Beyond objects : a guide to the creation of a collections catalogue for the Harn Museum of Art

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Title:
Beyond objects : a guide to the creation of a collections catalogue for the Harn Museum of Art
Physical Description:
Project in lieu of thesis
Creator:
Pfaff, Tracy E.
Publisher:
College of Fine Arts, University of Florida
Place of Publication:
Gainesville, Fla.
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Abstract:
In addition to collecting and preserving objects, today’s museums strive to offer visitors a welcoming environment that fosters an engaging and educational experience. At the same time, the museum is charged with increasing accessibility to the collection, marketing the museum, and cultivating financial support from various sources. One way museums can accomplish these goals is through the creation and distribution of collections-related publications. My thesis project involved the creation of a collections catalogue, the Samuel P. Harn Museum of Art at Twenty Years: A Collection Catalogue. While conducting research for this project, I found very few reference materials to guide me in the process of creating a collections-based publication. Thus, this paper seeks to contribute to the sparse resources available about museum publications. I first provide a brief overview of the history of museum publications and the purposes these publications serve today. Then, using the Harn Museum’s catalogue as a case study, I demonstrate many ways collections catalogues benefit the museums that create them. I then describe the methodology used to create the catalogue, which has been written in the form of a how-to guide to facilitate the publication process for other museums. I conclude by briefly examining how the format of collections catalogues may change in the future.
General Note:
Museum studies terminal project

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University of Florida Institutional Repository
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University of Florida
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All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
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BEYOND OBJECTS: A G UIDE TO THE CREATION OF A COLLECTIONS CATALOGUE FOR THE HARN MUSEUM OF ART By T RACY E. PFAFF A PROJECT IN LIEU OF THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREM ENTS OF THE DEGREE MASTER OF ARTS UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2011

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2 2011 Tracy E. Pfaff

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3 TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 5 ABSTRACT 6 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 7 A Brief History of Museum Catalogues 7 Museum Catalogues Today 11 2 WHY CREATE THEM? THE FUNCTIONS OF MUSEUM PUBLICATIONS 15 History of Harn Museum Publications 15 Role in Accomplishing Harn Museum Institutional Goals 16 Use by Harn M useum S taff 21 Value to Users 24 3 GUIDE TO CREATING A COLLECTIONS CATALOGUE 26 26 Getting Started 28 Choosing the Objects 3 1 Obtaining Images 3 5 Understanding Reproduction Rights 3 7 Researching Rights Holders 39 Requesting Reproduction Permission 4 1 Design and Layout 4 3 4 CONCLUSION 4 5 Value of this Project 4 5 The Future of Museum Publications 4 7

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4 APPENDIX A HARN CATALOGUE PROJECT BUDGET 5 1 B EXAMPLE OF EXTENDED TEXT 5 2 C EXAMPLE OF TOM B STONE TEXT 5 3 D BROOKLYN MUSEUM ORPHAN WORKS CHECKLIST 5 4 E REPRODUCTION REQUEST LETTER 5 7 F IMAGE ONE TIME USE AGREEMENT 5 8 G UNIVERSITY PRESS OF FLORIDA PUBLICATION AGREEMENT 59 H TIMELINE OF PUBLICATION STEPS 6 8 BIBLIOGRAPHY 71 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH 75

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5 I am grateful to many people for their assistance and support during this project. F irst and foremost I am grateful to Dr. Glenn Willumson for his guidance, advice, and infinite patience during this project and throughout my time in the Museum Studie s program I am also grateful to Dr. Robin Poynor for serving on my committee and for his flexibility through out this process Many thanks also to Dixie Neilson for being very generous with her time and for her very thorough edits I am most grateful to Jason Steuber for including me in this project and for his unstinting guidance and support throughout it. To Laura Nemmers also, f or sharing her expertise her advice and her support To Sally Hughes and Deborah Wythe for their excellent guidance and amazing kindness and to Lourdes Santamaria Wheeler Dan Salvano and Tom Caswell for their expert assistance. A very sincere thank you to the many people whose encouragement and support were instrumental. To Derek, my family and my friends, who were alwa ys there to lend a helping hand. To my Museum Studies classmates, especially Shawna, Dushanthi, Sarah, Jenn, Molly and Ethel I am so lucky to know you all and to call you my friends. To Director Rebecca Nagy the Curators, and all of the Harn Museum of Art staff for being excellent teachers, examples, and friends. T o Phyllis DeLaney for her patience and support during this process and to Kelly Harvey, my best editor, biggest cheerleader, and emotional support rock And last but certainly not least to Lau ra Robertson, without whom no ne of us would make it through this process

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6 Summary of Project Option in Lieu of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements of the Degree of M aster of Arts BEYOND OBJECTS: A GUIDE TO THE CREATION OF A COLLECTIONS CATALOGUE FOR THE HARN MUSEUM OF ART By Tracy E. Pfaff Decemb er 2011 Chair: Glenn Willumson Major: Museology e to offer visitors a welcoming environment that fosters an engaging and educational experien ce. At the same time, the museum is charged with increasing accessibility to the collection, marketing the museum, and cultivating financial support from various s ources. One way museums can accomplish these goals is through the creation and distribution of collection s related publications. My thesis project involved the creation of a collections catalogue, the Samuel P. Harn Museum of Art at Twenty Years: A Coll ection Catalogue While conducting research for this project, I found very few reference materials to guide me in the process of creating a collection s based publication. Th us th is paper seeks to contribute to the sparse resources available about museum p ublications. I first provide a brief overview of the history of museum publications and study, I demonstrate many ways collections catalogues benefit the museums that create them. I then describe the methodology used to create the catalogue, which has been written in the form of a how to guide to facilitate the publication process for other museums. I conclude by briefly examining how the format of collections cat alogues may change in the future

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7 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION I n addition to collecting and preserving objects, s strive to offer visitors a welcoming environment that fosters an engaging and educational experience. At the same time, the museum i s charged with increasing accessibility to the collection marketing the museum, and cultivating financial support from various sources 1 One way museums accomplish these goals is through the creation and sale of catalogues. 2 This chapter provides an intro duction to the history of museum catalogues, followed by a summary of the purposes that these publications serve within the museum today. A B rief History of Museum Catalogues Before they became public institutions, museums were often private collections held by royal ty or the rich. Although the circumstances surrounding their transition to public institutions varied, the function of the public museums was largely twofold; to house, study, and care for precious objects and also to ser ve as a political tool to instill national pride and help construct a national identity. Both of these functions were carried out through the production and distribution of catalogues. When the Louvre opened as a public museum in 1793 it s intende d f unction was to serve the goals of the Republic by making the possessions of the king available to all citizens and to educate them about the collective good of the state. This was accomplished through the 1 This list of museum goals and functions is not exhaustive; I have listed only the functions that are furthered through the publication of catalogues. 2 In this chap ter, the word catalogue is used to describe any museum produced collection related publication.

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8 production of inexpensive catalogues and guides to the collections, written to inform the visiting citizens and sold inexpensively. 3 In England, the first published catalogue was the Treasury of Ornamental Art published in 1857 by John Charles Robinson, who had been appointed curator of the Victoria an d Albert museum in 1853. Robinson was instrumental in expanding the importance of historic works of art for student learning. 4 In an introductory address given o n December 14, 1857 entitled On the Museum of Art Robinson describes the things every public collection must have Catalogues full and complete, and also judiciously abridged, should be prepared, accompanied by historical and descriptive essays, and ill uminated by engravings; by these aids each section of the collection would be as it were a standing treatise; designed to allure and lead on the observer to the methodic study of the subject; and the most indifferent observer would perforce be taught somet 5 In the U nited States, museums emerged not from private collections, but from the these historical societies was to promote higher learning, and, eventually, to explore, preserve and celebrate t he history of the newly established United States of America. 6 T he first American institution to serve the function of a museum was the Charleston Library Society, an institution established in 1748 for the purpose of accessing and discussing the latest scholarly publications from Great Britain. In 1773, the Society 3 Eilean Hooper Greenhill. 1992. Museums and the Sh aping of Knowledge London: Routledge 172 182 4 Victoria and Albert, http://collections.vam.ac.uk/item/O97494/parade shield/ 5 J.C. Robinson selections from On the Museum of Art No. 5 in a series of introductory addresses, delivered Dec.14, 1857. Not ation taken from Carbonell, Bettina Messias. 2004. Museum Studies: An Anthology of Contexts Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing 225 228. 6 Bonnie Pittman. 1999. "Muses, Museums and Memories" in Daedalus : P roceedings of the American Academy of Arts and S ciences v.128 no.3 4 7.

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9 announced that it would allocate resources to collect, study and preserve the animals, plants, and minerals of South Carolina In 1791 the Massachusetts Historical society was established, inc luding a library and public gallery By 1876 there were seventy eight historical societies, the majority of which included a library as well as a public gallery that served an educational function. 7 In 1903 John Cotton Dana merged libraries and museums f u rther together when he held an exhibition of American art in the Free Public Library of Newark, New Jersey. In 1905 he dedicated one floor of the library to a science museum and in 1909 he founded both t he Newark Museum and the Newark Museum Association. D ana was a strong believer in education, and he oversaw the publication of annual exhibition pamphlets the first in 1904. 8 The establishment of the American Association of Museums (AAM) in 1906 led to a unified source of in formation for museums Annual meetings were held to discuss and distribute information during which the role of museums as educational institutions was solidified Recognizing the use of publications in disseminating information to its ever growing member ship AAM began publishing its biweekly Museum News Letter in 1917. 9 as a tool to educate visitors under John Cotton Dana most likely influenced publications in the early twentieth century Although the majority of museum catalogues still contained only basic tombstone information, there is some indication that catalogue authors began to consider what 7 Ibid 4 7 8 Aruna D'Souza. 2001. Self and history: A T ribute to Linda Nochlin London: Thames & Hudson 127 136. 9 Ellen C. Hirzy A 46.

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10 the visitor was interested in learning 10 For example, the I 1935 General Catalogue catalogue is written primarily for the lay visitor to the Museum, and is an attempt to give, in very brief fashion, such information about all but the least noteworth y objects on exhibition as will answer the questions which visitors ask 11 Th is acknowledgement of visitors as consumers of museum catalogues became especially important in the 1 960s and 1970s As labor and e nergy costs increased due to the Vietnam War and inflation rose, museums began to seek additional sources of revenue. 12 This need for revenue, paired with the rise of leisure time and increasing competition with other forms of entertainment, led m useums to examine their visitors and engage in marketing and public relations campaigns to increase visitation Through this period and for the next several decades, museums adopted business management techniques to manage cost s, increase revenues and ensure an effective use of resources. The adoption of business planning techniques, paired with d ecreasing government and corporate support led museums to examine opportunities for earning income. 13 As museums faced larger crowds, the consumer market grew, and the gift shop became a n important source of profit. This led to the expansion of museum store offerings, including b ooks, catalogues, jewelry and clothing, collections related merchandise, and even 10 Tombstone text refers to the b asic information provided on a standard exhibition label, and typically includes the acquisition information and the acquisition numbe r. 11 Isabella S tewart Gardner Museum, Gilbert Wendel Longstreet, and Morris Carter. 1935. General C atalogue Bos ton: Printed for the trustees 3 12 Neil Harris Daedalus 28 v.3, Summer 36 39. 13 Pittman 27 28.

