risi ng seas, although we hasten to add that occupation of Little Bradford during the latter half of this interval causes us to question the magnitude and rate of rise, at least for the delta area. We will have to test low-elevation la ndforms in the Shell Mound area and elsewhere to see what the effect may have been away from the area of delta formation. Judging from the results of limited test ing by Borremans (n.d.), occupation of one of the low-elevation locations on Seahorse Key spanned two of the climatic periods of Walkers model. As shown in Figure 6-1, age ranges on four C14 assays from two test units at 8LV68 are divided into an early component (A.D. 520-760) coincident with the Vandal Minimum, and later component (A.D. 940-1200) coincident wi th Medieval Warm Period. Without additional information on th ese tests, we cannot comment on the extent to which changes in the composition of midde n, if any, correlate with lower and higher sea-level stands, but it would appear safe to suggest that if the climate changes of Walkers model apply to sea level fluctuati ons and attendant ecological changes in our study area, the record at 8LV 68 ought to be instructive. Finally, the Weeden Island II occupation of Cat Island (8DI29) provides the best possible concordance between midden compos ition and sea-level change as modeled by Walker (n.d.). As noted earlier, the increased use of Carolina marsh clam over the preceding Deptford and Late Archaic periods is counter-intuitive if we model sea level as rising gradually and irreversibly over time and we assume that midden accumulated from only local procurement. An age estimate of ca. A.D. 650 taken from charcoal of the Weeden Island II component at Cat Island pl aces the occupation in the Vandal Minimum period, coinciding, it would appear, with a trend toward falling sea level. If indeed sea level dropped over this time, seaward adva nces of the freshwater plume from the Suwannee River likely occurred, enabling brack ish water species like the Carolina marsh clam to flourish farther away from the current coastline. In closing this section two additional points bear mentioning. First, synchronization among the various chronologie s of archaeological and environmental data is absolutely essential to any inference about the cause and effect of climatic change on human communities. The AMS assays we have listed in this report have been corrected for fractionation and then calibrated by our laboratory of c hoice, Beta Analytic, Inc. (see Appendix B for detail s). All of our assays were taken from samples of wood charcoal, the standard for radiocarbon dating, and thus corrections for fractionation were no greater than 20 radiocarbon years. Those acquired by Borremans (n.d.) were run on marine shell and only half were corrected for fractionation based on the C13/C12 ratio. The other half of her assays were correct ed by simply adding the average fractionation

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142 Lower Suwannee Archaeological Survey 2009-2010 correction to the standard age estimate, in this case 390 radiocarbon years. The chronology Walker (n.d.) employs in the clim atic model outlined above apparently was constructed from assays that were consistently corrected and calibrated, but that is not at all clear. Walker (n.d.:32) notes rightfully that the differential between radiocarbon and calibrated years over the past two millennia is not all that great, but we suggest that if the goal is to develop reconstructions relevant to the level of human experienceor at least 50-year incrementsthen it is imperative that we ensure consistency in the reporting and comparison of age estimates, even if correc tion and calibration provide adjustments of only a decade or two. Second, in moving forward with efforts to determine how climate change affected human communities, we suggest that climatic records be examined not as periods of relatively warm or cold and wet or dry condi tions, but instead as measures of relative stability or instability over a given period of time. Each of the multi-century periods of Walkers chronology is marked by fluctuations in climate that, in the Tanner sequence at least, exceed the boundary conditio ns between periods. If instead of viewing each period for its modal tendencies, we scored each pe riod for the mean magnitude of change over 50-year increments, we find the greatest va riation in the Vandal Minimum and the least variation in the Little Ice Age. Alternatively, if we scored each period for the variance in mean change over 50-year increments, we find the greatest variation in the Medieval Warm Period, and the least vari ation in the Roman Warm Peri od. The point here is that the climatic periods outlined for southwest Fl orida hide internal variations that are pertinent to an experiential understanding of climatic eff ects on humans. Walker (n.d.) clearly acknowledges the variat ions within each period but seems to regard the changes from one period to the next as something akin to the regime change of resiliency theory (Gunderson and Holling 2001) or the phase transition of thermodynamics. Rather than reify these periods as regimes or phases in a long-term sequence, we think it best to treat time as continuous and avoid periodization that imposes order where it may not have existed. Changing Land Use. The ultimate goal of reconstructing the details of environmental change is to determine its relationship to cultural change. Changes in human subsistence are perhaps the most dir ect consequence of environmental changes that affect the distribution of edible resources, but humans are mobile organisms and they certainly have the capacity to adjust thei r physical positions and movements in a changing environment to evade major transfor mations in diet. When major changes in subsistence are documentednot merely food stuffs but also subsistence technology, practices, and laborit is importa nt to consider that they ar ose from the repositioning of human communities across the greater landscape, a consequence itself, in some cases, of environmental change. Moreover, the distributions of humans on th e landscape, as well as material traces of their pasts, are th emselves structuring factors in land use. Landscapes physically accrue the material ou tcomes of lives lived, and they also materialize histories construc ted from memories that motivate and naturalize subsistence practices.

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Conclusions and Recommendations 143 Research on land use in the study area might profitably be divided into three scales of inquiry: (1) the entire study area; (2) clusters within the study area, as defined in Chapter 2; and (3) sites within clusters. As with research on environmental change outlined above, our observations on land use are very preliminary and must necessarily be regarded as working hypotheses. Our original field work has been limited to two relatively small areas within the greater study area, so we are hardly in a position to infer large-scale patterns of land use from these limited data alone. However, we have been building a larger frame of reference from a combination of collections research, literature review, and landscape modeling. Considering all available informatio n, we can safely infer that the study area encapsulates a marked range of land-use vari ation that is somewhat obscured by an overall veneer of pervasive settlement during the Early and Middle Woodland periods, ca. 500 B.C. to ca. A.D. 750. Land use before and after this era of pervasive settlement is evident in more limited distribut ions of diagnostic artifacts, the earliest clearly victimized by rising sea level. Despite an occasional early or middle Holo cene artifact in private collections we have observed, in situ evidence for settlement of the study area prior to about 5000 years ago has yet to present itself. Of course, much inhabitable land adjacent to intertidal waters has been inundated by rising seas since the late Pl eistocene. On the other hand, relict dunes bordered by tidal cr eeks were somewhat invulnerab le to rising sea due to the marked relief of such landf orms. At Deer Island we have encountered an elevated stratum of shell midden estimated at 1940-1740 B.C., presumably laid down at a time when the nearby tidal creek (Giger Creek) cour sed farther out in gulf waters. The Late Archaic stratum at Cat Island, estimated to date ca. 2800-2400 B.C., was likely laid down when the location was a peninsula. An ev en older (ca. 3400-3100 B.C.) Late Archaic deposit at Bird Island to the north (8DI52), re plete with burials, likely formed while the island was the distal limb of a parabolic dune That it was reoccupied a millennium later (ca. 2130-1900 B.C.) when nonlocal soapstone vessels were deposited in unusually large numbers may have something to say about the gravity of its mortuary history. In short, intact evidence for human land use during the Late Archaic period exists in landforms that continue to be reduced by transgression of the sea, and in elevated locations that were adjacent to tidal creeks when sea level was lower. Importantly, the accumulation of shell and associated midden over the course of the Late Archaic period appears to have subdued the effects of ri sing sea and storm su rge by both elevating landforms and by adding matrix that is less vu lnerable to erosion than are typical marine sands. This is a process that of course continued in select locales as later peoples added additional shell and other midden materials, or, possibly, built-up land deliberately with midden materials mined from older deposits. The oysters that dominate Late Archaic strata we have observed to date reflect an established maritime economy that continued with variations for millennia afterwards. We can add to th is subsistence-oriented landuse pattern the cultural predilections for huma n interment, and the extralocal processes that delivered substantial mounts of soapstone to the northern Gulf coast from sources over 600 km away. Likewise, we have good reason to suspect that shell accumulation at

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144 Lower Suwannee Archaeological Survey 2009-2010 Shell Mound commenced during the Late Archaic period. It follows that the positioning and movement of communities during this era entailed more than simply accessing edible resources from locations of inhabitability. We have too few data for the period between about 1500 and 500 B.C. to infer much of anything about land use patterns at the da wn of the Woodland era. Considering the composition of private collections we have observed, candidates for diagnostic pottery dating to this interval include late fiber-tempered wa res, St. Johns plain, Pasco plain, and the ubiquitous sand-tempered plai n. The only radiometric assays for this interval are Borremans dates on marine shel l from North Key (8LV 65), ca. 1300-50 B.C. The relationship of these assa ys to diagnostic pottery sherds has yet to be determined. Nonetheless, if most of the sherds of the type s listed above truly date to this interval, land use would have thus been pervasive because each of these types, with the exception of the fiber-tempered wares, are found in at least trace frequencie sand often in large quantitiesat most sites colle cted by private citizens. After about 500 B.C., the accepted onset of the Deptford period (Milanich 1994:114), the human presence across the study ar ea resulted in a dense and diverse array of archaeological remains. The apparent conspicuousness of this record is partly a function of increased visibil ity over that of preceding settlement, again, the victim of long-term natural forces. But a veritable explosion in settlement may have actually occurred. If the linear check-stamped pottery of the Deptford tradition was accompanied by the limestone-tempered pottery of the Pasco tradition, the landscape of the study area was densely populated. The relationship between the Pasco and De ptford traditions is important not only for estimates of chronology and demography, but al so to establish the contours of cultural diversity that contributed to a burgeoning rituality i nvolving mounds and human interment. As we understand it today, Deptford has a northerly orientation in its history and regional expressions, whereas Pasco traces to the south. Not knowing the absolute chronology of either tradition in the study area, we are ill-equi pped to assert which of the two appeared first, if not together, and wh ether either was brought to the study area by the resettlement of communities from elsewhere. We do know this: while there may be a slight tendency for Deptford-dominant assembla ges to be more frequent at sites in the north end of the study area (north of the mouth of the Suwannee), and for Pascodominant assemblages to be more frequent to the south, they co-occur far more often than they do not, and often in large numbers. We feel confident that they were used simultaneously at some locations, such as Little Bradford, during ca. A.D. 20-220. Settlement of the Shell Mound area after about A.D. 1 ma y have been especially dense. The ring-like midden at the north end of Deer Island (8LV75), dating to about this time, is but one of many such above-ground features in the Shell Mound area. Recent visits to islands in this area by Asa Randall and one of us (Mons) during assessment of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill of 2010 revealed many similar features at several sites, including a complex on one island with numerous arcuate ridges, some several meters tall (Randall et al. 2010). The large horseshoe-s haped ridge at Komar (8LV290; Borremans

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Conclusions and Recommendations 145 and Moseley 1990:29) is among those with subsur face samples of Pasco pottery, as is the upper strata of Shell Mound. It is widely a ssumed that Pasco pottery was used well into the Weeden Island era, post A.D. 200, but with a lack of Pasco sherds at some locations with abundant Swift Creek and Weeden Island pottery (e .g., south half of Richards Island; shell stratum at Cat Island), we may eventually find out that Pasco was actually short-lived locally. Again, if the use of Pasco pottery proves to be restricted to a few centuries, and largely gone by A.D. 300 or so, the density of population in the Shell Mound area in particular was quite high. The Weeden Island presence in the study ar ea is pervasive a nd conspicuous. Its Swift Creek predecessor is not so widespread and presumably shorter-lived, ca. A.D. 150-350, while the Weeden Island tradition is presumed to have continued in evolving expressions for another millennium. The Ye nt/Green Point complexes that bridge Deptford with Weeden Island in the Panhandle region likely had para llel expressions in the Swift Creek assemblages of the study area. Unfortunately, the onl y secure context we have for this time frame is the Little Bradfo rd site (8DI32), a decidedly Pasco/Deptford context. The greater Shell Mound/Cedar Key area would appear to have been the epicenter for the earliest Weeden Island deve lopments in the study area, following on the heels of (and indeed perhaps enabled by) a history of intensive settlement by communities making Pasco and Deptford po ttery. Although Swift Creek and early Weeden Island pottery lends greater visibility to land-use practices after A.D. 150, it is the addition of sand mounds to the landscap e that signals a fundamental change in tradition. At the microscale of land use, this mark ed change in tradition appears to have been attended by discontinuities in the occupation of particular sites. When we map out the survey results we have from Richards Island, and add the pre liminary results from survey of Deer Island, we see a pattern of variation that suggest oldest components are oriented towards the north end, whereas younger ones are more widespread but concentrated to the south. What is more, th ere may have been avoidance of locations of intensive occupation by prior occupants, even after centuries of abandonment. Most likely these older sites were incorporated into the land-use practices and frameworks of meaning for all who followed, and at times they appear to have been reoccupied, as at Shell Mound itself. But during some intervals of settlement sequences, certain sites may have been taboo for habitation. Groups or indi viduals may very well have visited these sites regularly, even doing routin e chores at them, but there is no evidence yet that ringlike features and other midden ridges of the Pa sco/Deptford era were occupied in ways that left the sort of Swift Creek/Weeden Is land midden deposits and material culture we find only short distances away on Richards Island. Patterns of abandonment, relocation, reoccupation, and po ssibly avoidance underscore the need to maintain a multiscalar perspective on land use in order to differentiate between full-blown transformati ons in practice and minor adjustments to the short-term changes inherent to any natural or cultural regime. Put another way, we must be able to distinguish between site abandonment and regional abandonment. As pointed out by Nelson and Hegmon (2001), site abando nment often occurs amongst people able

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146 Lower Suwannee Archaeological Survey 2009-2010 to relocate as a means to alleviate the stresses of sedentary liv ing. This refers not simply to the residential mobility of foragers ( sensu Binford 1980), but rather the relocation of semi-permanent communities w ith considerable investment in architecture, nonportable subsistence technology, and improvements to land. It seems reasonable to presume, as in the Mimbres case outlined by Nelson and He gmon (2001), that an environment of sometimes unpredictable events (drought, flood, freeze, etc.) would foster traditions of periodic relocation to lesson the vulnerabilities of disaster. We can add to that the uncertainty that attends changes in the dist ribution of communities at larger scales of analysis, and, not insignificantly, the constraints on fissioning that is materialized in the built environments of historical significance. Built Environment. As we have noted, above-ground features consisting of shell and associate midden deposits began to take shape in the study area no later than 2000 years ago, and possibly much earli er. We are very much inte rested in determining when all such features began to accumulate, how l ong they accumulated, th e sorts of activities attending their accumulation, and when they were abandoned. Given what we know about Deptford, Swift Creek, and Weeden Island settlement in the greater Gulf coast region (e.g., Stephenson et al. 2004), above-ground features in circular or semi-circular arrangements were the de facto result of life in the round. That is, they are believed to be the results of a community plan whereby domes tic structures were arranged in a circle around an open area (plaza). Midden accumu lation, in this scenario, was gradual and at first patchy, accreting discretely adjacent to each structure on the outside of the compound. Given enough time, individual house hold middens blended into more-or-less continuous ring-like middens. However, as bi g and as regular as they may be, Swift Creek and Weeden Island circular villages documented elsewhere did not usually express the sort of topographic relief we see at sites in th e study area. Notably, the ones we have been able to document thus far appear to be a bit older, and perhap s closer to the shell ring traditions of the Late Archai c in form, if not also process. Affinities with Archaic shell rings in troduce the working hypothesis that shell accumulated into ridges and arcs in the study area not as gradual midden but, in some cases, as emplaced shell. Th e sorts of feasts Russo (201 0) and Saunders (2004) infer from shell deposition at Archaic shell rings of the Atlantic coast may be implicated, but other possibilities abound, including the co nstruction of windbreaks. Many of the horseshoe-shaped features of the study area are open to the east or southeast, opposite the prevailing winds blowing in from the Gulf. (Indeed, standing inside one at the north end of Deer Island during an approaching storm, the senior author was struck by the calmness of the enclosed space.) Given that many of these features are located on tops of relict dunes and other landforms of considerable re lief (such as Richards Island and Deer Island), it seems unlikely that they were constructed to el evate houses above rising water per se (would require 3+ m of rise above present levels), although guarding against storm surge is not out of the question Hypotheses about the ritual or ideational value of shell ridges are as easy to imagine as those implying practical utility. Without question, some of the accumulations of shell in the study area grew to enormous proportions. Shell Mound itself is a case in

