Comprehensive guide to the prevenative care and museum storage of Chinese, Japanese and Korean hanging scrolls

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Title:
Comprehensive guide to the prevenative care and museum storage of Chinese, Japanese and Korean hanging scrolls
Physical Description:
Project in lieu of thesis
Creator:
Smith, Sara Jean
Publisher:
College of Fine Arts, University of Florida
Place of Publication:
Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date:

Notes

Abstract:
The Samuel P. Harn Museum of Art at the University of Florida has a diverse collection of Asian scrolls. During the fall semester of 2010, I re-housed 60 hanging and hand scrolls for storage in the Harn Museum’s art storage facilities. Conducting research on best practices and standards for museum storage of Asian scrolls was necessary to complete the project, and it became evident that there are only a small amount of resources available on the topic of museum storage for Asian scrolls. To compliment the hands-on component of my thesis project, I created an informative guidebook meant to assist museum staff handling hanging scrolls. The guidebook suggests safe housing techniques and summarizes the traditional materials used in hanging scrolls for a better understanding of the objects’ construction and inherent weaknesses. The mediums and techniques used in the construction of Asian art works on paper are often unique and require special consideration when it comes to museum storage; this is especially true regarding hanging scrolls from China, Japan and Korea. While appearing to be simple objects, scrolls are actually complex structures that are extremely fragile and susceptible to damage through handling, display and fluctuating environmental conditions. Appropriate housing methods and storage of Asian hanging scrolls in museum environments are critical tools for long term preservation. The guidebook was written with the intent of creating a comprehensive guide to the preventative care and museum storage of Chinese, Japanese and Korean hanging scrolls. To promote the safekeeping of Asian hanging scrolls in Western museum storage facilities the discussions are focused on striking a balance between access and preservation. The guidebook is organized into chapters, beginning with an introduction to hanging scrolls, geographic styles and mounting formats, and common materials. The possible types of deterioration, the effects of incorrect environmental conditions, poor handling and specific types of damage that result from these conditions are discussed along with the inherent weaknesses of particular materials and elements. A section on storage and hanging scroll components, such as wooden storage boxes and silk wrappers is provided followed by step-by-step instructions on how to tie a hanging scroll. The guidebook ends with a list of important sources on the conservation and construction of Asian scrolls and museum storage.
General Note:
Museology terminal project

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University of Florida Institutional Repository
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University of Florida
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All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
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AA00009603:00001


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1 A COMPREHENSIVE GUIDE TO THE PREVENATIVE CARE AND M USEUM STORAGE OF CHINESE, JAPANESE AND KOREAN HANGING SCRO LLS By SARAH JEAN SMITH A PROJECT IN LIEU OF THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUAT E SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2011

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2 2011 Sarah Jean Smith

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3 To my mother

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4 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I would first like to thank the staff at the Samuel P. Harn Museum of Art, especially Jason Steuber and Laura Nemmers. The generous support o ffered to me by Jason Steuber allowed me to advance professionally and academ ically in immeasurable ways, for that I will always be grateful. The daily assistance and support of Laura Nemmers and the entire registration department made the compl etion of my project possible and enjoyable. I would like to thank my friends and family for their guidance and encouragement. My sister and best friend, Gabrielle Smith, deserves a special thank you for so many reasons but most importantly for inspiring me to follow in her footsteps. I would like to thank my boyfriend, Tim Hannon, for his patience and support throughout graduate school. I would also like to thank Dr. Glenn Willumson for his t houghtful advice and wisdom offered to me throughout the past few years. Fi nally, I would like to thank Dixie Neilson for her genuine investment in my personal well being and her support of all of my academic endeavors.

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5 Table of Contents ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ................................... ................................................... ............ 4 LIST OF FIGURES ................................... ................................................... .................... 6 INTRODUCTION ...................................... ................................................... .................. 10 CONCLUSION ........................................ ................................................... ................... 17 A COMPRHENSIVE GUIDE TO THE PREVENTATIVE CARE AND M USEUM STORAGE OF CHINESE, JAPANESE AND KOREAN HANGING SCRO LLS ............. 19 HANGING SCROLLS ................................... ................................................... ....... 20 Introduction ....................................... ................................................... ............. 20 Definition ........................................ ................................................... ............... 20 Formats ........................................... ................................................... .............. 22 MATERIALS OF A HANGING SCROLL ..................... ............................................ 32 Introduction ....................................... ................................................... ............. 32 Paper ............................................. ................................................... ................ 33 Silk ............................................... ................................................... ................. 34 Binding Agents .................................... ................................................... .......... 35 Pigments and Ink ................................... ................................................... ........ 37 TYPES OF DETERIORATION AND INHERENT WEAKNESSES .... ...................... 40 Introduction ....................................... ................................................... ............. 40 Creases and Cracks .................................... ................................................... .. 41 Tears .............................................. ................................................... ............... 46 Flaking and Losses ................................... ................................................... .... 49 Distortion ......................................... ................................................... .............. 53 Stains and Discoloration ............................. ................................................... ... 55 Inherent Weakness ................................... ................................................... .... 57 ENVIROMENTAL CONCERNS ............................. ................................................. 6 0 Light ............................................. ................................................... ................. 60 Humidity .......................................... ................................................... .............. 62 STORAGE ........................................... ................................................... ................ 66 Scroll Storage Methods .............................. ................................................... ... 66 Scroll Storage Tips ................................ ................................................... ........ 78 WOODEN STORAGE BOXES AND TEXTILE WRAPPERS ......... ......................... 85 Wooden Boxes ...................................... ................................................... ........ 85 Textile Wrappers, Bags and Sleeves .................. ............................................. 91 HOW TO TIE A SCROLL ............................... ................................................... ...... 92 LIST OF REFERENCES ................................ ................................................... ............ 96 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ............................... ................................................... ........ 101

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6 LIST OF FIGURES Figure page Figure 1-1…. ....................................... ................................................... ....................... 25 Figure 1-2………………. ....................................... ................................................... ..... 26 Figure 1-3…. ....................................... ................................................... ....................... 28 Figure 1-4…. ....................................... ................................................... ....................... 29 Figure 1-5…… ........................................ ................................................... .................... 29 Figure 1-6. ....................................... ................................................... ........................... 30 Figure 3-1… ........................................ ................................................... ....................... 43 Figure 3-2… ........................................ ................................................... ....................... 44 Figure 3-3… ........................................ ................................................... ....................... 45 Figure 3-4…..... ................................... ................................................... ....................... 46 Figure 3-5………. ....................................... ................................................... ................ 47 Figure 3-6… ........................................ ................................................... ....................... 48 Figure 3-7… ........................................ ................................................... ....................... 49 Figure 3-8… ........................................ ................................................... ....................... 51 Figure 3-8… ........................................ ................................................... ....................... 52 Figure 3-9… ........................................ ................................................... ....................... 53 Figure 3-10… ...................................... ................................................... ....................... 54 Figure 3-11… ...................................... ................................................... ....................... 55 Figure 3-12… ...................................... ................................................... ....................... 56 Figure 3-13… ...................................... ................................................... ....................... 57 Figure 3-13… ...................................... ................................................... ....................... 58 Figure 3-14… ...................................... ................................................... ....................... 59 Figure 4-1… ........................................ ................................................... ....................... 64

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7 Figure 5-1. ....................................... ................................................... ........................... 68 Figure 5-2… ........................................ ................................................... ....................... 68 Figure 5-3… ........................................ ................................................... ....................... 69 Figure 5-4… ........................................ ................................................... ....................... 70 Figure 5-5… ........................................ ................................................... ....................... 71 Figure 5-6… ........................................ ................................................... ....................... 71 Figure 5-7. ....................................... ................................................... ........................... 72 Figure 5-8. ....................................... ................................................... ........................... 72 Figure 5-9 ........................................ ................................................... ........................... 75 Figure 5-10 ....................................... ................................................... .......................... 76 Figure 5-11…. ...................................... ................................................... ...................... 77 Figure 5-12… ...................................... ................................................... ....................... 78 Figure 5-13… ...................................... ................................................... ....................... 79 Figure 5-14… ...................................... ................................................... ....................... 80 Figure 5-15.. ..................................... ................................................... .......................... 81 Figure 5-16… ...................................... ................................................... ....................... 82 Figure 5-17… ...................................... ................................................... ....................... 82 Figure 5-18.. ..................................... ................................................... .......................... 83 Figure 5-19…………… ...................................... ................................................... ......... 83 Figure 6-1… ........................................ ................................................... ....................... 88 Figure 6-2… ........................................ ................................................... ....................... 88 Figure 6-3… ........................................ ................................................... ....................... 89 Figure 6-4… ........................................ ................................................... ....................... 89 Figure 6-5. ....................................... ................................................... ........................... 90 Figure 6-6... ..................................... ................................................... ........................... 90

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8 Abstract of Project in Lieu of Thesis Presented to the Gr aduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Arts A COMPREHENSIVE GUIDE TO THE PREVENATIVE CARE AND M USEUM STORAGE OF CHINESE, JAPANESE AND KOREAN HANGING SCRO LLS By Sarah Jean Smith December 2011 Chair: Glenn Willumson Major: Museology The Samuel P. Harn Museum of Art at the University of Florida has a diverse collection of Asian scrolls. During the fall semester of 2 010, I re-housed 60 hanging and hand scrolls for storage in the Harn Museum’s art storage facilities. Conducting research on best practices and standards for museum storage o f Asian scrolls was necessary to complete the project, and it became eviden t that there are only a small amount of resources available on the topic of museum sto rage for Asian scrolls. To compliment the hands-on component of my thesis project, I created an informative guidebook meant to assist museum staff handling hangin g scrolls. The guidebook suggests safe housing techniques and summarizes the traditio nal materials used in hanging scrolls for a better understanding of the object s’ construction and inherent weaknesses. The mediums and techniques used in the construction of A sian art works on paper are often unique and require special consideration whe n it comes to museum storage; this is especially true regarding hanging scrolls from Chi na, Japan and Korea. While appearing to be simple objects, scrolls are actually compl ex structures that are

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9 extremely fragile and susceptible to damage through h andling, display and fluctuating environmental conditions. Appropriate housing methods a nd storage of Asian hanging scrolls in museum environments are critical tools for long term preservation. The guidebook was written with the intent of creatin g a comprehensive guide to the preventative care and museum storage of Chinese, Jap anese and Korean hanging scrolls. To promote the safekeeping of Asian hanging scrol ls in Western museum storage facilities the discussions are focused on striking a b alance between access and preservation. The guidebook is organized into chapters, beginning with an introduction to hanging scrolls, geographic styles and mounting format s, and common materials. The possible types of deterioration, the effects of in correct environmental conditions, poor handling and specific types of damage that result from these conditions are discussed along with the inherent weaknesses of particular materials and elements. A section on storage and hanging scroll components, such as wooden storage boxes and silk wrappers is provided followed by step-by-step instruc tions on how to tie a hanging scroll. The guidebook ends with a list of important sour ces on the conservation and construction of Asian scrolls and museum storage.