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11 reproductions of museum obje cts 14 T he interest in audience development and expansion of revenue generating projects led to a change in museum publications. In an effort to increase sales, visitation, and excite interest, museums became increasingly conscious of the importan ce of incorporating the needs and interests of their visitors in to their catalogues. Instead of catalogues that included only object photos and tombstone information, museums began to include information relevant to the visitor that might enhance the visit or experience such as maps of the museum or histories of the collections Recognizing that catalogues were becoming an important tool to communicate with visitors, AAM launched the first annual publications design competition in 1982, in order to encourag e creativity in the design of museum publications. Museum Catalogues Today Today, museum publications serve many purposes and most museums create them in varying sizes and frequencies. These publications come in three main types: brochures, catalogues, a nd books. Brochures and other museum guides are small, easily portable, and are created to inform the visitor or potential visitor about the most basic information about the museum or its exhibits. Catalogues are larger in size provide more in depth infor mation than brochures and are typically used outside of the museum They can be divided into two basic types : exhibition catalogues and coll ections catalogues. Exhibition catalogues are publications that serve to commemorate a specific exhibition by provid ing images of the art works, basic credit line text and often history of the work or interpretations. provide a permanent 14 Har ris 41

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12 borrowed objects garnered from 15 Collections catalogues generally present or a specific collecting area. Both types of catalogues are usually produced by or in partnership with the museum and sold Books, the third type of publicatio n, can be written in conjunction with the museum or independent of it, and can cover any number of topics, including an artist, group of works, or a broader art historical theme. For instance, the book African Art at the Harn Museum: Spirit Eyes, Human Han ds 16 was written by an outside writer to expand on the information provided in a Harn Museum exhibition. M y thesis project was the creation of a collections catalogue for the Harn Museum of Art. Thus, this paper focuses on collections catalogues. This imp ortant type of publication serves many functions within museums. These functions include engaging and educating visitors, increasing accessibility to the collection, cultivating financial support from various sources, and marketing the museum. T he primary purpose of museum catalogues is educational, to assist the museum in educating and engaging its visitors. As references for research and continuing education, catalogues can provide a greater understanding about a piece, an artist, a time period o r a whole artistic movement. They are dynamic learning tools that assist the museum in accomplishing its institutional goals, which will be described in chapter three, and serve visitors with varying interests and levels of education. Catalogues can be use d as a reference book for the scholarly visitor, a continuing education guidebook for the frequent visitor, an introduction to the museum 15 Sarah Anne Magdalena Hillstrm. NaMu, Making Nat ional Museums Program, Setting the Frames 26 28 February, Norrkping, Sweden. http://www.ep.liu.se/ecp/022/ 21 3. 16 Robin Poynor. 1995. African Art at the Harn Museum: Spirit Eyes, Human Hands Gainesville: University Press of Florida.

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13 for the first time visitor, or a souvenir for the out of town visitor Catalogues are also an important part of m This is accomplished by making information on the collections available to an audience that has not visited the museum, is not able to visit the museum, or even as a reference for frequent visitors. As noted on th e Smithsonian Art M useum website: The Publications Office staff produces books and catalogues about the Museum's collections and exhibitions. We sometimes call them our ambassadors; we send them to libraries and museums so people who may not be able to v isit us often can learn about the art in our galleries and the artists who made them. 17 Although this access is not direct (as direct as seeing a work on exhibit), it allows the catalogue user 18 to see a reproduction of the object and provides an opportun ity to learn more about it. In addition to making the c ollection accessible, catalogues are important communication tools. They are sold in museum gift shops, book stores, and often through online retailers making them widely available as educational res ources and as souvenirs of the museum visit. Th is allows the museum experience to be extended outside of the museum walls and can allow extension of the visitor experience to others, including potential visitors. In this way catalogues can be seen as porta ble museums in that they give the museum a voice by provid ing an avenue to present themselves and their collection to their publi cs 19 The view of catalogues as tools for visitor communication and education rather than just for scholarly use has change d the content of museum catalogues. J ust as modern museums have become places for the visitor and not just the scholar, museum collections catalogues have 17 Smithsonian American Art Museum, Publications Office Page. Accessed May 13, 2011. http://americanart.si.edu/visit/contact/dept/d ept_publications.cfm 18 I use the word user purchaser, reader, borrower, or any combination thereof. 19 Hughes 212 214.

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14 evolved to include more than just object photos with tombstone information 20 Instead, t he modern cat alogue is a dynamic publication that includes a variety of supplementary information such as the or collecting philosophy. This information provides insight to the visitor or potentia l visitor inviting the reader to feel more comfortable in the museum environment My thesis project involved the creation of a collections catalogue for the Samuel P. Harn Museum of Art the Samuel P. Harn Museum of Art at Twenty Years: The Collectio n Catalogue In assisting with the creation of this catalogue, I found very few reference materials to guide me in the process of creating a collection s based publication. Th us, I have also written a catalogue creation how to guide in order to contribute t o the sparse resources available about museum publications. In chapter two I provide a justification for cr eating collections catalogues, using the Harn catalogue as a case study to demonstrate institutional goals, a ssists the museum staff, and benefits users I n chapter three I will describe the methodology used to create the catalogue written in the form of a how to guide in the hope that it can be useful for others as they embark on creating ca talogues I will co nclude by summarizing the paper and briefly examin ing how the format of museum catalogues may change in the future. 20 It is difficult to pinpoint exactly when m Although I would define the turning point of modernity in museums in America as directly following the establishment of the American Associat ion of Museums in 1906, the modern catalogue (which is written for the visitor r until the 1970s.

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15 C HAPTER 2 WHY CREATE MUSEUM PUBLICATIONS? Museum publications are becoming increasingly expensive and time consuming to produce. 21 So, why do museums create them? Using the Samuel P. Harn Museum of Art at Twenty Years: T he Collection Catalogue as a case study, t his chapter argues that collections catalogues are important and dynamic publications that serve many functions fo r the museums that create them. I will provide some background information by briefly describing the history of Harn museum publications, then demonstrate how the 1) advance s the 2) assists the museum s taff and 3) benefits catalogue users History of Harn Museum Publications The Samuel P. Harn Museum of Art at Twenty Years: T he Collection Catalogue is the creatio n in 2010, the Harn Museum had published 30 exhibition catalogues which served to commemorate a specific exhibition The first was Italian Old Master Drawings from the Collection of Jeffrey E. Horvitz in July 1991. The exhibition catalogues accompanied l oan exhibitions as well as those created from the permanent collection. Some of the catalogues record exhibitions from specific donor collections, such as Inner Eye: Contemporary Art from the Marc and Livia Strauss Collection (March 1998) and P aradigms and the Unexpected: Modern and Contemporary Art from the Shey Collection (February 2008). Others record exhibitions of a specific period or type of art, such as Destiny Manifest: American Landscape 21 Susan M. Bielstein. 2006. Permissions, a S urvival Guide : Blunt T alk A bout A rt as I ntellectual P roperty. Chicago: University of Chicago Press 8

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16 Painting in the Nineties (November 1996) and Santos: Contempo rary Devotional Folk Art in Puerto Rico (October 2003). 22 These catalogues were written by museum curators and some include outside contributors. They were all produced in house by the Harn marketing and public relations departments. In J anuary 1995 African Art at the Harn Museum: Spirit Eyes, H uman Hands was written by Robin Poynor to serve as an accompaniment to a Harn exhibition In September 2009 the Harn Museum published American Selections from the Samuel P. Harn Museum of Art a cat alogue featuring selected works of American art from its permanent collection. This publication is an example of a collections catalogue a larger, more comprehensive publication that can highlight works from one specific collecting area or numerous works from the Collections catalogues spe c ific departments, facilities, or other information concerning that museum. Institutional Goals In 2007 the Harn Museum of Art started the process of creating a strategic plan for fiscal years 2008 2013. During this planning process the museum established a vision statement and five strategic goals The efforts during this five year period. Thus the Samuel P. Harn Museum of Art at Twenty Years: T he Collection Catalogue needed to During the strategic planning process it was determined that the Harn needed a vision 22 For a list of Harn publications see Samuel P. Harn Museum of Art, Jason Steuber, Laura K. Nemmers, Tracy E. Pfaff. 2010. Samuel P. Harn Museum of Art at Twenty Years: The Collection Catalogue Gainesville: University Press of Florida 256.

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17 statement to direct both its long term and day to day endeavors. vision states: The Harn Museum of Art distinguishes itself among university art museums as a creative laboratory for innovation in the visual arts. Accordingly, the Harn unites the university and the wider community to make groundbreaking contributions to research, teaching and service. The Harn makes great works of art accessible to diverse audiences by using a variety of innovative approaches to the exhibition and interpretation of art. 23 teaching and service over its twenty year history, the Samuel P. Harn Museum of Art at Twenty Years: T he Collection Catalogue assist s the museum in furthering this vision The catalogue also and patronage. Because only a small portion (generally 2 4%) of the collection is on view at one time the catalogue also allows access to objects in the collection that may not be on display. A s Fiona McLean notes, if museums are to serve society, they need to do what is in their power to limit any restrictions on access to their collections. 24 This is part of the collection, to not only collect and preserve the objects, but also to allow access to the public for whom the objects are in trust. Although the Harn catalogue do es not allow direct access to the object s b y publishing im ages and providing information it creates awareness and facilitates learning about objects that may not always be on view In addition to the vision statement, t h e five institutional goals established in the Harn 23 Harn Museum of Art, Five Year Strategic Plan, 2008 2013 8 24 Fiona McLean 1997. Marketing the M useum. London ; New York: Routledge 111.

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1 8 serve to outl ine the priorities of the museum during the five year strategic planning period. 25 The se goals are: Goal 1: T Florida in order to enhance student learning experiences and support un iversity goals Goal 2: To b roaden the national and international influence and reputation of the Harn as a leader among university art museums. Goal 3: To p rovide a welcoming environment that stimulates art centered visitor experiences for diverse audiences. Goal 4: To u about global ideas and issues. Goal 5: To w ork with University of Florida Cultural Plaza partners to make the plaza a destination for the enjoyment of art, culture and nature. The Samuel P. Harn Museum of Art at Twenty Years: T he Collection Catalogue ( referred to hereafter as the catalogue ) helps the museum achieve four of these five goals 26 T he first goal to weave the Harn into the fabric of the univ ersity, is addresse d from the very start of the catalogue by including a letter from U niversity of F lorida President J. Bernard Machen This letter describ es The catalogue editors asked UF English professor Debora Gregor which are also included in the catalogue. S ections on departmental functions discuss programs 25 Harn Museum of Art, Five Year Strategic Plan, 2008 2013 9 11. 26 Although the Harn Museum catalogue helps to market the Harn and make it a destination for the enjoyment of culture and nature, it does not involve other cultural plaza partners and therefore does not truly help fulfill the fifth goal, to work with University of Florida Cultural Plaza partners to make the plaza a destination for the enjoyment of art, culture an d nature

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19 and projects undertaken in conjunction with UF, such as the collaboration s with campus units. Fo r example, the University of Florida Digital Library Center produced 360 degree digital views of the beadwork from the Harn Museum exhibition Between the Beads: Reading African Beadwork Th is project provided th e UF Digital Library Center the opportunity t o test i n the round digitalization and gave the Harn Museum the ability to offer 360 degree views of the objects on its website. By creating the catalogue, the Harn Museum provided itself with a vehicle for broadening its national and international influen ce and reputation The catalogue is currently a vailable in 96 libraries worldwide, and is thereby circulat ing information about the Harn Museum collection and research, as well as departmental programs, initiatives, and achievements. 27 It includes previou sly unpublished research which helps advance the museum as a leader among university museums. One project involved collaborations with local hospitals to use medical technology to produce advance d digital image ry n, a project that was both innovative and never previously published by the Harn The catalogue provided a medium with which the Harn Museum staff could share its findings with visitors, scholars, and other museums. The catalogue assists the Harn in providing a welcoming environment that stimulates art centered visitor experiences for diverse audiences. According to Thomas Hoving, former director of the Metropolitan Museum of Art: A surprising majority of folks want to feel comfortable with hi gh art 27 WorldCat, Listing of Libraries Containing the Samuel P. Harn Museum of Art at Twenty Years: the Collectio n Catalogue Accessed June 7, 2011. http://www.worldcat.org/title/samuel p harn museum of art at twenty yearsthecollectioncatalogue.html

