Cultural Resources Assessment Survey of Suwannee Transmission Phase Two

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Cultural Resources Assessment Survey of Suwannee Transmission Phase Two
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Randall, Asa R.
Rooney, Cletus
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Laboratory of Southeastern Archaeology, Department of Anthropology, University of Florida
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Gainesville, Fla.
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CULTURAL RESOURCES ASSESSMENT SURVEY OF SUWANNEE TRANSMISSION, PHASE TWO, CENTRAL FLORIDA ELECTRIC COOPERATIVE Asa R. Randall and Clete Rooney Technical Report 8 Laboratory of Southeastern Archaeology Department of Anthropology University of Florida

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CULTURAL RESOURCES ASSESSM ENT SURVEY OF SUWANNEE TRANSMISSION, PHASE TWO, CENTRAL FLORIDA ELECTRIC COOPERATIVE Asa R. Randall and Clete Rooney Technical Report 8 Laboratory of Southeastern Archaeology Department of Anthropology University of Florida Gainesville, FL 32611 May 2008

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ii 2008 Department of Anthropology, University of Florida all rights reserved

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iii MANAGEMENT SUMMARY The Laboratory of Southeas tern Archaeology (LSA), Department of Anthropology, University of Florida conducted a cultural resources assessment survey along a 21.3-km long segment of CR-349 in Dixie County, Fl orida during March and April of 2008. McLean Engineering Co., Inc. proposed the placement of 147 transmission poles within the western 25-ft right-of-way of this road segment, as a component of the Suwannee Transmission, Phase Two of the Central Florida Electric Cooperatives plan to upgrade transmission lines. This survey was conducted to identify cult ural resources that would be impacted by transmission pole placement, and to evaluate their eligibility for nomination to the National Register of Historic Places. The assessment was performed in accordance with Chapter 267 Florida Statutes and all work in preparing this report conformed to Chapter 1A-46, Florida Administrative Code and the Cultural Resource Management Standards and Operation Manual (FDHR 2002). Archival and field research methods were employed. Archival research included a search of the Florida Master Site Files (F MSF) and consideration of historic General Land Office (GLO) plats. No previously record ed cultural resources were present within the FMSF, and no historic structures or cultura l features were evident on the GLO plats. Field research consisted of pe destrian survey along the enti re corridor, and subsurface testing at pole locations. S ite boundaries were established throu gh close-interval subsurface testing within the corridor. A tota l of 14 archaeological sites were discovered during the survey, and were given FMSF designations. Four sites (8DI246-249) are historic artifact scatters. Eight sites (8DI250258) are prehistoric ar tifact scatters. These 13 sites will be directly impacted by tr ansmission pole excavation. Additionally, one historic cemetery (8DI259) was located adjacent to the project area. This site will not be directly impacted by the proposed projec t, and it is already spanned by existing transmission lines. It is the opinion of the LSA that no sites discovered during this survey are potentially eligible for nomination to th e NRHP. As a result, no further work is recommended. In order to minimize the pote ntial impact on existing archaeological deposits, and to lessen the potential for unanticipated di scoveries, we recommend the following: (1) excavation or land alterati on should not extend beyond surveyed pole locations within archaeological site boundaries; (2) lay dow n yards or staging areas should be emplaced outside of archaeological site boundaries; and (3) all staging yards, equipment storage, or ground alteration shou ld be avoided betw een poles 110 and 111 which spans the present and likely historic boun daries of site 8DI259, the Keen Historic Cemetery.

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iv CONTENTS Management Summary......................................................................................................iii Chapter 1. Project Overview................................................................................................1 Chapter 2. Environmental and Culture-Historical Contexts................................................5 Chapter 3. Reconnaissance Survey Results.......................................................................19 Chapter 4. Conclusions and Recommendations.................................................................59 References Cited............................................................................................................... .63 Appendix A: Pole Locations and Shovel Test Results......................................................71

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1 CHAPTER 1 PROJECT OVERVIEW Asa R. Randall The Laboratory of Southeast Archaeology (LSA), Department of Anthropology, University of Florida was contracted by Mc Lean Engineering Co., Inc. to provide a cultural resource assessment survey (CRAS) for the Suwannee Transmission, Phase Two project of the Central Florida Electric C ooperative. The LSA performed a reconnaissance survey of proposed areas of impact duri ng the months of May and April 2008. This survey was conducted in accordance with Chapter 267 Florida Statutes and all work including background research, fi eld work, and preparation of this report conformed to Chapter 1A-46, Florida Administrative Code and the Cultural Resource Management Standards and Operation Manual (FDHR 2002). PROJECT DESCRIPTION The proposed Phase Two of the Suwann ee Transmission Project consists of approximately 21.3 km of transmission line in Dixie County, Florida. This project will replace existing transmission lines with larg er poles that will provide higher capacity throughput to this rural segment. Poles to co nvey the new lines will be placed at an interval averaging about 450 feet along the 25-foot wide right-of-way (ROW). The project Area of Potential Effect (APE ) runs parallel to the western boundary of CR-349 in southern Dixie County (Figure 1-1). The northern edge of the corridor is 4.6 km south of Old Town, while the southern end of the project ar ea is located 7 km north of the town of Suwannee. In this section of Dixie Count y, CR-349 is oriented roughly northeast-southwest, w ith four major curves. This corridor crosses numerous survey plats: Sections 2, 3, 4, 10, 15, 22, 27, 33, 34 of Township 11 South and Range 13 East; Sections 35 and 36 of Township 12 Sout h and Range 12 East; and Sections 4, 8, 9, 17, 19, 19, 20, 25, 30 of Township 12 South and Range 13 East. Four USGS topographic quadrangles are represented in this samp le: Eugene (1954), Fa nning Springs (1993), Manatee Springs (1988), and Vista (1993). Elevations along the corridor generally descend from 25 ft amsl in the north to 10 ft am sl in the south. The project area is roughly parallel to the Suwannee River, on the upland te rrace. At its farthest point, the corridor is 2.2 km from the Suwannee River. At its closes t it is roughly 700 m to the west of the river, where the road inflects to th e east adjacent to Manatee Springs. The CRAS conducted by the LSA was preceded by archival and literature review for existing archaeological and historical resources. Fieldwork within the APE was stratified into subsurface test ing at all pole locations, and pedestrian survey between pole locations. In the event that archaeological deposits were discovered in either case, subsurface survey was conducted to determin e site boundaries within the APE corridor. These methods provided the basis for Nationa l Register of Historic Places (NRHP) recommendations.

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2 CRAS of Suwannee Transmission, Phase Two Figure 1-1. Area of Potential E ffect (APE) location of the cultural resource assessment survey for the Suwannee Transmission, Phase Two project in Dixie County.

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Project Overview 3 ORGANIZATION OF THE REPORT This report is organized into three sections. Chapter 2 places the current project within regional environmental and culture hi storical contexts, and provides a summary of cultural resources associated w ith the APE. In Chapter 3 we provide a description of the reconnaissance survey met hods employed, followed by detailed discussions of the archaeological sites discovered during the projec t. The report concludes with Chapter 4, in which we provide our conclusions and recommendations for each site. Appendix A lists the locations and results of al l shovel tests conducte d during survey.

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5 CHAPTER 2 ENVIRONMENTAL AND CULTUREHISTORICAL CONTEXTS Asa Randall and Clete Rooney This chapter situates the cultural resour ce assessment survey within the regional environmental and culture-historical contex ts. The environment, including geology and ecological structure, is considered first followed by the archaeological and historical contexts. Regional and state-wide synthese s are available for both the geology (Cooke 1939; Schmidt 1997; White 1970 ) and culture-history (F DHR 1990; Milanich 1994; Willey 1949). We summarize thes e regional patterns, and provi de more locality-specific discussions, including previously re corded sites adjacent to the APE. ENVIRONMENT The project area is located approximately midway between Old Town and the town of Suwannee in southern Dixie County (Figure 2-1). The 21.3-km long corridor lies within 700 m west of the Su wannee River, along a relict terrace, and 10 km inland from the Gulf of Mexico. This zone is situated within the Lower Suwannee River Basin, which is part of the Gulf Coastal Lowlands physiographic regime (Cooke 1939; FDNR 1990; Puri et al. 1967). Geomorphology and Environmental Geology Like all of Peninsular Florida, the regional physiography of the Suwannee River Valley ultimately owes its curre nt configuration to marine processes (Schmidt 1997). Currently, the dry land of Peninsular Flor ida occupies approxima tely one-half of the Florida Platform. Extending out into the Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic, the Platform is characterized by low relief, and is com posed of Cenozoic carbonate sedimentary lithologies that lie unconformably upon a Pa leozoic and metamorphic basement. The Florida Platform has been alternatively inundated by shallow seas and exposed as dry land during much of the Cenozoic epoch. The lo w elevation of the Platform has made it particularly susceptible to relatively small ch anges in sea level. Sea-level fluctuation has resulted in frequent progression and regression of marine estuarine, and near shore environments. This process has left the Florida coastal zone dominated by positive features including elevated relict upland ridges, barrier beaches, and sand dunes, and negative features representative of shallo w seafloors (Schmidt 1997). Numerous marine terraces that reflect long-term sea-level stands have been id entified. In the study area they are generally poorly delineated, but include the Silver Blu ff (<1-10 ft amsl), Palmlico (10-25 ft amsl), and Wicomico (70-100 ft amsl) (Healy 1975; Puri et al. 1967). The carbonate composition of many of Floridas sedimentary deposits has been equally influential. Carbonate rocks ar e particularly susceptible to dissolution, which results in karst topography and hydrogeology. Typical features of karst topography are sinkholes, sinking rivers, disappearing lake s, and springs (White 1988).

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6 CRAS of Suwannee Transmission, Phase Two Figure 2-1. Topography and hydrolo gy of the project area.

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Environmental and Culture-Historical Contexts 7 The Suwannee River and majo r tributaries emanate some 350 km upstream to the northeast in the Northern Highlands phys iographic regime. Af ter coursing through quaternary sands and tertiary we athered clays to the north, the river transitions to the lowlands. This transition is characterized by the appearance of weat hered surficial sands underlain by karstic carbonate lithologies (P uri et al. 1967). The river channel also becomes increasingly incised and restrained within a bedrock-lined channel (Mossa and Konwinski 1998). In this lower segment lim estone outcrops throughout the valley, and frequently contains chert and other siliclas tic rocks suitable for use in manufacturing stone tools (Austin and Estabrook 2000). Si milarly, numerous sinks and springs are present within the river floodplain, including a first order magnit ude spring at both Fanning Springs and Manatee Springs. Sout h of Fanning Springs the river flows generally to the south-southw est in a moderately sinuous course. The floodplain in this vicinity ranges from 0.5to 2-km wide. Th is low lying zone is dominated by bottomland hardwood swamps (Liudahl et al. 2005). In c ontrast, the interior terraces, across which the project area traverses, rise 10 to 25 feet above the floodplain. These terraces are characterized by irregular sand ridges suppor ting mesic vegetation, interspersed with hydric hammocks, bottomland swamps, and emergent wetlands. Where the Suwannee flows into the Gulf of Mexico there is a fi nal transition towards coastal swamps and mud flats. Historically, the Suwannee has a low se diment load, meaning that there is little clastic material provided by the river for island or beach building (Mossa and Konwinski 1998; Puri et al. 1967). Paleoenvironment The same processes that have affected the physiography and hydrology of Florida, namely fluctuating sea level and attendant sh ifts in climate and environmental regimes, have structured human settlement and thei r archaeological recognition in the study region. At the end of the Pleistocene sea le vels were significan tly lower than today (upwards of 40 m), resulting in the extensi on of inhabitable land over 200 km into the Gulf of Mexico and to a lesser extent the Atlantic (Faught 2004). Between 10,000 and 8000 B.P. sea levels initially rose quickly, inundating larg e expanses of the Florida Platform and interior drainages. Although near -modern levels were gradually achieved by 5000 B.P. (Faught 2004), sea level fluctuated throughout the middle and late Holocene. The increase in sea level and su rface water resulted in the in undation of many early sites. Although inundated sites ar e routinely discovered in low-energy environments such as the Gulf of Mexico and interi or sinks and drainages, many sites along the Atlantic Coast were likely destroyed or deeply buried by tr ansgressing shorelines (Ste. Claire 1990). The reduction of river gradients in respons e to sea-level change resulted in the initial alluviation and subse quent surface stabilization of in terior and coastal fluvial regimes, which in turn affected the flow and biotic characteristics of river channels and floodplains (Schulderein 1996). Peninsular Floridas arid late Pleistocene conditions, characterized by low surface water levels, gradua lly gave way to a wetter, modern regime ca. 6000-5000 B.P. (Watts et al. 1996). At 10,000 B.P. oak scrub and prairies characterized peninsular Florida. Around 8500 B.P. pine and swamp vegetation expanded

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8 CRAS of Suwannee Transmission, Phase Two from South Carolina throughout much of the Coastal Plain, becoming fully established by 4500 B.P. in southern Florida (Watts et al. 1996:37) Soils and Ecological Communities The transect encompassed by the project APE spans a total of 12 specific soil units (Table 2-1). Descriptions of soils and associated ecological communities are derived from Liudahl et al. (2005). These soils re present a limited sub-set of landforms and ecological communities. It should be noted, however, that these ecological distinctions are based on determined associations between soil and natural climax conditions of vegetation communities (Liudahl et al. 2005:89). Excluding permanently wet hydric hammocks and depressions, all landforms adjace nt to the APE have e ither been converted to slash pine plantation, are regenerating from slash pine, host cattle pens, or are residential spaces. As such, the descriptions he re provide a base line for what resources were possibly available pr ior to land conversion. Low-lying zones such as swamps and depressions are characterized by the following soil units that range from poorly to moderately poorly drained: Clara and Meadowbrook soils, frequently flooded; Clara, Oldtown, and Meadowbrook soils, depressional; Clara sand, occasionally ponded; Clara-Oldtown complex, frequently flooded; and Leon-Leon depressi onal complex. These soils are host to swamp hardwoods and wet flatwoods present in both floodplains and in the low-lying upland terraces that rise above the floodplain. Swamp hardwoods are dominated by blackgum, red maple, Ogeechee Lime, cypress, and bay trees, with an understory of fetterbush, Virginia willow, buttonbush, and wax-myrtle. Flatwoods ar e also present within the APE, and are associated with Meadowbrook fine sand, a poorly drained soil present throughout the Lower Coastal Plain. This landform type is a ssociated with slash pine, live oak, and sand live oak with an understory of saw palmetto, gallberry, and grasses. Higher elevations, typically consisting of irregular knolls and ridges, are scattered throughout the flatwoods, wetlands, and depressi ons. These uplands are associated with the following poorly to excessively draine d soils: Albany-Ridgewood complex; OrtegaBlanton complex, 0-5 percent slops; Ortega sand; Penney fine sand, 0-5 percent slopes, Ridgewood fine sand; and Talquin fine sand, occasionally flooded. Landforms with poorly to somewhat poorly drained soils are dominated by upland hardwood hammocks composed of black cherry, eastern hornbeam, flowering dogwood, hawthorn, laurel oak, laurelcherry, live oak, loblolly pine, longleaf pine, slash pine, pi gnut hickory, southern magnolia, sweetgum and water oak. The understo ry is typically composed of American beauty berry, arrowwood, sparkleberry, and wax-myrtle. Moderately well drained to excessively well drained soils are host to species endemic to the Longleaf Pine-Turkey Oak Hills ecological community which is typi fied by longleaf pine, turkey oak, bluejack oak, and sand post oak with an understory of Adams needle, coontie, coralbean, shining sumac, and yaupon.