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Conclusions and Recommendations 147 point. Its core appears to have accumulated relatively early (>2000 years ago) and perhaps through domestic activities, but was then capped by a 1.5-m layer of mostly oyster shell with scant evidence for inte nsive domestic activity. We do not know if human interments were emplaced in this partic ular stratum, but the mound in general is known to contain burials. Alt hough some have suggested that the horseshoe-shaped form of Shell Mound was the outcome of mining that removed its central core, multiple lines of evidence suggests otherwise. Most notably, the fi eld notes of Tallant kept at the South Florida Museum in Brandeton indicate that the center part of the mound was not only open as it is today, but was al so the location of a sand mound. The mounds of Cedar Key attest to a scale of shell (and sand) accumulation unmatched in the study area and perhaps even greater than the mounded landscape of Crystal River (Pluckhahn et al. 2010). Desp ite the widespread destruction of these features in the growth of th e town of Cedar Key, historic references and maps can be integrated to model what the landscape may have been like before the first excavation (Chapter 2; Randall et al. 2010) We also know from early descriptions of bank profiles and roadcuts that shell mounds at Cedar Key were nicely st ratified, indicat ive it would appear of multiple, successive, if transfor mative, episodes over the entire Woodland period. Other mound complexes across the study area attest to the widespread practice of human interment in sand, but occasionally these were emplaced over shell mounds or other shell-rich deposits. Th e three mounds at the mouth of the Suwannee River noted by Moore (1918:568) each consisted of sand mantles over shell, one with burials in the sand stratum. And sometimes sand burial mounds were emplaced on midden deposits and then later capped with add itional shell midden, such as the Lions Club mound at Cedar Key (Jones 1992). Virtually all known sand mounds in the study area have been razed, many by looters seeking the pottery, celts, and other accoutrements of Swift Creek and Weeden Island burials. None of the sand mounds may have been more elaborate than 8LV2/7 on Graveyard Island. We know from published accounts and available colle ctions that this was a Weeden Island facility replete with cen tral tomb primary burials, secondary burials, and cached pottery vessels, some containing skulls. One of us (M ons) has tracked down some additional unpublished information and a collection of whole vessels at the South Florida Museum. Matching the elaboratene ss of the vessels, effigy pots among them, is an inventory of nonlocal goods, including a c opper gorget, greenstone celts, and a 9.5 lb cube of galena. Other mounds in the greater Lower Suwannee region suggest that some sand mounds were established for the express pur pose of secondary interment. The best example perhaps is Fowlers Landing (8LV 1). Although it is 16 km up the Suwannee River and thus out of the study area proper, this mound complex reminds us of the likelihood that sand mounds established in places that became either vulnerable to environmental change (notably inundation by rising sea) or abandoned for other reasons

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148 Lower Suwannee Archaeological Survey 2009-2010 may have been literally relocated by disinterring ancestors and re burying them in bundles at new locations. Ultimately, sand mounds and the Swift Creek/Weeden Island rituality that surrounds them erase any doubt from a modern perspective that coastal dwellers often materialized beliefs about their world and that of their dead in durable form that forever changed the way individuals a nd groups experienced the landscap e. The same is true of above-ground shell deposits, even if they were not emplaced for purposes other than refuse disposal. Inasmuch as sand mantle s were often emplaced over shell mounds and middens, the depositional practices of the ancients and those that followed became historically linked. We have seen enough to know that none of the shell deposits of early inhabitants of the study area were likely treated indifferently by those who followed. Interregional Networks The last of four research topics outlined in Chapter 1 has benefited the least from fiel dwork conducted to date. To a large extent, the study of interregional connections depends on analyses of extant collections, which include virtually all the nonlo cal objects known for the study ar ea. Reconnaissance and rescue operations are appropriate for locating and ch aractering sites, but not terribly conducive to locating those relatively rare items that link the study area to distant places. Of course, the development of a detailed culture history is requisite to any interpretation that links the goings-on of the study area to places far and wide. In the paragraphs to follow we briefly recount some of the evidence that demands greater study of the connections between local and regional histories. Extralocal connections are evident in th e earliest substantial record of human occupation in the study area, that of the La te Archaic period. As noted earlier, Bird Island has a substantial inventory of soapstone vessel sherds, geological sources of which are no closer than 600 km to the north. Private collections from several additional sites in the study area also include soapstone sherds, often in association with fiber-tempered pottery. The only local age estimate on soapst one thus far is from soot on a sherd from Bird Island (Yates 2000). At 3630 B.P. (cal 2195-1770 B.C.), this estimate accords well with the chronology of stone vessels and early pottery in the region (Sassaman 2006), but it is a bit early for the extralocal tr ade in soapstone vessels of the Poverty Point phenomenon of the Lower Mississippi River Valley. Still, western gulf coastal sites roughly this age (e.g., Elliotts Point complex [Thomas and Campbell 1991]; Claiborne [Bruseth 1991]) were arguably implicated in the genesis of Poverty Point exchange (Sassaman 2010:62-63), and we have reason to hypothesize that occurr ences of soapstone in the study area were linked in some fashion with this emer gent process. At the same time, age estimates for soapstone vessels in th e greater Southeast include dates as late as the sixth century B.C. One assay on a sooted sherd from Johns Island at the mouth of the Chassahowitzka River (some 70 km south of the study area) is 2660 B.P. (cal 855790 B.C.), well after the demise of Poverty Point exchange (Sassaman 2006). Thus, at least two distinct processes were involved in the delivery of this nonlocal product to points far to the south of geological sources and sites of manufacture. Coupled with study of the contexts and associations of soapstone vessels at study-area sites,

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Conclusions and Recommendations 149 geochemical sourcing data will help to adva nce insight on the patter ns and processes of exchange. By about A.D. 1, the study area was home to communities who made and used both Pasco and Deptford pottery. As noted above, these two pottery traditions trace respectively to the south and north. It follows that their convergence locally will not be understood without investigating the histories of interregional movement and influence elsewhere. Unfortunately, the Deptford tradi tion has not garnered as much attention as its counterparts in the Swift Creek and Weed en Island traditions that followed, and the Pasco tradition is even less well known. We certainly do not want to presume that the timing of Deptford and Pasco in the study area conforms to chronologi es elsewhere, but it will take many nonlocal age estimatesalong with many local age estimatesto reconstruct the sequence of developments. The closest nonlocal Pasco age estimates available are from two sites in the Withlac hoochee area to the south. These estimates are in the range of cal A.D. 400-600 (Weisman 1 984), a few centuries later than those we have thus far from the study area. As noted ear lier, we have reason to suspect that Pasco was not widely used in the study after abou t cal A.D. 200-300. It will take many more assays to determine if this chronology reflects the differential persistence of Pasco to the south, a time-trangressive trend of use from north to south, or, very likely, an artifact of inadequate sampling. Whatever the case my be, our understanding of the coalescence of Deptford and Pasco traditions at sites in the study area will be requisite to any understanding of the local emergence of the Swift Creek and Weeden Island traditions. Emergence of the Swift Creek and then Weeden Island traditions raises issues well beyond the chronology of culture change The local manifestations of these traditions are among the many outcomes of the religious movement known as Hopewell. Nonlocal materials of ritual import (e.g., ga lena, copper, mica, greenstone), elaborate pottery, and mortuary mound practices serve te stimony to connections or influences that ultimately trace to developments in the Hope well heartland of the Midwest. Beyond these material parallels, the processes and pa tterns of extralocal c onnections are poorly understood. Early Swift Creek (ca. cal A.D. 100) in Florida is believed to have emerged in the Panhandle region from Deptford root s in what archaeologists refer to as Santa Rosa-Swift Creek and its Yent-Green Point complex of elaborated burial practices and Hopewell-related sumptuary items. Swift Creek is not generally believed to have extended far down the Florida peninsula, but the study area has more than a trace amount of Swift Creek pottery and a few sites with appreciable assemblages. The age of these components is currently unknown. Regionally, the Weeden Island tradition arose only a century or two after the app earance of Swift Creek culture (ca. cal A.D. 200-300), but its beginnings in the study area ar e likewise poorly dated. Th e McKeithan Weeden Island tradition was fully underway in north-central Florida after about cal A.D. 200, as was the Cades Pond tradition that apparently beget the Al achua tradition five cen turies later. We thus have not only northern and southern coastal influences to investigate, but also those of interior Florida, notably up the Suwannee River. Not since the work of Kohler (1975) at the Garden Patc h site north in our study area has anyone investigated the connections between interior and coastal peoples of the

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150 Lower Suwannee Archaeological Survey 2009-2010 Suwannee River valley. To the extent th at communities who made and used Alachua cob-marked pottery in the interior either migrat ed to the coast or inte racted regularly with coastal communities, corn agriculture may have factored into local histories as early as A.D. 700. Yet, despite the direct evidence fo r corn in the cob impressions of Alachua pottery, the degree to which in terior groups, let alone coastal groups, consumed corn is a matter than has yet to be re solved. We know, of course, that corn agriculture was significant to Safety Harbor communities of the Tampa Bay region after A.D. 800. But while Safety Harbor sherds, lik e Alachua sherds, turn up occa sionally at many sites in the study area, we have no hard evidence yet to suggest corn agriculture ever made a foothold locally. We are likewise uncertain ab out later, historic-era occupation of the study area by native peoples, although occasi onal instances of Leon-Jefferson check stamped, Chattahoochee Brushed, and other cont act era wares attest to the Seminole and mission presence known from cryptic historic records. In sum, the occurrence of nonlocal materi al culture at sites across the study area, extending back to Late Archaic times, is accompanied by a series of transformations locally, particularly in burial practices and the built environment, that remind us of the intricate, mutually constitutive histories of local and extralocal peoples. As we move forward with research in the Lower Suwannee Survey we must strive to situate local developments in the broader arena of alliances, migrations, coalescences, and diasporas that were played out over vast geographies and varied cultural traditions. We must likewise strive to unde rstand how large-scale and long-term processe s were experienced locally, especially consideri ng the unique rhythms and contours of local environments, including the particular histories material ized in mounds, ridges, and other places of enduring visibility. RECOMMENDATIONS There is clearly much to be done in the Lower Suwannee and Cedar Key refuges to achieve the level of arch aeological knowledge necessary fo r effective management and preservation planning. Fortunately, much of the needed data on chronology, settlement distribution, and resource use can be developed from field investiga tions and collections research without extensive excavations and undu e impact. However, the relentless forces of nature, as well as sporadic human impacts, continue to diminish the research potential of many refuge sites (and priv ate and state inholdings), undersc oring the need to continue rescue operations at the most vulnerable locations. In the recommendations that follow, we review the list of sites in need of rescue, and follow with recommendations for ongoing reconnaissance. Our final recommendati ons entail dimensions of research that will provide the contexts by which the signifi cance of archaeological sites, per federal statute, is established. Rescue The list of sites currently eroding at the waters edge and subj ect to surge damage is long and incomplete. Below are those for wh ich we have at least paid a visit and/or

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Conclusions and Recommendations 151 have collections donated by priv ate citizens, who also prov ided good information on the rate and magnitude of er osion at several sites. Fishbone Creek (8DI21B and 8DI21C) Butler Island (8DI97) Bird Island (8DI52; private inholding) Cotton Island (8DI51; private inholding) Shired Island (8DI7) Big Pine Island (8DI22, 23, 24) Little Pine Island (8DI64) Harris Neck North (8DI39B) Long Cabbage Key (8LV61, 8LV123) Derrick Key (8LV122) McCalmory Key (8LV288; state inholding) Rattlesnake Key (8LV287) Cedar Point Key (8LV25) Atsena Otie (East) (8LV15, 8LV417, 8LV418, 8LV434) Scale Key (8LV268-271) Dog Island (8LV278) North Key (8LV65, 8LV66A, 8LV66B Seahorse Key (8LV64, 8LV68) All of these sites express shoreline mi dden deposits that are actively eroding, but many seaward islands in the Shell Mound and Cedar Key ar eas (e.g., Long Cabbage Key, Derrick Key, McClamory Key, Rattlesnake Key, Dog Island) are especially vulnerable; some may contain only eroded and redeposit ed archaeological materials. Before committing to test-unit sampling of these scant terrestrial landforms, it would be wise to conduct some limited coring to check for intact deposits. Time is running short for any intact remnants. Several of the low-elevati on sites in the Delta area (e.g., Harris Creek North) express midden in erosional scarps but no midden exposed on landward, terrestrial surfaces. Like sites at Cat Island and Little Bradford Island, these locations may have the same storm deposits that sealed shell middens up to 40 cm deep, concealing remnants of middens revealed at that shoreline. Again, cori ng or shovel testing will help to establish the existence of intact portions of middens before test units are sited. A specific proposal for a second round of resc ue operations (to be issued to U.S. Fish and Water under separate cover), will entail work at sites in tracts already investigated, as well as expansion into areas yet to be investigated. On the former, we propose testing at Harris Neck North (8DI39B) in the Delta tract and at Long Cabbage Key (8LV61, 8LV123) and Derrick Key (8LV122) in the Shell Mound tract. On the latter, we propose testing at Fishbone Creek (8DI21B and 8DI21C) in the Shired Island tract. In addition, we plan to initiate test ing at Bird Island (8DI 52), a private inholding for which we have preliminary permission from the landowners.

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152 Lower Suwannee Archaeological Survey 2009-2010 Reconnaissance Plans for continuing reconna issance in the study area have been influenced by the results of site visits precipit ated by the Deepwater Horizon o il spill of 2010. In the Shell Mound tract, Randall and Mons (personal communication, 2010) observed complexes of above-ground shell features on several islands, none of wh ich have been adequately documented in previous surveys. Among them is Komar, just to the south of Shell Mound. A UF crew in 1989 paid a short visit to Komar and recorded some information about site 8LV290, a ridged, horseshoe-shaped midden with shell mounds on either side (Borremans and Moseley 1990:29). Randall and Mons verified the presence of the ridge and mounds but also noted additional features. Systematic survey is needed to identify all such features, and shovel tests are needed to establis h the below-ground aspects of both these features and intervening areas of the island. An even more complex array of ridges and mounds was observed by Randall and Mons at Raleigh Island to the north of Shell Mound. Two sites were previously recorded on the isla nd (8LV293, 8LV294), but virtually nothing is known about the extent, depth, and content of either site. Systematic shovel testing is needed to complete the inventory of archaeologica l remains on Raleigh Island and to begin to differentiate what appears to be dozens of discre te, yet interlocking village middens. Additional reconnaissance survey in the Shell Mound tract has already commenced at two private inhol dings: Deer Island and Clar k Island. Both locations house extensive subsurface midden deposits, as well above-ground features, notably a large arcuate ridge at the north end of Deer Island, dated to cal. A.D. 20-220. Lastly, the Hog Island mounds in the Suwannee Delta (8LV26, 27, 39) have yet to be located. We therefore recommend a directed reconnaissance mission to survey the island complex, first with pedestrian surv ey and limited shovel tests. Systematic subsurface testing of the entire island comp lex should await the results of pedestrian survey, specifically the lo cations of the three mounds (or mound remnants) Moore observed, in order to avoid area s of possible human interment. Additional, Problem-Specific Tasks Shell Mound (8LV42) is the largest intact archaeological deposit in the study area and its long-term preservation is ensured th rough U.S. Fish and Wildlife stewardship. However, we know very little about its age, internal structure, and composition. The early work of Bullen and Dolen (1960) yiel ded limited information and raised more questions than it answered. We can glean fr om this work that the upper mantle of oyster shell contains Pasco pottery, plain sand-tempered sherds, and so me St. Johns plain sherds. We also know from this work that a stratigraphic unconformity was reached at about 1.5 m below the surface that would suggest the mound summit may have been used for habitation, and that an increase in clam (s pp?) points to possible changes in the local environment.