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20 precocious and uppity, something for the very rich. 28 A lack of knowledge about art history and the mindset that art museums are stuffy or unwelcoming places keeps some people from visiting. By providing information on the s and departmental roles the Harn catalogue makes the museum environment less intimidating It educates the reader about works of art artists, and themes in the and provides a behind the scenes look at the departments and people that make up the museum staff. This allows visito rs to feel more educated and comfortable and helps to provide a welcoming, r ather than intimidating, environment. Th is global in scope; i t includes major collecting areas in African, Asian, Contemporary and Modern art and Photography, as well as smaller collections of ancient American and Oceanic art. The catalogue includes works from each of these collecting areas, which are introduced by an opening passage written by the curator of each collection The curators were encouraged to highlight works and themes with in the ir respective collecting area s that would facilitate dialogue on global ideas and issues. One example of this is found in Kerry Oliver Smith chose El Anatsui because his work is a comment on global issues: so on the consumerist drive of globalization and economic imbalances that leave Africa in crushing poverty and its people 29 28 Thomas Hoving Art for Dummies 1999. Foster City, CA: IDG Books 1. 29 Kerry Oliver Smith. Samuel P. Harn Museum of Art at Twenty Years: The Collection Catalogue 86

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21 U se of The Collections Catalogue by Harn Museum staff In addition to assisting the Harn Museum in ac complishing its institutional goals, the assist s every department in the museum in one way or another. These departments include curatorial, education, development, registration, marketing, and operations. The department most associated with catalogues is curatorial. The selecting, grouping and researching of objects for collections catalogues benefits the curatorial department by furthering their understanding and documentation about individual objects, col lecting areas, or overall themes within the collection. As the first comprehensive guide to the Harn M collection ever produced, the Harn catalogue serves curatorial goals by circulating research and ccessible to other museums, scholars, and visitors. By publishing their research and making it available to a wide audience, catalogues give curators an avenue with which t o contribute to their field of study, thereby elevating their professional standing A s part of the University of Florida, the Harn Museum curators are Collections related publications serve as vehicles through which they can fulfill education and research m andates The primary purpose of all Harn Museum p ublications is to educate Edu cation is also one of the Harn M as outlined in its strategic plan education and scholarship about art at the forefront of its activities, providing visitors with 30 By providing a resource for more information on the Harn collection, the catalogue enables 30 Harn Museum of Art Five Year Strategic Plan, p 8

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22 visitors to increase their visua l literacy and better understand other cultur es. The catalogue is often used by museum staff as a reference to the collection. Docents use it to plan tours, as a reference book, and as a source of continuing education to help them become more familiar with the collection. Many departments have their volunteers and interns look through it to learn more about the museum and become familiar with some of the collection The Bishop Study Center uses it as a guide for questions about the collection, or for new vi sitors interested in learning more about the museum. By illustrating the Harn Museum attractive tool for fundraising and donor relations. The Harn development staff brings the catalogue to meet ings with potential donors to serve as a visual introduction to the museum and its collection. It is frequently given as a thank you gift for speakers, donors, and event hosts. As a th anniversary, the catalogue was given o ut to high level th anniversary fundraising event. The catalogue is also a permanent and well circulated way to acknowledge current and past donors For example, the section titled y of the Harn Museum followed by a list of charter members and lists of donors to the permanent collection and endowments. 31 he registration department played a large role in the creation of the catalogue The very process of creating the catalogue provided many benefits to this department the mo st important being the collecti n g of updated information, which was also used to augment many ords. One type of information compiled for the catalogue and added to collection records was object 31 amount since the museum opened in 1990.

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23 research This research included updated content on the works and artists in the collection. Another type was photographs; several hundred object s were pho tographed for the catalogue and added to collections records Copyright holders were also research ed and updated, information that will facilitate future projects. In addition, t he R egistra r publish ed sections on conservation and preservation ef forts and on its digitization projects, which both circulated the Mu seum marketing departments have the challenge of implementing effective marketing practices, without compromising the needs of their e ducational mission. 32 By serving as a portable museum, the catalogue is an important m arketing and public relations tool. It spreads the word about the museum and its achievements while also helping to fulfill the educational mission As mentioned in the introductory chapter of this paper, the catalogue also gives the museum a voice to communicate with its audiences. It keeps these audiences informed about the collection and extends the museum walls. This is a main goal for the department, a s stated in the section on Marketing and Public Relations in the Harn catalogue : while also keeping them 33 In addition to keeping current audiences informed, catalogues can assist the department in attracting new audiences; as of the publication of this paper, the catalogue is located in 96 libraries worldwide. M useum catalogues can be sources of earned income and therefore help support the operations department The Harn Museum catalogue is sold through book retailers such as 32 M useum Marketing : Competing in the Global M arketplace. Amsterdam ; London: Butterworth Heinemann 14. 33 Samuel P. Harn Museum of Art at Twenty Years: The Collection Catalogu e 253.

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24 Amazon.com and also through the museum store. Accord ing to the book Museum Administration: An Introduction 34 The Ha rn Museum fulfills all of these requirement s In addition, catalogues about the collection, so catalogue sales are not subject to unrelated business income tax (UBIT). Thus they serve the vis itors without costing the museum manager and operations staff additional money and time spent on tax reporting making them especially attractive merchandise for store managers 35 Catalogues are also attractive to store managers because they appeal to many different types of visitors They can serve as a reference book for the scholarly visitor, a continuing education guidebook for the frequent visitor, an introduction to the museum for the first time visitor, and a souvenir for the out of town visitor. Va lue to Users Although mu seum publications are instrumental in accomplishing institutional goals and have many uses for museum departments, they are created first and foremost for the user. The user may or may not be a visitor to the museum Th us catalogues must be dynamic learning tools that serve users with varying interests and levels of education. T he Harn Museum catalogue editors felt it was important to create a publication that can be used as a reference book for the 34 Hugh H. Genoways and Lynne M. Ireland. 2003. Museum Administration : An introduction. Walnut Creek, Calif.: Altamira Press 15. 35 As non profit institutions, museums are exempt from paying taxes on museum store items that relate to the mission Item s that do not meet this criteri on are subject to unrelated business income tax. For more information see Genoways, 301.

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25 scholarly user a continuing educa tion guidebook for the frequent visitor, an introduction to the museum for the first time visitor, and a souvenir for the out of town visitor Continuing to take the user into consideration, the the reader a peek at the v arious Harn departments and their role within the museum. By providing this information, the Th is information also help s the novice visitor to feel less overwhelmed and intimidated by pr oviding background information and an introduction to the collection or collecting area. Another way visitors use the Harn catalogue is a s a souvenir or memento of the ir visit to the museum. This use extends the museum experience outside the museum wa lls and can allow exten sion of the visitor experience to others, including potential visi tors. Sarah Anne Hughes suggests that visitors purchase museum books as a status symbol, in order to align themselves with the museum and to take home a piece of it B ooks become the physical equivalent of the photographic pose in front of the iconic museum object offer audiences a means of possessing the unpossessible 36 36 Hughes 216.

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26 CHAPTER 3 CREATING A COLLECTIONS CATALOGUE Nearly all of the books about museum man agement or marketing written in the last ten years refer to the importance of museum publications 37 Yet, very little instructive literature exists. Through a step by step discussion of the creation of the Samuel P. Harn Museum at Twenty Years: The Collecti on Catalogue t his chapter will provide basic guidelines for creating a museum catalogue. This chapter is broken down into seve 2) Getting Started, 3) Choosing the Objects, 4) Obtaining Images, 5) Understanding Reproduction R ights, 6) Researching Rights Holders, 7) Requesting Reproduction Permission and 8 ) Design and Layout. real guts and glory of every museum is in its pecu liarity, not in what it does in common with 38 He goes on to say that every museum has a different mix; that collection type, size, 37 See : Hede, Anne M., and Ruth Rentschler. 2007. Museum Marketin g : Competing in the Global Marketplace. Amsterdam ; London: Butterworth Heinemann. Kotler, Neil G., and Philip Kotler. 1998. Museum Strategy and M arketin : Designing Missions, Building Audiences, Generating Revenue and Resources. San Francisco, Calif.: Jossey Bass Publishers. Lovelock, Chris topher H., and Charles B. Weinberg. 1984. Marketing F or P ublic and N onprofit M anagers. New York: Wiley. McLean, Fiona. 1997. Marketing the M useum. London; New York: Routledge. 38 Weil, Stephen E. 1990.

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27 and breadth, as well as staff size, facilities, and history, vary greatly from one museum to the next. One goal of e it makes your museum unique. publication process to that of creating an exhibition, something museums already understan d well. As with an exhibition, the first step in creating a collections catalogue is to identify the goal of the publication, the message the what the exhib ition is about, as described in Exhibit Labels by Beverly Serrell. 39 When relating the big idea to catalogues (or any museum publication), it is what the museum hopes to accomplish by creating the catalogue. For the Harn Museum catalogue, the big idea was to select and illustrate the over its twenty year history. T here are a multitude of other institutional goals beyond the big idea, which should also be considered early in the creation process. These goals may be passive, underlying goals that will not directly influence the scope of the publication (such as earning revenue). Others may chapters and formation. For the Har n Museum catalogue, the active goals included formation and access to the works considered the most notable by the curators in each of ng areas. The passive goals included circulating collec tions research and marketing the museum to visitors and potential visitors. These passive goals were taken into consideration during the creation process, but they did not directly guide or dictate the Another consideration within t he big idea is the audience. Who is the publication for art Rethinking the M u seum : And Other M editations. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 50. 39 Beverly Serrell. 1996. Exhibit L abels: A n I nterpretive A pproach Walnut Creek: Alta Mira Press 1 8.

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28 history scholars or the average visitor, or both ? Is it a highly portable introduction to the museum and its collection (see the Metropolitan Museum of Art Guide 40 ), an attractive coffee table boo k (see Masterpieces of the Metropolitan Museum of Art 41 ) or is it a scholarly reference book (see How to Read Chinese Paint ings (Metropolitan Museum of Art 42 ) ? Th e audience will dictate the content and the tone and will help determine the size of the catalog ue. Getting Started As with an exhibition, or any project undertaken in a museum, it is necessary to have a project leader. involve overseeing, coordinating, writing compi ling, editing and organizing the publication. Or, the editor may just ensure that the project staff adhere to the timeline and budget. Many large museums have a person or a department dedicated to producing publications. When that is not the case, the job of editor usually falls to the director, the head curator, or the director of marketing. Though the editor may be responsible for the bulk of the project, most catalogues are credited as the work of the museum and only casually acknowledge individual contr ibutors on the first page or in the index. In the case of the Harn Museum Cofrin Curator of Asian Art. Although at th e Harn th e job of editing publications usually falls to 40 Philippe de Montebello 2 000. T he Metropolitan Museum of Art Guide, Revised Edition New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art. 41 Barbara Burn 1993. Masterpieces of the Metropolitan Museum of Art New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art. 42 Maxwell K. Hearn 2008. How to R ead Chinese P ain tings New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art.