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Environmental and Culture-Historical Contexts 9 Table 2-1. Soils Associated with the Pr oject Corridor (Liudahl et al. 2005). Soil Unit Series Province Landform Ecological Community Drainage Albany-Ridgewood complex Albany Lower Coastal Plain Lower sandy uplands, sandy ridges Upland hardwood hammocks Somewhat poorly drained Clara and Meadowbrook soils, frequently flooded Clara Lower Coastal Plain Floodplains and flats Swamp hardwoods Poorly drained Clara, Oldtown, and Meadowbrook soils, depressional Clara Gulf Coastal Lowlands Depressions Swamp hardwoods Very poorly drained Clara sand, occasionally ponded Clara Gulf Coastal Lowlands Depressions Swamp hardwoods Very poorly drained Clara-Oldtown complex, frequently flooded Clara Gulf Coastal Lowlands Flats and floodplains Swamp hardwoods Poorly drained Leon-Leon, depressional complex Leon Lower Coastal Plain Flatwoods and depressions Flatwoods, swamp hardwoods Poorly drained Meadowbrook fine sand Meadowbrook Lower Coastal Plain Broad sandy flats Flatwoods Poorly drained Ortega-Blanton complex, 0 to 5 percent slopes Ortega Lower Coastal Plain Sandy uplands Long-leaf pine turkey oak hills Moderately well drained Ortega sand Ortega Gulf Coastal Lowlands on Lower Coastal Plain Sandy uplands Long-leaf pine turkey oak hills Moderately well drained Penney fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes Penney Lower Coastal Plain Sandy uplands Long-leaf pine turkey oak hills Excessively drained Ridgewood fine sand Ridgewood Gulf Coastal Lowlands Lower sandy uplands, sandy ridges Upland hardwood hammocks Somewhat poorly drained Talquin fine sand, occasionally flooded Talquin Gulf Coastal Lowlands Lower sandy uplands, sandy ridges Upland hardwood hammocks Poorly drained

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10 CRAS of Suwannee Transmission, Phase Two The pine flatwoods, hardwood hammocks, and longleaf pine ecological communities provide habitat for numerous terrestrial fauna. Those of economic importance to humans include white-tailed de er, black bear, raccoon, opossum, gopher tortoise, and turkey. Numerous species of birds, mammals, reptiles, amphibians, and gastropods also inhabit these zones. Moreover, the widespread, if spatially restricted wetlands, hydric hammocks, channel segments provide habitat for a diverse array of aquatic fauna. Aquatic vertebrates such as alligator, otter, turtle, and upwards of 40 species of fish of economic importance to humans are present throughout the region. CULTURE HISTORY The project area is situated within what has been defined as the North Peninsular Gulf Coast region (Milanich 1994:xix). The culture history of this region can be broadly divided into five chronological periods : Paleoindian (ca. 12,000-10,000 B.P.); Archaic (ca. 10,000-2500 B.P.; Woodland (ca. 2500-12 50 B.P.); Post-Woodland (1250-500 B.P. [A.D. 1500]); and Historic (A.D. 1500-1950). Particular attention is paid to Dixie County and the surrounding region, with the recognition that many traditions temporally and spatially cross-cut arbitrary delineations, par ticularly along the this portion of the Gulf Coast (Borremans 1990). Paleoindian (ca. 12,000-10,000 B.P.) The onset of human occupation of the Florida Peninsula occurred during the Paleoindian period, at a time of low sea levels and arid environmental conditions. The late Pleistocene Paleoindian traditions include Clovis, Suwannee-Simpson, and Dalton, which are identified on the basis of diagnostic hafted bifaces. In addition to lanceolate hafted bifaces, the toolkits are characterized by a suite of formal unifaces (Daniel et al. 1986), bola stones (Neill 1964), th e Aucilla adze, and a variety of bone and ivory tools (Dunbar and Webb 1996). Today these sites are t ypically restricted to inundated contexts such as drowned river segments (Dunbar et al. 1988; Faught 2004), sink holes (Clausen et al. 1979), or perched basins and depressions (Daniel and Wisenbaker 1987; Neill 1964; Sassaman 2003a). A trend towards increased surface water ca. 10,000 B.P., and subsequent settlement expansion is atte sted by Early Archaic diagnostics at Late Paleoindian sites, as well as small numbers of Early Arch aic diagnostics in previously uninhabited localities. Noting the co-occurr ence of Paleoindian artifacts and karst topography in northwest Florida, Dunba r and Waller (1983) posited the Oasis hypothesis, that in effect Pale oindian populations were tethered to Tertiary karst zones, abundant in toolstone and reliable surface water. Paleoindian sites tend to be clustered to the north, away from the Lower Suwannee River valley, although first order magnitude springs such as at Fanning and Manatee Springs would have likely been inhabited during this time period, and deposits of this age are strongly suspected at Fanning Springs (Bland and Chance 2000).

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Environmental and Culture-Historical Contexts 11 Archaic (ca. 10,000-2500 B.P.) Archaic-period occupation of Florida is co incident with a gradual trend towards near-modern climatic and hydrological regimes, as well as the emergence of increasingly diverse regional traditions Early Holocene traditions dating between ca. 10,000 and 9000 B.P. are identified by Side-Notched and Co rner-Notched Bolen points (Bullen 1975). Aside from changes in hafted biface mor phology and the addition of new tools, the toolkits, settlement patterns, and site locati ons are largely consistent with Paleoindian forebears, particularly Dalton. Between 9000 and 7000 B.P. Floridas Early Archaic traditions are poorly understood (Austin 2004; Milanich 1994). Stemmed points, consistent with the Kirk Stemmed type and locally referred to as Kirk, Wacissa, Hamilton, and Arredondo (Bullen 1975) are di stributed throughout th e North, Central, and Gulf Central portions of the state, often in the same localities as earlier forms (Milanich 1994). Dateable contexts are ra re, with West Williams (Austin 2004) and Windover (Doran 2002a) producing a date range of 8120-6820 B.P. Stratigraphic excavations at Harney Flats (Daniel and Wisenbaker 1987), West Williams (Austin 2004), and Trilisa Pond (Neill 1964 ), as well as a comparison of Archaic sites within the Tampa Bay region (Austin 2006:174) indicate that formal blade tools were largely being abandoned in favor of rough or informal unifacial tools. This period also witnesses the establishment of a long-standing traditio n of pond burials, as evidenced by 168 interments at Windover Pond (Doran 2002b). Several environmental and social trends define the Middle (ca. 7000-5000 B.P.) and Late Archaic (ca. 5000-2500 B.P.). In broad terms the Middle and Late Archaic periods are coeval with in creasingly wetter cond itions of the Middle Holocene, with essentially modern conditions occurring by the end of the Late Archaic. Across much of Peninsular Florida researchers have rec ognized the Newnan Horizon, characterized by short, narrow-stemmed, and broad-bladed chipped-stone hafted bifaces (Milanich 1994:76). Within the horizon a number of type s have been defined, including Newnan, Marion, and Putnam (Bullen 1975). There is significant varia tion in the form of stemmed hafted bifaces from this pe riod, leading to a less formal designation of the Florida Archaic Stemmed type, which includes any br oad-bladed stemmed hafted biface. Lithic artifacts during this period were typically ma nufactured from thermally altered chert or silicified coral (Ste. Claire 1987). Dates place Newnan Horizon sites between 7000 and 5000 B.P. (Milanich 1994:77), although similar fo rms were likely produced into the Late Archaic. Sites of this period are found throughout mu ch of Florida, a nd for the first time are located in the interior forests, along th e St. Johns River and the Atlantic Coastal Lagoon (Milanich 1994:77). Coastal occupatio n likely occurred earlier but has likely been inundated or destroyed through increa sed sea level (Ste. Cl aire 1990). Lifeways predicated on intensive shellfishing are pres ent in the St. Johns by 6000 B.P. and no later than 5,600 B.P. on the northeast coast of Florida (Russo 1996). An inundated shell midden dating to ca. 6000 B.P. has also been reported from the Paleoaucilla river in northwest Florida (Faught 2004). Regardless, th e distribution of site s reflects an overall increase in available surface waters and the exploitation of new habitats, as well as a

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12 CRAS of Suwannee Transmission, Phase Two probable increase in population. Settlement in in terior Florida, which contains much of the available chert and silicified coral for the production of st one tools, is characterized by a dichotomy between large, diverse assemblages and small lithic scatters. The large sites have been interpreted by Milanich ( 1994:79) as indicative of reduced seasonal mobility. Austin (2001) suggests, however, th at the larger sites likely represent more intensive short-term reduction episodes near raw material outcrops. Several quarries have been identified, including th e Senator Edwards site in central Florida (Purdy 1975). Towards the end of the Archaic pe riod, beginning ca. 4200 B.P., Florida inhabitants began producing pottery temper ed with organic fibers. So-called fibertempered pottery types include the Orange and Norwood series. The Orange tradition is defined within the St. Johns Basin and a ssociated Atlantic co ast, although Orange components have been documented throughout much of Florida (Milanich 1994) with fiber-tempered ceramic technology appearing in both the coast and riverine interior almost simultaneously (Sassaman 2003b). Be yond ceramic technology, the tradition is characterized by Culbreath and Hamilton points, shell tools, and the occupation of coastal shell rings and interior shell mounds and middens. In the St. Johns region Orange components are frequently found in the same locales as earlier preceramic components. In contrast to the Atlantic Coastal Plain, Late Archaic traditions along the Gulf Coastal Plain remain poorly understood. In part, this is due to lower-than-present sea levels during this time period. The Elliotts Point Complex (ca. 4000-2700 B.P.) is understood as a Northern Gulf Coastal Poverty Po int expression (Lazarus 1958; Thomas and Campbell 1991), with assemblages characte rized by fiber-tempered ceramics (Norwood series), baked clay objects, Jaketown Perf orators, soapstone vessels, and Mud Creek, Bakers Creek, Destin, and Motl ey points. The complex is most clearly shown in the Choctawhatchee Bay at Bucks Bayou and Meigs Pasture (Thomas and Campbell 1991), is also present within the Apalachicol a-Lower Chattahoochee Valley (White 2004, 2003). While there is an apparent increase in the number of sites bearing pottery, suggesting yet additional population increase, it may also result from increa sed archaeological visibility of chronologically sensi tive material culture. Components dating to the Archaic period are poorly represented within the study area (Johnson and Kohler 1987). No Archaic components have been identified along the upland terrace of the Lower Suwannee River ad jacent to the project area. Archaic lithic assemblages characterized by abundant thermally altered lithic waste flakes and diagnostic hafted bifaces have been identifie d at Fanning Springs State Park (8LV537) in Levy County (Bland and Chance 2000; Weis man and Newman 1995). Borremans and Moseley (1990) identified a preceramic Arch aic component at site 8LV4 on Cedar Key, and suspect many others are located in th is region. Kohler and Johnson (1986) also identified a number of Late Archaic site s with Orange or No rwood ceramics along the coastal zone in Dixie County. South of Ce dar Key in Levy County, however, Archaic coastal sites have not been iden tified (Jones and Borremans 1991).

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Environmental and Culture-Historical Contexts 13 Woodland (ca. 2500-1250 B.P.) Beginning some 2500 years ago, there is increased visibility of settlements along the Gulf coast and interior ri verine drainage of the Suwannee River, in addition to the Atlantic coast (Milanich 1994: 112). Coeval with this development is the gradual replacement of fiber-tempered ceramics with sand-tempered ceramics, diagnostic of the Deptford tradition. Along the Gulf Coastal region, Deptford sites date between ca. 2500 and 1800 B.P. In this region Deptford sites ar e frequently situated within the live oakmagnolia hammocks associated with salt marshes (Milanich and Fairbanks 1980:68). These sites are characterized by relatively shallow shell middens, typically composed of oyster and other marine resources. Often the middens are arranged in circular rings, ranging in size from 20to 30-m in diamet er, and contain pit fe atures, post holes, and refuse features. Collectively these elements are thought to represent residential units within villages (Milanich 1994: 122-123). Inland sites have al so been documented. Such sites tend to be characterized by low-density scatters, and likely represent short-duration encampments (Bense 1985; Johnson a nd Kohler 1987; Mila nich 1994:126). While it is thought that Deptford populati ons were derived from ancestral Archaic communities, changes within technology and ceremonialism are evident. Non-ceramic material culture assemblages are characterized by small amounts of lithic tools, typically modified flakes and small bifaces, in addition to bone and shell tools. Pottery is by far the dominant material culture class recovered. Within the study region, most Woodland period vessels appear to have been undecora ted sand-tempered plain wares (Borremans 1990). Limestone-tempered Pasco plain and spiculate-tempered St. Johns wares occur as minorities within assemblages as well. During Deptford times, the impression of designs upon wet vessels with wooden pa ddles is a diagnostic practi ce. Designs include check stamping, simple stamping, and linear stamping, in addition to stick impressions (Milanich 1994:130-133). The lack of decoration in most vessels appears to represent a dichotomy between secular and sacred spaces. Undecorated wares are typical of domestic contexts, while decorated wares are typically associated with ceremonial places such as burial mounds and platform mounds. Ceremoni alism during early Deptford times appears to have been restricted to communal mortua ry mound construction al ong the coast. After 1900 B.P., however, there is evidence for incr easing involvement of local communities within the ceremonial Yent complex. Yent ceremonialism included the exchange of marine tools and objects, exotic artifacts, and apparent constr uction of ceremonial centers focused on mortuary rituals. Beginning around 1800 B.P. there is a florescence of traditions throughout peninsular Florida including Weeden Island in the Northern Gulf Coast and interior highlands, Manasota on the Southern Gulf Coas t, and St. Johns I on th e Atlantic Coast. In certain respects, these traditions share ma ny similarities in ceremonial and political practices. As before, there is a striking dis tinction between sacred and secular contexts. Villages have been identified, and appear to contain distinct households associated with nearby mortuary features. Much of the cerem onial symbolism appears to have emerged from earlier Deptford traditions, including the construction of burial and ceremonial mounds, and the importance of exotic objects. As many researchers have noted, however,

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14 CRAS of Suwannee Transmission, Phase Two those traditions within the Suwannee River Basin and associated Gulf Coastal regime have resisted divisions (Borremans 1990; Milanich 1994:208), and ceramic assemblages diagnostic of Swift Creek, Weeden Island, Ma nasota, and St. Johns traditions are all found within the North Peninsular Gulf Coasta l region. In part, the diversity of ceramic wares may reflect the underlying ecological and economic potenti al of the region. However, contributing to the confusion is th e predominance of plain wares, such as sand tempered plain, Pasco plain, and St. Johns plain, which lack the chronological specificity of decorated wares. Because of the lack of chronological resolution, and the local diversity, sites dating between ca. 1800 and 1250 B.P. are routinely referred to as Weeden Island-Related. Sites of this period have been identified throughout the coastal marine marshes of Levy and Dixie County, as well as interior locales adjacent to the Suwannee River (Johnson and Kohler 1987; Jones and Borremans 1991; Kohler and Johnson 1986). Post-Woodland (ca. A.D. 750 [1250 B.P.]1513) The social diversity and typological comp lexity that characterizes the Woodland period continues into the so-called Post-W oodland or Mississippian period. The term Mississippian has, for better or worse, been us ed in Florida to denote complex societies, such as Fort Walton and Pensacola cultures along the panhandle, St. Johns II along the St. Johns river, and Safety Harbor cultures of the Central Gulf Coast. The term itself underscores a presumed linkage with Mississi ppian cultures within the Midcontinent and throughout the Southeast. While contacts and in fluences in Florida can be debated, these indigenous Floridian societies are thought have exhibited co mplex social organization, including chiefly elite, large scale cerem onial complexes, and possibly intensive horticulture or agricu lture. In addition, archaeologist s have defined the Alachua and Suwannee River cultures as tw o post-Weeden Island, and presumably intrusive, traditions in Northern Peninsular Florid a (Milanich 1994:333). Sites attrib utable to these traditions are located within the Middle Florida Hamm ock Belt, notable for its fertile and welldrained soils. Such sites appear to represen t small hamlets, frequently with associated mortuary mounds. Largely on the basis of corn -cob impressions on potte ry it is presumed that maize-based horticulture or agriculture was practiced, apparen tly without clear distinctions in economic or soci al status amongst participants. As in the preceding era, the Lower Suwa nnee River and associated Gulf Coastal lowlands are characterized by diversity in li feways. Evidence for Fort Walton or Safety Harbor influences are minimal. However, th e region appears to have been the locus of multiple overlapping, if not coev al, populations living in clos e proximity after A.D. 750. Near the coast, populations descended from ear lier Weeden Island I inhabitants appear to have continued a maritime way of life (Milanich 1994:213). Survey s within the Gulf Coastal Hammock and Cedar Key have identif ied both village and mound complexes that may date to this time frame (Jones and Borre mans 1991). Shell middens appear to have been either linear or amorphous, and likely represent multi-household villages. However, survey by Johnson and Kohler (1987) has demons trated that Alachua culture assemblages are present throughout Dixie an d Levy County, even a few m iles from the coast. These sites tend to be located upon land more suitable for agriculture. Cerami cs associated with