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Conclusions and Recommendations 153 Based on these limited but tantalizing obser vations, we suspect that Shell Mound may have taken shape well before A.D. 1, possibly even during the prepottery era (i.e., pre-2500 cal B.C.). Repeated surface inspections on casual visits to the mound reveal virtually no pottery. As noted earlier, we have good reason to believe that Shell Mound has not been radically altered by mining in th e modern era, so that its horseshoe plan open to the eastmatches the plans we see at Komar, Richards Island, Deer Island, and other sites in the immediate vicinity. In this sense, Shell Mound is the anchor of a complex of similar but smaller above-ground features whose inception in the area extends back at least 2000 years. It follows that Shell Mound is not only key to understanding the development and transformation of the built environment, but it is also possibly the longest sequence of deposition and thus our best site-specific proxy for changing environmental conditions in this locality. We recommend very limited, strategic tes ting of Shell Mound to establish its basal age and sequence of deposition in its lower unit. Given the number of side-slope exposures from erosion, tree throws, and limite d mining, we expect to be able to record stratigraphy of Shell Mound without having to sink a test unit into intact upslope or summit deposits. In our work on shell mounds in the middle St. Johns region of northeast Florida this approach has been dubbed p rofile facing. Th e method involves the placement of a 2 x 2-m unit at the base of an erosional escarpment (typically resulting from mining in the St. Johns), situated sufficiently into the si deslope to enable a vertical profile of the bottom 1-2 m of mound fill. The unit is then taken down incrementally to expose subsurface deposits. A 50 x 50-cm column of bulk samples is taken from one of the sidewalls after profiles are photographed and drawn. A ll removed fill from level excavation is processed on site with -inch hardware cloth, but bulk samples are returned to the lab for fine waterscreening to pr ovide good materials fo r dating, subsistence reconstruction, and paleoecological proxies. Coupled with limited testing at Shell M ound, we propose analysis of the extant collections from the other Hog Island (a.k.a. Graveyard Island, Palmetto Island, Rattlesnake Island, Pine Island, and Pine Key [Mitchem 1999:7]), to the immediate west of Shell Mound. A burial mound on Hog Island (8 LV2/7) has been severely impacted by antiquarians and looters, and there may be little left of this once impressive feature. We know from historical accounts of the mound that it contained human interments and artifacts of Swift Creek and Weeden Island age. A large assemblage of pottery from this location is curated at the Florida Museum of Natural History. Museum ceramicist Ann Cordell sorted this assemblage into vessel lots years ago and now Curator Neill Wallis is analyzing some of the pottery as an extension of his estab lished research on Swift Creek exchange and ritual (Wallis 2011). An underg raduate at the University of Florida has expressed interest in working with the Weeden Island pottery in this collection, and Wallis and Cordell have expressed support and offered assistance with this project. In addition, one of us (Mons) has tracked down an assemblage of pottery from 8LV2/7 that was unearthed by Montague Tallant in the middl e part of the last ce ntury. The collection housed at the South Florida Museum in Br adenton includes notes and photographs of Tallants excavations.

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154 Lower Suwannee Archaeological Survey 2009-2010 Finally, efforts to develop independent data on environmental change must commence soon. We propose in the near-term fu ture a program of geological coring in areas adjacent to archaeological deposits to develop fine-grained profiles of changing shoreline and near-shore conditions. Basical ly, we propose a program of coring similar to that conducted by Wright et al. (2005) but at greater spat ial and temporal resolution. Basic stratigraphic data on marsh and reef formation, transgressive shorelines, and erosional facies can be coupled with biomarkers for changing salinity and temperature to reconstruct in detail the conditions under wh ich sites were esta blish, occupied, and abandoned. We propose to conduct coring in the marsh sedime nts of two localities: the Suwannee Delta in proximity of Cat Island an d Little Bradford, and in the Shell Mound tract in the vicinity of Shell M ound, Deer Island, and Richards Island. Specific proposals following from the recommendations outlined above will be issued to U.S. Fish and Wildlife Services in collaboration with cultural resource personnel and refuge managers. We reiterate in closing this report both the enormous potential of refuge sites for developing nuan ced understanding of culture change in the context of rapid and nonlinear environmental change, as well as the pressing need to salvage information from refuge sites that are under threat of imminent destruction. A comprehensive program of investigation th at includes rescue, reconnaissance, and research is required to transition from a reactive to a proactive program of cultural resource management.

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158 Lower Suwannee Archaeological Survey 2009-2010 Ecker, A. 1878 Zur Kenntniss des Krperbaues frhere r Einwohner der Halbinsel Florida. Archiv. Fr Anthrop ., vol. 10, pp. 101-114. Endonino, Jon C. 2010 Thornhill Lake: Hunter-Gatherers, Monuments, and Memory. Ph.D. dissertation, Department of Anthropology, University of Florida, Gainesville. Farrell, Mark D., John Good, David Horns by, Anthony Janicki, Rob Mattson, and Sam Upchurch 2005 MFL Establishment for the Lower Suwannee River and Estuary, Little Fanning, Fanning, and Manatee Springs. Technical Report, Suwannee River Water Management District. Faught, Michael K. 2004 The Underwater Archaeology of Pale olandscapes, Apalachee Bay, Florida. American Antiquity 69:275. Frazier, D. E. 1974 Depositional-Episodes: The Relationship to the Quaternary Stratigraphic Framework in the Northwestern Portion of the Gulf Basin. Geological Circularion 74(1)1-28. Fitzgerald, Duncan M., Michae l S. Fenster, Britt A. Ar gow, and Ilya V. Buynevich 2008 Coastal Impacts Due to Sea-Level Rise. Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences 36:601-647. Goggin, J. M. 1952 Space and Time Perspectives in Northern St. Johns Archaeology, Florida Yale University Publications in Anth ropology 47. Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut. Goldburt, J. S. 1966 The Archaeology of Shired Island Unpublished M.A. thesis, Department of Anthropology, University of Florida, Gainesville. Goodbred, Steven L., and Albert C. Hine 1995 Coastal Storm Deposition: Salt-Marsh Response to a Severe Extratropical Storm, March 1993, West-Central Florida. Geology 23:679-682. Goodbred, S. L., A. C. Hine, and E. E. Wright 1998 Sea-Level Change and Storm Surge Deposition in a Late Holocene Florida Salt Marsh. Journal of Sedimentary Research 68:240-252.

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References Cited 159 Hine, Albert C., Daniel F. Belknap, Joan G. Hutton, Eric B. Osking, and Mark W. Evans 1988 Recent Geological History and Mode rn Sedimentary Processes Along an Incipient, Low-Energy, EpicontinentalSea Coastline: Northwest Florida. Journal of Sedimentary Petrology 58(4)567-579. Ivester, A. H., D.S. Leigh, and D. I. Godrey-Smith 2001 Chronology of Inland Eolian Dunes on the Coastal Plain of Georgia, USA. Quaternary Research 55:293. Janus Research, Inc. 2001 Cultural Resources Assessment Survey of Four Dredge Disposal Areas, Dixie County, Florida Janus Research, Inc., St. Petersburg, Florida. Jones, B. C. 1992 Archaeological Evaluation of Lions Club Lot in Cedar Key, Florida: Salvage of Historic Burials and Pr eservation of Weeden Island (Pasco) Burial Area Florida Archaeological Reports 9. Bureau of Archaeo logical Research, Division of Historical Resources Florida department of State, Tallahassee. Jones, Paul L. and Nina T. Borremans 1991 An Archaeological Survey of the Gulf Hammock, Florida Institute of Archaeology and Paleoenvironmental Studies, University of Florida, Gainesville. Kilgen, Ronald H. and Ronald J. Dugas 1989 The Ecology of Oyster Reefs of the Northern Gulf of Mexico: An Open File Report Prepared for the U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service. Kohl, Marin 2010 Freshwater Molluscan Shells/Cor biculidae. Electronic document. http://mkohl1.net/ Corbiculidae.html, accessed May 21, 2010. Kohler, Timothy A. 1975 The Garden Patch Site: A Minor We eden Island Ceremonial Center on the Northern Peninsular Florida Gulf Coast. Unpublished M.A. thesis, Department of Anthropology, University of Florida, Gainesville. Koski, Steve, Jennifer Langdale, Jecyn Brem er, Lisa OSteen, and Pamela Vojnovski 2003 A Cultural Resource Assessment Survey of Four Parcels and Site Evaluation Study of 8DI29, 8DI150, and 8DI165 for th e Suwannee River Dredging Project, Dixie County, Florida Technical Report 1070, New South Associates, Inc., Stone Mountain, Georgia. Leal, J. H. 2002 Gastropods. In The Living Marine Resources of the Western Central Atlantic. Volume 2, Mollusks, Crustaceans, Hagfishes, Sharks, Batoid fishes and

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160 Lower Suwannee Archaeological Survey 2009-2010 Chimaeras. FAO Identification Guide for Fishery Purposes, edited by K.E. Carpenter, pp. 99-147. The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome. Leonard, Lynn A., Albert C. Hine, and Mark E. Luther 1995 Surficial Sediment Transport and Deposition Processes in a Juncus roemerianus Marsh, West-Central Florida. Journal of Coastal Research 11(2)322-336. Light, Helen M., Melanie R. Darst, Lo ri J. Lewis, and David A. Howell 2002 Hydrology, Vegetation, and Soils of Rive rine and Tidal Floo dplain Forests of the Lower Suwannee River, Florida, and Po tential Impacts of Flow Reductions. U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1656A. Livingston, Robert J. 1990 Inshore Marine Habitats. In Ecosystems of Florida, edited by Ronald J. Myers and John J. Ewel, pp. 549-573. University of Central Florida Press, Orlando. Lofaro, Ellen 2009 Zooarchaeology Report from Cat Is land. Paper on file, Laboratory of Southeastern Archaeology, department of Anthropology, University of Florida, Gainesville. Lott, Neal 1993 The Big One! A Review of the Ma rch 12-14, 1993 Storm of the Century. Technical Report 93-01. National Clima tic Date Center Research Customer Service Group. Lourandos, H. l988 Palaeopolitics: Resource Intensifica tion in Aboriginal Australia and Papua New Guinea. In Hunters and Gatherers I: Histor y, Evolution and Social Change, edited by T. Ingold, D. Riches, and J. Woodburn, pp. 148-60. Berg, Oxford. Lower Suwannee National Wildlife Refuge 2010 U.S. Fish and Wildlife. Electr onic document, http://www.fws.gov/ lowersuwannee Accessed June 15, 2010. Luer, George, D. Allerton, D. Hazeltine, R. Hatfield, and D. Hood 1986 Whelk Shell Tool Blanks from Big Mound Key (8CH10), Charlotte County, Florida: With Notes on certain Whelk Shell Tools. In Shells and Archaeology in Southern Florida, edited by G. Luer, pp. 92-124. Florida Anthropological Society, Publicati on 12. Tallahassee.

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References Cited 161 MacKenzie, Clyde L., Jr. 2004 Rangia and Marsh Clams, Rangia cun eata, R. flexuosa, and Polymesoda caroliniana, in eastern Mexico: distribu tion, biology and ecology, and historical fisheries. Marine Fisheries Review Summer 2004. Markewich, H.W., and William Markewich 1994 An Overview of Pleistocene and Ho locene Inland Dunes in Georgia and the Carolinas Morphology, Distribution, Age, and Paleoclimate. Submitted to U.S. Geological Survey, Bulletin 2069. Marquardt, William H. 2010a Shell Mounds in the Southeast: Middens, Monuments, Temple Mounds, Rings, or Works? American Antiquity 75(3):551-570. 2010b Mounds, Middens, and Rapid Climate Change during the Archaic-Woodland Transition in the Southeastern United States. In Trend, Tradition, and Turmoil: What Happened to the Southeastern Archaic? edited by D. H. Thomas and M. C. Sanger, pp. 253-271. Anthropological Papers of the American Museum of Natural History, vol. 93. New York. Marquardt, William H. (editor) 1992 Culture and Environment in th e Domain of the Calusa. Monograph 1, Institute of Archaeology and Paleoenvironm ental Studies, University of Florida, Gainesville. McFadden, Paullette 2009 Fauna Analysis of Vertebrate Remains from Cat Island in the Lower Suwannee River Valley, Northwest Gulf Coas t, Florida. Paper on file, Laboratory of Southeastern Archaeology, Departme nt of Anthropology, University of Florida, Gainesville. Milanich, Jerald T. 1994 Archaeology of Precolumbian Florida Gainesville: University Press of Florida. Milanich, Jerald T., Ann S. Cordell, Ver non J. Knight, Jr., Timothy A. Kohler, and Brenda J. Sigler-Lavelle 1984 McKeithan Weeden Island: The Culture of Northern Florida, A.D. 200-900 Academic Press, New York. Miller, James 1998 An Environmental History of Northeast Florida University Press of Florida, Gainesville.

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162 Lower Suwannee Archaeological Survey 2009-2010 Mitchell-Tapping, Hugh J., Aleta M. Mitchell -Tapping, Thomas J. Lee, and Cathy R. Williams 1989 Core Evidence of Sea Level High Stands in Southwestern Florida during the Last 5,000 Years Estero Bay Marine Laborator y, Ft. Myers Beach, Florida. Mitchem, Jeffrey M. 1999 C. B. Moores Work in Centra l and West Florida, 1895-1921. In The East Florida Expeditions of Cl arence Bloomfield Moore edited by J. M. Mitchem, pp. 1-48. University of Alabama Press, Tuscaloosa. Moore, Clarence B. 1902 Certain Aboriginal Remains of the Northwest Florida Coast, Part II. Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 12:128-358. 1903 Certain Aboriginal Mounds of the Florida Central West Coast. Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 12:361-438. 1918 The Northwest Florida Coast Revisited. Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 16:514-580. Montague, Clay L., and Richard G. Weigert 1990 Salt Marshes. In Ecosystems of Florida, edited by Ronald J. Myers and John J. Ewel, pp. 481-516. University of Central Florida Press, Orlando. Morton, R. A., J.G. Paine, and M.D. Blum 2000 Responses of Stable Bay-Margin and Barrier Island Systems to Holocene SeaLevel Highstands, Western Gulf of Mexico. Journal of Sedimentary Research 70:478-490. Myers, Ronald L., and John J. Ewel (editors) 1990 Ecosystems of Florida University of Centra l Florida Press, Orlando. Mykel, Nancy 1962 A Weeden Island Excavation. Paper on f ile, Florida Master Site Files, Survey #11936. Bureau of Archaeological Researc h, Division of Historical Resources, Florida department of State, Tallahassee. National Buoy Data Center (NBDC) 2010 Historical Data. Electronic document, http://www.ndbc.noaa.gov/ station_history.php?station=cdrf1. Accessed June 15, 2010. National Climatic Data Center (NCDC) 2006 Climate of Florida Climate Services Branch, Asheville, NC. Electronic document, http://coaps.fsu.edu/climate_center/specials/climateofflorida.pdf. Accessed June 15, 2010.

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References Cited 163 Nelson, H. F., and E. E. Bray 1970 Stratigraphic History of the Holocen e Sediments of the Sabine-High Island Area, Gulf of Mexico. In Deltaic Sedimentation. Modern and Ancient edited by J. P. Morgan and R. J. Shaver, pp. 48-77. SEPM Special Publication 15. Nelson, M. C., and M. Hegmon 2001 Abandonment is Not as it Seems: An Approach to the Relationship between Site and Regional Abandonment. American Antiquity 66:213. Ning, Zhu H., Thomas Doyle, and Kamran Abdollahi 2008 Gulf Coastal Forests in a Changing Climate Electronic document, http://www.safnet.org/fp/documents/coastal_forests_in_changing_climate_08.pdf, accessed June 15, 2010. Oliver-Smith, Anthony 2003 Theorizing Disasters: Nature, Culture, Power. In Culture and Catastrophe: The Anthropology of Disaster edited by Susanna M. Hoffman and Anthony OliverSmith. The School of American Res earch Press, Santa Fe, New Mexico. Otvos, Ervin G. 2001 Assumed Holocene Highstand, Gulf of Mexico: Basic Issues of Sedimentary and Landform Criteria. Journal of Sedimentary Research 71: 645-647 2004 Holocene Gulf Levels: Recognition Issu es and an Updated Sea-Level Curve. Journal of Coastal Research 20(3)680-699. Pluckhahn, Thomas J., Victor D. Thompson, and Brent R. Weisman 2010 Toward a New View of History a nd Process and Crystal River (8CI1). Southeastern Archeology 29:164-181. Randall, Asa R., Micah P. Mones, and Kenneth E. Sassaman 2010 Visit Shell City: Another Coastsid e Attraction. Paper presented at the 67th Annual Meeting of the Southeastern Archaeological Conference, Lexington, Kentucky. Robbin, D. M. 1984 A New Holocene Sea-Level Curve for the Upper Florida Keys and Florida Reef Tract. In Environments of South Florida. Present and Past II edited by P. J. Gleason, pp. 437-458. Miami Geological Society, Coral Gables. Rodriguez, A. B., J. B. Anderson, F. B. Siringan, and M. Taviani 1999 Sedimentary Facies and Genesis of Holocene Sand Banks on the East Texas Inner Continental Shelf: Isolated Shallow Marine Sand Bodies. In Society of Economic Paleontologists and Mineralogi sts Special Publication 64 edited by J. Snedden and K. Bergman. pp. 165-178.