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29 the Director of Market ing, this publication was idea and therefore became his job to oversee. To assist with this large project he brought on two co ed itors Laura Nemmers, the oversaw work having to do with the collection, including the photo graphy o f the objects, wr ote sections on conservation and art and technology, and served as the Harn liaison with the catalogue designers and publisher. As the second co editor and as part of my thesis project, I c oordinated the staff writing submissions and selec tion of works to be included edited the publication, and obtain ed reproduction rights. Having multiple editors was helpful in splitting up the work and made editing three times more effective. Once a primary editor has been appointed, the next step is to determine what information will be includ ed in the catalogue. This may be the job of the editor, often in concert with the director (or vice versa), or a committee of key staff members. Again, it is very important to dea Mos t catalogues open with a Museum statement from UF to illustrate the university. Some museums choose to i nclude a letter from the head of the Board of Trustees or quotes from community leaders. This may be followed by supplementary maps. I n examining othe r museum publications I found a variety of styles The Haggerty Museum at Marquette University Milwaukee included quotes about the museum from important community members throughout the publication. 43 Including these quotes demonstrates the importance o f the Haggerty M useum to the community and underscores that 43 Patrick and Beatrice Haggerty Museum of Art. 2009. Haggerty Museum of Art at Marquette University: 25 th Anniversary Celebration Milwaukee: Haggerty Museum of Art Marquette University

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30 although it is a university museum, it still strives to play an active role in its community. In their fiftieth anniversary publication, the Colby College Museum of Art Waterville Maine includ ed sections written by contributors from outside the museum, such as directors and staff members from other museums and museum theorists. 44 This, the introduction explain ed was done because the museum has a very small staff of seven people. This approach i s an effective way to ensure scholarly text, outsource the writing, and incorporate and engage other museum luminaries. The 75 Years of Looking Forward catalogue presents their collection according to themes, rather tha n collecting areas 45 S e: The Aesthetics of Pleasure 46 This is an interesting approach that may not interest the reader who is looking for a more traditional list of objects, but may better engage a reader who is seeking to learn about the thematic aspect of museum collecting or about general art history t hemes. Yet another interesting approach was taken by the Victoria and Albert Museum. In honor of their 150 th anniversary, the museum invited 150 designers, architects, and artists to contribute a page for their catalogue. 47 These pages were then accessione d into the V ictoria and A lbert collection a reversal of the traditional catalogue, which typically concentrates on the 44 Colby College Museu m of Art Sharon Corwin, Elizabeth Finch, Lauren Lessing, and Joseph N. Newland. 2009 Art at Colby: C elebrating t he F iftieth A nniversary of the Colby College Museum of Art Waterville: Colby College Museum of Art. 45 San Francisco Museum of Modern Art, Ja net C. Bishop, Corey Keller, and Sarah Rehm Roberts. 2009. San Francisco Mu seum of Modern Art: 75 years of Looking F orward San Francisco: San Francisco Museum of Modern Art. 46 Seattle Art Museum, Chiyo Ishikawa, and Barbara Brotherton. 2008. A Communi ty of C ollectors: 75th A nniversary G ifts to the Seattle Art Museum Seattle: Seattle Art Museum. 47 Victoria and Albert Museum. 2007. 150 : [V & A] London: Victoria and Albert Museum.

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31 The p roject budge t must also be established early on. Depending on the amount and availability o f funding, the project budget may be set before or after the content is determined. The editor may obtain funding based on a set concept, such as in a grant or sponsorship, or they may have a set project budget and need to establish the catalogue content based on that budgetary parameter. In either situation, estimates of production costs should be obtained before the production process begins. These estimates include any work done by those not on museum staff such as graphic designers, publishers, editors printers and photographers. Other expenses to consider include image reproduction fees, which can vary according to size, honoraria for outside contributors, shipp ing costs for the final product and marketing costs. The Harn Museum editors determined th e desired size and content for the catalogue and then obtained an inclusive estimate from the printer (design, editing, printing, shipping, marketing). The editors then established the project budget based on this estimate and other foreseeable costs (phot ography, an outside writing contributor for the Ancient American section ) and approached a donor for funding. Appendix A is the Harn project budget and can be used as a reference for possible expense costs. Choosing the Objects The number of obje cts included in the publication will vary based on the collection size, catalogue size, goal of the catalogue, and budget. It can include highlights from the overall collection, a number of works from all of the collecting areas, or works from jus t one spe cific collecting area. From the seven thousand three hund red objects in the collection, t he Harn

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32 Museum catalogue editors chose to highlight works from each of its five main collecting areas: African, Asian, modern, contemporary, and photography. Each coll ecting area is overseen by a curator, who was asked to choose what he or she considered to be the best fifty works in each of their respective areas. Of these fifty, the ten works the curator works in their collecting area we re illustrated by a full page image and accompanied by extended text on both the artist and the work. The length of this text varied, from one to several paragraphs ( Appendix B ). The remaining forty works were grouped several to a page and have standard : the name of the work, the date of creation, the medium, the donor or other acquisition information and the acquisition number ( Appendix C ) Each collecting area is accompanied by an introductory p assage which describe s the history of the collection, its important donors, highlights and themes as determ ined by the curator. In addition to the five main collecting areas, the Harn has two smaller collections of A ncient American and Oceanic art. Th ese collections are presented with an introductory passage and a top ten section, but feature only twenty five works total rather than fifty. This decision was made because the A ncient American and Oceanic collections are significantly smaller and neither has a curator dedicated solely to its research and study As an expert in the field, University of Florida Professor Emeritus John Scott agreed to write the Ancient American section, while Susan Cooksey, Curator of African Art, researched and wrote the se ction on Oceanic art. With fifty objects illustrated in each of the five main collecting areas and twenty five in the two minor collecting areas, the catalogue include d three hundred objects or about 4 % of the collection. The process for choosin g the works to be included was different for each curator. 48 Susan 48 Tom Southall was Curator of Photography when the catalogue was publi shed. Tom has since retired from the Harn Museum and could not be reached for an interview.

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33 Cooksey Curator of African Art, chose the top fifty African works based on her desire to represent a mix of works in various mediums, both older works and new acquisitions, those created b y both traditional and contemporary methods, and works that reflect historical depth and geographical diversity. S he also took into account works that were especially popular among visitors or visually striking 49 Jason Steuber, Cofrin Curator of Asian Art took a di fferent approach. He reviewed all of the works in the collection and assigned them a letter grade from A+ to F. He then grouped the works by region (southeast Asia, the far east, etc.) and chose those he considered premiere examples of work from each area, based on his expertise and that of Asian art experts who had assessed the collection over the last three years. 50 Like Cooksey, Kerry Oliver Smith, Curator of Contemporary Art sought to represent different facets of the collection. She narro wed her selection to work that was created after 1945 and selected works based on the desire to represent both national and international works ( Asia, Africa, Europe, Latin America and the United States ). Oliver Smith included a representation of various t ypes of media, inclu ding painting, sculpture, prints, photography and film. 51 Dulce Roman, Curator of Modern Art, selected the top ten works that represent ed various periods, art movements, media and nationalities represented in the collection. She focused on French and American Impressionis m, sculpture, drawing social realism Mexican realists, abstraction, and mural studies, choosing works by women and representing other nationalities, while ensuring the works also represented important donors in the Harn 49 th anniversary public aff June 2, 2011 50 th 51 Kerry Oliver ng works to be included in the Contemporary section of the th Pfaff, June 8, 2011.

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34 modern collection For the additional 40 works, she added more examples of the categories listed above and also broadened the periods, artists, themes and media to include Florida landscapes Regionalism, European sculpture, WPA and other prints pa stel, and non representational 52 Once the works to be included were chosen, each curator determined the order in which he or she wanted the works to appear, based on the criteria that each felt would best represent the collecting area. The section on African art was organized according to geographical region and date of accession, Asian art by region and date of creation, and contemporary art by thematic currents found within the collection, such as social and political conditions, materials and processes, and conceptual modes of practice. The modern and photography sections were ordered by date of creation. 53 This freedom of choice allowed the curators to choose the method of order that best fit their collection s editor Jason Steuber decided to includ e supplementary sections on the role and accomplishments of the curatorial departments These sections were written by the dep artment heads who were asked to explain collection, exhibitions, and activities relate to the university students and staff, the community, and national and international visitors. The s ections include: Director by Laura K. Nemmers, Registrar, by Laura K. Nemmers, Registrar and Lourdes Sant amaria Wheeler, Museum and Special Projects Coordinator, Digital Library Center, George A. Smathers Libraries, ucation at the 52 th annivers 53 Samuel P. Harn Museum of Art at Twenty Years: The Collection Catalogue xi

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35 Harn by Bonnie Bernau, Education Curator of Community Programs, with sub sections Donors to the Permanent Collection List, Endowments, and Charter Members) by Phyllis DeLaney, Senior Director of Development, with a list of Harn Catalogues and Select Publications) by Tami M. Wroath, Director of Marketing an d Public Relations They also fu to commemorate the th anniversary and illustrate the many achievements produced over those twenty years. These supplementary sections provide the reader with an inside look at how museums how the individual departments contribute to the overall work of the museum, the catalogue increases their appreciation of and comfort level in art museums. In addition, the inclusio n of these sections demonstrates that the Harn is a museum That is, a dynamic institution dedicated to education and to enhancing the visitor experience, which should be valued for more than just its collecting function. Obtaining Images The n ext step is to collect the images that will be used in the publication. The images must be publication quality, or they will appear grainy. This is referred to as high resolution and means the dpi (dots per i nch) must be 300 or more. The registrar or colle ctions manager may have some high resolution images of works but for most museums a substantial amount of time and money will be required to have new photographs made This can be a long process, especially for delicate or hard to photograph works. T he Harn Museum uses The Museum System database to maintain its collection records.

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36 Within this database is a list creating feature known as an object package. I added the works chosen by each curator to an object package for each collecting area. This fea ture allows curators and the registration staff to see a comprehensive list of the works to be included and to check for overlap among collecting areas (e.g. a work of contemporary African photography could have been chosen by multiple curators). From this list, the registrar then looked to see which objects already had publication quality images and used it to create a schedule to have the rest of the objects shot by a professional photographer The objects that required photographs were organized into 2 dimensional and 3 dimensional objects which helped the Registrar plan a photography schedule based on how difficult the art would be to photograph. These photographs were taken in groups over a year long period. The Harn was fortunate to have an outside p hotographer who was experience d with photographing museum objects and who underst ood and respect art handling procedures Since m any museums may not have the space necessary for camera lighting and equipment the objects may need t o be transported that the objects be packed and transported to ensure their safety and will require two or more staff members. Very large or very delicate items that cannot be transported easily or safely will h ave to be photographed at the museum regardless of the availability of space Depending on the number of objects to be shot, the process of obtaining images can be very time consuming. For the Harn Museum catalogue, around 275 of the 300 objects needed ph oto graph s made which was completed over a seven month period In addition to works of art, t he section includes images These include the Harn an aerial shot of the museum