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Environmental and Culture-Historical Contexts 15 this archaeological culture are Lochloosa P unctated, Alachua Cob Ma rked, Prairie Cord Marked, Prairie Fabric Marked, and Prairie Punctated-over-Cord Marked. In a number of cases Weeden Island-related assemblages co -occur where Alachua tradition assemblages are found. Because of a lack of dated contex ts it is currently unknown to what extent these represent separate groups occupying similar landforms, or whether it is a question of chronology. Historical Period (ca. A.D. 1513-1950) Permanent European settlement of Florida began with the establishment of a garrison in what is now St. Augustine in 1565. St. Augustine was strategically situated to deny Spains colonial rivals access to Spanish-claimed territory in North America. For much of the succeeding three centuries, Florida was a contested ground between rival European powers (and later, the United States) and Native American groups. A key element of Spanish attempts to control Florida was the establishment of a series of missions. Hernando De Soto first crossed the Suwannee River in 1539, but from the 1560s to the early 1700s, th e Spanish focus in the region was largely on the Atlantic coast of Florida and Georgia (Kaucher 1972; Milanich 1999). With the exception of San Luis de Talimali, near present-day Tallaha ssee, there was less effort to colonize the interior of the Florida peni nsula (Milanich 1999:33). The Spanish had commerce with the native groups of the Suwannee River basin, but there is little evidence of Spanish settlement. In the early 1700s th ere was some interest in esta blishing a Spanish settlement at the mouth of the Suwannee, at a landing the Spanish referred to as Port San Martin, but historical records are unclear as to whether (or exactly where) such a settlement would have been (Hann 1996:254). The closest known Spanish mission efforts to modern-day Dixie County were to the northeast, at the confluence of the Suwannee and Santa Fe Rivers. Missionization attempts along the Gu lf coast, including the establishment of Franciscan friars at the native village of Co fa, near the mouth of the Suwannee, were of relatively short dur ation (Hann 1996:179). In 1763, Spain ceded Florida to Great Br itain under the terms of the Treaty of Paris. Many of the Spanish-allied natives left with the Spanish when Florida changed hands (Weinstein and Mayo 2006). Movement of Creeks and Micosukee Indians from Georgia and Alabama into Florida began in the early 1700s, and accelerated during the British period (Milanich and Fairbanks 1980) These Indian populations, whom the British referred to as Seminoles, established settlements in the Florida hinterlands, including the lower Suwann ee River (Milanich and Fair banks 1980, Weinstein and Mayo 2006). The British, however, like the Spanish, la rgely focused their e fforts on the Atlantic coast of Florida, where they established large plantations. The British also began extracting naval stores (pine resins and gums) from Floridas timber resources. British control of Florida was relatively short-lived, and after the British defeat in the American Revolution, Spain regained cont rol of Florida in 1783. Florida planters who had ties to the United States agitated for Florid a to break with Spain and come under American jurisdiction. In 1812, the Patriots Rebellion, an armed insurrection against

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16 CRAS of Suwannee Transmission, Phase Two Spanish authority by a group of planters, s upported by elements of the United States Army, was put down by the Spanish and their Seminole Indian allies Seminoles, at the behest of Spanish officials, burned the plantatio ns of some of the re bel leaders. Many of the rebel leaders fled to the United States, where they continued to argue for the U.S. annexation of Florida (Davids on et al. 2006). The Seminole s incurred the enmity of prominent U.S officials, including General Andr ew Jackson, for their part in quelling the rebellion. Seminole raids from Florida into Georgia were the pretext for the First Seminole War, in 1817. In 1818, Andrew Jackson led a re prisal raid against Seminole settlements near the modern town of Suwannee (Wei nstein and Mayo 2006:12). In 1819, Spain recognized the de facto U.S control of Florid a, and signed a treaty ceding the territory officially to the United States. In 1845, Florida became a state. Du ring later realignment of county boundaries, Dixie C ounty separated from Lafayette County in 1912. The town of Cross Roads changed its name to Cross City, and became the county seat. Because of ongoing conflict with the Seminoles, the first United States settlements in much of Florida were military forts, and what is now Dixie County was no exception (Dibble 1999). Fort Fanning, on the Suwannee River, was established in the 1830s during the Second Seminole War, and form ed a nucleus for frontier settlements in the region. Zachary Taylor, future U.S. President (1849-18 50), commanded the Southern division of the U.S. army during the S econd Seminole War and used for Fanning as a base of operations in 1840 (Taylor 1840). A ccording to Henry Wilson, a major in the U.S Army during the Seminole conflicts, Fort Fa nning was also a staging area for Seminoles being relocated to South Florida at th e end of the war (Wilson 1841:March 14). Florida seceded from the United States dur ing the Civil War, and Federal forces attempted to blockade river traffic along the Suwannee River (Weinstein and Mayo 2006:12). After the close of the war in 1865, in creasing railroad development diminished the importance of the Suwannee River as a transportation venue. Railroads spurred the expansion of lumber and naval stores industrie s in Florida in general and Dixie County in particular. The extraction of gums and resins from pine trees for use in the naval stores industry in the United States dates back to th e late eighteenth century. The extraction of turpentine was a key component of this industry. Turpentine was produced by extracting resin from living longleaf and slash pine trees (FDNR 1990). A cut was made in a tree during this process, and the tr ees resins were collected in a container for later processing (Perry 1968:511). The naval stores industry was a major source of revenue in much of the South from 1789 to 1861, though except for the British period (1763-1783), it did not become economically important in Florid a until circa 1900 (Butler 1998; Perry 1968). Charles Herty of the U.S. Bureau of Fore stry introduced an economical system of pine gum extraction using zinc gutters and clay cups in 1902 (Herty 1903:9; Reed 1982). Herty patented the cup and gutter system in 1904, and the Chattanooga Pottery Company began producing millions of Herty clay c ups for the turpentine industry, spurring a

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Environmental and Culture-Historical Contexts 17 turpentine boom in rural Florida and Georgia (Reed 1982:175). By the 1920s, the Herty system dominated the turpentine industr y in Florida (Reed 1982:175). From 1909 to 1919, Florida was the largest producer of na val stores in the United States (Perry 1968:525). The Herty system involved more th an the use of cupshe also advocated changes in the labor practices and tree management aspects of turpentine extractionbut the most visible archaeological signature of this process was the ubiquitous clay Herty cup. After the 1940s, timber and farming suppl anted naval stores as the dominant industries in the Dixie County area. Currentl y, the Georgia-Pacific Companys pulpwood and mulch industries are the largest employers in the region (Arch aeological Consultants 1995). PREVIOUS INVESTIGATIONS A review of recorded sites and surveys within FMSF documentation indicates that no cultural resources have been recorded within the APE. In fact, the upland terrace zone in which the APE is located is almost de void of recorded prehistoric or historic archaeological sites. This stands in stark cont rast to the abundance of site occupations in close proximity to the Suwannee River channel and floodplain. There are several potential reasons for this patterning. First, few surveys have been performed in this portion of Dixie County either within the coas tal lowlands or coastal swamps. Secondly, most of the region is currently managed as slash pine plantation, a destructive land use pattern that can heavily disturb sites. Third, unlike other regions of Florida, Dixie County has remained rural and is not the locus of development that would bring cultural resources to light either th rough earth moving or through conc erted avocational interest. Despite the lack of extensive surveys, three recent projects suggest that lowdensity, archaeological components are situat ed throughout upland knolls associated with wetlands and depressions on th e landform. Archaeological Consultants, Inc. (ACI) conducted a reconnaissance survey on a 120-acre tract adjacent to the project area along the eastern edge of CR-349 (ACI 2006). Thei r project area, the Sunnyvale Mitigation Area, is characterized by nearly the same diversity in landforms and soil complexes as those traversed by the Suwannee Transmission, Phase Two corridor. Through systematic and judgmental subsurface testing ACI documen ted a total of five archaeological sites (8DI237-241) within the tract. These s ites were characterized by low-density assemblages of lithic waste flakes and on occasion aboriginal pottery typical of an Alachua-related tradition, but ma y also date to other periods as well. The sites ranged in size from 30 m by 40 m to 40 m by 90 m in size. All are s ituated proximate to wetlands on rises and knolls. Finally, soils associated with the sites include Albany-Ridgewood complex, 0-3 percent slope, Ridgewood fine sand, Ortega sand, and Ortega-Blanton complex, 0-5 percent slope. Survey and mitigation of the Suwannee Waste Water Treatment Plant, southwest of the current pr oject area, identified two prehistoric sites situated upon knolls, and associated with wetlands (ACI 1995; Weinstein and Mayo 2006). Shovel testing and close-interval coring determined that site 8DI157 contained at least a Deptford component, and may have also dated later to Weeden Island/Alachua

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18 CRAS of Suwannee Transmission, Phase Two times. A minor 18th-century Seminole component was al so identified. The nearby site 8DI158 was found to contain solely Deptford materials. At both sites they also uncovered evidence for late 19thor early 20th-century occupation, but no standing structures were discernable.

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19 CHAPTER 3 RECONNAISSANCE SURVEY RESULTS Asa R. Randall and Clete Rooney This chapter summarizes the results of testing the location of 147 proposed poles along the 21.3-km long APE corridor. We first revi ew the survey methods employed, including probability assessment and subsurface testin g strategies. We then provide detailed descriptions and NRHP eligibility statem ents for each of the 14 newly identified archaeological sites. SURVEY METHODS Our survey strategy utilized three primar y methods to determine the presence and significance of cultura l resources at proposed transmi ssion pole locations and along the project corridor. Prior to fieldwork, we pe rformed a background records check, including current and historic government documentation. We first queried the Florida Master Site Files (FMSF). No archaeological sites have been documented within the APE. We also examined General Land Office survey plats and historic aerial photographs. No obvious resources were evident from either source. During fieldwork we also had the opportunity to discuss with seve ral unnamed local avocational arch aeologists the probability of finding archaeological sites within the APE. These individuals, one of which was an operator at the local wastewater treatment pl ant in the town of Suwannee, all indicated that they did not know of any cultural resources along this segment of CR-349. Our fieldwork component was structured by the peculiarities of the planned project impact at localized transmission pol es along the APE corridor. We stratified our reconnaissance survey into a surface survey and subsurfa ce testing. The presence of above-ground cultural resources, including standing architecture or artifact scatters, was assessed by a pedestrian survey along the en tire APE. This survey was conducted in tandem with subsurface reconnaissa nce. In the event that artifacts were identified on the surface, such areas would be subjected to fu rther subsurface testing. Shovel test pits (STP) were excavated at proposed pole locations to determine the presence of subsurface cultural resources. Following the standards of Floridas Division of Historic Resources, each STP measured 50 x 50 cm in plan, and was excavated to a ma ximum depth of 100 cm below surface (cm BS) unless water inundat ed the pit. During excavation, all soil matrix was passed through 0.25-inch screen. In the event that an ST P tested positive for cultural materials, further testing was necessary to determine the extent of the archaeological site within the APE. Because of the restrictions of testing within the ROW, we were only able to bound positive STPs parallel to CR-349. Using this strategy, two negative STPs at 10-m intervals are re quired to delimit each boundary of the site. A minimum of four additional STPs was required to delimit each positive STP. All cultural materials that were retained in the screen were bagged and kept for analysis. Artifacts recovered dur ing survey were classified into material types, and

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20 CRAS of Suwannee Transmission, Phase Two subjected to further basic analyses. Lithic wa ste flakes were subjected to an individual flake analysis. Flakes were macroscopically examined for the following attributes: raw material type, presence of dorsal cortex, a nd presence of thermal alteration. Finally, each flake was weighed and size graded using nested squares at 0.5-cm intervals. Modified lithics, if encountered, were classified into production stages and culture-historical types. Prehistoric pottery sherds were typed based on surface treatment and temper inclusions that were macroscopically identified. The core exterior treatment, and interior treatment of each sherd was described. A material/functional classification adapted from Adams (1980) was utilized for historic materials. Artifacts were sorted initially using broad material classes (metal, glass, ceramic) a nd sub-sorted using functional and temporal criteria where applicable. SURVEY RESULTS The phase I reconnaissance survey was c onducted over the course of seven days, during the months of March a nd April, 2008. Pole locations had been marked by McLean Engineering prior to the start of fieldwork. In general, poles were situated between 1 and 3 m east of the ROW boundary. STPs were ex cavated within 1 m of the staked pole location. Ground cover in this zone ranged from barren to low-lyi ng shrub, grasses, and palmetto. Most areas showed evidence for ro utine maintenance, in cluding clear cutting. In addition, this border of the APE frequently corresponded with constructed firebreaks. In contrast, the eastern 5 m of the ROW was well-maintained and covered with low-lying cut grass. All STPs, whether at pole locations or while de fining site boundaries, were excavated along the western margin of the AP E in order to avoid utilities Our surface survey also emphasized the western margin of the APE due to relatively open or clear ground cover. Using the described methods, we excavated a total of 214 STPs within the APE, 34 of which tested positive for cultural mate rials. Three surface co llections of artifact scatters were associated with positive STPs adjacent to pole locations. Excluding a historic cemetery, no sites were encounter ed during surface survey that were not associated with pole locations. The positive STPs represent 13 previously unrecorded archaeological sites (8DI246-8DI258) (Figure 3-1). In addition, an unrecorded historic cemetery that is still in use (8DI259) was also observed and recorded. No standing historic structures were identified within or adjacent to the project boundaries. In several cases pole locations were not tested. Poles 38 and 116 were positioned on top of spoil piles greater than 1.5 m in height. These piles were composed of lime rock, sediment, and broken up asphalt. In addition, Pole 104 was situated between two fiber-optic cable lines/utility signs, and we avoided digging there. Finally, we were prevented from testing Poles 60, 125, 140, and 141 because of standing water. In the weeks before starting the fieldwork, Dixie and surrounding counties were subjected to numerous torrential downpours. Many low-ly ing areas and adjacent wetlands held ponded water.

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Reconnaissance Survey Results 21 Figure 3-1. Location of archaeological si tes discovered along the Project APE.

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22 CRAS of Suwannee Transmission, Phase Two Of the tested archaeological sites, eight consisted of more than one positive STP. Another five sites were characterized by a single positive shovel test frequently with a single artifact. Such finds fall within the category of an Isolated Archaeological Occurrence, as defined by Florida Division of Historic al Resources (FDHR) (2002). Because of the inherent restrictions of testi ng within a corridor, however, these sites have only been sufficiently bounded in two directions These single finds ar e treated herein as archaeological sites with Florida Master Site File (FMSF) designations. The results of each shovel test, including the GPS coordinates for each shovel test recorded in UTM (Zone 17N, North American Datum of 1983) are presented in Appendix A. 8DI246 Anderson Columbia 1 The Anderson Columbia 1 site, 8DI246, is a historic artifact sca tter. The site was discovered in the course of testing the propos ed location of Pole 14 (Figure 3-2). Site 8DI246 lies at an elevation of 25 ft amsl an d is located immediately east of planted pine, and roughly 40 m west of an em ergent wetland. Soils in the vicinity of the site are classified as Clara and Meadowbrook soils, frequently flooded. Cultural materials were confined to STP-14, which yiel ded a single Herty cup fragm ent (Table 3-1). Continued testing of the northern and southern boundari es within the APE failed to encounter additional cultural materials, nor were any obs erved on the surface of the site. It is unknown if site 8DI246 continues farther to the west. Two diffe rent stratigraphic profiles were observed while testing the site. Within STP-14, stratigraphy consisted of mottled gray/brown sand at 0-70 cm BS, and pa le brown sand from 70-100 cm BS. The upper stratum appeared to be disturbed, and the Herty cup fragment was recovered between the surface and 20 cm BS. In contrast, site defi nitional STPs yielded stratigraphic profiles that exhibited the following generalized stra tigraphy: 0-25 cm BS light gray sand; 25-55 cm BS mottled light gray, brown and dark gray sand; 55-100 cm BS pale brown sand. This profile is consistent w ith the Clara and Meadowbrook so il definition. On the basis of testing within the APE, the site measures a minimum of 10 m in diameter, and covers 78 m2. Based on the single find, the rime portion of a Herty Cup, site 8DI246 dates to the early 1900s. This type of cup was commonl y used during the gum-extraction phase of turpentine and naval stores production. Mar tinkovic (2003) defined different types of turpentine-related archaeological sites: gum extraction sites where gums and resins were extracted from pine trees; gum rendering facilities, where the gum was processed and distilled into products such as turpentine; camp sites, where workers resided, and transportation facilities for the movement of workers and products. Site DI246 is an Table 3-1: Cultural Materials Recovere d from the Anderson Columbia 1 Site, 8DI246, Located in the Vicinity of Proposed Pole 14. Herty Cup Fragment Shovel Test FS Depth cm BS Count Weight (g) 14 1 0-20 1 24.6

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Reconnaissance Survey Results 23 Figure 3-2. Shovel test results map of the Anderson Columbia 1 site, 8DI246.