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164 Lower Suwannee Archaeological Survey 2009-2010 Rubin, J. 1962 Hog Island Burial Mound, LV2. Paper on file, Florida Master Site Files, Survey #11935. Bureau of Archaeological Research, Division of Historical Resources, Florida department of State, Tallahassee. Russo, Michael 1991 Archaic Sedentism on the Florida Coast: A Case Study from Horr's Island. Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of An thropology, University of Florida, Gainesville. 1996 Southeastern Archaic Mounds. In Archaeology of the Mid-Holocene Southeast edited by K. E. Sassaman and D. G. Anderson, pp. 259-287. University Press of Florida, Gainesville. 2004 Measuring Shell Rings for Social Inequality. In Signs of Power: The Rise of Cultural Complexity in the Southeast edited by L. Gibson and P. Carr, P., pp. 2670. University of Alabama Press, Tuscaloosa. 2010 Shell Rings and Other Settlement Featur es as Indicators of Cultural Continuity between the Late Archaic and Woodla nd Periods of Coastal Florida. In Trend, Tradition, and Turmoil: What Happe ned to the Southeastern Archaic?, edited by D. H. Thomas and M. C. Sanger, pp. 149-172. Anthropological Papers of the American Museum of Natural History, New York. Russo, Michael, and Greg Heide 2001 Shell Rings of the Southeast USA. Antiquity 75:491. Sassaman, Kenneth E. 2006 Dating and Explaining Soapstone Vessels: A Comment on Truncer. American Antiquity 71:141-156 2009 Proposal for Sustained Archaeological Investigation in the Lower Suwannee and Cedar Key National Wildlife Refuges, Florida. Submitted to the Regional Historic Preservation Officer and Regional Archaeologist, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Services Southeast Region. Sassaman, Kenneth E., and Asa R. Randall 2011 Shell Mounds of the Middle St. Jo hns Basin, Northeast Florida. In The Origins of Monumentality edited by R. Rosenswig and R. Burger. University Press of Florida, Gainesville (in press). Saunders, Rebecca 2004 Stratigraphy at the Rollins Shell Ring Site: Implications for Ring Function. The Florida Anthropologist 57(4):249-270.

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References Cited 165 Scholl, D. W., F. C. Craighead, and M. Stuiver 1969 Florida Submergence Curve Revised: Its Relation to Coastal Sedimentation Rates. Science 163:562-564. Schwadron, Margo 2010 Landscapes of Maritime Complexity: Pr ehistoric Shell Work Sites of the Ten Thousand Islands, Florida. Ph.D. dissertation, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, University of Leicester. Sears, William H. 1973 The Scared and Secular in Prehistoric Ceramics. In Variation in Anthropology, Essays in Honor of John McGregor edited by D. Lathrop and J. Douglas, pp. 31-42. Illinois Arch aeological Survey, Urbana. Stapor, F. W., T. D. Mathews, and F. E. Lindfors-Kearns 1991 Barrier Island Progradation and Ho locene Sea-Level History in Southwest Florida. Journal of Coastal Research 7:815-838. Stearns, R. E. C. 1869 Rambles in Florida. The American Naturalist 3:349-356. Stephenson, Keith, Judith A. Bense, and Frankie Snow 2002 Aspects of Deptford and Swift Creek on the South Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plains. In The Woodland Southeast edited by D. G. Anderson and R. C. Mainfort, Jr., pp. 318-351. University of Alabama Press, Tuscaloosa. Stojanowski, C. M. 2002 Hydrodynamic Sorting in a Coastal Marine Skeletal Assemblage. International Journal of Osteoarchaeology 12:259-278. Stojanowski, C. M., and G. H. Doran 1998 Osteology of the Late Archaic Bird Island Population. The Florida Anthropologist 51:139-145. Tanner, William F. 2000 Beach Ridge History, Sea Level Change, and the A.D. 536 Event. In The Years Without Summer: Tracing A.D. 536 and Its Aftermath edited by J. D. Gunn, pp. 89-97. British Archaeological Reports, Internatio nal Series 872. Thomas, M. A. 1990 The Impact of Long-Term and ShortTerm Sea-Level Changes on the Evolution of the Wisconsinan-Holocene Trinity/Sabine Incised Valley System, Texas Continental Shelf. Ph.D. Dissertation, Rice University, Houston, Texas.

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166 Lower Suwannee Archaeological Survey 2009-2010 Thomas, M. A. and J. B. Anderson 1994 Sea-Level Controls on the Facies Architecture of Three Trinity/Sabine Incised-Valley System, Texas Continental Shelf. In SEPM Special Publication 51 edited by R. Boyd, B.A. Zaitlin, and R. Dalrymple. pp. 63-82. Trnqvist, T. E., J. L. Gonzalez, L. A. Newsom, K. Van Der Borg, and A. De Jong 2002 Reconstructing Background Rates of Sea-Level Rise as a Tool for Forecasting Coastal Wetland Loss, Mississippi Delta. Transaction of the American Geophysical Union 83(46)525, 530, 531. Toscano, M. A., and I. G. Macintyre 2003 Corrected Western Atlantic Sea-Leve l Curve for the Last 11,000 Years Based on Calibrated 14C Dates form Acropora palmate Framework and Intertidal Mangrove Peat. Coral Reefs 22:257-270. Tuckey, Troy D., and Mark Dehaven 2004 Fish Assemblages found in Tidal-Creek and Seagrass Habitats in the Suwannee River Estuary. Fishery Bulletin 104 (1)102-117. United States Geological Survey 2009 Florida Biology: Atlantic Rangia Rangia cuneata (marine). Electronic document, http://fl.biology.usgs.gov/pics /nonindig_misc_mollusks/bivalves/ bivalves_6.html, accessed May 21, 2010. University of Florida 2010 Seven Soil Orders of Florida Electronic document, http://www.sfrd.ufl.edu/Extension/ff ws/soilord.htm, accessed June 15, 2010. USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service 1996 Soil Survey of Levy County, Florida USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service, Washington, D.C. Vogeles, A. W. 1879 Notes on a Lost Race of America. The American Naturalist 13(1):9-11. Walker, S. T. 1883 The Aborigines of Florida. Annual Re port of the Smithsonian Institution for 1881, pp. 677-680. Washington, D.C. 1885 Mounds and Shell Heaps on the West Coast of Florida. Annual Report of the Smithsonian Institution for 1883 pp. 854-868. Washington, D.C. Walker, Karen J. 1992 The Zooarchaeology of Charlotte Harbors Prehistoric Maritime Adaptation: Spatial and Temporal Perspectives. In Culture and Environment in the Domain of

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References Cited 167 the Calusa edited by W. H. Marquardt, pp. 265-366. Monograph 1, Institute of Archaeology and Paleoenvironmental Studies, University of Florida, Gainesville. Walker, K. J., F. W. Stapor, and W. H. Marquardt 1995 Archaeological Evidence for a 1750-1450 BP Higher-Than-Present Sea Level along Floridas Gulf Coast. Journal of Coastal Research Special Issue 17, Holocene Cycles: Climate, Sea Levels, and Sedimentation 205-218. Walker, Karen J., and Willia m H. Marquardt (editors) n.d. The Archaeology of Pineland: A Coastal Southwest Florida Village Complex, A.D. 50-1700. Monograph 4, Institute of Arch aeology and Paleoenvironmental Studies, University of Florida, Gainesville. Wallis, Neill J. 2011 The Swift Creek Gift: Vessel Exchange on the Atlantic Coast University of Alabama Press, Tuscaloosa. Weinstein, Richard A., and Karen L. Mayo 2006 Historic Assessment and Cultural Re source Survey for the Suwannee River O&M Projects Upland Disposal Site, Dixie County, Florida Coastal Environments, Inc., Baton Rouge, Louisiana. Weisman, Brent R. 1984 New Radiocarbon Dates from Withlacoochee River Shell Middens. The Florida Anthropologist 37(4):204-205. Wheeler, Ryan 1998 Little Bradford Island (8LV32). Letter report on file, Florida Master Site Files, Survey #11936. Bureau of Archaeol ogical Research, Divi sion of Historical Resources, Florida department of State, Tallahassee. Willey, Gordon R. 1949 Archaeology of the Florida Gulf Coast. Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections 113. Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. Wright, Eric E., Albert C. Hine, Steven L. Goodbred, Jr., and Stanley D. Locker 2005 The Effect of Sea-Level and Climate Change on the Development of a Mixed Siliciclastic-Carbonate, Deltaic Coastline: Suwannee River, Florida, U.S.A. Journal of Sedimentary Research 75:621-635 Wyman, Jeffries 1870 Explorations in Florida. Third Annual Report of the Trustees of the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology pp. 8-9. Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts.

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168 Lower Suwannee Archaeological Survey 2009-2010 1875 Fresh-Water Shell Mounds of the St. John's River, Florida. Peabody Academy of Science Memoir 4. Yates, Wm. Brian 2000 Implications of Late Archaic Exchange Networks in the Southeast as Indicated by Archaeological Evidence of Prehisto ric Soapstone Vessels throughout Florida Unpublished M. A. thesis, Department of Anthropology, Florida State University, Tallahassee.

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169 APPENDIX A CATALOG

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170 Lower Suwannee Archaeological Survey 2009-2010 8DI29 Prov. Lev/ Str Cat # Recovery Size Grade Material Description n Wt. (g) Notes TU1 A 1 0.25 0.25 Pottery Carabelle 1 37.9 TU1 A 2 0.25 0.25 Pottery Crumb 1 0.5 TU1 A 3 0.25 0.25 Lithics Chert 1 2.2 TU1 A 4 0.25 0.25 Lithics Metavol. 1 <0.0 TU1 A 5 0.25 0.25 Vert Fauna Otoliths 3 1.4 TU1 A 6 0.25 0.25 Vert Fauna Bone 14.1 TU1 A 7 0.25 0.25 Marine Shell UID 2 6.6 TU1 A 8 0.25 0.25 Metal 21 7.1 TU1 A 9 0.25 0.25 Glass 3 31.8 TU1 A 10 0.25 0.25 Concretions 1 26.0 TU1 B 1 Void reclassified TU1 B 2 0.25 0.25 Pottery Sand Temp. 2 17.2 TU1 B 3 0.25 0.25 Pottery Crumb 5 4.6 TU1 B 4 0.25 0.25 Lithics Chert 1 0.5 TU1 B 5 0.25 0.25 Vert Fauna Otoliths 10 2.9 TU1 B 6 0.25 0.25 Vert Fauna Bone 47.5 TU1 B 7 0.25 0.25 Misc. Shell 3 1.2 TU1 B 8 0.25 0.25 Concretions 1 11.7 TU1 B 9 0.25 0.25 Metal 31 9.3 TU1 B 10 0.25 0.25 Glass 1 11.7 TU1 C 1 0.25 0.25 Pottery Crumb 1 0.4 TU1 C 2 0.25 0.25 Lithics Chert 1 1.3 TU1 C 3 0.25 0.25 Soapstone Crumb 1 1.1 TU1 C 4 0.25 0.25 Vert Fauna Bone 18.5 TU1 C 5 0.25 0.25 Marine Shell UID 1 0.1 TU1 C 6 0.25 0.25 Metal 8 3.3 TU1 C 7 0.25 0.25 Pebble 1 0.2 TU1 D 1 0.25 0.25 Pottery Deptford 1 4.0 TU1 D 2 0.25 0.25 Pottery Sand Temp. 1 3.8 TU1 D 3 0.25 0.25 Pottery Sand Temp. 1 4.9 TU1 D 4 0.25 0.25 Pottery Crumb 1 0.2 TU1 D 5 0.25 0.25 Vert Fauna Otoliths 1 1.3 TU1 D 6 0.25 0.25 Vert Fauna Bone 31.5 TU1 D 7 0.25 0.25 Marine Shell UID 2 0.2 TU1 D 8 0.25 0.25 Concretions 2 6.3 TU1 D 9 0.25 0.25 Metal 4 3.4 TU1 D 10 0.25 0.25 Pottery Ruskin Dentate 1 11.6 TU1 E 1 0.25 0.25 Pottery Lockloosa 1 18.5 TU1 E 2 0.25 0.25 Pottery Sand Temp. 1 4.8 TU1 E 3 0.25 0.25 Pottery Sand Temp. 2 22.8 TU1 E 4 0.25 0.25 Pottery Sand Temp. 3 7.6 TU1 E 5 0.25 0.25 Pottery Sand Temp. 11 87.5 TU1 E 6 0.25 0.25 Pottery Crumb 3 3.8 Rims

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Appendix A: Catalog 171 8DI29 Prov. Lev/ Str Cat # Recovery Size Grade Material Description n Wt. (g) Notes TU1 E 7 0.25 0.25 Pottery Crumb 7 7.3 TU1 E 8 0.25 0.25 Charcoal 6 1.0 TU1 E 9 0.25 0.25 Lithics Chert 1 30.7 TU1 E 10 0.25 0.25 Vert Fauna Otoliths 1 0.2 TU1 E 11 0.25 0.25 Vert Fauna Bone 137.1 TU1 E 12 0.25 0.25 Marine Shell UID 5 0.3 TU1 E 13 0.25 0.25 Metal 69 19.9 TU1 F 1 0.25 0.25 Lithics Chert 2 1.8 TU1 F 2 0.25 0.25 Pottery Deptford 4 20.9 4 pieces crossmend counted as 1 TU1 F 3 0.25 0.25 Pottery Deptford 6 70.1 TU1 F 4 0.25 0.25 Pottery Weeden Island 3 34.4 2 pieces crossmend counted as 1 TU1 F 5 0.25 0.25 Pottery Sand Temp. 8 32.4 TU1 F 6 0.25 0.25 Pottery Sand Temp. 2 8.7 TU1 F 7 0.25 0.25 Pottery Sand Temp. 17 57.5 TU1 F 8 0.25 0.25 Pottery Deptford Lcs TU1 F 9 0.25 0.25 Pottery Sand Temp. 2 3.3 Rims TU1 F 10 0.25 0.25 Pottery Sand Temp. 25 22.8 TU1 F 11 0.25 0.25 Charcoal 4 0.5 nutshell TU1 F 12 0.25 0.25 Charcoal 7.5 TU1 F 13 0.25 0.25 Vert Fauna Otoliths 7 4.4 TU1 F 14 0.25 0.25 Vert Fauna Bone 442.3 TU1 F 15 0.25 0.25 Marine Shell Oyster 4.9 TU1 F 16 0.25 0.25 Misc. Rock 2 13.3 TU1 F 17 0.25 0.25 Glass 1 0.4 TU1 F 18 0.25 0.25 Vert Fauna Bone Dust 2.2 TU1 F 19 0.25 0.25 Pottery Wakulla 1 30.9 w/spicules (St. Johns?) TU1 F 20 0.25 0.25 Pottery Burnished 1 6.4 TU1 F 21 0.25 0.25 Pottery Weeden Island Red 1 11.4 TU1 F 22 0.25 0.25 Pottery Ruskin Dentate 16 192.9 TU1 G 1 0.25 0.25 Pottery Crumb 5 8.4 TU1 G 2 0.25 0.25 Lithics Chert 2 <0.0 TU1 G 3 0.25 0.25 Vert Fauna Otoliths 8 3.1 TU1 G 4 0.25 0.25 Charcoal 10 0.9 TU1 G 5 0.25 0.25 Vert Fauna Bone 301.2 TU1 G 6 0.25 0.25 Marine Shell Clam 2 11.1 TU1 G 7 0.25 0.25 Marine Shell Clam 1 7.2 TU1 G 8 0.25 0.25 Marine Shell Clam 10 2.2 TU1 G 9 0.25 0.25 Marine Shell UID 13 1.8 TU1 G 10 0.25 0.25 Concretions 10 26.6 TU1 G 11 0.25 0.25 Metal 1 0.1 TU1 G 12 0.25 0.25 Pottery Sand Temp. 1 9.9