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10 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION The Samuel P. Harn Museum of Art at the University of Florida has a diverse collection of Asian scrolls. During the fall semester of 2 010 I re-housed 60 hanging and hand scrolls for storage in the Harn Museum’s art storage facilities. Conducting research on best practices and standards for museum storage o f Asian scrolls was necessary to complete the project, and it became eviden t that there are only a small number of resources available on the topic of museum stor age for Asian scrolls. To compliment the hands-on component of my thesis project, I created an informative guide meant to assist museum staff handling hanging scroll s. For a better understanding of the objects’ construction and inherent w eaknesses this guidebook suggests safe housing techniques and summarizes the traditio nal materials used in hanging scrolls. This manual was written with the intent of creating a comprehensive guide to the preventative care and museum storage of Chinese, Japane se and Korean hanging scrolls. “Asian art” is a term that covers a wide geograph ic range and a broad spectrum of materials and object types. Because the vast range of objects that could be included in this guide is so large, certain object types and geo graphic areas have been omitted. The focus of this guide is on hanging scrolls from China, Japan, and Korea. The works on paper in hanging format from Southeast Asia includi ng Thailand, Cambodia, India and others areas have been excluded. Because so much mat erial is out of the scope of this project the potential exists for this research to be expanded at a later date. This guidebook is organized into chapters, beginning wit h an introduction to hanging scrolls, geographic styles and mounting formats, and common materials. The

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11 possible types of deterioration, the effects of incorre ct environmental conditions, poor handling and specific types of damage that result from these conditions are discussed along with the inherent weaknesses of particular materia ls and elements. A section on storage and hanging scroll components, such as wooden stora ge boxes and silk wrappers is provided followed by step-by-step instruction s on how to tie a hanging scroll. The guidebook ends with list of important source s on the conservation and construction of Asian scrolls and museum storage. All art objects are not created equal. Some of the ma terials and techniques used in Asian scrolls are unique and require special consideration in handling and storage. What can appear to be simple objects are actually comple x structures that are extremely fragile and susceptible to damage through r egular use and fluctuating environmental conditions. Although it may not usually be visible to the naked eye, these objects are in an ever-changing state. Complex interacti ons between materials and the environment take place daily on a minute scale. Once these changes become visible, it is usually too late to prevent damage. Organic substances will inevitably age over time but much can be done to slow the process. The delay of h armful aging is preferable to remounting and conservation. The three key elements in the preservation of these objects are proper storage, proper handling, and maint aining optimal environmental conditions. These elements along with an understanding o f the physical properties inherent in each object form the basis for proper care for fragile objects, such as Asian scrolls. The preservation of objects is essentially the goal of all registrars and collections managers. It is the motivating factor behind almost eve rything we do. The field of

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12 collections management is made up of a network of colleag ues that share knowledge to promote the best practices for the care of objects. The sharing of information is something that collections managers rely on to advance t he field. Listserves facilitate information sharing and workshops and conferences are a major source of information that is otherwise too specific and difficult to find. I cr eated this guidebook because I wanted to share the knowledge I gained through my han ds-on housing project and its related research in a format that can be circulated and used by individuals working with hanging scrolls. Often one person in a museum can be responsible for unpa cking, processing and housing Asian scrolls even if they don’t have a background in Asian art. This guidebook is meant to assist people with any type of background ha ndling and caring for these especially fragile and complex objects, in any size or t ype of museum. Each hanging scroll has special characteristics that help determine what m ethod should be used when housing it in storage. In museums without a conservator on staff, staff members in collections management departments create their own system s for the storage of Asian scrolls. Every museum has unique collections, different st orage facilities and varying levels of funding to apply towards the preservation of their collections. A selection of storage methods for hanging scrolls that varies from very simple to elaborate are provided in this guide. The storage approaches discussed in this guidebook aim to st rike a balance between access and preservation. Printing information a bout an object on the outside of storage containers, racks and aisles is a simple step that ca n alleviate unnecessary handling while providing visitors with information abo ut many objects in a museum’s

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13 collection. A museum storage space is not a static room i n which objects rest. Scholars, curators and collections managers frequent these spaces to utilize the wealth of information available to them through these obje cts. Whether a registrar is promoting collections care or a Korean scholar is researching a par ticular scroll, the organization and accessibility of objects within a museum storage space m ay facilitate or hinder these endeavors. Appropriate housing and labeling met hods for Asian scrolls in museum environments is a useful tool for long term pr eservation. When I started this project I knew that I wanted to fo cus on the materials, construction techniques and museum storage methods for Asia n art objects. As someone who works closely with Asian art and who is responsi ble for condition reporting a large collection of Asian art, I have bee n fascinated with these objects. I desired to gain a better understanding of what they a re made of and how they are made. I felt that, if I understood these objects bette r, I would be able to better care for them. It is for these reasons, combined with the need to re-house the scroll collection at the Harn Museum, that I began researching Asian art. Reflecting on this project, I would have done several things differently. The biggest thing is that I would have narrowed the project down to specifically hanging scrolls from the beginning. When I initially began this project I naively thought I could cover all of the materials and types of objects from Asia, including lacque rware, jades, textiles and several other types of objects. After a few months of re search I realized how all encompassing such a project would be because of the vast ran ge and complexity of art objects from Asia. After consulting with my committee, it was agreed upon that I could narrow the scope of my project down to works on paper fr om Asia, such as folding

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14 screens, albums, books, fans and woodblock prints. Althoug h works on paper seemed to be a manageable subject at first, it quickly became ev ident that in order to cover each type of object sufficiently in detail I would need to write at least 50 pages on each type of object. My initial research on works on paper was rap idly growing in size and I realized that providing a quality overview of the m aterials, formats, types of deterioration, and storage methods for each work on pa per format would have resulted in an over 200 page guidebook. Again I met with my co mmittee and it was decided that I could proceed with the project, focusing on hanging scroll s. Once my project was narrowed down specifically to hangin g scrolls I continued my research in a more focused manner but still experienced many challenges along the way. Many publications and resources address conservation, preservation and the care and handling of artifacts, but many are too general i n the discussion of the arts from Asia. Alternatively, many resources on scrolls can be too t echnical. Numerous publications provide in-depth discussions on the materials and construction of scrolls but quickly become too technical, using scientific jargon an d providing detailed data on experiments such as calculating pigment particle sizes for 15th century Chinese scrolls. Although these resources are incredibly informative, th ey often provide only one or two sentences that are useful in understanding scrolls from a co llections care perspective. Many technical resources only address condition issues, handl ing and housing as a side note. Another issue that made researching scrolls so ch allenging is that information on the preservation of Asian scrolls is ofte n buried within articles of broader subjects and can be difficult to locate. Bibliographies o ften lead to obscure resources that are difficult to access. In order to access many of the sources listed in the

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15 bibliography, I relied heavily on interlibrary loan which is an excellent service but can also be very time consuming. Another major component of my research was the multiple trips I made to major museums with prominent Asian art collections. The Harn Mu seum provided me with the opportunity to make four research trips, beginning wit h a visit to the Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery, Smithsonian Institution, Washington D.C. This trip allowed me to see firsthand optimal storage methods f or Asian art. Not only on this trip did I see a vast number of hanging scrolls beautifully stored, but I was able to discuss storage techniques with numerous professionals. In the fo llowing months I made trips to the Minneapolis Institute of Arts, the Philadelphia M useum of Art and the Seattle Asian Art Museum. At these museums I was able to tour the coll ection storage facilities, discuss collection storage techniques and enhance my knowledg e of collections care. In addition to the research trips I was able to attend two conferences that focused on museum storage techniques. The first conference, A Space Odyssey: Storage Strategies for Cultural Collections was held in St. Paul, Minnesota. This conference did not specifically address the storage needs for Asian art but rather focused on general storage issues. The second conference, East Asian Art: Historical Context and Modern Preservation of Paper-Based Works was held in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. This conference was very informative because the panel of sp eakers consisted of authorities in Asian art conservation. I was able to speak with Andr ew Hare, an authority on traditional and modern storage of Asian art and the S upervisory Conservator of East Asian Painting at the Freer Gallery of Art and Arthu r M. Sackler Gallery, Smithsonian Institution, Washington D.C. Since the conference I hav e contacted Andrew Hare

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16 numerous times regarding specific storage questions. His gu idance has proved to be invaluable. Overall I feel that my independent research combined w ith the research trips and conferences allowed me to create a guidebook that covers t he characteristics of Asian scrolls that condition their care in sufficient detail. H ousing the 60 scrolls for the Harn Museum allowed me to implement my research and gain ex perience handling and preserving the objects that I have come to know so much a bout. This guidebook draws together numerous bits of informat ion on the construction, materiality and inherent weaknesses of Asian scrolls in an effort to provide a comprehensive reference of optimal care and storage met hods. It is important to note that this guidebook is not meant to act as a guide to co nservation nor is it meant to suggest the need for any conservation treatments. Rather it is intended to provide information regarding the preventative care of Chine se, Japanese and Korean hanging scrolls and proper storage for them. Each object is uniqu e and the ideas expressed in this guidebook may not be suitable for your particular object. If in doubt regarding the appropriate method for the storage of an object, cons ult a conservator or the field of experts, such as collections managers and registrars experie nced in working with Asian materials.

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17 CHAPTER 2 CONCLUSION Deciding upon a storage method for a particular obje ct requires much thought and consideration. Storage space, existing storage furniture and available housing supplies will establish the parameters for storage options. The si ze and shape of an object further influences storage decisions. The overall conditi on of an object will affect decisions related to storage methods. Finally, the desir ed level of access to an object will have a bearing on how all of these factors will come together, resulting in a storage solution. When the object being stored is a hanging scroll, storage solutions can be enhanced when additional factors such as construction, mate rials, types of deterioration and inherent weakness are considered. Comprehending th e fragile nature of the organic materials that make up hanging scrolls and the de licate mounting structures will provide insight regarding appropriate storage methods. Hanging scroll components such as wooden storage boxes and textile wrappers are co mposed of different materials and present different storage challenges and they also r equire serious consideration when it comes to storage. The storage solutions presented in this guidebook attempt to provide a range options that can be used as a starting point to contem plate storage methods and can be adapted to suit the needs of a particular scroll. The i nformation provided in this guidebook about formats, materials, condition issues and environmental concerns should be reflected upon and taken into consideration n ot only when storing scrolls but also when handling and displaying them.

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18 The concept of understanding the materiality of a hang ing scroll to influence storage, handling and display decisions can be applied t o any type of object. In the broadest sense, understanding how objects are constructed, what they are made of and how they react to environmental concerns will affect th e care provided to objects. More specifically, realizing the construction techniques, mate rials and susceptibility to deterioration will directly influence how objects are h andled, stored and displayed. The lengthy discussion on hanging scrolls provided in the guid ebook focuses on just one type of art object. There exists a vast world of art o bjects that can benefit from a deeper understanding of their materiality.

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19 APPENDIX A COMPREHENSIVE GUIDE TO THE PREVENTATIVE CARE AND MUSEUM STORAGE OF CHINESE, JAPANESE AND KOREAN HANGING SCRO LLS

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20 HANGING SCROLLS Introduction Hanging scrolls are one of the most distinctive forms of A sian art. The compact rolled format opens to reveal a world of calligraphy or imagery often framed by an ornamental silk border. Hanging scrolls appear deceivingl y simple in construction but in reality are complex objects that require an understandi ng of their composition and inherent weaknesses in order to appropriately care and handle. Definition A scroll can be defined as an object constructed from mult iple layers of paper or silk, upon which images or calligraphy are directly appli ed. The layers are fixed with diluted paste and attached to a mounting structure tha t allows the scroll to be rolled up when not in use. Andrew Hare, the Supervisory Conserva tor of East Asian Painting at the Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Galler y, Smithsonian Institution, Washington D.C., provides a detailed definition of a scroll in his article, Guidelines for the Care of East Asian Paintings: Display, Storage and Handling Scrolls are laminate structures made from heterogeneous m aterials. Simply described, an Asian painting or calligraphy is a thin la yer of pigments adhered with animal glue to a flexible support of pa per or silk. Typically, silk fabrics chosen to surround the central ‘image’ create a protective and decorative border. These elements are lined with severa l layers of paper and wheat starch adhesive and are combined to create an overall supporting structure. This integral mounting structure al lows a painting to be ‘opened’ for display and ‘closed’ for storage. 1 This definition exemplifies some of the most characterist ic features of hanging scrolls, their unique format, mounting structure and materials. Not mentioned in this definition is the tradition of remounting and restoration. Remoun ting is defined as “the process of 1 Andrew Hare,” Guidelines for the Care of East Asia n Paintings: Display, Storage and Handling,” The Paper Conservator 30 (2006): 73.

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21 detaching, repairing, and reattaching a surface to i ts support; in the case of a hanging scroll, a painting made of paper or silk is detached from silk borders, and its paper backing is repaired and reattached to new silk borders and fresh paper backing .” 2 Restoration is closely related to conservation and invol ves filling in missing or damaged areas on works of art by painting or retouching. 3 China, Japan and Korea have longstanding, rich traditions of mounting and remounti ng. A hanging scroll can be remounted numerous times throughout its lifetime in o rder to preserve the scroll. The extremely detailed and historically rooted craft of mo unting and remounting can be considered an art itself. Hanging scrolls’ susceptibility to damage and deteriorati on due to their composition of organic materials and mounting format le ads to the need for periodic remounting, however steps should be taken to prevent damage and slow down the inherent vices that are detrimental to the scroll nonet heless. A solid understanding of hanging scrolls (how they are made and what they are m ade of) combined with recognition of the subtle deterioration that happens o n a daily basis, will undoubtedly result in better care. These interrelated issues format mounting structure, materials, damage, and deterioration combined with preventati ve care and storage are the focus of discussion in the following sections. 2 Freer Gallery of Art and the Arthur M. Sackler Gal lery, “Asian Art Connections: The East Asian Conservation Studio.” Curriculum Resource, pg. 8. http://www.asia.si.edu/research/dcsr/downloads/Conn ectionsFall2004.pdf 3 Andrew Oddy, et al. "Conservation and Restoration. In Grove Art Online. Oxford Art Online http://www.oxfordartonline.com/subscriber/article/g rove/art/T019099 (accessed November 2, 2011)

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22 Formats Hanging scrolls from China, Japan and Korea are similar in appearance but have subtle differences in proportion, decorative elements an d size. Many of these subtle differences derive from the various architectural structu res in each country where hanging scrolls are displayed. The eye level for viewe rs in a building in each geographic area, dictates the length and proportion of the scroll. 4 For example, in Korea buildings have lower ceilings, and little space between pillars to hang scrolls so the top and bottom mounting silk is shorter. 5 The overall size of a scroll also has an effect on elements that relate to its hanging such as hanging cords (cords attached to the top of the scroll by which it is hung) and eyelets (metal fasten ers inserted into the upper wooden stave, which hanging cords are attached to). The width of the mounting dictates how many wall hooks will be required for hanging. If a scroll is over three feet wide, four eyelets are usually inserted into the upper stave (woo den rod at the top of the scroll to which eyelets are attached and where the paper and sil k mounting structure is attached); three hooks would be required to support t he hanging cord. 6 Some variations in scroll elements can be purely decorat ive while others have developed throughout centuries of artistic tradition. S crolls can have knobs (handles at the bottom of the scroll attached to the roller rod) that are made of plain wood other knobs may be highly ornamented and made from ivory, j ade, precious gemstones, lacquer, metal, and porcelain. Hanging cords vary in le ngth, material and can be embellished with tassels. Decorative mounting elements can vary in pattern, color and 4 Chi-sun Park, “Traditional Korean Mounting (janghw ang),” The Paper Conservator 30 (2006): 117. 5 Ibid. 6 Hare, “Guidelines for the Care of East Asian Paint ings: Display, Storage and Handling,” 75.