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24 CRAS of Suwannee Transmission, Phase Two example of an extraction site. The single fi nd from 8DI1246 is a cup type patented in 1904 by Charles Herty of the U.S. Bureau of Forestry and produced by the Chattanooga Pottery Company (Reed 1982:171, Herty 19 03:9). By the 1920s, the Herty system dominated the turpentine industry in Florida (Reed 1982:175). Though this cup design was patented in 1904, it did not immediately replace earlier resin catchment systems. The site is no earlier than 1904, and more likely dates to the peak of the Florida turpentine boom (1909-1919) or later. Given the lack of associated finds, the site is most likely related to a larger scale pine plantation. Because we could not bound the s ite in all directions, the total extent of the site is unknown. However, it is also possible that the find is not in original context given evidence for earth-moving activities in ad dition to the presence of disturbed nearsurface strata. Finally, Herty cups and pine plantations represent a redundant and widespread land-use pattern, and such finds are neither rare nor spatially circumscribed. Taking these factors into cons ideration, it is our opinion that as curre ntly characterized within the APE, the site is not eligible for listing on the NRHP. 8DI247 Reed The Reed Site, 8DI247, is a hi storic artifact scatter. Th e site was discovered while testing the proposed location of Pole 16. Site 8DI247 shares many similarities with site 8DI246, which is situated 280 m to the north. The Reed site is located immediately east of a well-maintained planted pine plot, and approximately 15 m south of a residential lot with a recently constructed home (Figure 3-3). Soils in the vicinity of site 8DI247 are classified as Clara and Meadowbrook soils, frequently flooded. Cultural materials were confined to STP-20, which yielded a single He rty cup fragment between 0 and 20 cm BS (Table 3-2). The stratigraphy of STP-20 was ch aracterized by the following profile: 0-40 cm BS light gray sand; 40-100 cm BS pale brown sand. Unfortunately the extent of the site could not be determined. There is a w ooden fence that is placed immediately on the boundary between the planted pine and the RO W. Because of the arrangement of the fence, further testing would have occurred in line with marked utilities. On the basis of testing within the APE, the site measures a minimum of 10 m in diameter, and covers 78 m2. Although we were unable to bound the site, it is likely related to the same landuse practices as site 8DI246. The single Hert y-cup fragment indicates a post-1904 date for the site. Because the site is unlikely to add new information, and does not represent a poorly documented historical context, it is ou r opinion that the site is not eligible for listing on the NRHP. Table 3-2: Cultural Materials Recovered fr om the Reed Site, 8DI247, Located in the Vicinity of Proposed Pole 16. Herty Cup Fragment Shovel Test FS Depth cm BS Count Weight (g) 20 2 0-20 1 55.0

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Reconnaissance Survey Results 25 Figure 3-3. Shovel test results map of the Reed site, 8DI247.

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26 CRAS of Suwannee Transmission, Phase Two 8DI248 Butler Homestead 1 The Butler Homestead 1 site, 8DI248, is an extensive historic artifact scatter located approximately 1.4 km southeast of site 8DI247. Site 8DI248 was discovered while testing the proposed locati on of Pole 25 (Figure 3-4). The site is currently situated east of a pine plantation. Within the APE the ground is sparsely covered with grass, palmetto, and low-lying shrubs. Soils in the area are classified as Ridgewood fine sands. The ROW shows signs of disturbance associ ated with the establishment and routine maintenance of a firebreak. The site was charac terized with a total of five positive STPs. Prior to testing Pole 25 we observed a low-density scatter of historic-era artifacts, including manganese glass, Herty cup fragme nts, historic ceramics, and rusted metal fragments. This scatter is present 10 m to th e northeast and southwest of the pole location within the APE, and exte nded into the planted pine for an unknown distance. A representative field specimen sample wa s collected from the surface around pole 25 (FS 4), as well as 10 m southeast (FS 10) and north east (FS 6) (Table 3-3). On the basis of testing within the APE, the site measur es a minimum of 80-m long, and covers 860 m2. Subsurface cultural materials were first encountered in STP-29, which yielded Herty cup fragments, and small body fragment s of amber, clear, blue, and manganesetinted glass, in addition to a large fragment of unidentifiable a nd unextractable metal hardware. Continued testing to the north in the ROW resulted in comparable historic-era assemblages (Table 3-3). These recovered assemblages are chronologically consonant with those recovered from the adjacent site 8DI249 (Table 34), to be described in the following section. In general, the deposits we re diffuse, and in one case (STP-30) testing failed to intercept cultural deposits. We were unable to test within 10 m southwest of STP-29 due to marked utilities. However, historic-era artifacts were present on the surface, and we collected a representative sa mple (FS 4). Continued testing 20and 30-m south yielded only negative surface and subsur face results. As characterized in STP-29, stratigraphy of the site consists of the following profile: 0-22 cm BS light gray sand with charcoal flecks; 22-40 cm BS mottled pale brown sand with charcoal flecks; 40-100 cm BS pale brown sand. In all cas es, artifacts were recovered from the upper stratum within 20 cm of the surface. This stratum appears to be heavily reworked, likely as a result of constructing the ROW and maintaining the fire break. No standing structures were evident from the APE, and there was no evidence with in shovel tests for foundational remains. Prior to testing this proposed pole locati on, there was some i ndication that cultural resources were located nearby. Approximately 10 m north of Pole 23 we encountered two large roadside placards commemorating early 20th-century habitation in the area (Figure 3-5). One sign read Site of the Butler Turpenti ne Still, in memory of Benjam S. Butler Jr. owner and the families that lived and worked here in 1910. The other read Site of the Poley Branch School in memory of the teacher and the Corbin Daughtery-Hogan children that were in school in 1910. None of the archaeological material recovered from 8DI248 suggests that the site is associated with schoolhouse remains.

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Reconnaissance Survey Results 27 Figure 3-4. Shovel test results map of the Butler Homestead 1 site, 8DI248.

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28 CRAS of Suwannee Transmission, Phase Two Figure 3-5. Roadside placards displayed in vicinity of the Butler Homestead 1 site, 8DI248. Archaeological investig ations of early 20th-century schoolhouses t ypically have higher artifact densities and greater artifact variety than is present in 8DI248 (Bohon et al. 2003). A land patent search revealed a land pa tent (#250806) dated 3/1/1912 to Benjamin S. Butler, Jr. for the southwest Quarter of the Northeast Quarter of Section Fifteen in Township Eleven South of Range Thirteen East of the Tallahass ee Meridian, Florida, Containing Thirty-Nine and Ninety-Five-Hund redths Acres. This would place this homestead within the vicinity of the projec t APE in this location. Additionally, a land patent search for Corbin, Daughtery, Hogan, or Daughtery-Hogan revealed a land patent for James Corbin (#191347) dated 4/20/1911 fo r the Southeast quart er of the northeast quarter, the west half of the southeast quart er, and the northeast quarter of the southeast quarter of section four in township eleven south of range thirteen east of the Tallahassee Meridian, Florida, containing one hundred sixty-two and fifty-hundredths acres. This location is over 2 km northwest of the site. Collectively, these land patents suggest that occupation within the vicinity of site 8DI248 (and including 8DI246, 8DI247, and

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Reconnaissance Survey Results 29 Figure 3-6. Identified ar chaeological sites and pr esent-day County Road 349 superimposed upon 1850 GLO Survey Plat, Township 11 South, Range 13 East.

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30 CRAS of Suwannee Transmission, Phase Two

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Reconnaissance Survey Results 31 Figure 3-7. Selected historic-age artif acts recovered during testing: (a) glazed earthenware; (b-c) white ware (d) 12-gauge Nublack shotgun casing base, (e-f) Herty cup fragments, (g-i) manganese glass.

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32 CRAS of Suwannee Transmission, Phase Two 8DI249) occurred as early as 1912, if not earlier. Finally, an examination of the 1850 General Land Office (GLO) survey plat of the region suggests th at there were no structures or habitation sites at the time of survey (Figure 3-6). However, the location of sites 8DI248 and 8DI249 roughly coincides w ith an extant road that emanated from Pine Bluff on the Suwannee River and trav eled south, roughly coincident with the location of present day CR-349. Dateable artifacts support an early-twentieth-century da te range for the site. The purple tint on glass recovered from the site is caused by sunlight reacting over time with the manganese content of the glass. Manganese was used as a clarifying agent in glass until manganese supplies became unstable during World War I. This solarized glass has a date range from ca. 1880 to ca. 1914 (Riordan 1980: 503). Bottle-making technology is also temporally diagnostic. A ma nganese-tinted bottle base from the site (Figure 3-7i) has diagnostic features indicative of post-1904 production on an Owens automatic bottlemaking machine (Riordan 1980:478). By 1917, half of the bottles in the United States were manufactured by such machines (Mil ler 2000:8). The small body fragments of amber, clear, and blue glass are two sma ll to infer dateable production technology, though all are most likely twentieth century. Mass produced blue glass is most common after 1907 (Riordan 1980). Ceramics at the site include a small whiteware rimsherd and brown and buff glazed earthenware body sherd (Figure 3-7a), as well as numerous Herty cup fragments (Figure 3-7e, f). The whiteware sherd is too small for makers mark and other identifying criteria. Whiteware is common from the 1820s to the present (Miller 2000:13). Brown glazed earthenwares were commonly produced throughout the nineteenth and twentieth centuries (Walthall et al. 1991). Again, the sm all sherd size precludes a more precise time range. Herty-cup fragments found on the surface a nd in shovel tests at the site are of a type patented in 1904 by Charles Herty and manufactured by the Chattanooga Pottery Company (Reed 1982:171, Herty 1903:9). By the 1920s, the Herty system dominated the turpentine industry in Florid a (Reed 1982:175). The presence of these cup fragments suggests post-1904 pine-gum extraction, likel y dating to the peak of the Florida turpentine boom (1909-1919) or later. Other temporally diagnostic artifacts include a Winchester Nublack shotgun shell headstamp (Figure 3-7d). The Winchester Repeating Arms Company was established in 1886 (Adams 1980:556). Nublack shells were produced from the turn of the century until approximately 1931 (Jones 2007:13). 8DI249 Butler Homestead 2 The Butler Homestead 2 site, 8DI249, is a small historic and prehistoric artifact scatter. The site was located while testing the proposed location of Pole 26 (Figure 3-8), and lies roughly 140 m south of site 8DI248. S ite 8DI249 is situated on an irregular upland ridge now characterized by planted pine, and the ROW is characterized by scattered grasses, palmetto, and low-lying shrubs. The ROW also shows signs of being recently cut, and the ground appears disturbed. Soils in the area are classified as Ridgewood fine sand. Bottomland hardwood swam ps are situated roughly 60 m to the

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Reconnaissance Survey Results 33 Figure 3-8. Shovel test results map of the Butler Homestead 2 site, 8DI249.

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34 CRAS of Suwannee Transmission, Phase Two west and 120 m to the east of the site. The si te was intersected with two adjacent STPs. In STP-39 a chert waste flake was recovered from between 0 and 20 cm BS. Stratigraphy in this location revealed the following profile: 0-20 cm BS light gray sand; 20-45 cm BS mottled orange and gray sand; 45-100 pale br own sand. The upper strata in this STP were apparently disturbed. The prof ile of STP-41 consisted of th e following strata: 0-25 cm BS mottled light/dark gray sand; 25-100 pale brow n sand. Both the historic and prehistoric artifacts were recovered from the upper, likely disturbed, stratum. On the basis of testing within the APE, the site measures a minimum of 20-m long, and covers 178 m2. Site 8DI249 is composed of multiple low-density components dating to the prehistoric and historic eras (Table 3-4) Historic materials recovered include nondiagnostic metal fragments, manganese-tinte d glass, small body fragments of amber, clear, and aqua-colored glass, two whitewa re sherds, and a Herty-cup fragment. The amber, clear, and aqua glass appears ma ss produced, using post -1904 technology, but are too fragmentary for more precise dating (R iordan 1980). A manganese-tinted bottle neck recovered from the site can be dated more closely. This artifact (Figure 3-7g) is a prescription bottle with a machine-applied sq uare (straight-sided) patent lip. Machineapplied collars on prescriptionstyle bottles, using manganese glass date to ca. 1892 to ca. 1914 (Riordan 1980). Whiteware is common from the 1820s to the present (Miller 2000:13). The Herty-cup fragment indicates post-1904 pine-gum extraction, likely during the peak of the Florida turpen tine boom (1909-1919) or later. Prehistoric lithic waste flakes were recovered from STP-39 and STP-41. Both flakes were manufactured out of chert, measured between 1.5 and 2 cm, and lacked cortex. One flake was thermally altered wh ile the other was not. Lacking temporally diagnostic artifacts it is unknown when this site was inhab ited. Moreover, due to the small sample size and lack of site boundaries it is impossible to determine the function of the site. However, in both assemblage content and location proximate to wetlands it shares similarities with other low-density pr ehistoric sites located within and near the APE. Analysis of the historic assemblage fr om STP-41 indicates a likely date of occupation between 1904 and 1919, though much of the fragmentary glass lacks temporally precise diagnostic criteria and c ould be later. Based on its location some 80 m southwest of 8DI248, in addition to assemblage characteristics it is likely associated with site 8DI248. Taken together, the possibili ty of disturbance, and the redundant characteristics of the sites assemblages s uggest that site 8DI249 is not eligible for inclusion on the NRHP. 8DI250 Bascom Gulf 1 The Bascom Gulf 1 site, 8DI250, is a small prehistoric lithic scatter. It was located while testing the proposed location of Pole 28 (Figure 3-9), approximately 270 m south of the Butler Homestead 2 site. Site 8DI 250 is situated to the east of planted pine and 20 m north of a bottomla nd hardwood swamp that was in undated with standing water at the time of testing. Soils in the vicinity of the site are classified as Ridgewood fine

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Reconnaissance Survey Results 35 Figure 3-9. Shovel test results map of the Bascom Gulf 1 site, 8DI250.

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36 CRAS of Suwannee Transmission, Phase Two Table 3-5: Cultural Materials Recovered from the Bascom Gulf 1 site, 8DI250, Located in the Vicinity of Proposed Pole 28. Lithic Flake Shovel Test FS Depth cm BS Count Weight (g) 46 13 40-60 1 0.1 48 14 40-80 4 0.5 50 15 40-80 3 3.3 sand, while soils within the swamp are classified as M eadowbrook fine sand. The site lies at an elevation of 20 ft amsl, and slopes down slightly to the southwest towards the swamp. On the basis of testing within the APE, the site measures 40 m in length, and covers a minimum of 377 m2. The site was characterized with three positive STP, all of which yielded lithic waste flakes. Cultural deposits were initially encountered w ithin STP-46, tested at the location of pole 28. This STP yielded a single chert waste flake between 40 and 60 cm BS. Continued testing to the northeast extend ed the site 10 m, while testing to the southwest indicates deposits extend another 20 m, and terminate at the edge of the wetland. In all instances, archaeological deposits appear to be confined to depths between 40 and 80 cm BS. Based on excavations of ST P-46, the site is characterized by the following stratigraphic profile: 0-30 cm BS light gray fi ne sand; 30-100 cm BS pale brown sand. At lower elevations near wate r, the basal stratum exhibited mottling and gleying typical of hydric soils. The artifact assemblage of site 8DI250 c onsists of a total of eight chert waste flakes (Table 3-5). Due to the lack of diagnos tic artifacts the chronological association of these finds is unknown, nor do we know if the finds represent single or multiple components. Analysis of the assemblage indicate s that the lithic flakes are small, ranging in size between 1 and 3 cm in maximum dime nsion. All were manufactured from chert, half of which exhibited thermal alteration. Fi nally, only one flake exhibited dorsal cortex. Based on this limited patterning, it is likely that the assemblage represents late-stage reduction and tool maintenance. Together with the sites proximity to the wetland, the data suggest a limited-duration occupation centered on the exploitation of wetland resources. Because of the low-density of archaeo logical deposits, the unlikelihood of generating significant archaeological informat ion, and apparent similarities to other prehistoric sites within and ne ar the APE, we do not consid er site 8DI250 as currently characterized to be eligible for nomination to the NRHP. 8DI251 Bascom Gulf 2 Roughly 4 km south of site 8DI250 lie s the Bascom Gulf 2 site, 8DI251, a prehistoric artifact scat ter. Site 8DI251 was located while testing the proposed location of Pole 59, and is composed of a single positive STP that yielded prehistoric pottery (Figure 3-10). The site is situated on an elongated upl and ridge at an elevation of 20 ft amsl,

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Reconnaissance Survey Results 37 Figure 3-10. Shovel test results map of the Bascom Gulf 2 site, 8DI251.