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172 Lower Suwannee Archaeological Survey 2009-2010 8DI29 Prov. Lev/ Str Cat # Recovery Size Grade Material Description n Wt. (g) Notes TU1 H 1 0.25 0.25 Pottery Sand Temp. 1 3.9 TU1 H 2 0.25 0.25 Vert Fauna Otoliths 6 2.2 TU1 H 3 0.25 0.25 Charcoal 1 <0.0 TU1 H 4 0.25 0.25 Vert Fauna Bone 193.7 TU1 H 5 0.25 0.25 Marine Shell Clam 8 3.0 TU1 H 6 0.25 0.25 Marine Shell UID 9 3.3 TU1 H 7 0.25 0.25 Concretions 5 1.3 TU1 H 8 0.25 0.25 Metal 1 0.3 TU1 H 9 0.25 0.25 Pottery Sand Temp. 1 22.8 TU1 J 1 0.25 0.25 Lithics Chert 2 3.0 TU1 J 2 0.25 0.25 Vert Fauna Bone 14 16.1 TU1 J 3 0.25 0.25 Marine Shell UID 4 1.1 TU1 K 1 0.25 0.25 Marine Shell Busycon 1 271.9 TU1 K 2 0.25 0.25 Marine Shell Crown Conch 1 60.1 TU1 K 3 0.25 0.25 Vert Fauna Otoliths 1 0.5 TU1 K 4 0.25 0.25 Vert Fauna Bone 16 3.9 TU1 K 5 0.25 0.25 Marine Shell Oyster 1 9.4 TU1 K 6 0.25 0.25 Marine Shell Clam 1 7.9 TU1 K 7 0.25 0.25 Marine Shell UID 5 0.9 TU1 IVA 1 0.25 0.25 Pottery Ruskin Dentate 1 6.4 TU1 IVA 2 0.25 0.25 Lithics Chert 2 0.6 TU1 IVA 3 0.25 0.25 Marine Shell UID Conch 1 7.5 TU1 IVA 4 0.25 0.25 Vert Fauna Otoliths 1 0.4 TU1 IVA 5 0.125 0.13 Vert Fauna Otoliths 1 0.1 TU1 IVA 6 0.125 0.13 Charcoal 0.7 TU1 IVA 7 0.25 0.25 Vert Fauna Bone 4 0.7 TU1 IVA 8 0.125 0.13 Vert Fauna Bone 5.8 TU1 IVA 9 0.25 0.25 Marine Shell UID 1 0.4 TU1 IVA 10 0.25 0.25 Marine Shell UID 1 0.5 TU1 IVA 11 0.25 0.25 Marine Shell Oyster 21 71.2 TU1 IVA 12 0.25 0.25 Marine Shell Oyster 9 33.6 TU1 IVA 13 0.25 0.25 Marine Shell Oyster 137.0 TU1 IVA 14 0.25 0.25 Marine Shell UID 49.0 TU1 IVA 15 0.125 0.13 Marine Shell UID 20.0 TU1 IVA 16 Unsorted <1/8

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Appendix A: Catalog 173 8DI29 Prov. Lev/ Str Cat # Recovery Size Grade Material Description n Wt. (g) Notes TU1 IV-B 1 0.25 0.25 Marine Shell UID Conch 1 16.5 TU1 IV-B 2 0.25 0.25 Pottery Crumb 2 5.8 TU1 IV-B 3 0.125 0.13 Lithics 2 <0.0 TU1 IV-B 4 0.125 0.13 Vert Fauna Otoliths 4 0.8 TU1 IV-B 5 0.25 0.25 Charcoal 15 1.9 TU1 IV-B 6 0.125 0.13 Charcoal 4.4 TU1 IV-B 7 0.25 0.25 Vert Fauna Bone 25.6 TU1 IV-B 8 0.125 0.13 Vert Fauna Bone 55.6 TU1 IV-B 9 0.25 0.25 Marine Shell UID 1 1.0 TU1 IV-B 10 0.25 0.25 Marine Shell Oyster 35 129.4 TU1 IV-B 11 0.25 0.25 Marine Shell Oyster 29 103.0 TU1 IV-B 12 0.25 0.25 Marine Shell Oyster 220.0 TU1 IV-B 13 0.25 0.25 Marine Shell Clam 3 4.9 TU1 IV-B 14 0.25 0.25 Marine Shell Clam 1 1.6 TU1 IV-B 15 0.25 0.25 Marine Shell UID 19.0 TU1 IV-B 16 0.25 0.25 Marine Shell UID 89.6 TU1 IV-B 17 0.125 0.13 Marine Shell UID 67.0 TU1 IV-B 18 0.25 0.25 Concretions 3 4.7 TU1 IV-B 19 0.125 0.13 Concretions 4 0.4 TU1 IV-B 20 Unsorted <1/8 TU1 IV-B 21 0.25 0.25 Pottery Sand Temp. 1 5.1 burnished inside TU1 V-A 1 0.25 0.25 Bone Pin 1 2.2 2 pieces crossmend TU1 V-A 2 0.25 0.25 Pottery Crumb 4 3.4 TU1 V-A 3 0.25 0.25 Charcoal 3 0.2 TU1 V-A 4 0.125 0.13 Charcoal 1.0 TU1 V-A 5 0.25 0.25 Marine Shell UID Conch 2 13.1 TU1 V-A 6 0.25 0.25 Vert Fauna Otoliths 1 0.5 TU1 V-A 7 0.125 0.13 Vert Fauna Otoliths 1 0.2 TU1 V-A 8 0.25 0.25 Vert Fauna Bone 33.6 TU1 V-A 9 0.25 0.25 Marine Shell Oyster 68 270.1 TU1 V-A 10 0.25 0.25 Marine Shell Oyster 47 124.6 TU1 V-A 11 0.25 0.25 Marine Shell Clam 70 272.2 TU1 V-A 12 0.25 0.25 Marine Shell Clam 47 191.9 TU1 V-A 13 0.25 0.25 Marine Shell Oyster 371.0 TU1 V-A 14 0.25 0.25 Marine Shell Clam 662.1 TU1 V-A 15 0.25 0.25 Marine Shell UID 340.2 TU1 V-A 16 0.125 0.13 Marine Shell Clam 61.1 TU1 V-A 17 0.125 0.13 Marine Shell UID 234.5 TU1 V-A 18 0.25 0.25 Concretions 6 4.0 TU1 V-A 19 0.125 0.13 Concretions 35 1.8 TU1 V-A 20 Unsorted 97.3 <1/8 TU1 V-A 21 0.125 0.13 Vert Fauna Bone 63.2 TU1 V-B 1 0.25 0.25 Marine Shell Crown Conch 2 77.2

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174 Lower Suwannee Archaeological Survey 2009-2010 8DI29 Prov. Lev/ Str Cat # Recovery Size Grade Material Description n Wt. (g) Notes TU1 V-B 2 0.25 0.25 Charcoal <0.0 removed for C14 dating TU1 V-B 3 0.125 0.13 Charcoal 0.4 5 pcs. removed for C14 dating TU1 V-B 4 0.25 0.25 Vert Fauna Otoliths 5 2.7 TU1 V-B 5 0.125 0.13 Vert Fauna Otoliths 1 0.2 TU1 V-B 6 0.25 0.25 Vert Fauna Bone 28.7 TU1 V-B 7 0.125 0.13 Vert Fauna Bone 64.4 TU1 V-B 8 0.25 0.25 Marine Shell Oyster 35 301.5 TU1 V-B 9 0.25 0.25 Marine Shell Oyster 40 175.5 TU1 V-B 10 0.25 0.25 Marine Shell Oyster 182.7 TU1 V-B 11 0.25 0.25 Marine Shell Clam 56 230.9 TU1 V-B 12 0.25 0.25 Marine Shell Clam 36 157.5 TU1 V-B 13 0.25 0.25 Marine Shell Clam 483.8 TU1 V-B 14 0.125 0.13 Marine Shell Clam 50.4 TU1 V-B 15 0.25 0.25 Marine Shell UID 313.6 TU1 V-B 16 0.125 0.13 Marine Shell UID 179.4 TU1 V-B 17 0.125 0.13 Concretions 29 1.2 TU1 V-B 18 Unsorted 97.4 <1/8 TU1 V-B 19 0.25 0.25 Shell Tool Crown Conch 1 49.1 TU1 V-C 1 0.125 0.13 Vert Fauna Bone 45.3 TU1 V-C 2 0.25 0.25 Vert Fauna Otoliths 2 0.8 TU1 V-C 3 0.125 0.13 Charcoal 6 0.1 TU1 V-C 4 0.25 0.25 Marine Shell Crown Conch 1 58.2 TU1 V-C 5 0.25 0.25 Marine Shell Oyster 14 125.3 TU1 V-C 6 0.25 0.25 Marine Shell Oyster 15 55.6 TU1 V-C 7 0.25 0.25 Marine Shell Oyster 205.7 TU1 V-C 8 0.25 0.25 Marine Shell Clam 10 45.7 TU1 V-C 9 0.25 0.25 Marine Shell Clam 10 38.4 TU1 V-C 10 0.25 0.25 Marine Shell Clam 25.1 TU1 V-C 11 0.25 0.25 Marine Shell UID 99.4 TU1 V-C 12 0.125 0.13 Concretions 15 0.7 TU1 VI 1 0.25 0.25 Vert Fauna Bone 4.1 TU1 VI 2 0.125 0.13 Vert Fauna Bone 16.6 TU1 VI 3 0.25 0.25 Marine Shell Oyster 3 38.7 TU1 VI 4 0.25 0.25 Marine Shell Oyster 3 6.8 TU1 VI 5 0.25 0.25 Marine Shell Oyster 24.5 TU1 VI 6 0.25 0.25 Marine Shell Clam 1 3.0 TU1 VI 7 0.25 0.25 Marine Shell Clam 12.4 TU1 VI 8 0.25 0.25 Marine Shell UID 10.8 TU1 VI 9 0.125 0.13 Marine Shell UID 7.6 TU1 VI 10 0.25 0.25 Misc. UID 1 0.2 TU2 A 1 0.25 0.25 Pottery Crumb 3 6.7 TU2 A 2 0.25 0.25 Vert Fauna Otoliths 4 2.9

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Appendix A: Catalog 175 8DI29 Prov. Lev/ Str Cat # Recovery Size Grade Material Description n Wt. (g) Notes TU2 A 3 0.25 0.25 Vert Fauna Bone 20 14.0 TU2 A 4 0.25 0.25 Metal 15 7.7 TU2 A 5 0.25 0.25 Glass 1 1.0 TU2 A 6 0.25 0.25 Marine Shell UID 1 0.1 TU2 B 1 0.25 0.25 Pottery St. Johns 1 3.8 TU2 B 2 0.25 0.25 Vert Fauna Bone 6.8 TU2 B 3 0.25 0.25 Glass 1 1.8 TU2 B 4 0.25 0.25 Metal 18 7.0 TU2 C 1 0.25 0.25 Pottery Sand Temp. 2 17.2 TU2 C 2 0.25 0.25 Pottery Sand Temp. 2 20.3 TU2 C 3 0.25 0.25 Pottery Crumb 3 4.0 TU2 C 4 0.25 0.25 Charcoal 1 0.2 TU2 C 5 0.25 0.25 Vert Fauna Otoliths 1 0.1 TU2 C 6 0.25 0.25 Vert Fauna Bone 55.0 TU2 C 7 0.25 0.25 Misc. Shell 2 0.5 TU2 C 8 0.25 0.25 Marine Shell UID 3 0.3 TU2 C 9 0.25 0.25 Concretions 5 0.9 TU2 C 10 0.25 0.25 Metal 32 12.3 TU2 C 11 0.25 0.25 Pottery Swift Creek 1 19.9 TU2 D 1 0.25 0.25 Pottery Historic 1 19.9 TU2 D 2 0.25 0.25 Pottery St. Johns 2 17.0 TU2 D 3 0.25 0.25 Pottery Sand Temp. 2 13.1 TU2 D 4 0.25 0.25 Pottery Crumb 2 1.8 TU2 D 5 0.25 0.25 Vert Fauna Otoliths 2 1.1 TU2 D 6 0.25 0.25 Vert Fauna Bone 67.7 TU2 D 7 0.25 0.25 Misc. Shell 1 0.7 TU2 D 8 0.25 0.25 Marine Shell UID 1 <0.0 TU2 D 9 0.25 0.25 Glass 1 4.9 TU2 D 10 0.25 0.25 Metal 34 90.7 TU2 D 11 0.25 0.25 Concretions 10 6.2 TU2 E 1 0.25 0.25 Pottery Crumb 5 5.8 TU2 E 2 0.25 0.25 Vert Fauna Otoliths 1 0.9 TU2 E 3 0.25 0.25 Charcoal 1 <0.0 TU2 E 4 0.25 0.25 Vert Fauna Bone 49.1 TU2 E 5 0.25 0.25 Marine Shell UID 3 1.2 TU2 E 6 0.25 0.25 Metal 3 2.9 TU2 F 1 0.25 0.25 Pottery Sand Temp. 1 2.0 TU2 F 2 0.25 0.25 Pottery Sand Temp. 3 27.3 TU2 F 3 0.25 0.25 Lithics Chert 1 0.1 TU2 F 4 0.25 0.25 Charcoal 6 0.2 TU2 F 5 0.25 0.25 Vert Fauna Bone 66.5 TU2 F 6 0.25 0.25 Marine Shell UID 3 0.4 TU2 F 7 0.25 0.25 Metal 2 3.2 TU2 G 1 0.25 0.25 Pottery St. Johns 1 3.0

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176 Lower Suwannee Archaeological Survey 2009-2010 8DI29 Prov. Lev/ Str Cat # Recovery Size Grade Material Description n Wt. (g) Notes TU2 G 2 0.25 0.25 Pottery Crumb 1 1.2 TU2 G 3 0.25 0.25 Vert Fauna Bone 38.4 TU2 G 4 0.25 0.25 Marine Shell UID 3 0.5 TU2 G 5 0.25 0.25 Charcoal 1 0.3 TU2 G 6 0.25 0.25 Metal 1 2.8 TU2 H 1 0.25 0.25 Pottery Sand Temp. 1 10.3 TU2 H 2 0.25 0.25 Pottery Sand Temp. 4 14.9 TU2 H 3 0.25 0.25 Pottery Crumb 2 3.1 TU2 H 4 0.25 0.25 Cat # Void TU2 H 5 0.25 0.25 Lithics Chert 1 97.3 TU2 H 6 0.25 0.25 Lithics Chert 2 1.4 TU2 H 7 0.25 0.25 Charcoal 12 1.8 TU2 H 8 0.25 0.25 Vert Fauna Otoliths 1 0.5 TU2 H 9 0.25 0.25 Vert Fauna Bone 159.7 TU2 H 10 0.25 0.25 Marine Shell Clam 1 328.4 Mercenaria TU2 H 11 0.25 0.25 Marine Shell Clam 1 374.5 Mercenaria TU2 H 12 0.25 0.25 Marine Shell UID 18 4.2 TU2 H 13 0.25 0.25 Concretions 11 27.9 TU2 I 1 0.25 0.25 Lithics Chert 2 8.8 Combined with Cat #2 TU2 I 2 0.25 0.25 Item reclassified as flake Cat # Void TU2 I 3 0.25 0.25 Misc. Shell Wolf 1 3.3 Terrestrial snail TU2 I 4 0.25 0.25 Marine Shell UI D Conch 1 3.3 Conch columella TU2 I 5 0.25 0.25 Vert Fauna Otoliths 2 0.8 TU2 I 6 0.25 0.25 Concretion 1 35.0 Large concrection possible antler TU2 I 7 0.25 0.25 Vert Fauna Bone 114.1 TU2 I 8 0.25 0.25 Marine Shell UID 6 2.2 TU2 I 9 0.25 0.25 Concretions 2 47.6 TU2 J 1 0.25 0.25 Marine Shell Crown Conch 1 37.9 TU2 J 2 0.25 0.25 Vert Fauna Otoliths 8 4.9 TU2 J 3 0.25 0.25 Vert Fauna Bone 168.0 TU2 J 4 0.25 0.25 Marine Shell UID 8 2.0 TU2 J 5 0.25 0.25 Concretions 5 46.6 TU2 J 6 0.25 0.25 Shell Tool Crown Conch 2 122.9 TU2 K 1 0.25 0.25 Vert Fauna Bone 21.8 TU2 K 2 0.25 0.25 Marine Shell UID 1 0.4 TU2 K 3 0.25 0.25 Concretions 3 2.5 TU2 L 1 0.25 0.25 Lithics Chert 1 5.9 TU2 L 2 0.25 0.25 Lithics Chert 1 0.3 TU2 L 3 0.25 0.25 Vert Fauna Bone 7 2.3 TU2 IVA 1 0.25 0.25 Vert Fauna Otoliths 1 0.2