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23 texture. In addition to the various elements on the scr olls themselves, hanging scrolls can come with a variety of components such as nested wood en storage boxes, silk wrappers and bags, and paper sashes. The elaborate packag ing and presentation of hanging scrolls combined with the complex mounting structu re and luxurious materials used, reinforces the precious nature of these paintings w ithin Chinese, Japanese and Korean culture. Surprises are rarely positive in museum storage environ ments. An understanding of what can be expected when unrolling a scroll is essent ial in ensuring that hanging scrolls are properly handled. A familiarity with mount ing structures and the basic formats of hanging scrolls aids in the comprehension of scrolls as co mposite objects. Several components are joined together to construct hanging scro lls. Slight variations in mounting structures and elements, such as the presence of t assels can have influence how scrolls are stored and handled. An awareness of these format variations and elements can help prevent any unnecessary surprises in stor age environments. Chinese Format Chinese mounting and conservation techniques are based on a traditional craft believed to have developed 2,000 years ago. Aesthetic and structural objectives were already summarized in the Tang dynasty (618-907 A.D.) and remained almost unchanged up to the present date. 7 The diagrams below illustrate Chinese hanging scroll elements and terminology (figure 1-1), and the four basic styles of hanging scrolls (figure 1-2). 8 Compared to Japanese and Korean styles, the top and bo ttom mounting 7 Valerie Lee, Xiangmei Gu, Yuan-Li Hou, “The Treatm ent of Chinese Ancestor Portraits: An Introduction to Chinese Ancestor Portraits: An Introduction to C hinese Conservation Techniques,” Journal of the American Institute for Conservation 42 3 (2003), 465. 8 Ibid.

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24 support are longer in Chinese scrolls and are often much thinner. 9 Chinese scrolls may have two short tying cords made of ribbon rather than one long tying cord as found on Japanese and Korean scrolls, but this is not always the case. 9 Alan Donnithorne, et al. "Mounting." In Grove Art Online. Oxford Art Online http://www.oxfordartonline.com.lp.hscl.ufl.edu/subs criber/article/grove/art/T060046 (accessedSeptember 18, 2011).

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25 Figure 1-1. This diagram shows terminology for element s on Chinese hanging scrolls.

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26 Figure 1-2. This diagram shows the four most common sty les of Chinese mounting. Mounters and conservators are relatively free to make ch oices between mounting materials and style as long as the colors and d esigns harmonize with the painting. 10 Japanese Format Hanging scroll mounting techniques were first introduced into Japan from China in the 6th century and techniques developed until the 1 6th century. 11 At this time the three basic styles of hanging scrolls used today in Japan were esta blished. The three basic 10 Valerie Lee, Xiangmei Gu, Yuan-Li Hou, “The Treatm ent of Chinese Ancestor Portraits,” 465. 11 Masako Koyano, Japanese Scroll Paintings: A Handbook of Mounting T echniques (Washington: Foundation of the American Institute for Conservati on), 16.

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27 styles of Japanese hanging scrolls, shin (figure 1-4), gy (figure 1-5), s (figure 1-6), all have their own subtypes. The differences between them are mounting elements and subjects usually depicted but can also relate to art histo rical traditions. 12 Japanese mounting generally uses a wider range of silks, brocades and damasks than Chinese scrolls and the proportions of Japanese mountings tend to be smaller than Chinese. 13 12 Ibid. 13 Alan Donnithorne, et al. "Mounting." In Grove Art Online. Oxford Art Online http://www.oxfordartonline.com.lp.hscl.ufl.edu/subs criber/article/grove/art/T060046 (accessedSeptember 18, 2011).

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28 Figure 1-3. This diagram shows terminology for element s on Japanese hanging scrolls.

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29 Figure 1-4. The shin style is usually used to mount religious painting such as the Mandala representation of Buddha. Figure 1-5. This diagram shows the gy style of mounting. The gy style is the most common mounting style and is used for a wide range of subjects such as: Imperial autographs, warriors, colored paintings of nat ure, Taoist figures, Japanese poetry and calligraphy.

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30 Figure 1-6. This diagram shows the s style of mounting which can be wide or narrow. This is the most informal style of mounting usually app lied on scrolls to be used in ceremonial tea rooms. Korean Format Korean mounting styles have been influenced heavily by wars and the Japanese occupation (1910-1945) so the “traditional” Korean mou nting style is taken from ancestral portraits’ and Buddhist paintings that survived during the Choson period (1392-1910). 14 Many Korean scrolls resemble Japanese-style mounting becau se of the large number of Japanese mounters working in Korea duri ng the Japanese occupation. Even the Korean word for mounting, janghwang was replaced by the Japanese word hy gu 15 Because the traditional Korean mounting style is so il lusive, no diagram of standardized elements and proportions is provided in t his guidebook. Chi-sun Park, Head Conservator of East Asian Paintings at Jung-Jae Conservation Center in Seoul summarizes the characteristi cs of traditional Korean scroll 14 Chi-sun Park, “Traditional Korean Mounting (janghw ang),” The Paper Conservator 30 (2006):117. 15 Ibid.

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31 mounting in her article titled, Traditional Korean Mounting (janghwang) the following is a brief summary of these characteristics. 16 Traditional Korean scrolls have a triangular hanging stave at the top, and a thick wooden roller at the bottom with wood or jade knobs. The shape and thickness of the staves is different from Jap an and China. Korean staves are more triangular in cross section. The metal hanging rings are also relatively larger a nd incorporate floral motifs. Hanging cords are round and finished with knotted tasse ls at both ends. 16 Ibid., 119.

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32 MATERIALS OF A HANGING SCROLL Introduction Paper, silk, pigments and ink, and binding agents are th e most common materials used to construct hanging scrolls. Each is discussed in greate r detail in the following sections. The combination of these materials and mountin g elements such as hanging cords and knobs results in the finished product of hanging scrolls. Different types of paper are used for various layers of a scroll depending on the type and size of the scroll. Silk can vary greatly in appearance and function as does the use of pigments and inks. Dyeing paper and producing images is achieved by ma nipulating pigments in inks using an assortment of techniques. Binding agents also va ry greatly in function by acting as an adhesive for the layers in the mounting sup port and as the adhesive for the pigments to adhere to each other and to attach to the support. Understanding the main materials that make up hanging scrolls paper, silk, pigments, inks, binding agents should influence decisions made with regards to handling and storage. For instance, understanding tha t the pigment layer of a painting is only bound to the paper or silk support by a small amo unt of organic adhesive should influence the decision to insert a paper sash under the tying cord and around the scroll to prevent tying the scroll too tight, which can result in abrasion of the pigment layer. Another instance of how knowledge of hanging scroll mate rials, specifically their fragile nature, can influence storage is that once deteriorati on of materials is identified, cautionary wording should be placed on all storage conta iners to prevent damage and handling.

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33 Paper Paper is a medium and a structural support in hanging scrolls. Many substances have been used to create paper throughout time. Pape r has been made from: bamboo, mulberry, hemp, corn and rice stalks, cotton, flax, silk, cocoons, reeds, moss, a kind of water fungus, and a variety and combination of other materials. 1 It can vary in color, size, thickness and tensile strength. Handmade paper usuall y made of paper mulberry, hemp or bamboo is commonly used in scrolls. Additives such as white clay, and gofun discussed later, can be added during the paper making pr ocess to provide opacity. 2 Metal foils and powders can be added to paper as a deco rative element. Common Paper Names Japanese traditional handmade paper made with bark fib ers and hemp is called washi Varieties of washi are: Mitsumata fine-grained soft paper Gampi fine, strong paper having a smooth lustrous surface 3 K zo paper mulberry, long fibers, very durable, light weight, good wet strength, most often used in scroll mounting as backing paper 4 Chinese traditional handmade paper is called t shi A very common type of Chinese handmade paper is called xuan Xuan paper is characterized by its smooth 1 Mai-mai Sze and Gai fl Wang, The Way of Chinese Painting: Its Ideas and Techniqu e; with Selections from the Seventeenth-Century Mustard Seed Garden Ma nual of Painting (New York: Random House), 70. 2 Yasuhiro Oka, “Advantages and Disadvantages of the Hanging Scroll Format from a Conservation Viewpoint,” in Art on Paper: Mounting and Housing ed Judith Rayner et al.(London: Archetype Publications Ltd in association with the British Mu seum, 2005), 168. 3 K jir Ikegami and Barbara B. Stephan. Japanese Bookbinding: Instructions from a Master Cr aftsman (New York: Weatherhill, 1990), 119. 4 Oka, “Advantages and Disadvantages of the Hanging Scroll Format from a Conservation Viewpoint,” 168.

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34 absorbent surface and is made of bamboo, mulberry, and rice straw and generally has shorter paper fibers. 5 Korean traditional handmade paper is called hanji literally meaning Korean paper. Dak is a common type of handmade paper made from paper mulberry. Silk Silk can be used for painting and mounting in hanging scrolls and is both practical and decorative. 6 Any fabric can be used as a mounting material but silk is the most common. 7 Produced from the cocoon of the silk worm, silk can be ma nipulated to create a variety of effects. In the past both fine and coarse -textured silks were used for paintings, and weaves varied from single threaded to d ouble-threaded, from loosely woven to closely woven. 8 The appearance and color of silk can vary through proce sses of dyeing, stenciling, embroidering, printing and pai nting. There are also elaborate silks such as gold brocade in which gold threads are woven in to silk and open-weave silk gauze embroidered with fine gilded paper strips. 9 5 Brigitte Yeh and Jesse Munn, “Dayflower An Evalua tion of Xuan Paper Permanence and Discussion of Historical Chinese Paper Materials,” in Scientific Research on the Pictorial Arts of Asia: Proceedings of the Second Forbes Symposium at the Freer Gallery of Art ed Paul Jett et al. (London: Archetype Publications in association with the Freer Gallery of Art, Smithsonian Institution, 2005), 67. 6 Sarah Burdett and Sydney Thomson, “Japanese Hangin g Scroll: A Deconstruction” in Works of Art on PaperBooks Documents and Photographs: Techniques and Conservation, Contributions to the Baltimore Congress, 2-6 September 2002 ed Vincent Daniels et al. (London: International Institute for Conservation, 2002), 33. As discussed by Sarah Burd ett and Sydney Thompson silk components can have a practical as well as decorative function. A thin silk can be used on the upper section of the backside of the scroll which provides protection fr om dirt and handling when the scroll is rolled. Als o the same silk can be used at the bottom corners of the reverse side to help strengthen the scroll at a poi nt of weakness. 7 Masako Koyano, Japanese Scroll Paintings: A Handbook of Mounting T echniques 29. 8 Jerome Silbergeld, Chinese Painting Style: Media, Methods, and Princip les of Form (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1982), 8. 9 Sarah Burdett and Sydney Thomson, “Japanese Hangin g Scroll: A Deconstruction,” 32.