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38 CRAS of Suwannee Transmission, Phase Two where planted pine is present on both side s of the ROW. Approximately 35 m to the southeast, lower elevations are characterized by a seasonally flooded bottomland hardwood swamp, and to the southwest there is a hydric hammock. Soils in the location of the site are classified as Ortega sand. On the basis of testing within the APE, the site measures a minimum of 10 m in diameter, and covers 78 m2. Based on excavation of STP-82, the stratigraphy of the site is characterized by the following profile: 0-20 cm BS light gray sa nd banded with light brown sand; 20-100 pale brown sand. As was noticed elsewhere along th e APE, the top 20 cm is likely disturbed by recent land clearing and maintenance of th e ROW. The pottery was recovered between 60 and 80 cm BS, suggesting the component is intact. The material culture assemblage of the site is limited to two aboriginal sandtempered plain pottery body sherds (Table 3-6). These two sherds crossmended, and exhibited fresh breaks, and thus repres ent a single sherd br oken during excavation (Figure 3-11a). The sherds measure 0.7 cm in thickness, and are characterized by coarse sand inclusions, a reduced core, and oxidized ex terior surfaces. Furthe rmore, the exterior and interior surface were smoothed over. This wa re is not very chronologically sensitive, and places occupation of the site anyw here between roughly 2500 and 500 B.P. Table 3-6: Cultural Materials Recovered from the Bascom Gulf 2 site, 8DI251, Located in the Vicinity of Proposed Pole 59. Sand-tempered Plain Sherd Shovel Test FS Depth cm BS Count Weight (g) 82 16 60-80 2 11.5 Figure 3-11. Selected prehistoric artifacts r ecovered during testing: (a) sand-tempered plain sherd, (b) modified chert flake, (c) stemmed hafted biface base.

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Reconnaissance Survey Results 39 Collectively the location and low-density natu re of site 8DI251 is similar to other prehistoric sites located near the project area. The characteristics of the site indicate that it may have been a short-duration encampm ent, likely focused on wetland resource acquisition. However, this suggestion must be tempered with the fact that we do not know how far the site may extend to the west away from the APE, nor if there are unaffected portions of the site on the oppos ing ROW to the east. Because of the lowdensity of archaeological deposits, the unlikelihood of generating significant archaeological information, and apparent similar ities to other prehistoric sites within and near the APE, we do not consider site 8DI251 to be eligible for listing on the NRHP. 8DI252 Bascom Gulf 3 The Bascom Gulf 3 site, 8DI252, was locat ed while testing the proposed location of Pole 64, roughly 700 m south of site 8DI251, and is composed of a single positive STP with a lithic waste flake (Fi gure 3-12, Table 3-7). The site is located on an elongated and irregular upland ridge now covered by plante d pine on both sides of the ROW at an elevation of 15 ft amsl. Bottomland hardwood swamps are situated no closer than 115 m away to the southwest. Soils in the vicinity of th e site are classified as Ridgewood fine sands. On the basis of testing within the AP E, the site measures a minimum of 10 m in diameter, and covers 78 m2. Site 8DI253 was intercepted with STP-87 at the location of Pole 64. Continued testing to the northeast and southwest failed to identify any further cultural materials. Based on excavations of STP-87, the stratigra phy of the site is ch aracterized by the following profile: 0-20 cm BS light gray sand; 20-34 cm BS mottled brown and light brown sand; 34-100 cm BS pale brown sand. A single chert waste flake was recovered between 40-60 cm BS, apparently from an intact and undisturbed context. The flake fell within the 2.5 cm size grade, retained some cortex, and was thermally altered. Because of the low density of the lithic assemblage, the lack of temporally diagnostic material culture, and inadequate bounda ries to the west and east, little can be said about the function or ch ronological position of site 8DI252. As currently bounded and characterized, the site is unlikely to add to archaeological knowledge, and we do not consider it eligible for listing on the NRHP. Table 3-7: Cultural Materials Recovered from the Bascom Gulf 3 site, 8DI252, Located in the Vicinity of Proposed Pole 64. Lithic Flake Shovel Test FS Depth cm BS Count Weight (g) 87 17 40-60 1 0.9

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40 CRAS of Suwannee Transmission, Phase Two Figure 3-12. Shovel test results map of the Bascom Gulf 3 site, 8DI252. 8DI253 Bascom Gulf 4

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Reconnaissance Survey Results 41 The Bascom Gulf 4 site, 8DI253, is a small prehistoric lithic scatter. The site was located while testing the proposed location of Pole 68 (Figure 3-13). Site 8DI253 lies at an elevation of 15 ft amsl, and is situat ed 700 m south of site 8DI252. The western boundary of site 8DI253 is composed of pl anted pine, while the northeastern boundary terminates in a bottomland hardwood swamp which was inundated during testing. This swamp extends to the east and southeast of the site across th e opposing ROW. Soils associated with the site are classified as Ridgewood fine sand. The site was intercepted with a total of five positive STPs. Because of the presence of inundated wetland, we were only able to test one STP along the northeas tern boundary of the s ite. Although this does not constitute a double negative, it is unlikely th at cultural materials of significant density extend into the swamp. Al ong the southwestern boundary we encountered another 4 positive STPs. On the basis of testing with the APE, the site measures a minimum of 80 m in length, and covers 780 m2. Testing across the site revealed a repeated soil profile and lo w-density distribution of lithic waste flakes (Table 3-8). As rev ealed in STP-91, the stra tigraphy of site 8DI253 is composed of the following profile: 0-20 cm BS light gr ay sand; 20-100 cm BS pale brown sand. Excluding one near-surface find, all lithic waste flakes were recovered between 40 and 80 cm BS. The position of found assemblages indicates that the site is likely intact and largely limited to subsurf ace finds. Although the lithic assemblage is very small, analysis of the lithic waste flakes suggests that limited late-stage production and maintenance of stone tools occurred on site. All flakes were manufactured from chert. Flakes were small on average, and ranged in size between 0.5 and 3.5 cm in maximum dimension, although 4 (57%) fell within the 2-cm size grade. Only two flakes exhibited cortex, and three were thermally altered. Collectively, the results of testing indicate that site 8D I253 is a prehistoric lithic scatter associated with a wetland resource. Because of the low density of the lithic assemblage and lack of temporally diagnostic ma terial culture, little can be said about the function or chronological position of the site. Moreover, th e site shares many similarities with other prehistoric scatters identified w ithin and near the APE. These characteristics suggest that site 8DI253 repr esents one example of a wide spread and redundant land-use pattern. As currently bounded and characterized, the site is unlikely to add significantly to archaeological knowledge, and we do not cons ider it eligible for listing on the NRHP. Table 3-8: Cultural Materials Recovered from the Bascom Gulf 4 site, 8DI253, Located in the Vicinity of Proposed Pole 68. Lithic Flake Shovel Test FS Depth cm BS Count Weight (g) 91 18 40-60 1 1.7 203 32 60-80 2 2.2 210 35 40-60 1 0.9 212 36 10-60 2 3.3 213 37 60-80 1 0.6

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42 CRAS of Suwannee Transmission, Phase Two Figure 3-13. Shovel test results map of the Bascom Gulf 4 site, 8DI253.

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Reconnaissance Survey Results 43 8DI254 Bascom Gulf 5 The Bascom Gulf 5 site, 8DI254, is a low-de nsity prehisto ric scatter. The site was located while testing the proposed locati on of Pole 69 (Figure 3-14), roughly 85 m southwest of site 8DI253. Site 8DI254 lies at an elevation of nearly 20 ft amsl on a slight upland rise. The western boundary is composed of planted pine, while beyond the eastern edge of the opposing ROW there is an exte nsive bottomland hardwood swamp. Soils in the vicinity of the site are classified as Ridgewood fine sand. The site was first encountered while testing STP-92. Continued tes ting to the northeast in the APE failed to identify any further cultural materials. An additional two positive STPs at 20-m intervals were encountered to the southw est of Pole 69. On the basis of testing within the APE, the site measures of minimum of 50 m in length, and covers 482 m2. Stratigraphy between the three STPs indica tes that the site is partially disturbed, likely due in part to clearing the ROW or harvesting planted pine. Both STP-92 and STP204 revealed a typical, intact profile: 0-20 cm BS light gray sand; 20-100 cm BS pale brown sand. In contrast, STP-205 contained a highly disturbed profile, consisting of the following stratigraphy: 0-40 cm BS mottled ta n, brown, and gray sand; 40-80 abundant charcoal and red sand, apparently a stump that burned in situ ; and 80-100 cm BS white sand. The material culture assemblage recovere d from site 8DI254 was composed of a single sand-tempered plain sherd and 2 lithic waste flakes (Table 3-9). The pottery indicates that site was occupied some time between 2500 and 500 years ago. The sandtempered plain sherd was nearly identical to that recovered from site 8DI251, except that it was highly eroded. The body sherd measured 0.9 cm in thickness. The interior and exterior of the sherd was oxidized and lack ed surface treatment, while the core was reduced. The two flakes fell into the 2 cm size grade, and were manufactured from thermally altered chert. One fl ake exhibited dorsal cortex. The results of testing site 8DI254 indicate that it is a prehistoric lithic scatter associated with a wetland resource. Because th e site shares many similarities with other prehistoric scatters identifie d within and near the APE, it is likely that site 8DI254 represents one example of a widespread and redundant land-use pa ttern. As currently bounded and characterized, the si te is unlikely to add si gnificantly archaeological knowledge, and we do not consider it eligib le for listing on the NRHP based on its current characterization. Table 3-9: Cultural Materials Recovered from the Bascom Gulf 5 site, 8DI254, Located in the Vicinity of Proposed Pole 69. Lithic Flake Sand -tempered Plain Sherd Shovel Test FS Depth cm BS Count Weight (g) Count Weight (g) 92 19 40-60 1 3.8 204 34 0 1 1.1 205 33 40-60 1 0.6

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44 CRAS of Suwannee Transmission, Phase Two Figure 3-14. Shovel test results map of the Bascom Gulf 5 site, 8DI254

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Reconnaissance Survey Results 45 8DI255 Bascom Gulf 6 The Bascom Gulf 6 site, 8DI255, is a lowdensity prehistoric li thic scatter. The site was located while testing the proposed location of Pole 90 (Figure 3-15), and is situated 3.3 km southwest of site 8DI254. Site 8DI255 is located at an elevation slightly above 15 ft amsl, and is situated on an upland rise currently covered with planted pine. This upland zone is roughly 50 m northeast of an inundated emerge nt wetland, and 80 m west of a hydric hammock; neither are evident on the site map. Soils in the vicinity of the site are classified as Ridgewood fine sand. Si te 8DI255 was first intercepted while testing STP-113. Continued testing to th e northeast failed to identify further cultural materials, and only one additional positive STP was encountered to the southwest. On the basis of testing within the APE, the site measures a minimum of 30 m in length, and covers 277 m2. Testing within site 8DI255 indicates that the cultural deposits are intact, and characterized by a low-density lithic asse mblage. As exposed in STP-91, stratigraphy within the site consists of the following prof ile: 0-15 cm BS light gray sand; 15-90 cm BS orange/pale brown mottled sand; 90-100 cm BS light gray sand. The mottling present within the basal strata is typi cal of hydric soils near wetlands at low elevations. Cultural materials recovered were limited to a si ngle lithic waste flake from STP-113, and a hafted-biface fragment from ST P-189 (Figure 3-11c). The waste flake fell within the 3cm size grade, was manufactured from non-ther mally altered chert, and retained dorsal cortex. The hafted biface fragment measured 0.8 cm in thickness, 1.9 cm in width and 1.5 cm in length. It was manufactured from non-ther mally altered chert. Based on the overall morphology of the biface fragment, it appears to be the stem of a hafted biface that broke at the intersection of the haft and the blade element. Lacking the shoulders, it is impossible to determine the culture-historic al type and association of the form. The results of testing site 8DI255 indicate that it is a prehistoric lithic scatter associated with a wetland resource. Because th e site shares many similarities with other prehistoric scatters identifie d within and near the APE, it is likely that site 8DI255 represents one example of a widespread and redundant land-use pa ttern. As currently bounded and characterized, the si te is unlikely to add si gnificantly archaeological knowledge, and we do not consider it eligible for listing on the NRHP. Table 3-10: Cultural Materials Recovered from the Bascom Gulf 6 site, 8DI255, Located in the Vicinity of Proposed Pole 90. Lithic Flake Hafted Biface Fragment Shovel Test FS Depth cm BS Count Weight (g) Count Weight (g) 113 20 40-60 1 1.7 189 31 80-100 1 2.2

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46 CRAS of Suwannee Transmission, Phase Two Figure 3-15. Shovel test results map of the Bascom Gulf 6 site, 8DI255.

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Reconnaissance Survey Results 47 8DI256 Bascom Gulf 7 The Bascom Gulf 7 site, 8DI256, is a lowdensity prehistoric li thic scatter. The site was located while te sting the proposed location of Pole 92 (Figure 3-16), approximately 250 m southwest of site 8DI255. S ite 8DI256 is located at an elevation of 15 ft amsl, on an irregularly shaped upland ridge covered with relict planted pine. The site is situated at the contact between upland, xeric coverage to the east, and an bottomland hardwood swamp situated some 30 m to the west. This wetland is that same with which site 8DI255 is associated. Soils in the vicinity of site 8D I256 are classified as Ridgewood fine sand. The site was first enc ountered while testing STP-115. No further cultural materials were recovered to either the northeast or southwest. On the basis of testing within the APE, the site measures a minimum of 10 m in length, and covers 78 m2. As revealed in STP-115, stratigraphy at the site is typified by the following profile: 0-20 cm BS light gray sand; 20-40 cm BS mottled pale brown, brown, and gray sand; 40-100 cm BS pale brown sand. The l ithic assemblage was recovered between 40 and 80 cm BS, suggesting that this component of the site is intact. The lithic assemblage is composed of a single chert waste flake, a nd a marginally modified chert flake (Table 311). The waste flake fell within the 2 cm si ze grade, was thermally altered, and retained dorsal cortex. The marginally modified flak e was manufactured out of thermally altered chert that lacked dorsal cort ex (Figure 3-11b). One lateral margin exhibited a 2-cm long marginal edge with regular micro-scars. The edge angle was between 30 and 45 degrees. This tool appears to have been either incide ntally modified during use, or alternatively, prepared for use. Regardless, the to ol is not temporally diagnostic. The results of testing site 8DI256 provide further data to sup port the hypothesis of a redundant land-use pattern in this section of Dixie County. In th e case of 8DI256, the lithic assemblage is far too small to make any specific conclusion as to the function or chronological associatio n of activities occurring on site. Because the site shares many similarities with other prehistoric scatters id entified within and near the APE, it is likely that site 8DI256 represents another example of a upland terrace wetland exploitation. As currently bounded and charac terized, the site is unlik ely to add significantly archaeological knowledge, and we do not cons ider it eligible fo r listing on the NRHP. Table 3-11: Cultural Materials Recovered from the Bascom Gulf 7 site, 8DI256, Located in the Vicinity of Proposed Pole 92. Lithic Flake Modified Flake Shovel Test FS Depth cm BS Count Weight (g) Count Weight (g) 115 21 40-80 1 0.6 1 2.9

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48 CRAS of Suwannee Transmission, Phase Two Figure 3-16. Shovel test results map of the Bascom Gulf 7 site, 8DI256.