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37 construction, and an image of the groundbreaking ceremony. The other departmental sections are illustrated with images of museum visitors who are engaged in tours, lectures or educa tional programs The use of these images brought additional considerations. W ritten permission was obtained from the photographer before including the images in the catalogue. By University of Florida policy, photographs of adults taken on campus can be us ed by the University without their explicit permission so none was required for many of the photos of visitors or students. However, p hoto graph s of children under the age of 18 were only used if we had signed onsideration was given to ensure that photo graph s of visitors represented all ages, sexes, and ethnicities Understanding Reproduction Rights It is very important to understand that even though the museum may own a work of art, it does not necessarily o wn the right to reproduce it Permission to reproduce the work must be obtained before a work is included in any museum publication. Publishing works without explicit permission can lead to legal ramifications and fines. This is one of the longest and most laborious parts of the publication process as the laws surrounding copyright and reproduction are complicated and locating rights holders can be a difficult and time consuming endeavor. Copyright is a facet of intellectual property law. Under the Copyright Act of 1976, any literary works, architecture, choreography, music, dramatic works, pa ntomimes, and motion pictures) created on or after January 1, 1978 are automatically protected by copyright as soon as

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38 they are (created) 54 The general guideline is that any work of art that was created after Janu ary 1, 1978 is protected for the life of the artist plus seventy years. If there are multiple artists, the protection extends from seventy years after the death of the last surviving artist. Anonymous works and works for hire are subject to the terms of co pyright for 75 years from first publication (viewing) or 100 years from creation, whichever is earlier. 55 If created before 1978 works of art have copyright coverage for 98 years, subject to a variety of exclusions and exceptions. If there is a ny question whether or not copyright covers an object, a th o rough check must be carried out. Do not assume that the popular "fair use" exclusion will be in effect. Fair use is a doctrine that is loosely interpreted to mean if the object is being shown for an educational purpose it will not infringe upon copyrights. While museum s can exhibit, review, loan or otherwise show their collection objects, they may not sell a product displaying a copyrighted image without permission. In any museum publication, it is prudent to check for coverage T he length of copyright protection is determined by a variety of factors; most commonly whether or not the copyright was published or r egistered with the US Copyright Office a stipulation required before 1978 Depending on the terms of the copyright the work may be considered to be in the m eaning copyright protection on the work has expired and the work can be reproduced without permission. There are several online resources to assist in navigating copyr 54 For more information see Pub.L. No. 94 553, 90 Stat. 2541, USC, Title 17, Sec 102, 8. 55 Buck, Rebecca A., and Jean Allman Gilmore. 1998. The New Museum Registration Methods Washington, DC: American Association of Museums. p. 291 293.

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39 Copyright Information Center website 56 and the Rights and Reproduction Information Network, known as RARI N. 57 Created as a taskforce of the Registrars Committee of the American A ssociation of Mu seums the RARIN Wiki page breaks down the parameters of U.S. copyright laws for museum professionals. Because laws change frequently, one should check with an up to date source before publishing any work in question. If it has been determined that a work is covered by copyright, you must seek permission to reproduce an image of it in your publication. T must be contacted and written permission must be obtained Researching Rights Holders One of the m ore laborious parts of obtaining reproduction rights is finding the rights 's own records. collections manager who often ha s the rights holder information in the collection database or in the object folders. If the work was purchased from a gallery, the gallery may be able to gr ant the rights on behalf of the artist or may have the collection that museum may have informati on on the rights owner. In researching and obtainin publication, I d iscovered there are several resources that can be helpful in finding the copyright 56 Cornell University Copyright Information C enter. Accessed May 23, 2011. www.copyright.cornell.edu. 57 Rights and Reproductions Information Network. Accessed April 23, 2011. www.rarin.org.

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40 holder. The Writers, Artists and Their Copyright Holders file ( WATCH : accessed at http://tyler.hrc.ute xas.edu ), a website run by the Harry Ransom Center at the University of Texas Austin, is a searchable database of authors and artists that provides the contact information of their rights holders. Though it is by no means comprehensive, it is a good place to start. The Visual Artists and Galleries Association (VAGA ; accessed at http://www.vagarights.com ) and the Artists Rights Society (ARS ; accessed at http://arsny.com ), are organizations that serve as an rights representative, and can grant rights to reproduce a work on behalf of many artist s These organizations have searchable lists of artists that they represent on their websites. Because they are intermediaries, be aware that there are reproduction fees involved with work s licensed by VAGA and ARS. Another useful avenue to obtain rights holder information is through museum list serves. These list serves can be used to contact other museum professionals who may have the artist in their collection and can share the rights holder information. Two that I used the Registrars Committee of the American Association of Museum (RC AAM) list serv e ( accessed at http://www.rcaam.org/ ) and the Mus IP (intellectual property) list serve (accessed a t http://groups.yahoo.com/group/musip/ ). The L ibrary of Congress website and the U.S. Copyright office website are also useful places to search for rights holder information An internet search of which museums have works by a specific artist and contact in g those museums is another option 58 Occasionally there are works for which no copyright holder can be found and these are This occurs most often when artist s or rights holders die without naming someone as th e rights holder. In this case, the museum should document all 58 Please note that although these websites they may not be active in the future.

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41 attempts to obtain a rights holder. This is k If a copyright infraction was to be brought against the museum, good documentation of extensive efforts to discover a right s holder will be essential and serves as a worksheet to help prove d ue diligence ( Appendix D ) Req uesting Reproduction Permission Most museum registrars or publications staff will have a standard letter they use to seek reproduction permission through a one time use agreement. The letter should state what the work will be used for ( in this case, a collections catalogue), image size (full page, half page, quarter page ) and whether it will be in color or black and white, the projected number of pages in the catalogue its print run size, date of publication, and the right contact information ( Appendix E ). It is important to provide as much detail as possible in your letter ; if the image will be used more than once, on the cover, or in any way other than it usually appears (in a detail shot, for example) the te rms of agreement may be affected. Included with your cover letter should be a one time use agreement for each work The form should include contact information, object information for the permission sought and date with space for th e grantor's signature. This agreement should also list the text that will be used in the catalogue such as : artist(s) name title, dates, and any of the information that would be found on a standard exhibition label This will allow the artist or art will appear in the publication and will help verify the accuracy of the information you will

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42 publish ( Appendix F ) ( I n seeking permissions for the Harn publication, I found that several of the works had incorrect titles, and one had an incorrect date of death. ) The letter and one time use agreement should be sent to the grantor by mail or email. If using mail, enclosing a pre addressed return envelope will help expedite the process. It is esse ntial to start the process of obtaining reproduction rights as early as possible. the majority were obliging and returned the signed request wit hin a few weeks. Some may require that the museum also sign a user agreement before they will sign your one time use agreement. Many charge fees for reproduction. These fees vary by grantor; some have a flat fee, while others are based on the size of the image. So me grantors will request one or multiple copies of the finish ed catalogue, either in lieu of or in addition to a fee. Some have stringent stipulations that can affect the layout of the publication; the estate of Irving Penn, for instance, requires that th e image must be full sized and that no other image can appear on the same page. A few requested to see the final layout before they would grant permission. Many rights holders will require that a reproduction credit line be listed. I found that most arti sts did not request a reproduction credit line, but typically galleries and other holders did. Museum catalogues usually list this credit at the end of the image text, with the image, or in a separate image credits section. The rights holder may stipulate that it appear with the image. T he section in the back rather than with the image text Very few rights holder s required that the image credit appear with the image, but it is advisable to ask, as some did require it be listed with the image or image text

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43 Design and Layout The editing, design, and layout procedure will vary for every publication. The Director felt strongly that using the Universi ty Press of Florida would be a good way to continue a designer on staff and publicity people to help circulate the catalogue. If the museum do es not have a printer it routinely work s with, getting printing quotes from several printers is advisable. Printers that have layout designers on staff may cut down on costs and on coordination time. The Harn Museum hired an outside person to edit the publication before it was sent to the University Press of Florida for layout. W hile the text was being edited we provided the University Press of Florida with a basic design concept for the cover, which they built on and then used throughout the catalogue. They pr ovided us with guidelines on how the publication process would proceed which I have included for reference (Appendix G). We then sent the text and the all images to the University Press for layout. Once the press had the publication materials, it took abo ut six months for the m to complete the design and layout. After one month we saw the cover design and the design of the lead pages for each section. Then their on staff editor read over all text and sent us any edits for approval. Next, s taff members were given the sections they wrote for one last review This review was to ensure the layout was done properly; to make sure all edits were made correctly and that captions were correct, object text was paired with the correct image, etc. It is important that several people review the final layout to ensure any mistakes are caught, as it was at this stage that one of the editors realized a photograph had been printed upside down. After final edits were submitted to the press we received the final copies several months later. Again, each publication will be different and the amount of time to create and edit it can vary greatly. See Appendix H s catalogue final

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44 production timeline, which has been adjusted to reflect the ac tual amount of time required for each step in order to guide planning efforts. Adequate planning time and good record keeping are essential and will make the next creation process much easier.

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45 CHAPTER 4 CONCLUSION In this paper I have argu ed that just as t he 21st century museum is an educational institution valued for much more than its collection, the collections catalogue of today is a vital publication that helps to advance the m ission and goals of museums As I outlined in the introduct ion, the typical functions of museum collections catalogues include educating and engaging visitors, allowing access to objects in the collection, marketing the museum, and the potential to rais e funds. I have addressed how the Samuel P. Harn Museum of Ar t at Twenty Years: The Collection Catalogue also assists the Harn Museum in accomplishing its institutional goals, as well as the ways it benefits the Harn staff and visitors I have also expand ed the thin resources available on producing museum publicati ons by describing my project methodology in the form of a how to guide. In conclusion, I will now describe the b enefit s of the project and possible future directions for museum publications. Value of this Project n is departmental make up, goals and initiatives. These sections are not typically found in collections catalogues and were included in order to 1) celebrate the achievements of the Harn Museum over its 20 year history 2) familiarize the reader with the roles and goals of each department at the Harn Museum 3) demonstrate accountability and transparency by reporting on projects and aged The catalogue was created with every type of user in mind : the scholar, museum studies

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46 researcher, student, frequent, novice or potential visitor, or other museums. By circulating research on the collection the catalogue assists scholars in the subjects of art history, history and anthropology. M any of the 300 works illustrated in the publication have never been published ; the catalogue serves as a contribution by providing scholars and other users with a v isual It assists visitors by enhanc ing literacy and understanding of art history and other cultures increasing their understanding of the Harn M useum departments and thereby allowing them to feel empowered and engaged rather than intimidated and initiatives, the catalogue also serves as a reference for other museums. about the museum than I had learned during five years as an employee. Just as visitors are often unaware of the inner workings of museums, staff members can also be ignorant of what goes into making each department function. I also learned a great deal ab My position as Development Coordinator for Membership and Special Events did not require much contact with the many objects. T his project made me much more competent in art history by familiarizing me with individual wor ks of art, artists and overall themes in the Harn collection. If I could change something about this project, I would have conducted surveys to comprehend the needs of the catalogue users better A front end survey could have been used to find out what interested in seeing in the catalogue and how they might use the information and the publication itself. Would they like the history of the major donors included or how some of the most popular art works came to be at the Harn? Which works are their favorites? E valuative summaries could have been used to determine how well the catalogue achieved its goal of informing its audience

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47 ear history Did they learn something new about the museum? Did they feel better informed about the collection and role of the departments ? Did they see pieces from the collection that they had never seen before? A nd finally, a summative survey could be us ed to ascertain how the catalogue was being utilized. Are they being used as reference guides or for continuing one s art education, given as gifts, or displayed on coffee tables and never read? This survey could have helped to quantify the success of the catalogue and be a guide for future publications The Future of Museum Publications Although this subject could constitute its own paper, I think it is important to touch briefly on the future of museum catalogues. As I have discussed, these publi cations are important tools that help the museum educate and engage visitors, increase accessibility to the collection, cultivate financial support from various sources market the museum and enhance its reputation through the circulation of scholarly res earch However, catalogues are expensive and time consuming to produce and I believe it is likely we will see a change in publication contents and in format over the next decade As museums continue to feel the squeeze of thinner budgets and ever decreasing government and state funding they will be forced to further diversify their sources of funds. Projects with the potential to generate income will continue to be important in making museums more self reliant and mission related projects like mu seum catalogu es will continue to be produced It is also likely that individual giving will become more restrained, which will require museums to demonstrate accountability and transparency to justify use of funds more than ever I