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Appendix A: Catalog 177 8DI29 Prov. Lev/ Str Cat # Recovery Size Grade Material Description n Wt. (g) Notes TU2 IVA 2 0.25 0.25 Charcoal 3 <0.0 TU2 IVA 3 0.125 0.13 Charcoal 0.3 TU2 IVA 4 0.25 0.25 Vert Fauna Bone 8.0 TU2 IVA 5 0.125 0.13 Vert Fauna Bone 4.0 TU2 IVA 6 0.125 0.13 Marine Shell UID 1 <0.0 TU2 IVA 7 0.125 0.13 Misc. Shell UID 6 0.1 TU2 IVA 8 0.25 0.25 Marine Shell Oyster 24 83.7 TU2 IVA 9 0.25 0.25 Marine Shell Oyster 18 58.9 TU2 IVA 10 0.25 0.25 Marine Shell Oyster 365.8 TU2 IVA 11 0.25 0.25 Marine Shell Clam 1 5.2 TU2 IVA 12 0.25 0.25 Marine Shell Clam 18 8.4 TU2 IVA 13 0.125 0.13 Marine Shell Clam 19 1.5 TU2 IVA 14 0.125 0.13 Marine Shell UID 70.1 TU2 IVA 15 0.125 0.13 Marine She ll Barnacles 22 0.3 TU2 IVA 16 0.125 0.13 Concretions 43 0.8 TU2 IVA 17 0.25 0.25 Metal 1 2.3 Possible nail TU2 IVA 18 0.125 0.13 Misc. UID 3 0.1 TU2 IV-B 1 0.25 0.25 Marine Shell UID Conch 1 10.7 TU2 IV-B 2 0.25 0.25 Charcoal 5 0.4 TU2 IV-B 3 0.125 0.13 Charcoal 23 0.3 TU2 IV-B 4 0.25 0.25 Vert Fauna Otoliths 2 0.1 TU2 IV-B 5 0.25 0.25 Vert Fauna Bone 19 3.7 TU2 IV-B 6 0.125 0.13 Vert Fauna Bone 11.4 TU2 IV-B 7 0.25 0.25 Marine Shell Oyster 33 277.3 TU2 IV-B 8 0.25 0.25 Marine Shell Oyster 32 111.8 TU2 IV-B 9 0.25 0.25 Marine Shell Oyster 229.0 TU2 IV-B 10 0.25 0.25 Marine Shell Clam 1 6.4 TU2 IV-B 11 0.25 0.25 Marine Shell Clam 1 6.8 TU2 IV-B 12 0.25 0.25 Marine Shell Clam 1 2.2 TU2 IV-B 13 0.25 0.25 Marine Shell UID 1 0.3 TU2 IV-B 14 0.125 0.13 Marine Shell UID 43.7 TU2 IV-B 15 0.25 0.25 Concretions 2 1.3 TU2 IV-B 16 Unsorted 9.9 <1/8

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178 Lower Suwannee Archaeological Survey 2009-2010 8DI32 Prov. Lev/ Str Cat # Recovery Size Grade Material Description n Wt. (g) Notes TU1 D 1 Item reclassified as Pasco TU1 D 2 0.25 0.25 Pottery Deptford 1 9.1 TU1 D 3 0.25 0.25 Pottery Sand Temp. 1 9.7 TU1 D 4 0.25 0.25 Pottery Pasco 3 21.8 2 pieces crossmend counted as 1 TU1 D 5 0.25 0.25 Pottery Crumb 1 1.4 TU1 D 6 0.25 0.25 Vert Fauna Bone 1 0.1 TU1 E 1 0.25 0.25 Pottery Pasco 5 65.0 1 crossmend TU1 E 2 0.25 0.25 Pottery Pasco 1 6.9 TU1 E 3 0.25 0.25 UID 1 9.1 Possibly brick TU1 E 4 0.25 0.25 Pottery Sand Temp. 1 18.4 TU1 E 5 0.25 0.25 Pottery Sand Temp. 1 9.9 Fresh break counted As 1 TU1 E 6 0.25 0.25 Pottery Crumb 2 2.3 TU1 E 7 0.25 0.25 Marine Shell UID Conch 2 18.8 TU1 E 8 0.25 0.25 Charcoal 1 0.1 TU1 E 9 0.25 0.25 Vert Fauna Otoliths 1 0.4 TU1 E 10 0.25 0.25 Vert Fauna Bone 33.4 TU1 E 11 0.25 0.25 Marine Shell UID 6 13.1 TU1 E 12 0.25 0.25 Glass 8 21.2 TU1 E 13 0.25 0.25 Metal 33 124.1 TU1 E 14 0.25 0.25 Pottery Sand Temp. 1 10.0 Fresh break counted As 1 TU1 E 15 0.25 0.25 Pottery St. Johns 1 12.8 TU1 E 16 0.25 0.25 Pottery Sand Temp. 3 30.6 TU1 E 17 0.25 0.25 Pottery Sand Temp. 1 1.9 TU1 F 1 0.25 0.25 Pottery Deptford 3 17.5 TU1 F 2 0.25 0.25 Pottery Sand Temp. 1 2.6 TU1 F 3 0.25 0.25 Pottery Pasco 4 145.5 TU1 F 4 0.25 0.25 Pottery Pasco 8 128.5 TU1 F 5 0.25 0.25 Pottery Crumb 3 3.5 TU1 F 6 0.25 0.25 Vert Fauna Bone 82.2 TU1 F 7 0.25 0.25 Marine Shell UID 2 4.9 TU1 F 8 0.25 0.25 Metal 2 2.5 TU1 F 9 0.25 0.25 Pottery Sand Temp. 1 7.4 TU1 F 10 0.25 0.25 Pottery Deptford 3 29.6 TU1 G 1 Void reclassified TU1 G 2 0.25 0.25 Pottery Swift Creek 1 14.6 TU1 G 3 0.25 0.25 Pottery Sand Temp. 1 2.5 TU1 G 4 0.25 0.25 Pottery Deptford Lcs TU1 G 5 0.25 0.25 Vert Fauna Bone 24.3 TU1 G 6 0.25 0.25 Marine Shell UID 3 0.8

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Appendix A: Catalog 179 8DI32 Prov. Lev/ Str Cat # Recovery Size Grade Material Description n Wt. (g) Notes TU1 G 9 0.25 0.25 Pottery Sand Temp. 1 23.2 TU1 H 1 0.25 0.25 Pottery Swift Creek 2 19.5 TU1 H 2 0.25 0.25 Pottery Sand Temp. 4 29.8 TU1 H 3 0.25 0.25 Pottery Pasco 2 19.6 TU1 H 4 0.25 0.25 Pottery Pasco 5 37.1 TU1 H 5 0.25 0.25 Pottery Crumb 3 3.2 TU1 H 6 0.25 0.25 Marine Shell UID Conch 1 57.1 TU1 H 7 0.25 0.25 Vert Fauna Bone 114.6 TU1 H 8 0.25 0.25 Concretions 2 0.5 TU1 I 1 Void reclassified TU1 I 2 Void reclassified TU1 I 3 Void reclassified TU1 I 4 0.25 0.25 Vert Fauna Bone 200.7 TU1 I 5 0.25 0.25 Marine Shell Clam 1 14.9 TU1 I 6 0.25 0.25 Concretions 2 1.2 TU1 I 7 0.25 0.25 Pottery Deptford 3 25.8 TU1 I 8 0.25 0.25 Pottery Pasco 1 9.4 TU1 I 9 0.25 0.25 Pottery Pasco 1 15.1 TU1 J 1 0.25 0.25 Pottery Pasco 1 7.3 TU1 J 2 0.25 0.25 Lithics Chert 3 1.9 TU1 J 3 0.25 0.25 Vert Fauna Otoliths 1 1.0 TU1 J 4 0.25 0.25 Vert Fauna Bone 37.1 TU1 J 5 0.25 0.25 Marine Shell UID 4 1.3 TU1 II-A 1 0.25 0.25 Pottery St. Johns 1 4.2 TU1 II-A 2 0.25 0.25 Pottery Crumb 3 2.6 TU1 II-A 3 0.125 0.13 Lithics Chert 1 <0.0 TU1 II-A 4 0.25 0.25 Charcoal 4.0 TU1 II-A 5 0.125 0.13 Charcoal 9.2 TU1 II-A 6 0.25 0.25 Vert Fauna Bone 12.2 TU1 II-A 7 0.125 0.13 Vert Fauna Bone 29.9 TU1 II-A 8 0.25 0.25 Paleofeces 2 0.1 TU1 II-A 9 0.25 0.25 Marine Shell Oyster 22 141.2 TU1 II-A 10 0.25 0.25 Marine Shell Oyster 38 163.0 TU1 II-A 11 0.25 0.25 Marine Shell Oyster 264.1 TU1 II-A 12 0.25 0.25 Marine Shell Clam 42 64.4 TU1 II-A 13 0.25 0.25 Marine Shell Clam 39 54.1 TU1 II-A 14 0.25 0.25 Marine Shell Clam 722.8 TU1 II-A 15 0.125 0.13 Marine Shell Clam 188.6 TU1 II-A 16 0.25 0.25 Marine Shell UID 751.1 TU1 II-A 17 0.125 0.13 Marine Shell UID 442.5 TU1 II-A 18 0.25 0.25 Misc. Shell UID 1 1.0 TU1 II-A 19 0.125 0.13 Misc. Shell UID 1.9 TU1 II-A 20 0.125 0.13 Seed Pod 1 1.5

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180 Lower Suwannee Archaeological Survey 2009-2010 8DI32 Prov. Lev/ Str Cat # Recovery Size Grade Material Description n Wt. (g) Notes TU1 II-A 23 0.25 0.25 Metal 8 13.8 TU1 II-A 24 0.125 0.13 Metal 50 4.7 TU1 II-A 25 0.25 0.25 Glass 6 10.5 TU1 II-A 26 0.125 0.13 Glass 2.0 TU1 II-A 27 Unsorted 126.5 <1/8 TU1 II-B 1 0.25 0.25 Pottery Pasco 1 60.4 Crossmends with rim TU1 II-B 2 0.25 0.25 Pottery Sand Temp. 1 3.7 TU1 II-B 3 0.25 0.25 Vert Fauna Otoliths 2 1.9 TU1 II-B 4 0.125 0.13 Vert Fauna Otoliths 2 0.1 TU1 II-B 5 0.25 0.25 Charcoal 31.2 TU1 II-B 6 0.125 0.13 Charcoal 22.8 TU1 II-B 7 0.25 0.25 Vert Fauna Bone 21.1 TU1 II-B 8 0.125 0.13 Vert Fauna Bone 32.3 TU1 II-B 9 0.125 0.13 Misc. Shell Snail 0.7 TU1 II-B 10 0.125 0.13 Misc. Shell UID 4 <0.0 TU1 II-B 11 0.25 0.25 Marine Shell Oyster 91 270.4 TU1 II-B 12 0.25 0.25 Marine Shell Oyster 93 397.1 TU1 II-B 13 0.25 0.25 Marine Shell Oyster 1259.0 TU1 II-B 14 0.25 0.25 Marine Shell Clam 84 157.7 TU1 II-B 15 0.25 0.25 Marine Shell Clam 46 167.3 TU1 II-B 16 0.25 0.25 Marine Shell Clam 685.3 TU1 II-B 17 0.125 0.13 Marine Shell Clam 196.7 TU1 II-B 18 0.125 0.13 Marine Shell UID 489.6 TU1 II-B 19 0.25 0.25 Historic Brick 1 181.5 TU1 II-B 20 0.25 0.25 Glass 1 0.2 TU1 II-B 21 0.125 0.13 Glass 2 <0.0 TU1 II-B 22 0.25 0.25 Metal 5 11.2 TU1 II-B 23 0.125 0.13 Metal 17 1.7 TU1 II-B 24 Unsorted 157.3 <1/8 TU1 II-B 25 0.25 0.25 Pottery Pasco 1 31.3 Crossmends with Cat. #1 body sherd TU1 II-B 26 0.25 0.25 Pottery Deptford 1 3.3 TU1 II-C 1 0.25 0.25 Pottery Deptford 1 3.0 TU1 II-C 2 0.25 0.25 Pottery Pasco 2 7.4 TU1 II-C 3 0.25 0.25 Pottery Crumb 1 0.4 TU1 II-C 4 0.25 0.25 Vert Fauna Otoliths 7 5.3 TU1 II-C 5 0.25 0.25 Charcoal 10 0.8 TU1 II-C 6 0.125 0.13 Charcoal 3.7 TU1 II-C 7 0.25 0.25 Vert Fauna Bone 28.7 TU1 II-C 8 0.125 0.13 Vert Fauna Bone 71.1 TU1 II-C 9 0.25 0.25 Marine Shell UID 1 0.3 TU1 II-C 10 0.125 0.13 Misc. Shell UID 7 0.2 TU1 II-C 11 0.125 0.13 Misc. Shell Snail 0.9