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Reconnaissance Survey Results 49 8DI257 Bascom Gulf 8 The Bascom Gulf 8 site, 8DI257, is a lowdensity prehistoric li thic scatter. The site was located while testing the propos ed location of Pole 108 (Figure 3-17), approximately 2.5 km southwest of site 8DI256. Site 8D I257 is situated at an elevation of 10 ft amsl, and lies at the intersection between upland xeric planted pine to the east, and a cypress swamp to the west. Soils associated w ith site 8DI257 are cl assified as Ridgewood fine sand. The Bascom Gulf 8 site was firs t intercepted while testing STP-131. Continued testing to the southwest failed to encounter further archaeological deposits. Testing to the north yielded an additional positive STP that was present within the nearly inundated swamp margin. Because of inundation, we could not test more than 10 m north of this positive STP. Due to the diffuse nature of finds, it is possible that the site extends farther past this area along the wetland edge. Alternat ively, the site may have been truncated by the construction of the ROW for CR-349. On the ba sis of testing within the APE, the site measures a minimum of 30 m in length, and covers roughly 279 m2. The limited testing within site boundari es suggests that the archaeological deposits are intact and associated with satu rated hydric soils. As revealed in STP-131, stratigraphy at the site is typified by the following profile : 0-40 cm BS dark gray sand; 40-75 cm BS gray sand. We were unable to te st past 75 cm BS due to inundation of STP131, and could not dig past 60 cm BS in STP-18 3 because of water. The three lithic waste flakes were all recovered between depths of 40 to 60 cm BS (Table 3-12). These three waste flakes were manufactured from chert, and range in size gr ades between 0.5 and 3.5 cm. Two flakes were thermally altered, a nd the one non-thermally altered flake also retained dorsal cortex. The lithic assemblage is too small to draw conclusions as to the range of activities occurring on site. Collectively, the location and assemblage ch aracteristics indicate that site 8DI257 is an intact lithic scatter that likely reflect s prehistoric short-duration activities centered on wetland resources. Because of the low density of artifacts, the similarities shared with other sites within the APE, and the unlikelihood of produci ng significant archaeological knowledge, we do not consider site 8DI257 to be eligible for listing on the NRHP. Table 3-12: Cultural Materials Recovered from the Bascom Gulf 8 site, 8DI257, Located in the Vicinity of Proposed Pole 108. Lithic Flake Shovel Test FS Depth cm BS Count Weight (g) 131 22 40-60 2 3.9 183 30 40-60 1 0.3

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50 CRAS of Suwannee Transmission, Phase Two Figure 3-17. Shovel test results map of the Bascom Gulf 8 site, 8DI257.

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Reconnaissance Survey Results 51 8DI258 Bascom Gulf 9 The Bascom Gulf 9 site, 8DI258, is an exte nsive, if low-densit y, prehistoric lithic scatter. The site is emplaced 1 km southwest of site 8DI257. Site 8DI258 was discovered while testing the proposed loca tion of Pole 115 (Figure T3-16) Continued testing within the APE located a single positive STP to the southwest, while five positive STPs were identified to the northeast. Site 8DI258 is positioned atop a narrow upland ridge at an elevation of 15 ft amsl, in a xeric zone now characterized by planted pine. Not visible on the site map is an extensive hydric hammock some 90 m to the west of the site, and a bottomland hardwood swamp roughly 120 m to the eas t of the site. Soils is the vicinity of the site are classified as Ortega sand. Based on testing within the APE, the site measures a minimum of 90 m in length, and covers 879 m2. Excavation within the site boundaries c onsistently encountered the following stratigraphic profile: 0-20 cm BS gray sand; 20-100 cm BS orange sand. Lithic flakes were routinely recovered betw een depths of 40-100 cm BS across the site. There is a general trend, however, for flakes being reco vered at lower depths as one moves from north to south. Cultural materials were restricted to a total of 11 lithic waste flakes manufactured from chert that ranged in size grade between 1 and 3.5 cm, although six (54%) were within the 1.5 cm grade. The flakes were predominantly thermally altered (n=7), and only three flakes exhibited dorsal cortex. While a small assemblage, the small size and predominance of thermal alteration is suggestive of late-s tage tool production and maintenance. Like all other prehistoric scatters iden tified within the APE, the location and assemblage characteristics of site 8DI258 are suggestive of limite d or short-duration activities centered upon wetland re sources. Such a conclusion mu st be tempered with the lack of well-defined boundaries to the east or west of the site that may contain denser deposits or cultural features. With the curre nt boundaries and char acterization, however, site 8DI258 replicates land-use patterns seen elsewhere, and further testing within the APE is unlikely to yield significant archaeolo gical knowledge. On this basis, it is our opinion that the site does not warrant further mitigation, nor is it eligible for listing on the NRHP. Table 3-13: Cultural Materials Recovered from the Bascom Gulf 9 site, 8DI258, Located in the Vicinity of Proposed Pole 115. Lithic Flake Shovel Test FS Depth cm BS Count Weight (g) 139 23 80-100 1 0.4 170 24 80-100 1 2.5 173 25 80-100 2 1.4 174 26 80-100 2 3.0 175 27 60-80 1 0.2 177 28 40-60 1 2.5 178 29 40-60 1 0.7

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52 CRAS of Suwannee Transmission, Phase Two Figure 3-18. Shovel test results map of the Bascom Gulf 9 site, 8DI258.

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Reconnaissance Survey Results 53 8DI259 Keen Historic Cemetery During the course of pedestrian surface survey between pole locations 110 and 111 we encountered the Keen Historic Cemete ry. The cemetery is marked on the Vista (1993) USGS topographic quadrangle. There is a ca. 2-m high, dark gray granite marker at the southeast corner of the cemetery that reads Keen Historic Cemetery established approx. 1890. Review of marked graves within the cemetery i ndicates that this asserted time frame is accurate, and that the cemetery continues to be actively maintained with individuals interred as recently as 2007. On the basis of historic graves from the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries this cemetery was designated site 8DI259 in the FMSF. The cemetery will not be impacted by the proposed work. The location is already spanned by existing transmission lines, a nd proposed transmission poles are located approximately 35 m to the northeast and s outhwest of the existing cemetery boundaries (Figure 3-19). The cemetery is emplaced upon an upland ridge at an elevation of 15 ft amsl. The current boundaries of the cemetery are well ma rked by a modern 4-foot chain link fence (Figure 3-20a). As currently enclosed, the cemet ery is an irregular tr apezoidal polygon in shape that measures 70 m East/West and 45 m North/South, and covers 3271 m2. The eastern boundary of the cemetery abuts the we stern ROW, and it is clearly visible from the roadside. Abutting the northern boundary of the cemetery is a line of widely-spaced young live oak trees. This line of trees is se t back approximately 5 m from the western fence line of the cemetery by a narrow corrido r that appears to be periodically cleared and maintained. The southern boundary consis ts of a cleared opening that serves as a driveway and parking lot with access to CR-349 It may have also served as a staging area or lay down for pine rem oval activities as there are pile s of brush, rotting stumps, and recent refuse at the sout hern and western margins of this clearing. Also within the clearing is a U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey Marker (also known as a National Geodetic Survey Marker) consisting of a concrete stand and brass ma rker that reads Keen 1933. South of the clearing is the continuation of live oak trees that form the western border of the cemetery. Outside of this line of trees to the north, south, and west is 5-year-old planted pine. The cemetery is well maintain ed and actively in use. Ground cover within the cemetery consists of bare ground and low-lying grass. Mostly young live oak are distributed randomly throughout the area. Ther e is no source of running water nearby, but the grass appears to be cut on a regular basis. Finally, the area just outside the northern and western fence line appears to be an activ e toss zone where real and plastic flowers, commemorative wreaths, and plastic me mentos are regularly disposed. Visual inspection of headstones and grave plots indicates a mi xture of individual and family plots are present. Small granite markers for siting plots are spaced regularly throughout the cemetery grounds. In most case, family plots are marked by low lying chains, granite curbs, or PVC pipe curbs. Unaffiliated or individual graves were aligned in rows consonant with family plots. A total of 87 marked graves were identified during a pedestrian survey of the cemetery. The earliest death date is 1893, and the most recent is 2007. All graves are oriented east-west. The majority of headstone s were manufactured

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54 CRAS of Suwannee Transmission, Phase Two Figure 3-19. Location of the Keen Historic Cemetery, s ite 8DI259, superimposed on a 2007 digital orthophoto.

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Reconnaissance Survey Results 55 Figure 3-20. Keen Historic Cemetery views: (a) near southeast corner facing northwest; (b) gravesite of Mattie Anderson (d. 1893) with recent picket fence, facing southwest; (c) headstone of CSA Pvt. James Oliver (d. 1919), facing west; (d) ma rble headstone and quahog shell mound (ca. 1950), facing north.

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56 CRAS of Suwannee Transmission, Phase Two from gray or black granite. No artisan insc riptions were evident on any headstones. In general, the graves are in very good condition, and there was no evidence for either vandalized or cracked and broken headstones. All headstones with writing were legible. The cemetery appears to have undergone se veral periods of use and abandonment. The earliest gravesite is Mattie Anderson, a one-year-old child who died in 1893. The plot is located in the southwest corner of th e cemetery, and is situated at the base of the largest live oak (Figure 3-20b). The headstone is a small, low-lying marble slab, with a 2foot high rotting and termite-infested picket fence surrounding the plot. The next most recent gravesite was for C.S.A. Private Jame s L. Oliver (d. 1919) (Figure 3-20c). The next chronological cluster of graves occu rred between 1940 and 1960. Headstones of this era tend to be made of marble A prevalent practice at this time, which may be associated with related kin, was the emplacement of quahog shell in mounds over burial sites (Figure 3-20d). After 1970 the cemetery became of place of routine in terment, and it may be that the picket fence su rrounding the grave of Mattie Anderson was erected at this point in time. Headstones at this time are all manufactured from granite, and show a wide range of stylistic choices. Most are simple with names of the interred and short inscriptions. Others, however, are elaborate with marble slab s covering the entire plot. These slabs were routinely inscribed with nature scenes or hobbies (such as fishing, hunting, or trucks). The cemetery is obviously a place of frequent commemoration today. All recent graves showed some recent si gn of improvement, including the laying of wreaths, photographs, or small mementos. Ma ny family plots were constructed with a granite seat, while others retain plastic chairs. This general outline of us e and abandonment is supporte d by the field description and notes associated with the NGS monument (www.gs.noaa.gov). When the station was established in 1933, the recorder noted that the station benchmark was on land owned by the Putnam Lumber Co., 0.3 mile (sic) N of Frank Keens (sic) house, and just E of a small cemetery on the W side of the road. At present, the cemetery is surrounded with new fence posts, which have no wire on them By 1933, the cemetery appears to have been in use. However, we should note that no burial plot for Frank Keen is marked today. When the NGS resurveyed the station in 1940 they referred to the cemetery as abandoned. In 1960 the recorder refers to an old fence that surrounded the cemetery. After 1960, however, no further mention is made of the status of the cemetery. The extent to which the chain-link fence marks the original cemetery boundary is unknown. In our limited pedestrian survey we failed to identify any sunken areas or broken headstones outside of the chain-link fence. However, there are several lines of evidence that suggest the current configuratio n may be smaller or di fferent that it was initially. The live oaks surr ounding both the clearing and the cemetery imply a that the area was kept clear or segreg ated from pine planting fo r an extended period of time. Secondly, the cemetery was associ ated with the Frank Keen homestead, but there was no Keen headstone marked in the cemetery. While all of this information is circumstantial, given the history of land-us e and periods of abandonmen t, there is a significant probability for unmarked graves either within or adjacent to the current cemetery borders.

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Reconnaissance Survey Results 57 Collectively the survey and historic doc ument search indicate that the Keen Historic Cemetery was in use between at leas t 1893 and the present day. All told the site is in good condition, and is frequently maintained by family and community members. The majority of graves post-date 1950, a nd only three predate 1920. There are no notable headstones, and there are no individuals of local, regional, or national significance. Following the guidelines set forth by Potter an d Boland (1992), we do not consider site 8DI259 eligible for listing on the NRHP. DISCUSSION The structure of the Suwannee Transmissi on, Phase Two scope of work precluded using a predictive model to test for sites within the APE. CR-349 pr ovides somewhat of a random, longitudinal transect across the upland terrace landform, but within this transect the proposed pole locations were the factor determining wh ere cultural resources would potentially be discovered. Moreover, because of inherent limits of testing within a corridor, we do not know the fu ll extent of most sites identified. Regardless, several patterns in the long-term land-use of this por tion of Dixie County have emerged from the reconnaissance survey. These patterns bui ld upon the observations made by recent surveys proximate to the project area. The location and assemblage content of prehistoric sites hints at a widespread and redundant land-use practice. Prehistoric s ites are overwhelmingly associated with Ridgewood fine sand and Ortega sand. These soils are typical of elevated knolls and ridges that are frequently emplaced adja cent to wetlands, hydric hammocks, or bottomland hardwood swamps. In fact, no site was more than 115 m away from a source of water, and some may have been positioned to exploit more than one wetland resource at a time. Analysis of the material culture demonstrates that all sites (excluding 8DI251) are characterized by low-density lithic assemb lages that are mostly composed of chert waste flakes. By treating all flakes (n=36) recovered during surv ey as a statistical population a general idea of the st ructure of lithic utilization is possible. As a whole, the lithic assemblages are characterized by small flakes (no flake was greater than 3.5 mm in maximum extent) manufactured from chert. More than half of the sample (n=21, 58%) was thermally altered, and the majority of flakes (n=25, 70%) lacked cortex. A chi-square test of independence failed to show an asso ciation between thermal alteration and cortex (chi-square = 1.081, 1 df, p=0.29). Moreover, onl y one flake could be classified as shatter. Taken as a whole, the waste flake assemblage is suggestive of limited late-stage bifacial tool production, and mo re likely tool maintenance. Lithic tools were quite rare, and include only a hafted biface fragment a nd a laterally modified flake. Non-lithic assemblages were limited to sand tempered plai n sherds recovered from sites 8DI251 and 8DI254. Unfortunately, these provide only a broad temporal association for the assemblages (ca. 2500-500 B.P.). However, th e infrequent occurren ce dovetails with the low-density lithic assemblages. The assemblage composition and density of prehistoric sites are suggestive of short-duration occupations that consisted of a limited range of onsite activities. The location of the sites implies th at they were situated to ta ke advantage of one or more

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58 CRAS of Suwannee Transmission, Phase Two wetland resources on the landform. When comb ined with the results of ACIs (2006) research at the Sunnyvale Mitigation Area, it would appear that prehistoric sites are likely present throughout the knolls and uplands of the Lower Coastal Plain, at least in the vicinity of the Suwannee River. Because of the limited scope of work conducted during this survey, we cannot say to what extent these sites represent single or multiple occupations, nor can we state with any certainty if they were contemporaneous. It is also unknown how such sites may relate functionall y to those identified within the Suwannee River floodplain or along the co ast. As a long-term research goal, future work at such sites within the region will be necessary to de termine whether they contain distinct intrasite activity areas, or if th ey are spatially homogeneous. Historic era assemblages (8DI246-248, 8D I259) were chronologically restricted, but represent multiple activities associated with homestead establishment and pine pitch extraction during the late nineteenth and earl y twentieth century. Testing within sites 8DI248 and 8DI249 yielded evidence suggesting that a structure was once present in the area. However, because of th e low density of finds, poor preservation, and a lack of architectural foundations, it is impossible to st ate what kind of stru cture may have been present there. The presence of many Herty c up fragments would suggest that it was used in part for storage, but that does not pr eclude the presence of a residence elsewhere outside of the APE. Moreover, both sites we re situated on an upland knoll, and are associated with Ridgewood find sand. While a somewhat poorly drained soil, this landform is higher and drier than the surr ounding environment. Another component of this land-use practice is evidenced by the r ecovery of Herty cup fragments at 8DI246 and 8DI247. These were recovered in soils that are frequently flooded, but which can be associated with pine trees. Such sites likely re present extraction loci that would have been present throughout the landform. A final component of this historic land-use pattern is evidenced by the Keen Historic Cemetery. As presently marked, there are only three early graves that range in date from 1893 to 1919. These individuals interred were likely associated with homesteads that had been recently established in the region.