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35 Binding Agents Binding agents are used to attach layers of the scroll t ogether and also to bind pigments to each other and to the support. 10 There are many different types of binding agents used for different purposes in varying degrees on different areas of scrolls. The most common type of binding agents are starch pastes, which have been used for hundreds of years, and are either made from flour, a mixture of gluten and starch, or from pure starch. 11 Most pastes used in the construction and mounting of scrol ls are characterized by their reversibility with the applicati on of water. 12 Common Binding Agents Wheat starch paste flexible, reversible paste with go od aging properties, made from wheat starch powder that is cooked with water and u sed to join the different layers of lining paper in the process of mounting and remounting. Aged wheat starch paste, furu-nori soft and reversible aged paste, used in a very diluted form. It is made from wheat starch powder that is cooked with water then aged for up to ten years and used to paste the second a nd consecutive layers of backing paper. It is characterized by good stability, rev ersibility and absence of color and flexibility. 13 Seaweed paste, funori is a product from seaweed found mostly in Japan tha t has been used as an adhesive and a consolidant for centurie s. 14 Uses for seaweed paste include sizing paper, consolidating flaking and pow dering paint, repairing 10 Kenzo Toshi and Hiromitsu Washizuka, Characteristics of Japanese Art that Condition its Care (Japan: Japanese Association of Museums, 1987), 95. 11 V.D. Daniels, “A Study of the Properties of Aged W heat Starch Paste (Furu-nori),” in The Conservation of Far Eastern Art: Preprints of the Contributions to the Kyoto Congress, 19-23 September 1988 ed John S. Mills et al. (London: International Institute fo r Conservation, 1988), 6. 12 K jir Ikegami and Barbara B. Stephan. Japanese Bookbinding: Instructions from a Master Cr aftsman 22. 13 Daniels, “A Study of the Properties of Aged Wheat Starch Paste (Furu-nori),” 5. 14 Joseph Swider and Martha Smith, “Funori: Overview of a 300-Year-Old Consolidant,” Journal of the American Institute for Conservation 44, 2 (2005):117.

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36 applied leafs (gold and silver) and mica, backing paint ings when mixed with animal glue. 15 Rice flour paste similar to wheat starch paste and can be used interchangeably, commonly used for joining parts of a scroll. 16 Animal hide glue, nikawa glue derived from animal hides, mostly used as a binder for pigments. 17 Animal hide glue sized with alum, dosa a sizing of diluted animal glue and alum. 18 When discussing binding agents it is important to mention alum, which is a sizing ingredient that hardens glue. Sizing is a surface coati ng applied to paper or silk making them stronger, less absorbent and more resistant to abra sion. 19 Different types of paper and silk are combined to create scrolls and both are absorb ent materials. In order to control the flow of ink and paint on the surface and the degree of penetration of paint into the support, paper and silk is usually sized with a solution of animal glue and alum, dosa producing a smoother, slightly water-resistant surface 20 Alum reduces the dimensional change of the support while the painting is being executed and when the finished painting is exposed to varying humidity. 21 It makes glue partially insoluble so it protects the painting from water action during mounti ng. 22 15 Joseph Swider and Martha Smith. “Funori: Overview of a 300-Year-Old Consolidant,” 122. 16 Masako Koyano. Japanese Scroll Paintings: A Handbook of Mounting T echniques (Washington: Foundation of the American Institute for Conservati on, 1979), 31. 17 Oka. “Advantages and Disadvantages of the Hanging Scroll Format from a Conservation Viewpoint,” 169. Nikawa is a solid form of protein extracted f rom the skin of rabbits, cattle or deer. 18 Koyano. Japanese Scroll Paintings: A Handbook of Mounting T echniques 32. 19 K jir Ikegami and Barbara B. Stephan. Japanese Bookbinding: Instructions from a Master Cr aftsman 121. 20 Silbergeld. Chinese Painting Style: Media, Methods, and Princip les of Form 9. 21 Pasnak, Ekaterina, Season Tse, and Alison Murray. “An Investigation in the Gelatin Sizing of Far Eastern Paintings on Silk.” In Scientific Research on the Pictorial Arts of Asia: Proceedings of the Second

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37 Pigments and Ink Pigments and inks are applied onto the paper and silk su rfaces with diluted amounts of binding agents and water to create the int ricate designs on scrolls. Most pigments and inks used on hanging scrolls are of mineral a nd vegetable origin. Mineral powder pigments were made by crushing colored stones such as malachite. 23 Ground mineral pigments could be mixed with a small amount o f nikawa to create a paintable mixture. 24 Many colored pigments and inks came in dried cake and stick form. Binding agents were mixed with the pigments and pressed into mo lds and dried. These sticks were ground with water to produce a solution that wa s used for painting. Later, animal and vegetable dyes and synthetic colors were introduced Some colored dyes were mixed with fine ground gofun then mixed to a thick paste with nikawa and then shaped into sticks and dried to form gouache watercolor. 25 Metal paints and foils have also been used in paintings. Japanese, Chinese and Korean pigments and inks are gener ally very similar with a few exceptions. An especially interesting and regional ly specific pigment in Asian paintings relates to the color white. Shell white, gofun is a special pigment specific to Japanese painting, consisting of calcium carbonate. 26 Shell white is made by Forbes Symposium at the Freer Gallery of Art edited by Paul Jett, John Winter, and Blythe McCa rthy. (London: Archetype Publications in association with the Freer Gallery of Art, Smithsonian Institution, 2005), 82. 22 Ibid. 23 Kenzo Toshi and Hiromitsu Washizuka, Characteristics of Japanese Art that Condition its Care 52. 24 Sandra Grantham, “Some Painting Techniques and Mat erials used in Japan and the Far East,” The Paper Conservator 30 (2006): 20. 25 Ibid. 26 Kenzo Toshi and Hiromitsu Washizuka, Characteristics of Japanese Art that Condition its Care 52.

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38 weathering oyster and clam shells and crushing them. Lead and clay whites were used in China. They were introduced to Japan, but by the l ate sixteenth early seventeenth century gofun replaced lead white almost entirely. 27 Unlike lead white, Gofun does not discolor and is not toxic. 28 Gofun can be mixed with other colorants and dyes to produce varying tints and shades. It is important to note that many pigments and dyes are commonly used throughout East Asian paintings, such as mala chite and cinnabar, but as many as 600 different pigments exist and can be used in combination with each other and in varying concentrations. 29 This makes identification of specific pigments or dyes extremely challenging, and this task should be carrie d out by a professional conservator. Common Pigments and Dyes– Mineral and Plant RedsCinnabar, red standard, vermillion, red ochre, red lead, safflower, madder, lac (purple-red), cochineal dye YellowsMineral yellow, reaglar, orpiment, yellow ochre, gamboge BluesAzurite, flat blue, layered blue, light blue granulated blue, indigo, Prussian blue, dayflower, ultramarine GreensMalachite, peacock green, verdigris, granulated green WhitesWhite chalk, white clay, lead white, shell whi te (gofun) BlackBlack paste, ink (made from soot or lamp-black pi gment) 27 Sandra Grantham, “Some Painting Techniques and Mat erials used in Japan and the Far East,” The Paper Conservator 30 (2006): 18. 28 Ibid. 29 Jennifer Giaccai and John Winter, “Chinese Paintin g Colors: History and Reality,” in Scientific Research on the Pictorial Arts of Asia: Proceedings of the S econd Forbes Symposium at the Freer Gallery of Art ed. Paul Jett et al. ( London: Archetype Publicatio ns in association with the Freer Gallery of Art, Smithsonian Institution, 2005), 99.

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39 Mica and Metal Paints Leaf and foilsmetal, gold and silver Metal powder paintspulverized gold and silver powd er Micaground mica, can give a similar appearance to silv er leaf 30 Silver could be imitated on Japanese prints and paint ings by tin 31 30 S.J. Duncan, V. Daniels and L. E. Fleming, “The Id entification of Metal Foils and Powders Used on Japanese Prints and Paintings,” Restaurator 11:4 (1990): 252. 31 Ibid.

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40 TYPES OF DETERIORATION AND INHERENT WEAKNESSES Introduction As discussed by Andrew Hare, “East Asian paintings are subje ct to three types of interrelated deterioration: chemical and biological d egradation dependent on the environment, and physical damage caused by use, neglect a nd sometimes, unfortunate restorations.” 1 These types of deterioration all manifest themselves i n the form of creases, cracks, tears, flaking, delamination and general w ear. The methods used to mount hanging scrolls may also affect their condition. Ma ny of the defects listed below can be in response to previous mounting and restoration techniques of the past. Creases, cracks, tears, flaking and delamination are interr elated types of damage. Creases lead to cracks; cracks lead to tears; creases, cracks and t ears can lead to flaking. Distortion and delamination can either cause t hese issues or can develop in response to them. All of these issues can be caused by po or handling, inadequate storage methods, poor quality materials, poor restorati ons, and environmental concerns. Examples of each of these condition issues are provided i n each section with a brief discussion on the possible causes of the condition issues. Bec ause these types of damage are interrelated the exact causes of these issues ca nnot be known. Several of the images of scrolls used to discuss condition issues in the f ollowing sections are in the Harn Museum’s collection, and conservation has been recomm ended by specialists. The condition of the scrolls is not a reflection of the care provided by the Harn Museum. 1 Hare, “Guidelines for the Care of East Asian Paint ings: Display, Storage and Handling,” 73.

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41 Creases and Cracks Creases and cracks are usually present in older hanging scrol ls and can be a result of a variety of interrelated issues including const ruction, wear, and materials. Creases and cracks caused by repetitive compression, curling, and too much adhesive are likely to lead to abrasion and serious ridges. As st ated earlier Japanese k zo paper has long fibers with good tensile strength. Chinese pape r has shorter fibers that can lead to easier creasing and breakage of the fibers. Onc e an area has fiber breakage and starts creasing, then all bending forces are concentra ted in these areas which will result in more severe creasing and cracks. 2 When a scroll is unrolled the backside of the scroll is compr essed and the inside layer is stretched. 3 Reverse compression also happens, so therefore when a scro ll is rolled, the front side, including the pigment layer, is compressed, and the backside is stretched. 4 This compression combined with the repetitive action of rolling and unrolling can cause the surface to break and weaken, developing cracks, creases and severe ridges. 5 When a scroll is kept rolled for a long time both the i nside and outer layer tend to stay somewhat fixed in a curled position. When a scroll i s stored for a long time the rolled shape becomes the natural shape of the scroll. 6 The degree of curling depends 2 Yoshiyuki Nishio, “Maintenance of East Asian Paint ings (Examination).” The Book and Paper Group Annual 12 (1993): n.p 3 Ibid. 4 Huan-Shen, Lin. “Preservation and Conservation of Traditional Antique Chinese Painting and Calligraphy Seen Through Observation and Examinatio n of Works of Art.” The Paper Conservator 30 (2006): 96. 5 Koyano, Japanese Scroll Paintings: A Handbook of Mounting T echniques 57. 6 Kenz Toishi, “The Scroll Painting,” Ars Orientalis 11 (1979): 20.

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42 on the thickness of the sheet, its elasticity and its rigid ity. 7 When the scroll becomes brittle, the external bending force required to unro ll the scroll breaks the sheet. Brittle and deformed scrolls are more likely to have breaks paral lel to the roller. Breaks in the scroll tend to occur where the curvature of the scroll is a t its largest. Hence, the lower parts of the scroll receive the most breaks. 8 Stiffness of a scroll from the adhesives used for mountin g is another cause of the fibers losing flexibility and breaking, resulting in cre ases and cracks. 9 Also the joins of different elements may be too hard, causing cracking of t he seams when a hanging scroll is rolled. 10 Excess wheat starch paste can make scrolls stiff. When layer s are especially thick, the inside and outside layers have diff erences in the curve when rolled, which causes separation and de-lamination of the support layers. Restorations and handling in general can cause visible d amage. Creases occur from the edges of reinforcement strips added in previo us restorations. 11 Vertical creases in the middle and upper parts of a hanging scroll can b e caused by tying the scroll too tightly or by simply gripping the scroll too tightly. 7 Kenzo Toshi and Hiromitsu Washizuka, Characteristics of Japanese Art that Condition its Care 105 8 Kenzo Toshi and Hiromitsu Washizuka, Characteristics of Japanese Art that Condition its Care 115. 9 Nishio, “Maintenance of East Asian Paintings (Exam ination),” n.p. 10 Lin, “Preservation and Conservation of Traditional Antique Chinese Painting and Calligraphy Seen Through Observation and Examination of Works of Art ,” 95. 11 Yoshiyuki Nishio and Ryo Nishiumi. “A Japanese Pai nting Strip Reinforcement Technique,” The Book and Paper Group Annual 4 (1985): n.p.

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43 Figure 3-1. This image shows a severe, large horizontal crack running the width of the scroll. This crack is fairly straight and could be the resul t of being fixed in a rolled position for a long time and then unrolled or from stiff adhesives causing breakage. Detail of Monkeys in a Mountain Landscape by Shin Yoonbok, Choson Dynasty (1392-1910), late 18th Century, In k and color on paper, Gift of General James A. Van Fleet, 1988.1.23, Samue l P. Harn Museum of Art. Photo credit Randy Batista Photography.