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Appendix A: Catalog 181 8DI32 Prov. Lev/ Str Cat # Recovery Size Grade Material Description n Wt. (g) Notes TU1 II-C 14 0.25 0.25 Marine Shell Oyster 1343.1 TU1 II-C 15 0.25 0.25 Marine Shell Clam 73 443.1 TU1 II-C 16 0.25 0.25 Marine Shell Clam 54 204.5 TU1 II-C 17 0.25 0.25 Marine Shell Clam 871.7 TU1 II-C 18 0.125 0.13 Marine Shell Clam 159.4 TU1 II-C 19 0.125 0.13 Marine Shell UID 672.3 TU1 II-C 20 0.125 0.13 Marine Shell Barnacles 1.0 TU1 II-C 21 0.125 0.13 Concretions 10 0.6 TU1 II-C 22 Unsorted 248.6 <1/8 TU1 II-D 1 0.25 0.25 Pottery Pasco 1 4.2 TU1 II-D 2 0.25 0.25 Lithics Chert 1 0.6 TU1 II-D 3 0.25 0.25 Lithics UID 1 0.6 TU1 II-D 4 0.25 0.25 Lithics Chert 3 0.6 TU1 II-D 5 0.25 0.25 Vert Fauna Otoliths 9 7.1 TU1 II-D 6 0.125 0.13 Vert Fauna Otoliths 3 0.5 TU1 II-D 7 0.25 0.25 Marine Shell Fossilized Coral 5 4.1 TU1 II-D 8 0.125 0.13 Marine Shell Fossilized Coral 10 0.9 TU1 II-D 9 0.25 0.25 Charcoal 6 1.0 TU1 II-D 10 0.125 0.13 Charcoal 1.7 TU1 II-D 11 0.125 0.13 Misc. Shell UID 15 0.2 TU1 II-D 12 0.25 0.25 Misc. Shell Snail 5 0.1 TU1 II-D 13 0.125 0.13 Misc. Shell Snail 1.8 TU1 II-D 14 0.25 0.25 Marine Shell Oyster 121 933.9 TU1 II-D 15 0.25 0.25 Marine Shell Oyster 105 322.8 TU1 II-D 16 0.25 0.25 Marine Shell Oyster 1567.3 TU1 II-D 17 0.125 0.13 Marine Shell UID 575.5 TU1 II-D 18 0.25 0.25 Marine Shell Clam 49 268.4 TU1 II-D 19 0.25 0.25 Marine Shell Clam 39 147.8 TU1 II-D 20 0.25 0.25 Marine Shell Clam 671.2 TU1 II-D 21 0.125 0.13 Marine Shell Clam 195.3 TU1 II-D 22 0.125 0.13 Misc. Shell 21 0.5 TU1 II-D 23 0.125 0.13 Marine Shell Barnacles 4.6 TU1 II-D 24 0.25 0.25 Vert Fauna Bone 64.0 TU1 II-D 25 0.125 0.13 Vert Fauna Bone 68.5 TU1 II-D 26 0.125 0.13 Concretions 7 0.3 TU1 II-D 27 Unsorted 168.7 <1/8 TU1 II-E 1 0.25 0.25 Pottery Pasco 1 2.2 TU1 II-E 2 0.25 0.25 Pottery Crumb 2 0.8 TU1 II-E 3 0.125 0.13 Lithics Chert 4 0.4 TU1 II-E 4 0.25 0.25 Vert Fauna Otoliths 11 8.2 TU1 II-E 5 0.125 0.13 Vert Fauna Otoliths 5 0.8 TU1 II-E 6 0.25 0.25 Charcoal 5 0.4 TU1 II-E 7 0.125 0.13 Charcoal 3.3

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182 Lower Suwannee Archaeological Survey 2009-2010 8DI32 Prov. Lev/ Str Cat # Recovery Size Grade Material Description n Wt. (g) Notes TU1 II-E 10 0.25 0.25 Misc. Shell Snail 3 0.1 TU1 II-E 11 0.125 0.13 Misc. Shell Snail 3.1 TU1 II-E 12 0.125 0.13 Misc. Shell 1.2 TU1 II-E 13 0.25 0.25 Marine Shell Oyster 82 622.8 TU1 II-E 14 0.25 0.25 Marine Shell Oyster 65 276.2 TU1 II-E 15 0.25 0.25 Marine Shell Oyster 712.2 TU1 II-E 16 0.25 0.25 Marine Shell Clam 43 165.9 TU1 II-E 17 0.25 0.25 Marine Shell Clam 47 180.5 TU1 II-E 18 0.25 0.25 Marine Shell Clam 323.6 TU1 II-E 19 0.125 0.13 Marine Shell Clam 144.4 TU1 II-E 20 0.25 0.25 Marine Shell UID 815.4 TU1 II-E 21 0.125 0.13 Marine Shell UID 507.9 TU1 II-E 22 0.25 0.25 Marine Shell Barnacles 6.0 TU1 II-E 23 0.125 0.13 Marine Sh ell Barnacles 6.8 TU1 II-E 24 0.25 0.25 Concretions 2 2.7 TU1 II-E 25 0.125 0.13 Concretions 70 2.7 TU1 II-E 26 Unsorted 110.8 <1/8 TU1 II-E 27 0.25 0.25 Pottery Pasco 1 5.0 TU2 A 1 0.25 0.25 Pottery Pasco 11 60.9 1 crossmend (counted as 1) TU2 A 2 0.25 0.25 Pottery St. Johns 1 7.3 TU2 A 3 0.25 0.25 Pottery Ruskin Dentate 1 10.0 TU2 A 4 0.25 0.25 Pottery Sand Temp. 3 21.4 TU2 A 5 0.25 0.25 Pottery Ruskin Dentate 3 34.1 TU2 A 6 0.25 0.25 Pottery Crumb 4 5.2 TU2 A 7 0.25 0.25 Lithics Chert 1 10.9 TU2 A 8 0.25 0.25 Vert Fauna Bone 58.9 TU2 A 9 0.25 0.25 Glass 13 18.4 TU2 A 10 0.25 0.25 Metal 15 18.9 TU2 A 11 0.25 0.25 Sandstone 4 149.3 TU2 A 12 0.25 0.25 Marine Shell Clam 1 32.9 Possibly modified TU2 A 13 0.25 0.25 Charcoal 3 0.8 TU2 A 14 0.25 0.25 Pottery Pasco 3 8.3 TU2 A 15 0.25 0.25 Pottery Sand Temp. 6 14.1 TU2 A 16 0.25 0.25 Pottery Sand Temp. 1 3.0 TU2 B 1 0.25 0.25 Pottery Pasco 4 54.5 TU2 B 2 0.25 0.25 Pottery Sand Temp. 1 28.6 TU2 B 3 0.25 0.25 Pottery Deptford Bold Check 1 28.1 TU2 B 4 0.25 0.25 Pottery Sand Temp. 4 17.1 TU2 B 5 0.25 0.25 Vert Fauna Bone 106.8 TU2 B 6 0.25 0.25 Plastic 1 1.7 TU2 B 7 0.25 0.25 Pottery Sand Temp. 1 3.4

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Appendix A: Catalog 183 8DI32 Prov. Lev/ Str Cat # Recovery Size Grade Material Description n Wt. (g) Notes TU2 C 3 0.25 0.25 Pottery Swift Creek 2 8.4 1 crossmends with sherd from TU2D-1 TU2 C 4 0.25 0.25 Vert Fauna Bone 77.9 TU2 C 5 0.25 0.25 Pottery Pasco 1 8.9 TU2 D 1 0.25 0.25 Pottery Pasco 6 210.6 Concreted TU2 D 2 0.25 0.25 Pottery Swift Creek 1 6.5 Crossmends with 2 from TU2C-3 TU2 D 3 0.25 0.25 Pottery Crumb 2 3.2 TU2 D 4 0.25 0.25 Shell Tool Crown Conch 1 54.0 Battering at base of shell TU2 D 5 0.25 0.25 Vert Fauna Bone 99.9 TU2 D 6 0.25 0.25 Concretions 2 2.7 with bone TU2 E 1 0.25 0.25 Pottery Pasco 1 20.4 TU2 E 2 0.25 0.25 Pottery Sand Temp. 1 6.2 TU2 E 3 0.25 0.25 Vert Fauna Bone 31.1 TU2 E 4 0.25 0.25 Concretions 14 138.1 with bone and charcoal TU2 E 5 0.25 0.25 Pottery Sand Temp. 1 9.3 TU2 III-A 1 0.25 0.25 Pottery St. Johns 1 12.8 TU2 III-A 2 0.25 0.25 Pottery Pasco 1 2.9 TU2 III-A 3 0.25 0.25 Pottery Crumb 4 2.4 TU2 III-A 4 0.125 0.13 Pottery Crumb 5 0.2 TU2 III-A 5 0.25 0.25 Charcoal 19 1.9 TU2 III-A 6 0.125 0.13 Charcoal 3.0 TU2 III-A 7 0.25 0.25 Vert Fauna Otoliths 1 0.6 TU2 III-A 8 0.25 0.25 Marine Shell Clam 2 45.5 Mercenaria TU2 III-A 9 0.25 0.25 Misc. Shell 1 0.1 TU2 III-A 10 0.125 0.13 Misc. Shell 14 0.3 Snail TU2 III-A 11 0.25 0.25 Vert Fauna Bone 16.0 TU2 III-A 12 0.125 0.13 Vert Fauna Bone 29.1 TU2 III-A 13 0.25 0.25 Marine Shell Clam 28 59.0 TU2 III-A 14 0.25 0.25 Marine Shell Clam 29 52.3 TU2 III-A 15 0.25 0.25 Marine Shell Clam 401.8 TU2 III-A 16 0.125 0.13 Marine Shell Clam 15.5 TU2 III-A 17 0.25 0.25 Marine Shell Oyster 121 310.3 TU2 III-A 18 0.25 0.25 Marine Shell Oyster 179 393.2 TU2 III-A 19 0.25 0.25 Marine Shell Oyster 549.3 TU2 III-A 20 0.25 0.25 Marine Shell UID 958.4 TU2 III-A 21 0.125 0.13 Marine Shell UID 543.3 TU2 III-A 22 0.25 0.25 Metal 13 5.9 TU2 III-A 23 0.125 0.13 Metal 6.0 TU2 III-A 24 0.25 0.25 Glass 1 1.6 TU2 III-A 25 0.125 0.13 Glass 4 0.1 TU2 III-A 26 0.125 0.13 Concretions 29 0.8 TU2 III-A 27 Unsorted 119.4 <1/8

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184 Lower Suwannee Archaeological Survey 2009-2010 8DI32 Prov. Lev/ Str Cat # Recovery Size Grade Material Description n Wt. (g) Notes TU2 III-B 2 0.25 0.25 Charcoal 2 0.3 TU2 III-B 3 0.125 0.13 Charcoal 15 0.3 TU2 III-B 4 0.25 0.25 Vert Fauna Bone 78 21.4 TU2 III-B 5 0.125 0.13 Vert Fauna Bone 26.6 TU2 III-B 6 0.125 0.13 Pottery Crumb 1 0.1 TU2 III-B 7 0.25 0.25 Marine Shell Clam 2 88.5 Mercenaria TU2 III-B 8 0.25 0.25 Misc. Shell 1 0.2 TU2 III-B 9 0.125 0.13 Misc. Shell 9 0.1 TU2 III-B 10 0.125 0.13 Misc. Shell 1.0 Snail TU2 III-B 11 0.25 0.25 Marine Shell Clam 52 233.0 TU2 III-B 12 0.25 0.25 Marine Shell Clam 52 182.4 TU2 III-B 13 0.25 0.25 Marine Shell Clam 487.6 TU2 III-B 14 0.125 0.13 Marine Shell Clam 8.9 TU2 III-B 15 0.25 0.25 Marine Shell Oyster 226 1335.9 TU2 III-B 16 0.25 0.25 Marine Shell Oyster 315 1160.2 TU2 III-B 17 0.125 0.13 Marine Shell Oyster 11 1.6 TU2 III-B 18 0.125 0.13 Marine Shell Oyster 1 0.1 TU2 III-B 19 0.25 0.25 Marine Shell Oyster 1068.1 TU2 III-B 20 0.25 0.25 Marine Shell 549.6 TU2 III-B 21 0.125 0.13 Marine Shell 340.3 TU2 III-B 22 0.125 0.13 Marine Shell Barnacles 5 0.1 TU2 III-B 23 Unsorted 96.4 <1/8 TU2 III-C 1 0.25 0.25 Vert Fauna Otoliths 3 1.8 TU2 III-C 2 0.125 0.13 Vert Fauna Otoliths 1 0.1 TU2 III-C 3 0.25 0.25 Charcoal 3 0.1 TU2 III-C 4 0.125 0.13 Charcoal 1.9 TU2 III-C 5 0.25 0.25 Vert Fauna Bone 38.3 TU2 III-C 6 0.125 0.13 Vert Fauna Bone 78.3 TU2 III-C 7 0.125 0.13 Misc. Shell 2 0.1 TU2 III-C 8 0.125 0.13 Misc. Shell 7 0.1 TU2 III-C 9 0.125 0.13 Misc. Shell 1.7 Snail TU2 III-C 10 0.25 0.25 Marine Shell Clam 4 115.9 Mercenaria TU2 III-C 11 0.25 0.25 Marine Shell Clam 120 571.6 TU2 III-C 12 0.25 0.25 Marine Shell Clam 175 425.7 TU2 III-C 13 0.25 0.25 Marine Shell Clam 1228.2 TU2 III-C 14 0.125 0.13 Marine Shell Clam 28.5 TU2 III-C 15 0.25 0.25 Marine Shell Oyster 148 1240.0 TU2 III-C 16 0.25 0.25 Marine Shell Oyster 138 663.0 TU2 III-C 17 0.25 0.25 Marine Shell Oyster 960.0 TU2 III-C 18 0.25 0.25 Marine Shell UID 556.3 TU2 III-C 19 0.125 0.13 Marine Shell UID 587.8 TU2 III-C 20 0.25 0.25 Misc. Shell 6 3.9 TU2 III-C 21 0.25 0.25 Marine Shell Barnacles 14 1.8 TU2 III-C 22 0.125 0.13 Marine Shell Barnacles 2.0 TU2 III-C 23 0.125 0.13 Concretions 13 0.4

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Appendix A: Catalog 185 8DI32 Prov. Lev/ Str Cat # Recovery Size Grade Material Description n Wt. (g) Notes TU2 IV-A 2 0.25 0.25 Vert Fauna Bone 22.5 TU2 IV-A 3 0.125 0.13 Vert Fauna Bone 41.9 TU2 IV-A 4 0.25 0.25 Vert Fauna Otoliths 7 3.2 TU2 IV-A 5 0.25 0.25 Vert Fauna Otoliths 2 0.2 TU2 IV-A 6 0.125 0.13 Charcoal 0.5 <0.1g pulled for C14 TU2 IV-A 7 0.25 0.25 Marine Shell Oyster 44 217.9 TU2 IV-A 8 0.25 0.25 Marine Shell Oyster 40 368.9 TU2 IV-A 9 0.25 0.25 Marine Shell Oyster 763.2 TU2 IV-A 10 0.25 0.25 Marine Shell Clam 41 303.6 TU2 IV-A 11 0.25 0.25 Marine Shell Clam 43 212.4 TU2 IV-A 12 0.25 0.25 Marine Shell Clam 493.8 TU2 IV-A 13 0.25 0.25 Marine Shell Barnacles 2.7 TU2 IV-A 14 0.125 0.13 Marine Shell Barnacles 3.5 TU2 IV-A 15 0.25 0.25 Misc. Shell 1 4.1 Wolf snail TU2 IV-A 16 0.125 0.13 Misc. Shell 8 0.1 TU2 IV-A 17 0.125 0.13 Marine Shell UID 373.5 TU2 IV-A 18 0.25 0.25 Marine Shell UID 363.0 TU2 IV-A 19 0.25 0.25 Concretions 1212.0 with bone and shell TU2 IV-A 20 0.125 0.13 Concretions 157.3 with bone and shell TU2 IV-A 21 Unsorted 71.4 <1/8 TU2 IV-A 22 0.25 0.25 Pottery Crumb 8 9.1 Surf. Surface 1 Lithic Chert 1 8.1