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59 CHAPTER 4 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS Asa R. Randall The CRAS performed by the LSA of the Suwannee Transmission, Phase Two project corridor consisted of archival research, pedest rian surface survey, an d subsurface testing of proposed transmission pole locations. Arch ival research indicated that no cultural resources had been previously identified within the study area. Reconnaissance survey within the APE resulted in the discovery of 14 archaeological sites. This total includes 13 historic and prehistoric artif act scatters (8DI246-258) and one historic cemetery (8DI259) that is still actively maintained and used. A su mmary of the location, soil association, and culture-historical components present at each site is provided in Table 4-1. NRHP ELIGIBILITY CONSIDERATIONS The archival research and field reconnai ssance work provided da ta for evaluating the eligibility of disc overed cultural resources for the NRHP. It is the opinion of the LSA that none of the documented sites, as characte rized within the APE, meet the criteria for listing as either individual sites or cultural resource groups. Five sites with historic-era components were identified. Four of these sites (8DI246-249) will be directly impacted by tr ansmission pole installation. Sites 8DI246 and 8DI247 consist of single artifact fi nds that represent widespread and welldocumented turpentine extraction practices. In both cases it is unlikely that further archaeological assemblages are present, a nd further work would not result in new archaeological knowledge. Sites 8DI248 and 8DI 249 are similarly associated with early twentieth-century homesteads and turpentine extraction practices. In both cases the sites may appear to represent the remains of structur es or refuse heaps. However, the results of the reconnaissance survey demons trated that no standing stru ctures were present either within or immediately adjacen t to the APE. Moreover, st ratigraphic evidence indicates that both sites are heavily distur bed, and that the archaeologica l deposits are not intact. It is unknown if the sites were de stroyed during construction of CR-349 or if the scattered debris has resulted from maintenance and cl earing of the ROW and associated firebreak. Continued archaeological testing within the APE is unlikely to contribute new archaeological knowledge. The Keen Historic Cemetery (8DI259) will not be directly impacted by the project, and it is currently spanned by existing tr ansmission lines. The site is well maintained and appears largely in tact, but does not meet the criteria set forth for NRHP listing. There are no notable individu als interred there, no rare grave marker types or carver inscriptions, and it does not represent a poo rly documented social group or ethnicity. Ten sites with prehistoric components were identified (8DI249-258). This total includes the one lithic waste fl ake recovered from site 8DI 249. All sites are characterized by low-density artifact scatters that are composed almost exclusively of lithic waste

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60 CRAS of Suwannee Transmission, Phase Two

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Conclusions and Recommendations 61 flakes. Only two sites (8DI251, 8DI254) could be placed within a specific time frame based on dateable sand tempered plain sh erds (ca. 2500-500 B.P.). Excluding site 8DI249, all sites appear to contain intact deposits. These deposits are emplaced in a narrow strip between the constructed eastern ROW and the edge of the APE corridor. Collectively the sites appear to represent a widespread and redundant land-use pattern. Continued testing within the APE is unli kely to contribute new archaeological knowledge. RECOMMENDATIONS The proposed installation of transm ission line poles by the Suwannee Transmission, Phase Two project will directly impact all subsurface archaeological sites identified within the APE during survey. It is our opinion that cultur al resources at each pole location do not warrant c ontinued archaeological work. However we do have several recommendations for mitigating the impact on sites outside of the boundaries of each pole location: 1. Excavation or land alterati on within determined archae ological site boundaries should not extend past the survey ed transmission pole location. 2. The construction of staging yards or th e establishment of equipment lay down yards should occur outside of established site boundaries. 3. All staging yards, equipment storage, or any other ground a lteration should be avoided between poles 110 and 111, including the parking lot for the cemetery, site 8DI259. This area spans the present a nd likely historic boundaries of the Keen Historic Cemetery, and may contain unmarked graves. In addition to lessening the surface and subsurface impact to intact archaeological deposits, these recommendations will decrease th e potential for unanticipated discoveries.

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63 REFERENCES CITED Adams, W. H. 1980 Waverly Plantation: Ethnoarchaeology of a Tenant Farming Community Technical report submitted by Resource Analysts, Inc. to U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Mobile District. ACI (Archaeological Consultants, Inc.) 1995 A Cultural Resources Assessment Survey of the Suwannee Wastewater System Project Area, Dixie County, Florida. Prepared for Jones, Edmunds & Associates, Inc. and Darabi & Associates, Inc. by Archaeological Consultants, Incorporated. 2006 Cultural Resource Assessment Survey of the Sunnyvale Mitigation Area, Dixie County, Florida Prepared for the Suwannee River Water Management District by Archaeological Consultants, Inc. Austin, R. J. 2001 Paleoindian and Archaic Archaeology in the Middle Hillsborough River Basin: A Synthetic Overview Report Prepared for Ta mpa Bay Water, Inc. by Southeastern Archaeological Research, Inc. 2004 Multidisciplinary Investigations at West Williams, 8Hi509: An Archaic Period Archaeological Site Located within Florida Gas Transmission Company's Bayside Lateral Pipeline Corridor, Hillsborough County, Florida. Report submitted to Florida Gas Transmissi on Company, Inc. by Southeastern Archaeological Research. 2006 Knife and Hammer: An Exercise in Positive Deconstruction. The I-75 Project and Lithic Scatter Re search in Florida Florida Anthropological Society, Publication No. 16, Tallahassee. Austin, R. J. and R. W. Estabrook 2000 Chert Distribution and Exploitation in Peninsular Florida. The Florida Anthropologist 53(2-3):116-130. Bense, J. A. 1985 Hawkshaw: Prehistory and History in an Urban Neighborhood in Pensacola, Florida Report of Investig ations, 7, UWFCA. Bland, M. C. P. and M. A. Chance 2000 An Intensive Cultural Resource Assessment Survey of the Fanning Springs State Recreation Area, Levy County, Florida Prepared for Fanning Springs State Recreation Area by Environmental Services, Inc.

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64 CRAS of Suwannee Transmission, Phase Two Bohon, K. J., E. Gilliland, H. Huffman, J. Roberts and C. Rooney 2003 Management Summary of Data Recover y of the Becky Wright Schoolhouse Sites 3cw993 and 3cw1024, Lake Fort Smith Water Supply Project, Crawford County, Arkansas. Prepared by Burns & McDonnell Engineering Company, Inc. for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Little Rock District. Copies Available from the Arkansas Archeological Survey, Fayetteville. Borremans, N. T. 1990 North Peninsular Gulf Coast, 2500 B.P. A.D. 1600 In Florida's Comprehensive Historic Preservation Plan Division of Hist orical Resources, Tallahassee. Borremans, N. T. and M. E. Moseley 1990 A Prehistoric Site Survey of the Cedar Keys Region of Coastal Levy County, Florida Report of Investigations submitted to the Division of Historical Resources, Florida Department of State. Bullen, R. 1975 A Guide to the Identification of Florida Projectile Points Revised ed. Kendall Books, Gainesville. Butler, C. 1998 Treasures of the Longleaf Pine Naval Stores Shalimar, Florida, Tarkel Publishing. Clausen, C. J., A. D. Cohen, C. Emiliani, J. A. Holman and J. J. Stipp 1979 Little Salt Springs, Florida: A Unique Underwater Site. Science 203(4381):609-614. Cooke, C. W. 1939 Scenery of Florida Inte rpreted by a Geologist Florida Geological Survey Bulletin no. 17, Tallahassee. Daniel, I. R. and M. Wisenbaker 1987 Harney Flats: A Florida Paleo-Indian Site Baywood Publishing Company, Inc., Farmingdale, New York. Daniel, I. R., M. Wisenbaker and G. Ballo 1986 The Organization of a Suwannee Tec hnology: The View from Harney Flats. The Florida Anthropologist 39(1&2):24-56. Davidson, J., E. Roberts and C. Rooney 2006 Preliminary Results of the 2006 University of Florida Ar chaeological Field School Excavations at Kingsley Planta tion, Fort George Island, Florida. African Diaspora Archaeology Network Newsletter September.

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References Cited 65 Dibble, E. F. 1999 Giveaway Forts: Territorial Fort s and the Settlement of Florida. Florida Historical Quarterly 78:207-233. Doran, G. H. 2002a The Windover Radiocarbon Chronology In Windover: Multidisciplinary Investigations of an Early Archaic Florida Cemetery edited by G. H. Doran, pp. 59-72. University Press of Florida, Gainesville. 2002b Introduction to Wet Sites and Windover (8BR246) Investigations In Windover: Multidisciplinary Investiga tions of an Early Archaic Florida Cemetery, edited by G. H. Doran, pp. 1-38. University Press of Florida, Gainesville. Dunbar, J. S., M. K. Faught and D. S. Webb 1988 Page/Ladson (8Je591): An Underwater Paleo-Indian Site in Northwestern Florida. The Florida Anthropologist 41(3):442-452. Dunbar, J. S. and B. Waller 1983 A Distribution Analysis of the Cl ovis/Suwannee Paleo-Indian Sites of Florida: A Geographic Approach. The Florida Anthropologist 36(1):18-30. Dunbar, J. S. and S. D. Webb 1996 Bone and Ivory Tools from Submerged Paleoindian Sites in Florida In The Paleoindian and Early Archaic Southeast edited by D. G. Anderson and K. E. Sassaman, pp. 331-. University of Alabama Press, Tuscaloosa. Faught, M. K. 2004 The Underwater Archaeology of Pale olandscapes, Apalachee Bay, Florida. American Antiquity 69(2):275-289. FDHR (Florida Division of Historical Resources) 1990 Florida Historical Contexts. Florid a Department of State, Tallahassee. 2002 Cultural Resource Management Standards and Operational Manual Florida Division of Historical Resources, Tallahassee. Hann, J. 1996 A History of Timuc ua Indians and Missions University Press of Florida, Gainesville. Healy, H. G. 1975 Terraces and Shorelines of Florida Map Series 71. Marine Terraces of Florida. Florida Department of Na tural Resources, Bureau of Geology, Tallahassee.

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66 CRAS of Suwannee Transmission, Phase Two Herty, C. 1903 A New Method of Turpentine Orcharding Bureau of Forestry Bulletin Number 40, Washington, D. C. Johnson, G. M. and T. A. Kohler 1987 Toward a Better Understanding of North Peninsular Gulf Coast Florida Prehistory: Archaeological R econnaissance in Dixie County. The Florida Anthropologist 40(4):275-286. Jones, P. J. and N. T. Borremans 1991 An Archaeological Survey of the Gulf Hammock, Florida Report of Investigations submitted to the Florida Depa rtment of State, Division of Historical Resources, Bureau of Historic Preser vation, prepared by the Seahorse Key Maritime Adaptations Program at the University of Florida. Kaucher, D. 1972 The Suwannee. Kirstein & Sons, Orlando. Kohler, T. A. and G. M. Johnson 1986 Dixie County Archaeological Reconnaissance, Winter 1985/86 Department of Anthropology, Washington State University. Lazarus, W. G. 1958 A Poverty Point Complex in Florida. The Florida Anthropologist 2(1):23-32. Liudahl, K., R. L. Weatherspoon and E. L. Readle 2005 Soil Survey of Dixie County, Florida United States Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conserva tion Service; in cooperation with the University of Florida Institute for Food and Agricultural Sciences, Washington, D. C. Martinkovic, M. 2003 Land Use Patterns in the Naval Stores Industry Thesis Proposal, University of West Florida. Manuscr ipt on file at the Labor atory of Southeastern Archaeology, University of Florida. Milanich, J. T. 1994 Archaeology of Precolumbian Florida University Press of Florida, Gainesville. 1999 Laboring in the Fields of the Lord : Spanish Missions and Southeastern Indians Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D. C. Milanich, J. T. and C. H. Fairbanks 1980 Florida Archaeology. New World Archaeological Record. Academic Press, New York.

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References Cited 67 Mossa, J. and J. Konwinski 1998 Thalweg Variability at Bridges al ong a Large Karst River: The Suwannee River, Florida. Engineering Geology 49:15-30. Neill, W. T. 1964 Trilisa Pond, an Early Site in Marion County, Florida. The Florida Anthropologist 17(187-200). Perry, P. 1968 The Naval-Stores Indust ry of the Old South, 1790-1860. The Journal of Southern History 34(4):509-526. Potter, E. W. and B. M. Boland 1992 Guidelines for Evaluating and Registering Cemeteries and Burial Places. Nation Register Bulletin 41. U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, Interagency Resources Division, National Register of Historic Places, Washington. Purdy, B. A. 1975 The Senator Edwards Chipped Stone Workshop Site (8 -Mr-122), Marion County, Florida: A Preliminar y Report of Investigations. The Florida Anthropologist 28:178-189. Puri, H. S., J. W. Yon and W. R. Oglesby 1967 Geology of Dixie and Gilchrist Counties, Florida Division of Geology, Tallahassee. Reed, G. 1982 Saving the Naval Stores Industry: Charles Holmes Herty's Cup-and-Gutter Experiments 1900-1905. Journal of Forest History 26(4):168-175. FDNR (Florida Division of Natural Resources) 1990 A Guide to the Natural Communities of Florida Division of Natural Resources, Tallahassee. Russo, M. 1996 Southeastern Mid-Holocene Coastal Settlements In The Archaeology of the Mid-Holocene Southeast edited by K. E. Sassaman and D. G. Anderson, pp. 177199. University Press of Florida, Gainesville. Sassaman, K. E. 2003a Crescent Lake Archaeological Survey 2002: Putnam and Flagler Counties, Florida Technical Report 5. Laboratory of Southeastern Archaeology, Department of Anthropology, the Univer sity of Florida, Gainesville.

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68 CRAS of Suwannee Transmission, Phase Two Sassaman, K. E. (continued) 2003b New AMS Dates on Orange Fiber-Tem pered Pottery from the Middle St. Johns Valley and their Implications for Culture History in Northeast Florida. The Florida Anthropologist 56(1):5-14. Schmidt, W. 1997 Geomorphology and Physiography of Florida In The Geology of Florida edited by A. F. Randazzo and D. S. Jones, pp. 1-12. University of Florida Press, Gainesville. Schulderein, J. 1996 Geoarchaeology and the Mid-Holocene Landscape History of the Greater Southeast In Archaeology of the Mid-Holocene Southeast edited by K. E. Sassaman and D. G. Anderson, pp. 3-27. Univer sity of Florida Press, Gainesville. Ste. Claire, D. 1987 The Development of Thermal Alte ration Technologies in Florida: Implications for the Study of Prehistoric Adaptations. The Florida Anthropologist 40(3):203-208. 1990 The Archaic in East Florida: Ar chaeological Evidence from Early Coastal Adaptations. The Florida Anthropologist 43:189-197. Taylor, Z. 1840 Extract from a Report, 1840 Apr. 14, Fort Fanning, [Florida] to J9oel] R. Poinsett, Secr[Etra]Y of War / Br[Evet] Br[Igadier] Gen[Era]L Z[Archary] Taylor Date: 1840 Apr. 14. Document Id: Tcc811, Digital Library of Ge orgia. Electronic Document. Thomas, P. M. and L. J. Campbell 1991 The Elliott's Point Complex: New Data Regarding the Localized Poverty Point Expression on the Northwest Florid a Gulf Coast, 2000 B.C. 500 B.C. Geoscience and Man 29:103-119. Watts, W. A., E. C. Grimm and T. C. Hussey 1996 Mid-Holocene Forest History of Florida and the Coastal Pl ain of Georgia and South Carolina In Archaeology of the Mid-Holocene Southeast edited by K. E. Sassaman and D. G. Anderson, pp. 28-38 University of Florida Press, Gainesville. Weinstein, R. A. and K. L. Mayo 2006 Historic Assessment and Cultural Resources Survey for the Suwannee River O&M Project's Upland Disposal Site, Dixie County, Florida Prepared for Jacksonville District U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Jacksonville, Florida by Coastal Environments, Inc.