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44 Figure 3-2. This image shows two moderate horizontal cr acks. These cracks do not run the entire width of the scroll and could be a result o f poor handling or their proximity to the bottom of the scroll where the curvat ure is the greatest. Smaller irregular shaped creases are scattered throughou t the image which could be related to the larger cracks or poor handling. Detail of Soldiers in the Mountains by Shin Yoon-bok, Choson Dynasty (1392-1910), late 18th Century, Ink, color and gold on paper, Gift of Gener al James A. Van Fleet, 1988.1.24, Samuel P. Harn Museum of Art. Photo credit Randy Batista Photography.

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45 Figure 3-3. This image shows numerous cracks and creases ran ging in size and degree. Detail of Soldiers in the Mountains by Shin Yoon-bok, Choson Dynasty (1392-1910), late 18th Century, Ink, color and gold on paper, Gift of General James A. Van Fleet, 1988.1.24, Samuel P. Har n Museum of Art. Photo credit Randy Batista Photography.

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46 Figure 3-4. This image shows how numerous cracks and crease s can be concentrated in one area. Tears Hanging scrolls can vary greatly in length and width. B ecause of the weight of some scrolls, areas near the top stave and bottom roller are common areas for tears. If the roller is too heavy or has been hanging for too l ong tears may appear along the top stave (figure 3-5). 12 If a tear develops at the bottom roller, the contin ued stress can cause the tear to worsen and eventually the bottom rol ler could come almost completely disconnected (figure 3-7). 12 Xiangmei Gu, Yuan-li Hou and Valerie Gouet, “The T reatment of Chinese Portraits: An Introduction to Chinese Painting Conservation Technique,” The Book and Paper Group Annual 18(1999): 16.

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47 Figure 3-5. This image shows a severe tear located at t he top of the hanging scroll directly underneath the upper stave. This scroll may hav e been hung for too long or because of becoming brittle over time the pa per and silk layers have simply broken due to the applied force when being open ed and closed.

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48 Figure 3-6. This image shows a small tear on the backside of a scroll under the stave. This tear could have developed due to numerous reason s including: being hung for too long, the wooden stave warping, or embr ittlement of the paper and silk layers.

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49 Figure 3-7. This image shows a roller rod that has come almost completely disconnected from the mounting structure. This condition co uld have developed from a small tear near the rolling rod th at eventually worsened. The tear may have developed in response to the weig ht of the roller rod or because of improper mounting techniques. The cause of t his condition issue was never recorded, making it challenging to know exactly how the roller rod became partially disconnected, but it is possible that an initial tear was the cause. Flaking and Losses Flaking and losses on scrolls mainly affects the pigment l ayers. The pigment layers on Asian paintings are fragile due to the delica te nature of their construction and responsiveness to fluctuating temperature and humidity. The pigment layer on an Asian painting is very porous, with pigment grains imperfectl y covered by and mixed with a glue medium, leaving many minute air spaces in the lay er making it susceptible to deterioration. 13 Some pigments such as shell white, gofun are susceptible to flaking because of adhesive deterioration. As discussed by East Asian paper co nservator Sandra Grantham, in “Some Painting Techniques and Materials u sed in Japan and the Far East,” shell white was known to become whiter with age, and this was because the binder deteriorated, leaving more pigment particles e xposed to reflect light from the matte surface but at the same time, it became fragile a nd prone to powdering or flaking. 14 General deterioration of binding agents causes the a dhesive power to loosen and paint to flake off or become chalky. In addition to adhesive deterioration, pigment or pa int layers with animal binding mediums can often become stiff and less flexible. Then w hen the scroll is rolled the 13 Toishi, “The Scroll Painting,” 15. 14 Grantham, “Some Painting Techniques and Materials used in Japan and the Far East,” 19.

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50 paint layers do not curve as easily as the silk or paper su pport, resulting in flaking and losses. 15 Additionally, surface coatings applied during conserva tion and mounting such as heavy sizing and consolidation of flaking paint with a nimal gelatin on the surface of the paint can cause the surface to shrink and flake off. 16 Many types of deterioration such as creasing and cracks are interrelated, and should be considered when looking for causes of flaking an d losses in hanging scrolls. The same compression and tension that can cause creases and cra cks also causes related flaking of various degrees. 17 When the scroll is rolled, the pigment layers may be abraded when their surface comes in contact with the ba ckside of the scroll. This happens on the areas that are higher than the rest of the front surface, such as those areas with cracks and creases or where the scroll parts are j oined. 18 15 Nishio, “Maintenance of East Asian Paintings (exam ination),” n.p. 16 Ibid. 17 Lin, “Preservation and Conservation of Traditional Antique Chinese Painting and Calligraphy Seen Through Observation and Examination of Works of Art ,” 96. 18 Nishio, “‘Maintenance of East Asian Paintings (exa mination),” n.p.

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51 Figure 3-8. This image shows a small loss on the pigment layer of a hanging scroll. The loss is located along a horizontal crack. The loss is fairly rectangular in shape and may have developed in response to the crack. If th e crack was continued through the loss it would run through the center. Sm all pieces above and below the crack may have flaked off due to the repeate d action of opening and closing or because of stiff adhesives. Detail of Soldiers in the Mountains by Shin Yoon-bok, Choson Dynasty (1392-1910), late 18t h Century, Ink, color and gold on paper, Gift of General James A. Van Flee t, 1988.1.24, Samuel P. Harn Museum of Art. Photo credit Randy Batista Photogr aphy.

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52 Figure 3-9. The losses seen in this image are irregularl y shaped and vary in size and degree. Although there are mild cracks and creases through out the scroll, the losses are not located directly on them. These losses may h ave been a result of abrasion or deterioration of the binding agents or pigments. Detail of Monkeys in a Mountain Landscape by Shin Yoon-bok, Choson Dynasty (1392-1910), late 18th Century, Ink and color on pap er, Gift of General James A. Van Fleet, 1988.1.23, Samuel P. Harn Museum of Ar t. Photo credit Randy Batista Photography.

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53 Figure 3-10. This image shows small, irregular shaped lo sses near not only cracks and creases but also a large area of discoloration. These comb ined issues could indicate that this area has received conservation treatm ent in the past. Previous restoration techniques may be responsible for t he discoloration, embrittlement and related cracking and flaking of the p ainting. Detail of Monkeys in a Mountain Landscape by Shin Yoon-bok, Choson Dynasty (1392-1910), late 18th Century, Ink and color on pap er, Gift of General James A. Van Fleet, 1988.1.23, Samuel P. Harn Museum of Ar t. Photo credit Randy Batista Photography. Distortion In addition to physical distortion, such as curling caused by long-term storage in a rolled position, gravitational pulls and stresses durin g hanging can cause undulations and distortion in scrolls. The built in tension of the paper, silk and binding layers, added to a scroll that has taken on a fixed shape from being rolled may, cause it to appear slightly concave or convex when unrolled and displayed. 19 How a hanging scroll is assembled and constructed can have an impact on the level of distortion a scroll 19 Toishi, “The Scroll Painting,” 20.

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54 experiences throughout its lifetime. The improper plac ement of hanging cords and hanging fasteners can cause flexing to the upper wooden stave which can affect the tension running throughout the entire scroll. 20 Also, if the weight of the lower rod is too heavy, stretching and stress can take place. 21 If scrolls have been seriously affected by extended periods of hanging, when rerolled the parts of the scroll will be in uneven contact with each other and can possibly cause more damag e. In general all forms of distortion including warping, undulations, flexing and stresses can lead to cracks, tears and flaking. 22 Figure 3-11. This image shows a scroll viewed from the side when lying open on a table. The wavy undulations seen here may be related to any of the factors discussed above. 20 Lin, “Preservation and Conservation of Traditional Antique Chinese Painting and Calligraphy Seen Through Observation and Examination of Works of Art ,” 96. 21 Ibid. 22 Ibid.

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55 Figure 3-12. This image shows a large wavy undulation w here the painting is attached to the lower mounting structure. This distortion may be caused by the built-in tension of the layers and how the scroll was assembled. Stains and Discoloration Stains and discoloration can affect the painting and the mounting structure. Some of the organic components that make up paper, pigments and binders are susceptible to discoloration and deterioration over time. Combining these components causes complex interactions to take place that produce visible deterioration within the scroll. Backing paper and primary support layers can discolor from contact with malachite and azurite pigments, especially when the paper or silk suppo rt is acidic. 23 The yellow pigment gamboge is more likely to discolor in slightly a lkaline conditions. 24 The presence of alum in paintings can manifest itself throu gh discoloration and 23 Nishio, “Maintenance of East Asian Paintings (Exam ination),” n.p. 24 Grantham, “Some Painting Techniques and Materials used in Japan and the Far East,” 14.

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56 embrittlement of the support layer. 25 If too much alum is used, the pigment layer may exfoliate or white streaks or salt efflorescence may occur and colors can lose their brilliance. 26 More recently it has been accepted that alum promote s acidity, and its use is in decline. 27 Poor restorations can also result in areas of discol oration. Figure 3-13. This image shows a large circular area of d iscoloration, possibly the result of a poor restoration. Detail of Monkeys in a Mountain Landscape by Shin Yoon-bok, Choson Dynasty (1392-1910), late 18th Centur y, Ink and color on paper, Gift of General James A. Van Fleet, 1988.1.23 Samuel P. Harn Museum of Art. Photo credit Randy Batista Photography. 25 Ekaterina Pasnak, Season Tse, and Alison Murray. “An Investigation in the Gelatin Sizing of Far Eastern Paintings on Silk,” 82. 26 Ibid. 27 Sarah Burdett and Sydney Thomson, “Japanese Hangin g Scroll: A Deconstruction,” 34.

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57 Figure 3-14. This image shows the top of a hanging scrol l that is likely discolored from exposure to liquid. The tide line indicates that at som e point the scroll was exposed to water causing the stain. Inherent Weakness The two factors that contribute to a hanging scroll’s ove rall level of inherent weakness are the materials used and the methods of constr uction. The organic components of a hanging scroll discussed above, such as paper, silk and binding agents, are inherently weak due to their very nature, but the other non-organic components of a hanging scroll contribute to the overall level of weakness built into a scroll. Like any type of object, scrolls can have elements b reak, become loose or weaken over time and become detrimental to the object as a whole. Anything attached to the paper and silk elements such as hanging strings, me tal fasteners, knobs and wooden rods can become loose or unattached and can pote ntially cause more damage to the scroll. The metal loops inserted into the top rod that hold the hanging string must be securely attached so that they can support the weight o f the hanging scroll. 28 In addition, hanging strings can also become weak and must b e strong enough to support the scroll (figure 3-15). 29 If the metal loops or hanging strings are unable to support the 28 Nishio, “Maintenance of East Asian Paintings (exam ination),” n.p. 29 Ibid.

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58 scroll, the result can be a disastrous fall while on disp lay. Knobs can also break or become loose, which can cause unnecessary damage while rolli ng and unrolling (figure 3-16). 30 The wooden rods at the top and bottom of the scroll h ave a great effect on the overall structure and stability of a scroll. The wooden rods can warp if the wood is not correctly aged, and the grain of the wood must also be straight. 31 Also, if the diameter of the roller is small, damage can be caused by roll ing the scroll around such as small diameter. In all of the above elements, full breakage or separa tion is not always the case. These elements can become partially separated or loose, which can result in general distortion and stress being applied throughout the scroll structure. A slight distortion in any of the elements mentioned above can have a major impact on the hanging scroll. Figure 3-15. This image shows hanging strings that have become weak and torn apart. 30 Ibid. 31 Ibid.

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59 Figure 3-16. This image shows a hanging scroll with a br oken and detached knob.

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60 ENVIROMENTAL CONCERNS Maintaining a stable environment is absolutely necessar y for the preservation of scrolls. Extreme fluctuations in temperature, humidity and light levels will have disastrous effects on hanging scrolls. The organic and absorb ent materials that make up these fragile objects can easily be damaged through extended periods of display and exposure to unstable environments. Environmental moni toring and regulating periods of display is crucial for the care of hanging scrolls. Light Works on paper are highly sensitive to light energy in any spectrum, and this holds true for hanging scrolls. Light provides the energy to fuel destructive chemical reactions within paper that contribute to the deterioration o f the objects. 1 More specifically, light energy is absorbed by the chemical bonds in organic mol ecules within an object, thus initiating the sequence of chemical reactions that resu lt in degradation. All deleterious effects created by light are cumulative and irreversibl e. The three different types of light, ultraviolet, infrared, and visible, have varying effe cts on works on paper. Ultraviolet light is the shortest most energetic form o f radiation and thus is potentially the most dangerous. Ultraviolet radiatio n causes significant alteration to organic materials and must be eliminated entirely. Th e changes in paper caused by ultraviolet radiation often show up as physical damage such as chalking, crazing, cracking. Infrared light causes damage because the absorb ed energy heats up the surface of an object speeding up the damaging chemical p rocesses. Infrared radiation 1 National Park Service, “Museums Collections Enviro nment,” in Museum Handbook. 2007.