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48 predict that m useum publ ications will reflect this by incorporating information about how the museum utilizes resources the goals and outcomes of their programs and initiatives and how the museum is relevant in its communi ty as the Harn Museum catalogue editors attempted to do by As the world continues to become more digital, it is also probable that the format of museum publications will change greatly. M any museums are already making works in their col lection accessible online The Yale Center for British Art for example, re cently launched a website that offers searchable access to downloadable publication quality images in the public domain. 59 This website provides the same information as tombstone tex t catalogues but i t s format is very different from a catalogue. It does not offer any research information and does not group or present the objects at all. Instead, the user must seek out a specific image by searching for it, which requires that they k now exactly what they are seeking (the title, artist, etc ). Thus, online databases provide accessibility to objects in the way that catalogues do, but they do not serve the other roles filled by catalogues. However, a s e book s and e book readers l ike Kindle and Nook continue to rise in popularity museum s will likely produce e publications which may eventually replace printed catalogues These publications w ill be less expensive to produce, easier to update and more environmentally friendly due to less use of paper and other materials O ne such project is already underway. In 2008 the Getty Museum began a five year initiative to explore the potential of creating an online collections catalogue. 60 The benefits of such a project are numerous : the ability to provide more research information by linking additional resources, a great reduction in the time it takes to create publications and k eep them 59 Yale Center for British Art, search the Collections. Accessed June 10, 2011. http://britishart.yale.edu/collections/search 60 The Getty Foundation, Online Scholarly Catalogue Initiative. Accessed June 17, 2011. http://www.getty.edu /foundation/funding/access/current/online_cataloging.html

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49 updated and the ability to allow the visitor to explore the images further by zooming in or co mparing multiple images. The Getty and its collaborators, the Art Institute of Chicago, the Freer/Sackler galleries, the Los Angeles County Museum of Art, the National Gallery of Art, the San Francisco Museum of Modern Art, the Seattle Art Museum, the Tate Gallery, London, and the Walker Art Center, developed individual digitization projects and plan to meet periodically to report on the progress of their projects The projects vary by museum; the Seattle Museum of Art will focus on Chinese painting and cal ligraphy, while the Walker Art Center will make available all works acquired since 2005, the year of its last published catalogue. 61 As promising as this project sounds, t he online publication is not without drawbacks. One major issue is the difficulty in regulating unauthorized reproduction of online images and preventing copyright infringement Another is that o nline publications may not be available to users who lack the technological know how to access them, particularly older generations. And, perh aps the biggest po tential drawback of all; if visitors could see and learn about the objects from their homes, offices, or communication devices would they stop coming to museums? As reported in Museums & Society 2034: Trends and Potential Futures a repo rt commissioned by the Center for the Future of Museums ( an initiative of the American Association of Museums ), world of non digital assets that help tell the st ory of how humans got where we are. Museums 62 And as Bill Cope and Angus Phillips remind us in The Future of the Book in the Digital Age television and video was once predicted to replace the cinema completely; instead it extended the cultural and commercial 61 The Getty Foundation, Online Scholarly Catalogue Initiative Projects List. Accessed June 17, 2011. http://www.getty.edu/foundation/funding/access/current/osci_fact_sheet.html

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50 range of cinema. 63 Thus, despite the drawbacks, I believe that online collections catalogues will soon become the preferred method of producing museum publications and will be yet anoth er way museums can continue to redefine their ever evolving role in society 62 Museums & Society 2 034: Trends and Potential Futures Report 2008. American A ssociation of Museums 16. Accessed September 20, 2011. http://futureofmuseums.org/reading/publications/2008.cfm 63 Bill Cope and Angus Phillips. 2006. The F uture of the B ook in the D igital A ge. Oxfo rd: Chandos 6.

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51 APPENDIX A PROJECT BUDGET Expenses: Photography $15,000 Design, Indexer, Proofer, Printing and Marketing $ 26,000 Reproduction Fees $2 855 ARS $570 The Lachaise Foundation $125 VAGA $1, 410 Plattsburgh State Art Museum $200 Nan Goldin Studio $300 Pace MacGill $250 Author Fees $500 Outside Reader $1 000 Total cost: $ 45, 355

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52 APPENDIX B EXAMPLE OF EXTENDED TEXT

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53 APPEN DIX C EXAMPLE OF TOMBSTONE TEXT

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54 APPENDIX D BROOKLYN MUSEUM COPYRIGHT PROJECT Use this list as a checklist to document that we have searched extensively before declaring a work in the collection as an orphaned work. Crea ted by Deborah Wythe, Brooklyn Museum March 22, 2011 Initals, date ckd NOTES (record if checked but nothing found) Online resources http://tyler.hrc.utexas.edu/ University of Texas at (Writers, Artists, and http://www.loc.gov/rr/print/res/rights. html Library of Congress, Prints Drawings and Photographs pages include information a bout copyright status http://www.aspp.com/pages/257/1 89/0/ American Society of Picture Professionals list of resources www.google.com Online phone and address directories www.superpages.com www.spokeo.com www.411.com www.switchboard.com N ote that these resources sometimes return different results check all www.peoplesearch.com T o trace the movements of someone whose approximate age and former location (s) you know www.askart.com Artist bio, collection, and auction info www.artnet.com Artist bio, collection, and auction info http://ssdi.rootsweb.ancestry.com/ Death dates Wikipedia May include useful information Newspaper databases F or obit uarie s or other mentions Gallery websites For biographical information and see below MUSIP Yahoo! museum intellectual property group. Join this listserv,

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55 check previous posts, and a dead end DRAWINGS STUDY CENTER, MoMA A good source for research...Works may be viewed, and files on each work are available for consultation. Located at 11 W 53 S t in midtown Manhattan and 45 20 33 St in Long Island City, Queens. By appointment Wednesday, Thursday, and Friday, 11:00 a.m. 5:00 p.m. e mail dsc@moma.org http://www.copyright.gov/records/ Library of Congress Works Registered/Renewed Since 1978 http://www.momak.go.jp/English/con tact.html Resource for Contemporary Japanese Artists In house resources TMS For birth/death dates and sometimes artist contact info which, though possibly out of date, may help locate the artist Curatorial files Occasionally have useful information, and are a good place to check out any previous corresponde nce we may have had, especially for contemporary artists Artist files Library ephemera collection, frequently includes clippings Research avenues Publications Search image credit lines for estate or e.g. "Gift of the artist's wife, XYZ" Museums Contact museums with large holdings of the artist: possibly they were given the estate Curators/museums/registrars Contact people/institutions that

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56 have done shows on the artist, especially if a catalog was published. Galleries Look for galleries which say explicitly they are representatives of artist or estate Scholars Contact scholars who have written monographs/journal articles on the artist. Searching Amazon and JSTOR are good ways to start this -once you find a name, typically you can find their e mail address from where they teach Collections databases If available, check provenance records in collections databases: sometimes they mention by name the representative of the estate. Auction databases T o potentially track info on a seller who may have more information. Archives If an institution holds the papers of an artist or family, they may have contact information.

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57 APPENDIX E IMAGE REPRODUCTION REQUEST LETTER December 1, 2011 Met ro Pictures 519 West 24th St New York, NY 10011 Dear Copyright Holder, The Samuel P. Harn Museum of Art at the University of Florida would like to request copyright permission to reproduce the attached work(s) in our 20 th anniversary collections catalog ue. Admission to the museum is free, and we are a non profit organization. Entitled the Samuel P. Harn Museum of Art at Twenty Years: The Collection Catalogue this publication will feature a sampling of works of art from the Harn Museum collection. The c atalog will consist of 400 pages including the cover with a print run of approximately 1000 copies. It will be sold in the Harn Museum of Art Store and distributed in North America by the University Press of Florida. The list price will depend upon incurre d production fees, but the price of the catalogue will not exceed $50. The images will be printed in color. In understanding our desire to responsibly reproduce these works in the course of fulfilling the nting the Harn the rights to reproduce this image for the purposes described above. This transfer is mutually beneficial as it allows us to present the works to as broad an audience as possible. We hope that you will favorably review our request. If so, p lease sign the enclosed agreements and include any required credit lines. Please return one copy in the envelope provided and retain the other copy for your records. Please do not hesitate to contact us with any questions or concerns you may have. We loo k forward to hearing from you. Sincerely, Tracy Pfaff Harn Museum of Art

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58 ONE TIME USE COPYRIGHT AGREEMENT I hereby acknowledge that I am the artist and/or artist representative and am authorized to grant copyright permission to the Samuel P. Harn Mus eum of Art for one time use in the catalogue for the publication entitled, the Samuel P. Harn Museum of Art at Twenty Years: The Collection Catalogue to illustrate the following: American, born 1947 1984 Black and white photograph Louise Lawler Storage The catalogue will be approximately 400 pages + cover with a print run of 1000 hard bound catalogs. The catalogues will be sold through our museum store and nationwide through the University Press of Florida. The list price will depend on incurred producti on fees, but is not likely to exceed $50 per catalogue. I hereby authorize the University of Florida, for and on behalf of the Samuel P. Harn Museum of Art, to reproduce this work of art for one time use in the publication, Samuel P. Harn Museum of Art at Twenty Years: The Collection Catalogue Signed: ___________________________________ Date:______________________ Printed name:____________________________________________________________ Address:__________________________________________________________ ______ Telephone/fax:___________________________________________________________ Email: _________________________________________________________________ APPENDIX F ONE TIME USE AGREMEENT

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59 APPENDIX G PUBLICATION AGREEMENT UNIVERSITY PRESS OF FLORIDA AND HARN MUSEUM OF ART Discover the World with Florida Books __________________________________________________________ INTERNAL AGREEMENT This Internal Agreement made this 1st day of December, 2008, between the University of Florida Board of Tru stees, a public corporation of the State of Florida, on behalf of the State University System Press son Steuber presently entitled Samuel P. Harn Museum of Art Celebrating 20 Years: The Collection Handbook In consideration of their mutual promises, the parties hereby agree as follows: 1. The Museum gra nts and assigns to the Publisher the full and exclusive right during the full term of copyright and all renewals thereof obtainable to publish, republish, print, reprint, reproduce and sell the Work in all forms and in all languages and in all media throug statutory right to terminate the grant, as applicable, after the number of years specified by law, by serving written notice as required by law. 2. COPYRIGHT The Museum authorizes and directs the Publisher to register the copyright of the Work in the name of the Museum in the United States, and, if the Publisher thinks it advisable, in other countries. All copies of the Work distributed by the Publisher or its licensees shall bear a notice of copyright in the form prescribed by law. UNIVERSITY PRESS OF FLORIDA 15 NW 15 th Street Gainesville, FL 32611 2079 (352) 392 1351, fax (352) 392 7302 www.upf.com Equal Opportunity Institution