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186 Lower Suwannee Archaeological Survey 2009-2010 8LV137 STP# Cat # Material Description Form Surface Treatment N Wt. (g) Notes 3 1 Lithic Chert Flake/Shatter 1 0.1 7 1 Lithic Chert Flake/Shatter 6 5.1 9 1 Lithic Chert Flake/Shatter 2 0.2 11 1 Vert. Fauna Bone 86 45.8 11 2 Shell Tool Columella Frag 1 22 Gastropod hammer frag? 11 3 Pottery Sand Temp. Body Plain 17 58.6 11 4 Pottery Sand Temp. Crumb Plain 20 24.5 11 5 Pottery Sand Temp. Rim Dentate 2 12.8 11 6 Pottery Sand Temp. Rim Plain 4 8.5 11 7 Pottery Sand Temp. Body Dentate 4 11.2 Ruskin 11 8 Pottery Sand Temp. Body Check Stamp 1 7.5 11 9 Pottery Spiculate Body Check Stamp 3 18.7 St. Johns 11 10 Pottery Limestone Body Plain 5 24.2 Pasco 11 11 Lithic Chert Flake/Shatter 4 17.1 11 12 Pottery Spiculate Rim Ch eck Stamp 1 14.7 St. Johns 11 13 Pottery Sand Temp. Body Check Stamp 1 6.4 Deptford LCS 12 1 Pottery Sand Temp. Body Plain 4 12.9 12 2 Pottery Sand Temp. Crumb Plain 3 2 12 3 Pottery Sand Temp. Rim Plain 1 2.9 12 4 Pottery Spiculate Body Plain 2 6.5 St. Johns 12 5 Lithic Chert Flake/Shatter 1 4 Flake found @90cmbs 12 6 Metal Iron Uid 1 1.5 12 7 Glass Body 1 4.4 12 8 Hist. Button ? 1 0.3 12 9 Lithic Chert Core/Tool 1 41.4 Core/tool 13 1 Pottery Sand Temp. Body Plain 4 10.3 13 2 Pottery Sand Temp. Crumb Plain 8 8.4 13 3 Pottery Sand Temp. Body Punctate 1 5.4 Carabelle 14 1 Pottery Sand Temp. Body Simple Stamp 1 3.9 15 1 Vert. Fauna Bone 10 4.3 15 2 Lithic Chert Flake/Shatter 1 1.5 16 1 Lithic Chert Flake/Shatter 2 6.7 16 2 Lithic Chert Ppk Base? 1 1.1 19 1 Pottery Sand Temp. Body Plain 7 40.5 21 1 Lithic Chert Flake/Shatter 8 4 22 1 Pottery Sand Temp. Body Check Stamp 1 15.9 Deptford LCS 24 1 Vert. Fauna Bone 8 3 24 2 Pottery Sand Temp. Body Plain 3 18.4 24 3 Pottery Sand Temp. Crumb Plain 4 4.4 25 1 Lithic Chert Flake/Shatter 3 18.7 25 2 Pottery Sand Temp. Body Plain 1 0.6 26 1 Pottery Sand Temp. Body Plain 1 8.5 26 2 Pottery Sand Temp. Crumb Plain 9 5.4 26 3 Pottery Sand Temp. Rim Plain 2 26.4 Weeden Island 26 4 Pottery Sand Temp. Rim Check Stamp 1 6.4 Weeden Island 26 5 Pottery Spiculate Body Plain 2 1.8 St. Johns 26 6 Lithic Chert Flake/Shatter 1 0.3 27 1 Vert. Fauna Bone 61 27.3 27 2 Shell Tool Shell 1 42.4 Gastropod hammer

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Appendix A: Catalog 187 STP# Cat # Material Description Form Surface Treatment N Wt. (g) Notes 27 3 Lithic *Sandstone 1 27.9 Grinder frag 27 4 Pottery Sand Temp. Body Plain 33 163 27 5 Pottery Sand Temp. Crumb Plain 24 28 27 6 Pottery Sand Temp. Rim Plain 1 43.7 Weeden Island 27 7 Pottery Limestone Bo dy Plain 5 14.9 Pasco 27 8 Pottery Sand Temp. Body Check Stamp 3 25.3 27 9 Pottery Sand Temp. Body Comp Stamp 1 2.8 Swift Creek 27 10 Pottery Sand Temp. Rim Punctate 1 8.5 Weeden Island 27 11 Pottery Sand Temp. Body Punctate 1 3 28 1 Pottery Sand Temp. Body Plain 1 1.7 28 2 Pottery Body Plain 1 10.5 29 1 Pottery Sand Temp. Body Plain 2 8 29 2 Pottery Sand Temp. Crumb Plain 3 2.5 29 3 Pottery Sand Temp. Body Check Stamp 1 7.3 30 1 Pottery Sand Temp. Body Plain 2 3.1 30 2 Pottery Sand Temp. Body Check Stamp 1 2.9 31 1 Vert. Fauna Bone 292 106.7 31 2 Pottery Sand Temp. Body Plain 12 48.3 31 3 Pottery Sand Temp. Crumb Plain 13 11.4 31 4 Pottery Sand Temp. Rim Plain 2 5.4 31 5 Pottery Sand Temp. Body Check Stamp 8 43.5 31 6 Pottery Sand Temp. Rim Check Stamp 1 33.8 31 7 Pottery Spiculate Body Plain 1 0.6 St. Johns 31 8 Pottery Sand Temp. Body Comp Stamp 3 25.7 Swift Creek 31 9 Metal Iron Uid 1 0.7 32 1 Pottery Sand Temp. Body Plain 5 58.2 32 2 Pottery Sand Temp. Crumb Plain 31 21 32 3 Pottery Sand Temp. Rim Plain 4 5.8 32 4 Pottery Sand Temp. Body Check Stamp 1 2.7 32 5 Pottery Sand Temp. Body Comp Stamp 1 2 Swift Creek 32 6 Pottery Sand Temp. Body Incised 1 6.7 32 7 Lithic Chert Flake/Shatter 2 0.9 32 8 Vert. Fauna Bone 3 0.3 32 9 Metal Iron 1 0.3 32 1 Pottery Sand Temp. Body Plain 3 4.2 34 1 Vert. Fauna Bone 34 27.8 34 2 Invert. Fauna Crab Claw 1 7.8 Stone Crab Claw 34 3 Pottery Sand Temp. Body Plain 14 105.3 34 4 Pottery Sand Temp. Crumb Plain 10 9.5 34 5 Pottery Sand Temp. Body Check Stamp 1 11.9 34 6 Pottery Sand Temp. Rim Comp Stamp 1 15.8 Swift Creek 34 7 Pottery Sand Temp. Rim Dentate 1 63.3 34 8 Pottery Sand Temp. Body Punctate 2 3.7 34 9 Pottery Spiculate Body Plain 1 1.1 St. Johns 34 10 Pottery Sand Temp. Body Burnished 1 6.6 34 11 Lithic Chert Flake/Shatter 1 5.7 35 1 Vert. Fauna Bone 255 56.2 35 2 Pottery Sand Temp. Body Plain 17 74.3 35 3 Pottery Sand Temp. Crumb Plain 10 9.6

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188 Lower Suwannee Archaeological Survey 2009-2010 STP# Cat # Material Description Form Surface Treatment N Wt. (g) Notes 35 4 Pottery Sand Temp. Body Comp Stamp 3 13.4 Swift Creek 35 5 Pottery Sand Temp. Body Comp/Check Stamp 1 21.4 NewRiver/Swift Creek? 35 6 Pottery Sand Temp. Body Check Stamp 3 11.7 35 7 Lithic Sandstone 1 14.5 36 1 Pottery Sand Temp. Body Plain 7 19.5 36 2 Pottery Sand Temp. Crumb Plain 2 1.7 36 3 Pottery Sand Temp. Rim Check Stamp 1 2.7 36 4 Pottery Sand Temp. Body Comp Stamp 1 1.6 Swift Creek 36 5 Pottery Sand Temp. Body *Comp/Check Stamp 1 11.5 New River/Swift Creek 36 6 Pottery Sand Temp. Body Punctate 1 9.6 36 7 Pottery Sand Temp. Rim Punctate 1 2.7 36 8 Vert. Fauna Bone 5 0.9 38 1 Pottery Sand Temp. Body Plain 4 11 39 1 Pottery Sand Temp. Body Plain 3 8.2 39 2 Lithic Chert Flake/Shatter 1 0.1 40 1 Vert. Fauna Bone 1 0.1 40 2 Pottery Sand Temp. Body Plain 11 37.9 40 3 Pottery Sand Temp. Crumb Plain 12 8.4 40 4 Pottery Sand Temp. Body Check Stamp 2 9.6 40 5 Lithic Chert Flake/Shatter 9 7.2 40 6 Lithic Chert Micro Drill 1 0.3 Micro drill 41 1 Pottery Sand Temp. Body Plain 3 11 41 2 Pottery Sand Temp. Crumb Plain 3 2.5 41 3 Lithic Chert Core/Tool 1 104.3 Core/tool 42 1 Vert. Fauna Bone 1 0.7 42 2 Pottery Sand Temp. Body Plain 16 83.3 42 3 Pottery Sand Temp. Rim Plain 3 10.5 42 4 Pottery Sand Temp. Crumb Plain 15 13.2 42 5 Pottery Sand Temp. Rim Plain 2 13.6 Weeden Island 42 6 Pottery Sand Temp. Body Check Stamp 1 29 43 1 Vert. Fauna Bone 22 31.6 43 2 Shell Bead Olivina? 1 12.1 Shell bead 43 3 Pottery Sand Temp. Body Plain 19 148.1 43 4 Pottery Sand Temp. Rim Plain 2 11.5 43 5 Pottery Sand Temp. Crumb Plain 30 32.6 43 6 Pottery Sand Temp. Body Check Stamp 1 2 43 7 Pottery Sand Temp. Rim Plain 3 12.9 Weeden Island 43 8 Pottery Sand Temp. Rim Punctate 1 12.1 Weeden Island 43 9 Lithic Chert Flake/Shatter 3 52.7 44 1 Vert. Fauna Bone 18 5.6 44 2 Pottery Sand Temp. Body Plain 7 18.6 44 3 Pottery Sand Temp. Crumb Plain 8 8.5 44 4 Pottery Sand Temp. Body Check Stamp 2 19.5 44 5 Pottery Sand Temp. Rim Check Stamp 1 27.3 Deptford LCS? 44 6 Pottery Sand Temp. Rim Plain 5 10.2 45 1 Vert. Fauna Bone 15 10.3 45 2 Pottery Sand Temp. Body Plain 4 24.3 45 3 Pottery Sand Temp. Crumb Plain 3 2.2 45 4 Pottery Sand Temp. Rim Plain 1 1.7

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Appendix A: Catalog 189 STP# Cat # Material Description Form Surface Treatment N Wt. (g) Notes 45 5 Pottery Sand Temp. Body Check Stamp 10 41.1 45 6 Pottery Sand Temp. Rim Check Stamp 1 1.6 45 7 Lithic 1 1.7 Ferrus pebble 46 1 Vert. Fauna Bone 3 1.4 46 2 Pottery Sand Temp. Body Plain 2 4.7 47 1 Vert. Fauna Bone 24 14.2 47 2 Shell Tool Shell 2 83.2 Gastropod hammer 47 3 Shell Tool Shell Colum Ella 1 8.1 Shell tool frag? 47 4 Pottery Sand Temp. Body Plain 34 233.6 47 5 Pottery Sand Temp. Crumb Plain 23 28.8 47 6 Pottery Sand Temp. Rim Plain 5 32.1 47 7 Metal Iron Nail 2 2.7 Square nail 47 8 Pottery Sand Temp. Body Dentate 2 21.7 47 9 Pottery Spiculate Body Plain 1 1.1 St. Johns 47 10 Lithic Chert Flake/Shatter 24 58.2 47 11 Lithic Chert Micro Drill 1 0.5 Micro drill 47 12 Lithic Chert Core/Tool 1 34.3 Core/tool 48 1 Glass 2 4.9 48 2 Hist. Button ? 1 0.5 48 3 Metal Iron Uid 1 1 48 4 Vert. Fauna Bone 13 6.5 48 5 Shell Tool Shell 1 55.7 Gastropod hammer 48 6 Pottery Sand Temp. Body Plain 5 18.7 48 7 Pottery Sand Temp. Crumb Plain 5 4.5 48 8 Lithic Chert Flake/Shatter 1 2.8 49 1 Vert. Fauna Bone 25 8 49 2 Pottery Sand Temp. Body Plain 5 13 51 1 Pottery Sand Temp. Body Plain 1 1.4 54 1 Vert. Fauna Bone 23 9.6 54 2 Pottery Sand Temp. Body Plain 14 50 54 3 Pottery Sand Temp. Crumb Plain 8 6.4 54 4 Pottery Sand Temp. Body Check Stamp 3 3.7 54 5 Pottery Sand Temp. Body Punctate 1 4.6 54 6 Pottery Sand Temp. Rim Plain 1 4.6 Weeden Island 55 1 Vert. Fauna Bone 96 34 55 2 Pottery Sand Temp. Crumb Plain 13 15.5 55 3 Pottery Sand Temp. Rim Plain 1 100.8 55 4 Pottery Sand Temp. Rim Plain 2 4.5 Weeden Island 55 5 Pottery Sand Temp. Body Punctate 2 7 55 6 Lithic Chert Flake/Shatter 1 3.1 55 7 Pottery Sand Temp. Body Plain 12 129.8 56 1 Vert. Fauna Bone 68 45 56 2 Shell Tool Shell 2 86.1 Gastropod hammers 56 3 Pottery Sand Temp. Body Plain 33 168.7 56 4 Pottery Sand Temp. Crumb Plain 50 51.7 56 5 Pottery Sand Temp. Body Check Stamp 3 41.3 56 6 Pottery Sand Temp. Rim Check Stamp 1 1.8 56 7 Pottery Sand Temp. Rim Plain 3 6.5 56 8 Pottery Spiculate Body Plain 2 23.5 St. Johns 56 9 Pottery Sand Temp. Body Comp Stamp 3 12.9 Swift Creek

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190 Lower Suwannee Archaeological Survey 2009-2010 STP# Cat # Material Description Form Surface Treatment N Wt. (g) Notes 56 10 Pottery Sand Temp. Rim Incised 1 5.1 56 11 Pottery Sand Temp. Body Comp Stamp 1 10.9 Zoned Stamp/Incised Swift Creek 56 12 Pottery Sand Temp. Body Fabric Impressed 3 42.3 56 13 Pottery Sand Temp. Body Cord Marked 1 16.5 56 14 Pottery Sand Temp. Body Punctate 3 20.5 Weeden Island 57 1 Pottery Sand Temp. Body Plain 1 2.3 60 1 Pottery Sand Temp. Body Plain 1 2.7 61 1 Pottery Sand Temp. Body Plain 1 2.7 62 1 Shell Tool Shell 4 277.3 Gastropod hammers 62 2 Vert. Fauna Bone 1 0.4 62 3 Pottery Sand Temp. Body Plain 2 9.3 62 4 Pottery Sand Temp. Crumb Plain 3 3.8 64 1 Lithic Chert Flake/Shatter 1 1.9 66 1 Pottery Sand Temp. Body Plain 3 8.3 66 2 Pottery Spiculate Body Plain 1 1.1 St. Johns 66 3 Lithic Chert Flake/Shatter 1 0.2 67 1 Lithic Chert Flake/Shatter 2 0.2 69 1 Vert. Fauna Bone 121 54.3 69 2 Invert. Fauna 1 0.5 Stone crab claw 69 3 Shell Tool Shell 2 123 Gastropod hammers 69 4 Pottery Sand Temp. Body Plain 6 23.5 69 5 Pottery Limestone Bo dy Plain 10 94.7 Pasco 69 6 Pottery Grog? Body Plain 1 3.4 69 7 Pottery Limestone Rim Plain 1 8.1 Pasco 69 8 Lithic 1 53.7 Sandy limestone 70 1 Vert. Fauna Bone 42 45 70 2 Pottery Sand Temp. Body Plain 19 69.9 70 3 Pottery Sand Temp. Crumb Plain 10 12 70 4 Pottery Sand Temp. Rim Plain 2 14.8 70 5 Pottery Spiculate Body Plain 1 1.9 St. Johns 70 6 Pottery Limestone Bo dy Plain 6 29.3 Pasco 70 7 Pottery Sand Temp. Rim Plain 1 29.5 Weeden Island 70 8 Shell Tool Shell 3 158.5 Gastropod hammers 70 9 Lithic Chert Flake/Shatter 1 2.8 71 1 Lithic Chert Flake/Shatter 1 0.2 72 1 Pottery Sand Temp. Body Plain 1 5.1

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APPENDIX B RADIOCARBON DATA 191

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192 Lower Suwannee Archaeological Survey 2009-2010 Beta Measured Conventional Lab 14C 13C/12C 14C 2-sigma 2-sigma Prov. Material Number Age BP Ratio (o/oo) Age BP Cal AD/BC Cal BP 8DI29 TU1-VB wood charcoal 270205 1400 40 -26.3 1380 40 AD 610-680 1340-1270 TU2-VIC wood charcoal 270206 4040 40 -25.4 4030 40 BC 2830-2820 4780-4770 BC 2630-2470 4580-4420 8DI32 TU1-IIE wood charcoal 270207 1820 40 -24.4 1810 40 AD 120-260 1830-1680 AD 280-330 1670-1620 TU2-IVA wood charcoal 279609 1920 40 -26.2 1900 40 AD 20-220 1930-1730