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61 also heats the air resulting in instability in relative humidity. 2 Visible light can be understood in terms of illuminance the amount of light falling on a unit area, measu red in footcandles or lux. 3 The amount of change that occurs within an object is dep endent on the nature of the object and the quantity and intensity of light fa lling on it. 4 Because hanging scrolls are mostly made up of organic materials they are parti cularly light sensitive. Light degrades the paper support on which the image is execute d, gradually breaking down the structure and strength of cellulose in the paper. 5 Long term exposure leads to embrittlement of silk and paper, causing stiffening of t he laminate mounting structures. 6 Light can cause paper and silk to fade, yellow, or dark en. Fading is related directly to the amount of light received (time multiplied by int ensity), but it is also influenced by wavelengths and other factors such as the humidity level and the nature of the substrate. 7 Different pigments and dyes used in paintings and mou ntings make them susceptible to rapid or uneven fading. 8 Even binding agents such as seaweed paste is 2 Alan Derbyshire, “A Proposed Practical Lighting Po licy for Works of Art on Paper at the V&A,” In ICOM Committee for Conservation, 12th Triennial Meeting, Lyons: Preprints 1 edited by Jonathan AshleySmith. (1999), 38-42. 3 May Cassar, Environmental Management: Guidelines for Museums an d Galleries (New York: Routledge, 1995), 70. 4 Jonathan Ashley-Smith, Risk Assessment for Object Conservation (Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann, 1999), 226. 5 Christine Mackay, “Works of art on Paper: Conserva tion of the Study Collection and the Role of a Facsimile," in The Victoria Memorial Hall, Callcutta: Conceptions, Collections Conservation ed. Philippa Vaughan (1997), 92. 6 Hare, “Guidelines for the Care of East Asian Paint ings: Display, Storage and Handling,” 74. 7 John S. Mills and Raymond White, T he Organic Chemistry of Museum Objects, Butterworth s series in Conservation and Museology (London: Boston: Butterworth's, 1987), 130. 8 Hare, “Guidelines for the Care of East Asian Paint ings: Display, Storage and Handling,” 74.

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62 shown to bleach more under extreme light conditions, becoming slightly more brittle yet still flexible. 9 Humidity Relative humidity can be defined as the proportion o f the amount of water vapor in a given quantity of air compared to the maximum amou nt of water vapor that the air could hold at that same temperature, expressed as a p ercentage. 10 Fluctuations in relative humidity will cause dimensional changes in an o bject. Hydroscopic materials, such as those that compose scrolls are extremely sensitive t o fluctuations in relative humidity. Dryness and high humidity can affect scrolls in similar ways such as causing cockling, distortion, and delamination. All layers of a hanging scroll are affected by humidity Extreme highs and lows in humidity levels will cause rapid stress in paper and silk that can result in strength loss and embrittlement. Brittle paper and silk are more su sceptible to mechanical damage such as breakage. The pigment layers of a painting exp and at different rates from the paper or silk support in high humidity. 11 Binding agents such as nikawa are vulnerable to microbiological attacks in high humidity and brittle ness in low humidity. 12 Additionally, moisture swells hardened wheat starch paste, and tempora rily loosens the adhesive power. 13 As discussed by Yoshiyuki Nishio, the front support laye r and reverse backing layer suffer from the disproportion in expansion and s hrinking when exposed to 9 Joseph Swider and Martha Smith, “Funori: Overview of a 300-Year-Old Consolidant,” 123. 10 Rebecca A. Buck and Jean Allman Gilmore. MRM5: Museum Registration Methods (Washington, DC: AAM Press, American Association of Museums, 2010), 288. 11 Nishio, “ ‘Maintenance of East Asian Paintings (ex amination),” n.p. 12 John Winter, ”Paints and Supports in Far Eastern P ictorial Arts,” The Paper Conservator 9 (1885), 26. 13 Nishio, “Maintenance of East Asian Paintings (exam ination),” n.p.

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63 fluctuating humidity. 14 The surface shrinks when dry, cracking the surface of the silk or paper support and causing it to lift up or separate f rom the backing paper layer. 15 Mold and fungi grow as a result of poor environmental conditions, especially high humidity. As discussed by Andrew Hare, moisture absorbed b y the mounting will further encourage foxing, mold growth, staining and delaminat ion of the mounting structure. 16 High humidity caused by weak and poor air circulation ca n result in damage, visible on the front and back of a hanging scroll as brown spots ref erred to as foxing (figure 4-1). As discussed by Xie Yulin and Chen Yuansheng, “Foxing on Backs of Chinese Paintings,” “foxing is a complex process and results from a series of reactions caused by moisture, air pollutants and fungal growth.” 17 Foxing usually appears after long periods of time, and paper affected by foxing becomes w eaker and friable. 18 14 Ibid. 15 Ibid. 16 Hare, “Guidelines for the Care of East Asian Paint ings: Display, Storage and Handling,” 74. 17 Xie Yulin and Chen Yuansheng, “Foxing on Backs of Chinese Paintings.” in Scientific Research on the Pictorial Arts of Asia: Proceedings of the Second F orbes Symposium at the Freer Gallery of Art ed. Paul Jett et al. ( London: Archetype Publications in ass ociation with the Freer Gallery of Art, Smithsonian Institution, 2005), 98. 18 Xie Yulin and Chen Yuansheng, “Foxing on Backs of Chinese Paintings,” 92.

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64 A B Figure 4-1. A) This image shows in full length a paint ing affected by foxing. B) This is detail that shows the numerous spots of foxing scattered t hroughout the scroll. Scholar in a Garden by Chang Sung-op, Choson Dynasty (1392-1910),

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65 late 19th Century, Ink and color on silk, Gift of Gene ral James A. Van Fleet, 1988.1.26, Samuel P. Harn Museum of Art. Photo credit Randy Batista Photography.

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66 STORAGE There are numerous ways to approach the storage of scroll s, ranging from a basic level of protection to a multilayered storage soluti on. Several factors should be considered when deciding upon a storage method for a scro ll. The size, shape, materials and the overall condition of the scroll should be taken into consideration. The decision should also be influenced by the existing storag e furniture, the availability of storage space and housing supplies. In addition, the desi red level of access to the scrolls should be considered and appropriate labeling te chniques should be utilized. Labeling the outside of storage containers is a small step that can greatly reduce unnecessary handling and facilitate organization. Fragi le objects in particular should have cautionary wording placed on labels. Labeling is a n essential step in the proper storage of scrolls. Scroll Storage Methods Below is a summary of methods that can be used when stor ing hanging scrolls in museum collections. A variety of these approaches and mate rials can be used interchangeably. Common preservation materials are me ntioned such as Ethafoam, Tyvek, Filmoplast and Volara, which are all brand n ames. 1 Other preservation materials can be used. 1 Ethafoam is the brand name of the Dow Chemical Co mpany for polyethylene microfoam which is inert. Tyvek is the brand name of Dupont for a barrier pr oduct made from high density polyethylene fibers. Filmoplast is the brand name of Neschen for acid a nd solvent-free tapes. Volara is the brand name of Sekisui Voltek for fin e-celled, irradiation crosslinked foam.

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67 Wrapping and Cushioning Simply lining shelves or drawers with a soft cushiony ma terial such as Volara and placing scrolls on them is an option. Ideally scrolls should be wrapped in a protective material such as unbleached cotton muslin, Tyvek or even aci d-free tissue or paper. As discussed by Andrew Hare, “when making a wrapping cloth, sizing the square of the cloth diagonally up the scroll will require less materia l and allow for easier handling and compact storage.” 2 Cotton muslin can be substituted for acid-free pape r or Tyvek. 3 Wrapping the scrolls protects them from soil and dust, an d the wrapping material can easily be replaced if needed. Identifying numbers can be easily attached to the wrappers (figure 5-1). Along the same lines of providi ng protection to scrolls by wrapping them, custom bags can be made of Tyvek or musli n. The bag is cut and sewn to the shape of the object and is then tied with a cor d with the label attached to it. 4 Whether the storage method uses wrappers or bags, or p laces scrolls on shelves or in drawers, identifying information for the scroll s should be placed near the storage location to reduce handling. Providing a simple print out from the database or even a handwritten list with identifying numbers will minimi ze handling when looking for a specific object (figure 5-2). Although this storage metho d provides a level of protection and accessibility, the scroll is not fully supported and w eight is not distributed evenly. This storage method can be enhanced by incorporating f oam blocks to support the knobs and distribute weight more evenly throughout the scroll. 2 Hare, “Guidelines for the Care of East Asian Paint ings: Display, Storage and Handling,” 80. 3 Ibid. 4 Birthe Christensen, Joanna M. Kosek and Judith Ray ner. Art on Paper: Mounting and Housing (London: Archetype Publications in association with the Brit ish Museum, 2005), 180.

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68 Figure 5-1. This image shows a scroll that has been wrapp ed in unbleached cotton muslin with the accession number written on the outside of the wrapper Figure 5-2. This image shows a sheet with identifying i nformation placed in a drawer with scrolls to minimize handling.

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69 Figure 5-3. This image shows a scroll that is stored using minimal preservation techniques. This scroll has been wrapped in tissue and acidfree paper and tied closed with twill tape and is simply placed on ope n shelving. Acid-Free Archival Boxes Placing scrolls in acid-free archival boxes protects scrolls fr om soil, dust, and light and allows for easy handling. The use of rigid boxes al so allows for boxes to be stacked. Boxes can be purchased in a variety of sizes and t ypes and can have clamshell lids, overlapping lids and drop down sides. Box es can be purchased prescored and cut for easy assembling. Pre-scored and cut bo xes have the advantage that they can be assembled without the use of any adhesives. B oxes can also be purchased assembled with metal edges for structural reinforcement ( figure 5-4). Some prefabricated boxes have slots to support the knobs of han ging scrolls so that the whole scroll “floats” within the box. Custom boxes can also be m ade in-house using archival materials. The Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sa ckler Gallery, Smithsonian

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70 Institution, in Washington D.C., provides an excellent PDF on their website that adapts useful features of traditional wooden scroll boxes to ma ke storage boxes out of acid-free corrugated board blanks. 1 The interior of any box can be enhanced by using archiv al materials to support the scroll. A simple U-shaped sheet of Volara placed inside t he box can cradle a scroll. Scrolls that are wrapped in a protective material can b e placed in boxes along with a cord that helps lift the scroll in and out (figure 5-5) Ethafoam blocks can be cut to shape to act as cradles for the knobs, mimicking the cradles found in traditional wooden storage boxes. A B Figure 5-4. These images show prefabricated, metal-edg e acid-free boxes. 1 http://www.asia.si.edu/research/dcsr/eapcs.asp

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71 A B Figure 5-5. A) A scroll wrapped in unbleached cotton mu slin and stored in archival box with a cord to help lift the scroll in and out. B) Scro ll being picked up by cord. Figure 5-6. This image shows a collection of hanging scrol ls housed in standard-sized archival boxes stored on open shelving, allowing them t o be safely stacked.

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72 Steps to Enhance the Interior of a Scroll box One method to enhance the interior of a scroll box ut ilizes Ethafoam, Tyvek, Filmoplast and tissue. The images below show the interio r support for a premade scroll box created in-house (figure 5-7 and 5-8). When housin g scrolls it is important to choose or create a box that can comfortably accommodate t he length and diameter of the scroll. Figure 5-7. Figure 5-8.

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73 1. Line the bottom of an archival box with tissue. 2. Cut two Ethafoam blocks to fit snuggly into each en d of the scroll box. 3. Cut channels slightly larger than the size of the ha nging scroll knobs in the sides of the Ethafoam blocks. Cut the channel for the scrol l bar slightly off center to accommodate the semi cylindrical bar at the to p and to make the scroll lay in the center in the box. 4. Cover the Ethafoam blocks with Tyvek and use Filmopla st tape to secure the Tyvek in place. 5. Wedge the wrapped Ethafoam blocks into the corners of the box. 6. Wrap scroll in a tissue or paper.