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60 3. (a) The Museum represents and warrants to the Publisher and its licensees that the Museum is the owner, or that it otherwise owns or possesses rights in the Work (and the copyrighted works inclu ded in the Work) to grant the Publisher the rights covered under this Agreement; that it has full power to enter into this Agreement; that the Work is original and is not in the public domain unless otherwise specifically set forth in this Agreement; that the Work does not infringe or violate any copyright or other proprietary right of any other person; that the Work contains no libelous or other unlawful matter; and that the work does not constitute a violation of the right of privacy of any other person. The Museum agrees to indemnify and hold the Publisher harmless for, from, and against any damages, claims, liabilities, costs, and expenses, including of the representations and warranties contained herein In the event of any claim, demand, or suit asserted against the Publisher, if the Publisher incurs any expenses in connection with a defense or in any efforts to enforce this indemnity clause or any portion of this Agreement, it shall have the right to withhold payments due to obligations as stated herein. Any settlement of any lawsuit regardi ng the Work shall be subject to the approval of the Publisher, which approval shall not be unreasonably withheld. Each party shall promptly inform the other of any claim arising from this Agreement or from the publication of the Work. (b) The Museum agre es to make such changes in the Work as the Publisher or its legal (c) The Museum a grees that during the term of this Agreement the Museum will not, without prior written consent from the Publisher, directly or indirectly prepare or participate in the preparation of any nt, may injure, interfere with or compete with the sale of the Work covered by this Agreement. (d) In the event that Museum fails to provide a defense to a claim or otherwise fails to adequately indemnify Publisher pursuant to the terms of this Agreement, Publisher may retain counsel of its choice at the expense of Museum. (e) The representations, warranties, and indemnities set forth herein shall survive the expiration or termination of the Agreement. 4. SUITS FOR INFRINGEMENT OF COPYRIGHT If the copyr ight of the Work is infringed during the term hereof, then, upon notice thereof by either party, the parties shall confer with regard thereto, and if no mutually satisfactory arrangement is arrived at for joint action, the Publisher shall have the right, b ut not the obligation, to bring an action to enjoin such infringement and/or damages. If the Publisher elects not to bring such an action, and provides written notice of same to the Museum, then the Museum shall have the right to bring such action. If th ey proceed jointly, the expenses and recoveries, if any, shall be shared equally or in such manner as agreed by the parties in writing. If either party proceeds independently of the other under the terms herein, such parties shall bear all the expenses th ereof and any recoveries shall belong to such party alone.

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61 5. AGREEMENT TO PUBLISH The Publisher agrees to publish the Work as specifically provided in this Agreement within a reasonable period after the Museum has delivered to the Publisher the complete, final, and acceptable manuscript as set forth below. The Publisher will promote and sell the Work in such manner (including price, title, date of publication, discounts, licensing agreements, type of advertising, number and distribution of free copies) a s the Publisher deems suitable. However, if the Work is in substantially incomplete form or upon the receipt of acceptable specialist appraisals of th e Work and presentation to the University Press of Florida (UPF) Editorial Board, it being understood that the decision to publish is a decision within ement shall automatically terminate. 6. DELIVERY OF MANUSCRIPT (a) The Museum agrees to deliver to the Publisher the complete and acceptable Work as described below, no later than May 1, 2009 If the Museum fails to deliver the Work by that date, the Publisher shall be released from all obligations under this Agreement unless the Publisher gives written notice of its willingness to postpone the delivery date; provided, however, that the Museum shall not be free to submit the Work elsewhere it has reoff ered it to the Publisher under the same terms as set forth in this Agreement (other than terms regarding due date). (b) If the Publisher determines that the Work requires substantial revision or is otherwise incomplete and provides written notice of same to Museum, the Publisher shall have no obligation to publish and shall be released from all obligations under this Agreement unless and until the Museum has completed 7. SIZE OF MANUS CRIPT The Work as submitted to the Publisher shall consist of no more than 25 0 double spaced manuscript pages in Courier New 12 point font (including n otes and bibliography) and 450 color illustrations In any revision that the Museum may undertake befo re the Work goes into production, the Museum will not add to the size of the Work or number of illustrations in the Work unless the Publisher agrees to such additions. 8. FORM OF MANUSCRIPT The Museum agrees to present the complete word processed manuscr ipt in a form prepared in ready copy for all illustrations, maps, charts, drawings, or other material suitable, in Publishe

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62 (aside from routine copyediting customary among publishers) and/or word processing is required, or redrawing or other processing of illustrations is neces sary, the Publisher shall take, or ask the Museum to the style, number, and placement of any and all illustrations in the Work. The Publisher is authorized to make the manuscript conform to the style and design that it believes to be most suitable for the Work; however, the Publisher shall not make substan 9. TITLE OF WORK If a final title for the Work agreeable to both the Museum and the Publisher cannot be chosen by the time the Work is given to the designer, the Publisher shall have the right to determine the title under which the Work will be published. 10. INDEX The Museum will prepare an index promptly after it receives page proof. 11. PERMISSIONS (a) The Museum agrees to pay all permission fees (if any) for the use, reproduction or quot ation in the Work of any copyrighted materials or other intellectual property owned or otherwise controlled by others, such as text, illustrations, music, or graphics, and to furnish the Publisher with written evidence of the zation to use the material, for all rights herein granted to the Publisher by the Museum, including a standard form of credit to the owner to appear in the Work. The Museum agrees to provide copies of the Work as required in the permission contracts. (b) If the Work contains material taken from documents prepared and published by any government agency therefore not subject to copyright, Museum shall notify Publisher in writing of the existence and location of all such materials in the Work. 12. MUSEUM AL TERATIONS The Museum agrees to read, revise, correct and return to the Publisher promptly all forms of proof upon receipt thereof and to take responsibility for the accuracy and completeness of the text. The Publisher may provide professional proofreadin g at its discretion. If there is a galley stage of proof, the Publisher shall bear the cost of changes at this stage. Any alterations made after copyediting or galley stages (i.e., at the page against the Museum at the rate of $2.00 per line change and $15.00 for each instance of repaging. Charts, maps and other graphic images that, in the opinion of the Publisher, need to be recreated to the me et the Publisher's standards as set forth in the "Manuscript Preparation Guidelines," will be recreated at the

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63 Museum's expense at a rate of $75 per graphic. Any amount accrued by the Museum shall be payable upon receipt of invoice and shall not be deduct ed from the Museum's royalties. If the Museum makes changes including the cost of restripping negatives, remaking plates, reediting masters, or reformatt ing programs. (Changing a word, line, or illustration in proof is much more costly than in original production.) 13. NEW EDITIONS If the parties agree that it is necessary, the Museum will prepare material for new editions or new versions of the Work. If any revision is made by third parties, the Publisher shall so indicate in the revised edition. All the terms and conditions of this Agreement except those that clearly apply only to the first edition of the Work shall apply to all revisions of the Wor k. 14. LIABILITY The Publisher will use reasonable care for any manuscript, illustration, or other material that the Museum places in its custody. However, the Publisher shall not be responsible for the loss of, or damage to, s in its possession except loss or damage resulting from a breach of the foregoing covenant and not covered by insurance, in the possession of its independent contractors, or in the possession of anyone else to whom delivery is made by the Publisher in the normal course of operations. The Museum shall keep a duplicate copy of its materials, including all illustrations. If there are any unique or Pub lisher and place on record with the Publisher a valuation of it. The Publisher will attempt to make 15. ROYALTIES ugh December 31). The Publisher shall prepare royalty statements once a year for each royalty period, and the royalties are payable by the Publisher to the Museum within ninety days from the end of the royalty period. Royalty statements and payments are processed by April 1. If the accumulated annual royalty is less than $150.00, the Museum will receive a statement of accounting by April 1 but will not receive payment for that royalty period. Once the amount of the annual royalty is greater than $150.00 the Museum shall receive the accumulated royalty during the from royalties, such as, but not limited to, map preparation, Museum alterations, and pe rmission fees. The amount payable from the Publisher to the Museum shall be calculated with respect to each category below as follows: a. Primary edition. On regular book sales (except for special cases listed below) of hardback, paperback, and electron ic editions produced by the Publisher, the following stipulated percentages of the net

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64 Hardback: ___10________% of the net receipts. Paperback: ___10_______ _% of the net receipts. E books: ____10_________% of the net receipts. b. Revised edition. In the event of publication of an abridged, expanded, or revised edition necessitating the resetting of 20% or more of the Work, the royalty rate shall recommen ce (or continue, as the case may be) at the initial royalty rate with the first copy of the revised edition sold. c. Royalty free copies. No royalty shall be paid on any copies lost or destroyed, or on damaged or overstocked copies sold at or below manuf discretion for the purpose of aiding the sale of the Work. d. Licenses without charge. The Publisher is authorized to license publication of the Work in Braille, or photographing, recording or mic rofilming the Work for the physically handicapped without charge and with no royalty to the Museum. 16. OTHER RIGHTS The Museum grants and assigns to the Publisher the full, sole, and exclusive right to arrange for the sale, distribution, or licensing of the following rights relating to the Work, and appoints the Publisher as representative for that purpose. If such rights are sold or licensed, the Publisher shall pay the Museum, at the time of the next royalty payment after receipt of the funds, the fol lowing portion of the net amount actually received for such sale, distribution, or licensing. (a) Translation, first and second serial rights, selection, abridgment, condensation, digest, microform, duplication, adaptation, syndication, photocopying, exce rption in omnibus volumes, course packets, receipts from a license to another publisher to reprint in whole or in part in hardback or paperback (less any production or printing services provided to the Publisher); or royalties from a book club from a speci al edition for distribution to its members: 20% of the net amount actually received by the Publisher. (b) Dramatization, public reading, radio, video, television, sound recording, and motion picture rights or the right of reproduction by other mechanical devices, including such technologies as may now exist or may be invented or discovered: 20% of that net amount actually received by the Publisher. (c) Software adaptations, nondramatic audio or audio visual adaptations or records of the Work, or portions of the Work by electronic or digital means otherwise now known or hereafter devised: 20% of the net amount actually received by the Publisher.

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65 17. The Publisher shall give to the Museum ___25____ free copies of the cloth edition, and __1 0___ copies of any paperback editions, deluxe limited editions excluded. These copies are not for resale and are to enable the Museum to meet personal obligations to libraries and others who may have helped him, as well as for gifts to friends and relativ es and the like. The Publisher shall send free copies to individuals who, in less 40% discount, plus postage. Such orders must be addressed to t he Order Department of the Publisher 18. TERMINATION OF CONTRACT (a) If the Museum defaults under this Agreement, or if the Publisher and/or its legal r epresentatives determine that no amount of revision in the Work will materially reduce the risk of liability to third persons or of governmental action against the Publisher and/or the Work, the Publisher shall have the right, in addition to any other reme dies available to the Publisher at law or in equity, to terminate this Agreement. The Museum will thereupon return to the Publisher any and all sums paid to the Museum pursuant to this Agreement; provided, however, that if the Publisher terminates this Ag reement because of thereafter completes the Work, the Publisher shall have the option to publish the completed work on the terms set forth in this Agreement. (b) If, after three years following the date of publication of the said Work, the Publisher advises the Museum in writing that it has become necessary to discontinue publication in either print or electronic form, or if the Publisher fails to keep the Wo rk available for the purchase in either print or electronic form to do so, then the Museum has the right to terminate this Agreement by written notice Upon receipt of said notice, all the existing rights granted to the Publisher under this Agreement shall terminate, except that the Publisher shall continue to receive its share of the proceeds from any license already granted prior to receipt of the Mu 19. BINDING ON HEIRS AND ASSIGNS; ASSIGNMENT This Agreement shall be binding upon and inure to the benefit of the parties hereto and to their heirs, successors, executors, administrators, and assigns. The Publisher may assign this Agreeme nt or any interest therein to any person and thereupon be relieved of all further liability hereunder; but it may not sell this Agreement in its entirety without giving the Museum the prior right to purchase the same at the price offered. The Museum may a ssign the Agreement as a whole (but not in part) with the advance written consent of the Publisher.