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References Cited 69 Weisman, B. R. and C. L. Newman 1995 An Inventory of the Cultural and Histor ical Resources at the Fanning Springs Greenway State Conservation and Recreation Area C.A.R.L. Archaeological Survey, Florida Bureau of Archaeological Research. White, N. M. 2003 Testing Partially Submerged Shell Mi ddens in the Apalachicola Estuarine Wetlands, Franklin County, Florida. The Florida Anthropologist 56(1):15-45. 2004 Late Archaic Fisher-Foragers in the Apalachicola-Lower Chattahoochee Valley, Northwest FloridaSouth Georgia/Alabama In Signs of Power: The Rise of Cultural Complexity in the Southeast edited by J. L. Gibson and P. J. Carr, pp. 10-25. The University of Alabama Press, Tuscaloosa. White, W. A. 1970 The Geomorphology of th e Florida Peninsula Bureau of Geology Division of Interior Resources Florida, no. 51, Tallahassee. White, W. B. 1988 Geomorphology and Hydrology of Karst Terrains. Oxford University Press, New York. Willey, G. R. 1949 Archeology of the Florida Gulf Coast Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, Vol. 113. Smithsonian Institution, Washington D.C. Wilson, H. J. 1841 Henry J. Wilson Papers, Mss. 559, Louisiana and Lower Mississippi Valley Collections. In LSU Libraries Baton Rouge, Louisiana.

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71 APPENDIX A: POLE LOCATIONS AND SHOVEL TEST RESULTS

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72 CRAS of Suwannee Transmission, Phase Two Pole Shovel Test Result Field Specimen Site Number Northing Easting Field Date 1 1 NEGATIVE 3271617 307318 3/10/2008 2 2 NEGATIVE 3271477 307296 3/10/2008 3 3 NEGATIVE 3271313 307273 3/10/2008 4 4 NEGATIVE 3271160 307249 3/10/2008 5 5 NEGATIVE 3271007 307222 3/10/2008 6 6 NEGATIVE 3270875 307202 3/10/2008 7 7 NEGATIVE 3270735 307186 3/10/2008 8 8 NEGATIVE 3270595 307157 3/10/2008 9 9 NEGATIVE 3270463 307136 3/10/2008 10 10 NEGATIVE 3270329 307114 3/10/2008 11 11 NEGATIVE 3270182 307089 3/10/2008 12 12 NEGATIVE 3270046 307068 3/10/2008 13 13 NEGATIVE 3269922 307051 3/10/2008 14 14 POSITIVE 1 8DI246 3269773 307027 3/10/2008 14 15 NEGATIVE 3269793 307031 3/10/2008 14 16 NEGATIVE 3269783 307029 3/10/2008 14 17 NEGATIVE 3269754 307025 3/10/2008 14 18 NEGATIVE 3269763 307026 3/10/2008 15 19 NEGATIVE 3269635 307000 3/10/2008 16 20 POSITIVE 2 8DI247 3269487 306981 3/10/2008 17 21 NEGATIVE 3269347 306958 3/10/2008 18 22 NEGATIVE 3269192 306934 3/10/2008 19 23 NEGATIVE 3269038 306909 3/10/2008 20 24 NEGATIVE 3268882 306873 3/10/2008 21 25 NEGATIVE 3268729 306812 3/10/2008 22 27 NEGATIVE 3268609 306751 3/10/2008 23 26 NEGATIVE 3268467 306676 3/10/2008 24 28 NEGATIVE 3268352 306620 3/10/2008 25 29 POSITIVE 3 8DI248 3268239 306565 3/11/2008 25 30 NEGATIVE 3268257 306574 3/11/2008 25 31 POSITIVE 5 8DI248 3268248 306570 3/11/2008 25 32 POSITIVE 7 8DI248 3268266 306579 3/11/2008 25 33 POSITIVE 8 8DI248 3268284 306588 3/11/2008 25 34 POSITIVE 9 8DI248 3268302 306597 3/11/2008 25 35 NEGATIVE 3268319 306606 3/11/2008 25 36 NEGATIVE 3268310 306601 3/11/2008 25 37 NEGATIVE 3268222 306556 3/11/2008 25 38 NEGATIVE 3268213 306551 3/11/2008 26 39 POSITIVE 11 8DI249 3268139 306512 3/11/2008 26 40 NEGATIVE 3268156 306521 3/11/2008 26 41 POSITIVE 12 8DI249 3268148 306517 3/11/2008 26 42 NEGATIVE 3268165 306526 3/11/2008 26 43 NEGATIVE 3268121 306504 3/11/2008 26 44 NEGATIVE 3268130 306508 3/11/2008 27 45 NEGATIVE 3268018 306451 3/11/2008 28 46 POSITIVE 13 8DI250 3267899 306393 3/11/2008

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Appendix A: Shovel Test Results 73 Pole Shovel Test Result Field Specimen Site Number Northing Easting Field Date 28 47 NEGATIVE 3267917 306402 3/11/2008 28 48 POSITIVE 14 8DI250 3267908 306398 3/11/2008 28 49 NEGATIVE 3267926 306407 3/11/2008 28 50 POSITIVE 15 8DI250 3267881 306385 3/11/2008 28 51 NEGATIVE 3267863 306376 3/11/2008 29 52 NEGATIVE 3267872 306380 3/11/2008 29 53 NEGATIVE 3267734 306305 3/11/2008 30 54 NEGATIVE 3267603 306238 3/11/2008 31 55 NEGATIVE 3267473 306178 3/11/2008 32 56 NEGATIVE 3267342 306127 3/11/2008 33 57 NEGATIVE 3267069 306088 3/12/2008 34 58 NEGATIVE 3267199 306098 3/12/2008 35 59 NEGATIVE 3266936 306103 3/12/2008 36 60 NEGATIVE 3266817 306135 3/12/2008 37 61 NEGATIVE 3266703 306173 3/12/2008 38 n/a AVOID 3266591 306210 3/12/2008 39 62 NEGATIVE 3266486 306249 3/12/2008 40 63 NEGATIVE 3266363 306292 3/12/2008 41 64 NEGATIVE 3266235 306337 3/12/2008 42 65 NEGATIVE 3266105 306382 3/12/2008 43 66 NEGATIVE 3265943 306440 3/12/2008 44 67 NEGATIVE 3265787 306494 3/12/2008 45 68 NEGATIVE 3265629 306555 3/12/2008 46 69 NEGATIVE 3265484 306607 3/12/2008 47 70 NEGATIVE 3265368 306647 3/12/2008 48 71 NEGATIVE 3265261 306686 3/12/2008 49 72 NEGATIVE 3265155 306727 3/12/2008 50 73 NEGATIVE 3265044 306770 3/12/2008 51 74 NEGATIVE 3264917 306796 3/12/2008 52 75 NEGATIVE 3264793 306798 3/12/2008 53 76 NEGATIVE 3264644 306773 3/12/2008 54 77 NEGATIVE 3264522 306723 3/12/2008 55 78 NEGATIVE 3264413 306653 3/12/2008 56 79 NEGATIVE 3264288 306554 3/12/2008 57 80 NEGATIVE 3264166 306460 3/12/2008 58 81 NEGATIVE 3264032 306355 3/12/2008 59 82 POSITIVE 16 8DI251 3263921 306269 3/12/2008 59 194 NEGATIVE 3263937 306281 4/6/2008 59 195 NEGATIVE 3263929 306275 4/6/2008 59 196 NEGATIVE 3263905 306257 4/6/2008 59 197 NEGATIVE 3263913 306263 4/6/2008 60 84 WET 3263686 306094 3/12/2008 61 83 NEGATIVE 3263816 306194 3/12/2008 62 85 NEGATIVE 3263571 306002 3/12/2008 63 86 NEGATIVE 3263461 305918 3/13/2008 64 87 POSITIVE 17 8DI252 3263376 305853 3/13/2008

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74 CRAS of Suwannee Transmission, Phase Two Pole Shovel Test Result Field Specimen Site Number Northing Easting Field Date 64 198 NEGATIVE 3263392 305865 4/6/2008 64 199 NEGATIVE 3263384 305859 4/6/2008 64 200 NEGATIVE 3263361 305841 4/6/2008 64 201 NEGATIVE 3263368 305847 4/6/2008 65 88 NEGATIVE 3263176 305698 3/13/2008 66 89 NEGATIVE 3263070 305619 3/13/2008 67 90 NEGATIVE 3262964 305536 3/13/2008 68 91 POSITIVE 18 8DI253 3262843 305442 3/13/2008 68 202 NEGATIVE 3262851 305448 4/6/2008 68 203 POSITIVE 32 8DI253 3262828 305429 4/6/2008 68 210 POSITIVE 35 8DI253 3262812 305417 4/7/2008 68 211 NEGATIVE 3262796 305405 4/7/2008 68 212 POSITIVE 36 8DI253 3262804 305411 4/7/2008 68 213 POSITIVE 37 8DI253 3262788 305398 4/7/2008 68 214 NEGATIVE 3262773 305386 4/7/2008 68 215 NEGATIVE 3262780 305392 4/7/2008 69 92 POSITIVE 19 8DI254 3262714 305337 3/13/2008 69 204 POSITIVE 34 8DI254 3262698 305325 4/6/2008 69 205 POSITIVE 33 8DI254 3262682 305312 4/7/2008 69 206 NEGATIVE 3262666 305301 4/7/2008 69 207 NEGATIVE 3262674 305306 4/7/2008 69 208 NEGATIVE 3262729 305349 4/7/2008 69 209 NEGATIVE 3262721 305343 4/7/2008 70 93 NEGATIVE 3262600 305258 3/13/2008 71 94 NEGATIVE 3262464 305166 3/13/2008 72 95 NEGATIVE 3262326 305083 3/13/2008 73 96 NEGATIVE 3262210 305013 3/13/2008 74 97 NEGATIVE 3262094 304943 3/13/2008 75 98 NEGATIVE 3261939 304857 3/13/2008 76 99 NEGATIVE 3261793 304772 3/13/2008 77 100 NEGATIVE 3261654 304692 3/13/2008 78 101 NEGATIVE 3261531 304622 3/13/2008 79 102 NEGATIVE 3261402 304547 3/13/2008 80 103 NEGATIVE 3261278 304473 3/13/2008 81 104 NEGATIVE 3261147 304397 3/13/2008 82 105 NEGATIVE 3261009 304317 3/13/2008 83 106 NEGATIVE 3260868 304236 3/13/2008 84 107 NEGATIVE 3260725 304154 3/13/2008 85 108 NEGATIVE 3260583 304075 3/13/2008 86 109 NEGATIVE 3260447 303994 3/13/2008 87 110 NEGATIVE 3260297 303912 3/13/2008 88 111 NEGATIVE 3260164 303834 3/13/2008 89 112 NEGATIVE 3260032 303757 3/13/2008 90 113 POSITIVE 20 8DI255 3259884 303673 3/13/2008 90 189 POSITIVE 31 8DI255 3259867 303663 3/23/2008 90 190 NEGATIVE 3259849 303653 3/23/2008

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Appendix A: Shovel Test Results 75 Pole Shovel Test Result Field Specimen Site Number Northing Easting Field Date 90 191 NEGATIVE 3259858 303658 3/23/2008 90 192 NEGATIVE 3259901 303683 3/23/2008 90 193 NEGATIVE 3259892 303678 3/23/2008 91 114 NEGATIVE 3259746 303593 3/13/2008 92 115 POSITIVE 21 8DI256 3259646 303538 3/13/2008 92 185 NEGATIVE 3259628 303526 3/23/2008 92 186 NEGATIVE 3259637 303532 3/23/2008 92 187 NEGATIVE 3259663 303547 3/23/2008 92 188 NEGATIVE 3259654 303542 3/23/2008 93 116 NEGATIVE 3259519 303465 3/14/2008 94 117 NEGATIVE 3259376 303383 3/14/2008 95 118 NEGATIVE 3259234 303295 3/14/2008 96 121 NEGATIVE 3259115 303227 3/22/2008 97 122 NEGATIVE 3258971 303146 3/22/2008 98 123 NEGATIVE 3258845 303073 3/22/2008 99 124 NEGATIVE 3258706 302994 3/22/2008 100 125 NEGATIVE 3258570 302916 3/22/2008 101 126 NEGATIVE 3258437 302839 3/22/2008 102 127 NEGATIVE 3258301 302762 3/22/2008 103 128 NEGATIVE 3258166 302686 3/22/2008 104 n/a AVOID 3258027 302615 3/22/2008 105 129 NEGATIVE 3257904 302560 3/22/2008 106 119 NEGATIVE 3257745 302510 3/14/2008 107 130 NEGATIVE 3257602 302472 3/22/2008 108 131 POSITIVE 22 8DI257 3257445 302436 3/22/2008 108 181 NEGATIVE 3257426 302431 3/23/2008 108 182 NEGATIVE 3257435 302433 3/23/2008 108 183 POSITIVE 30 8DI257 3257464 302442 3/23/2008 108 184 NEGATIVE 3257473 302445 3/23/2008 109 132 NEGATIVE 3257306 302394 3/22/2008 110 133 NEGATIVE 3257174 302361 3/22/2008 111 134 NEGATIVE 3257029 302323 3/22/2008 112 135 NEGATIVE 3256880 302283 3/22/2008 113 137 NEGATIVE 3256712 302238 3/22/2008 114 138 NEGATIVE 3256560 302202 3/22/2008 115 139 POSITIVE 23 8DI258 3256399 302162 3/22/2008 115 169 NEGATIVE 3256380 302157 3/23/2008 115 170 POSITIVE 24 8DI258 3256390 302160 3/23/2008 115 171 NEGATIVE 3256370 302155 3/23/2008 115 172 NEGATIVE 3256419 302167 3/23/2008 115 173 POSITIVE 25 8DI258 3256409 302165 3/23/2008 115 174 POSITIVE 26 8DI258 3256428 302169 3/23/2008 115 175 POSITIVE 27 8DI258 3256438 302172 3/23/2008 115 176 NEGATIVE 3256458 302176 3/23/2008 115 177 POSITIVE 28 8DI258 3256448 302174 3/23/2008 115 178 POSITIVE 29 8DI258 3256467 302179 3/23/2008

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76 CRAS of Suwannee Transmission, Phase Two Pole Shovel Test Result Field Specimen Site Number Northing Easting Field Date 115 179 NEGATIVE 3256487 302184 3/23/2008 115 180 NEGATIVE 3256477 302181 3/23/2008 116 n/a AVOID 3256260 302122 3/23/2008 117 140 NEGATIVE 3256112 302085 3/23/2008 118 141 NEGATIVE 3255993 302045 3/22/2008 119 142 NEGATIVE 3255868 301989 3/22/2008 120 143 NEGATIVE 3255757 301919 3/22/2008 121 144 NEGATIVE 3255621 301810 3/22/2008 122 145 NEGATIVE 3255509 301688 3/22/2008 123 146 NEGATIVE 3255431 301592 3/22/2008 124 147 NEGATIVE 3255338 301476 3/22/2008 125 n/a WET 3255270 301397 3/22/2008 126 148 NEGATIVE 3255200 301306 3/22/2008 127 149 NEGATIVE 3255124 301208 3/22/2008 128 162 NEGATIVE 3255054 301121 3/23/2008 129 150 NEGATIVE 3254961 301001 3/22/2008 130 151 NEGATIVE 3254873 300894 3/22/2008 131 152 NEGATIVE 3254788 300787 3/22/2008 132 153 NEGATIVE 3254677 300650 3/22/2008 133 154 NEGATIVE 3254581 300529 3/22/2008 134 156 NEGATIVE 3254480 300398 3/22/2008 135 157 NEGATIVE 3254385 300278 3/22/2008 136 158 NEGATIVE 3254282 300147 3/22/2008 137 159 NEGATIVE 3254186 300029 3/22/2008 138 160 NEGATIVE 3254092 299909 3/22/2008 139 161 NEGATIVE 3254002 299794 3/22/2008 140 n/a WET 3253925 299705 3/14/2008 141 120 NEGATIVE 3253845 299605 3/14/2008 142 163 NEGATIVE 3253769 299505 3/23/2008 143 164 NEGATIVE 3253684 299399 3/23/2008 144 165 NEGATIVE 3253603 299296 3/23/2008 145 166 NEGATIVE 3253510 299174 3/23/2008 146 167 NEGATIVE 3253434 299082 3/23/2008 147 168 NEGATIVE 3253365 298998 3/23/2008