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74 7. Gently place scroll inside box with knobs resting securel y on wrapped Ethafoam blocks. 8. Place identifying label with image on outside of t he box at both ends and on sides. Original Wooden Boxes Utilizing the existing wooden storage boxes that accompa ny a scroll is of course an option for storage. It is general museum practice to avoid using any wood product in storage because of harmful off-gassing. The benefits a nd drawbacks of using these boxes should be considered before adopting this method f or storage. If the original box is in good, stable condition, the scroll can simply be st ored in it and placed on a shelf or in a cabinet. This method of storage can be taken one s tep further by placing the wood storage boxes in archival boxes (figure 5-9 and 5-10). Placing a box inside a box may seem redundant but it has advantages. Placing wood stor age boxes inside standard sized archival boxes can allow for identifying labels to be placed on the outside of containers without causing any damage to the scroll box. Another benefit of using standard size boxes is that they can be safely stacked. Becaus e the original wooden Chinese A Birthday Celebration Qing Dynasty (16441911), 18th Century Ink and color on silk 1999.9 Caution! Extremely Fragile Pigment Layer Flaking Open flat on a table

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75 scroll boxes in a collection will likely not all be the same size, tissue or foam blocks can be used to fill up extra space and secure the box inside the archival box. Figure 5-9

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76 Figure 5-10 Freer Sackler Method -Multi-layered Housing System 2 Cushioning and boxing scrolls are great preservation ste ps because of the support and protection provided. The Freer Gallery of Art a nd Arthur M. Sackler Gallery, Smithsonian Institution, in Washington D.C., promote s optimal storage by utilizing a multi-layered housing system. Discussed in great detail by Andrew Hare in “Guidelines for the Care of East Asian Paintings: Display, Storage and Handling”, the Freer Sackler Galleries use passive micro-climates to augment modern cli mate control. Layer 1Wrap each object in unbleached cotton muslin as an initial protective layer. Layer 2The wrapped scrolls can be placed as is in draw ers or placed in boxes. Layer 3-Scroll is then placed in closed storage boxes to create an initial microclimate. The labeled boxes are then placed within cases, drawers or on shelves. Layer 4Cases are in a closed climate controlled storag e room. 2 Hare, “Guidelines for the Care of East Asian Paint ings: Display, Storage and Handling,” 73.

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77 The Freer and Sackler Galleries storage facilities have a dopted this system to suit the needs of particular scrolls. Some scrolls are stored in their original wooden boxes on shelves, while others are simply wrapped in an initial protective layer and placed in drawers. Scrolls are always stored in multiple layers of protection and they always have identifying information readily available to reduce handling Figure 5-11. This image shows scrolls wrapped in an initi al protective layer and placed inside a large drawer in the Freer and Sackler Galleri es’ art storage facility in Washington D.C.

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78 Figure 5-12. This image shows scrolls wrapped in an initi al protective layer and placed inside an archival box and placed within a large drawe r at the Freer and Sackler Galleries’ art storage facility in Washington D .C. Scroll Storage Tips No matter what method is used to store scrolls, utilizing a protective paper sash when the scroll is rolled up will benefit the scroll. Wi thout the sash, the outer layer of covering silk can easily be damaged by mishandling or by se curing the tying cord too

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79 tightly at the middle of the scroll (figure 5-13). 3 As discussed by Andrew Hare, “repeated handling in this area weakens the outer laye r of the scroll causing successive layers of the mounting inside to crease.” 4 Utilizing a protective paper sash in the center of the scroll that goes under the hanging cords, tucks un der the upper scroll bar and wraps around the scroll will help prevent damage (figu re 5-14). Mulberry paper is recommended but acid-free paper can also be used. Figure 5-13. This image shows the outer layer of silk th at has been worn and frayed from repeated handling and tying of the scroll withou t a paper sash. 3 Ibid., 80. 4 Ibid.

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80 Figure 5-14. This image shows a paper sash wrapped arou nd a hanging scroll. Paper sashes are a safe and inexpensive addition to sto rage in any situation. Another addition that can be considered but can also be very costly is the use of a futomaki. A futomaki is a wood roller that increases the diameter of a scroll reducing the stress caused when rolling and unrolling. 5 As discussed earlier, when a scroll has a particularly small diameter roller rod, creases and cra cks are more likely to occur because the scroll is rolled around such a small diameter Lateral cracking of the scroll is connected intimately with the curvature on rolling, so it is useful to make the curvature less. 6 In order to prevent further creases and cracking the u se of a futomaki can be incorporated into storage. A futomaki looks like circular rod generally the width o f the scroll that has been cut in half and hinged. Usually made out of seasoned paul ownia wood, the futomaki has a groove cut on the inside that holds the roller at the bottom of the scroll (figure 5-15 and 5 Simon Fluery, “Don’t Throw Away the Box,” In Art o n Paper: Mounting and Housing, edited by Judith Rayner et al. (London: Archetype Publications in As sociation with the British Museum, 2005), 172. 6 Toishi, “The Scroll Painting,” 23.

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81 5-16). Rolling the scroll around a larger diameter mi nimizes stress and reduces creases and cracking. To be efficient, the futomaki should be about double the size of the diameter of the roller.” 7 A more inexpensive version of a futomaki can be made by cutting a circular channel the size of the roller rod in to a circular foam rod (figure 5-17 and 5-18). The foam rod can be covered with a stretchy unbleached cotton fabric such as stockinette (figure 5-19). Figure 5-15. This image is a side view of a scroll wrap ped around a wooden futomaki The dark wood is the hanging scroll knob 7 Yoshiyuki Nishio and Ryo Nishiumi, “A Japanese Pai nting Strip Reinforcement Technique,” 9.

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82 Figure 5-16. This image shows a scroll wrapped around a wooden futomaki Figure 5-17. This image is a side view of a scroll wrap ped around a futomaki made out of foam and stockinette.

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83 Figure 5-18. This image shows a scroll wrapped around a futomaki made out of foam and stockinette. Figure 5-19. This image shows the circular channel cut i nto a foam road to make an inexpensive futomaki The material covering the foam is cotton stockinette.

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84 Another way to enhance the storage of scrolls is to uti lize tags made out of soft materials. Avoid attaching anything that is too rigid or has sharp edges, such as thick cardstock tags, that may scratch or harm the scroll. Tags shoul d be made out of softer materials such as Tyvek; identifying numbers can be writte n on these tags with archival quality pens. If scrolls are stored in containers such as bo xes, identifying information including photographs can be placed on the outside.

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85 WOODEN STORAGE BOXES AND TEXTILE WRAPPERS Often scrolls will have their own custom made wooden stor age boxes and textile wrappers. These components also have storage needs that must be considered. They can provide important historical information about the scrolls. Inscriptions, signatures and auction stickers are part of the scrolls’ provenance and appropriate steps should be taken to care for these objects. Wooden Boxes Wooden scroll boxes can vary in shape, size and material and are excellent buffers against fluctuating atmospheric conditions. It is common for a scroll to have nested wooden boxes with an outer lacquer box or just a single wood box. Lids can slide open or be fully lifted off and removed. Boxe s usually have ‘U’-shaped supports at both ends of the box to support the knobs (figure 6-1). Boxes can also be lined with padding and silk. Wooden boxes can also be made to hold several scrolls at once that are part of a series (figure 6-2). Usually wooden boxe s are incredibly well-crafted and can be considered works of art themselves. Boxes are often made of paulownia wood, which is a soft and lightweight wood but they can also be made of harder woods such as Japanese ced ar, ebony and rosewood or other non-resinous woods. The pieces of the wood can be joined together using hardened bamboo nails and natural glue and butt join ts (figure 6-3). 1 Paulownia wood and other porous woods are highly responsive to changes i n temperature and humidity which allows them to swell and create tight seals. 2 As discussed by Simon Fleury in, “Don’t Throw Away the Box,” when the lid of a wellmade box is shut, it pushes air from 1 Koyano, Japanese Scroll Paintings: A Handbook of Mounting T echniques 93. 2 Kenzo Toshi and Hiromitsu Washizuka, Characteristics of Japanese Art that Condition its Care 2.

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86 the interior of the box outwards, resulting in an air tight seal. 3 The tight seal essentially creates a microclimate, acting as a buffer against atmosph eric change. 4 The outer lacquer box functions as a moisture barrier and the plai n inner box acts as a humidity buffer. 5 Paulownia wood also has other beneficial storage qu alities such as being light weight, absorbing impact, not being prone to cracking or deformation, and not easily burned. 6 Many of the woods used in making boxes are aromatic ti mbers that possess worm-resistant qualities. 7 By the time scrolls make it into museum collections their o riginal wooden boxes may no longer accompany the scrolls or the condition of the box can be detrimental to the scroll. Broken pieces of wood or ill-fitting lids ca n potentially cause damage to the scroll stored within. Hazardous boxes should always be kept but should be stored separately from the scroll. The changing nature of the scrolls themselves can also det ermine whether the scrolls should still be stored in their original wooden boxes. A scroll can expand in diameter and no longer fit into its original box. I n such a case; it should not be forced to do so. 8 A sliding lid can catch the edge of a scroll that has e xpanded, thus causing 3 Fleury, “Don’t Throw Away the Box,” 173. 4 Kenzo Toshi and Hiromitsu Washizuka, Characteristics of Japanese Art that Condition its Care 2. 5 Toishi, “The Scroll Painting,” 19. 6 Fleury, “Don’t Throw Away the Box,” 173. 7 Zhou Bao Zhong, “The Preservation of Ancient Chine se Paper,” in The Conservation of Far Eastern Art: Preprints of the Contributions to the Kyoto Congres s, 19-23 September 1988 ed. John S. Mills et al. (London: International Institute for Conservation, 1988), 20. 8 Hare, “Guidelines for the Care of East Asian Paint ings: Display, Storage and Handling,” 79.

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87 damage. If a scroll no longer fits comfortably within a box, then the scroll and the box should be stored separately. Wooden boxes provide the benefit of microclimates and p rotection while at the same time having the negative effect of off-gassing. A s an authority on the storage of Asian art, Andrew Hare recommends “limiting the additi on of new wooden storage boxes, using acid-free materials for new housing, and r emoving or encapsulating potentially harmful materials.” 9 This method strikes a balance between traditional and modern storage practices. When storing wooden storage boxes with writing on the lids, with or without scrolls in them, it is recommended to wrap an acid-free sheet o f paper around the lid to protect the writing from abrasion (figure 6-5 and figure 6-6 ). This is especially necessary for nested boxes that are constantly in contact with the surfa ce of another box. The repeated action of removing the inner box overtime w ill wear away at the historical inscriptions and writings. 9 Ibid., 78.

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88 Figure 6-1. This image shows the U-shaped supports inside a wooden scroll box. Figure 6-2. This image shows a wooden scroll box made to hold a pair of scrolls.

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89 Figure 6-3. This image shows the hardened bamboo nails used to construct a wooden scroll box. Figure 6-4. This image shows the lid of a wooden scroll box with inscriptions written on the top.

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90 Figure 6-5. This image shows an inner wooden box with acid-free paper wrapped around the lid to protect the writing on it. The in ner wooden box is stored inside the larger, outer wooden box. The nested boxes are stored inside the labeled archival box. Figure 6-6. This image shows the inner wooden box slid partially inside the larger outer wooden box. The inner wooden box has acid-free paper wrapped around the lid to protect the writing on top from abrasion.

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91 Textile Wrappers, Bags and Sleeves Just as scrolls often come in wooden boxes, they may also com e with textile wrappers, bags and sleeves. These components are frequent ly made with elaborate silk, and like the wooden boxes they can have historical si gnificance. Artists’ names and titles can be recorded on the inside of wrappers, bags an d sleeves. Over time wrappers and sleeves can become tight and damage the scrolls being placed inside. If a scroll no longer fits comfortably within any of these component s, the scroll and the bag should be stored separately. Like scrolls, these objects can also be damaged from repeated handling. Any of these components can be labeled and st ored separately. A three-part numbering system is often used for accessioned items. Explanation of the three-part numbering system 10 The first number indicates the year the object was accessio ned. Example: 2011. The second number indicates the sequence of transaction by which the object/s were formally taken into the collection. Example: 2011 .6 If there is more than one object in the transaction a third number is needed. The third number is assigned to each number in the group. E xample: 2011.6.3 Components such as nested wooden storage boxes, textile wrappers, bags and sleeves can be assigned the three-part number and a letter can be added to the end of the number to distinguish the individual items. For example the number for a hanging scroll with a te xtile wrapper and a silk bag would be: Scroll 2011.6.3 Textile wrapper – 2011.6.3a Silk bag – 2011.6.3b 10 Rebecca Buck, “Numbering,” in Museum Registration Methods 5th Edition ed. Rebecca A. Buck et al. (Washington D.C.: American Association of Museums, 2010), 207. Explanation of the three-part numbering system taken from this chapter.