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66 20. ENTIRE AGREEMENT This Agreement constitutes the entire Agreement between the parties and no addition, modification, or amendment hereto shall be effec tive unless in writing and executed by the parties hereto. 21. NOTICES All notices and all other matters pertaining to this Agreement requiring delivery to a party shall be in writing and shall be deemed to have been duly given when received by the addre ssee at the following addresses: For the Publisher: University Press of Florida, 15 NW 15th Street, Gainesville, FL 32611 2079 For the Museum: Director Samuel P. Harn Museum of Art Gainesville, FL 32611 The Museum must notify the Business Of fice of any change of address. Such notices shall be mailed to Business Manager, University Press of Florida, 15 NW 15th Street, Gainesville, FL, 32611 2079. 22. SEVERABILITY If any provision of this Agreement is contrary to, prohibited, or deemed inval id by applicable laws or regulations of any jurisdiction in which it is sought to be enforced, then such provision shall be deemed inapplicable and omitted but shall not invalidate the remaining provisions of this Agreement. 23. VENUE AND GOVERNING LAW T his Agreement, and any disputes hereunder, shall be construed in accordance with the laws of the State of Florida and enforced in the court of the State of Florida. The Publisher and the Museum hereby agree that venue shall be in Alachua County, Florida. 24. PUBLICATION SUBSIDY Publisher at the time the Work is submitt ed by the Museum for copyediting. Should either party

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67 terminate this Agreement prior to publication, as specified in Clause 18, the publication subsidy shall be returned in full. This Agreement is made by the Authority of the University of Florida Board of Trustees, in witness whereof this Agreement is made and entered into as of the date and year first written above, on behalf of the State University System Press. Samuel P. Harn Museum of Art: Witnesses: (1)_______________________ _____________ ___________ (2)_______________________ Date: ___________________ State University System Press By: _______________________ Witnesses: (1)________________________ Meredith Morris Babb, Director State University System Press Universi ty Press of Florida (2)________________________ Date: ______________________

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68 APPENDIX H PROJECT TIMELINE Target date to have catalogues in hand for 20 th anniversary fundraising event: October 1, 2010 1 8 months in advance Edi tors meet with Director to establish content Communicate contents to relevant staff Ask curators to c hoose objects to be included 1 5 months in advance Work with curators to finalize works Communicate works to registrar by creating object packages in TMS R egistrar checks to see how many works need photos 1 4 months in advance Organize photos into 2d and 3d works large to small to facilitate quick shoot turnarounds Start photographing objects C heck object files for past rights holders Begin sending out rep roduction request letters All essays submitted for first edits 13 months in advance Editors edit essay submissions Continue photographing objects Continue sending out reproduction request letters

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69 12 11 months in advance Director writes history Editors w rite intro C ommission UF poet to compose two original works based on collections Work with curators to determine order of works within their sections Second round of rights letters Continue photographing objects 10 9 months in advance Final edits of essa ys Create cover design Continue photographing objects 9 8 months in advance Make phone calls to obtain final reproduction rights Continue photographing objects 7 months in advance Contact UF President f or opening letter remark Photograph final objects Se nd text to outside editor 5 months in advance Submit text and images to UF Press Check images for color closeness

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70 4 3 months in advance Editors and Contributors see f inal layout for last edits Develop publications lists and exhibition lists produced b y Harn Edit index 2 months Second review of color prints to ensure changes made from first round Await delivery

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71 BIBLIOGRAPHY Andrei, Mary A., and Hugh H. Genoways. 2008. Museum Origins : Readings in Early Museum History and P hilosophy. W alnut Creek, CA: Left Coast Press. Awerdick, John and John Kettle III Buck, Rebecca A., and Jean Allman Gilmore. 1998. The New Museum Registration Methods Washington, DC: American Association of Museums 289 300 Bielstei n, Susan M. 2006. Permissions, a survival guide: Blunt talk about art as intellectual property. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Burn, Barbara. 1993. Masterpieces of the Metropolitan Museum of Art New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art. Carbonell, Bettina M. 2004. Museum S tudies : An Anthology of C ontexts. Malden, MA: Blackwell Pub. Cope, Bill and Angus Phillips. 2006. The Future of the B ook in th e Digital A ge. Oxford: Chandos. de Montebello, Philippe. 2000. T he Metropolitan Museum of Art Guide, R evised Edition New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art. D'Souza, Aruna. 2001. Self and History: A Tribute to Linda Nochlin London: Thames & Hudson. Genoways, Hugh H., and Lynne M. Ireland. 2003. Museum Administration : An I ntroduction. Walnut Creek, Cal if.: Altamira Press. Harris, Neil. 1999. Daedalus 28 v.3, Summer 33 56. Hearn, Maxwell K. 2008. How to Read Chinese P aintings New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art. Hede, Anne M., and Ruth Rentschler. 20 07. Museum Marketing : Competing in the G lobal M arketplace. Amsterdam ; London: Butterworth Heinemann. Museum News May/June 44 48 Hooper Greenhill, Eilean. 1992. Museums and the Shaping of K nowledge. Lond on ; New York: Routledge. Hoving, Thomas. Art for Dummies 1999. Foster City, CA: IDG Books.

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72 Hughes, Sarah Anne. 2007. from Aronsson, Peter and Hillstrm, Magdalena. NaMu, Making National Museums Program, Set ting the Frames 26 28 February, Norrkping, Sweden. http://www.ep.liu.se/ecp/022/. McLean, Fiona. 1997. Marketing the M useum. London ; New York: Routledge. Morris, Barbara J. 1986. Inspiration For Design: The Influence of the Victoria and Albert Museum London: The Museum. Kavanagh, Gaynor. 1991. Museum Languages: Objects and T exts. Leicester; New York: Leicester University Press. Kotler, Neil G., and Philip Kotler. 1998. Museum Strategy and Marketing : Designing M issions, B uilding A udiences, G enerating R evenue and R esources. San Francisco, Calif.: Jossey Bass Publishers. Lovelock, Christopher H., and Charles B. Weinberg. 1984. Marketing for P ublic and N onprofit M anagers. New York: Wiley. Macdonald, Sharon. 2006. A Companion to Museum S tudies. Malden, M A; Oxford: Blackwell Pub. McLean, Fiona. 1997. Marketing the M useum. London; New York: Routledge. Moore, Kevin. 1994. Museum M anagement. London ; New York: Routledge. Pittman, Bonnie. 1999. "Muses, Museums and Memories" in Daedalus : P roceedings of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences v.128 no. 3 1 31. Serrell, Beverly. 1996. Exhibit Labels: An Interpretive Approach Walnut Creek: Alta Mira Press. Siegel, Jonah. 2008. The Emergence of the Modern Museum : An A nthology of N ineteenth C entury S ources. N ew York: Oxford University Press. Weil, Stephen E. 1990. Rethinking T he M use um : And O ther M editations. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press. 43 56 Wienand, Peter, Anna Booy, and Robin Fry 2000. A Guide to Copyright for Museums and G alleries. London; New York: Routledge.

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73 Catalogues Colby College Museum of Art Sharon Corwin, Elizabeth Finch, Lauren Lessing, and Joseph N. Newland. 2009. Art at Colby: C elebrating the F iftieth A nniversary of the Colby College Museum of Art Waterville : Colby College Museum of Art. Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum, Gilbert Wendel Longstreet, and Morris Carter. 1935. General Catalogue Boston: Printed for the trustees. Lowe Art Museum. 1996. Lowe Art Muse um Selected Works: Handbook of the Permanent Collection. Coral Gables: Lowe Art Museum. Museum of Contemporary Art (Chicago). Tenth Anniversary, Museum of Contemporary Art, Chicago: 1967 1977 1977. Chicago: Museum of Contemporary Art. Patrick and Beatri ce Haggerty Museum of Art. 2009. Haggerty Museum of Art at Marquette University: 25 th Anniversary Celebration Milwaukee: Haggerty Museum of Art, Marquette University. Poynor Robin 1995. African Art at the Harn Museum: Spiri t Eyes, Human Hands Gaines ville: University Press of Florida. Samuel P. Harn Museum of Art, Jason Steuber, Laura K. Nemmers, Tracy E. Pfaff. 2010. Samuel P. Harn Museum of Art at Twenty Years: T he C ollection C atalogue Gainesville: University Press of Florida. Samuel P. Har n Museum of Art Budd Harris Bishop and Kerry Oliver Smith. 2008. Paradigms and the U nexpected: M odern and C ontemporary A rt F rom the Shey C ollection Gainesville: Samuel P. Harn Museum of Art. San Francisco Museum of Modern Art, Ja net C. Bishop, Corey Keller, and Sarah Rehm Roberts. 2009. San Francisco Museum of Modern Art: 75 years of Looking Forward San Francisco: San Francisco Museum of Modern Art. Seattle Art Museum, Chiyo Ishikawa, and Barbara Brotherton. 2008. A Communit y of Collectors: 75th Anniversary Gifts to the Seattle Art Museum Seattle: Seattle Art Museum. Victoria and Albert Museum. 2007. 150: [V & A]. London: Victoria and Albert Museum. Wexner Center for the Visual Arts, Ann Bremner. 1999. Always Subject to C hange: the Wexner Center at Ten Columbus: Wexner Center for the Arts. Yale University Art Gallery, Tiffany Sprague. 2007. Art for Yale: Collecting for a New Century: Celebrating the 175 th Anniversary of the Yale University Art Gallery and the Centennial o f New Haven: Yale University Art Gallery.

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74 Interviews th Ker ry Oliver Smith Contemporary th Pfaff, June 8 2011. Dulce Roma in the Modern section of th October 2 0 2011. th iew by Tracy Pfaff, June 2, 2011. Websites Cornell University Copyright Information Center Accessed May 23, 2011. www.copyright.cornell.edu The Getty Foundation, Online Scholarly Catalogue Initiative. Accessed June 17, 2011. http://www.getty.edu/fou ndation/funding/access/current/online_cataloging.html The Getty Foundation, Online Scholarly Catalogue Initiative Projects List. Accessed June 17, 2011. http://www.getty.edu/foundation/funding/access/current/osci_fact_sheet.html Harn Museum of Art Strate gic Plan. Accessed June 4, 2011. h t tp://www.harn.ufl.edu/cats. pdf Museums & Society 2034: Trends and Potential Futures Report 2008. American Association of Museums. Accessed September 20, 2011. http://futureofmuseums.org/reading/publications/2008.cfm Rig hts and Reproductions Information Network Accessed April 23, 2011. www.rarin.org Smithsonian American Art Museum, Publications Office Page. Accessed May 13, 2011. http://americanart.si.edu/visit/contact/dept/dept_publications.cfm WorldCat, Listing of Lib raries Containing the Samuel P. Harn Museum of Art at Twenty Years: the Collection Catalogue Accessed June 7, 2011. http://www.worldcat.org/title/samuel p harn museum of art at twenty yearsthecollectioncatalogue.html Yale Center for British Art, S earch the Collections. Accessed June 10, 201 1. http://britishart.yale.edu/collections/search

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75 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Tracy Pfaff gradua ted with a BA in H istory from the University of Florida in 2005. While an undergraduate at UF, she interned at the Orlando Museu m of Art and the Harn Museum of Art. She then served as the development coordinator of membership and special events at the Samuel P. Harn Museum of Art from 2006 2011 While at the Harn Museum s he completed a M aster of S cience degree in Management in May of College of Business. Pfaff recently accepted an internship at the Bradford Brinton Memorial & Museum and is living in Big Horn, Wyoming.