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92 HOW TO TIE A SCROLL The steps outlined below demonstrate how to tie a hang ing scroll that has one long tying cord, like most hanging scrolls from Japan and Korea. As mentioned earlier some hanging scrolls have two short tying cords which are t ied into a simple bow. Clean, cotton gloves should be worn when handling han ging scrolls. Gloves should only be removed if they are restricting the handler from sa fely handling the scroll. 1. Insert acid-free paper under scroll bar 2. Wrap paper sash around entire scroll

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93 3. Pull scroll tie slightly to the left 4. Wrap scroll tie around scroll while keeping it flat

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94 5. Leave enough excess scroll tie to make a loop 6. Gently lift hanger 7. Tuck scroll tie under and make a flat loop

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95 8. Pull to make loop and remaining scroll tie even in length 9. Tuck and secure loop under left side of hanger *Scroll tie can be wrapped as many times as needed as lon g as the loop can be secured under the hanger

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96 LIST OF REFERENCES Ashley-Smith, Jonathan. Risk Assessment for Object Conservation Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann, 1999. Buck, Rebecca A. and Jean Allman Gilmore. MRM5: Museum Registration Methods Washington, DC: AAM Press, American Association of Museums 2010. Burdett, Sarah and Sydney Thomson. “Japanese Hanging S croll: A Deconstruction.” in Works of Art on PaperBooks Documents and Photographs: T echniques and Conservation, Contributions to the Baltimore Congress, 2 -6 September 2002 edited by Vincent Daniels, Alan Donnithorne and Perry Smith, 32-35. London: International Institute for Conservation, 2002. Cassar, May. Environmental Management: Guidelines for Museums and Galleries New York: Routledge, 1995. Christensen, Birthe, Joanna M. Kosek, and Judith Rayner. Art on Paper: Mounting and Housing London: Archetype Publications in association with the British Museum, 2005. Connors, Sandra, Paul M. Whitmore, Roger S. Keyes, an d Elizabeth I. Coombs. “The Identification and Light Sensitivity of Japanese Woodb lock Print Colorants: The Impact on Art History and Preservation.” In Scientific Research on the Pictorial Arts of Asia: Proceedings of the Second Forbes Symposium at the Freer Gallery of Art edited by Paul Jett, John Winter, and Blythe McCar thy, 35-42. London: Archetype Publications in association with the Freer Gal lery of Art, Smithsonian Institution, 2005. Daniels, V.D. “A Study of the Properties of Aged Whea t Starch Paste (Furu-nori).” In The Conservation of Far Eastern Art: Preprints of the Contributions to the Kyoto Congress, 19-23 September 1988 edited by John S. Mills, Perry Smith and Kazuo Yamasaki, 5-10. London: International Institute for Conservation, 1988. Derbyshire, Alan. “A Proposed Practical Lighting Poli cy for Works of Art on Paper at the V&A,” In ICOM Committee for Conservation, 12 th Triennial Meeting, Lyons: Preprints 1, edited by Jonathan Ashley-Smith, 38-42.1999. Duncan, S.J, V. Daniels and L. E. Fleming. “The Identi fication of Metal Foils and Powders Used on Japanese Prints and Paintings.” Restaurator 11:4 (1990): 244253. Egami, Yasushi. “Materials for ‘Gold’ and ‘Silver’ Tin ts in Pictorial Ornamentation of Twelth-Century Japanese Manuscripts.” In Scientific Research on the Pictorial Arts of Asia: Proceedings of the Second Forbes Symposium at the Freer Gallery of Art edited by Paul Jett, John Winter, and Blythe McCar thy, 10-15. London: Archetype Publications in association with the Freer Gal lery of Art, Smithsonian Institution, 2005.

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97 Fiske, Betty. “Conservation of Japanese Woodblock Prints: Display, Storage and Treatment.” Impressions: Official Publication of the Ukiyo-e Society of America 28 (2006/2007): 60-75. Freer Gallery of Art and the Arthur M. Sackler Galler y, “Asian Art Connections: The East Asian Conservation Studio.” Curriculum Resource, pg. 8. http://www.asia.si.edu/research/dcsr/downloads/ConnectionsFa ll2004.pdf Giaccai, Jennifer and John Winter. “Chinese Painting C olors: History and Reality.” In Scientific Research on the Pictorial Arts of Asia: Procee dings of the Second Forbes Symposium at the Freer Gallery of Art edited by Paul Jett, John Winter, and Blythe McCarthy, 99-106. London: Archetype Publica tions in association with the Freer Gallery of Art, Smithsonian Institution, 20 05. Grantham, Sandra. “Japanese Painted Paper Screens: Manu facturing Materials and Painting Techniques” in Works of Art on PaperBooks Documents and Photographs: Techniques and Conservation, Contributions t o the Baltimore Congress, 2-6 September 2002 edited by Vincent Daniels, Alan Donnithorne and Perry Smith, 83-87. London: International Insti tute for Conservation, 2002. _____. “Some Painting Techniques and Materials used in Japan and the Far East.” The Paper Conservator 30 (2006): 11-24. Hare, Andrew. “Guidelines for the Care of East Asian P aintings: Display, Storage and Handling.” The Paper Conservator 30 (2006): 73-97. Helman-Wazny, Agnieszka. “Recent Research on Historic Pape r Components in East Asian Art Objects.” In Scientific Research on the Pictorial Arts of Asia: Proceedings of the Second Forbes Symposium at the Freer G allery of Art edited by Paul Jett, John Winter, and Blythe McCarthy, 58-63. London: Archetype Publications in association with the Freer Gallery of Ar t, Smithsonian Institution, 2005. Ikegami, K jir and Barbara B. Stephan. Japanese Bookbinding: Instructions from a Master Craftsman New York: Weatherhill, 1990. Keyes, Keiko Mizushima. “Japanese Print ConservationAn Overview.” In The Conservation of Far Eastern Art: Preprints of the Contr ibutions to the Kyoto Congress, 19-23 September 1988 edited by John S. Mills, Perry Smith and Kazuo Yamasaki, 30-36. London: International Institut e for Conservation, 1988. Koyano, Masako. Japanese Scroll Paintings: A Handbook of Mounting Techn iques Washington: Foundation of the American Institute for Conservation, 1979. Lee, Valerie, Xiangmei Gu and Yuan-li Hou. “The Tre atment of Chinese Portraits: An Introduction to Chinese Painting Conservation Techniqu e.” The Book and Paper Group Annual 42,3 (2003): 463-477.

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98 Library of Congress Preservation. “Care, Handling and Storage of Asian Style Bindings.” Last modified October 18, 2006. http://www.loc.gov/preserv/care/Asianbind.html Lin, Huan-Shen. “Preservation and Conservation of T raditional Antique Chinese Painting and Calligraphy Seen Through Observation a nd Examination of Works of Art.” The Paper Conservator 30 (2006): 93-97. Mackay, Christine. “Works of art on Paper: Conservation o f the Study Collection and the Role of a Facsimile," in The Victoria Memorial Hall, Callcutta: Conceptions, Collections Conservation edited by Philippa Vaughan, 91-100, Mumbai: nnr 1997. Martinique, Edward. Chinese Traditional Bookbinding: A Study of its Evolution and Techniques San Francisco: Chinese Materials Center, 1983. Masuda, Katsuhik. “Developments in Paper Conservation in Japan.” The Paper Conservator 25 (2001): 33-35. Minte, Robert. “Conservation of Asian Art A Select Bibliography of Western Language Publications. “ The Paper Conservator 30 (2006): 123-131. National Park Service. “ NPS Museum Handbook, Part I: Chapter 4, Museums Collections Environment. 2007. Sept. 2011. Nishio, Yoshiyuki, and Ryo Nishiumi. “A Japanese Painting Strip Reinforcement Technique.” The Book and Paper Group Annual 4 (1985): n.p. ______. “Maintenance of East Asian Paintings (Examina tion).” The Book and Paper Group Annual 12 (1993): n.p. Oddy, Andrew, et al. "Conservation and Restoration." In Grove Art Online. Oxford Art Online http://www.oxfordartonline.com/subscriber/article/gr ove/art/T019099 (accessed November 2, 2011) Oka, Yasuhiro. “Advantages and Disadvantages of the Hang ing Scroll Format from a Conservation Viewpoint.” In Art on Paper: Mounting and Housing edited by Judith Rayner, Joanna M. Kosek, and Birthe Christensen, 167-174. London: Archetype Publications Ltd in association with the Brit ish Museum, 2005. Park, Chi-sun. “Traditional Korean Mounting (janghwan g).” The Paper Conservator 30 (2006): 115-122.

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99 Pasnak, Ekaterina, Season Tse, and Alison Murray. “An Investigation in the Gelatin Sizing of Far Eastern Paintings on Silk.” In Scientific Research on the Pictorial Arts of Asia: Proceedings of the Second Forbes Symposium at the Freer Gallery of Art edited by Paul Jett, John Winter, and Blythe McCar thy, 81-91. London: Archetype Publications in association with the Freer Gal lery of Art, Smithsonian Institution, 2005. Patkus, Beth. “Protection from Light Damage,” Northeast Document Conservation Center. 2007. Preservation Leaflet. Aug. 2011 Sasaki, Shiho, and Elizabeth Coombs. “Dayflower Blue: I ts Appearance and Lightfastness in Traditional Japanese Prints.” In Scientific Research on the Pictorial Arts of Asia: Proceedings of the Second Forbes S ymposium at the Freer Gallery of Art edited by Paul Jett, John Winter, and Blythe McCart hy, 48-57. London: Archetype Publications in association with the Fr eer Gallery of Art, Smithsonian Institution, 2005. _____ and Pauline Webber. “A Study of Dayflower Blu e Used in Ukiyo-e Prints” in Works of Art on PaperBooks Documents and Photographs: T echniques and Conservation, Contributions to the Baltimore Congress, 2 -6 September 2002 edited by Vincent Daniels, Alan Donnithorne and Perry Smith, 185-188. London: International Institute for Conservation, 2002. Silbergeld, Jerome. Chinese Painting Style: Media, Methods, and Principles o f Form Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1982. Swider, Joseph, and Martha Smith. “Funori: Overview o f a 300-Year-Old Consolidant.” In Journal of the American Institute for Conservation 44, 2 (2005): 117-126. Sze, Mai-mai, and Gai fl Wang. The Way of Chinese Painting, its Ideas and Technique; with Selections from the Seventeenth-Century Mustard Se ed Garden Manual of Painting New York: Random House, 1959. Thomson, Garry. The Museum Environment, London: Butterw orths, in association with the International Institute for Conservation of Histori c and Artistic Works, 1986. Toishi, Kenz “The Scroll Painting.” Ars Orientalis 11 (1979): 15-25. Toishi, Kenz and Hiromitsu Washizuka. Characteristics of Japanese Art that Condition its Care Japan: Japanese Association of Museums, 1987. Usami, Naohachi. “The Construction and Repair of Japane se Folding Screens (By bu). In The Conservation of Far Eastern Art: Preprints of the Contributions to the Kyoto Congress, 19-23 September 1988 edited by John S. Mills, Perry Smith and Kazuo Yamasaki, 59-63. London: International Insti tute for Conservation, 1988.

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100 Winter, John. “Paints and Supports in Far Eastern Pict orial Arts.” The Paper Conservator 9 (1885): 24-31. Yeh, Brigitte and Jesse Munn. “Dayflower an Evaluatio n of Xuan Paper Permanence and Discussion of Historical Chinese Paper Materials.” In Scientific Research on the Pictorial Arts of Asia: Proceedings of the Second Fo rbes Symposium at the Freer Gallery of Art edited by Paul Jett, John Winter, and Blythe McCart hy, 6574. London: Archetype Publications in association with th e Freer Gallery of Art, Smithsonian Institution, 2005. Yu, Fei'an, Amy McNair, and Jerome Silbergeld. Chinese Painting Colors: Studies on their Preparation and Application in Traditional and Modern Times Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1988. Yulin, Xie, and Chen Yuansheng. “Foxing on Backs of Ch inese Paintings.” In Scientific Research on the Pictorial Arts of Asia: Proceedings of the Second Forbes Symposium at the Freer Gallery of Art edited by Paul Jett, John Winter, and Blythe McCarthy, 92-98. London: Archetype Publications in association with the Freer Gallery of Art, Smithsonian Institution, 2005. Zhong, Zhou Bao, “The Preservation of Ancient Chinese Paper.” In The Conservation of Far Eastern Art: Preprints of the Contributions to the Kyoto Congress, 19-23 September 1988 edited by John S. Mills, Perry Smith and Kazuo Yama saki, 1921. London: International Institute for Conservation 1988.

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101 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Sarah Jean Smith was born on November 10, 1983 in St uart, Florida. She graduated with a Bachelors of Arts degree in Art Histo ry from the University of Florida in 2007. As a graduate student in Museum Studies at the University of Florida, Sarah interned at the Samuel P. Harn Museum of Art in Gai nesville, Florida and at the Resurrection Bay Historical Society in Seward, Alaska. She is currently employed at the Samuel P. Harn Museum of Art as an Asian Art Curatori al Assistant.